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Sample records for des elements zr

  1. Atom probe tomography study of alloying element distributions in Zr alloys and their oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yan; Motta, Arthur T.; Marquis, Emmanuelle A.

    2013-11-01

    A detailed study of alloying element distributions in the metal and oxygen rich regions of corroded Zr alloys and of the phases formed ahead of the oxide front was conducted using atom probe tomography (APT). A consistent sequence of sub-oxide phases is observed ahead of the ZrO2 oxide front, consisting of (i) a thin layer of equiatomic ZrO (occasionally slightly over and under stoichiometric) (ii) saturated solid solution Zr(O)sat, and (iii) a slowly decreasing oxygen profile into the metal. The results also show that the distribution of the alloying elements in the metal is more inhomogeneous than previously thought and that in the oxygen-rich phases enhanced segregation is observed, compared to the metal. the stable oxide ZrO2 (which is in contact with water), the equiatomic suboxide ZrO (both slightly sub and superstoichiometric, denoted here ZrO1+x and ZrO1-x), a saturated solution of constant oxygen content at about 30% O, denoted Zr(O)sat, and an undersaturated solid solution of O in Zr, denoted Zr(O), the oxygen content of which decreases with distance from the oxide-metal interface. As stated above, the field evaporation behavior of these phases is drastically different, resulting in characteristic ions being evaporated from each phase. As a result, the phases can be identified both by atomic concentrations and by the nature of the ionic species evaporating from each phase. The latter method was also used to visualize the distribution of phases within needles. For example, it was found in the present study that oxygen was evaporated as O+, O2+, ZrO2+, ZrO3+, ZrO2+,ZrO22+,ZrO3+ with occasional instances of ZrO23+ and ZrO33+ observed. Zr ions (Zr2+, Zr3+) become significant in the Zr(O)sat phase. O2+ is only observed in the oxide (ZrO2) phase, so it is considered a marker for that phase. ZrO2+ and ZrO22+ are present both in the ZrO2 and ZrO1+x phases but absent in the ZrO1-x, Zr(O)sat and Zr(O) phase. the equiatomic ZrO phase (observed as both ZrO1+x and Zr

  2. Crystal structure of high-Zr inclusions in an alloy containing U, Pu, Np, Am, Zr and rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn E. Janney; James W. Madden; J. Rory Kennedy; Thomas P. O'Holleran

    2014-05-01

    Researchers commonly observe high-Zr inclusions in actinide-Zr alloys. As there is very little published data on the crystal structures of these inclusions, it has generally been assumed that the inclusions were impurity-stabilized a-Zr. However, new electron-diffraction data from two high-Zr inclusions in an alloy containing U, Pu, Np, Am, Zr, and rare-earth elements show that these inclusions are not a-Zr (which has a hexagonal structure) but instead have a face-centered cubic structure. This data is unique in that it combines single-crystal diffraction patterns and microchemical analyses from individual inclusions. More data on other high-Zr inclusions is clearly required. However, the present results suggest that caution is needed in assuming that all high-Zr inclusions in actinide-Zr alloys are a-Zr.

  3. Atomistic modeling of the interaction of cladding elements (Fe, Ni, Cr) with U-Zr fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzolo, G.; Mosca, H. O.; Yacout, A. M.; Hofman, G. L.

    2011-07-01

    Atomistic simulations of U-Zr fuel and its interaction with Fe, Ni, and Cr using the BFS method for alloys are presented. Results for the γU-βZr solid solution are discussed, including the behavior of the lattice parameter and coefficient of thermal expansion as a function of concentration and temperature. Output from these calculations is used to study the surface structure of γU-βZr for different crystallographic orientations, determining the concentration profiles, surface energy, and segregation behavior. The analysis is completed with simulations of the deposition of Fe, Ni and Cr on U-Zr substrates with varying Zr concentration. All results are discussed and interpreted by means of the concepts of strain and chemical energy underlying the BFS method, thus obtaining a simple explanation for the observed Zr segregation and its influence in allowing for cladding elements diffusion into the U-Zr fuel.

  4. Effect of alloying elements on the properties of Zr and the Zr-H system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, M.; Wolf, W.; Freeman, C. M.; Wimmer, E.; Adamson, R. B.; Hallstadius, L.; Cantonwine, P. E.; Mader, E. V.

    2014-02-01

    The effect of the alloying elements Sn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Nb, and O on hydrogen-containing alpha-zirconium and zirconium hydrides is investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and classical simulations. Cr, Fe, and Ni atoms attract interstitially dissolved H atoms whereas interstitial oxygen atoms show no pronounced interaction with H atoms. The alloying elements destabilize the hydride phases in the order Sn > Fe > Cr > Ni > Nb. Hence, substitutional Sn (if atomically dispersed), Cr and Fe atoms are likely to delay hydride precipitation, effectively increasing the hydrogen solubility. Nb and Sn influence the mobility of Zr self-interstitial atoms (SIA's), which diffuse rapidly and preferentially parallel to the basal planes forming interstitial dislocations loops perpendicular to the basal planes (a-loops). Nb suppresses this diffusion of SIA's, thereby reducing the rate of formation of interstitial a-loops. Sn atoms, if present on substitutional sites, have a similar, but smaller effect. If SIA's approach substitutional Fe, Cr, and Ni atoms, the simulations indicate a spontaneous swap promoting the smaller transition metal atoms into interstitial atoms, which diffuse very rapidly with a preference in the c-direction, thereby facilitating their segregation to energetically more favorable sites such as vacancies, vacancy c-loops, grain boundaries, surfaces, and intermetallic precipitates.

  5. Effects of zirconium element on the microstructure and deuterium retention of W–Zr/Sc2O3 composites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongyu; Luo, Laima; Chen, Jingbo; Zan, Xiang; Zhu, Xiaoyong; Xu, Qiu; Luo, Guangnan; Chen, Junling; Wu, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Dense W and W–Zr composites reinforced with Sc2O3 particles were produced through powder metallurgy and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1700 °C and 58 MPa. Results showed that the W–1vol.%Zr/2vol.%Sc2O3 composites exhibited optimal performance with the best relative density of up to 98.93% and high Vickers microhardness of approximately 583 Hv. The thermal conductivity of W–Zr/Sc2O3 composites decreased initially and then increased as the Zr content increased. The moderate Zr alloying element could combine well with Sc2O3 particles and W grains and form a solid solution. However, excess Zr element leads to agglomeration in the grain boundaries. W–1vol.%Zr/2vol.%Sc2O3 composite had a good deuterium irradiation resistance very closing to pure tungsten compared with the other Zr element contents of composites. Under 500 K, D2 retention and release of them were similar to those of commercial tungsten, even lower between 400 K to 450 K. Pre-irradiation with 5 keV-He+ ions to a fluence of 1 × 1021 He+/m2 resulted in an increase in deuterium retention (deuterium was implanted after He+ irradiation), thereby shifting the desorption peak to a high temperature from 550 K to 650 K for the W–1vol.%Zr/2vol.%Sc2O3 composite. PMID:27597314

  6. Effects of zirconium element on the microstructure and deuterium retention of W-Zr/Sc2O3 composites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyu; Luo, Laima; Chen, Jingbo; Zan, Xiang; Zhu, Xiaoyong; Xu, Qiu; Luo, Guangnan; Chen, Junling; Wu, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Dense W and W-Zr composites reinforced with Sc2O3 particles were produced through powder metallurgy and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1700 °C and 58 MPa. Results showed that the W-1vol.%Zr/2vol.%Sc2O3 composites exhibited optimal performance with the best relative density of up to 98.93% and high Vickers microhardness of approximately 583 Hv. The thermal conductivity of W-Zr/Sc2O3 composites decreased initially and then increased as the Zr content increased. The moderate Zr alloying element could combine well with Sc2O3 particles and W grains and form a solid solution. However, excess Zr element leads to agglomeration in the grain boundaries. W-1vol.%Zr/2vol.%Sc2O3 composite had a good deuterium irradiation resistance very closing to pure tungsten compared with the other Zr element contents of composites. Under 500 K, D2 retention and release of them were similar to those of commercial tungsten, even lower between 400 K to 450 K. Pre-irradiation with 5 keV-He(+) ions to a fluence of 1 × 10(21) He(+)/m(2) resulted in an increase in deuterium retention (deuterium was implanted after He(+) irradiation), thereby shifting the desorption peak to a high temperature from 550 K to 650 K for the W-1vol.%Zr/2vol.%Sc2O3 composite. PMID:27597314

  7. Am phases in the matrix of a U–Pu–Zr alloy with Np, Am, and rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, Dawn E.; Kennedy, J. Rory; Madden, James W.; O’Holleran, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Phases and microstructures in the matrix of an as-cast U-Pu-Zr alloy with 3 wt% Am, 2% Np, and 8% rare-earth elements were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The matrix consists primarily of two phases, both of which contain Am: ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) (~70 at% U, 5% Np, 14% Pu, 1% Am, and 10% Zr) and δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 (~25% U, 2% Np, 10-15% Pu, 1-2% Am, and 55-60 at% Zr). These phases are similar to those in U-Pu-Zr alloys, although the Zr content in ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) is higher than that in ζ-(U, Pu) and the Zr content in δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 is lower than that in δ-UZr2. Nanocrystalline actinide oxides with structures similar to UO2 occurred in some areas, but may have formed by reactions with the atmosphere during sample handling. Planar features consisting of a central zone of ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) bracketed by zones of δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 bound irregular polygons ranging in size from a few micrometers to a few tens of micrometers across. The rest of the matrix consists of elongated domains of ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) and δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2. Each of these domains is a few tens of nanometers across and a few hundred nanometers long. The domains display strong preferred orientations involving areas a few hundred nanometers to a few micrometers across.

  8. Characterization of multi-principal-element (TiZrNbHfTa)N and (TiZrNbHfTa)C coatings for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Braic, V; Balaceanu, M; Braic, M; Vladescu, A; Panseri, S; Russo, A

    2012-06-01

    Multi-principal-element (TiZrNbHfTa)N and (TiZrNbHfTa)C coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy by co-sputtering of Ti, Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta metallic targets in reactive atmosphere. The coatings were analyzed for elemental and phase compositions, crystalline structure, morphology, residual stress, hardness, friction performance, wear-corrosion resistance and cell viability. For all the films, only simple fcc solid solutions with (111) preferred orientations were found, with crystallite sizes in the range 7.2-13.5 nm. The coatings were subjected to compressive stress, with values ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 GPa. The carbide coating with the highest carbon content (carbon/metal ≈1.3) exhibited the highest hardness of about 31 GPa, the best friction behavior (μ = 0.12) and the highest wear resistance (wear rate K=0.2×10(-6)mm(3)N(-1)m(-1)), when testing in simulated body fluids (SBFs). Cell viability tests proved that the osteoblast cells were adherent to the coated substrates, and a very high percentage of live cells were observed on sample surfaces, after 72 h incubation time. PMID:22520431

  9. Authigenic phase formation and microbial activity control Zr, Hf, and rare earth element distributions in deep-sea brine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censi, P.; Saiano, F.; Zuddas, P.; Nicosia, A.; Mazzola, S.; Raso, M.

    2014-02-01

    Sediments collected from hypersaline and anoxic deep-sea basins in the eastern Mediterranean (Thetis, Kryos, Medee, and Tyro) were characterised in terms of their mineralogical composition, the distributions of rare earth elements (REE), Zr, and Hf and their content of microbial DNA. We identified two major mineralogical fractions: one fraction of detritic origin was composed of quartz, gypsum, and low-Mg calcite bioclasts (with 0 < Mg < 0.07%) and another fraction of authigenic origin constituted of halite, dolomite, high-Mg calcite (with a Mg content of up to 22%) and rare bischofite and showed a textural evidence of microbial assemblages. We found that in the Medee and Tyro sediments, the shale-normalised REE pattern of these sediments is strongly enriched in middle REE (MREE), whereas in the Thetis and Tyro basins, a positive Gd anomaly in the residue was obtained after the removal of the water-soluble fraction. In all investigated basins, Y / Ho ratio clustered around chondritic values, whereas Zr / Hf ratio ranged from slightly subchondritic to superchondritic values. Subchondritic Y / Ho and Zr / Hf values were mainly found in the high-Mg carbonate having a microbial origin. The observed preferential removal of Zr with respect to Hf without significant partitioning of Y with respect to Ho indicates that the Zr / Hf ratio and Y-Ho fractionations are influenced by the microbial activity in the sediments. We propose that the concurrent Y-Ho and Zr-Hf fractionations are a suitable tracer of microbial activity in marine sediments.

  10. Robust half-metallic properties in inverse Heusler alloys composed of 4d transition metal elements: Zr2RhZ (Z=Al, Ga, In)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. T.; Lin, T. T.; Rozale, H.; Dai, X. F.; Liu, G. D.

    2016-03-01

    A first-principles approach is used to study the electronic and magnetic properties of Zr2RhZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) alloys in the Hg2CuTi-type structure. The Zr2RhZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) alloys are found to be half-metallic ferrimagnets. The half-metallicity is quite robust against hydrostatic strain and tetragonal deformation in Zr2RhZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) alloys. The magnetization of Zr2RhZ (Z=Al, Ga, In) alloys mainly originates from the 4d electrons of Zr atoms and follows the rule: Mt=Zt-18. Zr2Rh-based alloys do not contain any 3d transition metal element, which implies a wider field to search for new half-metallic materials.

  11. Formation of Fe-Nb-X (X=Zr, Ti) amorphous alloys from pure metal elements by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhiyu; Tang, Cuiyong; Leo Ngai, Tungwai; Yang, Chao; Li, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    Fe-based amorphous powders of Fe 56Nb 6Zr 38 and Fe 60Nb 6Ti 34 based on binary eutectic were prepared by mechanical alloying starting from mixtures of pure metal powders. The amorphization behavior and thermal stability were examined by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Results show that Fe 56Nb 6Zr 38 alloy has a better glass forming ability and a relatively lower thermal stability comparing with Fe 60Nb 6Ti 34 alloy. The prepared amorphous powders have homogeneous element distribution and no obvious contaminants coming from mechanical alloying. The synthesized amorphous powders offer the potential for consolidation to full density with desirable mechanical properties through the powder metallurgy methods.

  12. The (d,2He) reaction on Mo96 and the double-β decay matrix elements for Zr96

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohmann, H.; Bäumer, C.; Frekers, D.; Grewe, E.-W.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hollstein, S.; Johansson, H.; Popescu, L.; Rakers, S.; Savran, D.; Simon, H.; Thies, J. H.; van den Berg, A. M.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2008-10-01

    The 96Mo(d,2He)96Nb charge-exchange reaction was investigated at an incident energy of Ed=183.5 MeV. An excitation-energy resolution of 110 keV was achieved. The experiment was performed at KVI, Groningen, using the magnetic spectrometer BBS at three angular positions: 0°,2.5°, and 6°. We found that below 6 MeV almost the entire Gamow-Teller (GT+) strength is concentrated in a single state at 0.69 MeV excitation energy. As Mo96 is the daughter of the ββ decay nucleus Zr96, the present result provides information about the nuclear matrix elements active in the 2νββ decay of Zr96.

  13. Influence of alloying elements Nb, Zr, Sn, and oxygen on structural stability and elastic properties of the Ti2448 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J. H.; Song, Y.; Li, W.; Yang, R.; Vitos, L.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of how alloying elements and oxygen influence the stability and elastic properties of binary Ti-X (X = Nb, Zr, or Sn) and Ti2448 (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in wt.%) alloys are studied via first principles calculations. In addition to the fully disordered solid solution phase, we consider 44 quasirandom configurations to search for the possible distributions of the alloying elements in Ti2448. Our results show that all alloying elements considered here are good β-stabilizers for Ti, and the formation energies are greatly affected by their distributions. The site preference of oxygen and its concentration dependence in binary Ti alloys and in Ti2448 are also investigated. Oxygen prefers to occupy the octahedral site regardless of the concentrations of the alloys and strongly interacts with Ti and Nb in Ti-Nb. The elastic properties of Ti2448 alloy and the influence of oxygen on the elastic parameters are evaluated. The calculated polycrystalline Young's modulus of the Ti2448 alloy is very close to that of the human bone (10-40 GPa). We find that oxygen has a weak effect on the elastic moduli of Ti2448. The electronic structures are analyzed to reveal how the alloying elements and oxygen influence the stability of binary Ti-X and Ti2448 alloys.

  14. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  15. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  16. Phase equilibria and elements partitioning in zirconolite-rich region of Ca-Zr-Ti-Al-Gd-Si-O system

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazev, O.A.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Ioudintsev, S.V.; Nikonov, B.S.; Omelianenko, B.I.; Mokhov, A.V.; Yakushev, A.I.

    1997-12-31

    Zirconolite-rich ceramics were produced by the cold crucible melting technique in an air atmosphere, at 1550 {+-} 50 C and 1 atm. Four samples with overall composition (in wt.%): 4.9-14.3 CaO; 19.0-41.3 ZrO{sub 2}; 24.1-42.6 TiO{sub 2}; 1.3-11.3 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 6.8-30.0 Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}; and 1.1-8.5 SiO{sub 2} have been studied. Total phases in the ceramics consist of major zirconolite and minor rutile, perovskite, zirconia, aluminium titanate, and glass. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in zirconolite reaches up to 31.4 wt.% corresponding to the formula: (Ca{sub 0.4},Gd{sub 0.7})Zr{sub 1.0}(Ti{sub 1.4},Al{sub 0.5})O{sub 7.0}. The data on the phase composition agree well with coupled Gd incorporation into the mineral structure: Ca(II) + Ti(IV) = Gd(III) + Al(III), and 2Gd(III) = Ca(II) + Zr(IV). The highest Gd contents observed in the other phases are 25.4% for zirconia, 12.6% in glass, 8.8% in perovskite, and 1.4% for rutile. The rest of the elements` distribution in the samples are analyzed.

  17. Controlling crystallization process and thermal stability of a binary Cu-Zr bulk metallic glass via minor element addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. T.; Wang, Q.; Liu, T. T.; Liu, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the effect of minor element addition on the initial structural evolution during crystallization in a simple binary Cu-Zr bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming liquid has been investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Despite no changes in the completely crystallized products, the remarkable opposite impacts on the supercooled liquid region (SLR) and crystallization reaction rate constant Kcr are observed as a result of minor selective additions of an affine element, i.e., Sn and an immiscible element, i.e., Nb into the Cu-Zr BMG alloy, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the primary devitrification pathway and crystalline phases are simultaneously modified, which leads to significant changes in kinetics of atomic rearrangement and thus thermal stability of this material. Such a finding offers a promising way to control the type of primary crystalline phases of BMG-forming metallic supercooled liquids to synthesize novel BMGs or BMG matrix composites for structural or functional applications.

  18. Effects of alloying elements on the formation of < c >-component loops in Zr alloy Excel under heavy ion irradiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Idrees, Yasir; Francis, Elisabeth M.; Yao, Zhongwen; Korinek, Andreas; Kirk, Marquis A.; Sattari, Mohammad; Preuss, Michael; Daymond, M. R.

    2015-05-14

    We report here the microstructural changes occurring in the zirconium alloy Excel (Zr-3.5 wt% Sn-0.8Nb-0.8Mo-0.2Fe) during heavy ion irradiation. In situ irradiation experiments were conducted at reactor operating temperatures on two Zr Excel alloy microstructures with different states of alloying elements, with the states achieved by different solution heat treatments. In the first case, the alloying elements were mostly concentrated in the beta (beta) phase, whereas, in the second case, large Zr-3(Mo,Nb,Fe)(4) secondary phase precipitates (SPPs) were grown in the alpha (alpha) phase by long term aging. The heavy ion induced damage and resultant compositional changes were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. Significant differences were seen in microstructural evolution between the two different microstructures that were irradiated under similar conditions. Nucleation and growth of < c >-component loops and their dependence on the alloying elements are a major focus of the current investigation. It was observed that the < c >-component loops nucleate readily at 100, 300, and 400 degrees C after a threshold incubation dose (TID), which varies with irradiation temperature and the state of alloying elements. It was found that the TID for the formation of < c >-component loops increases with decrease in irradiation temperature. Alloying elements that are present in the form of SPPs increase the TID compared to when they are in the beta phase solid solution. Dose and temperature dependence of loop size and density are presented. Radiation induced redistribution and clustering of alloying elements (Sn, Mo, and Fe) have been observed and related to the formation of < c >-component loops. It has been shown that at the higher temperature tests, irradiation induced dissolution of precipitates occurs whereas irradiation induced

  19. DOSAGE DES ELEMENTS EN TRACE DES CALCAIRES AU SERVICE DE L'ARCHEOLOGIE

    SciTech Connect

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-05-01

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows them to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  20. Role of Alloying Elements in the Mechanical Behaviors of An Mg-Zn-Zr-Er Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Min; Dou, Yuchen; Liu, Guobao

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical behavior of the as-extruded and heat-treated Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr and Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr-2Er alloys was investigated and correlated with microstructure evolution. Deformation mechanisms are detailed. No evidence of twinning was observed under compression in the Er-bearing alloy throughout the grain size range of ~5 to 27 μm at a strain rate of 0.001 or 1/s. The compressive yield strength followed a Hall-Petch relation with a slope of ~10.3 MPa/mm1/2. Er played a major role in the pyramidal < c+ a> slip that was identified as a dominant plastic deformation mechanism. The CRSS for < c+ a> slip system was greatly reduced and was 98 MPa in the as-extruded alloy. While it did not change the mechanical response of the Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr-2Er alloy, annealing was found to promote dissolution of Zn in the Mg matrix, leading to an increase in CRSS for extension twinning in the heat-treated Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr alloy. As a result, twinning was only observed under a higher strain rate of 1/s in compression. The CRSS for extension twinning for the heat-treated alloy with a grain size of ~28 μm was estimated to be 40 MPa, a bit lower than that for the Er-bearing alloy of the same grain size, which was 42 MPa.

  1. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile thermometry in meta-ophiolitic rocks from the Kazdağ Massif, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Fırat; Zack, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In northwest Turkey, ophiolitic meta-gabbros are exposed on the Kazdağ Massif located in the southern part of the Biga Peninsula. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile temperatures were determined for meta-gabbros from the Kazdağ Massif. The Zr content of all rutiles range from 176 to 428 ppm and rutile grains usually have a homogeneous Zr distribution. The rutile grains from studied samples in the Kazdağ Massif are dominated by subchondritic Nb/Ta (11-19) and Zr/Hf ratios (20-33). Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf show positive correlation, which is probably produced by silicate fractionation. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios increase with a decrease in Ta and Hf contents. The core of rutile grains are generally characterized by low Nb/Ta ratios of 17-18 whereas the rims exhibit relatively high Nb/Ta ratios of 19-23. Trace element analyses in rutile suggest that these rutile grains were grown from metamorphic fluids. The P-T conditions of meta-gabbros were estimated by both Fe-Mg exchange and Zr-in-rutile thermometers, as well as by the Grt-Hb-Plg-Q geothermobarometer. The temperature range of 639 to 662 °C calculated at 9 kbar using the Zr-in-rutile thermometer is comparable with temperature estimates of the Fe-Mg exchange thermometer, which records amphibolite-facies metamorphism of intermediate P-T conditions. The P-T conditions of meta-ophiolitic rocks suggest that they occur as a different separate higher-pressure tectonic slice in the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence. Amphibolite-facies metamorphism resulted from northward subduction of the İzmir-Ankara branch of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean under the Sakarya Zone. Metamorphism was followed by internal imbrication of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence resulting from southerly directed compression during the collision.

  2. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile thermometry in meta-ophiolitic rocks from the Kazdağ Massif, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Fırat; Zack, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    In northwest Turkey, ophiolitic meta-gabbros are exposed on the Kazdağ Massif located in the southern part of the Biga Peninsula. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile temperatures were determined for meta-gabbros from the Kazdağ Massif. The Zr content of all rutiles range from 176 to 428 ppm and rutile grains usually have a homogeneous Zr distribution. The rutile grains from studied samples in the Kazdağ Massif are dominated by subchondritic Nb/Ta (11-19) and Zr/Hf ratios (20-33). Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf show positive correlation, which is probably produced by silicate fractionation. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios increase with a decrease in Ta and Hf contents. The core of rutile grains are generally characterized by low Nb/Ta ratios of 17-18 whereas the rims exhibit relatively high Nb/Ta ratios of 19-23. Trace element analyses in rutile suggest that these rutile grains were grown from metamorphic fluids. The P-T conditions of meta-gabbros were estimated by both Fe-Mg exchange and Zr-in-rutile thermometers, as well as by the Grt-Hb-Plg-Q geothermobarometer. The temperature range of 639 to 662 °C calculated at 9 kbar using the Zr-in-rutile thermometer is comparable with temperature estimates of the Fe-Mg exchange thermometer, which records amphibolite-facies metamorphism of intermediate P-T conditions. The P-T conditions of meta-ophiolitic rocks suggest that they occur as a different separate higher-pressure tectonic slice in the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence. Amphibolite-facies metamorphism resulted from northward subduction of the İzmir-Ankara branch of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean under the Sakarya Zone. Metamorphism was followed by internal imbrication of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence resulting from southerly directed compression during the collision.

  3. Effets d'environnements sur la rupture des alliages de Zr en milieu nucléaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon, P.; Lemaignan, C.

    2003-03-01

    Les alliages de zirconium sont essentiellement utilisés dans les réacteurs nucléaires modérés et refroidis à l'eau. Absorbant peu les neutrons thermiques, ils sont choisis pour réaliser divers éléments de structure et les tubes de gainage. Formant la première barrière, leur intégrité doit donc être garantie parfaitement. Diverses sollicitations liées à l'irradiation peuvent cependant conduire à développer une fissuration dans ces composants critiques. On présente dans cette revue l'impact des phénomènes suivants : - une fragilisation, lors de la déformation à froid, liée à la présence d'hydures dont la formation est associée à l'oxydation de l'alliage, - la création de produits de fission, dont l'iode, dans l'UO2, responsable d'un phénomène de corrosion sous contrainte, - une modification de la microstructure de l'alliage, avec, entre autres, formation de boucles de dislocations obtenues par condensation des défauts ponctuels, ce dernier point induisant une localisation de la déformation et une réduction de la déformation à rupture.

  4. The atomic-scale mechanism for the enhanced glass-forming-ability of a Cu-Zr based bulk metallic glass with minor element additions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.; Liu, J. B.; Dong, Y. D.; Lu, J.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the glass forming-ability (GFA) of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) can be greatly enhanced via minor element additions. However, direct evidence has been lacking to reveal its structural origin despite different theories hitherto proposed. Through the high-resolution transmission-electron-microscopy (HRTEM) analysis, here we show that the content of local crystal-like orders increases significantly in a Cu-Zr-Al BMG after a 2-at% Y addition. Contrasting the previous studies, our current results indicate that the formation of crystal-like order at the atomic scale plays an important role in enhancing the GFA of the Cu-Zr-Al base BMG. PMID:24721927

  5. The (d,{sup 2}He) reaction on {sup 96}Mo and the double-{beta} decay matrix elements for {sup 96}Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Dohmann, H.; Baeumer, C.; Frekers, D.; Grewe, E.-W.; Hollstein, S.; Rakers, S.; Thies, J. H.; Harakeh, M. N.; Berg, A. M. van den; Woertche, H. J.; Johansson, H.; Simon, H.; Popescu, L.; Savran, D.; Zilges, A.

    2008-10-15

    The {sup 96}Mo(d,{sup 2}He){sup 96}Nb charge-exchange reaction was investigated at an incident energy of E{sub d}=183.5 MeV. An excitation-energy resolution of 110 keV was achieved. The experiment was performed at KVI, Groningen, using the magnetic spectrometer BBS at three angular positions: 0 deg., 2.5 deg., and 6 deg. We found that below 6 MeV almost the entire Gamow-Teller (GT{sup +}) strength is concentrated in a single state at 0.69 MeV excitation energy. As {sup 96}Mo is the daughter of the {beta}{beta} decay nucleus {sup 96}Zr, the present result provides information about the nuclear matrix elements active in the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay of {sup 96}Zr.

  6. SEM in situ MiniCantilever Beam Bending of U-10Mo/Zr/Al Fuel Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Mook, William; Baldwin, Jon K.; Martinez, Ricardo M.; Mara, Nathan A.

    2014-06-16

    In this work, the fracture behavior of Al/Zr and Zr/dU-10Mo interfaces was measured via the minicantilever bend technique. The energy dissipation rates were found to be approximately 3.7-5 mj/mm2 and 5.9 mj/mm2 for each interface, respectively. It was found that in order to test the Zr/U-10Mo interface, location of the hinge of the cantilever was a key parameter. While this test could be adapted to hot cell use through careful alignment fixturing and measurement of crack lengths with an optical microscope (as opposed to SEM, which was used here out of convenience), machining of the cantilevers via MiniMill in such a way as to locate the interfaces at the cantilever hinge, as well as proper placement of a femtosecond laser notch will continue to be key challenges in a hot cell environment.

  7. A Method to Increase Current Density in a Mono Element Internal Tin Processed Superconductor Utilizing Zr Oxide to Refine Grain Size

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce A. Zeitlin, Eric Gregory

    2008-04-07

    The effect of Oxygen on (Nb1Zr)3Sn multifilament conductors manufactured by the Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) process was explored to improve the current density by refining the grain size. This followed work first done by General Electric on the Nb3Sn tape process. Techniques to fabricate the more difficult Nb1Zr composites are described and allowed fabrication of long lengths of .254 mm diameter wire from an 88.9 mm diameter billet. Oxygen was incorporated through the use of SnO2 mixed with tin powder and incorporated into the core. These were compared to samples with Ti+Sn and Cu+Sn cores. Heat treatments covered the range of 700 C to 1000 C. Current density vs. H, grain size, and reaction percentages are provided for the materials tested. The Oxygen gave superior results in the temperature range of 815-1000 C. It also stabilized the filament geometry of the array in comparison to the other additions at the higher temperatures. At 815 C a peak in layer Jc yielded values of 2537 A/mm2 at 12 T and 1353 A/mm2 at 15T, 8-22% and 30-73% greater respectively than 700 C values. Results with Oxygen at high temperature show the possibility of high speed continuous reaction of the composite versus the current batch or react in place methods. In general the Ti additions gave superior results at the lower reaction temperature. Future work is suggested to determine if the 815 C reaction temperature can lead to higher current density in high tin (Nb1Zr+Ox)3Sn conductors. A second technique incorporated oxygen directly into the Nb1Zr rods through heat treatment with Nb2O5 at 1100 C for 100 hours in vacuum prior to extrusion. The majority of the filaments reduced properly in the composite but some local variations in hardness led to breakage at smaller diameters.

  8. Ion irradiation induced element-enriched and depleted nanostructures in Zr-Al-Cu-Ni metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H. C.; Liu, R. D.; Yan, L. E-mail: zhouxingtai@sinap.ac.cn; Zhou, X. T. E-mail: zhouxingtai@sinap.ac.cn; Cao, G. Q.; Wang, G.

    2015-07-21

    The microstructural evolution of a Zr-Al-Cu-Ni metallic glass induced by irradiation with Ar ions was investigated. Under ion irradiation, the Cu- and Ni-enriched nanostructures (diameter of 30–50 nm) consisted of crystalline and amorphous structures were formed. Further, Cu- and Ni-depleted nanostructures with diameters of 5–20 nm were also observed. The formation of these nanostructures can be ascribed to the migration of Cu and Ni atoms in the irradiated metallic glass.

  9. Origin of the Lβ2 satellites in the X-ray emission spectra of the middle-Z elements from 40Zr to 52Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendurkar, Renuka; Shrivastava, B. D.

    2012-05-01

    In this communication, the origin of the Lβ2 satellites Lβ2I Lβ2 (b) Lβ2II and Lβ2(c) in the L emission spectra of the middle-Z elements from 40Zr to 52Te, has been explained on the basis of multiple ionization theory. As done in earlier reports, it has been assumed that the various transitions, which may give rise to these satellites, belong to the transition scheme L3Mx-MxN4,5 (where x = 1-5). The energies and the intensities of the 41 possible transitions corresponding to this transition scheme have been calculated theoretically. The energies have been calculated using the available Hartree-Fock-Slater data on K-LM and L-MN Auger transition energies. The intensities of the various transitions have been estimated by considering cross sections for Coster-Kronig transitions as well as for M-shell shake-off process. Theoretical Lβ2 satellite spectra have been computed. There are four intense peaks in the theoretical Lβ2 satellite spectra which have been identified as the four satellites Lβ2I, Lβ2 (b), Lβ2II and Lβ2(c). Consequently, the satellites have been assigned those intense transitions which have been found to give rise to the corresponding four peaks in the theoretical Lβ2 satellite spectra. The present work is an improvement over the earlier reports.

  10. Ductility response of Ni{sub 3}Al-Zr-B base alloys with ternary elements to strain rate and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Lin, D.; Zhang, Y.

    1997-12-31

    The compressive ductilities of Ni{sub 3}Al-Zr-B base alloys with sole addition of magnesium (0.02--0.06wt.%) and combined addition of magnesium(0.02wt.%) and silicon(0.54{approximately}1.08wt.%) respectively responding to strain rate rising from 10{sup {minus}4}sec{sup {minus}1} have been studied in a high temperature range of 1,073--1,273 K. The results show that the compressive strains at rupture (CSR) of the alloys have been greatly improved by sole addition of magnesium and the alloys with combined addition of magnesium and silicon reveal even higher CSR values, furthermore, at temperatures of 1,073 K and 1,273 K, the strain rate dependence of CSR reveals to be anomalous, i.e., the CSR value increases as the strain rate rises, and then declines until it surpasses the peak value, which is corresponded to the strain rate of 10{sup {minus}3}sec{sup {minus}1} and 10{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} respectively. The beneficial effect of magnesium and silicon exists in their competence of reducing strain rate sensitivity exponent values. The mechanisms of the anomalous ductilizing behavior in the Ni{sub 3}Al as affected by ternary elements are discussed.

  11. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. I. Electronic structures and properties of MCl{sub 4} and MOCl{sub 2} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, and Rf)

    SciTech Connect

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.

    2014-08-14

    Relativistic, infinite order exact two-component, density functional theory electronic structure calculations were performed for MCl{sub 4} and MOCl{sub 2} of group-4 elements Ti, Zr, Hf, and element 104, Rf, with the aim to predict their behaviour in gas-phase chromatography experiments. RfCl{sub 4} and RfOCl{sub 2} were shown to be less stable than their lighter homologs in the group, tetrachlorides and oxychlorides of Zr and Hf, respectively. The oxychlorides turned out to be stable as a bent structure, though the stabilization energy with respect to the flat one (C{sub 2v}) is very small. The trend in the formation of the tetrachlorides from the oxychlorides in group 4 is shown to be Zr < Hf < Rf, while the one in the formation of the oxychlorides from the chlorides is opposite. All the calculated properties are used to estimate adsorption energy of these species on various surfaces in order to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments, as is shown in Paper II.

  12. Octupole collectivity in 94Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Y.; Oshima, M.; Koizumi, M.; Osa, A.; Kimura, A.; Sugawara, M.; Goto, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Zr isotopes between 90Zr and 96Zr are expected to be spherical based on the almost complete subshell closures at Z = 40 and N = 50, 56. On the other hand, they have low-lying 3- states and show the characteristics of low frequency octupole oscillation which arise as a superposition of particle-hole excitations. A 380 MeV 94Zr beam from the tandem accelerator at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was excited on a self-supporting natPb target. The gamma-ray detector array GEMINI-II was used to detect deexcitation gamma rays. The scattered beam (94Zr) was detected with a position-sensitive particle detector system. The gamma-ray intensities were used as an input to the least-squares search code GOSIA to determine the E3 matrix element of the first 3- excited state of 94Zr. The B(E3;0+→3-) value of 0.21(6) e2b3 in 94Zr has been obtained by Coulomb excitation experiment.

  13. The importance of defining chemical potentials, substitution mechanisms and solubility in trace element diffusion studies: the case of Zr and Hf in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollands, Michael C.; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Hermann, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    The diffusion, substitution mechanism and solubility limits of Zr and Hf in synthetic forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and San Carlos olivine (Mg0.9Fe0.1)2SiO4 have been investigated between 1,200 and 1,500 °C as a function of the chemical potentials of the components in the system MgO(FeO)-SiO2-ZrO2(HfO2). The effect of oxygen fugacity and crystallographic orientation were also investigated. The solubilities of Zr in forsterite are highest and diffusion fastest when the coexisting three-phase source assemblage includes ZrSiO4 (zircon) or HfSiO4 (hafnon), and lower and slower, respectively, when the source assemblage includes MgO (periclase). This indicates that Zr and Hf substitute on the octahedral sites in olivine, charge balanced by magnesium vacancies. Diffusion is anisotropic, with rates along the crystal axes increasing in the order a < b < c. The generalized diffusion relationship as a function of chemical activity (as ), orientation and temperature is: where the values of log D 0 are -3.8(±0.5), -3.4(±0.5) and -3.1(±0.5) along the a, b and c axes, respectively. Most experiments were conducted in air ( fO2 = 10-0.68 bars), but one at fO2 = 10-11.2 bars at 1,400 °C shows no resolvable effect of oxygen fugacity on Zr diffusion. Hf is slightly more soluble in olivine than Zr, but diffuses slightly slower. Diffusivities of Zr in experiments in San Carlos olivine at 1,400 °C, fO2 = 10-6.6 bars are similar to those in forsterite at the same conditions, showing that the controls on diffusivities are adequately captured by the simple system (nominally iron-free) experiments. Diffusivities are in good agreement with those measured by Spandler and O'Neill (Contrib Miner Petrol 159:791-818, 2010) in San Carlos olivine using silicate melt as the source at 1,300 °C, and fall within the range of most measurements of Fe-Mg inter-diffusion in olivine at this temperature. Forsterite-melt partitioning experiments in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-ZrO2/HfO2 show that the interface

  14. Hydrogen desorption properties of hydrogenated UThZr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwarno, Hadi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Ono, Futaba; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio

    1997-08-01

    Hydrogen desorption properties of hydrogenated UThZr alloys of varied compositions were investigated using a hydrogen absorption-desorption experimental system, TG-DTA and DSC analyzers. Isothermal desorption at 900°C of elemental ratio U:Th:Zr:H = 1:1:4:9.5 exhibited that there were two distinct plateau regions identified as ZrH 1.4-ZrH and ThZr 2H 7- x - ThZr 2 systems. TG-DTA and DSC measurements under the temperature range from room temperature to 1000°C have shown that there were three endothermic peaks identified as dehydrogenation reactions of ZrH 2 - x - ZrH and ThZr 2H 7-x. The DTA curve identified the first peak area as the ZrH 1.4-ZrH system, while the DSC curves identified that the second peak is the decomposition of ZrH and the third peak is the decomposition of ThZr 2H 7 - x. It was also shown that both ZrH 2 - x and ThZr 2H 7 - x are more stable in the alloy than the pure ones. Measured enthalpy changes during decomposition of the hydrogenated UThZr alloy are similar to the theoretical calculation. Oxidation during measurement of the U:Th:Zr:H = 2:1:6:13.1 resulted in a different measured enthalpy change and calculation. Isothermal decomposition of the U:Th:Zr:H = 1:1:4:9.5 without any disintegration indicates stability of the alloy against powdering on hydriding-dehydriding cycles. Stability of the samples at high temperature similar to that of UZrH 1.6 for TRIGA fuel can be maintained after the decomposition.

  15. Distribution coefficients of major and trace elements; fractional crystallization in the alkali basalt series of Chaîne des Puys (Massif Central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villemant, Benoît; Jaffrezic, Henri; Joron, Jean-Louis; Treuil, Michel

    1981-11-01

    Major and seventeen trace element distribution coefficients between main phenocrysts (olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspars and Fe-Ti oxides) and groundmass have been measured in the alkali basalt suite of Chaîne des Puys (Massif Central, France). The suite appears to be a well behaved crystal fractionation series. We pinpoint key elements whose behavior is closely related to the appearance or disappearance of specific crystal phases in the fractionation process. Ta, for instance, clearly indicates the role of hydrous silicates (amphiboles and micas). Distribution coefficients are shown to vary systematically along the differentiation trend. Significantly the hygromagmaphile tendency ( TREUILet al., 1979) of U, Th, Ta and La is variable along the series. The mass balance equations, D i= limit∑;x jD jii where Di and Dji are the bulk and mineral/liquid distribution coefficients respectively, and xj the weight fractions of the fractionating phases, are solved by least square resolution of the overdetermined system, taking into account the analytical errors on data. The solution applied to the Chaîne des Puys suite leads to a coherent and quantitative model of the fractional crystallization process. The suite has apparently evolved in three stages. Each stage is characterized by constant bulk distribution coefficients and a specific mineral assemblage. Amphibole fractionation plays an important role in the early stages. Some intensive parameters ( T, ƒ ƒ O 2, PH2O) as well as f (weight fraction of residual liquid) are also estimated.

  16. Exploration of R2XM2 (R=Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, rare earth; X=main group element; M=transition metal, Si, Ge): Structural Motifs, the novel Compound Gd2AlGe2 and Analysis of the U3Si2 and Zr3Al2 Structure Types

    SciTech Connect

    Sean William McWhorter

    2006-05-01

    In the process of exploring and understanding the influence of crystal structure on the system of compounds with the composition Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} several new compounds were synthesized with different crystal structures, but similar structural features. In Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}, the main feature of interest is the magnetocaloric effect (MCE), which allows the material to be useful in magnetic refrigeration applications. The MCE is based on the magnetic interactions of the Gd atoms in the crystal structure, which varies with x (the amount of Si in the compound). The crystal structure of Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} can be thought of as being formed from two 3{sup 2}434 nets of Gd atoms, with additional Gd atoms in the cubic voids and Si/Ge atoms in the trigonal prismatic voids. Attempts were made to substitute nonmagnetic atoms for magnetic Gd using In, Mg and Al. Gd{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}InGe{sub 2} both possess the same 3{sup 2}434 nets of Gd atoms as Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}, but these nets are connected differently, forming the Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} crystal structure. A search of the literature revealed that compounds with the composition R{sub 2}XM{sub 2} (R=Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, rare earth; X=main group element; M=transition metal, Si, Ge) crystallize in one of four crystal structures: the Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}, Zr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}, Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2} and W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2} crystal structures. These crystal structures are described, and the relationships between them are highlighted. Gd{sub 2}AlGe{sub 2} forms an entirely new crystal structure, and the details of its synthesis and characterization are given. Electronic structure calculations are performed to understand the nature of bonding in this compound and how electrons can be accounted for. A series of electronic structure calculations were performed on models with the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and Zr{sub 3}Al{sub 2} structures, using Zr and A1 as

  17. Purification of nuclear grade Zr scrap as the high purity dense Zr deposits from Zirlo scrap by electrorefining in LiF-KF-ZrF4 molten fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoung Tae; Lee, Tae Hyuk; Jo, Nam Chan; Nersisyan, Hayk H.; Chun, Byong Sun; Lee, Hyuk Hee; Lee, Jong Hyeon

    2013-05-01

    Zirconium (Zr) has commonly been used as a cladding material of nuclear fuel. Moreover, it is regarded as the only material that can be used for nuclear fuel cladding because it has the lowest neutron capture cross section of any metal element and because it has high corrosion resistance and size stability. In this study, Hf-free Zr tubes (Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe) were used as anode materials and electrorefining was performed in a LiF-KF eutectic 6 wt.% ZrF4 molten fluoride salt system. As a result of electrolysis, Zr scrap metal was recycled into pure Zr with low levels of impurities, and the size and density of the Zr deposit was controlled using applied current density.

  18. Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93 and Zr-92(d,t)Zr-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, N.; Fink, C. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Nickels, J.; Torsteinsen, T.

    1972-01-01

    The structures of Zr-93 and Zr-91 were studied by the stripping reaction Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93 and the pick-up reaction Zr-92(d,t)Zr-91 using 13 MeV incident deuterons. The reaction product particles were detected by counter telescope. Typical spectra from the reactions were analyzed by a nonlinear least squares peak fitting program which included a background search. Spin and parity assignments to observed excited levels were made by comparing experimental angular distributions with distorted wave Born approximation calculations.

  19. Compound CAIs Containing Zr-Y-Sc-Rich Inclusions from NWA 3118 and Efremovka CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.; Lorenz, C. A.; Logan, M. A. V.; Kononkova, N. N.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2011-03-01

    CAIs enriched in Zr, Sc and Y provide important records of the refractory element fractionation in the early solar nebula. We discribed mineralogy, petrology and oxygen isotopes of two Zr-rich CAIs from NWA 3118 and from Efremovka.

  20. Trace element distribution coefficients in alkaline series. [Titanites; bitite

    SciTech Connect

    Lemarchand, F.; Villemant, B.; Calas, G.

    1987-05-01

    Mineral/groundmass partition coefficients for U, Th, Zr, Hf, Ta, Rb, REE, Co and Sc have been systematically measured in olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, Ti-magnetites, titanite, zircon and feldspars, in basaltic to trachytic lavas from alkaline series (Velay, Chaine des Puys: Massif Central, France and Fayal: Azores). Average partition coefficients are defined within the experimental uncertainty for limited compositional ranges (basalt-hawaiite, mugearites, benmoreite-trachyte), and are useful for trace element modelling. The new results for U, Th, Ta, Zr and Hf partition coefficients show contrasting behaviour. They can thus be used as ''key elements'' for identifying fractionating mineral phases in differentiation processes (e.g. Ta and Th for amphibole and mica). Partition coefficient may be calculated using the two-lattice model suggested by NIELSEN (1985). Such values show a considerably reduced chemical dependence in natural systems, relative to weight per cent D values. The residual variations may be accounted for by temperature or volatile influence. This calculation greatly enhances modelling possibilities using trace elements for comparing differentiation series as well as for predicting the behaviour of elements during magmatic differentiation.

  1. Performance of U-Pu-Zr fuel cast into zirconium molds

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.C.; Lahm, C.E. ); Tsai, H. )

    1992-10-01

    U-3Zr and U-20.5Pu-3Zr were injection cast into Zr tubes, or sheaths, rather than into quartz molds and clad in 316SS. These elements and standard-cast U-l0Zr and U-IgPu-l0Zr elements were irradiated in EBR-II to 2 at.% and removed for interim examination. Measurements of axial growth at indicate that the Zr-sheathed elements exhibited significantly less axial elongation than the standard-cast elements (1.3 to 1.8% versus 4.9 to 8.1%). Fuel material extruded through the ends of the Zr sheaths. allowing the low-Zr fuel to contact the cladding in some cases. Transverse metallographic sections reveal cracks in the Zr sheath through which fuel extruded and contacted cladding. The sheath is not a sufficient barrier between fuel and cladding to reduce FCCI. and any adverse effects due to increased FCCI will be evident as the elements attain higher burnup.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Shackleford, M.H.

    1958-12-16

    A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

  3. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  4. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.; Türler, A.

    2014-08-14

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl{sub 4}, MOCl{sub 2}, MCl{sub 6}{sup −}, and MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2} with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl{sub 4}, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH{sub sub}, of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH{sub sub}(RfCl{sub 4}) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl{sub 2} on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl{sub 2} or MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2−} complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the “one-atom-at-a-time” gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  5. Diffusion and chemical activity of Zr-Sn and Zr-Ti systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, R.H.; Watters, J.F.; Davidson, R.D.

    1986-11-15

    A modified evaporation method was used to determine the diffusion coefficients and the emission rates of Sn and Ti in Zr-Sn and Zr-Ti, respectively, at temperatures between 1605 and 1970 K. Results show that both Sn and Ti diffuse in their respective alloys via a vacancy mechanism. Comparison with data in the literature reveals that the activation energy for diffusion of Sn in Zr-Sn, with Sn content between 3 and 5 at.X is relatively constant from 1200 to 1970 K. From the measured emission rates, values of 103 and 98 kcal/mol were obtained for the enthalpies of sublimation for Sn and Ti in their alloys. With a comparison of the solute vapor pressures with those of the pure elements, partial molar free energies, entropies, and enthalpies for the two systems were determined in the temperature range investigated. The Zr-Sn system shows a very large negative heat of formation (-33 kcal/mol) whereas the Zr-Ti system behaves quite ideally, in agreement with phase-diagram predictions.

  6. Novel high-strength ternary Zr-Al-Sn alloys with martensite structure for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Li; Zhan, Yongzhong; Hu, Tong; Chen, Xiaoxian; Wang, Chenghui

    2013-11-01

    High strength is essential for the practical application of Zr alloys as structural materials. In this work, Zr-5Al-xSn (x = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) alloys have been designed and fabricated through arc melting in order to effectively improve the strength while retaining good ductility. Phase analysis results show that all the samples consist of single phase α-Zr. The variation trend of lattice constants as a function of Sn content has been analyzed. The microstructural analysis indicates that the Zr-5Al-xSn alloys mainly contain martensite structure. Mechanical tests show that these Zr-5Al-xSn alloys exhibit high compressive strength (1250-1450 MPa), high yield stress (800-1000 MPa), and favorable plastic strain of 18-23%. The fracture mode has been experimentally analyzed. Finally, both Zr-5Al-3Sn and Zr-5Al-5Sn are subjected to heat treatments for further study on the roles of Sn element and controlled heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr alloys. Sn is found to promote the formation of ZrAl in the Zr-5Al-xSn alloys. Moreover, the martensite laths are observed to evolve into larger strip grains and fine equiaxed grains after heat treatment at 900 °C for 2 h. These factors strengthen the Zr-5Al-xSn alloys.

  7. Some new experimental results on the Zr Nb Fe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, C.; Saragovi, C.; Granovsky, M. S.

    2007-06-01

    The scope of this study is the identification and characterization of intermetallic phases and their binary and ternary fields in the Zr-Nb-Fe phase diagram. A construction of the central region of the phase diagram at 900 °C was proposed using new experimental results obtained by optical and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. In addition to the well-known Laves C15-type (ZrNb)Fe 2 phase (the polytypic C14 and C36 structures were not detected in the studied compositions), another Laves C14-type phase was found (Zr(NbFe) 2). Watson and Bennett maps helped to predict the occurrence of both of these phases. Moreover, the validity of the Pettifor prediction model for Laves phases in pseudobinary systems with transition elements was checked, verifying the obtained experimental results in the Zr-Nb-Fe system. On the other hand it was determined that the Zr-Nb-Fe ternary system at 900 °C, as it happens in the binary Zr-Nb system, would have a miscibility gap (β-Zr + β-Nb) in the 25-70 at.% Nb composition range, accepting up to 3 at.% Fe approximately.

  8. Cu - Zr (Copper - Zirconium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predel, B.

    This document is part of Volume 12 Phase Equilibria, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data of Binary Alloys', Subvolume B 'B - Ba … Cu - Zr, Supplement to Subvolumes IV/5B, IV/5C and IV/5D', of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'.

  9. Ab initio Ti-Zr-Ni phase diagram predicts stability of icosahedral TiZrNi quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, R. G.; Carlsson, A. E.; Kelton, K. F.; Henley, C. L.

    2005-04-01

    The ab initio phase diagram determines the energetic stability of the icosahedral TiZrNi quasicrystal. The complete ab initio zero-temperature ternary phase diagram is constructed from the calculated energies of the elemental, binary and ternary Ti-Zr-Ni phases. For this, the icosahedral i -TiZrNi quasicrystal is approximated by periodic structures of up to 123 atoms/unit cell, based on a decorated-tiling model [R. G. Hennig, K. F. Kelton, A. E. Carlsson, and C. L. Henley, Phys. Rev. B 67, 134202 (2003)]. The approximant structures containing the 45-atom Bergman cluster are nearly degenerate in energy, and are all energetically stable against the competing phases. It is concluded that i -TiZrNi is a ground-state quasicrystal, as it is experimentally the low-temperature phase for its composition.

  10. Phase-field simulation of the stability of reaction phases at UO2/β-Zr interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Yuki; Tsukada, Yuhki; Koyama, Toshiyuki; Kurata, Masaki

    2015-11-01

    The stability of reaction phases at the UO2/Zr (β-Zr) interface in the O-U-Zr system was simulated by a newly constructed multi-phase-field model. At the UO2/Zr (β-Zr) interface, we assumed a liquid phase and an α-Zr (Hcp) phase. The phase growths and atomic diffusions of the constituent elements were simultaneously calculated in one-dimensional simulations. During isothermal aging at 1500 °C and 1600 °C, the thicknesses of both reaction phases increased. As O diffused much faster than U, O concentration increased immediately in the α-Zr (Hcp) phase. On account of its high O concentration, the α-Zr (Hcp) phase rapidly expanded toward the β-Zr (Bcc) side, blocking the diffusion of U from the liquid phase to the β-Zr (Bcc) phase. The stability of the liquid phase was influenced by the U concentration in the liquid phase and was correlated to the growth of the α-Zr (Hcp) phase that was accelerated by the diffusion of O from UO2 to the α-Zr (Hcp) phase.

  11. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  12. Atomic interaction mechanism for designing the interface of W/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z. K.; Fu, H. M.; Sha, P. F.; Zhu, Z. W.; Wang, A. M.; Li, H.; Zhang, H. W.; Zhang, H. F.; Hu, Z. Q.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between active element Zr and W damages the W fibers and the interface and decreases the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength of the W fibers reinforced Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs). From the viewpoint of atomic interaction, the W-Zr interaction can be restrained by adding minor elements that have stronger interaction with W into the alloy. The calculation about atomic interaction energy indicates that Ta and Nb preferred to segregate on the W substrate surface. Sessile drop experiment proves the prediction and corresponding in-situ coating appears at the interface. Besides, the atomic interaction mechanism was proven to be effective in many other systems by the sessile drop technique. Considering the interfacial morphology, Nb was added into the alloy to fabricate W/Zr-based BMGCs. As expected, the Nb addition effectively suppressed the W-Zr reaction and damage to W fibers. Both the compressive and tensile properties are improved obviously. PMID:25758910

  13. Atomic interaction mechanism for designing the interface of W/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. K.; Fu, H. M.; Sha, P. F.; Zhu, Z. W.; Wang, A. M.; Li, H.; Zhang, H. W.; Zhang, H. F.; Hu, Z. Q.

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between active element Zr and W damages the W fibers and the interface and decreases the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength of the W fibers reinforced Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs). From the viewpoint of atomic interaction, the W-Zr interaction can be restrained by adding minor elements that have stronger interaction with W into the alloy. The calculation about atomic interaction energy indicates that Ta and Nb preferred to segregate on the W substrate surface. Sessile drop experiment proves the prediction and corresponding in-situ coating appears at the interface. Besides, the atomic interaction mechanism was proven to be effective in many other systems by the sessile drop technique. Considering the interfacial morphology, Nb was added into the alloy to fabricate W/Zr-based BMGCs. As expected, the Nb addition effectively suppressed the W-Zr reaction and damage to W fibers. Both the compressive and tensile properties are improved obviously.

  14. Phase Relations and Elemental Distribution Among Co-Existing Phases in the Ceramics of the Pseudobinary System CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}-LnAlO{sub 3} (Ln= Nd, Sm)

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailenko, Natalia; Stefanovsky, Sergey

    2007-07-01

    In the ceramics in series (1-x) CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7} - x NdAlO{sub 3} and (1-x) CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7} - x SmAlO{sub 3} (x = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75) produced by cold pressing and sintering at 1400, 1450 and 1500 deg. C zirconolite was found to be a major phase, perovskite was an extra phase and traces of residual baddeleyite occurred. At x = 0.75 the perovskite was major phase and zirconolite and cubic oxide of fianite or tazheranite type were extra phases. Major Nd and Sm host phase at x = 0.25 was found to be zirconolite (about 65% of total Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 74% of total Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}). With the x value increasing perovskite becomes major host phase for Nd and Sm accumulating of up to about 92% of total Nd and about 72% of total Sm. As follows from SEM/EDS data Nd and Sm contents in the zirconolite may reach {approx}1 formula unit (fu). (authors)

  15. Potential of ZrO clusters as replacement Pd catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Swayamprabha; King, Nicholas; Samanta, Devleena; Jena, Puru

    2014-07-01

    Atomic clusters with specific size and composition and mimicking the chemistry of elements in the periodic table are commonly known as superatoms. It has been suggested that superatoms could be used to replace elements that are either scarce or expensive. Based on a photoelectron spectroscopy experiment of negatively charged ions, Castleman and co-workers [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 975 (2010)] have recently shown that atoms of Ni, Pd, and Pt which are well known for their catalytic properties, have the same electronic structure as their counterpart isovalent diatomic species, TiO, ZrO, and WC, respectively. Based on this similarity they have suggested that ZrO, for example, could be a replacement catalyst for Pd. Since catalysts are seldom single isolated atoms, one has to demonstrate that clusters of ZrO also have the same electronic structure as same sized Pd clusters. To examine if this is indeed the case, we have calculated the geometries, electronic structure, electron affinity, ionization potential, and hardness of Pdn and (ZrO)n clusters (n = 1-5). We further studied the reaction of these clusters in neutral and charged forms with H2, O2, and CO and found it to be qualitatively different in most cases. These results obtained using density functional theory with hybrid B3LYP functional do not support the view that ZrO clusters can replace Pd as a catalyst.

  16. Potential of ZrO clusters as replacement Pd catalyst.

    PubMed

    Behera, Swayamprabha; King, Nicholas; Samanta, Devleena; Jena, Puru

    2014-07-21

    Atomic clusters with specific size and composition and mimicking the chemistry of elements in the periodic table are commonly known as superatoms. It has been suggested that superatoms could be used to replace elements that are either scarce or expensive. Based on a photoelectron spectroscopy experiment of negatively charged ions, Castleman and co-workers [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 975 (2010)] have recently shown that atoms of Ni, Pd, and Pt which are well known for their catalytic properties, have the same electronic structure as their counterpart isovalent diatomic species, TiO, ZrO, and WC, respectively. Based on this similarity they have suggested that ZrO, for example, could be a replacement catalyst for Pd. Since catalysts are seldom single isolated atoms, one has to demonstrate that clusters of ZrO also have the same electronic structure as same sized Pd clusters. To examine if this is indeed the case, we have calculated the geometries, electronic structure, electron affinity, ionization potential, and hardness of Pdn and (ZrO)n clusters (n = 1-5). We further studied the reaction of these clusters in neutral and charged forms with H2, O2, and CO and found it to be qualitatively different in most cases. These results obtained using density functional theory with hybrid B3LYP functional do not support the view that ZrO clusters can replace Pd as a catalyst. PMID:25053314

  17. Potential of ZrO clusters as replacement Pd catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, Swayamprabha; King, Nicholas; Jena, Puru; Samanta, Devleena

    2014-07-21

    Atomic clusters with specific size and composition and mimicking the chemistry of elements in the periodic table are commonly known as superatoms. It has been suggested that superatoms could be used to replace elements that are either scarce or expensive. Based on a photoelectron spectroscopy experiment of negatively charged ions, Castleman and co-workers [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 975 (2010)] have recently shown that atoms of Ni, Pd, and Pt which are well known for their catalytic properties, have the same electronic structure as their counterpart isovalent diatomic species, TiO, ZrO, and WC, respectively. Based on this similarity they have suggested that ZrO, for example, could be a replacement catalyst for Pd. Since catalysts are seldom single isolated atoms, one has to demonstrate that clusters of ZrO also have the same electronic structure as same sized Pd clusters. To examine if this is indeed the case, we have calculated the geometries, electronic structure, electron affinity, ionization potential, and hardness of Pd{sub n} and (ZrO){sub n} clusters (n = 1-5). We further studied the reaction of these clusters in neutral and charged forms with H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CO and found it to be qualitatively different in most cases. These results obtained using density functional theory with hybrid B3LYP functional do not support the view that ZrO clusters can replace Pd as a catalyst.

  18. Superior unipolar resistive switching in stacked ZrOx/ZrO2/ZrOx structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Tse-Yu

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the performance of unipolar-switched ZrO2 RRAM, using an oxygen-deficient and amorphous ZrOx capping in a sandwich stack Al/ZrOx/ZrO2/ZrOx/Al structure. Superior high and low resistance switching and a resistance ratio (HRS/LRS) greater than 10 showed excellent dc endurance of 7378 switching cycles and 3.8 × 104 cycles in pulse switching measurements. Recovery behavior, observed in the I-V curve for the SET process (or HRS), led to HRS fluctuations and instability. A new resistance switching model for the stacked ZrO2 RRAM is proposed in this paper. In this model, oxygen-deficient and amorphous ZrOx film, capped on polycrystalline ZrO2 film, plays a key role and acts as an oxygen reservoir in making the oxygen ions redox easily for the SET process and in facilitating re-oxidation for the RESET process, resulting in excellent endurance. By improving the stability and recovery phenomena, engineering parameters of the current control may play a critical role during switching, and they can be correlated to the film's thickness and the oxygen content of the amorphous ZrOx film.

  19. Zircon solubility and of Zr species in subduction zone fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, M.; Schmidt, C.; Rickers, K.; Pascarelli, S.; Manning, C. E.; Stechern, A.

    2009-12-01

    The geochemical signature of igneous rocks at convergent plate margins is thought to result from complex melt formation processes involving aqueous solutions derived from dehydration of the subducted slab. In these processes, the depletion of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) may be controlled by the presence of accessory phases such as zircon and rutile, which can strongly fractionate these elements; however, the stability and solubility of these phases depends strongly on the fluid composition, including concentration and stoichiometry of Na-Al silicate components. Here we present new data on the influence of the fluid composition on zircon solubility as well as data on the Zr complexation in these fluids at P&T. Experiments were conducted using a modified hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC). Zr contents at P&T were determined using SR-µXRF spectra. Zr K-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectra were acquired to investigate the Zr complexation in-situ at P&T. A grain of synthetic crystalline zircon was equilibrated with an aqueous fluid containing Na2Si2O5 or Na2Si2O5 + Al2O3 components. XAFS and SR-µXRF spectra were taken at the dispersive beamline ID24 of the ESRF, Grenoble, France. Some additional SR-µXRF spectra were taken at HASYLAB, Hamburg, beamline L. The observed Zr concentrations in fluids containing 7-33 wt% Na2Si2O5 and variable Al contents were between 75 and 720 ppm at 500 to 750°C and ~300 MPa to ~700 MPa. These values match expected solubilities calculated from linear interpolation of the maximum solubility in pure H2O (from the detection limit) and the solubility in the most alkaline high-silica melts reported by Ellison and Hess (1986, CMP, 94, 343). The high Zr solubility in sodium silicate-bearing solutions signifies that aqueous fluids with alkali silicates offer an efficient mechanism for HFSE transport. This can be explained by complexation of HFSE with Si, Na, and perhaps also Al, via formation of polymerized solutes

  20. Thermophysical properties of laser-sintered Zr-ZrB2 cermets

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chen-Nan; Gupta, Mool C.; Porter, Wallace D

    2011-01-01

    Thermophysical properties between 293 and 1863 K were investigated for laser-sintered Zr-ZrB{sub 2} cermets containing 30, 50, and 70 wt% Zr. The measured values of coefficient of thermal expansion of Zr-ZrB{sub 2} cermets were larger than the predicted values due to the effect of Zr-O solid solution, which was formed during laser sintering. The order-disorder phase transition of Zr-O solid solution resulted in the sharp increase in heat capacity between 625 and 675 K. Thermal conductivities were calculated from measured densities, heat capacities, and thermal diffusivities. Thermal diffusivities at 473 K were 14.0, 12.2, and 8.0 mm{sup 2}/s for 30Zr-ZrB{sub 2}, 50Zr-ZrB{sub 2}, and 70Zr-ZrB{sub 2}, respectively. Thermal conductivities at 473 K were 38, 31, and 20 W {center_dot} (m {center_dot} K){sup -1} for 30Zr-ZrB{sub 2}, 50Zr-ZrB{sub 2}, and 70Zr-ZrB{sub 2}, respectively. Electron contribution to thermal conductivity of the 70Zr-ZrB{sub 2} cermet was determined using electrical resistivity measurements, which shows that total thermal conductivity mostly came from the electron contribution at high temperatures (1073-1473 K) while the phonon contribution was very small.

  1. Screening on binary Zr-1X (X = Ti, Nb, Mo, Cu, Au, Pd, Ag, Ru, Hf and Bi) alloys with good in vitro cytocompatibility and magnetic resonance imaging compatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Li, H F; Huang, T; Wang, B L; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the microstructures, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, in vitro cytocompatibility and magnetic susceptibility of Zr-1X alloys with various alloying elements, including Ti, Nb, Mo, Cu, Au, Pd, Ag, Ru, Hf and Bi, were systematically investigated to explore their potential use in biomedical applications. The experimental results indicated that annealed Zr-1X alloys consisted entirely or primarily of α phase. The alloying elements significantly increased the strength and hardness of pure Zr and had a relatively slight influence on elastic modulus. Ru was the most effective enhancing element and Zr-1Ru alloy had the largest elongation. The results of electrochemical corrosion indicated that adding various elements to Zr improved its corrosion resistance, as indicated by the reduced corrosion current density. The extracts of the studied Zr-1X alloys produced no significant deleterious effects on osteoblast-like cells (MG 63), indicating good in vitro cytocompatibility. All except for Zr-1Ag alloy showed decreased magnetic susceptibility compared to pure Zr, and Zr-1Ru alloy had the lowest magnetic susceptibility value, being comparable to that of α' phase Zr-Mo alloy and Zr-Nb alloy and far lower than that of Co-Cr alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Among the experimental Zr-1X alloys, Zr-1Ru alloy possessing high strength coupled with good ductility, good in vitro cytocompatibility and low magnetic susceptibility may be a good candidate alloy for medical devices within a magnetic resonance imaging environment. PMID:23928334

  2. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Louis

    sont elements de la serie h_{p,q}= [ (p(m+2)-qm)^2-4] /(8m(m+2)) ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs, p et q etant de meme parite, et p+q<= m+2. La charge centrale est donnee par c(m)={3over 2}-{12over m(m+2)} avec m >= 2. Les vecteurs singuliers | Psi_{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+2-q} > sont respectivement de poids h _{p,q}+pq/2 et h_ {p,q}+(m-p)(m+2-q)/2.. Les vecteurs singuliers ont une norme nulle et on doit les eliminer des representations pour que celles -ci soient unitaires. Cette elimination engendrent des equations (super-)differentielles qui dependent directement de la forme explicite des vecteurs singuliers et auxquelles doivent obeir les fonctions de correlations de la theorie. Ainsi la connaissance de ces vecteurs singuliers est intimement reliee au calcul des fonctions de correlation. Les equations definissant les vecteurs singuliers forment un systeme lineaire surdetermine dont le nombre d'equations est de l'ordre de N(pq), le nombre de partitions de l'entier pq. Puisque les vecteurs singuliers jouent un role capital en theorie conforme, il est naturel de chercher des formes explicites pour les vecteurs (ou pour des familles infinies de ceux -ci). Nous donnons ici la forme explicite pour la famille infinie de vecteurs singuliers ayant un de ses indices egal a 1, pour les algebres de Virasoro et de Neveu-Schwarz. Depuis ces decouvertes, d'autres techniques de construction des vecteurs singuliers ont ete developpees, dont celle de Bauer, Di Francesco, Itzykson et Zuber pour l'algebre de Virasoro qui reproduit directement l'expression explicite des vecteurs singuliers |Psi _{1,q}> et |Psi_{p,1}>. Ils ont utilise l'algebre des produits d'operateurs et la fusion entre representations irreductibles pour engendrer des relations de recurence produisant les vecteurs singuliers. Dans le dernier chapitre de cette these nous adaptons cet algorithme a la construction des vecteurs singuliers de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz.

  3. Internal oxidation of laminated ternary Ru-Ta-Zr coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-I.; Lu, Tso-Shen

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have observed the internal oxidation phenomenon in binary alloy coatings when developing refractory alloy coatings for protective purposes by conducting annealing at high temperatures and in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coatings were assembled using cyclical gradient concentration deposition during cosputtering by employing a substrate holder rotating at a slow speed. The internally oxidized zone demonstrated a laminated structure, comprising alternating oxygen-rich and oxygen-deficient layers stacked in a general orientation. In the current study, Ru-Ta-Zr coatings were prepared with various stacking sequences during cosputtering. The Ru-Ta-Zr coatings were annealed at 600 °C in an atmosphere continuously purged with 1% O2-99% Ar mixed gas for 30 min. A transmission electron microscope was used to examine the periods of the laminated layers and crystallinity of the annealed coatings. Depth profiles produced using an Auger electron spectroscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope were used to certify the periodic variation of the related constituents and chemical states of the elements, respectively. The results indicate that the internally oxidized ternary coatings are stacked of Ru-, Ta2O5-, and ZrO2-dominant sublayers and that the stacking sequences of the sublayers affect the crystalline structure of the coatings. Zr is oxidized preferentially in the Ru-Ta-Zr coatings, increasing the surface hardness of the oxidized coatings.

  4. Magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets produced by spark plasma sintering method

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tetsuji Akiyama, Tomoya

    2014-05-07

    Magnets of Co-Zr-B, one of the permanent magnetic compounds without rare-earth elements, were successfully produced by the spark plasma sintering method. The resultant Co-Zr-B magnets had high densities of 92%–96% and consisted mainly of the Co{sub x}Zr (x ≈ 5) phase. The coercivity of the Co-Zr-B magnets was highly dependent on the consolidation temperature and the boron content. The highest maximum energy product of 6.0 MGOe, with a remanence of 6.4 kG and the coercivity of 4.0 kOe, was achieved by the Co{sub 80}Zr{sub 18}B{sub 2} magnets consolidated at 873 K.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti,Al,Zr)N/(Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N films on cemented carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-lu; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Shuang-hong; Zhang, Zheng-gui

    2014-01-01

    (Ti,Al,Zr)N/(Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N bilayer films were deposited on cemented carbide (WC-8%Co) substrates by multi-arc ion plating (MAIP) using two Ti-Al-Zr alloy targets and one pure Cr target. To investigate the composition, morphology, and crystalline structure of the bilayer films, a number of complementary methods of elemental and structural analysis were used, namely, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Adhesive strength and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated by scratch testing and Vickers microindentation, respectively. It is shown that the resulting films have a TiN-type face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The films exhibit fully dense, uniform, and columnar morphology. Furthermore, as the bias voltages vary from -50 to -200 V, the microhardness (max. Hv0.01 4100) and adhesive strength (max. > 200 N) of the bilayer films are superior to those of the (Ti,Al,Zr)N and (Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N monolayer films.

  6. Structural investigations of (Ca,Sr)ZrO3 and Ca(Sn,Zr)O3 perovskite compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrida, Martine; Larguem, H.; Madon, M.

    2009-07-01

    (Ca x ,Sr1- x )ZrO3 and Ca(Sn y ,Zr1- y )O3 solid solutions were synthesized by solid-state reaction at high temperature before to be studied by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. Diffraction data allow the distortion of the ABO3 perovskite structure to be investigated according to cations substitution on A and B-sites. It is shown that distortion, characterized by Φ, the tilt angle of BO6 octahedra, slightly increases with decreasing y content in Ca(Sn y ,Zr1- y )O3 compounds and strongly decreases with decreasing x content in (Ca x ,Sr1- x )ZrO3 compounds. Such results are discussed in view of the relative A and B cation sizes. Raman data show that vibrational spectra are strongly affected by the cation substitution on A-site; the frequencies of most vibrational modes increase with increasing x content in (Ca x ,Sr1- x )ZrO3 compounds, i.e. with the decreasing mean size of the A-cation; the upper shift is observed for the 358 cm-1 mode (∂ ν/∂r = -60.1 cm-1/Å). On the other hand, the cation substitution on B-sites, slightly affect the spectra; it is shown that in most cases, the frequency of vibrational modes increases with increasing y content in Ca(Sn y ,Zr1- y )O3 compounds, i.e. with the decreasing mean size of the B-cation, but that two modes (287 and 358 cm-1) behave differently: their frequencies decrease with the decreasing mean size of the B-cation, with a shift respectively equal to +314 and +162 cm-1/Å. Such results could be used to predict the location of different elements such as trivalent cations or radwaste elements on A- or B-site, in the perovskite structure.

  7. Mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of newly developed biodegradable Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Mg-Zr-Sr alloys can be anticipated as excellent biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications. In general, rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in magnesium (Mg) alloys with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties of Mg-based alloys. In this study, the REE holmium (Ho) was added to an Mg-1Zr-2Sr alloy at different concentrations of Mg1Zr2SrxHo alloys (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 wt. %) and the microstructure, mechanical properties, degradation behaviour and biocompatibility of the alloys were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Ho to Mg1Zr2Sr led to the formation of the intermetallic phases MgHo3, Mg2Ho and Mg17Sr2 which resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased degradation rates of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. Furthermore, Ho addition (≤5 wt. %) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. The in vitro biodegradation and the biocompatibility of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys were both influenced by the Ho concentration in the Mg alloys; Mg1Zr2Sr3Ho exhibited lower degradation rates than Mg1Zr2Sr and displayed the best biocompatibility compared with the other alloys. PMID:27553403

  8. Mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of newly developed biodegradable Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yunfei; Lin, Jixing; Wen, Cuie; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Yuncang

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that Mg-Zr-Sr alloys can be anticipated as excellent biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications. In general, rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in magnesium (Mg) alloys with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties of Mg-based alloys. In this study, the REE holmium (Ho) was added to an Mg-1Zr-2Sr alloy at different concentrations of Mg1Zr2SrxHo alloys (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 wt. %) and the microstructure, mechanical properties, degradation behaviour and biocompatibility of the alloys were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Ho to Mg1Zr2Sr led to the formation of the intermetallic phases MgHo3, Mg2Ho and Mg17Sr2 which resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased degradation rates of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. Furthermore, Ho addition (≤5 wt. %) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys. The in vitro biodegradation and the biocompatibility of the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho alloys were both influenced by the Ho concentration in the Mg alloys; Mg1Zr2Sr3Ho exhibited lower degradation rates than Mg1Zr2Sr and displayed the best biocompatibility compared with the other alloys. PMID:27553403

  9. IN VIVO BIODISTRIBUTION AND ACCUMULATION OF 89Zr IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Abou, D.S.; Ku, T.; Smith-Jones, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The present investigation focuses on the chemical and biological fate of 89Zr in mice. Electrophoreses of 89Zr solvated or chelated in different conditions are here presented. The biological fate of mice injected with [89Zr]Zr-oxalate, [89Zr]Zr-chloride, [89Zr]Zr-phosphate, [89Zr]Zr-desferrioxamine and [89Zr]Zr-citrate is studied with the biodistribution, the clearances and PET images. A special focus is also given regarding the quality of 89Zr bone accumulation. Methods Electrophoreses were carried out on chromatography paper and read by gamma counting. Then, the solutions were intravenously injected in mice, imaged at different time points and sacrificed. The bones, the epiphysis and the marrow substance were separated and evaluated with gamma counts. Results The clearances of [89Zr]Zr-chloride and [89Zr]Zr-oxalate reached 20% of ID after 6 days whereas [89Zr]Zr-phosphate was only 5% of ID. [89Zr]Zr-citrate and [89Zr]Zr-DFO were noticeably excreted after the first day p.i.. [89Zr]Zr-chloride and [89Zr]Zr-oxalate resulted in a respective bone uptake of ~15% ID/g and~20% ID/g at 8 h p.i. with minor losses after 6 days. [89Zr]Zr-citrate bone uptake was also observed, but [89Zr]Zr-phosphate was absorbed in high amounts in the liver and the spleen. The marrow cells were insignificantly radioactive in comparison to the calcified tissues. Conclusion Despite the complexity of Zr coordination, the electrophoretic analyses provided detailed evidences of Zr charges either as salts or as complexes. This study also shows that weakly chelated, 89Zr is a bone seeker and has a strong affinity for phosphate. PMID:21718943

  10. Electro-structural correlations, elastic and optical properties among the nanolaminated ternary carbides Zr 2AC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoun, Mohammed Benali; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Reshak, Ali H.; Merad, Abdelkarim E.

    2010-05-01

    We have performed ab initio calculations for the nanolaminates Zr 2AC (A = Ti, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, P, As, S) ceramics to study their electronic structure, elastic and optical properties. In this work, we used the accurate augmented plane wave plus local orbital method with density functional theory to find the equilibrium structural parameters, dielectric functions and to compute the full elastic tensors. The obtained elastic constants were used to quantify the stiffness of the Zr 2AC phases and to appraise their mechanical stability. The relationship between elastic, electronic and valence electron concentration is discussed. Our results show that the bulk modulus and shear modulus increase across the periodic table for Zr 2AC. Furthermore, trends in elastic stiffness are well explained in terms of electronic structure analysis, as occupation of valence electrons in states near the Fermi level of Zr 2AC. We show that increments of bulk moduli originate from additional valence electrons filling states involving Zr d-A p. We show also that Zr d-A p hybridizations are located just below the Fermi level and are weaker bonds than the Zr d-C p hybridizations, which are deeper in energy. As a function of the p-state filling of the A element the Zr d-A p bands are driven to deeper energy. The optical spectra were analyzed by means of the electronic structure, which provides theoretical understanding of the conduction mechanism of these ceramics.

  11. Low beryllium content Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite with plasticity and work hardenability

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q. E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn; Du, J. E-mail: dujuan@nimte.ac.cn

    2014-01-28

    A modified Zr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite Zr{sub 47.67}Cu{sub 40}Ti{sub 3.66}Ni{sub 2.66}Be{sub 6} has been produced by increasing the contents of elements of Zr and Cu with higher Poisson ratio and reducing the contents of Ti, Ni, and Be elements with lower Poisson ratio based on famous metallic glass former Vitreloy 1. A compressive yielding strength of 1804 MPa, fracture strength of 1938 MPa and 3.5% plastic strain was obtained for obtained metallic glass composite. Also, work-hardening behavior was observed during compressive experiment which was ascribed to the interaction of the in situ precipitated CuZr phase and shear bands.

  12. Effect of phosphorus on the mechanical behavior of a Zr Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y. C.; Ko, S.; Chang, K. I.; Cho, N. C.; Hong, S. I.

    2009-01-01

    The flow stress of Zr-1.0Nb increased with the addition of 20 ppm phosphorous and the activation volume decreased with the addition of 300 ppm phosphorous at room temperature. The rate-controlling mechanism of the deformation of Zr-Nb-P is thought to be the dislocation-solute interaction in which the segregation of alloying elements affects the activation length. Less effective strengthening of phosphorous in Zr-Nb compared to sulphur was explained by a smaller electrostatic interaction between phosphorous atoms and dislocations.

  13. Hydrogenation of Zr-2.5Nb alloy after plasma-immersion titanium implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutygina, A. N.; Kashkarov, E. B.; Nikitenkov, N. N.; Tyurin, Yu I.; Syrtanov, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    The study results of the influence of plasma-immersion ion implantation of titanium in Zr-2.5Nb on hydrogenation are presented. The titanium implantation was carried out in two modes: with active plasma filtering (APF) and passive plasma filtering (PPF). The results of total hydrogen concentration, absorption rate, XRD analyses and depth distribution of elements revealed that modified surface layer after titanium ion implantation is formed hydrogen diffusion barrier reduces hydrogen absorption by Zr-2.5Nb.

  14. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  15. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des

  16. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  17. Metastable phases in Zr-Excel alloy and their stability under heavy ion (Kr2+) irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbing; Zhang, Ken; Yao, Zhongwen; Kirk, Mark A.; Long, Fei; Daymond, Mark R.

    2016-02-01

    Zr-Excel alloy (Zr-3.5Sn-0.8Nb-0.8Mo, wt.%) has been proposed as a candidate material of pressure tubes in the CANDU-SCWR design. It is a dual-phase alloy containing primary hcp α-Zr and metastable bcc β-Zr. Metastable hexagonal ω-Zr phase could form in β-Zr as a result of aging during the processing of the tube. A synchrotron X-ray study was employed to study the lattice properties of the metastable phases in as-received Zr-Excel pressure tube material. In situ heavy ion (1 MeV Kr2+) irradiations were carried out at 200 °C and 450 °C to emulate the stability of the metastable phase under a reactor environment. Quantitative Chemi-STEM EDS analysis was conducted on both un-irradiated and irradiated samples to investigate alloying element redistribution induced by heavy ion irradiation. It was found that no decomposition of β-Zr was observed under irradiation at both 200 °C and 450 °C. However, ω-Zr particles experienced shape changes and shrinkage associated with enrichment of Fe at the β/ω interface during 200 °C irradiation but not at 450 °C. There is a noticeable increase in the level of Fe in the α matrix after irradiation at both 200 °C and 450 °C. The concentrations of Nb, Mo and Fe are increased in the ω phase but decreased in the β phase at 200 °C. The stability of metastable phases under heavy ion irradiation associated with elemental redistribution is discussed.

  18. Solid-State Coexistance of (Zr12) and (Zr6) Zirconium Oxocarboxylate Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Malaestean, Lurie; Alici, Meliha Kutluca; Besson, Claire; Ellern, Arkady; Kogerler, Paul

    2013-10-30

    Ligand metathesis, Co(II) coordination, and partial condensation reactions of an archetypal {Zr6} zirconium oxocarboxylate cluster result in the first example of the coexistence of the distinct zirconium oxide frameworks {Zr6O8} and {Zr12O22}. Even minor modifications to the reaction conditions push this apparent equilibrium towards the {Zr6O8}-based product.

  19. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  20. Radiation effects in Zr and Hf containing garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, Karl R.; Blackford, Mark G.; Smith, Katherine L.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Weyland, Matthew; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2015-07-01

    Garnets have been considered as host phases for the safe immobilisation of high-level nuclear waste, as they have been shown to accommodate a wide range of elements across three different cation sites, such as Ca, Y, Mn on the a-site, Fe, Al, U, Zr, and Ti on the b-site, and Si, Fe, Al on the c-site. Garnets, due to their ability to have variable composition, make ideal model materials for the examination of radiation damage and recovery in nuclear materials, including as potential waste forms. Kimzeyite, Ca3Zr2FeAlSiO12, has been shown naturally to contain up to 30 wt% Zr, and has previously been examined to elucidate both the structure and ordering within the lattice. This study examines the effects of radiation damage and recovery using in-situ ion beam irradiation with 1 MeV Kr ions at the IVEM-TANDEM facility, Argonne National Laboratory. The complementary Hf containing system Ca3Hf2FeAlSiO12 was also examined, and found to have a different response to irradiation damage. A sample of irradiated Ca3Zr2FeAlSiO12, at 1000 K, was characterised using aberration corrected (S)TEM and found to contain discreet, nano-sized, crystalline Fe rich particles, indicating a competing process during recovery is occurring.

  1. Effect of torsion conditions under high pressure on the structure and strengthening of the Zr-1% Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogachev, S. O.; Rozhnov, A. B.; Nikulin, S. A.; Rybal'chenko, O. V.; Gorshenkov, M. V.; Chzhen, V. G.; Dobatkin, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of temperature and degree of deformation upon severe plastic deformation by torsion under a high pressure on the structure, phase composition, and microhardness of the industrial zirconium Zr-1% Nb alloy (E110) has been studied. The high-pressure torsion (HPT) (with N = 10 revolutions) of the Zr-1% Nb alloy at room temperature results in the formation of grain-subgrain nanosize structure with an average size of structural elements of 65 nm, increase in the microhardness by 2.3-2.8 times (to 358 MPa), and α-Zr → β-Zr and α-Zr → ω-Zr phase transformations. The increase in the HPT temperature to 200°C does not lead to a decrease in the microhardness of alloy owing to the increase in the fraction of ω-Zr phase, though the average size of structural elements increases to 125 nm. The increase in the temperature to 400°C during HPT with N = 10 revolutions leads to the grain growth in the α-Zr grain structure (~90%) to 160 nm and a decrease in the microhardness to 253-276 HV.

  2. Iodine induced SCC of Zr alloys at constant strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryachev, S. B.; Gritsuk, A. R.; Prasolov, F. F.; Snegirev, M. G.; Shestak, V. E.; Novikov, V. V.; Bibilashvili, Yu. K.

    1992-12-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Zr and its alloys Zry-4, Zry-2 and Zr-1% Nb has been studied in flowing iodine vapour at a constant strain rate. The tests were performed using flat samples of Zr and its alloy claddings as well as Zr coated Zr-1% Nb claddings. Zr-1% Nb is shown to be more resistant to SCC as compared to Zry-4 and Zry-2. No corrosion induced failure of Zr or Zr-coated Zr-1% Nb claddings has been actually observed. The influence of strain rate, temperature and iodine partial pressure on SCC has been studied for Zr-1% Nb.

  3. Correlative characterization of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase in an Al–Zn–Mg based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.H.; Wiessner, M.; Albu, M.; Wurster, S.; Sartory, B.; Hofer, F.; Schumacher, P.

    2015-04-15

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the structural information of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, i.e. size, shape, element distribution and orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix. It was found that (i) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases have a cubic three-dimensional morphology, with a size of about 6–10 μm, (ii) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases are located within the α-Al matrix, and exhibit a cube to cube orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix, and (iii) a layer by layer growth was observed within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. Al, Cu, Si and Fe are enriched in the α-Al matrix between the layers of cellular eutectic Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, while Sc, Ti and Zr are enriched in small Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. A peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed to interpret the observed layer by layer growth. This paper demonstrates that the presence of impurities (Fe, Si, Cu, Ti) in the diffusion field surrounding the growing Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particle enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. - Highlights: • Most fine cubic primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases were observed within the α-Al matrix. • A layer by layer growth within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase was observed. • A peritectic and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed. • Impurities in diffusion fields enhance heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr)

  4. Rapidly solidified Nd7Fe67B22Mo3Zr1 nanocomposite permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shan; Ahmad, Zubair; Ma, Tianyu; Yan, Mi

    2014-04-01

    Nd7Fe67B22Mo3Zr1 magnets in rods have been prepared by annealing the amorphous precursors produced through injection casting. Phase formation, microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd7Fe67B22Mo3Zr1 magnets have been investigated and discussed in the as-cast and annealed states. Cast Nd7Fe67B22Mo3Zr1 rods have the soft magnetic characteristics, which changed into magnetically hard by annealing. Magnetic properties in Nd7Fe67B22Mo3Zr1 magnets are influenced by the intrinsic properties of magnetically soft α-Fe (Fe3B) and hard Nd2Fe14B phases. The Zr and Mo elements in the Nd7Fe67B22Mo3Zr1 alloy promote the formation of amorphous phase and reduce the grain size of magnetic phases. Optimal annealed Nd7Fe67B22Mo3Zr1 rods of 2 mm in diameter and 52 mm in length presented maximum magnetic properties such as: remanence (Br) of 0.53 T, coercivity (iHc) of 1110 kA/m and maximum energy product (BH)max of 49.5 kJ/m3.

  5. Molecular Sidebands of Refractory Elements for ISOL

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, Andreas; Spejewski, Eugene H.; Carter, H Kennon; Mervin, Brenden T.; Jost, Cara; Stracener, Daniel W; Lapi, Suzanne; Bray, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    The formation of molecular sidebands of refractory elements, such as V, Re, Zr, Mo, Tc, is discussed. The focus is on in situ sideband formation and its advantage for the release process. An atomic 48V beam has been produced in a two step process, forming the oxide in situ, transporting it through the target-ion source as a chloride and destroying the chlorine sideband in the ion source. The sideband formation of Re, Zr, Mo, Tc is discussed.

  6. Partition coefficients of Hf, Zr, and REE between phenocrysts and groundmasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimaki, H.; Tatsumoto, M.; Aoki, K.-I.

    1984-01-01

    Partition coefficients of Hf, Zr, and REE between olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, garnet, amphibole, ilmenite, phlogopite, and liquid are presented. Samples consist of megacrysts in kimberlite, phenocrysts in alkaline basalts, tholeiitic basalts and andesitic to dacitic rocks, and synthetic garnet and clinopyroxene in Hawaiian tholeiites. The Hf-Lu and Zr-Lu elemental fractionations are as large as the Lu-Sm or Lu-Nd fractionation. The Hf and Zr partition coefficients between mafic phenocrysts and liquids are smaller than the Lu partition coefficients, but are similar to the Nd or Sm partition coefficients. The Hf and Zr partition coefficients between ilmenite, phlogopite, and liquid are larger than the Lu partition coefficients for these minerals and their corresponding liquids. The Hf-Zr elemental fractionation does not occur except for extreme fractionation involving Zr-minerals and extremely low fO2. These data have an important bearing on chronological and petrogenetic tracer studies involving the Lu-Hf isotopic system.

  7. Calculation of isothermal sections of three ternary Ti-Zr-X systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Delaey, L.; Van Der Biest, O.; Wollants, P.

    1996-05-01

    The equilibrium phase diagram of the binary system Ti-Zr shows complete solubility in both allotropic forms, the high temperature {beta}-phase (bcc structure) and the low temperature {alpha}-phase (hexagonal structure). In the present paper the influence of additions of a third element (X = Hf, Nb, Ta) on the relative stability of both phases has been analyzed. Hf does also exhibit the two allotropic forms, and both show complete solubility for Zr and Ti. The other two elements crystallize as bcc. Nb is completely soluble in {beta}-Ti, but only at higher temperatures in {beta}-Zr. Its solubility in the {alpha}-Ti and {alpha}-Zr phases is very limited. Ta is also completely soluble in {beta}-Ti but shows only limited solubility in {beta}-Zr, {alpha}-Zr and {alpha}-Ti. Calculated isothermal sections of these three ternary equilibrium phase diagrams as well as considerations concerning thermodynamic parameters are presented and discussed in this work.

  8. Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

    1994-06-01

    Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

  9. The Structural Role of Zr within Alkali Borosilicate Glasses for Nuclear Waste Immobilisation

    SciTech Connect

    A Connelly; N Hyatt; K Travis; R Hand; E Maddrell; R Short

    2011-12-31

    Zirconium is a key constituent element of High Level nuclear Waste (HLW) glasses, occurring both as a fission product and a fuel cladding component. As part of a wider research program aimed at optimizing the solubility of zirconium in HLW glasses, we have investigated the structural chemistry of zirconium in such materials using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Zirconium K-edge XAS data were acquired from several inactive simulant and simplified waste glass compositions, including a specimen of blended Magnox/UO{sub 2} fuel waste glass. These data demonstrate that zirconium is immobilized as (octahedral) six-fold coordinate ZrO{sub 6} species in these glasses, with a Zr-O contact distance of 2.09 {angstrom}. The next nearest neighbors of the Zr species are Si at 3.42 {angstrom} and possibly Na at 3.44 {angstrom}, no next nearest neighbor Zr could be resolved.

  10. Effect of Microstructure on Reliability of Ca(TiZr)O3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoki, Tomoo; Naito, Masahiro; Sano, Harunobu; Konoike, Takehiro; Tomono, Kunisaburo

    2000-09-01

    We examined the reliability of Ca(TiZr)O3 (CTZ)-based Ni-electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCs) prepared by two different processes with particular interest in the microstructure. One process was to calcine the mixture of CaCO3 and TiO2 to prepare CaTiO3 (CT) powder and the mixture of CaCO3 and ZrO2 to prepare CaZrO3 (CZ) powder, and then mix these calcined powders and sinter them to synthesize the CTZ-based ceramics. The other was to calcine the mixture of CaCO3, TiO2 and ZrO2 powders together to prepare CTZ powder and then sinter them. These two processes of CTZ ceramic preparation resulted in a different crystallinity and distribution of the elements. We found that these factors influenced the reliability of CTZ-based MLCs.

  11. Capture of Hydrogen Using ZrNi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Lisa; Wales, Joshua; Lynch, David; Parrish, Clyde

    2005-01-01

    Water, as ice, is thought to reside in craters at the lunar poles along with CH4 and H2 . A proposed robotic mission for 2012 will utilize metal/metal hydrides for H2 recovery. Specifications are 99% capture of H2 initially at 5 bar and 100C (or greater), and degassing completely at 300C. Of 47-systems examined using the van't Hoff equation, 4 systems, Mg/MgH2, Mg2Ni/Mg2NiH4, ZrNi/ZrNiH2.8, and Pd/PdH0.77, were considered likely candidates for further examination. It is essential, when selecting a system, to also examine questions regarding activation, kinetics, cyclic stability, and gas impurity effects. After considering those issues, ZrN1 was selected as the most promising candidate, as it is easily activated and rapidly forms ZrNiH 2.8 . In addition, it resists oxide poisoning by CO2, and H2O, while some oxidation by O2 is recommended for improved activation . The presence of hydrogen in the as received Zr-Ni alloy from Alfa Aesar posed additional technical problems. X-ray diffraction of the Zr-Ni powder (-325 mesh), with a Zr:Ni wt% ratio of 70:30, was found to consist of ZrH2, ZrNiH2.8, and ZrNi. ZrH2 in the alloy presented the risk that after degassing that both Zr and ZrNi would be present, and thus lead to erroneous results regarding the reactivity of ZrNi with H2 . Fortunately, ZrH2 is a highly stable hydride that does not degas H2 to any significant extent at temperatures below 300C. Based on equilibrium calculations for the decomposition of ZrH2, only 1 millionth of the hydride decomposed at 300C under a N2 atmosphere flowing at 25 ccm for 64 hours, the longest time for pretreatment employed in the investigation. It was possible, from the X-ray results and knowledge of the Zr:Ni ratio, to compute the composition of a pretreated specimen as being 76 wt% ZrNi and the balance ZrH2.

  12. Fractionation of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf in the Mantle-Crust Sytem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezger, K.; Weyer, S.; Muenker, C.

    2001-12-01

    The isovalent element pairs Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta have generally been regarded as behaving identical during most geologic processes. As a consequence, it was expected that the ratios of these elements pairs are more of less constant and chondritic in all reservoirs of the silicate Earth. However, recent measurements of Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta of higher precision have indicated that mantle-derived magmas in certain geochemical environments and tectonic settings are characterized by distinct variations in Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios that deviate significantly from the chondritic values. In comparison to known analytical methods, the resolution of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf measurements can be improved by nearly a factor of 10 by isotope dilution measurements using a mixed 180Ta-94Zr-180Hf-176Lu tracer. In order to establish the solar system ratios for Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf, chondrites and eucrites were analyzed. The mean Zr/Hf of all chondrites and eucrites investigated in this study is 34.2+/-0.3 (2 RSE) and is indistinguishable from the chondrite-only mean value, which is 34.1+/-0.6. This new mean Zr/Hf value is lower than the previous estimate for the Zr/Hf of 36.3, which was inferred from analyses of OIBs and the chondrite Orgueil (Jochum et al., 1986). The chondritic Nb/Ta of 17.6+/-1.0 determined in this study agrees with previously estimated values (Jochum et al. 2000). A comparison of basalts and peridotites reveals subchondritic Zr/Hf for depleted peridotites and basalts derived from the depleted mantle. Peridotites from the Balmuccia peridotite (Italy) have Zr/Hf as low as 10 and they show an excellent correlation with Zr-contents. Therefore it can be assumed that the lower Zr/Hf in the mantle relative to the chondritic value is a feature caused by melt extraction. Nb/Ta in the Balmuccia peridotites show a similar variation, but no correlation with Ta-contents and Zr/Hf can be observed. This decoupling is caused by the extremely incompatible behavior of Nb and Ta during mantle melting. Small

  13. Thermal stability of co-extruded U Zr/Zr Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chong-Tak; Park, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Kyu; Lee, Ui-Jong; Lee, Bong-Sang; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2008-02-01

    A co-extruded U-80 at.%Zr/Zr-1 at.%Nb rod was heat-treated at 590 and 700 °C for up to 4000 h in order to investigate the thermal stability of a U-Zr fuel and the interface between the U-Zr fuel and the Zr-Nb clad. The U-Zr fuel was composed of the δ-UZr 2 matrix and α-Zr precipitates. There was little change in the microstructure during a heat-treatment at 590 °C. However, after a heat-treatment for 4000 h, uranium-rich precipitates were formed at the interface near the grain boundary of the α-Zr phase possibly due to a diffusion from the uranium supersaturated in the α-Zr phase. A heat-treatment at 700 °C induced a considerable dissolution of α-Zr into the matrix, which continuously formed a single (γ-U, β-Zr) phase. After a heat-treatment for 2000 h, the thickness of the diffusion layer in the interface between the U-Zr fuel and Zr-Nb clad was observed to be about 150 and 250 μm at 590 and 700 °C, respectively.

  14. Mechanism of abnormally slow crystal growth of CuZr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, X. Q.; Lü, Y. J.

    2015-10-28

    Crystal growth of the glass-forming CuZr alloy is shown to be abnormally slow, which suggests a new method to identify the good glass-forming alloys. The crystal growth of elemental Cu, Pd and binary NiAl, CuZr alloys is systematically studied with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature dependence of the growth velocity indicates the different growth mechanisms between the elemental and the alloy systems. The high-speed growth featuring the elemental metals is dominated by the non-activated collision between liquid-like atoms and interface, and the low-speed growth for NiAl and CuZr is determined by the diffusion across the interface. We find that, in contrast to Cu, Pd, and NiAl, a strong stress layering arisen from the density and the local order layering forms in front of the liquid-crystal interface of CuZr alloy, which causes a slow diffusion zone. The formation of the slow diffusion zone suppresses the interface moving, resulting in much small growth velocity of CuZr alloy. We provide a direct evidence of this explanation by applying the compressive stress normal to the interface. The compression is shown to boost the stress layering in CuZr significantly, correspondingly enhancing the slow diffusion zone, and eventually slowing down the crystal growth of CuZr alloy immediately. In contrast, the growth of Cu, Pd, and NiAl is increased by the compression because the low diffusion zones in them are never well developed.

  15. PAC Studies on Zr-Based Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damonte, L. C.; Mendoza-Zélis, L. A.

    2004-11-01

    The Zr2Al, Zr3Al2 and Zr6NiAl2 intermetallic compounds were characterized by means of time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) and X-ray diffraction. Our interest in these Zr(Hf) aluminides comes from crystallization studies of Zr(Hf)-based bulk metallic glasses which have a wide supercooled liquid region.

  16. Effect of creep and α-Zr ↔ (α + β)-Zr transition in Zr1Nb cladding on texture analyzed by neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetvicka, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Zr1Nb alloy tubes used as nuclear fuel cladding in VVER reactors were deformed by isothermal creep under a temperature comprised between 350 °C and 850 °C and constant tensile stress of 5-200 MPa in axial direction (AD). Deformation texture was analyzed by neutron diffraction. Two types of texture were found. For the final type of texture, the test temperature was the decisive factor. Within the temperature range up to 600 °C, the effect of creep or plastic deformation dominates and the texture changes continuously with increasing deformation. The influence of the ratio of wall thickness reduction to diameter reduction (Rw/Rd) on texture originated by plastic deformation by compression of seamless tubes made of elemental zirconium or Zircaloy described by Tenckhoff (2005), was verified for textures formed by creep of cladding tubes made of Zr1Nb alloy (E110) by constant tensile stress at the 350-600 °C range. At 700 °C temperature or higher, the texture was formed mainly by reversible α-Zr ↔ (α + β)-Zr phase transition of significant proportion of zirconium crystals and the formation of a new texture was observed: The highest pole density in the TD have been observed for the pyramid (1 0 1bar 1) followed by the prism (1 0 1bar 0), which can be the effect of {1 1 2bar 1}<1bar 1bar 2 6> twining. The prism (1 12bar 0) rotates preferentially perpendicular to AD, while the pole density of prism (1 0 1bar 0) is markedly low.

  17. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    recension des ecrits sur le changement de comportement en environnement. Nous explorons egalement la famille comme systeme fonctionnel de sorte a mieux comprendre ce contexte d'action environnementale qui est, a notre connaissance, peu etudie. Dans le deuxieme article, nous presentons nos resultats de recherche concernant les facteurs d'influence observes ainsi que les competences manifestees au cours du processus d'adoption de nouveaux comportements environnementaux dans trois familles. Enfin, le troisieme article presente les resultats du cas d'une quatrieme famille ou les membres vivent depuis longtemps des modes de vie ecologique. Dans le cadre d'une demarche d'analyse par theorisation ancree, l'etude de ce cas modele nous a permis d'approfondir les categories conceptuelles identifiees dans le deuxieme article de sorte a produire une modelisation de l'integration de comportements environnementaux dans le contexte de la famille. Les conclusions degagees grace a la recension des ecrits nous ont permis d'identifier les elements qui pourraient influencer l'adoption de comportements environnementaux dans des familles. La recension a aussi permis une meilleure comprehension des divers facteurs qui peuvent affecter l'adoption de comportements environnementaux et, enfin, elle a permis de mieux cerner le phenomene de changement de comportement dans le contexte de la famille consideree comme un systeme. En appliquant un processus d'analyse inductif, a partir de nos donnees qualitatives, les resultats de notre etude multi-cas nous ont indique que deux construits conceptuels semblent influencer l'adoption de comportements environnementaux en famille : 1) les valeurs biospheriques communes au sein de la famille et 2) les competences collectivement mises a profit collectivement durant l'essai de nouveaux comportements environnementaux. Notre modelisation du processus de changement dans des familles indique aussi qu'une dynamique familiale collaborative et la presence d'un groupe de

  18. High performance Zr-based metal hydride alloys for nickel metal hydride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.C.; Ovshinsky, S.R.; Huang, B.; Chao, B.S.; Li, Y.

    2000-07-01

    Based upon Ovonic's multi-element, atomic engineering approach, two families of alloys are being used in commercial Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries, i.e., the mischmetal (Mm) based AB{sub 5} and Zr based AB{sub 2} alloys. While Mm based alloys are faster to activate, they are limited by a discharge capacity of only 320--340 mAh/g. The Zr based alloy, although slightly slower to activate, provides a much higher discharge capacity. In this paper, the authors first discuss the use of Ovonic's multi-element approach to generate a spectrum of disordered local environments. They then present experimental data to illustrate that through these atomically engineered local environments, they are able to control the hydrogen site occupancy, discharge capacity, kinetics, and surface states. The Zr based alloy with a specific discharge capacity of 465 mAh/g and excellent rate capability has been demonstrated.

  19. Numerical exploration into the potential of tungsten reinforced CuCrZr matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohe, Jörg; Fliegener, Sascha; Findeisen, Claudio; Reiser, Jens; Widak, Verena; Rieth, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The present study provides a numerical investigation into the potential of tungsten reinforced CuCrZr materials in order to overcome their limited performance at higher temperatures. Metal matrix composites including (i) particle reinforced microstructures, (ii) short fiber reinforced microstructures with both randomly orientated and (iii) aligned fibers as well as (iv) laminates consisting of stacked tungsten and CuCrZr layers are considered. The numerical analysis is performed by means of an energy based homogenization procedure in conjunction with a finite element analysis of representative volume elements for the respective microstructures. The results of the screening analysis reveal a distinct improvement of the mechanical properties of CuCrZr materials by the tungsten reinforcements even for moderate tungsten volume fractions. In a comparison of the different microstructures, the ordered microstructures, i.e. laminates and the aligned short fiber reinforced composites in most cases outperform their disordered counterparts.

  20. Enhanced BaZrO₃ mechanosynthesis by the use of metastable ZrO₂ precursors.

    PubMed

    Sherafat, Z; Antunes, I; Almeida, C; Frade, J R; Paydar, M H; Mather, G C; Fagg, D P

    2014-06-28

    The current work assesses the impact of structural differences between stable and metastable ZrO2 precursors on the mechanochemical preparation of BaZrO3. Monoclinic (m-ZrO2) and tetragonal (t-ZrO2) zirconia polymorphs were prepared without stabilizing additives by slow alkaline precipitation. High-energy milling of the individual ZrO2 precursors induced different partial transformations in each case. The as-synthesized m-ZrO2 powders showed partial conversion to the tetragonal polymorph on mechanical activation, reaching about 10% t-ZrO2 after 420 min accompanied by increases in strain. In contrast, the as synthesized t-ZrO2 powders underwent the inverse transformation to the monoclinic phase, producing about 50% m-ZrO2 after 120 min with the liberation of strain. The t-ZrO2 precursor was shown to exhibit the higher reactivity with barium peroxide, yielding significantly earlier formation of barium zirconate under room-temperature mechanosynthesis. The progress of the mechanochemical formation of BaZrO3 has been discussed with respect to the differing behaviour of the ZrO2 precursors upon mechanical activation and associated thermodynamic perspectives. PMID:24819175

  1. Oxidation of β-Zr and related phases in Zr Nb alloys: an electron microscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. P.; Woo, O. T.

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation of the metastable β-Zr phase in Zr-Nb alloys, primarily Zr-2.5Nb, in 673 K steam or in lithiated water at 583 K, was investigated using electron microscopy and microanalyses. In the SEM, oxidised β-Zr regions in the Zr-2.5Nb alloy were imaged via a field effect contrast mechanism. In the TEM, microanalyses consistently showed the presence of Nb associated with the oxidised β-regions in suitably prepared samples. The β-Zr was found to form a Nb 2Zr x-2O 2x+1 oxide, while the β-Nb exhibited delayed oxidation with respect to α-Zr, forming a metallic sub-oxide initially and becoming amorphous when oxidised. For the partially decomposed β-Zr, the ω-phase was found to form monoclinic ZrO 2, while the Nb-enriched β-Zr followed the behaviour of either β-Zr or β-Nb depending on the Nb concentration.

  2. An in situ experimental study of Zr4+ transport capacity of water-rich fluids in the temperature and pressure range of the deep crust and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Earth's history, mass transport involved fluids. In order to address the circumstances under which Zr4+ may have been transported in this manner, its solubility behavior in aqueous fluid with and without NaOH and SiO2 in equilibrium with crystalline ZrO2 was determined from 550 to 950 °C and 60 to 1200 MPa. The measurements were carried out in situ while the samples were at the temperatures and pressures of interest. In ZrO2-H2O and ZrO2-SiO2-H2O fluids, the Zr4+ concentration ranges from ≤10 to ~70 ppm with increasing temperature and pressure. Addition of SiO2 to the ZrO2-H2O system does not affect these values appreciably. In these two environments, Zr4+ forms simple oxide complexes in the H2O fluid with ∆H ~ 40 kJ/mol for the solution equilibrium, ZrO2(solid) = ZrO2(fluid). The Zr4+ concentration in aqueous fluid increases about an order of magnitude upon addition of 1 M NaOH, which reflects the formation of zirconate complexes. The principal solution mechanism is ZrO2 + 4NaOH = Na4ZrO4 + 2H2O with ∆H ~ 200 kJ/mol. Addition of both SiO2 and NaOH to ZrO2-H2O enhances the Zr4+ by an additional factor of about 5 with the formation of partially protonated alkali zircon silicate complexes in the fluid. The principal solution mechanism is 2ZrO2 + 2NaOH + 2SiO2 = Na2Zr2Si2O9 + H2O with ∆H ~ 40 kJ/mol. These results, in combination with other published experimental data, imply that fluid released during high-temperature/high-pressure dehydration of hydrous mineral assemblages in the Earth's interior under some circumstances may carry significant concentrations of Zr and probably other high field strength elements (HFSEs). This suggestion is consistent with the occurrence of Zr-rich veins in high-grade metamorphic eclogite and granulite terranes. Moreover, aqueous fluids transported from dehydrating oceanic crust into overlying mantle source rocks of partial melting also may carry high-abundance HFSE of fluids released from dehydrating slabs and

  3. Fractionation of the geochemical twins Zr-Hf and Nb-Ta during scavenging from seawater by hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Katja; Bau, Michael; Hein, James R.; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to igneous systems, the geochemical twins Zr and Hf are decoupled from each other in seawater, and specific Zr/Hf ratios appear to be characteristic of individual marine water masses. Hydrogenetic marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts which accumulate trace metals from seawater may be an archive of Zr/Hf ratios that reveal changes in oceanic paleocirculation over millions of years. To verify whether Fe-Mn crusts truly reflect the Zr-Hf distribution in seawater, we studied these particle-reactive elements together with Nb and Ta (another geochemical twin pair) in bulk Fe-Mn crusts and their surface layers from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Zirconium (400-1000 mg kg-1), Hf (5-18 mg kg-1), Nb (42-83 mg kg-1) and Ta (0.5-1.5 mg kg-1) are significantly enriched in Fe-Mn crusts relative to the average continental crust, and their Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios are super-chondritic (57-87 and 35-96, respectively), whereas the continental crust shows ratios close to those of chondrites. We emphasize that neither bulk Fe-Mn crusts nor their surface layers match the Zr/Hf or Nb/Ta ratios of modern deep seawater, but are lower and higher, respectively. The presence of aluminosilicate detritus cannot explain the different Zr/Hf ratios of crusts and ambient seawater, as potential detritus has much lower Zr and Hf concentrations. Consequently, these geochemical twins must be fractionated during their removal from seawater and their incorporation into Fe-Mn (oxyhydr)oxides. Hafnium is preferentially scavenged as shown by Zr/Hf ratios of crust surface layers (75-100) that are always below those of modern deep seawater (150-300). The decoupled behavior of geochemical twins during sorption, which is also observed for Nb-Ta, can be related to differences in the electron structures of these elements. Iron-normalized concentrations of Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta increase with increasing size of the positive Ce anomaly (known to increase with decreasing growth rate

  4. Collectivity of high spin states in {sup 84}Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Crowell, B.

    1995-08-01

    {sup 84}Zr is one of the most extensively studied of the A {approximately} 80 rotors, both from theoretical and experimental approaches. It was predicted to be a good candidate to support superdeformation, and to show interesting spectroscopic properties including saturation of its shell-model space at lower spin. We performed an experiment using Gammasphere in its early implementation phase. The reaction of {sup 29}Si on {sup 58}Ni was used to strongly populate {sup 84}Zr at high spin. Thin and thick targets were used to allow the extraction of transitional matrix elements at very high spin, and to allow a sensitive search for superdeformed states. Data analysis is in progress. The large data set allowed us to extend the previously known bands considerably. Candidates for a staggered M1-band, found previously {sup 86}Zr, were located. To date, no evidence for superdeformed bands was found. Analysis was slowed by the relocation of all the participants in this experiment, but we hope to complete the lifetime analysis this year. This analysis has become especially topical, due to reported measurements of superdeformation in this region.

  5. Etude des phenomenes de penetration des especes chimiques dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisson, Pierre-Yves

    penetration. Ces deux elements constituent l'aspect original de cette these et permettent d'eclaircir deux importants phenomenes de degradation des revetements cathodiques en situation d'electrolyse.

  6. Phase boundary of the Zr-rich region in commercial grade Zr Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Gil; Park, Jeong-Yong; Jeong, Yong-Hwan

    2005-12-01

    The α/(α + β)/β transformation temperature, the solubility limit of Nb, and the monotectoid temperature of the Zr-Nb binary system were investigated using commercial grade Zr containing 1400 ppm O and 700 ppm Fe and different Nb levels with a high purity. The microstructure characterization was carried out using OM, SEM and TEM and the phase transformation behavior was also investigated using DSC. From the microstructure examination using OM and SEM, it was revealded that the (α + β) region was expanded in commercial grade Zr containing 1400 ppm O and 700 ppm Fe. From the microstructure characterization using TEM, it was revealed that the Nb solubility in α-Zr of quaternary alloy was 0.2 wt%. And the monotectoid temperature of the commercial grade quaternary system of Zr, O, Fe, and Nb was revealed as 585 °C from the SEM, TEM and XRD analysis. The phase boundary of the Zr-rich region in a restricted quaternary alloy of Zr-0.14O-0.07Fe- xNb system was established on the basis of the results obtained in this study using sponge-type Zr. The results of this study were largely different compared with results of the Zr-Nb binary alloy, however, these results could be used at the case of the Zr-rich corner of the phase diagram for a restricted quaternary alloy of Zr-0.14O-0.07Fe- xNb system.

  7. Zr inclusions in actinide–Zr alloys: New data and ideas about how they form

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, Dawn E.; O’Holleran, Thomas P.

    2015-05-01

    High-Zr inclusions are common in actinide–Zr alloys despite phase diagrams indicating that these alloys should not contain a high-Zr phase. The inclusions may contain enough Zr to cause significant differences between bulk compositions and those of inclusion-free areas, leading to possible errors in interpreting data if the inclusions are not considered. This paper presents data from high-Zr inclusions in a complex U–Np–Pu–Am–Zr–RE alloy. It is suggested that the high-Zr inclusions nucleated as high-Zr solid solutions at interfaces with high-actinide RE liquids, then unmixed to form nanometer-scale high-actinide sub-inclusions.

  8. Structural Evolution in the Neutron-Rich Nuclei {sup 106}Zr and {sup 108}Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Sumikama, T.; Yoshinaga, K.; Miyashita, Y.; Sugimoto, K.; Chiba, J.; Nakano, T.; Takano, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Li, Z.; Baba, H.; Doornenbal, P.; Isobe, T.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Sakurai, H.; Scheit, H.; Steppenbeck, D.; Yamaguchi, K.; Berryman, J. S.; Blasi, N.

    2011-05-20

    The low-lying states in {sup 106}Zr and {sup 108}Zr have been investigated by means of {beta}-{gamma} and isomer spectroscopy at the radioactive isotope beam factory (RIBF), respectively. A new isomer with a half-life of 620{+-}150 ns has been identified in {sup 108}Zr. For the sequence of even-even Zr isotopes, the excitation energies of the first 2{sup +} states reach a minimum at N=64 and gradually increase as the neutron number increases up to N=68, suggesting a deformed subshell closure at N=64. The deformed ground state of {sup 108}Zr indicates that a spherical subshell gap predicted at N=70 is not large enough to change the ground state of {sup 108}Zr to the spherical shape. The possibility of a tetrahedral shape isomer in {sup 108}Zr is also discussed.

  9. The development of circuit models for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Harjes, Henry Charles III; Corley, J.

    2005-06-01

    Summary from only given. The capabilities of the Z accelerator will be significantly enhanced by the Z Refurbishment (ZR) project [McDaniel DH, 2002]. The performance of a single ZR module is currently being characterized in the pre-production engineering evaluation test bed, Z20 [Lehr, JM, 2003]. Z20 is thoroughly diagnosed so that electrical performance of the module can be established. Circuit models of Z20 have been developed and validated in both Screamer [1985] and Bertha [1989] circuit codes. For the purposes of predicting ZR performance, a full ZR circuit model has also been developed in Bertha. The full ZR model (using operating parameters demonstrated on Z20) indicates that the required 26 MA, 100 ns implosion time, output load current pulse will be achieved on ZR. In this paper, the electrical characterization of Z20 and development of the single module circuit models will be discussed in detail. The full ZR model will also be discussed and the results of several system studies conducted to predict ZR performance will be presented.

  10. Optimality of Empirical Z-R Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Z. S.; Rosenfield, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper attempts to justify mathematically the two empirical approaches to the problem of deriving Z-R relations from (Z,R) measurements, namely the power-law regression and the probability matching method (PMM). The basic mathematical assumptions that apply in each case are explicitly identified.

  11. Crystallization of amorphous Zr-Be alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovkova, E. A.; Surkov, A. V.; Syrykh, G. F.

    2015-02-01

    The thermal stability and structure of binary amorphous Zr100 - x Be x alloys have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and neutron diffraction over a wide concentration range (30 ≤ x ≤ 65). The amorphous alloys have been prepared by rapid quenching from melt. The studied amorphous system involves the composition range around the eutectic composition with boundary phases α-Zr and ZrBe2. It has been found that the crystallization of alloys with low beryllium contents ("hypoeutectic" alloys with x ≤ 40) proceeds in two stages. Neutron diffraction has demonstrated that, at the first stage, α-Zr crystallizes and the remaining amorphous phase is enriched to the eutectic composition; at the second stage, the alloy crystallizes in the α-Zr and ZrBe2 phases. At higher beryllium contents ("hypereutectic" alloys), one phase transition of the amorphous phase to a mixture of the α-Zr and ZrBe2 phases has been observed. The concentration dependences of the crystallization temperature and activation energy have been revealed.

  12. Interfacial conditions and electrical properties of the SrBi 2Ta 2O 9/ZrO 2/Si (MFIS) structure according to the heat treatment of the ZrO 2 buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Cheol; Son, Young-Gook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2005-08-01

    The possibility of the ZrO 2 buffer layer as the insulator for the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure was investigated. ZrO 2 and SrBi 2Ta 2O 9 (SBT) thin films were deposited on the p-type Si(1 1 1) wafer by the rf magnetron-sputtering method. According to the process with and without the post-annealing of the ZrO 2 buffer layer, the diffusion amount of Sr, Bi, Ta elements show slight difference through the glow discharge spectrometer (GDS) analysis. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, we could confirm that the post-annealing process affects the chemical binding condition of the interface between the ZrO 2 thin film and the Si substrate, which results in the chemical stability of the ZrO 2 thin film. The electrical properties of the MFIS structure were relatively improved by the post-annealing ZrO 2 buffer layer. The window memory of the Pt/SBT (260 nm, 800 °C)/ZrO 2 (20 nm) structure increases from 0.75 to 2.2 V. This memory window is sufficient for the practical application of the NDRO-FRAM operating at low voltage.

  13. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  14. Single and Double Beta-Decay Q Values among the Triplet 96Zr, 96Nb, and 96Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanssari, M.; Frekers, D.; Eronen, T.; Canete, L.; Dilling, J.; Haaranen, M.; Hakala, J.; Holl, M.; Ješkovský, M.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Koponen, J.; Mayer, A. J.; Moore, I. D.; Nesterenko, D. A.; Pohjalainen, I.; Povinec, P.; Reinikainen, J.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Srivastava, P. C.; Suhonen, J.; Thompson, R. I.; Voss, A.; Wieser, M. E.

    2016-02-01

    The atomic mass relations among the mass triplet 96Zr, 96Nb, and 96Mo have been determined by means of high-precision mass measurements using the JYFLTRAP mass spectrometer at the IGISOL facility of the University of Jyväskylä. We report Q values for the 96Zr single and double β decays to 96Nb and 96Zr)=163.96 (13 ) , Qβ β(96Zr)=3356.097 (86 ) , and Qβ(96Nb)=3192.05 (16 ) keV . Of special importance is the 96Zr single β -decay Q value, which has never been determined directly. The single β decay, whose main branch is fourfold unique forbidden, is an alternative decay path to the 96Zr β β decay, and its observation can provide one of the most direct tests of the neutrinoless β β -decay nuclear-matrix-element calculations, as these can be simultaneously performed for both decay paths with no further assumptions. The theoretical single β -decay rate has been re-evaluated using a shell-model approach, which indicates a 96Zr single β -decay lifetime within reach of an experimental verification. The uniqueness of the decay also makes such an experiment interesting for an investigation into the origin of the quenching of the axial-vector coupling constant gA.

  15. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-04-01

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni{sub 26}Zr{sub 74}. In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys.

  16. Effet Hall et Magnetisme des Alliages Amorphes Nickel-Zirconium Fabriques Par Pulverisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Robert

    Cette these se situe dans le cadre d'une etude des proprietes electroniques et structurales des alliages metalliques amorphes, en cours depuis quelques annees a l'Universite de Montreal. Ce programme nous a entre autres amene a caracteriser la magnetoresistivite et l'effet Hall d'alliages FeZr, CoZr et NiZr, ce qui a permis de mettre en evidence deux caracteristiques de l'effet Hall: Dans les alliages amorphes ferromagnetiques, la resistivite elevee engendre un effet Hall extraordinaire beaucoup plus important que celui enregistre dans les metaux cristallins. La polarisation des spins entrai ne une asymetrie de la diffusion qui, tant dans les phases cristalline et amorphe, est tenue responsable de cette contribution. L'autre particularite du comportement de Hall de ces systemes est le renversement de signe du coefficient de Hall ordinaire, qui passe du negatif au positif dans les echantillons plus riches en zirconium. Dans les metaux cristallins, un modele d'electrons libres predit un signe negatif a moins que la conduction ne soit dominee par les trous. Or, dans un milieu desordonne les memes concepts sont difficilement applicables et de nouvelles theories ont du etre elaborees pour expliquer ce phenomene. Jusqu'a maintenant, l'etude des alliages amorphes nickel-zirconium s'est faite surtout a partir d'echantillons fabriques par trempe sur roue. Malheureusement cette technique ne permet pas la fabrication d'alliages contenant plus de 70% de nickel, a l'exception du seul compose Ni _{90}Zr_{10 }. Pour pallier a cette lacune et etendre nos connaissance a l'ensemble de la gamme de compositions, nous avons fabrique par pulverisation cathodique des echantillons NiZr amorphes--et quelques alliages cristallins tres riches en nickel--couvrant une bonne partie de la gamme interdite par la technique de trempe sur roue. Dans un premier temps, par comparaison avec les resultats connus nous avons mis en evidence les similitudes et les differences entre les alliages obtenus par

  17. Microstructure and Properties of DCP-Derived W-ZrC Composite Using Nontoxic Sodium Alginate to Fabricate WC Preform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafzadeh Khoee, Ali Asghar; Habibolahzadeh, Ali; Qods, Fathallah; Baharvandi, Hamidreza

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, tungsten carbide (WC) preforms were fabricated by gel-casting process, using different nontoxic Na-alginate to tertiary calcium phosphate ratios and different loadings of WC powder in the initial slurries. The gel-cast green bodies were dried and pre-sintered at 1723 K for 4 h and then reactively infiltrated by molten Zr2Cu at 1623 K for 0.5 h, to produce W-ZrC composite via displacive compensation of porosity process. The phases, microstructures, and mechanical properties of the preforms and the W-ZrC composites were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, x-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), image analyzer, and universal mechanical testing machine. XRD results, SEM micrographs, and elemental maps indicated uniform distribution of phases (W and ZrC) and elements (W, Zr, and C). Flexural strengths and hardness of the fabricated composites were in the ranges of 429-460 MPa and 7.5-9.5 GPa, respectively. Fractography studies revealed two types of dimple rupture and cleavage fracture modes in different composite samples. The W-ZrC composite was ablated by an oxyacetylene flame for 60 s. The mean value of mass and linear ablation rates of the composite were 2.1 ± 0.1 mg/s and 3.6 ± 0.5 µm/s, respectively.

  18. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  19. The behaviour of REE and Zr-Hf fractionation in the volcanic waters of Nevado del Ruiz system (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Censi, Paolo; Zuddas, Pierpaolo; Makario Londoño, John; Chacón, Zoraida; Alzate, Diego; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical behaviour of Rare Earth Element (REE), Zr and Hf have been investigated in the thermal waters of Nevado del Ruiz volcanic system. These fluids are characterised by a wide range of pH ranging between 1.0 and 8.8. The acidic waters are sulphate dominated with different Cl/SO4 ratios. The Nevado del Ruiz waters allowed to investigate the behaviour of investigated elements in a wide spectrum of pH and chemical composition of water. The important role of the pH and the ionic complexes have been evidenced in the distribution of REE, Zr and Hf in the aqueous phase. The pH rules the precipitation of authigenic oxyhydroxides of Fe, Al producing changes in REE, Zr, Hf amount and strong anomalies of Cerium and Europium. Y-Ho and Zr-Hf (twin pairs) have different behaviour in strong acidic waters with respect to the water with higher pH. Yttrium and Ho have the same behaviour of Zr and Hf in waters with pH near neutral-to-neutral, showing super-chondritic ratios. The twin pairs showed to be sensitive to the co-precipitation and/or adsorption onto the surface of authigenic particulate suggesting an enhanced scavenging of Ho and Hf respect to Y and Zr, leading to super-chondritic ratios. In acidic waters a different behaviour of twin pairs occurs with chondritic Y/Ho ratios (reflecting the Y/Ho ratio of average local rock) and sub-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios. For the first time, Zr and Hf have been investigated in natural acidic fluids to understand the behaviour of these elements in extreme acidic conditions and different major anions chemistry. Zr/Hf molar ratio changes from 4.75 to 49.29 in water with pH<3.6. In strong acidic waters, a different fractionation of Zr and Hf have been recognised as function of major anion contents (Cl and SO4), suggesting the formation of complexes leading to sub-chondritic Zr/Hf molar ratios.

  20. Ca(5)Zr(3)F(22).

    PubMed

    Oudahmane, Abdelghani; El-Ghozzi, Malika; Avignant, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Single crystals of Ca(5)Zr(3)F(22), penta-calcium trizirconium docosafluoride, were obtained unexpectedly by solid-state reaction between CaF(2) and ZrF(4) in the presence of AgF. The structure of the title compound is isotypic with that of Sr(5)Zr(3)F(22) and can be described as being composed of layers with composition [Zr(3)F(20)](8-) made up from two different [ZrF(8)](4-) square anti-prisms (one with site symmetry 2) by corner-sharing. The layers extending parallel to the (001) plane are further linked by Ca(2+) cations, forming a three-dimensional network. Amongst the four crystallographically different Ca(2+) ions, three are located on twofold rotation axes. The Ca(2+) ions exhibit coordination numbers ranging from 8 to 12, depending on the cut off, with very distorted fluorine environments. Two of the Ca(2+) ions occupy inter-stices between the layers whereas the other two are located in void spaces of the [Zr(3)F(20)](8-) layer and alternate with the two Zr atoms along [010]. The crystal under investigation was an inversion twin. PMID:22589749

  1. Effect of Minor al Addition on Glass-Forming Ability and Thermal Stability of Zr-Cu Binary Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. H.; Ding, D.; Lu, T.; Xia, L.; Dong, Y. D.

    By adding 2 at.% Al element in Zr50Cu50 binary glass-forming alloy, we obtained Zr50Cu48Al2 glassy rods with diameter larger than 3 mm. The reduced glass transition temperature, parameter γ and the critical section thickness obtained from the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces indicate the better glass-forming ability (GFA) of Zr50Cu48Al2 bulk metallic glass (BMG). The super-cooled liquid region and the continuous heating transformation diagram constructed from Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann fitting of crystallization temperature illustrate the enhanced thermal stability of the Zr50Cu48Al2 BMG. The mechanism of effect of minor Al addition on GFA was investigated in more detail from Angell's fragility concept and from the thermodynamic point of view respectively.

  2. High temperature oxidation of ZrO2/Al2O3 thin films deposited on steel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chun; Kim, Sun Kyu; Van Trung, Trinh; Lee, Dong Bok

    2013-11-01

    Thin ZrO2/Al2O3 films that consisted of alternating monoclinic ZrO2 nanolayers and amorphous Al2O3 nanolayers were deposited on a tool steel substrate using Zr and Al cathodes in a cathodic arc plasma deposition system, and then oxidized at 600-900 degrees C in air for up to 50 h. The ZrO2/Al2O3 films effectively suppressed the oxidation of the substrate up to 800 degrees C by acting as a barrier layer against the outward diffusion of the substrate elements and inward diffusion of oxygen. However, rapid oxidation occurred at 900 degrees C due mainly to the increased diffusion and subsequent oxidation of steel as well as the crystallization of amorphous Al2O3. PMID:24245292

  3. Ti-based glassy alloys in Ti-Cu-Zr-Sn system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZengRui; Dong, DanDan; Qiang, JianBing; Wang, Qing; Wang, YingMin; Dong, Chuang

    2013-07-01

    Bulk amorphous formation in Ti-Cu-based multicomponent alloys, free of Ni, Pd and Be elements, were studied using the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The basic cluster formula was revealed as [Ti9Cu6]Cu3 to explain the best binary glass forming composition Ti50Cu50=Ti9Cu9, where the CN14 rhombi-dodecahedron Ti9Cu6 was the principal cluster in the devitrification phase CuTi. This basic cluster formula was further alloyed with Zr and Sn and a critical glass forming ability was reached at (Ti7.2Zr1.8)(Cu8.72Sn0.28) and (Ti7.2Zr1.8)(Cu8.45Sn0.55) up to 5 mm in diameter by suction casting, which was the largest in Ti-Cu-based and Ni-, Pd- and Be-free alloys.

  4. Ab initio molecular orbital study on the Ge-, Sn-, Zr- and Si/Ge-mixed silsesquioxanes.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takako; Akasaka, Mitsutoshi; Gordon, Mark S

    2008-05-29

    For the purpose of designing new functional silsesquioxanes (POSS), the structure and stability of the analogous compounds of the heavier group 14 and 4 elements such as germanium (Ge-POSS), tin (Sn-POSS) and zirconium (Zr-POSS) analogues of POSS were investigated and compared with those of the parent POSS and the titanium analogue (Ti-POSS) with electronic structure theory calculations, including electron correlation effects. In order to obtain information about the metalloxane (-X-O-X-) linkage, the structures and properties of the building blocks of metallasilsesquioxanes, such as dimetalloxanes, H(OH)2XOX(OH)2H, X = Ge, Sn and Zr, and cyclometalloxanes, [H(OH)XO]n , n = 3-6, X = Ge, Sn and Zr, were examined. The stability of the Si/Ge-mixed POSS were also studied in comparison with POSS and the completely germanium-substituted POSS. PMID:18444638

  5. Synthesis and magnetic properties of Zr doped ZnO Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Zr doped ZnO nanoparticles are prepared by the sol-gel method with post-annealing. X-ray diffraction results show that all samples are the typical hexagonal wurtzite structure without any other new phase, as well as the Zr atoms have successfully entered into the ZnO lattices instead of forming other lattices. Magnetic measurements indicate that all the doping samples show room temperature ferromagnetism and the pure ZnO is paramagneism. The results of Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that there are a lot of oxygen vacancies in the samples by doping element of Zr. It is considered that the observed ferromagnetism is related to the doping induced oxygen vacancies. PMID:22074396

  6. Superplastic forming of rapid solidification processed Al-4Li-0. 2Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Meschter, P.J.; Lederich, R.J.; Sastry, S.M.L.

    1987-07-01

    Aluminum-4 wt pct lithium alloys are attractive as structural materials because they are 13 to 14 pct less dense and have 25 pct larger elastic moduli than high-strength 2XXX-and 7XXX-series aluminum alloys. These low-density alloys can be produced only by rapid solidification processing (RSP). Successful RSP of Al-4Li-0.2Zr, Al-4Li-1Mg-0.2Zr, and Al-4Li-1Cu-0.2Zr alloys with strengths similar to that of 7075-T76 has recently been demonstrated. Net-shaped processing techniques such as superplastic forming are capable of producing complex structural elements while minimizing usage of expensive material; thus, these techniques are particularly applicable to Al-Li alloys. The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions of strain rate and temperature under which RSP Al-4Li alloys could be superplastically formed.

  7. Effects of Zr and Si on the Glass Forming Ability and Compressive Properties of Ti-Cu-Co-Sn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tan; Wu, Yidong; Si, Jiajia; Hui, Xidong

    2015-06-01

    To succeed in finding novel Ti-based bulk metallic glasses, which are free from Be, Ni, and noble metallic elements, a comprehensive study was performed on the effects of Zr and Si on the microstructural evolution, glass-forming ability (GFA), and mechanical properties of Ti46Cu44- x Zr x Co7Sn3 ( x = 0, 5, 10, 12.5, and 16 at. pct) and Ti46Cu31.5Zr12.5- x Co7Sn3Si x ( x = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 at. pct) alloys. It is shown that with the increase of Zr, the sequence of phase formation is β-Ti + α-Ti + (Ti, Zr)3Cu4 ⇒ β-Ti + α-Ti + TiCu ⇒ β-Ti + Ti2Cu + glass ⇒ glass ⇒ β-Ti + Ti2Cu + TiCuSn. The quinary Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Sn alloy with 12.5 pct Zr exhibits the best GFA. The addition of 1 pct Si results in the improvement of the critical size of glassy rods up to 3 mm in diameter. The yield stress and Young's modulus of Z-series alloys increases, and the plastic strain decreases with the addition of Zr. The yield stress and ultimate compression stress of Ti46Zr11.5Cu31.5Co7Sn3Si1 glassy alloy reach 2477.9 and 2623.3 MPa, respectively. It was found that the addition of Si promotes the generation and multiplication of shear bands, resulting in certain plasticity in these kinds of glassy alloys.

  8. Orthorhombic Zr2Co11 phase revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. -Z.; Zhang, W. Y.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Zhao, X.; Nguyen, M. C.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2014-10-01

    The structure of the orthorhombic Zr2Co11 phase was revisited in the present work. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) techniques were used to investigate the structure. They show the orthorhombic Zr2Co11 phase has a 1-D incommensurate modulated structure. The structure can be approximately described as a B-centered orthorhombic lattice. The lattice parameters of the orthorhombic Zr2Co11 phase have been determined by a tilt series of SAED patterns. A hexagonal network with a modulation wave has been observed in the HREM image and the hexagonal motif is considered as the basic structural unit.

  9. Magnetic properties of Fe/Zr multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Dubowik, J.; Stobiecki, F.; Szymanski, B.

    1994-03-01

    Measurements of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), magnetic moment, and torque curves have been made for three series of Fe/Zr multilayers (MLs) with thickness ratio of Fe to Zr sublayers equal to 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2, respectively. The authors show that Fe/Zr MLs readily yield to amorphization by a solid-state reaction (SSR) during the deposition process. Nevertheless, the resulting structure may be regarded as inhomogeneous one; there still exist some ferromagnetic phases that they relate to the Fe atoms in various surroundings.

  10. Study and simulations of quick diffusion in Zr-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corvalán, C.; Lucía, A.; Iribarren, M.; Servant, C.; Costa e Silva, A.

    2015-11-01

    Zirconium and its alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry. Under normal conditions, Zr-alloys are polycrystalline and contain a high density of grain and interphase boundaries. These boundaries function as paths for accelerated matter movement. The movement of fast diffusing elements (Co, Fe, Cr, Ni) in Zr alloys along boundaries produces technologically important changes in the materials in nuclear reactors at normal temperatures (∼550 K) e.g.: segregation, phase precipitation, hydrogen absorption, etc. In this work, diffusion parameters for fast diffusion in Zr at low temperature were assessed for Co and Cr. An improved database for DICTRA (DIffusion-Controlled-TRAnsformation) software for fast diffusion was obtained. The diffusion parameters in grain boundaries of α-Zr for Cr and Co were used from a particular kinetic diffusion model [1]. Simulated profiles were compared with previous experimental work [2]. The results of the comparison and the adequacy of the improved database are discussed. Diffusion profiles on grain boundaries in α-Zr for Cr and Co are presented in the temperature range of 380-460 K.

  11. Observations Of A Cast Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The calculated phase diagram and observations of Zeng et al were confirmed. 1) Additional X-ray diffraction peaks for aged sample indicates possibility that additional metastable phases may form; 2) Cu5Zr was observed rather than the Cu9Zr2 proposed for the binary Cu-Zr phase diagram. Despite similarities between Zr and Nb, Cu-Cr-Zr does not appear to be a good candidate alloy system for rocket engine applications.

  12. Microstructural Evolution of the Interface Between Pure Titanium and Low Melting Point Zr-Ti-Ni(Cu) Filler Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongmyoung; Sun, Juhyun; Kang, Donghan; Shin, Seungyoung; Hong, Juhwa

    2014-12-01

    Low melting point Zr-based filler metals with melting point depressants (MPDs) such as Cu and Ni elements are used for titanium brazing. However, the phase transition of the filler metals in the titanium joint needs to be explained, since the main element of Zr in the filler metals differs from that of the parent titanium alloys. In addition, since the MPDs easily form brittle intermetallics, that deteriorate joint properties, the phase evolution they cause needs to be studied. Zr-based filler metals having Cu content from 0 to 12 at. pct and Ni content from 12 to 24 at. pct with a melting temperature range of 1062 K to 1082 K (789 °C to 809 °C) were wetting-tested on a titanium plate to investigate the phase transformation and evolution at the interface between the titanium plate and the filler metals. In the interface, the alloys system with Zr, Zr2Ni, and (Ti,Zr)2Ni phases was easily changed to a Ti-based alloy system with Ti, Ti2Ni, and (Ti,Zr)2Ni phases, by the local melting of parent titanium. The dissolution depths of the parent metal were increased with increasing Ni content in the filler metals because Ni has a faster diffusion rate than Cu. Instead, slow diffusion of Cu into titanium substrate leads to the accumulation of Cu at the molten zone of the interface, which could form undesirable Ti x Cu y intermetallics. This study confirmed that Zr-based filler metals are compatible with the parent titanium metal with the minimum content of MPDs.

  13. DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL STUDY OF Zr-BASED ACTINIDE ALLOYS: 2. U-Pu-Zr SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, A; Soderlind, P; Turchi, P; Vitos, L; Ruban, A

    2009-02-09

    Density-functional theory, previously used to describe phase equilibria in the U-Zr alloys [1], is applied to study ground state properties of the bcc U-Pu-Zr solid solutions. Calculated heats of formation of the Pu-U and Pu-Zr alloys are in a good agreement with CALPHAD assessments. We found that account for spin-orbit coupling is important for successful description of Pu-containing alloys.

  14. Theoretical study of fusion reactions 32S + 94,96Zr and 40Ca + 94,96Zr and quadrupole deformation of 94Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Zhao, WeiJuan; Zhao, EnGuang; Zhou, ShanGui

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic coupling effects on fusion cross sections for reactions 32S + 94,96Zr and 40Ca + 94,96Zr are studied with the universal fusion function formalism and an empirical coupled channel (ECC) model. An examination of the reduced fusion functions shows that the total effect of couplings to inelastic excitations and neutron transfer channels on fusion in 32S + 94Zr (40Ca + 94Zr) is almost the same as that in 32S + 96Zr (40Ca + 96Zr). The enhancements of the fusion cross section at sub-barrier energies due to inelastic channel coupling and neutron transfer channel coupling are evaluated separately by using the ECC model. The results show that effect of couplings to inelastic excitations channels in the reactions with 94Zr as target should be similar as that in the reactions with 96Zr as target. This implies that the quadrupole deformation parameters β 2 of 94Zr and 96Zr should be similar to each other. However, β 2's predicted from the finite-range droplet model, which are used in the ECC model, are quite different. Experiments on 48Ca + 94Zr or 36S + 94Zr are suggested to solve the puzzling issue concerning β 2 for 94Zr.

  15. Template-directed synthesis and characterization of microstructured ceramic Ce/ZrO2@SiO2 composite tubes

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Meike

    2014-01-01

    Summary An exo-templating synthesis process using polymeric fibers and inorganic sol particles deposited onto structured one-dimensional objects is presented. In particular, CeO2/ZrO2@SiO2 composite tubes were synthesized in a two-step procedure by using electrospun polystyrene fibers as fiber template. First, a sol–gel approach based on an exo-templating technique was employed to obtain polystyrene(PS)/SiO2 composite fibers. These composite fibers were subsequently covered by spray-coating with ceria and zirconia sol solutions. After drying and final calcination of the green body composites, the PS polymer template was removed, and composite tubes of the composition CeO2/ZrO2@SiO2 were obtained. The SiO2/ZrO2/CeO2 microtubes, which consist of interconnected silica particles, are held together by ceria and zirconia deposits formed during the thermal treatment process. These microtubes are mainly located in the pendentive connecting the individual spherical silica particles and glue them together. The composition and crystallinity of this material connecting the individual silica particles contains the elements Ce and Zr and O as mixed oxide solid solution identified by XRD, Raman and high-resolution TEM and EFTEM. High-resolution microscopy techniques allowed for an elemental mapping on the surface of the silica host structure and determination of the O, Zr and Ce elemental distribution with nm precision. PMID:25161848

  16. Template-directed synthesis and characterization of microstructured ceramic Ce/ZrO2@SiO2 composite tubes.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jörg J; Naumann, Meike

    2014-01-01

    An exo-templating synthesis process using polymeric fibers and inorganic sol particles deposited onto structured one-dimensional objects is presented. In particular, CeO2/ZrO2@SiO2 composite tubes were synthesized in a two-step procedure by using electrospun polystyrene fibers as fiber template. First, a sol-gel approach based on an exo-templating technique was employed to obtain polystyrene(PS)/SiO2 composite fibers. These composite fibers were subsequently covered by spray-coating with ceria and zirconia sol solutions. After drying and final calcination of the green body composites, the PS polymer template was removed, and composite tubes of the composition CeO2/ZrO2@SiO2 were obtained. The SiO2/ZrO2/CeO2 microtubes, which consist of interconnected silica particles, are held together by ceria and zirconia deposits formed during the thermal treatment process. These microtubes are mainly located in the pendentive connecting the individual spherical silica particles and glue them together. The composition and crystallinity of this material connecting the individual silica particles contains the elements Ce and Zr and O as mixed oxide solid solution identified by XRD, Raman and high-resolution TEM and EFTEM. High-resolution microscopy techniques allowed for an elemental mapping on the surface of the silica host structure and determination of the O, Zr and Ce elemental distribution with nm precision. PMID:25161848

  17. Heavy ion irradiation of UMo/Al samples PVD coated with Si and ZrN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, R.; Zweifel, T.; Chiang, H.-Y.; Petry, W.; Van den Berghe, S.; Leenaers, A.

    2013-03-01

    Excessive U-Al interdiffusion hampers the development of UMo/Al based disperse fuel since several years. As a remedy, addition of diffusion limiting elements to the UMo (Zr) or the Al matrix (Si) has been suggested. First test irradiations showed promising results. However, not the full amount of third element addition to the UMo or the Al contributes to the prevention of interdiffusion layer formation. Therefore, surface engineering of UMo particles, i.e. coating of UMo powder with diffusion limiting elements using DC magnetron sputtering, has been suggested. Thereby the diffusion blockers are applied directly where they are needed: at the interface between the UMo and the Al. For this study, samples from full size plates produced with UMo powder coated with Si (300 nm and 600 nm) and ZrN (1000nm) have been examined before and after irradiation with Iodine at 80 MeV. In case of Si coated UMo particles, a dense Si rich layer developed around the UMo particles during plate fabrication. However, the ZrN layer frequently revealed cracks but no interaction with the Al matrix or the UMo occurred. During heavy ion irradiation, no UMo/Al interdiffusion occurred at spots that are protected by a sufficiently thick Si rich layer or a non-cracked ZrN layer. In contrast, a conventional UMo/Al interdiffusion layer (IDL) occurred at spots where the UMo has not been protected by a Si rich layer or the ZrN layer was broken.

  18. Nanoindentation of Zr by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu (芦子哲), Zizhe; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Noordhoek, Mark J.; Sinnott, Susan B.; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2015-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation are used to study the deformation behaviors of single crystal Zr for four different surface orientations. The comparison of results for two different potentials, an embedded atom method potential and a charged optimized many body potential, reveals the influence of stable and unstable stacking fault energy on dislocation behaviors under nanoindentation. The load-displacement curve, hardness and deformation behaviors of the various surface orientations Zr are compared and the elastic and plastic deformation behaviors are analyzed.

  19. A high-temperature heat sensitive element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This invention concerns the high-temperature heat sensitive element which is stable at high temperatures. A solid solution of the main component MgO-Al2O3-Cr2O3-Fe2O3 which contains spinel crystal structure is mixed with the secondary component ZrO2 at the mol ratio of 100 : 0.1 to 5.0 and sintered to prepare a high-temperature heat sensitive element.

  20. Optical, electrical, and structural properties of ZrON/Ag/ZrON multilayer transparent conductor for organic photovoltaics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun-Hyuk; Jeon, Joon-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Oh, Joon-Ho; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the electrical and optical properties of chemically stable nitride-based ZrON/Ag/ZrON multilayers for use in organic photovoltaics. As the ZrON layer thickness increases, the carrier concentration smoothly decreases and the transmission window region becomes wider and gradually shifts toward the lower energy-side. The optical bandgap also decreases with decreasing carrier concentration. The ZrON/Ag/ZrON samples exhibit somewhat lower transmittance in the region of ˜400-800 nm than the ITO/Ag/ITO samples. The aging test shows that the resistivity of the ZrON/Ag/ZrON samples remains almost the same even after aging for 1 month in air. It is shown that the ZrON/Ag interface is more chemically stable than the ITO/Ag interface. Simulation results exhibit that the ZnPc:C60 bulk hetero-junction organic solar cells fabricated with the ZrON(30 nm)/Ag/ZrON(70 nm) layers give a short circuit current of 9.54 mA/cm2, which is comparable to that (10.54 mA/cm2) of the cells with 90-nm-thick ITO electrodes. The ZrON/Ag/ZrON samples experienced a large shift in the absorption edge. This behavior is explained in terms of the material characteristics of the ZrON layers and the higher refractive index of the ZrON/Ag/ZrON samples.

  1. The distribution of trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knab, H.-J.

    1981-09-01

    Twelve carbonaceous chondrites, among them representatives of nearly all known petrologic types, were analyzed for twenty trace elements by spark source mass spectrography combined with the isotope dilution method. Data on different element groups (refractory, moderately volatile and volatile) show that the distribution of the trace elements in the carbonaceous chondrites, with the exception of Renazzo, can be well explained by Anders' two-component model. This is also valid for the highly metamorphosed CV5 chondrite Karoonda. Furthermore, it is observed that the Zr/Hf-ratios in the carbonaceous chondrites increase with increasing petrologic type, which is interpreted as the result of mixing two components with different Zr/Hf-ratios.

  2. Bio-corrosion and cytotoxicity studies on novel Zr55Co30Ti15 and Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vincent, S.; Daiwile, A.; Devi, S. S.; Kramer, M. J.; Besser, M. F.; Murty, B. S.; Bhatt, Jatin

    2014-09-26

    Metallic glasses are a potential and compatible implant candidate for biomedical applications. In the present investigation, a comparative study between novel Zr55Co30Ti15 and Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glasses is carried out to evaluate in vitro biocompatibility using simulated body fluids. The bio-corrosion behavior of Zr- and Cu-based metallic glasses in different types of artificial body fluids such as artificial saliva solution, phosphate-buffered saline solution, artificial blood plasma solution, and Hank’s balanced saline solution is evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization studies at a constant body temperature of 310.15 K (37 °C). Surface morphology of samples after bio-corrosion experiments was observed by scanning electron microscopy.more » In vitro cytotoxicity test on glassy alloys were performed using human osteosarcoma cell line as per 10993-5 guidelines from International Organization for Standardization. As a result, the comparative study between Zr- and Cu-based glassy alloys provides vital information about the effect of elemental composition on biocompatibility of metallic glasses.« less

  3. Determination of the direct double- β -decay Q value of Zr 96 and atomic masses of Zr 90 - 92 , 94 , 96 and Mo 92 , 94 - 98 , 100

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gulyuz, K.; Ariche, J.; Bollen, G.; Bustabad, S.; Eibach, M.; Izzo, C.; Novario, S. J.; Redshaw, M.; Ringle, R.; Sandler, R.; et al

    2015-05-06

    Experimental searches for neutrinoless double-β decay offer one of the best opportunities to look for physics beyond the standard model. Detecting this decay would confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino, and a measurement of its half-life can be used to determine the absolute neutrino mass scale. Important to both tasks is an accurate knowledge of the Q value of the double-β decay. The LEBIT Penning trap mass spectrometer was used for the first direct experimental determination of the ⁹⁶Zr double-β decay Q value: Qββ=3355.85(15) keV. This value is nearly 7 keV larger than the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation [M.more » Wang et al., Chin. Phys. C 36, 1603 (2012)] value and one order of magnitude more precise. The 3-σ shift is primarily due to a more accurate measurement of the ⁹⁶Zr atomic mass: m(⁹⁶Zr)=95.90827735(17) u. Using the new Q value, the 2νββ-decay matrix element, |M2ν|, is calculated. Improved determinations of the atomic masses of all other zirconium (90-92,94,96Zr) and molybdenum (92,94-98,100Mo) isotopes using both ¹²C₈ and ⁸⁷Rb as references are also reported.« less

  4. Bio-corrosion and Cytotoxicity Studies on Novel Zr55Co30Ti15 and Cu60Zr20Ti20 Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, S.; Daiwile, A.; Devi, S. S.; Kramer, M. J.; Besser, M. F.; Murty, B. S.; Bhatt, Jatin

    2014-09-01

    Metallic glasses are a potential and compatible implant candidate for biomedical applications. In the present investigation, a comparative study between novel Zr55Co30Ti15 and Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glasses is carried out to evaluate in vitro biocompatibility using simulated body fluids. The bio-corrosion behavior of Zr- and Cu-based metallic glasses in different types of artificial body fluids such as artificial saliva solution, phosphate-buffered saline solution, artificial blood plasma solution, and Hank's balanced saline solution is evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization studies at a constant body temperature of 310.15 K (37 °C). Surface morphology of samples after bio-corrosion experiments was observed by scanning electron microscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity test on glassy alloys were performed using human osteosarcoma cell line as per 10993-5 guidelines from International Organization for Standardization. The comparative study between Zr- and Cu-based glassy alloys provides vital information about the effect of elemental composition on biocompatibility of metallic glasses.

  5. Bio-corrosion and Cytotoxicity Studies on Novel Zr55Co30Ti15 and Cu60Zr20Ti20 Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, S.; Daiwile, A.; Devi, S. S.; Kramer, M. J.; Besser, M. F.; Murty, B. S.; Bhatt, Jatin

    2015-06-01

    Metallic glasses are a potential and compatible implant candidate for biomedical applications. In the present investigation, a comparative study between novel Zr55Co30Ti15 and Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glasses is carried out to evaluate in vitro biocompatibility using simulated body fluids. The bio-corrosion behavior of Zr- and Cu-based metallic glasses in different types of artificial body fluids such as artificial saliva solution, phosphate-buffered saline solution, artificial blood plasma solution, and Hank's balanced saline solution is evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization studies at a constant body temperature of 310.15 K (37 °C). Surface morphology of samples after bio-corrosion experiments was observed by scanning electron microscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity test on glassy alloys were performed using human osteosarcoma cell line as per 10993-5 guidelines from International Organization for Standardization. The comparative study between Zr- and Cu-based glassy alloys provides vital information about the effect of elemental composition on biocompatibility of metallic glasses.

  6. New FCC Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-ti deuterides obtained by reactive milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Matylda N.; Deledda, Stefano; Sørby, Magnus H.; Yartys, Volodymyr A.; Hauback, Bjørn C.

    2015-03-01

    Results for binary Mg-Zr and ternary Mg-Zr-Ti mixtures ball milled at room temperature under reactive deuterium atmosphere (5.6-6.7 MPa) are reported. X-ray and neutron powder diffraction combined with Rietveld refinements show that two new cubic phases were formed during milling. Mg0.40Zr0.60D1.78 and Mg0.40Zr0.26Ti0.34D1.98 crystallize with disordered face centered cubic metal atom arrangements. Results of differential scanning calorimetry and termogravimetric measurements demonstrate that both deuterides desorb deuterium at lower temperatures than MgD2, ZrD2 or TiD2; 528 and 575 K in the Mg-Zr-D and Mg-Zr-Ti-D system, respectively. Interestingly, Mg0.40Zr0.26Ti0.34D1.98 stores deuterium reversibly at 673 K and 10 MPa of D2.

  7. Precipitation and growth study of intermetallics and their effect on oxidation behavior in Zr-Sn-Fe-Cr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, G.; Neogy, S.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G. K.; Shah, B. K.

    2012-11-01

    Microstructural evolution of the second phase precipitates and their microchemistry in Zr-Sn-Fe-Cr alloy during various alpha annealing heat treatments have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer attached with scanning transmission microscopy. Two types of precipitates, namely, Zr - rich Zr2(FeCr) with aspect ratio one and Zr lean Zr(FeCr)2 with parallelepiped morphology were identified. Size distribution of the precipitates was estimated from small angle neutron scattering. The effect of precipitate size, its distribution and matrix microstructure on the oxidation behavior of the alloy was studied during accelerated autoclaving. The shorter duration annealing at 700 °C does not improve the oxidation resistance of the alloy as it would lead to formation of non uniform distribution of alloying elements and precipitates in the matrix. It is revealed that alpha annealing at 700 °C for 10 h imparts a significant resistance to oxidation as well as substantial formation of Zr(FeCr)2 precipitates.

  8. The structure of alloys and the phase equilibrium diagram of the Zr-Ru-Ir system. V. Plan of crystallization of alloys of the Zr-ZrRu-ZrIr partial system

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.N.; Khorvzhaya, V.G.; Shtepa, T.D.

    1986-06-01

    This paper presents a plan of the reactions occurring in crystallization of alloys of the Zr-ZrRu-ZrIR partial system and the phase composition and structural constituents of as-cast alloys of the system. A correct and full confirmation of the certainty of the phase equilibria established in the Zr-ZrRu-ZrIR system was the result of differential thermal analysis made on specimens selected from the most complex areas of crystallization of the alloys and annealed at 1000 C after preliminary homogenization of them at higher temperatures.

  9. Zr-ZrO2 cermet solar coatings designed by modelling calculations and deposited by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi-Chu; Hadavi, M. S.; Lee, K.-D.; Shen, Y. G.

    2003-03-01

    High solar performance Zr-ZrO2 cermet solar coatings were designed using a numerical computer model and deposited experimentally. The layer thickness and Zr metal volume fraction for the Zr-ZrO2 cermet solar selective coatings on a Zr or Al reflector with a surface ZrO2 or Al2O3 anti-reflection layer were optimized to achieve maximum photo-thermal conversion efficiency at 80°C under concentration factors of 1-20 using the downhill simplex method in multi-dimensions in the numerical calculation. The dielectric function and the complex refractive index of Zr-ZrO2 cermet materials were calculated using Sheng's approximation. Optimization calculations show that Al2O3/Zr-ZrO2/Al solar coatings with two cermet layers and three cermet layers have nearly identical solar absorptance, emittance and photo-thermal conversion efficiency that are much better than those for films with one cermet layer. The optimized Al2O3/Zr-ZrO2/Al solar coating film with two cermet layers has a high solar absorptance value of 0.97 and low hemispherical emittance value of 0.05 at 80°C for a concentration factor of 2. The Al2O3/Zr-ZrO2/Al solar selective coatings with two cermet layers were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering technology. During the deposition of Zr-ZrO2 cermet layer, a Zr metallic target was run in a gas mixture of argon and oxygen. By control of oxygen flow rate the different metal volume fractions in the cermet layers were achieved using dc reactive sputtering. A solar absorptance of 0.96 and normal emittance of 0.05 at 80°C were achieved.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution of multiple 89Zr-labeled pore-expanded mesoporous silica nanoparticles for PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Larissa; Winter, Gordon; Baur, Benjamin; Witulla, Barbara; Solbach, Christoph; Reske, Sven; Lindén, Mika

    2014-04-01

    recently attracted a lot of interest as both imaging agents and carriers for drugs in vitro and in vivo. Here we present results related to the synthesis of PET imageable MSNs carrying the long-lived 89Zr isotope (half-life of 78.4 hours). Here, 89Zr4+ was immobilized through covalent attachment of the complexing agent p-isothiocyanatobenzyldesferrioxamine (DFO-NCS) to large-pore MSNs. Due to the presence of the high DFO content on the MSNs, quantitative 89Zr4+ labeling was achieved within just a few minutes, and no subsequent purification step was needed in order to remove non-complexed 89Zr4+. The stability of the 89Zr-labeled MSNs against leaching of 89Zr4+ was verified for 24 hours. The high signal strength of the 89Zr-DFO-MSNs was evidenced by successful PET imaging using a mouse model at particle loadings one order of magnitude lower than those previously applied in PET-MSN studies. The biodistribution followed the same trends as previously observed for MSNs of different sizes and surface functionalities. Taken together, our results suggest that 89Zr-DFO-MSNs are promising PET imaging agents for long-term in vivo imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Elemental, thermogravimetric and nitrogen sorption analyses as well as zeta potentials of MSNs, thin layer chromatography and quantitative analysis of 89Zr-DFO-MSNs and biodistribution data in major organs 1 h after intravenous injection. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06800e

  11. Development of Ti-Nb-Zr alloys with high elastic admissible strain for temporary orthopedic devices.

    PubMed

    Ozan, Sertan; Lin, Jixing; Li, Yuncang; Ipek, Rasim; Wen, Cuie

    2015-07-01

    A new series of beta Ti-Nb-Zr (TNZ) alloys with considerable plastic deformation ability during compression test, high elastic admissible strain, and excellent cytocompatibility have been developed for removable bone tissue implant applications. TNZ alloys with nominal compositions of Ti-34Nb-25Zr, Ti-30Nb-32Zr, Ti-28Nb-35.4Zr and Ti-24.8Nb-40.7Zr (wt.% hereafter) were fabricated using the cold-crucible levitation technique, and the effects of alloying element content on their microstructures, mechanical properties (tensile strength, yield strength, compressive yield strength, Young's modulus, elastic energy, toughness, and micro-hardness), and cytocompatibilities were investigated and compared. Microstructural examinations revealed that the TNZ alloys consisted of β phase. The alloy samples displayed excellent ductility with no cracking, or fracturing during compression tests. Their tensile strength, Young's modulus, elongation at rupture, and elastic admissible strain were measured in the ranges of 704-839 MPa, 62-65 GPa, 9.9-14.8% and 1.08-1.31%, respectively. The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at rupture of the Ti-34Nb-25Zr alloy were measured as 839 ± 31.8 MPa, 62 ± 3.6 GPa, and 14.8 ± 1.6%, respectively; this alloy exhibited the elastic admissible strain of approximately 1.31%. Cytocompatibility tests indicated that the cell viability ratios (CVR) of the alloys are greater than those of the control group; thus the TNZ alloys possess excellent cytocompatibility. PMID:25818950

  12. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  13. Sorption concentration and inductively coupled plasma determination of Mo, V, Zr, and Cr in sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbinina, N.I.; Ishmiyarova, G.P.; Myasoedova, G.V.

    1992-02-10

    Sorption on complex-forming sorbents is an expanding method for the concentration of microelements for water analysis. The adsorbed elements can be determined directly in the concentrate, in the eluate after desorption or in the residue after decomposition of the sorbent. Among the methods used to determine the elements is atomic emission spectrometry from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). This method is often used to determine relatively easily desorbed metals. In the present work, the authors investigate the concentration of Mo, V, Zr, and Cr(VI) with the complex forming sorbent POLIORGS VII M and their subsequent determination of ICP. These hard to desorb metals are put back into solution by the rapid microwave decomposition of the sorbent/concentrate with a HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture. The developed method for the determination of Mo, V, Zr, and Cr(VI) was used to analyze sea water. 14 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  14. Properties of Porous TiNbZr Shape Memory Alloy Fabricated by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L. W.; Chung, C. Y.; Tong, Y. X.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2011-07-01

    In the past decades, systematic researches have been focused on studying Ti-Nb-based SMAs by adding ternary elements, such as Mo, Sn, Zr, etc. However, only arc melting or induction melting methods, with subsequent hot or cold rolling, were used to fabricate these Ni-free SMAs. There is no work related to powder metallurgy and porous structures. This study focuses on the fabrication and characterization of porous Ti-22Nb-6Zr (at.%) shape memory alloys produced using elemental powders by means of mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. It is found that the porous Ti-22Nb-6Zr alloys prepared by the HIP process exhibit a homogenous pore distribution with spherical pores, while the pores have irregular shape in the specimen prepared by conventional sintering. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the solid solution-treated Ti-22Nb-6Zr alloy consists of both β phase and α″ martensite phase. Morphologies of martensite were observed. Finally, the porous Ti-22Nb-6Zr SMAs produced by both MA and HIP exhibit good mechanical properties, such as superior superelasticity, with maximum recoverable strain of ~3% and high compressive strength.

  15. Processing of U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb alloys by sintering process

    SciTech Connect

    Dos Santos, A. M. M.; Ferraz, W. B.; Lameiras, F. S.; Mazzeu, T. D. O.

    2012-07-01

    To minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation, there is worldwide interest in reducing fuel enrichment of research and test reactors. To achieve this objective while still guaranteeing criticality and cycle length requirements, there is need of developing high density uranium metallic fuels. Alloying elements such as Zr, Nb and Mo are added to uranium to improve fuel performance in reactors. In this context, the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) is developing the U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb (weight %) alloys by the innovative process of sintering that utilizes raw materials in the form of powders. The powders were pressed at 400 MPa and then sintered under a vacuum of about 1x10{sup -4} Torr at temperatures ranging from 1050 deg. to 1500 deg.C. The densities of the alloys were measured geometrically and by hydrostatic method and the phases identified by X ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructures of the pellets were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the alloying elements were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results obtained showed the fuel density to slightly increase with the sintering temperature. The highest density achieved was approximately 80% of theoretical density. It was observed in the pellets a superficial oxide layer formed during the sintering process. (authors)

  16. Fractionation of traffic-emitted Ce, La and Zr in road dusts.

    PubMed

    Lyubomirova, Valentina; Djingova, Rumyana; van Elteren, Johannes T

    2011-06-01

    The introduction of catalytic converters has led to a new environmental problem since catalysts emit platinum group elements (PGEs) which are among the least distributed elements in nature. Along with PGEs the vehicle exhaust catalysts contain also a number of stabilizers, commonly oxides of rare earth elements and alkaline earth elements such as Ce, La and Zr. Since vehicular emission of these elements has received little attention so far this work attempts to offer insight into their distribution and fate in the environment by measuring their speciation in road dust samples collected along several highways in Germany and a city centre (Saarbrücken). Speciation of the elements (fractionation into associated mineralogical phases) was carried out via a conventional sequential extraction protocol and the complexing abilities of humic substances in the organic matter were investigated by selective extraction methods in combination with size segregation. For evaluation purposes soil samples spiked with catalytic converter material were analyzed, showing a much lower fraction of Ce, La and Zr mobilized in comparison to the road dust samples. It was found that the elements were effectively bound to humic substances in road dust with a preference for complexation with low molecular weight compounds (<1600 Da). PMID:21491038

  17. Petrogenesis and tectonic significance of Early Cretaceous high-Zr rhyolite in the Dazhou uranium district, Gan-Hang Belt, Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shui-Yuan; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Jiang, Yao-Hui

    2013-09-01

    Early Cretaceous felsic intrusions and volcanic rocks are widespread in the Gan-Hang Belt, SE China. In this study, we report a distinctive high-Zr rhyolite (802-1145 ppm Zr) from the Dazhou uranium district in the eastern Gan-Hang Belt. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating shows that the Dazhou rhyolite erupted at 127.3 ± 1.7 Ma. Geochemical data indicate A-type characteristics for the Dazhou rhyolite, such as high contents of alkali elements, high FeO3∗/MgO and high Ga/Al ratios, enrichment in some LILEs, HFSEs, and REEs, and depletion in Sr, Ba, P, and Ti. Compared to other A-type granitoids reported previously in the same belt, the Dazhou high-Zr rhyolite shows only a slight enrichment in other HFSE elements and LREE, but has similar whole-rock Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions to those A-type granitoids with relatively lower Zr concentrations, indicating that all these A-type rocks may have similar magma sources. Hence, the difference of Zr contents in these rocks is not due to their different source rocks. We found that zircon grains in the Dazhou high-Zr rhyolite are generally inheritance-poor, and the calculated zircon saturation temperatures are extremely high at ˜1000 °C. It is therefore suggested that the distinctive high-Zr characteristic of the Dazhou rhyolite was a result of high-temperature suppression of zircon crystallization by ambient mafic magmas correlative with the upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle. The fundamental difference in magma temperature and magmatic evolution mechanism between the Dazhou high-Zr rhyolite and other A-type granitoid suites in the eastern Gan-Hang Belt brought about their different Zr concentrations.

  18. Local atomic structure around Ni, Nb, and Zr atoms in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oji, H.; Handa, K.; Ide, J.; Honma, T.; Umesaki, N.; Yamaura, S.; Fukuhara, M.; Inoue, A.; Emura, S.

    2009-11-01

    In order to elucidate the hydrogen effect on the atomic configuration in the Ni-Nb-Zr glassy alloys, we measured Ni, Nb, and Zr K-edge XAFS spectra of the Ni-Nb-Zr glassy alloy films with two different chemical compositions, i.e., Ni42Nb28Zr30 and Ni36Nb24Zr40, and their hydrogen-charged ones, i.e., (Ni42Nb28Zr30)0.91H0.09 and (Ni36Nb24Zr40)0.89H0.11. The Fourier transforms of the XAFS oscillations of these samples clearly shows that there is a significant difference in the structural response between the Zr30at.% and the Zr40at.% alloys when hydrogen atoms are charged. The curve-fitting analysis indicates that the hydrogenation does not alter the local alignment around the three metal atoms for the Zr30at.% alloy, but for the Zr40at.% alloy; it elongates the inter-atomic distances of Zr-Zr, Zr-Nb and Nb-Ni. On the basis of the curve fitting analysis, we propose the distorted icosahedral Zr5Ni5Nb3 cluster models. The XANES spectra at each (Ni, Zr and Nb) edge of (Ni36Nb24Zr40)0.89H0.11 also present the distinct shape from the other samples. The pre-edge peak (shoulder) vanishes or weakens, suggesting the conversion of the electronic state of the metal ions owing to the hydrogenation. The post-edge energy region shows clear multi-scattering effects from hydrogen atoms by charging these.

  19. Trace element characteristics of graywackes and tectonic setting discrimination of sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Mukul R.; Crook, Keith A. W.

    1986-02-01

    The graywackes of Paleozoic turbidite sequences of eastern Australia show a large variation in their trace element characteristics, which reflect distinct provenance types and tectonic settings for various suites. The tectonic settings recognised are oceanic island arc, continental island arc, active continental margin, and passive margins. Immobile trace elements, e.g. La, Ce, Nd, Th, Zr, Nb, Y, Sc and Co are very useful in tectonic setting discrimination. In general, there is a systematic increase in light rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd), Th, Nb and the Ba/Sr, Rb/Sr, La/Y and Ni/Co ratios and a decrease in V, Sc and the Ba/Rb, K/Th and K/U ratios in graywackes from oceanic island arc to continental island arc to active continental margin to passive margin settings. On the basis of graywacke geochemistry, the optimum discrimination of the tectonic settings of sedimentary basins is achieved by La-Th, La-Th-Sc, Ti/Zr-La/Sc, La/Y-Sc/Cr, Th-Sc-Zr/10 and Th-Co-Zr/10 plots. The analysed oceanic island arc graywackes are characterised by extremely low abundances of La, Th, U, Zr, Nb; low Th/U and high La/Sc, La/Th, Ti/Zr, Zr/Th ratios. The studied graywackes of the continental island arc type setting are characterised by increased abundances of La, Th, U, Zr and Nb, and can be identified by the La-Th-Sc and La/Sc versus Ti/Zr plots. Active continental margin and passive margin graywackes are discriminated by the Th-Sc-Zr/10 and Th-Co-Zr/10 plots and associated parameters (e.g. Th/Zr, Th/Sc). The most important characteristic of the analysed passive margin type graywackes is the increased abundance of Zr, high Zr/Th and lower Ba, Rb, Sr and Ti/Zr ratio compared to the active continental margin graywackes.

  20. Photon strength function of 97Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, Shea; Couture, Aaron; Lee, Hye Young

    2015-10-01

    Some of the major questions in stockpile stewardship require nuclear reaction rates on fission fragments where there are few or no experimental constraints. Theoretical calculations are an alternative, but their reliability is ultimately limited by our incomplete understanding of such physics inputs as the photon strength function. 96Zr lies near the light mass peak for 239Pu fission, and neutron capture on and near this nucleus is of great importance for applications. The DANCE array at LANSCE and the Apollo array coupled to HELIOS at Argonne National Laboratory offer complementary probes into the neutron capture reaction, and an experimental campaign is underway to study 96Zr(n, γ) and 96Zr(d , p) with these instruments. The status of these reaction studies will be presented.

  1. Structure of zirconium-93 and zirconium-91 as shown by the reactions Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93 and Zr-92(d,t)Zr-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, N.; Leonard, R. F.; Stewart, W. M.; Fink, C. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Nickles, J.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.

    1972-01-01

    Deuterons of 13-MeV incident energy were scattered from Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93. The Zr-92(d,p)Zr-93 data analysis resulted in the location of 47 levels up to an excitation energy of 4.84 MeV, and the spins of 43 of these levels were identified. Essentially all the strength of the 2d5/2, 3s1/2, 2d3/2, and 1g7/2 shells was observed; and the excitation energy of their centroids was computed to be 0.00, 1.21, 2.23, and 2.37 MeV, respectively. Also, 43 percent of the 1h11/2 strength, 21 percent of the 2f7/2 strength, and 3 percent of the 3p3/2 strength were observed. In addition, the Zr-92(d,t)Zr-91 data analysis resulted in the location of 26 levels up to an excitation energy of 4.01 MeV, and the spins of 21 of these levels were identified. Most of the expected strength of the 2d5/2 and 1g9/2 shells was obtained, and the excitation energy of their centroids was computed to be 0.31 and 3.19 MeV, respectively. In addition, six l=1 states are populated belonging to either the 2p1/2 or 2p3/2 shells.

  2. Arc melting and homogenization of ZrC and ZrC + B alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darolia, R.; Archbold, T. F.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used to arc-melt and to homogenize near-stoichiometric ZrC and ZrC-boron alloys, giving attention to the oxygen contamination problem. The starting material for the carbide preparation was ZrC powder with an average particle size of 4.6 micron. Pellets weighing approximately 3 g each were prepared at room temperature from the powder by the use of an isostatic press operated at 50,000 psi. These pellets were individually melted in an arc furnace containing a static atmosphere of purified argon. A graphite resistance furnace was used for the homogenization process.

  3. Superconductivity of BCC Zr and Zr-Nb alloys at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponyatovsky, E. G.; Bashkin, I. O.; Tissen, V. G.; Nefedova, M. V.

    2009-09-01

    The superconducting transition temperature T c of bcc Zr is measured at pressures to 64 GPa. The T c value gradually decreases as pressure is increased. For the Zr-Nb alloys, there are found anomalies in the T c ( P) dependences at rather low pressures. The anomalies are discussed within the available theoretical models. We assume on the basis of the T c ( P) experimental data for the Zr-Nb alloys that the T c ( P) curve for bcc zirconium has a maximum in the metastability region.

  4. Research on self-propagating high temperature synthesis prepared ZrC-ZrB2 composite ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Cheng; Xunjia, Su; Genliang, Hou; YaKun, Xing

    2013-03-01

    ZrC-ZrB2 composite ceramic material is prepared by self-propagating high temperature synthesis, using Zr powders, CrO2 powders and Al powders as raw materials. Samples are studied by XRD and SEM, the results show that: ZrC-ZrB2 composite ceramic is attained after self-propagating high-temperature reaction, with Zr+ B4C as the main reactive system, and which is added respectively different content (CrO3 + Al) system. The study finds that the ceramic composite products are mainly composed of ZrC and ZrB2 phase, and other subphase. Compared to the main reactive system composite ceramic, composite ceramic grains grow up obviously, after introduction of the highly exothermic system (CrO3 + Al) in the main reactive system, and with the gradual increase of the content (CrO3 + Al).

  5. Examination of the surrogate ratio method for the determination of the 93Zr(n ,γ )94Zr cross section with Zr,9290(18O,16O)Zr,9492 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S. Q.; Li, Z. H.; Wang, Y. B.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Su, J.; Li, Y. J.; Nishinaka, I.; Hirose, K.; Han, Y. L.; Orlandi, R.; Shen, Y. P.; Guo, B.; Zeng, S.; Lian, G.; Chen, Y. S.; Bai, X. X.; Qiao, L. H.; Liu, W. P.

    2016-07-01

    The relative γ -decay probability ratios of the neutron resonance states in 94Zr and 92Zr populated via two-neutron transfer reactions, 92Zr(18O,16O)94Zr and 90Zr(18O,16O)92Zr , have been measured to test the validity of the surrogate ratio method (SRM) in determining the (n , γ ) reaction cross section. The cross sections of the 93Zr(n ,γ )94Zr reaction are derived from the experimentally obtained ratios and the cross sections of the 91Zr(n ,γ )92Zr reaction in the equivalent neutron energy range of En=0 -8 MeV . The deduced cross sections of 93Zr(n ,γ )94Zr reaction agree with the directly measured ones in the low-energy region, and with the evaluated ENDF/B-VII.1 data at higher energies of En>3 MeV . The agreement supports the concept of the SRM method to indirectly determine the (n ,γ ) reaction cross sections.

  6. Synthesis of ZrSiN composite films using a plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R., Ahmad; Hussain, T.; A. Khan, I.; S. Rawat, R.

    2014-06-01

    ZrSiN thin films are synthesized by using plasma focus through various numbers of focus shots (10, 20, and 30), with samples placed at 9 cm away from the tip of the anode. Crystal structures, surface morphologies, and elemental compositions of ZrSiN films are characterized by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) attached with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). XRD patterns confirm the formations of polycrystalline ZrSiN films. Crystallinity of nitride increases with the increase of focus shot number. The average crystallite size of zirconium nitride increases from 27 ± 3 nm to 73 ± 8 nm and microstrain decreases from 2.28 to 1.0 with the increase of the focus shot number. SEM results exhibit the formations of granular and oval-shaped microstructures, depending on the number of focus shots. EDS results confirm the presences of silicon, zirconium, nitrogen, and oxygen in the composite films. The content values of Zr and N in the composite films increase with the increase of the focus shot number.

  7. Negative stiffness in ZrW2O8 inclusions as a result of thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romao, Carl P.; White, Mary Anne

    2016-07-01

    Materials with negative stiffness, although inherently unstable in isolation, can be stabilized by external constraints, for example, by inclusion within a material with positive stiffness. We have identified ZrW2O8, a material with negative thermal expansion, as a candidate negative-stiffness material arising from its negative bulk modulus during a ferroelastic cubic-orthorhombic pressure-induced phase transition (PIPT). A hyperelastic constituent equation for this transition was developed and implemented in a finite-element model of ZrW2O8 inclusions in positive stiffness, positive thermal expansion matrices. In these matrices, thermal stress during cooling, originating from thermal expansion mismatch, would be sufficient to initiate the PIPT after small temperature drops. The subsequent progress of the PIPT depends strongly on the thermoelastic properties of the matrix, with stiff, low thermal expansion matrices stabilizing the transition state over broad temperature ranges, indicating that ZrW2O8 or materials with similar properties could be used as versatile negative-stiffness inclusion materials. The models were used to understand previous experiments on composites that include ZrW2O8.

  8. Solid-state coexistence of {Zr12} and {Zr6} zirconium oxocarboxylate clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Malaestean, Iurie L.; Alici, Meliha Kutluca; Besson, Claire; Ellern, Arkady; Kogerler, Paul

    2013-10-30

    Ligand metathesis, Co(II) coordination, and partial condensation reactions of an archetypal {Zr6} zirconium oxocarboxylate cluster result in the first example of the coexistence of the distinct zirconium oxide frameworks {Zr6O8} and {Zr12O22}. Even minor modifications to the reaction conditions push this apparent equilibrium towards the {Zr6O8}-based product.

  9. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium. [Nb-1Zr; Sm-Co; Hiperco 50 steel; alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, C.M.; Moore, T.J.; Wheeler, D.R.

    1987-01-12

    Preliminary tests were conducted to determine if interstitial element transport through a circulating helium working fluid was a potential problem in Brayton and Stirling space power systems. Test specimens exposed to a thermal gradient for up to 3000 h included Nb-1%Zr, a Sm-Co alloy, Hiperco 50 steel, and alumina to simulate various engine components of the Brayton and Stirling systems. Results indicate that helium transport of interstitial contaminants can be minimized over a 7-y life with monometallic Nb-1%Zr design. Exposure with other materials indicated a potential for interstitial contaminant transport.

  10. Neutron capture by (94,96)Zr and the decays of (97)Zr and (97)Nb.

    PubMed

    Krane, K S

    2014-12-01

    Cross sections for radiative neutron capture have been determined for (94)Zr and (96)Zr using the activation technique with samples of naturally occurring Zr metal. The sensitivity to the correction for epithermal neutrons in the determination of small thermal cross sections is discussed, particularly in view of the variation in the resonance integral at different sites in the reactor. Gamma-ray spectroscopic studies of the decays of (97)Zr and its daughter (97)Nb have been performed, leading to improved values of the energies and intensities of the emitted γ rays, and correspondingly improved values for the energy levels and β feedings of excited states populated in (97)Nb and (97)Mo. PMID:25103250

  11. DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL STUDY OF Zr-BASED ACTINIDE ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, A; Soderlind, P; Turchi, P; Vitos, L; Ruban, A

    2008-06-26

    Density-functional formalism is applied to study the phase equilibria in the U-Zr system. The obtained ground-state properties of the {gamma} (bcc) and {delta} (C32) phases are in good agreement with experimental data. The decomposition curve for the {gamma}-based U-Zr solutions is calculated. We argue that stabilization of the {delta}-UZr{sub 2} phase relative to the {alpha}-Zr (hcp) structure is due to an increase of the Zr d-band occupancy that occurs when U is alloyed with Zr.

  12. Compton profile study of ZrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, V.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, G.; Sharma, B. K.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the Compton profile of ZrB2. The theoretical Compton profile of ZrB2 is computed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) based on linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). To compare the spherically averaged theoretical values, the measurement on polycrystalline ZrB2 is performed using 59.54 keV gamma-rays emanating from an 241Am radioisotope. To estimate the charge transfer in ZrB2, ionic model based calculations have also been performed which suggest transfer of electron from Zr to B atoms.

  13. Simulation of aluminothermic smelting of Al-Zr and Al-Zr-Mo-Sn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, A. V.; Chumarev, V. M.; Udoeva, L. Yu.; Mansurova, A. N.; Rylov, A. N.; Raikov, A. Yu.; Aleshin, A. P.; Trubachev, M. V.

    2013-09-01

    Aluminothermic smelting of Al-Zr and Al-Zr-Mo-Sn alloys has been simulated in terms of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties of molybdenum and zirconium intermetallic compounds are calculated. It is demonstrated that, with consideration for their formation, the calculated compositions of aluminothermic blends and the forecasted extraction of target metals into an alloy are in good agreement with the data obtained during pilot tests.

  14. Valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of ZrSiO₄ and ZrO₂.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Spence, John C H

    2013-11-01

    ZrSiO4 (zircon) and m-ZrO2 (zirconia) are fundamental and industrially important materials. This work reports the detailed valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) studies of these compounds. The dielectric response functions, as well as single-electron interband transition spectra, are derived from VEELS data for both ZrSiO4 and m-ZrO2, in the range 5-50 eV using the Kramers-Kronig analysis method. Our interpretation of the interband transitions is given with the aid of ab initio calculations of density of states. The bandgap energies for both materials are also measured using VEELS. The surface and bulk plasmons are identified: the surface plasmon peaks locate at around 12 eV, and two bulk plasmon peaks are ∼15-16 eV and ∼25-27 eV, respectively. Although similarities in the VEELS exist between ZrSiO4 and m-ZrO2, two major differences are also noticed and explained in terms of composition and structure differences. PMID:23916829

  15. Valence electronenergy-lossspectroscopystudyofZrSiO4 and ZrO2

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, John; Jiang, Nan

    2013-07-01

    ZrSiO4 (zircon) and m-ZrO2 (zirconia) are fundamental and industrially important materials.This work reports the detailed valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) studies of these compounds. The dielectric response functions, as well as single-electron interband transition spectra,are derived from VEELS data for both ZrSiO4 and m-ZrO2, in the rang e5–50 eV using the Kramers–Kronig analysis method. Our interpretation of the interband transitions is given with the aid of ab initio calculations of density of states. The bandgap energies for both materials are also measured using VEELS.The surface and bulk plasmons are identified: the surface plasmon peaks locate at around 12 eV,and two bulk plasmon peaks are ~15–16 eV and ~25–27 eV,respectively.Although similarities in the VEELS exist between ZrSiO4 and m-ZrO2, two majo rdifferences are als onoticed and explained in terms of composition and structure differences.

  16. Metastability of the β-phase in Zr-rich Zr-Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, G. K.; Singh, R. N.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Banerjee, S.

    1995-08-01

    The decomposition of the β-phase in Zr-rich Zr-Nb alloys by three processes viz., ω formation, α-formation and hydride precipitation has been examined. In the Zr-20Nb alloy, ω-formation has been examined after thermal treatment as well as after electron irradiation and a comparison has been made between the kinetics of ω-phase formation under these two conditions. The morphology of the α-precipitates and their internal structures has been found to depend upon the type of thermal treatment with step quenching from the β-phase field leading to an allotriomorphic morphology and quenching and aging leading to internally twinned Widmanstätten α. The different morphologies obtained due to change in thermal treatment and composition of the Zr sbnd Nb alloys has been rationalized. Hydride formation has been examined in α-Zr, β-Zr and in α + β microstructures. A comparison has been made between the mechanism of formation of hydride phase in these three types of microstructures and their morphology and internal structures have been explained.

  17. Fractionation of Zr and Hf in surface processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chyi, L.L.; Garg, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Zircons from a pegmatite near Tuxedo, North Carolina were crushed and treated with different reagents under different conditions. The treated and untreated samples were determined for Zr and Hf with radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Zircons treated with 50% sulfuric acid were having lowered Zr content and Zr/Hf ratio. The conclusions are that a portion of Zr and Hf in zircons is sensitive to leaching, and Zr appears to be selectively leached over Hf. The conclusions of this work support the observations of small dissolutions of Zr in both acidic podzolic soils and in alkaline laterites, of lower Zr content in soils on glacial drift, and of lower Zr/Hf ratios in loess deposits from various parts of the world. The fractionation of Zr and Hf in surface processes appears to be due to selective leaching. Weakening of Zr-O over Hf-O bonds in zircon by fission projectiles is postulated to be the viable process. The observed fractionation from leaching experiments suggest that areas receiving leachates such as swamps, lakes, and oceans should have high to very high Zr/Hf ratios preserved in rocks. High ratios are found in the Springfield (No. 9) Coal, the Green River Shale, and various limestones. High ratio is also found in orchard leaves, which grow by absorbing leachate from soil.

  18. Single and Double Beta-Decay Q Values among the Triplet ^{96}Zr, ^{96}Nb, and ^{96}Mo.

    PubMed

    Alanssari, M; Frekers, D; Eronen, T; Canete, L; Dilling, J; Haaranen, M; Hakala, J; Holl, M; Ješkovský, M; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Koponen, J; Mayer, A J; Moore, I D; Nesterenko, D A; Pohjalainen, I; Povinec, P; Reinikainen, J; Rinta-Antila, S; Srivastava, P C; Suhonen, J; Thompson, R I; Voss, A; Wieser, M E

    2016-02-19

    The atomic mass relations among the mass triplet ^{96}Zr, ^{96}Nb, and ^{96}Mo have been determined by means of high-precision mass measurements using the JYFLTRAP mass spectrometer at the IGISOL facility of the University of Jyväskylä. We report Q values for the ^{96}Zr single and double β decays to ^{96}Nb and ^{96}Mo, as well as the Q value for the ^{96}Nb single β decay to ^{96}Mo, which are Q_{β}(^{96}Zr)=163.96(13), Q_{ββ}(^{96}Zr)=3356.097(86), and Q_{β}(^{96}Nb)=3192.05(16)  keV. Of special importance is the ^{96}Zr single β-decay Q value, which has never been determined directly. The single β decay, whose main branch is fourfold unique forbidden, is an alternative decay path to the ^{96}Zr ββ decay, and its observation can provide one of the most direct tests of the neutrinoless ββ-decay nuclear-matrix-element calculations, as these can be simultaneously performed for both decay paths with no further assumptions. The theoretical single β-decay rate has been re-evaluated using a shell-model approach, which indicates a ^{96}Zr single β-decay lifetime within reach of an experimental verification. The uniqueness of the decay also makes such an experiment interesting for an investigation into the origin of the quenching of the axial-vector coupling constant g_{A}. PMID:26943530

  19. Local structure of deuterated Ti-Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, T.; Itoh, K.; Hashi, K.; Aoki, K.

    The Ti-Zr alloy system is isomorphous over the total concentration range. A neutron zero-scattering alloy can be obtained at the composition Ti0.676Zr0.324 because of negative and positive coherent neutron scattering amplitudes of Ti and Zr respectively. A (Ti0.676Zr0.324)D0.31 amorphous alloy was synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) under a deuterium-gas atmosphere of 0.08 MPa. In contrast, it is found that the MA of Ti and Zr powders under a deuterium-gas atmosphere of 2.0 MPa forms a nano-crystalline (Ti0.676Zr0.324)D1.54 alloy, which is composed of TiH2 and ZrH2 crystalline compounds.

  20. Study of nanostructured (Ti-Zr-Nb)N coatings’ physical- mechanical properties obtained by vacuum arc evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, S. V.; Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Yerokhina, L. N.; Yeskermessov, D. K.; erdybaeva, N. K. Y.

    2016-02-01

    The coatings were formed by vacuum arc deposition. Unit cast target (cathodes) was used on the basis of 30 atm. % Ti, 35 at. % Zr and 35 atm. % Nb as the vaporized materials. Molecular nitrogen was used as the working gas. The thickness of the coatings in the experiments was 4.0 microns. The surface morphology fractograph fracture, track friction were investigated in a scanning electron microscope JSM-6390 LV. The use of multicoatings based on carbides is very promising to ensure the high performance properties of the complex, nitrides and silicides of transition metals. Findings - nanostructured coating of (Ti-Zr-Nb) N was obtained by vacuum arc evaporation cathode-cast in a nitrogen gas reaction medium. Multicomponent films have a pronounced columnar structure. Elemental composition was obtained by the vacuum arc deposition of coatings (Ti-Zr-Nb) N, depending on the physical parameters of the deposition process, in particular the pressure of the reaction gas nitrogen.

  1. It's elemental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Periodic Table of the elements will now have to be updated. An international team of researchers has added element 110 to the Earth's armory of elements. Though short-lived—of the order of microseconds, element 110 bottoms out the list as the heaviest known element on the planet. Scientists at the Heavy Ion Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany, made the 110-proton element by colliding a lead isotope with nickel atoms. The element, which is yet to be named, has an atomic mass of 269.

  2. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene with multiphase Ti(x)Zr(1-x)O2 synthesized via co-precipitation route.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baojun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Ke, Jun; Liu, Jie; Liu, Shaomin; Tadé, Moses

    2015-01-15

    In the present work, the multiphase Ti(x)Zr(1-x)O2 particles containing cubic-phase ZrO2 were fabricated via co-precipitation route. The mole ratios of Ti and Zr elements were controlled by three levels: Ti/Zr=7/3 (maximum), Ti/Zr=5/5 (medium), and Ti/Zr=3/7 (minimum). The materials prepared were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. For the maximum usage of solar power with fabricated catalysts, elimination of gaseous toluene was chosen as a model to evaluate the performances under visible light. The results indicated that the degradation efficiency of toluene was about 80% after 6 h reaction using Ti(0.3)Zr(0.7)O2 as the photocatalyst. On the other hand, the multiphase Ti(x)Zr(1-x)O2 (x=0.7 or 0.5) photocatalysts showed significant enhancement in the activity, compared with the commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25). The enhanced performances of Ti(x)Zr(1-x)O2 might be attributed to the lower charge recombination rate of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. In addition, some intermediates (the benzaldehyde and benzoic acid) and final product (CO2) adsorbed on the surface of the particles were also detected by using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. PMID:25454418

  4. Bone response to a novel Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr alloy.

    PubMed

    Stenlund, Patrik; Omar, Omar; Brohede, Ulrika; Norgren, Susanne; Norlindh, Birgitta; Johansson, Anna; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2015-07-01

    Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) is regarded as the state-of-the-art material for bone-anchored dental devices, whereas the mechanically stronger alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), made of titanium, aluminum (Al) and vanadium (V), is regarded as the material of choice for high-load applications. There is a call for the development of new alloys, not only to eliminate the potential toxic effect of Al and V but also to meet the challenges imposed on dental and maxillofacial reconstructive devices, for example. The present work evaluates a novel, dual-stage, acid-etched, Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr alloy implant, consisting of elements that create low toxicity, with the potential to promote osseointegration in vivo. The alloy implants (denoted Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr) were evaluated after 7 days and 28 days in a rat tibia model, with reference to commercially pure titanium grade 4 (denoted Ti). Analyses were performed with respect to removal torque, histomorphometry and gene expression. The Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr showed a significant increase in implant stability over time in contrast to the Ti. Further, the histological and gene expression analyses suggested faster healing around the Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr, as judged by the enhanced remodeling, and mineralization, of the early-formed woven bone and the multiple positive correlations between genes denoting inflammation, bone formation and remodeling. Based on the present experiments, it is concluded that the Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr alloy becomes osseointegrated to at least a similar degree to that of pure titanium implants. This alloy is therefore emerging as a novel implant material for clinical evaluation. PMID:25848727

  5. Silver activation on thin films of Ag-ZrCN coatings for antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, I; Calderon V, S; Escobar Galindo, R; Palacio, C; Henriques, M; Piedade, A P; Carvalho, S

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, with the increase of elderly population and related health problems, knee and hip joint prosthesis are being widely used worldwide. However, failure of these invasive devices occurs in a high percentage thus demanding the revision of the chirurgical procedure. Within the reasons of failure, microbial infections, either hospital or subsequently-acquired, contribute in high number to the statistics. Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with these infections. Silver has a historic performance in medicine due to its potent antimicrobial activity, with a broad-spectrum on the activity of different types of microorganisms. Consequently, the main goal of this work was to produce Ag-ZrCN coatings with antimicrobial activity, for the surface modification of hip prostheses. Thin films of ZrCN with several silver concentrations were deposited onto stainless steel 316 L, by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, using two targets, Zr and Zr with silver pellets (Zr+Ag target), in an atmosphere containing Ar, C2H2 and N2. The antimicrobial activity of the modified surfaces was tested against S. epidermidis and the influence of an activation step of silver was assessed by testing samples after immersion in a 5% (w/v) NaClO solution for 5 min. The activation procedure revealed to be essential for the antimicrobial activity, as observed by the presence of an inhibition halo on the surface with 11 at.% of Ag. The morphology analysis of the surface before and after the activation procedure revealed differences in silver distribution indicating segregation/diffusion of the metallic element to the film's surface. Thus, the results indicate that the silver activation step is responsible for an antimicrobial effect of the coatings, due to silver oxidation and silver ion release. PMID:26117788

  6. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  7. An n-body potential for a Zr-Nb system based on the embedded-atom method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, De-Ye; Wang, S. S.; Peng, D. L.; Li, M.; Hui, X. D.

    2013-03-01

    A novel n-body potential for an Zr-Nb system was developed in the framework of the embedded-atom method. All the parameters of the constructed potential have been systematically evaluated by fitting to the ground state properties obtained from experimental measurements and first-principles calculations for pure elements and some alloys. It is shown that most of the static thermodynamics properties for Zr and Nb can be well reproduced by using the present potential. Some calculation results based on the present model are even closer to the experimental data than those based on previous potential models. The ground state properties of hypothetical Zr-Nb alloys were also calculated and found to be in agreement with first-principles calculations. Furthermore, the formation energies of random solid solutions of Zr-Nb with lattices of body centered cubic (bcc) and hexagonal close packed (hcp) type were calculated by fitting the energy-volume relations to Rose’s equation of state. These values were compared with those obtained by first-principles calculations based on special quasirandom structure models and the Miedema-ZSL-07 model (the improved Miedema model proposed by Zhang, Sheng and Liu in 2007). It is indicated that our n-body constructed potential for a Zr-Nb alloy provides an effective description for the interaction between the dissimilar ion interactions for hcp-bcc systems.

  8. An n-body potential for a Zr-Nb system based on the embedded-atom method.

    PubMed

    Lin, De-Ye; Wang, S S; Peng, D L; Li, M; Hui, X D

    2013-03-13

    A novel n-body potential for an Zr-Nb system was developed in the framework of the embedded-atom method. All the parameters of the constructed potential have been systematically evaluated by fitting to the ground state properties obtained from experimental measurements and first-principles calculations for pure elements and some alloys. It is shown that most of the static thermodynamics properties for Zr and Nb can be well reproduced by using the present potential. Some calculation results based on the present model are even closer to the experimental data than those based on previous potential models. The ground state properties of hypothetical Zr-Nb alloys were also calculated and found to be in agreement with first-principles calculations. Furthermore, the formation energies of random solid solutions of Zr-Nb with lattices of body centered cubic (bcc) and hexagonal close packed (hcp) type were calculated by fitting the energy-volume relations to Rose's equation of state. These values were compared with those obtained by first-principles calculations based on special quasirandom structure models and the Miedema-ZSL-07 model (the improved Miedema model proposed by Zhang, Sheng and Liu in 2007). It is indicated that our n-body constructed potential for a Zr-Nb alloy provides an effective description for the interaction between the dissimilar ion interactions for hcp-bcc systems. PMID:23396811

  9. Effects of ZrO{sub 2} doping on HfO{sub 2} resistive switching memory characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Seung Wook; Kwac, Jungsuk; Nishi, Yoshio; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Joonsuk; Kim, Hyeong Joon

    2014-08-18

    A resistive switching (RS) random access memory device with ZrO{sub 2}-doped HfO{sub 2} exhibits better RS performance than that with pure HfO{sub 2}. In particular, I{sub res}, V{sub res}, and V{sub set} are reduced by approximately 58%, 38%, and 39%, respectively, when HfO{sub 2} is doped with ZrO{sub 2} (9 at. %). In addition, the ZrO{sub 2} doping in HfO{sub 2} makes the distribution of most parameters steeper. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that the deposited zirconium-doped hafnium oxide (HZO) (9 at. %) is polycrystalline. Elemental mapping results by scanning TEM–energy dispersive spectroscopy also prove that ZrO{sub 2} is uniformly distributed in the HZO (9 at. %) film. The possible mechanism for the improvement in the RS characteristics is also suggested on the basis of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results and filamentary RS mechanism. These results suggest that the ZrO{sub 2} doping into HfO{sub 2} likely not only will reduce power consumption but also will improve cyclic endurance by controlling the nonstoichiometric phase.

  10. Evidence of Topological Nodal-Line Fermions in ZrSiSe and ZrSiTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Tang, Zhijie; Liu, Jinyu; Liu, Xue; Zhu, Yanglin; Graf, David; Myhro, Kevin; Tran, Son; Lau, Chun Ning; Wei, Jiang; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-07-01

    A Dirac nodal-line semimetal phase, which represents a new quantum state of topological materials, has been experimentally realized only in a few systems, including PbTaSe2 , PtSn4 , and ZrSiS. In this Letter, we report evidence of nodal-line fermions in ZrSiSe and ZrSiTe probed in de Haas-van Alphen quantum oscillations. Although ZrSiSe and ZrSiTe share a similar layered structure with ZrSiS, our studies show the Fermi surface (FS) enclosing a Dirac nodal line has a 2D character in ZrSiTe, in contrast with 3D-like FS in ZrSiSe and ZrSiS. Another important property revealed in our experiment is that the nodal-line fermion density in this family of materials (˜1020 cm-3 ) is much higher than the Dirac fermion density of other topological materials with discrete nodes. In addition, we have demonstrated ZrSiSe and ZrSiTe single crystals can be thinned down to 2D atomic thin layers through microexfoliation, which offers the first platform to explore exotic properties of topological nodal-line fermions in low dimensions.

  11. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

    1999-11-02

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {le}1% Cr and either {ge}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {ge}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14--32% Al, {le}2% Ti, {le}2% Mo, {le}1% Zr, {le}1% C, {le}0.1% B, {le}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {le}1% rare earth metal, {le}1% oxygen, {le}3% Cu, balance Fe.

  12. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  13. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  14. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

    1997-04-15

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {<=}1% Cr and either {>=}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {>=}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, {<=}2% Ti, {<=}2% Mo, {<=}1% Zr, {<=}1% C, {<=}0.1% B, {<=}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {<=}1% rare earth metal, {<=}1% oxygen, {<=}3% Cu, balance Fe. 64 figs.

  15. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  16. Mechanical and electrochemical characterisation of new Ti-Mo-Nb-Zr alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Nnamchi, Paul S; Obayi, C S; Todd, Iain; Rainforth, M W

    2016-07-01

    The development and characterisation of new metallic biomaterials that contain non-toxic and non-allergic elements but possess low elastic modulus and low biodegradation rates, has become a topic of serious investigation in orthopaedic implant application. The lowering of elastic modulus and improving of corrosion resistance can be achieved by specific chemical alloying and super-elasticity effects, associated with a stress-induced phase transformation from the BCC metastable beta phase to the orthorhombic α″ martensite. Using this framework, this paper focuses on the effect of Nb and/or Zr micro-additions on the elastic modulus/yield strength balance and discusses microstructure, and the mechanical and electrochemical behaviour of four new β-Ti-8Mo-xNb-xZr (x=2-5) alloys, using tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, SEM characterisation, ultrasound technique and potentiodynamic polarisation methods. The results reveal that the alloys exhibit a pronounced microstructural sensitivity response, with alloying elements and excellent agreement between β-stability and high mechanical strength, with increasing Nb additions. Although all the alloys possess excellent corrosion resistance and low Young׳s modulus, Ti-8Mo-4Nb-2Zr alloy, which consists of β+α'' phases, exhibits a low Young modulus of 35GPa, which is lower than those of the commercial alloys already used in biomedical implantation. The significant corrosion resistance, nontoxicity and better mechanical compatibility are properties pertinent to preventing stress shielding and bone resorption in orthopaedic implant applications. PMID:26773649

  17. Nanostructured Zr-Pd Metallic Glass Thin Film for Biochemical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketov, Sergey V.; Shi, Xuetao; Xie, Guoqiang; Kumashiro, Ryotaro; Churyumov, Alexander Yu.; Bazlov, Andrey I.; Chen, Na; Ishikawa, Yoshifumi; Asao, Naoki; Wu, Hongkai; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.

    2015-01-01

    Zr-Pd metallic glassy thin films with a hierarchical nano-scale structure, produced by magnetron sputtering of the Zr and Pd powder mixture, demonstrate a unique combination of physical and biochemical properties. Thermal stability of the nano-structured glassy samples, their resistance to oxidation in dry air and phase transformation behavior are discussed in the present work. These binary alloy samples also show exceptionally high corrosion resistance and spontaneous passivation in a simulated body fluid. Experiments on the catalytic activity and biocompatibility of this nanostructured metallic glass indicate that this is a very suitable material for biochemical applications. Compared to the multicomponent alloys studied earlier this binary alloy has much simpler chemical composition, which makes preparation of the sample with defined stoichiometry easier, especially when the elements have different sputtering rates.

  18. Unique properties of CuZrAl bulk metallic glasses induced by microalloying

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2011-12-15

    We studied the glass forming abilities (GFA), mechanical, and physical properties of (CuZr){sub 92.5}Al{sub 7}X{sub 0.5} (X = La, Sm, Ce, Gd, Ho, Y, and Co) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). We find that the GFA, mechanical, and physical properties can be markedly changed and modulated by the minor rare earth addition. The Kondo screening effect is found to exist in (CuZr){sub 92.5}Al{sub 7}Ce{sub 0.5} BMG at low temperatures and the Schottky effect exists in all the rare earth element doped BMGs. Our results indicate that the minor addition is an effective way for modulating and getting desirable properties of the BMGs. The mechanisms of the effects of the addition are discussed. The results have implications for the exploration of metallic glasses and for improving the mechanical and low temperature physical properties of BMGs.

  19. Partition coefficients of Hf, Zr, and REE between zircon, apatite, and liquid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujimaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Concentration ratios of Hf, Zr, and REE between zircon, apatite, and liquid were determined for three igneous compositions: two andesites and a diorite. The concentration ratios of these elements between zircon and corresponding liquid can approximate the partition coefficient. Although the concentration ratios between apatite and andesite groundmass can be considered as partition coefficients, those for the apatite in the diorite may deviate from the partition coefficients. The HREE partition coefficients between zircon and liquid are very large (100 for Er to 500 for Lu), and the Hf partition coefficient is even larger. The REE partition coefficients between apatite and liquid are convex upward, and large (D=10-100), whereas the Hf and Zr partition coefficients are less than 1. The large differences between partition coefficients of Lu and Hf for zircon-liquid and for apatite-liquid are confirmed. These partition coefficients are useful for petrogenetic models involving zircon and apatite. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Trace element indiscrimination diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Tang, Qingyan; Ripley, Edward M.

    2015-09-01

    We tested the accuracy of trace element discrimination diagrams for basalts using new datasets from two petrological databases, PetDB and GEOROC. Both binary and ternary diagrams using Zr, Ti, V, Y, Th, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sm, and Sc do a poor job of discriminating between basalts generated in various tectonic environments (continental flood basalt, mid-ocean ridge basalt, ocean island basalt, oceanic plateau basalt, back-arc basin basalt, and various types of arc basalt). The overlaps between the different types of basalt are too large for the confident application of such diagrams when used in the absence of geological and petrological constraints. None of the diagrams we tested can clearly discriminate between back-arc basin basalt and mid-ocean ridge basalt, between continental flood basalt and oceanic plateau basalt, and between different types of arc basalt (intra-oceanic, island and continental arcs). Only ocean island basalt and some mid-ocean ridge basalt are generally distinguishable in the diagrams, and even in this case, mantle-normalized trace element patterns offer a better solution for discriminating between the two types of basalt.

  1. Observations of a Cast Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that Cu-Cr-Nb alloys have considerable advantages over the copper alloys currently used in regeneratively cooled rocket engine liners. Observations indicated that Zr and Nb have similar chemical properties and form very similar compounds. Glazov and Zakharov et al. reported the presence of Cr2Zr in Cu-Cr-Zr alloys with up to 3.5 wt% Cr and Zr though Zeng et al. calculated that Cr2Zr could not exist in a ternary Cu-Cr-Zr alloy. A cast Cu-6.15 wt% Cr-5.25 wt% Zr alloy was examined to determine if the microstructure developed would be similar to GRCop-84 (Cu-6.65 wt% Cr-5.85 wt% Nb). It was observed that the Cu-Cr-Zr system did not form any Cr2Zr even after a thermal exposure at 875 C for 176.5 h. Instead the alloy consisted of three phases: Cu, Cu5Zr, and Cr.

  2. Deformed Structures and Shape Coexistence in Zr-98

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaizola, Bruno; 8pi Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The nuclear structure of the zirconium isotopes evolves from a mid-open neutron shell deformed region (80Zr), through a closed shell (90Zr), to a closed subshell (96Zr), and then to a sudden reappearance of deformation (100Zr). This rapid onset of deformation across the Zr isotopes is unprecedented, and the issue of how collectivity appears and disappears in these isotopes is of special interest. Until recently, only 98Zr (and maybe 100Zr) had indirect and weak evidence for shape coexistence, with only speculative interpretation of the experiments. Recent results from high precision B(E2) measurements provided direct evidence of shape coexistence in 94Zr and suggested that it may happen in many other nuclei in this region. In order to provide direct evidence of shape coexistence in 98Zr a high-statistical-quality γγ experiment was carried out with the 8 π spectrometer at ISAC-TRIUMF. The array consists of 20 Compton-suppressed hyper-pure germanium detectors plus β particle and conversion electron detectors. Excited states up to ~ 5 MeV in 98Zr were populated in the β- decay of 98Y Jπ = (0-) and 98mY J = (4,5). Preliminary results on key branching ratios will be presented. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the National Research Council of Canada.

  3. Experimental partitioning of Zr, Ti, and Nb between silicate liquid and a complex noble metal alloy and the partitioning of Ti between perovskite and platinum metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, Stephen R.; Jones, John H.

    1993-01-01

    El Goresy et al.'s observation of Nb, Zr, and Ta in refractory platinum metal nuggets (RPMN's) from Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) in the Allende meteorite led them to propose that these lithophile elements alloyed in the metallic state with noble metals in the early solar nebula. However, Grossman pointed out that the thermodynamic stability of Zr in the oxide phase is vastly greater than metallic Zr at estimated solar nebula conditions. Jones and Burnett suggested this discrepancy may be explained by the very non-ideal behavior of some lithophile transition elements in noble metal solutions and/or intermetallic compounds. Subsequently, Fegley and Kornacki used thermodynamic data taken from the literature to predict the stability of several of these intermetallic compounds at estimated solar nebula conditions. Palme and Schmitt and Treiman et al. conducted experiments to quantify the partitioning behavior of certain lithophile elements between silicate liquid and Pt-metal. Although their results were somewhat variable, they did suggest that Zr partition coefficients were too small to explain the observed 'percent' levels in some RPMN's. Palme and Schmitt also observed large partition coefficients for Nb and Ta. No intermetallic phases were identified. Following the work of Treiman et al., Jurewicz and Jones performed experiments to examine Zr, Nb, and Ti partitioning near solar nebula conditions. Their results showed that Zr, Nb, and Ti all have an affinity for the platinum metal, with Nb and Ti having a very strong preference for the metal. The intermetallic phases (Zr,Fe)Pt3, (Nb,Fe)Pt3, and (Ti,Fe)Pt3 were identified. Curiously, although both experiments and calculations indicate that Ti should partition strongly into Pt-metal (possibly as TiPt3), no Ti has ever been observed in any RPMN's. Fegley and Kornacki also noticed this discrepancy and hypothesized that the Ti was stabilized in perovskite which is a common phase in Allende CAI's.

  4. Local atomic structure around Ni, Nb, and Zr atoms in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys studied by x-ray absorption fine structure method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oji, H.; Handa, K.; Ide, J.; Honma, T.; Yamaura, S.; Inoue, A.; Umesaki, N.; Emura, S.; Fukuhara, M.

    2009-06-01

    To elucidate hydrogen effects on the atomic configuration of Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys exhibiting proton-tunneling-induced Coulomb oscillation, we investigated the local atomic configuration around the Ni, Nb, and Zr atoms by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) method. The analysis of the XAFS spectra indicates that there is the significant difference in structural response between the Zr 30 and the Zr 40 at. % alloys when hydrogen atoms are charged; charging the hydrogen atoms basically does not alter the local structures around the three atoms for the Zr 30 at. % alloy but induces the elongation of the Zr-Zr, Zr-Nb, and Nb-Ni distances for the Zr 40 at. % alloy. The distorted icosahedral Zr5Ni5Nb3 clusters assembled in randomly packed manners for the possible models in the Ni-Nb-Zr glassy alloy are proposed. The sites where hydrogen atoms occupy are also inferred.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a polyborosilazane/Cp2ZrCl2 hybrid precursor for the Si-B-C-N-Zr multinary ceramic.

    PubMed

    Long, Xin; Shao, Changwei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jun

    2015-09-21

    A novel zirconium-contained polyborosilazane (PBSZ-Zr) was synthesized by chemical modification of a liquid polyborosilazane (LPBSZ) with Cp2ZrCl2. A Si-B-C-N-Zr multinary ceramic was prepared via pyrolysis of PBSZ-Zr. The properties and the ceramization process of PBSZ-Zr, as well as the microstructural development and properties of the derived SiBCN-Zr ceramic, were well studied. The active Si-H and N-H groups in LPBSZ react with Zr-Cl in Cp2ZrCl2 to form PBSZ-Zr polymers. The Zr content of the SiBCN-Zr ceramic was 3.39 wt% when the weight ratio of Cp2ZrCl2 to LPBSZ was 20 : 100. The SiBCN-Zr ceramic remains amorphous when pyrolyzed below 1600 °C, but the crystal phases of Zr2CN, ZrC, BN, SiC, and Si3N4 were detected from a 1600 °C treated sample. Due to the low activity of free carbon at the interface of the SiBCN-Zr ceramic, the oxidation resistance of the SiBCN-Zr ceramic under air was improved compared with the SiBCN ceramic. PMID:26234789

  6. 89 Zr(n,γ)90 Zr from a surrogate reaction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Shuya; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Escher, J. E.; Hughes, R. O.; Ressler, J. J.; Scielzo, N. D.; Thompson, I.; Austin, R. A. E.; McCleskey, E.; McCleskey, M.; Saastamoinen, A.; Ross, T.

    2015-04-01

    While recent studies have demonstrated the validity of the surrogate reaction approach for studying fission cross sections of short-lived actinides, its applicability for (n, γ) is still under investigation. We studied the γ-decay of 90 Zr produced by 91 Zr(p,d) and 92 Zr(p,t) in order to infer the 89 Zr(n, γ) cross sections. The experiments were carried out at the K150 Cyclotron facility at Texas A&M University with a 28.5-MeV proton beam. The reaction deuterons and tritons were measured at forward angles of 30-60° with the STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) array of three segmented Micron S2 silicon detectors. Compound nuclei with energies up to a few MeV above the neutron separation thresholds were populated. The coincident γ-rays were measured with the LiTeR (Livermore Texas Richmond) array of five Compton-suppressed HPGe clovers. We will present results of γ-emission probabilities of 89 Zr(n, γ) and some theoretical discussions. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52- 07NA27344. One of the authors, S. O. is supported by JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship for Research Abroad.

  7. Growth and surface characterization of TiNbZr thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, D A; Gobbi, A L; Paulin Filho, P I; Maia da Costa, M E H; Nascente, P A P

    2014-10-01

    Low modulus of elasticity and the presence of non-toxic elements are important criteria for the development of materials for implant applications. Low modulus Ti alloys can be developed by designing β-Ti alloys containing non-toxic alloying elements such as Nb and Zr. Actually, most of the metallic implants are produced with stainless steel (SS) because it has adequate bulk properties to be used as biomaterials for orthopedic or dental implants and is less expensive than Ti and its alloys, but it is less biocompatible than them. The coating of this SS implants with Ti alloy thin films may be one alternative to improve the biomaterial properties at a relatively low cost. Sputtering is a physical deposition technique that allows the formation of nanostructured thin films. Nanostructured surfaces are interesting when it comes to the bone/implant interface due to the fact that both the surface and the bone have nanoscale particle sizes and similar mechanical properties. TiNbZr thin films were deposited on both Si(111) and stainless steel (SS) substrates. The TiNbZr/Si(111) film was used as a model system, while the TiNbZr/SS film might improve the biocompatibility and extend the life time of stainless steel implants. The morphology, chemical composition, Young's modulus, and hardness of the films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and nanoindentation. PMID:25175186

  8. Effect of B, Zr, and C on Hot Tearing of a Directionally Solidified Nickel-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzki, J.; Hartmann, N.; Rettig, R.; Affeldt, E.; Singer, R. F.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the minor elements B, Zr, and C on the castability of a Nickel-based γ'-strengthened superalloy has been investigated. Tube-like specimens were prepared by directional solidification where the rigid ceramic core leads to hoop stresses and grain boundary cracking. It was found that an important improvement in castability can be achieved by adjusting the minor elemental composition. Too low C (≤0.15 pct) and too high B and Zr contents (≥0.05 pct) lead to material that is very prone to solidification cracking and should be avoided. The results cannot be rationalized on the basis of the current models for solidification cracking. Instead, pronounced hot tearing is observed to occur at high amounts of γ/ γ'-eutectic and high Zr contents. The critical film stage where dendrites at the end of solidification do not touch and are separated by thin liquid films must be avoided. How Zr promotes the film stage will be discussed in the paper.

  9. Review of oxidation of Nb-1Zr

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    A major objective of the SP-100 Program Nuclear Assembly Test is to demonstrate the performance of a full-scale nuclear subsystem of a 100-kWe space nuclear power supply. The test will be run in a large vacuum chamber to protect the Nb-1Zr components from oxidation during operation. Much information about the oxidation of niobium and Nb-1Zr alloy already exists, and previous work in this area is reviewed. Oxidation of Nb-1Zr can proceed by solution, internal oxidation, and/or film formation. At temperatures up to about 650 K (377/degree/C), oxidation generally follows a parabolic rate law because of the formation of protective oxide(s). At higher temperatures, oxidation becomes linear, but results are extremely sensitive to pressure and other system variables. Results obtained by several investigators could not be predicted using empirical equations developed by one investigator relating the increase in oxygen concentration to pressure, temperature, time, and specimen thickness. Additional data are required to provide more reliable guidelines for system operation that will protect against catastrophic effects. 20 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Development of AMS procedure for measurement of 93Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenting; Collon, Philippe; Kashiv, Yoav; Bowers, Matthew; Robertson, Daniel; Schmitt, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    The procedure for measuring 93Zr (t1/2 = 1.5 Ma) by AMS is currently being developed at the Nuclear Science Lab at the University of Notre Dame and we report on first experiments performed in this direction. AMS detection of 93Zr can potentially be applied to address astrophysical and environmental issues: (1) the measurement of the 92Zr(n,γ)93Zr reaction cross-section at nucleosynthesis s-process relevant temperatures, (2) the search for potential live 93Zr from a supernova in deep sea sediments, (3) hydrological and radioactive waste tracing. The measurement of 93Zr requires adequate separation from its stable isobar 93Nb. We are currently working on optimizing this separation by using the GasFilled Magnet technique with additional multiple dE measurements in a focal plane ionization chamber.

  11. Superelastic properties of biomedical (Ti-Zr)-Mo-Sn alloys.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Muhammad Farzik; Kim, Hee Young; Hosoda, Hideki; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2015-03-01

    A new class of Ti-50Zr base biomedical superelastic alloys was developed in this study. The (Ti-Zr)-Mo-Sn alloys exhibited a shape memory effect and superelastic property by adjusting Mo and Sn contents. The (Ti-Zr)-1.5Mo-3Sn alloy revealed the most stable superelasticity among (Ti-Zr)-(1-2)Mo-(2-4)Sn alloys. The superelastic recovery strain showed a strong dependence on heat treatment temperature after cold working in the (Ti-Zr)-1.5Mo-3Sn alloy. The superelastic recovery strain increased as the heat treatment temperature increased although the critical stress for slip decreased. The (Ti-Zr)-1.5Mo-3Sn alloy heat treated at 1073K exhibited excellent superelastic properties with a large recovery strain as large as 7% which is due to the strong {001}β<110>β recrystallization texture. PMID:25579891

  12. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    SciTech Connect

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  13. Directional solidification of (Ti, Zr) carbide-(Ti, Zr) diboride eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, C.C.; Beratan, H.R.; Bradt, R.C.; Stubican, V.C.

    1984-03-01

    The ZrC-ZrB2, ZrC-TiB2, and TiC-TiB2 metal diboride-metal carbide pseudo-binary eutectic systems have been successfully solidified directionally by means of the floating zone method. The first and third of these eutectics possess a morphology consisting of columnar grains of parallel lamellae with interlamellar spacings that adhere to the lambda-squared (R) C relationship, while the second is noted to solidify in a Chinese calligraphy-like morphology of broken and deformed lamellae. This phenomenon may be related to solid solution effects, but it did not prevent the interlamellar spacings from following the aforementioned law. The calligraphic effect's values are larger than those of the other two systems, and the constant, C, is accordingly about an order of magnitude larger. All three of these cubic-hexagonal systems exhibited identical epitaxial relationships. 24 references.

  14. Hybrid natural element method for viscoelasticity problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan-Kai; Ma, Yong-Qi; Dong, Yi; Feng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid natural element method (HNEM) for two-dimensional viscoelasticity problems under the creep condition is proposed. The natural neighbor interpolation is used as the test function, and the discrete equation system of the HNEM for viscoelasticity problems is obtained using the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle. In contrast to the natural element method (NEM), the HNEM can directly obtain the nodal stresses, which have higher precisions than those obtained using the moving least-square (MLS) approximation. Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and superiority of this HNEM. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No.13ZR1415900).

  15. A peristaltic pump driven 89Zr separation module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siikanen, J.; Peterson, M.; Tran, T. A.; Roos, P.; Ohlsson, T.; Sandell, A.

    2012-12-01

    To facilitate the separation of 89Zr produced in yttrium foils, an automated separation module was designed and assembled. The module separates more than 85% of produced 89Zr - activity in 3 g foils in less than 90 min. About 10 % remains in the dissolving vial. The quality of the separated 89Zr activity was investigated for labeling of the HER2-binding monoclonal antibody fragment, trastuzumab-Fab.

  16. Synthesis of ZrC hollow nanospheres at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guozhen; Chen, Di; Liu, Yuanfang; Tang, Kaibin; Qian, Yitai

    2004-02-01

    A novel chemical synthetic route has been developed to prepare ZrC hollow nanospheres at 600°C, using ZrCl 4 and C 6Cl 6 as source materials, and metallic Na as the reductant. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. And an in situ template reduction-carbonization mechanism for ZrC hollow nanospheres was proposed.

  17. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  18. Mass transport and crystal growth of the mixed ZrS2-ZrSe2 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, Heribert; Goldman, Howard

    1986-01-01

    The solid solubility of the ZrS2-ZrSe2 system was reinvestigated by annealing techniques to establish the relationship between composition and lattice parameters. Mixed crystals of ZrS(2x)Se2(1-x) for selected compositions of the source material were grown by chemical vapor transport and characterized by X-ray diffraction and microscopic methods. The mass transport rates and crystal growth of ZrSSe were investigated and compared with those of other compositions. The mass fluxes of the mixed system showed an increase with increasing selenium content. The transport products were richer in ZrSe2 than the residual source materials when the ZrSe2 content of the starting materials was greater than 50 mol.-pct. The mass transport rates revealed an increasing mass flux with pressure.

  19. Fractionation of Zr and Hf during the differentiation of peralkaline magmatic system (Lovozero rare metal deposit, Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogarko, Liya

    2016-04-01

    Zirconium and hafnium are valuable strategic metals. We assessed principal features of the distribution of these elements in peralkaline rocks, ores and rock-forming and accessory minerals of Lovozero complex. The accumulation of these elements during the evolution of alkaline magma of Lovozero deposit up to extremely high concentrations in eudialyte ores (5-8% ZrO2 and 1200-1800 ppm Hf) has been established. These ores represent valuable complex raw material not only for Zr and Hf, but for REE as well. We evaluated partition coefficients of these elements in alkaline pyroxenes (aegirines) from porphyry-like agpaitic lujavrites of Lovozero massif which are 0.40 for zirconium and 0.58 for hafnium. We assessed variations of Zr/Hf ratio for all the rocks of Lovozero alkaline massif. The growth of this ratio in the course of the evolution of alkaline magma has been observed from 38 in the earliest magmatic phase, to 44 in the second phase and to 51-53 in the latest manifestation of alkaline magmatsm. On the basis of the obtained data and equations of equilibrium and fractional crystallization the model of the fractionation of zirconium and hafnium during the evolution of Lovozero intrusion has been constructed. We have demonstrated that the source of strongly enriched magmatic systems similar to Lovozero rare metal deposit is short-lived enriched reservoir - metasomatized and carbonatized mantle substrate. We investigated the fractionation of zirconium and hafnium in carbonatized mantle xenoliths from East Antarctica. The elevated Zr/Hf ratios (up to 125) in metasomatized xenoliths by comparison with the chondritic value have been found. The main reactions of carbonate metasomatism lead to the replacement of primary orthopyroxene by clinopyroxene 2Mg2Si2O6 + CaMg(CO3)2 = 2Mg2SiO4 + CaMgSi2O6 + 2CO2 3CaMg(CO3)2 + CaMgSi2O6 = 4CaCO3 + 2Mg2SiO4 + 2CO2 The substantial expansion of the clinopyroxene crystallization field results in increase of Zr/Hf ratio in equilibrium

  20. Thermal Expansion of ZrO2-ZrW2O8 Composites Prepared Using Co-Precipitation Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongfei; Zhang, Zhiping; Cheng, Xiaonong; Yang, Juan

    In this work, a series of ZrO2/ZrW2O8 ceramic composites with different amounts of ZrW2O8 were successfully prepared by calcining the precursors synthesized using co-precipitation route at 1150°C for 3 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirmed that the composites only consisted of α-ZrW2O8 phase and m-ZrO2 phase. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the synthesized ZrO2/ZrW2O8 composites showed that the specimens had good mixed-uniformities. In addition, the thermal expansion coefficients of the composites decreased with increased amounts of negative thermal expansion ZrW2O8, specimen with 26wt% ZrW2O8 shows almost zero thermal expansion and its average thermal expansion coefficient is -0.5897×10-6K-1 in the temperature range from 30°C to 600°C.

  1. Integration des sciences et de la langue: Creation et experimentation d'un modele pedagogique pour ameliorer l'apprentissage des sciences en milieu francophone minoritaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Marianne

    Les faibles resultats en sciences des eleves du milieu francophone minoritaire, lors d'epreuves au plan national et international, ont interpelle la recherche de solutions. Cette these avait pour but de creer et d'experimenter un modele pedagogique pour l'enseignement des sciences en milieu linguistique minoritaire. En raison de la presence de divers degres de francite chez la clientele scolaire de ce milieu, plusieurs elements langagiers (l'ecriture, la discussion et la lecture) ont ete integres a l'apprentissage scientifique. Nous avions recommande de commencer le processus d'apprentissage avec des elements langagiers plutot informels (redaction dans un journal, discussions en dyades...) pour progresser vers des activites langagieres plus formelles (redaction de rapports ou d'explications scientifiques). En ce qui a trait a l'apprentissage scientifique, le modele preconisait une demarche d'evolution conceptuelle d'inspiration socio-constructiviste tout en s'appuyant fortement sur l'apprentissage experientiel. Lors de l'experimentation du modele, nous voulions savoir si celui-ci provoquait une evolution conceptuelle chez les eleves, et si, simultanement, le vocabulaire scientifique de ces derniers s'enrichissait. Par ailleurs, nous cherchions a comprendre comment les eleves vivaient leurs apprentissages dans le cadre de ce modele pedagogique. Une classe de cinquieme annee de l'ecole de Grande-Digue, dans le Sud-est du Nouveau-Brunswick, a participe a la mise a l'essai du modele en etudiant les marais sales locaux. Lors d'entrevues initiales, nous avons remarque que les connaissances des eleves au sujet des marais sales etaient limitees. En effet, s'ils etaient conscients que les marais etaient des lieux naturels, ils ne pouvaient pas necessairement les decrire avec precision. Nous avons egalement constate que les eleves utilisaient surtout des mots communs (plantes, oiseaux, insectes) pour decrire le marais. Les resultats obtenus indiquent que les eleves ont

  2. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  3. Studies of V, Nb, Cr, and Zr substituted 2:17 compounds and their carbides using neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, H.; Hu, Z.; Chen, M.; Yelon, W.B.; Marasinghe, G.K.; Ezekwenna, P.C.; James, W.J.; Chang, W.C.; Tsai, S.H.

    1997-04-01

    Samples of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17{minus}x}T{sub x}C{sub y} with T=V, Nb, Cr, and Zr were prepared by melting of the constituent elements including C and studied by neutron diffraction. Comparing with their uncarbided counterparts, we found that the substituents transfer, more or less, from the {ital 6c} site to the {ital 18f} and {ital 18h} sites with the introduction of C atoms. This behavior appears to relate to the electronegativities between the C atoms and the early transition series elements because the {ital 18f} and {ital 18h} sites are near neighbors of the interstitial C site. However, the C effects in the V, Nb, Cr, and Zr samples are not as strong as those in Ti samples. SQUID measurements show that the Curie temperatures of these samples depend on both the interstitial C atoms and the substituents. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Studies of V, Nb, Cr, and Zr substituted 2:17 compounds and their carbides using neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Hu, Z.; Chen, M.; Yelon, W. B.; Marasinghe, G. K.; Ezekwenna, P. C.; James, W. J.; Chang, W. C.; Tsai, S. H.

    1997-04-01

    Samples of Nd2Fe17-xTxCy with T=V, Nb, Cr, and Zr were prepared by melting of the constituent elements including C and studied by neutron diffraction. Comparing with their uncarbided counterparts, we found that the substituents transfer, more or less, from the 6c site to the 18f and 18h sites with the introduction of C atoms. This behavior appears to relate to the electronegativities between the C atoms and the early transition series elements because the 18f and 18h sites are near neighbors of the interstitial C site. However, the C effects in the V, Nb, Cr, and Zr samples are not as strong as those in Ti samples. SQUID measurements show that the Curie temperatures of these samples depend on both the interstitial C atoms and the substituents.

  5. Combinatorial development of antibacterial Zr-Cu-Al-Ag thin film metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanhui; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Cheung, Bettina; Liu, Jingbei; Chen, Zheng; Scanley, B. Ellen; Wesolowski, Donna; Pressley, Mariyah; Broadbridge, Christine C.; Altman, Sidney; Schwarz, Udo D.; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Schroers, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Metallic alloys are normally composed of multiple constituent elements in order to achieve integration of a plurality of properties required in technological applications. However, conventional alloy development paradigm, by sequential trial-and-error approach, requires completely unrelated strategies to optimize compositions out of a vast phase space, making alloy development time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we challenge the conventional paradigm by proposing a combinatorial strategy that enables parallel screening of a multitude of alloys. Utilizing a typical metallic glass forming alloy system Zr-Cu-Al-Ag as an example, we demonstrate how glass formation and antibacterial activity, two unrelated properties, can be simultaneously characterized and the optimal composition can be efficiently identified. We found that in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ag alloy system fully glassy phase can be obtained in a wide compositional range by co-sputtering, and antibacterial activity is strongly dependent on alloy compositions. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity is sensitive to Cu and Ag while essentially remains unchanged within a wide range of Zr and Al. The proposed strategy not only facilitates development of high-performing alloys, but also provides a tool to unveil the composition dependence of properties in a highly parallel fashion, which helps the development of new materials by design.

  6. Hot Workability of CuZr-Based Shape Memory Alloys for Potential High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-07-01

    The research on high-temperature shape memory alloys has been growing because of the interest of several potential industrial fields, such as automotive, aerospace, mechanical, and control systems. One suitable candidate is given by the CuZr system, because of its relative low price in comparison with others, like the NiTi-based one. In this context, the goal of this work is the study of hot workability of some CuZr-based shape memory alloys. In particular, this study addresses on the effect of hot rolling process on the metallurgical and calorimetric properties of the CuZr system. The addition of some alloying elements (Cr, Co, Ni, and Ti) is taken into account and their effect is also put in comparison with each other. The alloys were produced by means of an arc melting furnace in inert atmosphere under the shape of cigars. Due to the high reactivity of these alloys at high temperature, the cigars were sealed in a stainless steel can before the processing and two different procedures of hot rolling were tested. The characterization of the rolled alloys is performed using discrete scanning calorimetry in terms of evolution of the martensitic transformation and scanning electron microscopy for the microstructural investigations. Additionally, preliminary tests of laser interaction has been also proposed on the alloy more interesting for potential applications, characterized by high transformation temperatures and its good thermal stability.

  7. Combinatorial development of antibacterial Zr-Cu-Al-Ag thin film metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhui; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Cheung, Bettina; Liu, Jingbei; Chen, Zheng; Scanley, B Ellen; Wesolowski, Donna; Pressley, Mariyah; Broadbridge, Christine C; Altman, Sidney; Schwarz, Udo D; Kyriakides, Themis R; Schroers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Metallic alloys are normally composed of multiple constituent elements in order to achieve integration of a plurality of properties required in technological applications. However, conventional alloy development paradigm, by sequential trial-and-error approach, requires completely unrelated strategies to optimize compositions out of a vast phase space, making alloy development time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we challenge the conventional paradigm by proposing a combinatorial strategy that enables parallel screening of a multitude of alloys. Utilizing a typical metallic glass forming alloy system Zr-Cu-Al-Ag as an example, we demonstrate how glass formation and antibacterial activity, two unrelated properties, can be simultaneously characterized and the optimal composition can be efficiently identified. We found that in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ag alloy system fully glassy phase can be obtained in a wide compositional range by co-sputtering, and antibacterial activity is strongly dependent on alloy compositions. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity is sensitive to Cu and Ag while essentially remains unchanged within a wide range of Zr and Al. The proposed strategy not only facilitates development of high-performing alloys, but also provides a tool to unveil the composition dependence of properties in a highly parallel fashion, which helps the development of new materials by design. PMID:27230692

  8. Deformation Behaviors of Thermo-Mechanically Processed Zr-Nb-P Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, San; Hong, Sun Ig

    Deformation behaviors of Zr-1.5 wt. % Nb alloys with no phosphorus addition and with various phosphorous contents (20 ppm, 160 ppm) were investigated in this study. The flow stress of Zr-1.5 Nb increased with the addition of 20~160 ppm phosphorous over a temperature range from room temperature to 450C. The dislocation density appeared to increase with increase of phosphorous content. The increase of strength with phosphorous addition may be linked to the increase of dislocation density. The increase of dislocation density with a higher phosphorous content can be associated with the increase of statistically stored dislocation due to a lower recovery rate. The activation volume decreased from 650~750 b3 to 450`550 b3 with the addition of 160 ppm phosphorous at room temperature. The rate-controlling mechanism of the deformation of Zr-Nb-P alloy is thought to be the dislocation-solute interaction in which the segregation of alloying elements such as oxygen and phosphorous atoms affects the activation length of dislocations.

  9. Combinatorial development of antibacterial Zr-Cu-Al-Ag thin film metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhui; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Cheung, Bettina; Liu, Jingbei; Chen, Zheng; Scanley, B. Ellen; Wesolowski, Donna; Pressley, Mariyah; Broadbridge, Christine C.; Altman, Sidney; Schwarz, Udo D.; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Schroers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Metallic alloys are normally composed of multiple constituent elements in order to achieve integration of a plurality of properties required in technological applications. However, conventional alloy development paradigm, by sequential trial-and-error approach, requires completely unrelated strategies to optimize compositions out of a vast phase space, making alloy development time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we challenge the conventional paradigm by proposing a combinatorial strategy that enables parallel screening of a multitude of alloys. Utilizing a typical metallic glass forming alloy system Zr-Cu-Al-Ag as an example, we demonstrate how glass formation and antibacterial activity, two unrelated properties, can be simultaneously characterized and the optimal composition can be efficiently identified. We found that in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ag alloy system fully glassy phase can be obtained in a wide compositional range by co-sputtering, and antibacterial activity is strongly dependent on alloy compositions. Our results indicate that antibacterial activity is sensitive to Cu and Ag while essentially remains unchanged within a wide range of Zr and Al. The proposed strategy not only facilitates development of high-performing alloys, but also provides a tool to unveil the composition dependence of properties in a highly parallel fashion, which helps the development of new materials by design. PMID:27230692

  10. Nb/Ta - Zr/Hf Fractionations during Subduction: Implications for the'Missing' Nb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zateslo, T.; Bizimis, M.; Salters, V. J.; Stern, C.; Taylor, R. N.

    2008-12-01

    Key differences between the chemical composition of terrestrial materials and those of meteorites have led to the suggestion that a 'hidden' high Nb/Ta reservoir exists in the Earth's mantle. In order to test this hypothesis we must identify the processes that can create such a reservoir. Here we report the first high precision HFSE data on products of the subduction processes thought to fractionate Nb from Ta: boninites (hydrous melting), adakites (slab melting), OIBs (Koolau, Walvis: plume with recycled oceanic crust), as well as kimberlites and lamproites. We developed a new method for the high precision determination of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf concentrations based on a modified version of standard addition. All analyses were performed on a single collector ICPMS (ELEMENT 1), using Y and Yb as internal standards to correct for instrumental drift during the unspiked -spiked sample sequence. Concentrations are calculated using a York- type regression that accounts for all measured and propagated errors. Long-term reproducibility (multiple dissolutions and multiple spike solutions) for the standards BHVO-1, BIR-1 AGV-1 and BCR-1 are better than 0.8% (1s) for Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios. The advantages of this method compared to previous methods are fast throughput, no column chemistry and low blanks. The Koolau and Walvis Ridge lavas have subchondritic Nb/Ta for a given Zr/Hf, overlapping other OIB suites and show no evidence for a recycled, high Nb/Ta reservoir in their source. OIB, considered as a group, have relatively constant Nb/Ta (15-16) but more variable Zr/Hf (35-50). In contrast, boninites (Chichi Jima) have significantly subchondritic Nb/Ta (4-12) at near constant Zr/Hf (35), while adakites (South Andes) extend to near chondritic Nb/Ta (13-19) at more variable Zr/Hf (30-40). The adakites showing the least evidence for crustal contamination have the highest Nb/Ta. The arc lavas cross the OIB trend at near right angle on a Nb/Ta vs. Zr/Hf plot having larger Nb

  11. Synthesis and Structures of the New Group IV Chalcogenides NaCuTiS 3 and NaCuZr Q3 ( Q = S, Se, Te)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuetto, Michael F.; Keane, Patricia M.; Ibers, James A.

    1993-08-01

    The new compounds NaCuTiS 3 and NaCuZr Q3 ( Q = S, Se, Te) have been synthesized through reaction of the elements with a Na 2Qn flux. The compounds NaCuTiS 3, NaCuZrSe 3, and NaCuZrTe 3 crystallize in space group D162h- Pnma of the orthorhombic system with four formula units in cells of dimensions a = 12.738(10), b = 3.554(3), c = 9.529(8) Å for NaCuTiS 3; a = 13.392(5), b = 3,833(1), c = 10.250(4) Å for NaCuZrSe 3; a = 14.34(4), b = 4.06(1), c = 10.93(3) Å for NaCuZrTe 3 ( T = 113 K). NaCuZrS 3 crystallizes in space group D172h - Cmcm of the orthorhombic system with four formula units in a cell of dimensions a = 3.688(1), b = 12.838(5), c = 9.726(3) Å. The structures of all four compounds have been determined by single-crystal X-ray methods. The structures are composed of 2∞[Cu MQ-3] ( M = Ti, Q = S; M = Zr, Q = S, Se, Te) layers separated by Na + cations. The Cu atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated and the M atoms are octahedrally coordinated. NaCuZrS 3 is isostructural with the recently reported series of compounds KCuZrQ 3 ( Q = S, Se, Te). NaCuTiS 3, NaCuZrSe 3, and NaCuZrTe 3 represent a new structure type with the 2∞ [Cu MQ-3] layer being composed of alternating pairs of Cu Q4 tetrahedra and M Q6 octahedra in the [001] direction. The Na 1 cations are coordinated by seven chalcogen atoms in a monocapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.

  12. Toward Complete Isotopic Analysis of Individual Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains: C, N, Si, Sr, Zr, Mo, and Ba in Single Grains of Type X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellin, M. J.; Calaway, W. F.; Davis, A. M.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.; Clayton, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of Sr, Ba, Zr and Mo in single presolar SiC grains from supernovae are different from those expected from either of the dominant heavy element neutron capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, the s-process and the r-process.

  13. Hybrid improper ferroelectricity in SrZrO3/BaZrO3 superlattice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Wang, Jie; Sahoo, M P K; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Shimada, Takahiro; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2016-08-24

    Incipient ferroelectrics, which show a unique dielectric property, arouse tremendous interests due to their potential application in microwave dielectric devices. However, ferroelectric transition in incipient ferroelectrics is suppressed entirely by quantum fluctuation. Here, by means of first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that there exists hybrid improper ferroelectricity in a layered artificial superlattice composed of the incipient ferroelectrics of SrZrO3 and BaZrO3. The hybrid improper ferroelectric polarization stems from oxygen octahedral rotation and coexists with the strain-induced ferroelectric distortion. The coexistence of oxygen octahedral rotation and ferroelectric distortion results in an enhanced polarization in the superlattice. It is further found that the total polarization in the superlattice is mainly contributed by the oxygen octahedral rotation for zero or small strain, whereas the contribution from strain-induced ferroelectric distortion gradually becomes predominant as the strain increases. The phonon dispersion, energy surface and atomic displacements are calculated to shed light on the underlying mechanism of the hybrid improper ferroelectricity in the SrZrO3/BaZrO3 superlattice. PMID:27523881

  14. Study of Fe Zr U B and Fe Zr U Cu B nanocrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sólyom, A.; Petrovič, P.; Marko, P.; Kováč, J.; Konczos, G.

    2000-06-01

    The influence of uranium and copper additives on the crystallization process and magnetic properties was studied in Fe 87Zr 7B 6 amorphous alloys. The addition of copper resulted in homogeneous nanocrystalline precipitates and improvement of soft magnetic properties. The alloying with uranium led to the formation of inhomogeneous microstructure and increase in coercive force.

  15. Grain Boundary Wetting by a Second Solid Phase in the Zr-Nb Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straumal, B. B.; Gornakova, A. S.; Kucheev, Y. O.; Baretzky, B.; Nekrasov, A. N.

    2012-05-01

    Zr-Nb alloys play the important role in the energy production being the main material for the cladding of nuclear fuel in the nuclear power plants. The thermo-mechanical treatment of these alloys proceeds in the (αZr) + (βZr, Nb) two-phase area of the Zr-Nb phase diagram. Therefore, the morphology and the mutual arrangement of the (Zr) and (Nb) phases play an extremely important role. The microstructure of binary Zr-Nb alloys with 2.5, 4, and 8 wt.% Nb after long anneals (720 h) was studied between 660 and 810 °C in the two-phase (αZr) + (βZr, Nb) area of the Zr-Nb phase diagram. (βZr, Nb)/(βZr, Nb) grain boundaries (GBs) completely or incompletely wetted by the αZr phase were observed. The portion of the completely wetted (βZr, Nb)/(βZr, Nb) GBs increases from 10% (at 660 °C) to 60% close to the upper border of the (αZr) + (βZr, Nb) two-phase area of the Zr-Nb phase diagram (850 °C). The temperature of the beginning of the GB wetting phase transition of (βZr, Nb)/(βZr, Nb) GBs by the αZr phase is T ws = 630 ± 10 °C. The αZr/αZr GBs completely wetted by a layer of (βZr, Nb) phase were not observed in the studied samples.

  16. Microstructure and Phase Stability of Single Crystal NiAl Alloyed with Hf and Zr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, I. E.; Dickerson, R. M.; Garg, A.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Darolia, R.

    1996-01-01

    Six near stoichiometric, NiAl single-crystal alloys, with 0.05-1.5 at.% of Hf and Zr additions plus Si impurities, were microstructurally analyzed in the as-cast, homogenized, and aged conditions. Hafnium-rich interdendritic regions, containing the Heusler phase (Ni2AlHf), were found in all the as-cast alloys containing Hf. Homogenization heat treatments partially reduced these interdendritic segregated regions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the as-cast and homogenized microstructures revealed the presence of a high density of fine Hf (or Zr) and Si-rich precipitates. These were identified as G-phase, Nil6X6Si7, or as an orthorhombic NiXSi phase, where X is Hf or Zr. Under these conditions the expected Heusler phase (beta') was almost completely absent. The Si responsible for the formation of the G and NiHfSi phases is the result of molten metal reacting with the Si-containing crucible used during the casting process. Varying the cooling rates after homogenization resulted in the refinement or complete suppression of the G and NiHfSi phases. In some of the alloys studied, long-term aging heat treatments resulted in the formation of Heusler precipitates, which were more stable at the aging temperature and coarsened at the expense of the G-phase. In other alloys, long-term aging resulted in the formation of the NiXSi phase. The stability of the Heusler or NiXSi phases can be traced to the reactive element (Hf or Zr) to silicon ratio. If the ratio is high, then the Heusler phase appears stable after long time aging. If the ratio is low, then the NiHfSi phase appears to be the stable phase.

  17. Elemental health

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Trace elements used in nutritional supplements and vitamins are discussed in the article. Relevant studies are briefly cited regarding the health effects of selenium, chromium, germanium, silicon, zinc, magnesium, silver, manganese, ruthenium, lithium, and vanadium. The toxicity and food sources are listed for some of the elements. A brief summary is also provided of the nutritional supplements market.

  18. Plastic Deformation Modes of CuZr/Cu Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yan; Abad, Oscar Torrents; Wang, Fei; Huang, Ping; Lu, Tian-Jian; Xu, Ke-Wei; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    We synthesized CuZr/Cu multilayers and performed nanoindentation testing to explore the dependence of plastic deformation modes on the thickness of CuZr layers. The Cu layers were 18 nm thick and the CuZr layers varied in thickness from 4 nm to 100 nm. We observed continuous plastic co-deformation in the 4 nm and 10 nm CuZr ‑ 18 nm Cu multilayers and plastic-induced shear instability in thick CuZr layers (>20 nm). The plastic co-deformation is ascribed to the nucleation and interaction of shear transformation zones in CuZr layers at the adjacent interfaces, while the shear instability is associated with the nucleation and propagation of shear bands in CuZr layers. Shear bands are initialized in the CuZr layers due to the accumulated glide dislocations along CuZr-Cu interfaces, and propagate into adjacent Cu layers via slips on {111} plane non-parallel to the interface. Due to crystallographic constraint of the Cu layers, shear bands are approximately parallel to {111} plane in the Cu layer.

  19. Plastic Deformation Modes of CuZr/Cu Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan; Abad, Oscar Torrents; Wang, Fei; Huang, Ping; Lu, Tian-Jian; Xu, Ke-Wei; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We synthesized CuZr/Cu multilayers and performed nanoindentation testing to explore the dependence of plastic deformation modes on the thickness of CuZr layers. The Cu layers were 18 nm thick and the CuZr layers varied in thickness from 4 nm to 100 nm. We observed continuous plastic co-deformation in the 4 nm and 10 nm CuZr - 18 nm Cu multilayers and plastic-induced shear instability in thick CuZr layers (>20 nm). The plastic co-deformation is ascribed to the nucleation and interaction of shear transformation zones in CuZr layers at the adjacent interfaces, while the shear instability is associated with the nucleation and propagation of shear bands in CuZr layers. Shear bands are initialized in the CuZr layers due to the accumulated glide dislocations along CuZr-Cu interfaces, and propagate into adjacent Cu layers via slips on {111} plane non-parallel to the interface. Due to crystallographic constraint of the Cu layers, shear bands are approximately parallel to {111} plane in the Cu layer. PMID:26984537

  20. Interdiffusion between Zr Diffusion Barrier and U-Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    K. Huang; Y. Park; Y. H. Sohn

    2012-12-01

    U-Mo alloys are being developed as low enrichment uranium fuels under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program. Significant reactions have been observed between U-Mo fuels and Al or Al alloy matrix. Refractory metal Zr has been proposed as barrier material to reduce the interactions. In order to investigate the compatibility and barrier effects between U-Mo alloy and Zr, solid-to-solid U-10wt.%Mo vs. Zr diffusion couples were assembled and annealed at 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 °C for various times. The microstructures and concentration profiles due to interdiffusion and reactions were examined via scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. Intermetallic phase Mo2Zr was found at the interface and its population increased when annealing temperature decreased. Diffusion paths were also plotted on the U-Mo-Zr ternary phase diagrams with good consistency. The growth rate of interdiffusion zone between U-10wt.%Mo and Zr was also calculated under the assumption of parabolic diffusion, and was determined to be about 103 times lower than the growth rate of diffusional interaction layer found in diffusion couples U-10wt.%Mo vs. Al or Al-Si alloy. Other desirable physical properties of Zr as barrier material, such as neutron adsorption rate, melting point and thermal conductivity are presented as supplementary information to demonstrate the great potential of Zr as the diffusion barrier for U-Mo fuel systems in RERTR.

  1. Raman spectra of ZrS3-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencher, R.; Jandl, S.; Carlone, C.

    1982-12-01

    Raman spectra of the one-dimensional ZrS3-ZrSe3 solid solutions are reported. A mixed one-mode and two-mode phonon behavior is observed. The study of the phonon width indicates a higher sensitivity to disorder in the case of the one-mode phonons compared to the case of the two-mode phonons.

  2. Supercoducting property of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, D.; Motoyama, G.; Kimura, H.; Inoue, A.

    The superconducting property of Zr55Cu(30-X)Al10Ni5NbX alloys prepared by arc melting and liquid quenching methods was investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The crystalline alloys with X = 0∼25 at.% prepared by arc melting method exhibited superconductivity with maximum Tc,on of 10.1 K. The alloys (X = 10∼23 at.%) with crystalline particles embedded in an amorphous structure, which were fabricated by melt spinning method, showed superconductivity with Tc,on of less than 4.0 K. The superconducting property of the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys was attributed to superconducting phases of Zr2Cu, Zr2Ni, Zr65Al10Nb25 and Zr-Nb contained in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys. The melt-spun Zr55Cu(30-X)Al10Ni5NbX (X = 10∼20 at.%) alloys exhibited glass transition at 718∼743 K and were found to be superconducting metallic glasses.

  3. On reversion phenomena in Cu-Zr-Cr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, H.; Kitano, H.; Kanno, M.

    1985-01-01

    Reversion phenomena in aged Cu-0.12% Zr-0.28% Cr alloy were investigated by means of resistivity measurement and transmission electron microscopy and compared with those of Cu-0.30% Zr and Cu-0.26% Cr alloys. Specimens in the form of a 0.5 mm sheet were solution-treated at 950 F for 1 hr water-quenched, aged, and finally reversed. The reversion phenomena were confirmed to exist in Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Cr alloys as well as Cu-Cr alloys, at aging temperatures of 300 to 500 F. The critical aging temperature for the reversion was not observed in all the alloys. Split aging increased the amount of reversion, particularly in Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Cr alloys, compared with that by conventional aging. The amount of reversion in Cu-Zr-Cr alloy was greatly affected by the resolution of Cr precipitate formed by preaging. Structural changes in Cu-Zr-Cr alloy due to the reversion were hardly observed by transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Plastic Deformation Modes of CuZr/Cu Multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Abad, Oscar Torrents; Wang, Fei; Huang, Ping; Lu, Tian-Jian; Xu, Ke-Wei; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We synthesized CuZr/Cu multilayers and performed nanoindentation testing to explore the dependence of plastic deformation modes on the thickness of CuZr layers. The Cu layers were 18 nm thick and the CuZr layers varied in thickness from 4 nm to 100 nm. We observed continuous plastic co-deformation in the 4 nm and 10 nm CuZr − 18 nm Cu multilayers and plastic-induced shear instability in thick CuZr layers (>20 nm). The plastic co-deformation is ascribed to the nucleation and interaction of shear transformation zones in CuZr layers at the adjacent interfaces, while the shear instability is associated with the nucleation and propagation of shear bands in CuZr layers. Shear bands are initialized in the CuZr layers due to the accumulated glide dislocations along CuZr-Cu interfaces, and propagate into adjacent Cu layers via slips on {111} plane non-parallel to the interface. Due to crystallographic constraint of the Cu layers, shear bands are approximately parallel to {111} plane in the Cu layer. PMID:26984537

  5. DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL STUDY OF THE U-ZR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, A; Soderlind, P; Turchi, P

    2008-06-25

    Density-functional formalism is applied to study the phase equilibria in the U-Zr system. The obtained ground-state properties of the {gamma} (bcc) and {delta} (C32) phases are in good agreement with experimental data. The decomposition curve for the {gamma}-based U-Zr solutions is calculated. Our calculations confirm that experimentally observed 'partial' ordering of the alloy components in the {delta}-UZr{sub 2} (AlB{sub 2}) phase, in which Zr atoms occupy the 'Al' position and the two 'B' sites are randomly shared by the U and Zr atoms, is the most energetically favorable within the C32 structure. We argue that stabilization of the {delta}-UZr{sub 2} phase relative to the {alpha}-Zr (hcp) structure is due to an increase of the Zr d-band occupancy that occurs when U is alloyed with Zr. A comparison with stabilization of the {omega}-phase (also C32) in Zr under compression is made.

  6. Determination of the direct double-β -decay Q value of 96Zr and atomic masses of Zr 90 -92 ,94 ,96 and Mo 92 ,94 -98 ,100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyuz, K.; Ariche, J.; Bollen, G.; Bustabad, S.; Eibach, M.; Izzo, C.; Novario, S. J.; Redshaw, M.; Ringle, R.; Sandler, R.; Schwarz, S.; Valverde, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental searches for neutrinoless double-β decay offer one of the best opportunities to look for physics beyond the standard model. Detecting this decay would confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino, and a measurement of its half-life can be used to determine the absolute neutrino mass scale. Important to both tasks is an accurate knowledge of the Q value of the double-β decay. The LEBIT Penning trap mass spectrometer was used for the first direct experimental determination of the 96Zr double-β decay Q value: Qβ β=3355.85 (15 ) keV. This value is nearly 7 keV larger than the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation [M. Wang et al., Chin. Phys. C 36, 1603 (2012), 10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/003] value and one order of magnitude more precise. The 3-σ shift is primarily due to a more accurate measurement of the 96Zr atomic mass: m (96Zr ) =95.908 277 35 (17 ) u. Using the new Q value, the 2 ν β β -decay matrix element, | M2 ν| , is calculated. Improved determinations of the atomic masses of all other zirconium (Zr 90 -92 ,94 ,96 ) and molybdenum (92 ,94 -98 ,100Mo ) isotopes using both 12C8 and 87Rb as references are also reported.

  7. New limits for the 2 νββ decay of 96Zr to excited nuclear states of 96Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean; Tornow, Werner

    2015-10-01

    The final results from our search for the 2 νββ decay of 96Zr to excited 0+ and 2+ states of 96Mo are presented. Such measurements provide valuable test cases for 2 νββ -decay nuclear matrix element calculations, which in turn are used to tune 0 νββ -decay nuclear matrix element calculations. After undergoing double- β decay to an excited state, the excited daughter nucleus decays to the ground state, emitting two coincident γ rays. These two γ rays are detected in coincidence by two HPGe detectors sandwiching the 96Zr sample, with a NaI veto in anti-coincidence. This experimental apparatus, located at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), has previously measured the 2 νββ decay of 100Mo and 150Nd to excited nuclear states. Experimental limits on the T1 / 2 and corresponding nuclear matrix element are presented for each of these decays. As a byproduct of this experiment, limits were also set on the single- β decay of 96Zr. Supported by DOE Grant: DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  8. Irradiation induced structural change in Mo2Zr intermetallic phase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gan, J.; Keiser, Jr., D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Eriksson, N.; Sohn, Y. H.; Kirk, M.

    2016-05-14

    The Mo2Zr phase has been identified as a major interaction product at the interface of U-10Mo and Zr. Transmission electron microscopy in-situ irradiation with Kr ions at 200 °C with doses up to 2.0E + 16 ions/cm2 was carried out to investigate the radiation stability of the Mo2Zr. The Mo2Zr undergoes a radiation-induced structural change, from a large cubic (cF24) to a small cubic (cI2), along with an estimated 11.2% volume contraction without changing its composition. The structural change begins at irradiation dose below 1.0E + 14 ions/cm2. Furthermore, the transformed Mo2Zr phase demonstrates exceptional radiation tolerance with the developmentmore » of dislocations without bubble formation.« less

  9. Microstructure Changes in Isochronally Annealed Alumina Fibre Reinforced Mg-Ag-Nd-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehn, J.; Smola, B.; Vostrý, P.; Stulíková, I.; Kainer, K. U.

    1997-12-01

    The commercial alloy QE22 (Mg-Ag-;Nd-Zr alloy) was reinforced by 22 vol% -Al2O3 short fibres applying the squeeze cast technology. Precipitation effects were studied in this material after a preceding solution heat treatment by isochronal annealing up to 300 °C by means of electrical resistivity, hardness and reversible stress relaxation measurements. The annealing response of the properties was compared to the annealing response of the unreinforced matrix alloy. The microstructure changes were studied in detail by transmission electron microscopy. A sharp drop of resistivity between 180 and 280 °C was found on normalised resistivity annealing curves of both reinforced and unreinforced specimens due to the redistribution of solutes. In composites the fibres act as nucleation centres in the precipitation process promoting e.g. precipitation of Al2Nd or Ag compounds. The Al content in the matrix is enhanced due to the decomposition of the preform binder. The evolution of the particle population inside the grains involves the formation of new Al2Nd-like cubic particles between 120 and 180 °C. Above 180 °C these particles are continuously substituted by hexagonal -phase and/or tetragonal Mg12Nd particles. This process finishes at 300 °C by the transformation of all new particles to semicoherent Mg12Nd precipitates. The precipitation process in grain interiors of the unreinforced alloy is different involving only change of the morphological features of tetragonal semicoherent Mg12Nd particles existing in the alloy already in the initial state after solution heat treatment. Die kommerzielle Legierung QE22 (Mg-Ag-Nd-Zr) wurde im Preßgießverfahren mit 22 Vol.-% δ-Al2O3 Kurzfasern verstärkt. Die Untersuchung des Ausscheidungsverhaltens während isochroner Wärmebehandlungen bis 300 °C nach vorangegangenem Lösungsglühen erfolgte über die Bestimmung der Änderung des elektrischen Widerstandes, der Härte und der reversiblen Spannungsrelaxation. Die Auswirkung der

  10. β-type Ti-10Mo-1.25Si-xZr biomaterials for applications in hard tissue replacements.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yongzhong; Li, Chunliu; Jiang, Wenping

    2012-08-01

    In order to develop new β-type Ti-based biochemical materials, a series of Ti-10Mo-1.25Si-xZr (x=4-13) alloys were designed and prepared using vacuum arc melting method. Phase analysis and microstructural observation showed that all the as cast samples consisted of equiaxed β-Ti phase. With the increase of Zr content, the structure of grain boundary changed from semi-continuous network to denser granular, and the microstructure was refined. The solid solution effect of the β-phase stabilization elements (i.e. Mo, Zr and Si) predominantly determined the mechanical properties. These β-type Ti-10Mo-1.25Si-xZr biomaterials exhibited a good combination of high compressive strength, high yield stress, good plasticity, as well as rather low Young's modulus (in the range of 23.086 GPa-32.623 GPa), which may offer potential advantages in the applications in hard tissue replacements (HTRs). PMID:24364974

  11. The role of Zr and Nb in oxidation/sulfidation behavior of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K. ); Baxter, D.J. INCO Alloy Ltd., Hereford, England )

    1990-11-01

    05Structural Fe-Cr-Ni alloys may undergo rapid degradation at elevated temperatures unless protective surface oxide scales are formed and maintained. The ability of alloys to resist rapid degradation strongly depends on their Cr content and the chemistry of the exposure environment. Normally, 20 wt % Cr is required for service at temperatures up to 1000{degree}C; the presence of sulfur, however, inhibits formation of a protective surface oxide scale. The oxidation and sulfidation behavior of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys is examined over a wide temperature range (650 to 1000{degree}C), with particular emphasis on the effects of alloy Cr content and the radiation of reactive elements such as Nb and Zr. Both Nb and Zr are shown to promote protective oxidation behavior on the 12 wt % Cr alloy in oxidizing environments and to suppress sulfidation in mixed oxygen/sulfur environments. Additions of Nb and Zr at 3 wt % level resulted in stabilization of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale and led to a barrier layer of Nb- or Zr-rich oxide at the scale/metal interface, which acted to minimize the transport of base metal cations across the scale. Oxide scales were preformed in sulfur-free environments and subsequently exposed to oxygen/sulfur mixed-gas atmospheres. Preformed scales were found to delay the onset of breakaway corrosion. Corrosions test results obtained under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions are presented. 58 refs., 55 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Structural and Electrical Properties of Zr x Y1- x O y Nanocomposites for Gate Dielectric Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Masoud; Bahari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of ultrathin Zr x Y1- x O y films was investigated as a good gate dielectric structure for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Zr-doped Y2O3 nanocrystallites were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The nanocrystallite size was determined using the Scherrer equation and x-ray powder method from the main peak of the sample phase observed in x-ray diffraction patterns. Moreover, qualitative elemental analysis was performed by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The nanocrystallite properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The nanocrystallite morphology was determined by atomic force microscopy, showing that the grain size of the nanoparticles observed at the surface depends on the type of metal dopant and the annealing temperature. The capacitance-voltage and current density-voltage characteristics of the Zr x Y1- x O y /Si structures were analyzed. The results indicate that the Zr0.1Y0.9O y nanocomposite can be used as a good gate dielectric for next-generation MOSFET devices. The conduction mechanism in electrical fields below 0.25 MV/cm and the temperature range of 333 K < T < 423 K was found to be ohmic emission. A thermal excitation model is proposed to explain the ohmic current conduction mechanism.

  13. Novel compounds in the Zr-O system, their crystal structures and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Oganov, Artem R; Li, Xinfeng; Dong, Huafeng; Zeng, Qingfeng

    2015-07-14

    With the motivation of exploring new high-strength ceramics, ab initio evolutionary simulations are performed to search for all the stable compounds in the Zr-O system. We have found that not only the traditional compound ZrO2, but also the ordered suboxides R3̅-Zr6O, R3̅c-Zr3O, P3̅1m-Zr2O and P6̅2m-ZrO are stable at zero pressure. The crystal structure of semimetallic P6̅2m-ZrO consists of Zr-graphene layers and can be described as an intercalated version of the ω-Zr structure. An interesting massive Dirac cone is found in the three-dimensional (3D) band structure of P6̅2m-ZrO at the Γ-point. The elastic properties, the hardness and the correlation between the mechanical properties of Zr-O compounds and the oxygen content have been systematically investigated. Surprisingly, the hardest zirconium oxide is not ZrO2, but ZrO. Both P6̅2m-ZrO and P3̅1m-Zr2O exhibit relatively high hardness values of 14 GPa and 10 GPa, respectively. The anisotropic Young's modulus E, torsion shear modulus Gt and linear compressibility β have been derived for P6̅2m-ZrO and P3̅1m-Zr2O. Further analyses of the density of states, the band structure and the crystal orbital Hamilton population indicate that the electronic structure of Zr-O compounds is directly related to their mechanical properties. The simultaneous occurrence of the 3D-framework of Zr-O and the strong Zr-Zr bonds in P6̅2m-ZrO explains its high hardness. PMID:26073292

  14. Mechanism of ZrB2 Formation in Molten Al-V-Zr Alloy During Boron Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliq, Abdul; Rhamdhani, Muhammad Akbar; Brooks, Geoffrey A.; Grandfield, John

    2016-02-01

    Smelter-grade aluminum cannot be used for electrical conductor applications without the removal of transition metal impurities including zirconium (Zr) and vanadium (V). These impurities are removed by treating molten aluminum with boron bearing substances in the casthouse. Such procedures are called boron treatment. Transition metal impurities form their borides and settle at bottom of the furnace. Industrially, Al-B (AlB2/AlB12) master alloys are used for this process. Literature review showed that ZrB2 are more stable compared to VB2 and AlB2 in the temperatures ranging from 948 K to 1173 K (675 °C to 900 °C). As a result, ZrB2 will form preferentially in molten aluminum during boron treatment process. In this study, a systematic investigation on formation of the ZrB2 and VB2 borides in Al-V-Zr-B alloys was carried out at 1023 K (750 °C). Experiments showed that the mechanism of ZrB2 and VB2 borides formation in molten aluminum is complex. It involves the possible phenomenon of chemical reactions, mass transfer in liquid phase, diffusion through borides layers, and the dissolution of Al3Zr, AlB2/AlB12 in the molten aluminum. Scanning electron microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray, and electron backscattered diffraction analyses revealed the preferential formation of ZrB2 in the Al-Zr-V-B alloys at 1023 K (750 °C). Moreover, ICP-AES analysis showed the higher rate of Zr removal compared to V from Al-Zr-V-B alloys. Overall it was suggested that the kinetics of Zr removal was controlled by the mass transfer of Zr through liquid phase. The calculated mass transfer coefficient ( k m) for Zr was 1.15 × 10-3 m/s which is within the range of those values reported in the literature.

  15. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  16. Elemental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a learning module integrating three disciplines--physics, chemistry, and biology--and based on four elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and silicon. Includes atomic model and silicon-based life activities. (YDS)

  17. Superheavy Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of creating elements with an atomic number of around 114. Describes the underlying physics responsible for the limited extent of the periodic table and enumerates problems that must be overcome in creating a superheavy nucleus. (GS)

  18. Anion Exchange Behavior Of Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb And Ta As Homologues Of Rf And Db In Mixed HF--Acetone Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, N. V.; Bozhikov, G. A.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Filosofov, D. V.; Sun Jin, Jon; Radchenko, V. I.; Lebedev, N. A.; Novgorodov, A. F.

    2010-04-30

    We studied in detail the sorption behavior of Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta on AG 1 anion exchange resin in HF-acetone mixed solutions as a function of organic cosolvent and acid concentrations. Anion exchange behavior was found to be strongly acetone concentration dependent. The distribution coefficients of Ti, Zr, Hf and Nb increased and those of Ta decreased with increasing content of acetone in HF solutions. With increasing HF concentration anion exchange equilibrium analysis indicated the formation of fluoride complexes of group 4 elements with charge-3 and Ta---2. For Nb the slope of-2 increased up to-5. Optimal conditions for separation of the elements using AIX chromatography were found. Group 4 elements formed MF{sub 7}{sup 3-} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) complexes whose sorption decreased Ti>Hf>Zr in reverse order of complex stability. This fact is of particular interest for studying ion exchange behavior of Rf compared to Ti. The advantages of studying chemical properties of Rf and Db in aqueous HF solutions mixed with organic solvents are briefly discussed.

  19. Redistribution of alloying elements in Zircaloy-2 after in-reactor exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, G.; Thuvander, M.; Tejland, P.; Dahlbäck, M.; Hallstadius, L.; Andrén, H.-O.

    2014-11-01

    An atom probe tomography study of the microstructure of a Zircaloy-2 material subjected to 9 annual cycles of BWR exposure has been conducted. Upon dissolution of secondary phase particles, Fe and Cr are seen to reprecipitate in large numbers of clusters and particles of 1-5 nm sizes throughout the Zr metal matrix. Fe and Sn were observed to segregate to ring-shaped features in the metal that are interpreted to be -component vacancy loops. This implies that these two elements play a major role in the irradiation growth phenomenon in Zr alloys, which is believed to be caused by the formation of -loops. Similarly to autoclave-corroded Zr alloys, the formation of a sub-oxide layer of approximate composition ZrO was observed. On the other hand, no oxygen saturated metal phase was detected underneath the oxide scale.

  20. Examination of the different roles of neutron transfer in the sub-barrier fusion reactions 32S+Zr,9694 and 40Ca +Zr,9694

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.; Zhang, H. Q.

    2015-01-01

    The sub-barrier capture (fusion) reactions 32S+90,94,96Zr, 36S+Zr,9690 , 40Ca +90,94,96Zr, and 48Ca +Zr,9690 with positive and negative Q values for neutron transfer are studied with the quantum diffusion approach and the universal fusion function representation. For these systems, the s -wave capture probabilities are extracted from the experimental excitation functions and are also analyzed. Different effects of the positive Qx n-value neutron transfer in the fusion enhancement are revealed in the relatively close reactions 32S+Zr,9694 and 40Ca +Zr,9694 .

  1. Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and REE in the depleted mantle: implications for the differentiation history of the crust-mantle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyer, Stefan; Münker, Carsten; Mezger, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    High-precision Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Sm, Nd and Lu concentration data of depleted mantle rocks from the Balmuccia peridotite complex (Ivrea Zone, Italian Alps) were determined by isotope dilution using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS). The Zr/Hf ratios of all investigated samples from the Balmuccia peridotite complex are significantly lower than the chondritic value of 34.2, and the most depleted samples have Zr/Hf ratios as low as 10. Correlated Zr/Hf ratios and Zr abundances of the lherzolites preserve the trend of a mantle residue that has been depleted by fractional melting. This trend confirms experimental studies that predict Hf to behave more compatibly than Zr during mantle melting. Experimentally determined partition coefficients imply that the major Zr and Hf depletion most likely occurred in the spinel stability field, with ( DZr/ DHf) cpx≈0.5, and not in the garnet stability field, where ( DZr/ DHf) grt is probably close to one. However, minor amounts of melting must have also occurred in a garnet facies mantle, as indicated by low Sm/Lu ratios in the Balmuccia peridotites. The Nb/Ta ratios of most lherzolites are subchondritic and vary only from 7 to 10, with the exception of three samples that have higher Nb/Ta ratios (18-24). The overall low Nb/Ta ratios of most depleted mantle rocks confirm a higher compatibility of Ta in the mantle. The uniform Nb/Ta ratios in most samples imply that even in 'depleted' mantle domains the budget of the highly incompatible Nb and Ta is controlled by enrichment processes. Such a model is supported by the positive correlation of Zr/Nb with the Zr concentration. However, the overall enrichment was weak and did barely affect the moderately incompatible elements Zr and Hf. The new constraints from the partitioning behaviour of Zr-Hf and Nb-Ta provide important insights into processes that formed the Earth's major silicate reservoirs. The

  2. Chemical and physical adsorption of a H2O molecule on a metal doped Zr (0 0 0 1) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yifan; Xiao, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Chemical and physical adsorption of a H2O molecule on a Zr (0 0 0 1) surface is studied by first principle calculations. A surface zirconium atom is substituted by a metal element atom in the 4th and 5th period of the periodic table to investigate the doping effect on the water adsorption. Doping elements Ge, Sn, Sb, Zn, Ga, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, and Mo can increase the oxidation resistance. This strategy can be used to design high oxidation resistance cladding material for light water reactor.

  3. Improvements in ZrCo based tritium storage media

    SciTech Connect

    Konishi, Satoshi; Nagasaki, T.; Hayashi, T.; Okuno, K.

    1994-11-01

    Behavior and improvement of the ZrCo based intermetallic materials for tritium recovery, storage and supply are studied. Compound ZrCo was found to be subject to disproportionation at high temperature under high hydrogen pressure to form ZrCo{sub 2} and ZrH{sub 2}. This process is completely reversed by vacuum treatment at temperature above 500{degrees}C for several hours. Kinetics of the disproportionation was described to be similar to phase transition that have apparent incuvation time to take place. The logarithmic reaction rate constant was related to the reciprocal temperature. With some precautions drawn from the results, this reaction is not a problem in practice. For the application that needs prolonged supply of relatively high-pressure tritium, solid solution of ZrCo and HfCo was developed as an improvement of the material. Materials obtained by arc melting with composition of Zr{sub (1-x)}Hf{sub x}Co (0ZrCo and HfCo phases. The equilibrium hydrogen pressure in the plateau regions are expressed as a function of reciprocal temperature and increases with increasing HfCo contents. This material provides controlled equilibrium hydrogen pressure required for specific applications of tritium storage and supply.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, and properties of the rhombohedral modification of the thiospinel CuZr{sub 1.86(1)}S{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yongkwan; McGuire, Michael A.; Yun, Hoseop; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2010-03-15

    The rhombohedral modification of the thiospinel, CuZr{sub 1.86(1)}S{sub 4}, has been synthesized by the reaction of the constituent elements in an alkali metal halide flux and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The title compound crystallizes in the rhombohedral space group D{sub 3d}{sup 5}-R3-barm (no. 166, a=7.3552(2) A, c=35.832(2) A, V=1678.76(13) A{sup 3}, Z=12, and R/wR=0.0239/0.0624). The structure is composed of close packed S layers, with a stacking order of ...ABCBCABABCACAB....along the c axis. The Zr and Cu atoms occupy the octahedral and tetrahedral holes between S layers, respectively. Three different kinds of S-M-S layers exist in the structure: layer I has fully occupied Zr and Cu sites, layer II has fully occupied Zr sites but no Cu, and layer III has partially occupied Zr and fully occupied Cu sites. Transport and optical properties indicate that the title compound is a small band gap (1.26 eV) n-type semiconductor. - Graphical abstract: The projected view of the rhombohedral modification, CuZr{sub 1.86(1)}S{sub 4}, down the [100] direction. Large letters denote the packing sequence of the S atoms (yellow circles) along the c axis. Zr (black circles) and Cu (red circles) atoms occupy the octahedral and tetrahedral holes, respectively, between close packed S layers.

  5. Producing a compound Nucleus via Inelastic Scattering: The 90Zr(alpha,alpha')90Zr* Case

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2008-05-23

    In a Surrogate reaction a compound nucleus is produced via a direct reaction (pickup, stripping, or inelastic scattering). For a proper application of the Surrogate approach it is necessary to predict the resulting angular momentum and parity distribution in the compound nucleus. A model for determining these distributions is developed for the case of inelastic alpha scattering off a spherical nucleus. The focus is on obtaining a first, simple description of the direct-reaction process that produces the compound nucleus and on providing the basis for a more complete treatment of the problem. The approximations employed in the present description are discussed and the extensions required for a more rigorous treatment of the problem are outlined. To illustrate the formalism, an application to {sup 90}Zr({alpha},{alpha}{prime}){sup 90}Zr* is presented.

  6. Characterization of the Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta Alloy for Biomedical Applications. Part 1: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Corrosion Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladescu, A.; Braic, V.; Balaceanu, M.; Braic, M.; Parau, A. C.; Ivanescu, S.; Fanara, C.

    2013-08-01

    Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy was investigated as possible material candidate for replacing Ti6Al4V in medical applications. The alloy was prepared in a levitation melting furnace and characterized in terms of elemental and phase composition, microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid and Fusayama Meyer artificial saliva solutions. The characteristics of the new alloy were compared to those of the Ti6Al4V alloy. The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta system was found to posses of a polyhedral structure consisting in α' and β phases. X-ray structural analysis revealed a mixture of hexagonal α' martensite (main phase, with grain size of about 21 nm) and β bcc phase. The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy exhibited some better mechanical properties (Young modulus, tensile properties) and corrosion resistance (polarization resistance, corrosion current density, and corrosion rate), as compared to Ti6Al4V alloy.

  7. Chemical and nuclear properties of Rutherfordium (Element 104)

    SciTech Connect

    Kacher, C.D.

    1995-10-30

    The chemical-properties of rutherfordium (Rf) and its group 4 homologs were studied by sorption on glass support surfaces coated with cobalt(II)ferrocyanide and by solvent extraction with tributylphosphate (TBP) and triisooctylamine (TIOA). The surface studies showed that the hydrolysis trend in the group 4 elements and the pseudogroup 4 element, lb, decreases in the order Rf>Zr{approx}Hf>Th. This trend was attributed to relativistic effects which predicted that Rf would be more prone to having a coordination number of 6 than 8 in most aqueous solutions due to a destabilization of the 6d{sub 5/2} shell and a stabilization of the 7p{sub l/2} shell. This hydrolysis trend was confirmed in the TBP/HBr solvent extraction studies which showed that the extraction trend decreased in the order Zr>Hf>Rf?Ti for HBr, showing that Rf and Ti did not extract as well because they hydrolyzed more easily than Zr and Hf. The TIOA/HF solvent extraction studies showed that the extraction trend for the group 4 elements decreased in the order Ti>Zr{approx}Hf>Rf, in inverse order from the trend of ionic radii Rf>Zr{approx}Hf>Ti. An attempt was made to produce {sup 263}Rf (a) via the {sup 248}Cm({sup 22}Ne, {alpha}3n) reaction employing thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) solvent extraction chemistry and (b) via the {sup 249}Bk({sup 18}O,4n) reaction employing the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus (ARCA). In the TTA studies, 16 fissions were observed but were all attributed to {sup 256}Fm. No alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. A 0.2 nb upper limit production cross section for the {sup 248}Cm({sup 22}Ne, {alpha}3n){sup 263}Rf reaction was calculated assuming the 500-sec half-life reported previously by Czerwinski et al. [CZE92A].

  8. Zr{sub 2}Ir{sub 6}B with an eightfold superstructure of the cubic perovskite-like boride ZrIr{sub 3}B{sub 0.5}: Synthesis, crystal structure and bonding analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hermus, Martin; Fokwa, Boniface P.T.

    2010-04-15

    Single phase powder samples and single crystals of Zr{sub 2}Ir{sub 6}B were successfully synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled copper crucible under an argon atmosphere. Superstructure reflections were observed both on powder and on single crystal diffraction data, leading to an eightfold superstructure of ZrIr{sub 3}B{sub x} phase. The new phase, which has a metallic luster, crystallizes in space group Fm3-barm (no. 225) with the lattice parameters a=7.9903(4) A, V=510.14(4) A{sup 3}. Its crystal structure was refined on the basis of powder as well as single crystal data. The single crystal refinement converged to R{sub 1}=0.0239 and wR{sub 2}=0.0624 for all 88 unique reflections and 6 parameters. Zr{sub 2}Ir{sub 6}B is isotypic to Ti{sub 2}Rh{sub 6}B and its structure can be described as a defect double perovskite, A{sub 2}BB'O{sub 6}, where the A site is occupied by zirconium, the B site by boron, the O site by iridium but the B' site is vacant, leading to the formation of empty and boron-filled octahedral Ir{sub 6} clusters. According to the result of tight-binding electronic structure calculations, Ir-B and Ir-Zr interactions are mainly responsible for the structural stability of the phase. According to COHP bonding analysis, the strongest bonding occurs for the Ir-B contacts, and the Ir-Ir bonding within the empty clusters is two times stronger than that in the BIr{sub 6} octahedra. - Graphical abstract: Zr{sub 2}Ir{sub 6}B crystallizes with an eightfold superstructure of the already reported simple cubic perovskite ZrIr{sub 3}B{sub x}. According to the result of tight-binding electronic structure calculations, Ir-B and Ir-Zr interactions are mainly responsible for its structural stability, and the Ir-Ir bonding within the empty Ir{sub 6} clusters is two times stronger than that in the BIr{sub 6} octahedra.

  9. Understanding Humic Acid / Zr(IV) Interaction - A Spectromicroscopy Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, Joerg; Plaschke, Markus; Denecke, Melissa A.

    2007-02-02

    Complexation of Zr(IV) by humic acid (HA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) is investigated from the point of view of the organic ligand. STXM Spectromicroscopy and C 1s-NEXAFS point to different interaction mechanisms between Zr(IV) cations and oxo/hydroxo colloids and PAA. Under conditions where the metal aquo ion is stable, strong complexes are formed. In contrast, unspecific surface coating is identified when PAA is contacted with Zr(IV) oxo/hydroxide colloids. HA exhibits similar C 1s-NEXAFS features indicating a complexation reaction.

  10. Ni-free Zr-Cu-Al-Nb-Pd bulk metallic glasses with different Zr/Cu ratios for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Wu, Wei; Liaw, Peter K; Pang, Shujie; Inoue, Akihisa; Zhang, Tao; He, Wei

    2012-08-01

    Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) possess attractive properties for prospective biomedical applications. The present study designs Ni-free Zr-Cu-Al-Nb-Pd BMGs and investigates their in vitro biocompatibility by studying mechanical properties, bio-corrosion resistance, and cellular responses. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy is used as a reference material. It is found that the Zr-based BMGs exhibit good mechanical properties, including high strengths above 1600 MPa, high hardness over 4700 MPa, and low elastic moduli of 85-90 GPa. The Zr-based BMGs are corrosion resistant in a simulated body environment, as revealed by wide passive regions, low passive current densities, and high pitting overpotentials. The formation of ZrO(2)-rich surface passive films of the Zr-based BMGs contributes to their high corrosion resistance, whereas their pitting corrosion in the phosphate buffered saline solution can be attributed to the sensitivity of the ZrO(2) films to the chloride ion. The general biosafety of the Zr-based BMGs is revealed by normal cell adhesions and cell morphologies. Moreover, the Zr/Cu content ratio in the alloy composition affects the biocompatibility of the Zr-based BMGs, by increasing their corrosion resistance and surface wettability with the increase of the Zr/Cu ratio. Effects of Zr/Cu ratios can be used to guide the future design of biocompatible Zr-based BMGs. PMID:22689253

  11. Unique local structures of Ca, Ti, Fe and Zr in natural glasses formed by meteorite impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiasa, Akira; Tobase, Tsubasa; Okube, Maki; Wang, Ling; Isobe, Hiroshi; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Graduate School of Science; Technology Collaboration; Materials; Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The local structures of cation in tektite from six strewn fields, impact-related glass, and non-impact-related glass were studied by Ca, Ti, Fe and Zr K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Shock compression also causes local structural changes of gest and minor elements as well as transition of host structures. How to be left a record is peculiar by each element. The XAFS measurements were performed at the beam lines BL-NW10A and BL-9C, KEK, Japan. The comparison of XANES spectra and bonding distances between crystalline reference minerals and natural glasses was done. Based on the different valence states of iron, the degrees of oxidation states were estimated. The local structures of Ca, Ti and Zr ions are useful probe for physical conditions and formation process of glasses. Tektites experienced high quenching rates and a reduced atmospheric environment when they were ejected into outer space. Other impact-related glass, which was remained close to the crater, experienced a more complicated environment. The local structural changes of cation in the impact-related glass are rich in a variety. Analysis of local structure is help to compare their formation process and distinguish them.

  12. A multi-scale model for texture development in Zr/Nb nanolayered composites processed by accumulative roll bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardeljan, M.; Knezevic, M.; Nizolek, T.; Beyerlein, I. J.; Zheng, S. J.; Carpenter, J. S.; McCabe, R. J.; Mara, N. A.; Pollock, T. M.

    2014-08-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that nanolayered hcp/bcc Zr/Nb composites can be fabricated with a severe plastic deformation technique called accumulative roll bonding (ARB) [1]. The final layer thickness averaged to approximately 90 nm for both phases. Interestingly, the texture measurements show that the textures in each phase correspond to those of rolled single-phase rolled Zr and Nb for a wide range of layer thickness from the micron to the nanoscales. This is in remarkable contrast to fcc/bcc Cu/Nb layered composites made by the same ARB technique, which developed textures that strongly deviated from theoretical rolling textures of Cu or Nb alone when the layers were refined to submicron and nanoscale dimensions. To model texture evolution and reveal the underlying deformation mechanisms, we developed a 3D multiscale model that combines crystal plasticity finite element with a thermally activated dislocation density based hardening law [2]. For systematic study, the model is applied to a two-phase Zr/Nb polycrystalline laminate and to the same polycrystalline Zr and polycrystalline Nb as single-phase metals. Consistent with the measurement, the model predicts that texture evolution in the phases in the composite and the relative activities of the hcp slip modes are very similar to those in the phases in monolithic form. In addition, the two-phase model also finds that no through-thickness texture gradient develops. This result suggests that neither the nanoscale grain sizes nor the bimetal Zr/Nb interfaces induce deformation mechanisms different from those at the coarse-grain scale.

  13. Thermal behavior and catalytic activity in naphthalene destruction of Ce-, Zr- and Mn-containing oxide layers on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyeva, Marina S.; Rudnev, Vladimir S.; Wiedenmann, Florian; Wybornov, Svetlana; Yarovaya, Tatyana P.; Jiang, Xin

    2011-11-01

    The present paper is devoted to studies of the composition and surface structure, including those after annealing at high temperatures, and catalytic activity in the reaction of naphthalene destruction of Ce-, Zr- and Mn-containing oxide layers on titanium obtained by means of the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The composition and structure of the obtained systems were investigated using the methods of X-ray phase and energy dispersive analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that Ce- and Zr- containing structures had relatively high thermal stability: their element and phase compositions and surface structure underwent virtually no changes after annealing in the temperature range 600-800 °C. Annealing of Ce- and Zr-containing coatings in the temperature range 850-900 °C resulted in substantial changes of their surface composition and structure: a relatively homogeneous and porous surface becomes coated by large pole-like crystals. The catalytic studies showed rather high activity of Ce- and Zr-containing coatings in the reaction of naphthalene destruction at temperatures up to 850 °C. Mn-containing structures of the type MnOx + SiO2 + TiO2/Ti have a well-developed surface coated by “nano-whiskers”. The phase composition and surface structure of manganese-containing layers changes dramatically in the course of thermal treatment. After annealing above 600 °C nano-whiskers vanish with formation of molten structures on the surface. The Mn-containing oxide systems demonstrated lower conversion degrees than the Ce- and Zr-containing coatings, which can be attributed to substantial surface modification and formation of molten manganese silicates at high temperatures.

  14. Trace elements measurement by PIXE in the appraisal of the ancient potteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Q.; Cheng, H. S.; Xia, H. N.; Jiang, J. C.; Gao, M. H.; Yang, F. J.

    2002-05-01

    Fifty pieces of pottery samples were collected from two domains with different types of ancient Sino-civilization. The concentrations of trace elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allows us to locate the provenance of the ancient potteries. The experimental results also show that the relative trace element contents Ni-Rb-Zr are useful for distinguishing these two types of Chinese ancient potteries.

  15. Behavior of nuclear waste elements during hydrothermal alteration of glassy rhyolite in an active geothermal system: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Sturchio, N.C.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-12-31

    The behavior of a group of nuclear waste elements (U, Th, Sr, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, and Sm) during hydrothermal alteration of glassy rhyolite is investigated through detailed geochemical analyses of whole rocks, glass and mineral separates, and thermal waters. Significant mobility of U, Sr, Sb, Cs, and Ba is found, and the role of sorption processes in their observed behavior is identified. Th, Zr, and Sm are relatively immobile, except on a microscopic scale. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Chemical and topological short-range orders in the ternary Ni-Zr-Al metallic glasses studied by Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S Z; Li, J H; Liu, B X

    2013-03-01

    Based on the recently constructed Ni-Zr-Al n-body potential, Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the glass formation and associated structural evolutions in the system. The micro-chemical inhomogeneity (MCI) parameter and Honeycutt and Anderson (HA) pair analysis are employed to investigate both the chemical short-range orders and topological short-range orders for the ternary Ni-Zr-Al metallic glasses. Results reveal that remarkable chemical short-range orders (CSROs) exist in the ternary Ni-Zr-Al metallic glasses and are strongly influenced by the chemical interactions among the constituent elements. Moreover, topological short-range orders are clearly formed in the ternary Ni-Zr-Al metallic glasses, with the most remarkable characteristic being the icosahedral local packing. Similarly to CSRO, the extent of icosahedral short-range orders formed in the Ni-Zr-Al system varies distinctly with the chemical composition. In addition, simulation results reveal that chemical short-range orders and topological short-range orders turn out to be influenced by different factors. Unlike CSRO, both chemical interactions and geometrical constraints play important roles in forming the topological short-range orders. PMID:23334440

  17. Preparation and characterization of Zr-N-codoped TiO2 nano-photocatalyst and its activity enhanced-mechanism.

    PubMed

    Du, Fengwei; Yu, Shuyu

    2014-09-01

    Zr-N-codoped TiO2 nano-photocatalyst was prepared through sol-gel method using ammonia water and zirconium nitrate as the source of N and Zr, respectively. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). XRD results showed that codoping with Zr and N elements could greatly inhibit the phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile. XPS analysis indicated that Zr4+ was incorporated into the lattice of TiO2 through substituting titanium atoms. Meanwhile, N was also incorporated into the lattice of TiO2 through substituting oxygen atoms and existed in the form of N-Ti-O. DRS revealed that the light absorption edge of Zr-N-TiO2 was significantly red-shifted to visible region, leading to a narrower band gap and higher visible photocatalytic activity. The enhanced visible activity was attributed to the well anatase crystallite, intense light absorbance in visible region and narrow band gap. PMID:25924356

  18. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Properties of the Rhomboheral Modification of the Thiospinel CuZr1.86(1)S4

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yongkwan; McGuire, Michael A; Hoseop, Yun; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2009-01-01

    The rhombohedral modification of the thiospinel, CuZr{sub 1.86(1)}S{sub 4}, has been synthesized by the reaction of the constituent elements in an alkali metal halide flux and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The title compound crystallizes in the rhombohedral space group D{sub 3d}{sup 5}-R{bar 3}m (166, a=7.3552(2) {angstrom}, c=35.832(2) {angstrom}, V=1678.76(13) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z=12, and R/wR=0.0239/0.0624). The structure is composed of close packed S layers, with a stacking order of ABCBCABABCACAB along the c axis. The Zr and Cu atoms occupy the octahedral and tetrahedral holes between S layers, respectively. Three different kinds of S-M-S layers exist in the structure: layer I has fully occupied Zr and Cu sites, layer II has fully occupied Zr sites but no Cu, and layer III has partially occupied Zr and fully occupied Cu sites. Transport and optical properties indicate that the title compound is a small band gap (1.26 eV) n-type semiconductor.

  19. Chemical and topological short-range orders in the ternary Ni-Zr-Al metallic glasses studied by Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S. Z.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

    2013-03-01

    Based on the recently constructed Ni-Zr-Al n-body potential, Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the glass formation and associated structural evolutions in the system. The micro-chemical inhomogeneity (MCI) parameter and Honeycutt and Anderson (HA) pair analysis are employed to investigate both the chemical short-range orders and topological short-range orders for the ternary Ni-Zr-Al metallic glasses. Results reveal that remarkable chemical short-range orders (CSROs) exist in the ternary Ni-Zr-Al metallic glasses and are strongly influenced by the chemical interactions among the constituent elements. Moreover, topological short-range orders are clearly formed in the ternary Ni-Zr-Al metallic glasses, with the most remarkable characteristic being the icosahedral local packing. Similarly to CSRO, the extent of icosahedral short-range orders formed in the Ni-Zr-Al system varies distinctly with the chemical composition. In addition, simulation results reveal that chemical short-range orders and topological short-range orders turn out to be influenced by different factors. Unlike CSRO, both chemical interactions and geometrical constraints play important roles in forming the topological short-range orders.

  20. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  1. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  2. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  3. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  4. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  5. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  6. Influence of electronegativity on the electronic structures and stabilities of microclusters of carbides MC_n (M : transition, rare-earth or normal element, n < 10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leleyter, M.

    1991-10-01

    infer a likely electronic configuration of the MC_n clusters and 2 tables give the compared electronic structures of these clusters for normal or transition elements. Such a kind of structure is only able to explain the parity effect origin of the MC_n clusters and even enable to foreknow for transition or rare-earth metal carbides which are not studied yet if the alternations will be “even" (EN le 1.7) or “odd". Les agrégats MC_n obtenus à partir de carbures par diverses méthodes expérimentales (SIMS, SSMS, vaporisation laser, effusion de Knudsen à haute température, etc.) présentent des alternances dans leurs intensités d'émission I(MC^+_n) avec maximums pour n impair si M = H, F, CI ou Fe, Ni, Rh, Ir, Pt ou au contraire pour n pair si M = B, Si, Ba, Ge ou Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, W, Th, U ou même n'existent que pour n pair (Nd, Dy, Ho, Er). D'autre part, seuls sont connus CO, C_3O, CN et C_3N pour l'oxygène et l'azote. Ces phénomènes sont interprétés tout d'abord à l'aide de la règle bien connue de correspondance qui relie de fortes (resp. faibles) intensités ou fréquences d'émissions d'ions MC^+_n à de fortes (resp. faibles) stabilités des amas correspondants. En second lieu, ces résultats s'expliquent dans le cadre du modèle de Pitzer et Clementi (hybridation sp en théorie de Hückel) corroboré par des calculs CNDO: on suppose que les amas MC^+_n sont des chaînes linéaires C^+_n portant un atome d'impureté M en bout de chaîne. Dans ces conditions, les alternances de stabilités relatives des MC_n proviennent de ce que l'orbitale moléculaire la plus élevée (“ HOMO ”) se trouve dans une bande niveaux π doublement dégénérés et qu'à une orbitale π complète (4 électrons) correspond une plus forte stabilité de l'amas que si l'orbitale est incomplète. Or le nombre d'électrons π d'une chaîne MC_n est gouverné par le nombre de niveaux σ liants et en outre pour les éléments de transition ou de terres rares, par

  7. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  8. Physics of nanostructures at]radiation resistance of high-entropy nanostructured (Ti, Hf, Zr, V, Nb)N coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, F. F.; Pogrebnyak, A. D.; Konstantinov, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of high-fluence ion irradiation of nanostructured (Ti, Hf, Zr, V, Nb)N coatings is revealed for the first time. The energy of irradiating helium ions is equal to 500 keV, and their fluence falls into the interval 5 × 1016-3 × 1017 ions/cm2. The performance of the coatings in a nuclear reactor is simulated by conducting post-irradiation thermal annealing at 773 K for 15 min. The elemental composition, structure, morphology, and strength properties of the (Ti, Hf, Zr, V, Nb)N coatings are studied before and after irradiation. No considerable structural and phase modifications in the coatings are found after irradiation, except for the fact that crystallites in the coatings drastically reduce in size to less than 10 nm. Nor does the atomic composition of the coatings change. It is shown that the microhardness of the coatings depends on the fluence of irradiating ions nonlinearly. It can be argued that the (Ti, Hf, Zr, V, Nb)N coatings are radiationresistant and hence promising for claddings of fuel elements in nuclear reactors.

  9. Apatite layer growth on glassy Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 sputtered titanium for potential biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanka Rajan, S.; Karthika, M.; Bendavid, Avi; Subramanian, B.

    2016-04-01

    The bioactivity of magnetron sputtered thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs) of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) on titanium substrates was tested for bio implant applications. The structural and elemental compositions of TFMGs were analyzed by XRD, XPS and EDAX. X-ray diffraction analysis displayed a broad hump around the incident angle of 30-50°, suggesting that the coatings possess a glassy structure. An in situ crystal growth of hydroxyapatite was observed by soaking the sputtered specimen in simulated body fluid (SBF). The nucleation and growth of a calcium phosphate (Ca-P) bone-like hydroxyapatite on Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) TFMG from SBF was investigated by using XRD, AFM and SEM. The presence of calcium and phosphorus elements was confirmed by EDAX and XPS. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the Zr-based TFMG coating sustain in the stimulated body-fluid (SBF), exhibiting superior corrosion resistance with a lower corrosion penetration rate and electrochemical stability than the bare crystalline titanium substrate.

  10. First principles investigations of structural, elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of { Ba,Sr,Pb } TiO3, { Ba,Sr,Pb } ZrO3 and { Ba,Sr,Pb } { Zr,Ti } O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgenc, Berna; Tasseven, Cetin; Cagin, Tahir

    2015-03-01

    We use first-principle density-functional study of structural, anisotropic mechanical, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of {Ba,Sr,Pb}TiO3, {Ba,Sr,Pb}ZrO3 and {Ba,Sr,Pb}{Zr,Ti}O3 alloys in cubic perovskite structures at zero temperature. Because there is significant interest in finding new piezoelectrics that do not contain toxic elements such as lead. In this study, we compare piezoelectric response of those alloys to synthesize outstanding piezoelectric materials. In perovskite structures, the spontaneous polarization is due to enormous values of Born effective charges computed by linear response within density functional perturbation theory, which are much larger than predicted nominal charge. We deeply investigated the effects of composition, order and site defects structure on piezoelectric constants.

  11. Microstructures of laser bonded SiC ceramics with Zr interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yang-Il; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Kim, Il-Hyun; Park, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Weon-Ju

    2014-12-01

    SiC plates were bonded using a laser beam scanning method. As an interlayer material, a Zr sheet 0.4 mm in thickness was used. Joining was performed at room temperature in air under atmospheric pressure. The interfacial microstructures along with their atomic compositions of the Zr/SiC reaction zone were analyzed. In the Zr side, diffused Si formed ZrSi2, Zr5Si3Cx, and Zr4Si phases. Carbide transformation was observed (Zr + C → ZrCx) near the Zr/SiC interface. No crystallographic orientation relationship was found in most of the grains; however, a boundary of ZrSi2 [1 0 0] parallel to Zr5Si3Cx [ 0 1 1 bar 1 ] was found in the observation. In the SiC side, penetrated Zr was found at up to 120 μm from the Zr/SiC interface. The diffused Zr formed a silicon-rich metastable phase of ZrSiy (y > 3.3).

  12. Measurements of structural and chemical order in Zr80Pt20 and Zr77Rh23 liquids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, M. L.; Blodgett, M. E.; Lokshin, K. A.; Mauro, N. A.; Neuefeind, J.; Pueblo, C.; Quirinale, D. G.; Vogt, A. J.; Egami, T.; Goldman, A. I.; et al

    2016-02-03

    In this study, the short-range order (SRO) and medium-range order of electrostatically levitated Zr80Pt20 and Zr77Rh23 liquids are presented founded on a combination of high-energy x-ray diffraction and time-of-flight neutron diffraction studies. The atomic structures of the Zr80Pt20 liquids were determined as a function of temperature from constrained reverse Monte Carlo simulations using x-ray and elastic neutron scattering measurements and two partial pair-distribution functions obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

  13. Synthesis of ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC Powders Using a Sucrose-Containing System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingyu; Zhang, Yun; Li, Junping; Zhao, Bin; Li, Ruixing; Yin, Shu; Feng, Zhihai; Sato, Tsugio; Cai, Hongnian

    2015-09-01

    ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC powders are synthesized by a sol-gel method from zirconium n-propoxide, tetraethyl orthosilicate (only for ZrB2-SiC), boric acid, and sucrose. After reduction at 1550 degrees C, both ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC are unconsolidated, soft gray powders. The ZrB2-SiC particles have an equiaxed shape with a diameter of about 800 nm and a uniform size distribution. The SiC may be very finely distributed, because we barely find SiC among ZrB2 particles when using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), although both ZrB2 and SiC are identified by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). PMID:26716344

  14. Element Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  15. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  16. Studies of thin films of Ti- Zr -V as non-evaporable getter films prepared by RF sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jagannath,; Sharma, R. K.; Gadkari, S. C.; Muthe, K. P.; Mukundhan, R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2013-02-05

    Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) films of the Ti-Zr-V prepared on stainless steel substrates by Radio Frequency sputtering. To observe its getter behavior at the lowest activation temperature, the sample is heated continuously at different temperatures (100 Degree-Sign C, 150 Degree-Sign C, 200 Degree-Sign C and 250 Degree-Sign C) for 2 hours. The changes of the surface chemical composition at different temperaturesare analyzed by using XPS and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) techniques. The volume elemental composition of the film has been measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The in-situ XPS measurements of the activated getter films show the disappearance of the superficial oxide layer through the variation in the oxygen stoichiometry during thermal activation. Results of these studies show that the deposited films of Ti-Zr-V could be used as NEG to produce extreme high vacuum.

  17. Superheavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, S.

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell closure beyond 208Pb is at a proton number Z=114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N=172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical `SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods have been developed which allowed for the identification of new elements at production rates of one atom per month. Using cold fusion reactions which are based on lead and bismuth targets, relatively neutron-deficient isotopes of the elements from 107 to 113 were synthesized at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, and/or at RIKEN in Wako, Japan. In hot fusion reactions of 48Ca projectiles with actinide targets more neutron-rich isotopes of the elements from 112 to 116 and even 118 were produced at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. Recently, part of these data which represent the first identification of nuclei located on the predicted island of SHEs were confirmed in two independent experiments. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is α emission rather than fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical studies. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques. At a higher sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will be in the center of interest of future experimental work. New data will certainly challenge theoretical studies on the mechanism of the synthesis, on the nuclear decay properties, and on the chemical behavior of these heaviest atoms at the limit of stability.

  18. DFT STUDY REVISES INTERSTITIAL CONFIGURATIONS IN HCP Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, German D; Golubov, Stanislav I; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of experimental result on microstructure evolution in irradiated Zr and alloys has demonstrated that available knowledge on self-interstitial defects in Zr is in contradiction. We therefore have initiated an extensive theoretical and modeling program to clarify this issue. In this report we present first ab initio calculations results of single SIA configurations in Zr. We demonstrate importance of simulations cell size, applied exchange-correlation functional and simulated c/a ratio. The results obtained demonstrate clearly that the most stable configurations are in basal plane and provide some evidences for enhanced interstitial transport along basal planes. The results obtained will be used in generation a new interatomic potential for Zr to be used in large-scale atomistic modeling of mechanisms relevant for radiation-induced microstructure evolution.

  19. Abnormal alloying behaviour observed in an immiscible Zr Nb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. L.; Liang, S. H.; Li, J. H.; Tai, K. P.; Liu, B. X.

    2008-05-01

    For the immiscible Zr-Nb system characterized by a positive heat of formation (+6 kJ mol-1), thermodynamic calculation showed that the Gibbs free energy of the properly designed Zr-Nb multilayered films could be elevated to a higher level than that of the corresponding amorphous phase as well as the supersaturated solid solutions. Accordingly, nano-sized Zr-Nb multilayered films were prepared and then irradiated by 200 keV xenon ions. It was found that amorphous phases could be obtained within a composition range 12-92 at% of Nb. Also, two metastable crystalline phases of fcc structures with different lattice parameters were also obtained. Molecular dynamic simulation was carried out, based on a proven realistic Zr-Nb potential, to reveal the atomistic mechanism of the solid-state crystal-to-amorphous transition. A brief discussion on the formation of the two metastable crystalline phases is presented.

  20. Rb and Zr abundances in massive Galactic AGB stars revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mesa, V.; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Plez, B.; Manchado, A.; Karakas, A. I.; Lugaro, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report new abundances of Rb and Zr in a sample of massive Galactic asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that were previously studied with hydrostatic models by using more realistic dynamical model atmospheres. We use a modified version of the spectral synthesis code Turbospectrum, and consider the presence of a circumstellar envelope and a radial wind in the modelling of these Galactic AGB stars. The Rb and Zr are determined from the 7800 Å Rb I resonant line and the 6474 Å ZrO bandhead, respectively, and they are compared with the AGB nucleosynthesis theoretical predictions. The derived Rb abundances are much lower (∼⃒1-2 dex) with the new dynamical models, while the Zr abundances, however, are closer to the hydrostatic values. The new model atmospheres can help to resolve the problem of the mismatch between the observations and the nucleosynthesis theoretical predictions of massive AGB stars.

  1. Response to letter "Electron correlation and relativity of the 5f electrons in the Usbnd Zr alloy system"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei; Marianetti, Chris A.; Morgan, Dane

    2016-08-01

    In the Letter [Söderlind et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 444, 356 (2014)], Söderlind et al. state their interpretation that 1) we view electron correlation to be strong and including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) to be necessary for U metal and Usbnd Zr alloy in our article [Xiong et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 443, 331 (2013)]. Further, they argue that 2) density functional theory (DFT) without adding the Hubbard U potential, especially when solved using all electron methods, already models U and Usbnd Zr accurately, and 3) adding the Hubbard U potential to DFT in DFT + U models U and Usbnd Zr worse than DFT according to volume, bulk modulus, and magnetic moments predicted from their calculations of the γU phase of elemental U metal. With respect to Söderlind et al.'s interpretation 1), we clarify that our opinions are that U and Usbnd Zr are not strongly, but weakly to moderately correlated and that including SOC is beneficial but not necessary for modeling most ground state properties of U and Usbnd Zr. With respect to Söderlind et al.'s argument 2) we demonstrate that previously neglected and very recent experimental data suggest that DFT in Söderlind's full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital calculations [Söderlind, Phys. Rev. B 66, 085113 (2002)] in fact models the bulk modulus and elastic constants of αU with errors considerably larger than other related elements, e.g., most transition metals. With respect to Söderlind et al.'s argument 3) we argue that they have inappropriately focused on just one phase (the BCC γU phase of U metal), neglecting the other phases which represent the majority of our evidence, and made overgeneralizations based on results at only one Ueff value of 2 eV. We therefore maintain our original conclusion that the accuracy of DFT for modeling U and Usbnd Zr has room for improvement and DFT + U can be of value for this purpose on at least some ground state properties.

  2. First-principles point defect models in Zr7Ni10 and Zr2Ni7 binary intermetallic compounds and their implications in nickel-metal hydride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Diana F.

    Zr-Ni-based alloys as nickel-metal hydride battery anode materials offer low-cost, flexible and tunable battery performance. Zr7Ni 10 is an important secondary phase found in multi-phased AB2 Laves-phase-based metal hydride alloys, and the synergetic effect between the Zr-Ni and the Laves phases allows access to the high hydrogen storage of the Zr-Ni phases despite the lower absorption/desorption kinetics. Zr7Ni10 displays a small solubility window for Zr-rich compositions, while Zr2Ni7, with no solubility window, shows poor capacity with good kinetics. Stability of point defects within the crystal structure allows Zr7Ni10 to maintain the same structure at off-stoichiometric compositions, thus it is theorized that defects may play a role in the difference between the electrochemical behaviors in Zr7Ni10 and Zr2Ni7. Defect models in Zr7Ni10 and Zr2Ni7 compounds computed using a combination of density functional theory and statistical mechanics offer a starting point for understanding the possible roles that point defects have on the performance of Zr-Ni based active negative electrode materials in Ni/MH batteries. Theoretical vacancy and anti-site defect formation energies are calculated and reported for Zr-rich, Ni-rich, and stoichiometric compounds of Zr7Ni 10 and Zr2Ni7, and the implications of the defect models on nickel-metal hydride negative electrode active material design and performance are discussed.

  3. The lithophile trace elements in enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, J. A.; Zanda, B.; Jambon, A.; Bollinger, C.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the abundances of a selected set of lithophile trace elements (namely REEs, Y, Rb, Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, Nb, Th, U) in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC-13 EH and 11 EL). EH3 and EL3 display only minor deviations from chondritic distributions for these elements. In most metamorphosed EC, a wide range of compositions is observed and suggests a mobility of many of the elements studied during the history of these rocks. For example, EL6 chondrites exhibit light-REE and Nb depletions, negative Eu anomalies, and positive Y anomalies. More important trace element fractionations are observed in metamorphosed EH like St Marks (Rb depletion), LAP 02225 (Rb, Nb, Zr, Eu, light REE depletions) and Galim (b), which displays large Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb and light REE depletions. Leaching experiments were undertaken to investigate the contributions of sulfides in the whole rock budgets. These phases control not only the REE budget, but also important fractions of the other elements we studied. These fractions strongly depend on the type of the rock (EH or EL, and metamorphic grade). For many elements, the sulfide contributions increase with the metamorphic grades. The trace element abundances of silicate residues are extremely variable. Negative Sm and Yb anomalies are observed in EL3 and EH3 residues, and are certainly the results of early nebular processes. Such anomalies are lacking in residues obtained with most metamorphosed EC, underlining the importance of trace element redistributions during metamorphism. In addition, EL6 residues display distinctive positive Y anomalies that could be potentially ascribed to a less chalcophile behavior than Ho in the conditions that prevailed during EL metamorphism. EH3 and EL3 display only minor deviations from chondritic distributions for these elements. In most metamorphosed EC, a wide range of compositions is obtained and indicates undeniably a mobility of many of the elements studied during the complex thermal history

  4. Elevated Temperature Compressive Properties of Zr-Modified Nial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    Small Zr additions are known to substantially affect the deformation behavior and strength of polycrystalline NiAl, yet little information is currently available regarding the high-temperature properties of such alloys. Utilizing prealloyed powder technology, a series of four NiAl alloys have been produced containing from 0.05 to 0.7 at. pct Zr. The creep behavior of these alloys was characterized in compression between 1000 and 1400 K at strain rates ranging from approx. O.1 to 10(exp -9)/ sec. All the Zr-modified alloys were significantly stronger than binary NiAl under lower temperature and faster strain-rate conditions; however, the single-phase materials (Zr less than or equal to 0.1 at. pct) and binary NiAl had similar strengths at high temperatures and slow strain rates. The two-phase NiAl-Ni, AlZr alloys containing 0.3 and 0.7 at. pct Zr had nearly identical strengths. While the two-phase alloys were stronger than the single-phase materials at all test conditions, the degree of microstructural damage in the two-phase alloys due to internal oxidation during testing appeared to increase with Zr level. Balancing the poor oxidation behavior with the consistent strength advantage of the two-phase alloys, it is concluded that optimum elevated-temperature properties could be obtained in Heusler-strengthened NiAl containing between 0.1 and 0.3 at. pct Zr.

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C Z; Kramer, M J; Ho, K M

    2016-03-01

    Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons [Formula: see text] is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], are prominent. And the [Formula: see text] polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5 MG mainly originate from Al-centered clusters, while the [Formula: see text] in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. The relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5. PMID:26828778

  6. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons < 0,0,12,0> is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially < 0,2,8,2> and < 0,2,8,1> , are prominent. And the < 0,2,8,2> polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5 MG mainly originate from Al-centered clusters, while the < 0,0,12,0> in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. The relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5.

  7. Changes in electronic, magnetic and bonding properties from Zr2FeH5 to Zr3FeH7 addressed from ab initio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, S. F.; Al Alam, A. F.; Gédéon, D.; Ouaini, N.

    2013-11-01

    Potential hydrogen storage ternaries Zr3FeH7 and Zr2FeH5, are studied from ab initio with the purpose of identifying changes in electronic structures and bonding properties. Cohesive energy trends: Ecoh. (ZrH2) > Ecoh. (Zr2FeH5) > Ecoh. (Zr3FeH7) > Ecoh. (hypothetic-FeH) indicate a progressive destabilization of the binary hydride ZrH2 through adjoined Fe so that Zr3FeH7 is found less cohesive than Zr2FeH5. From the energy volume equations of states EOS the volume increase upon hydriding the intermetallics leads to higher bulk moduli B0 explained by the Zr/Fe-H bonding. Fe-H bond in Zr2FeH5 leads to annihilate magnetic polarization on Fe whereas Fe magnetic moment develops in Zr3FeH7 identified as ferromagnetic in the ground state. These differences in magnetic behaviors are due to the weakly ferromagnetic Fe largely affected by lattice environment, as opposed to strongly ferromagnetic Co. Hydrogenation of the binary intermetallics weakens the inter-metal bonding and favors the metal-hydrogen bonds leading to more cohesive hydrides as with respect to the pristine binaries. Charge analyses point to covalent like Fe versus ionic Zr and hydrogen charges ranging from covalent H-0.27 to more ionic H-0.5.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons < 0,0,12,0 > is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially < 0,2,8,2 > and < 0,2,8,1 >, are prominent. And the < 0,2,8,2 > polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5more » MG mainly originate from Al-centered clusters, while the < 0,0,12,0 > in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. Lastly, the relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5.« less

  9. Biocompatible Ni-free Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with high-Zr-content: compositional optimization for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hua, Nengbin; Huang, Lu; Chen, Wenzhe; He, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The present study designs and prepares Ni-free Zr60+xTi2.5Al10Fe12.5-xCu10Ag5 (at.%, x=0, 2.5, 5) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) by copper mold casting for potential biomedical application. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility of the Zr-based BMGs are evaluated by investigating mechanical properties, bio-corrosion behavior, and cellular responses. It is found that increasing the content of Zr is favorable for the mechanical compatibility with a combination of low Young's modulus, large plasticity, and high notch toughness. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Zr-based BMGs are corrosion resistant in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The bio-corrosion resistance of BMGs is improved with the increase in Zr content, which is attributed to the enrichment in Zr and decrease in Al concentration in the surface passive film of alloys. Regular cell responses of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells, including cell adhesion and proliferation, are observed on the Zr-Ti-Al-Fe-Cu-Ag BMGs, which reveals their general biosafety. The high-Zr-based BMGs exhibit a higher cell proliferation activity in comparison with that of pure Zr and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effects of Zr content on the in vitro biocompatibility can be used to guide the future design of biocompatible Zr-based BMGs. PMID:25280721

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons <0,0,12,0> is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially <0,2,8,2> and <0,2,8,1>, are prominent. And the <0,2,8,2> polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5 MG mainly originate from Al-centeredmore » clusters, while the <0,0,12,0> in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. The relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5.« less

  11. Mechanical and thermal properties of bulk ZrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-12-01

    ZrB2 appears to have formed in the fuel debris at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster site, through the reaction between Zircaloy cladding materials and the control rod material B4C. Since ZrB2 has a high melting point of 3518 K, the ceramic has been widely studied as a heat-resistant material. Although various studies on the thermochemical and thermophysical properties have been performed for ZrB2, significant differences exist in the data, possibly due to impurities or the porosity within the studied samples. In the present study, we have prepared a ZrB2 bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density by sintering ZrB2 powder. On this sample, we have comprehensively examined the thermal and mechanical properties of ZrB2 by the measurement of specific heat, ultrasonic sound velocities, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion. Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also measured and found to be 13-23 GPa and 1.8-2.8 MPa m0.5, respectively. The relationships between these properties were carefully examined in the present study.

  12. Ti- and Zr-based metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Ven, Anton; Puchala, Brian; Nagase, Takeshi

    2013-11-01

    We propose a high-temperature, rechargeable metal-air battery that relies on Ti or Zr metal as the anode and the shuttling of oxygen anions between the cathode and the anode through a solid-oxide ion-conducting electrolyte. The cathode has much in common with solid-oxide fuel cells. Key in the proposed battery is the use of Ti or Zr as the anode as these metals are unique in their ability to dissolve oxygen up to concentrations of 33% with minimal structural and volumetric changes. First-principles statistical mechanics calculations predict open circuit voltages around 2.5 V, substantially larger than the open circuit voltage of high-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells. The calculations predict the stability of TiO and ZrO monoxides along with TiOx and ZrOx (with x as high as ½) solid solutions. These suboxide phases are all predicted to be metallic, indicating that electron transport in the anodes will not be rate limiting. The oxygen diffusion coefficients in the Ti and Zr suboxides at high temperature (˜700-800 °C) are predicted to be comparable to that of Li ions in intercalation compounds. These properties suggest theoretical capacities as high as 840 mAh g-1 and 500 mAh g-1 for Ti and Zr based metal-air batteries respectively.

  13. PET Imaging with 89Zr: From Radiochemistry to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Deri, Melissa A.; Zeglis, Brian M.; Francesconi, Lynn C.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of antibody-based cancer therapeutics has led to the concomitant rise in the development of companion diagnostics for these therapies, particularly nuclear imaging agents. A number of radioisotopes have been employed for antibody-based PET and SPECT imaging, notably 64Cu, 124I, 111In, and 99mTc; in recent years, however, the field has increasingly focused on 89Zr, a radiometal with near ideal physical and chemical properties for immunoPET imaging. In the review at hand, we seek to provide a comprehensive portrait of the current state of 89Zr radiochemical and imaging research, including work into the production and purification of the isotope, the synthesis of new chelators, the development of new bioconjugation strategies, the creation of novel 89Zr-based agents for preclinical imaging studies, and the translation of 89Zr-labeled radiopharmaceuticals to the clinic. Particular attention will also be dedicated to emerging trends in the field, 89Zr-based imaging applications using vectors other than antibodies, the comparative advantages and limitations of 89Zr-based imaging compared to that with other isotopes, and areas that would benefit from more extensive investigation. At bottom, it is hoped that this review will provide both the experienced investigator and new scientist with a full and critical overview of this exciting and fast-developing field. PMID:22998840

  14. Effect of oxygen on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-23Nb-0.7Ta-2Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Hui-ping; Xu, Hong-xia; Su, Wen-huang; Ke, Yu-bin; Liu, Zeng-qian; Song, Hong-hai

    2012-12-01

    The influence of oxygen content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-23Nb-0.7Ta-2Zr (at%) alloy in as-cast and cold-rolled states was investigated systematically in this paper. It is found that the alloy containing oxygen element is only composed of a single β phase, while the alloy without oxygen element consisted of β and α″ phases. Although the grain size becomes larger, the elastic deformation ratio, strength, and hardness of the alloy are all increased with an increase of oxygen content. The as-cast alloy has excellent plastic deformation ability, but the cold-rolled alloy containing oxygen element exhibits brittle characteristics. A conclusion can be drawn that oxygen element can stabilize β phase, inhibit the phase transformation from β to α″, and furthermore help to increase the strength and elastic deformation ability of the alloy.

  15. Elemental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    He set out to prove that ocean sediments contain elevated levels of the rare element iridium because of the natural weathering of the continents. Instead, what Ariel Anbar found was new evidence that a meteorite may have had a role in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous era.By studying the geochemical properties of iridium, Anbar, a professor of earth and environmental sciences and chemistry at the University of Rochester, found that the residence time—a measure of the rate at which an element settles out of water into sediments—of iridium in ocean water is 2000 to 20,000 years. That finding suggests that a large deposit of iridium could have lingered in the world's oceans long enough to explain the thickness of the iridium-rich sediment layers at the K-T boundary.

  16. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  17. Controlling the particle size of ZrO2 nanoparticles in hydrothermally stable ZrO2/MWCNT composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changchang; Lee, Sungchul; Su, Dong; Lee, Byeongdu; Lee, Sungsik; Winans, Randall E; Yin, Chunrong; Vajda, Stefan; Pfefferle, Lisa; Haller, Gary L

    2012-12-11

    The composite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorated with ZrO(2) nanoparticles, synthesized by a grafting method followed by high-temperature annealing, was studied. The oxygen functionalized MWCNT surface uniformly disperses and stabilizes the oxide nanoparticles to an extent that is controlled by the metal oxide loading and thermal annealing temperature. This ZrO(2)/MWCNT also withstands decomposition in a hydrothermal environment providing potential applications in the catalysis of biomass conversion (e.g., aqueous phase reforming). The ZrO(2)/MWCNT have been characterized by (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), in situ wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and near edge X-ray fine structure (NEXAFS) for the purpose of a comprehensive analysis of the ZrO(2) particle size and particle size stability. PMID:23151155

  18. Modified ring stretch tensile testing of Zr-1Nb cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.B.; Majumdar, S.; Ruther, W.E.; Billone, M.C.; Chung, H.M.; Neimark, L.A.

    1998-03-01

    In a round robin effort between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire in France, and the Russian Research Centre-Kurchatov Institute, Argonne National Laboratory conducted 16 modified ring stretch tensile tests on unirradiated samples of zr-1Nb cladding, which is used in Russian VVER reactors. Test were conducted at two temperatures (25 and 400 C) and two strain rates (0.001 and 1 s{sup {minus}1}). At 25 C and 0.001 s{sup {minus}1}, the yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), uniform elongation (UE), and total elongation (TE) were 201 MPa, 331 MPa, 18.2%, and 57.6%, respectively. At 400 C and 0.001 s{sup {minus}1}, the YS, UTS, UE, and TE were 109 MPa, 185 MPa, 15.4%, and 67.7%, respectively. Finally, at 400 C and 1 s{sup {minus}1}, the YS, UTS, UE, and TE were 134 MPa, 189 MPa, 18.9%, and 53.4%, respectively. The high strain rate tests at room temperature were not successful. Test results proved to be very sensitive to the amount of lubrication used on the inserts; because of the large contact area between the inserts and specimen, too little lubrication leads to significantly higher strengths and lower elongations being reported. It is also important to note that only 70 to 80% of the elongation takes place in the gauge section, depending on specimen geometry. The appropriate percentage can be estimated from a simple model or can be calculated from finite-element analysis.

  19. Modified ring stretch tensile testing of Zr-1Nb cladding.

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M. C.; Chung, H. M.; Cohen, A. B.; Majumdar, S.; Neimark, L. A.; Ruther, W. E.

    1997-12-05

    In a round robin effort between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire in France, and the Russian Research Centre-Kurchatov Institute, Argonne National Laboratory conducted 16 modified ring stretch tensile tests on unirradiated samples of Zr-1Nb cladding, which is used in Russian VVER reactors. Tests were conducted at two temperatures (25 and 400 C) and two strain rates (0.001 and 1 s{sup {minus}1}). At 25 C and 0.001 s{sup {minus}1}, the yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), uniform elongation (UE), and total elongation (TE) were 201 MPa, 331 MPa, 18.2%, and 57.6%, respectively. At 400 C and 0.001 s{sup {minus}1}, the YS, UTS, UE, and TE were 109 MPa, 185 MPa, 15.4%, and 67.7%, respectively. Finally, at 400 C and 1 s{sup {minus}1}, the YS, UTS, UE, and TE were 134 MPa, 189 MPa, 18.9%, and 53.4%, respectively. The high strain rate tests at room temperature were not successful. Test results proved to be very sensitive to the amount of lubrication used on the inserts; because of the large contact area between the inserts and specimen, too little lubrication leads to significantly higher strengths and lower elongations being reported. It is also important to note that only 70 to 80% of the elongation takes place in the gauge section, depending on specimen geomeq. The appropriate percentage can be estimated from a simple model or can be calculated from finite-element analysis.

  20. Using WordNet to improve the mapping of data elements to UMLS for data sources integration.

    PubMed

    Mougin, Fleur; Burgun, Anita; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Each biomedical system has its own way of naming the pieces of information it contains, i.e., of defining its data elements (DEs). Integrating DEs facilitates the integration of biomedical resources. However, the mapping of DEs to the UMLS is ambiguous in many cases, when any correspondence is found at all. We propose to evaluate the potential contribution of a more general terminology: WordNet. Our method is based on synonyms, definitions, and structural properties of the terminologies. We applied it to a set of 474 DEs extracted from eleven biomedical sources. We show that WordNet can improve the direct mapping of DEs to UMLS when used to validate and disambiguate UMLS direct mappings. WordNet can also help identify indirect mappings of DEs to the UMLS. PMID:17238406

  1. Increasing Ti-6Al-4V brazed joint strength equal to the base metal by Ti and Zr amorphous filler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjeh, E.; Sarkhosh, H.; Bajgholi, M.E.; Khorsand, H.; Ghaffari, M.

    2012-09-15

    Microstructural features developed along with mechanical properties in furnace brazing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using STEMET 1228 (Ti-26.8Zr-13Ni-13.9Cu, wt.%) and STEMET 1406 (Zr-9.7Ti-12.4Ni-11.2Cu, wt.%) amorphous filler alloys. Brazing temperatures employed were 900-950 Degree-Sign C for the titanium-based filler and 900-990 Degree-Sign C for the zirconium-based filler alloys, respectively. The brazing time durations were 600, 1200 and 1800 s. The brazed joints were evaluated by ultrasonic test, and their microstructures and phase constitutions analyzed by metallography, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since microstructural evolution across the furnace brazed joints primarily depends on their alloying elements such as Cu, Ni and Zr along the joint. Accordingly, existence of Zr{sub 2}Cu, Ti{sub 2}Cu and (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni intermetallic compounds was identified in the brazed joints. The chemical composition of segregation region in the center of brazed joints was identical to virgin filler alloy content which greatly deteriorated the shear strength of the joints. Adequate brazing time (1800 s) and/or temperature (950 Degree-Sign C for Ti-based and 990 Degree-Sign C for Zr-based) resulted in an acicular Widmanstaetten microstructure throughout the entire joint section due to eutectoid reaction. This microstructure increased the shear strength of the brazed joints up to the Ti-6Al-4V tensile strength level. Consequently, Ti-6Al-4V can be furnace brazed by Ti and Zr base foils produced excellent joint strengths. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature or time was the main factors of controlling braze joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing a Widmanstaetten microstructure generates equal strength to base metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brittle intermetallic compounds like (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni/Cu deteriorate shear strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti and Zr base filler alloys were the best choice for brazing Ti

  2. First Principles Calculations of the Electronic Structure of ZrN Allotropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Li-Chang; Saito, Riichiro

    2011-11-01

    The atomic structures and electronic properties of different ZrN allotropes, including face-centered cubic ZrN (B1 ZrN), hypothetic wurtzite (w) ZrN, and hypothetic two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) layered hexagonal (h) ZrN, are investigated by systematic first-principles calculations. Although the cohesive energy calculation indicates that the B1 ZrN is more stable than the hypothetic w-ZrN and h-ZrN, we suggest that the monolayer h-ZrN may be stable on some substrates. Charge population analysis shows that the polar, covalent bonding character appears between N atoms and Zr atoms for all ZrN allotropes involved in this paper. A Van Hove singularity (VHS) with a high density of states (DOS) locating at 0.2 eV above the Fermi level appears for monolayer h-ZrN, which results from a saddle point of the partially occupied Zr-dz^{2 energy bands due to lack of interlayer interaction. Such a VHS observed in the monolayer h-ZrN indicates that this hypothetic monolayer material might be a potential candidate for new superconducting material by electron doping.

  3. Compatibilities and interfacial diffusions between U-10Zr alloy and Zircaloy-4 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunming; Wang, Fu; Liu, Haitao; Xiong, Wenbing; Wang, Hui; Pan, Qianfu; Zhang, Yuting; Ma, Ce; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2016-05-01

    U-10Zr/Zircaloy-4 (U-10Zr/Zr-4) diffusion couples were prepared by a coating and hot-rolling method and the compatibilities of the U-10Zr/Zr-4 diffusion couples were investigated by metallographic microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The results show that the interface layer of the U-10Zr/Zr-4 couple grows uniformly, no cracks and pores at the interface observed. The compositions of the interface layer of the U-10Zr/Zr-4 couple vary parabolically. From U-10Zr side to Zr-4 side, the content of U gradually decreases, while the content of Zr increases. Moreover, the growth of the interface layer of the U-10Zr/Zr-4 couple follows the parabolic growth law. The diffusion coefficient constant is 2.70E-1 m2/s and the diffusion activation energy is 260.49 × 103 J/mol. The diffusion coefficients at 750 °C and 800 °C are 1.33E-14 m2/s and 5.54E-14 m2/s respectively.

  4. Structural and electronic properties of SrZrO3 and Sr(Ti,Zr)O3 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, L.; Janotti, A.; Cui, X. Y.; Himmetoglu, B.; Stampfl, C.; Van de Walle, C. G.

    2015-08-01

    Using hybrid density functional calculations, we study the electronic and structural properties of SrZrO3 and ordered Sr (Ti ,Zr )O3 alloys. Calculations were performed for the ground-state orthorhombic (P n m a ) and high-temperature cubic (P m 3 m ) phases of SrZrO3. The variation of the lattice parameters and band gaps with Ti addition was studied using ordered SrTixZr1 -xO3 structures with x =0 , 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1. As Ti is added to SrZrO3, the lattice parameter is reduced and closely follows Vegard's law. On the other hand, the band gap shows a large bowing and is highly sensitive to the Ti distribution. For x =0.5 , we find that arranging the Ti and Zr atoms into a 1 ×1 SrZrO3/SrTiO3 superlattice along the [001] direction leads to interesting properties, including a highly dispersive single band at the conduction-band minimum (CBM), which is absent in both parent compounds, and a band gap close to that of pure SrTiO3. These features are explained by the splitting of the lowest three conduction-band states due to the reduced symmetry of the superlattice, lowering the band originating from the in-plane Ti 3 dx y orbitals. The lifting of the t2 g orbital degeneracy around the CBM suppresses scattering due to electron-phonon interactions. Our results demonstrate how short-period SrZrO3/SrTiO3 superlattices could be exploited to engineer the band structure and improve carrier mobility compared to bulk SrTiO3.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Nb-1Zr Weldments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santella, Michael; McNabb, Jeffery; Frederick, Alan

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this work was to measure the mechanical properties of Nb-1Zr weldments, and, more specifically, to evaluate whether Charpy V-notch impact testing may be a more meaningful indication of weld deposit ductility than the slow bend testing. Manual gas-tungsten-arc welds were made in Mb-1Zr plates using 4 beads of filler wire from the same heat. The cold-rolled plates were recrystallized by heat treatment at 1773 K for 1 hour prior to welding. Welded plates were made in a stainless steel welding glove box backfilled with either argon or helium. Two plates were made with each gas, with one plate post-weld heat treated at 1373 K. Weld metal from each of the four welded plates was subjected to chemical analysis, tensile testing at room temperature, and Charpy V-notch testing at 93-473 K. Also, microhardness testing was used to evaluate property gradients in the weldments. Impurity concentrations in the weld deposits compared well with the base metal concentrations and were within the limits of the relevant ASTM specification, B393 Type 3. All specimens with one minor exception had yield strengths, tensile strengths, and ductilities that exceeded the ASTM specified minimums. The Charpy V-notch specimens from the as-welded He weld deposit, and from both post-weld-heat-treated weld deposits showed similar behavior with upper shelf energies of 9.7-10 J and ductile-brittle transition temperatures of 85-100 K. These Charpy V-notch properties were comparable to those of the unwelded plate. The as-welded Ar weld deposit had a slightly higher ductile-brittle transition temperature near 150 K. Microhardness testing indicated that in the as-welded conditions the average hardness of the weld deposit made in Ar was higher than that made in He. Post-weld heat treatment reduced the average hardnesses of base metal and weld metal. The range of hardnesses in the weld deposits was increased by the post weld heat treatment.

  6. The influence of Zr substitution for Nb on the corrosion behaviors of the Ni-Nb-Zr bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, DengKe; Zhu, ZhengWang; Zhang, HaiFeng; Wang, AiMin; Hu, ZhuangQi

    2012-12-01

    The influence of Zr content on corrosion behaviors of the Ni61.5Nb38.5- x Zr x ( x=1, 3, 5, 7, 9 at.%) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) in 1 M HCl aqueous solution was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that these BMG alloys possess superior corrosion resistance, that is, with large passive region of about 1.5 V and low passive current density (as low as 0.05 Am-2 for Ni61.5Nb31.5Zr7). XPS analysis indicates that the high corrosion resistance is attributed to the formation of Nb- and Zr-enriched surface films formed in the aggressive acid solution. The Zr substitution for Nb effectively reduces the Ni content, particularly the metallic state Ni content in the surface films, which depresses the electrical conduction of the surface films and reduces the passive current density, thus leading to the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of these Ni-Nb-Zr BMGs. These alloys may potentially be useful for engineering applications.

  7. Mechanical and dynamical behaviors of ZrSi and ZrSi{sub 2} bulk metallic glasses: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Shin-Pon; Wu, Tsang-Yu; Liu, Shih-Hao

    2015-03-14

    The mechanical and dynamical properties of ZrSi and ZrSi{sub 2} bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The Honeycutt-Anderson (HA) index analysis indicates that the major indexes in ZrSi and ZrSi{sub 2} bulk metallic glasses are 1551, 1541, and 1431, which refers to the liquid structure. For uniaxial tension, the results show that the ZrSi and ZrSi{sub 2} BMGs are more ductile than their crystal counterparts. The evolution of the distribution of atomic local shear strain clearly shows the initialization of shear transformation zones (STZs), the extension of STZs, and the formation of shear bands along a direction 45° from the tensile direction when the tensile strain gradually increases. The self-diffusion coefficients of ZrSi and ZrSi{sub 2} BMGs at temperatures near their melting points were calculated by the Einstein equation according to the slopes of the MSD profiles at the long-time limit. Because the HA fraction summation of icosahedral-like structures of ZrSi BMG is higher than that of ZrSi{sub 2} BMG, and these local structures are more dense, the self-diffusion coefficients of the total, Zr, and Si atoms of ZrSi{sub 2} BMG are larger than those of ZrSi BMG. This can be attributed to the cage effect, where a denser local structure has a higher possibility of atoms jumping back to form a backflow and then suppress atomic diffusivity. For ZrSi{sub 2} BMG, the self-diffusion coefficient of Si increases with temperature more significantly than does that of Zr, because more open packing rhombohedra structures are formed by the Si-Si pair.

  8. Multifunctional Ti-(Ca,Zr)-(C,N,O,P) films for load-bearing implants.

    PubMed

    Shtansky, D V; Gloushankova, N A; Bashkova, I A; Kharitonova, M A; Moizhess, T G; Sheveiko, A N; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, F V; Petrzhik, M I; Levashov, E A

    2006-07-01

    Films of Ti-Ca-P-C-O-(N), Ti-Ca-C-O-(N) and Ti-Zr-C-O-(N) were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering or ion implantation-assisted magnetron sputtering of composite targets TiC0.5 + 10%Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, TiC0.5 + 20%(CaO + TiO2) and TiC0.5 + 10%ZrO2 in an Ar atmosphere or reactively in a gaseous mixture of Ar + 14%N2. The microstructure, elemental and phase composition of films were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The films were characterized in terms of their hardness, Young's modulus, elastic recovery, adhesion strength, and friction and wear both in air and under physiological solution. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of deformation and fracture for various film/substrate systems during scratch testing. The biocompatibility of the films was evaluated by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro studies involved the investigation of adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and IAR-2 epithelial cells, morphometric analysis, actin cytoskeleton, focal contacts staining, alkaline phosphatase activity and von Kossa staining of osteoblastic culture. Cell culture experiments demonstrated an increase of osteoblastic proliferation on Ca- and P-incorporated films. In vivo studies were fulfilled by subcutaneous implantation of Teflon plates coated with the tested films in mice and analysis of the population of adherent cells on their surfaces. The results obtained show that multicomponent nanostructured Ti-(Ca, Zr)-(C, N, O, P) films possess a combination of high hardness, wear resistance and adhesion strength, reduced Young's modulus, low friction coefficient and high biocompatibility. PMID:16530825

  9. Determination of Ti, Zr, Nb, V, W and Mo in seawater by a new online-preconcentration method and subsequent ICP-MS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poehle, Sandra; Schmidt, Katja; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We present a new method for the determination of Ti, Zr, Nb, V, W and Mo in seawater by adapting the online-preconcentration procedure with the system SeaFAST and subsequent analysis by ICP-MS to these metals. The trace elements Ti, Zr, Nb and W are present in seawater in ultratrace concentrations in the range of pmol kg-1, whereas Mo and V, which are biologically essential elements, are present in the concentration range of nmol kg-1. The online-preconcentration system we used consists of an autosampler, a sample loop, a preconcentration column and two valves controlling the sample loop and the preconcentration processes. The pre-packed preconcentration column contains a chelating resin with two functional groups, ethylenediamine triacetic acid (EDTriA) and iminodiacetic acid (IDA), immobilized on a polymer backbone. The preconcentration process was optimized for loading the sample and subsequent rinsing to remove residues of seawater matrix prior to elution with the optimized elution acid (0.5 M HNO3-0.002 M HF). We used acidified North Sea seawater (0.02 M HCl-0.002 M HF) for the method development. Samples and calibration standards were loaded onto the preconcentration column and after elution directly transferred to the quadrupole ICP-MS and measured immediately. Best results were achieved with matrix-matched calibration standards (0.6 M NaCl-0.02 M HCl-0.002 M HF) simulating acidified seawater samples. Titanium, Zr, Nb and W are measured simultaneously in one run, whereas V and Mo are determined simultaneously in a separate run. Low procedure blanks were calculated for Ti, Zr, Nb, W (635, 14.5, 1.35, 10.2 pmol kg-1) and for V and Mo, 9.79 and 5.61 nmol kg-1, respectively. Very good spike recoveries achieved with spiked North Sea water demonstrate the applicability for all six elements. Analysis of the seawater standard NASS-6 gave recoveries of 97-99% (0.9-2.2% standard deviation, SD) for Mo and V. We also provide Zr, Nb and W data for this reference standard

  10. Efremovka 101.1: a CAI with ultrarefractory REE patterns and enormous enrichments of Sc, Zr, and Y in Fassaite and Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E.; Matsunami, S.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Lin, Y.; Nazarov, M.

    2002-04-01

    Inclusion 101.1 from the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Efremovka is a compact Type A Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) highly enriched in ultrarefractory (UR) oxides. It is the first complete CAI with a UR rare earth element (REE) pattern found in a CV3 chondrite. The inclusion is petrographically complex and was formed in a multistage process. It consists of several lithologically unrelated units. The core contains abundant Y- and Zr-perovskite, Sc- and Zr-rich fassaite, and metallic FeNi enclosed in melilite. All mineral species (except spinel) in all lithological units exhibit the same basic UR REE pattern. Four different populations of perovskites are distinguished by different Y/Zr ratios. A few of the perovskites have Y/Zr ratios similar to those obtained from crystal/liquid fractionation experiments. Perovskites from the other three populations have either chondritic, lower than chondritic Y/Zr ratios or extremely low Zr contents. Ca isotopic ratios differ among three perovskites from different populations, demonstrating a variety of sources and formational processes. Most fassaites crystallized in situ through reaction between the CAI liquid and preexisting perovskites. This process induced redistribution of Zr, Y, Sc, and V between perovskite and fassaite, thus overprinting the original abundances in perovskite. Fassaite reaction rims around FeNi metals are also encountered. They are enriched in V, which was gained from the metal through oxidation of V in metal during fassaite crystallization. The relative abundances of Zr, Y, and Sc in perovskites are complementary to the abundances of these elements in Sc- and Zr-fassaite, indicating subsolidus partitioning of these elements between the two phases. Perovskites are enriched in Y and depleted in Sc and Zr in comparison to fassaites. The core contains two complete captured CAIs, several sinuous fragments, and fine-grained polygonal refractory fragments. An assemblage of andradite-wollastonite-hedenbergite and pure

  11. Pygmy dipole strength in Zr90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwengner, R.; Rusev, G.; Tsoneva, N.; Benouaret, N.; Beyer, R.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Lenske, H.; Nair, C.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.

    2008-12-01

    The dipole response of the N=50 nucleus Zr90 was studied in photon-scattering experiments at the electron linear accelerator ELBE with bremsstrahlung produced at kinetic electron energies of 7.9, 9.0, and 13.2 MeV. We identified 189 levels up to an excitation energy of 12.9 MeV. Statistical methods were applied to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions and to correct the intensities of the ground-state transitions for their branching ratios. In this way we derived the photoabsorption cross section up to the neutron-separation energy. This cross section matches well the photoabsorption cross section obtained from (γ, n) data and thus provides information about the extension of the dipole-strength distribution toward energies below the neutron-separation energy. An enhancement of E1 strength has been found in the range of 6 to 11 MeV. Calculations within the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model ascribe this strength to a vibration of the excessive neutrons against the N=Z neutron-proton core, giving rise to a pygmy dipole resonance.

  12. Initial stages of oxide formation on the Zr surface at low oxygen pressure: An in situ FIM and XPS study.

    PubMed

    Bespalov, I; Datler, M; Buhr, S; Drachsel, W; Rupprechter, G; Suchorski, Y

    2015-12-01

    An improved methodology of the Zr specimen preparation was developed which allows fabrication of stable Zr nanotips suitable for FIM and AP applications. Initial oxidation of the Zr surface was studied on a Zr nanotip by FIM and on a polycrystalline Zr foil by XPS, both at low oxygen pressure (10(-8)-10(-7)mbar). The XPS data reveal that in a first, fast stage of oxidation, a Zr suboxide interlayer is formed which contains three suboxide components (Zr(+1), Zr(+2) and Zr(+3)) and is located between the Zr surface and a stoichiometric ZrO2 overlayer that grows in a second, slow oxidation stage. The sole suboxide layer has been observed for the first time at very early states of the oxidation (oxygen exposure ≤ 4L). The Ne(+) FIM observations are in accord with a two stage process of Zr oxide formation. PMID:25766998

  13. Initial stages of oxide formation on the Zr surface at low oxygen pressure: An in situ FIM and XPS study

    PubMed Central

    Bespalov, I.; Datler, M.; Buhr, S.; Drachsel, W.; Rupprechter, G.; Suchorski, Y.

    2015-01-01

    An improved methodology of the Zr specimen preparation was developed which allows fabrication of stable Zr nanotips suitable for FIM and AP applications. Initial oxidation of the Zr surface was studied on a Zr nanotip by FIM and on a polycrystalline Zr foil by XPS, both at low oxygen pressure (10−8–10−7 mbar). The XPS data reveal that in a first, fast stage of oxidation, a Zr suboxide interlayer is formed which contains three suboxide components (Zr+1, Zr+2 and Zr+3) and is located between the Zr surface and a stoichiometric ZrO2 overlayer that grows in a second, slow oxidation stage. The sole suboxide layer has been observed for the first time at very early states of the oxidation (oxygen exposure ≤4 L). The Ne+ FIM observations are in accord with a two stage process of Zr oxide formation. PMID:25766998

  14. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  15. Li2ZrO3-coated Li4Ti5O12 with nanoscale interface for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Yang; Wang, Ting; Yang, Yang; Shi, Shaojun; Yang, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Zr doped sample of Li4Ti4.99Zr0.01O12 (LZTO) and Li2ZrO3 (LZO) coated Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) are prepared by a solid-state method. The lattice structure of LTO is remained after doping element of Zr and coating layer of LZO. The crystal structure and electrochemical performance of the material are investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and charge-discharge tests, respectively. Zr-doping and LZO coating play the positive role in improving the diffusion ability of lithium cations. LZTO and LZO-LTO show much improved specific capacity and rate capability compared with pristine sample of LTO. LZO-LTO has the smallest voltage differential (ΔV) of the redox peaks because the coating of Li2ZrO3 is helpful for the diffusion ability of lithium ions during charge/discharge processes. LZTO and LZO-LTO as electrode deliver the initial capacities of 164.8, 168.1 mAh g-1, respectively, which are much higher than 150.2 mAh g-1 of intrinsic sample of LTO. Even at the current density of 2 A g-1, LTZO and LZO-LTO offer capacity of 96 and 106 mAh g-1, which are much higher than 33 mAh g-1 of LTO. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the improved diffusion ability of lithium. During the whole discharge process, the lowest value of LTO is 5.97 × 10-17 cm2 s-1 that is much lower than 7.80 × 10-16 cm2 s-1 in LZTO and 1.85 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 in LZO-LTO, respectively.

  16. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gouda, Mohammed K. Gepreel, Mohamed A. H.; Nakamura, Koichi

    2015-06-07

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti–X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus.

  17. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, Mohammed K.; Nakamura, Koichi; A. H. Gepreel, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti-X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus.

  18. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  19. Additive Manufacturing of Reactive In Situ Zr Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Reactive in situ multi-material additive manufacturing of ZrB2-based ultra-high-temperature ceramics in a Zr metal matrix was demonstrated using LENS™. Sound metallurgical bonding was achieved between the Zr metal and Zr-BN composites with Ti6Al4V substrate. Though the feedstock Zr power had α phase, LENS™ processing of the Zr powder and Zr-BN premix powder mixture led to the formation of some β phase of Zr. Microstructure of the Zr-BN composite showed primary grains of zirconium diboride phase in zirconium metal matrix. The presence of ZrB2 ceramic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness of pure Zr was measured as 280 ± 12 HV and, by increasing the BN content in the feedstock, the hardness was found to increase. In Zr-5%BN composite, the hardness was 421 ± 10 HV and the same for Zr-10%BN composite was 562 ± 10 HV. It is envisioned that such multi-materials additive manufacturing will enable products in the future that cannot be manufactured using traditional approaches particularly in the areas of high-temperature metal-ceramic composites with compositional and functional gradation.

  20. Novel Amorphous Fe-Zr-Si(Cu) Boron-free Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kopcewicz, M.; Grabias, A.; Latuch, J.; Kowalczyk, M.

    2010-07-13

    Novel amorphous Fe{sub 80}(Zr{sub x}Si{sub 20-x-y})Cu{sub y} boron-free alloys, in which boron was completely replaced by silicon as a glass forming element, have been prepared in the form of ribbons by a melt quenching technique. The X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements revealed that the as-quenched ribbons with the composition of x = 6-10 at. % and y = 0, 1 at. % are predominantly amorphous. DSC measurements allowed the estimation of the crystallization temperatures of the amorphous alloys. The soft magnetic properties have been studied by the specialized rf-Moessbauer technique in which the spectra were recorded during an exposure of the samples to the rf field of 0 to 20 Oe at 61.8 MHz. Since the rf-collapse effect observed is very sensitive to the local anisotropy fields it was possible to evaluate the soft magnetic properties of amorphous alloys studied. The rf-Moessbauer studies were accompanied by the conventional measurements of the quasi-static hysteresis loops from which the magnetization and coercive fields were estimated. It was found that amorphous Fe-Zr-Si(Cu) alloys are magnetically very soft, comparable with those of the conventional amorphous B-containing Fe-based alloys.

  1. In vitro degradation behavior and cytocompatibility of Mg–Zn–Zr alloys

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Z. G.; Leeflang, M. A.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Duszczyk, J.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc and zirconium were selected as the alloying elements in biodegradable magnesium alloys, considering their strengthening effect and good biocompatibility. The degradation rate, hydrogen evolution, ion release, surface layer and in vitro cytotoxicity of two Mg–Zn–Zr alloys, i.e. ZK30 and ZK60, and a WE-type alloy (Mg–Y–RE–Zr) were investigated by means of long-term static immersion testing in Hank’s solution, non-static immersion testing in Hank’s solution and cell-material interaction analysis. It was found that, among these three magnesium alloys, ZK30 had the lowest degradation rate and the least hydrogen evolution. A magnesium calcium phosphate layer was formed on the surface of ZK30 sample during non-static immersion and its degradation caused minute changes in the ion concentrations and pH value of Hank’s solution. In addition, the ZK30 alloy showed insignificant cytotoxicity against bone marrow stromal cells as compared with biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) and the WE-type alloy. After prolonged incubation for 7 days, a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation was observed. The results of the present study suggested that ZK30 could be a promising material for biodegradable orthopedic implants and worth further investigation to evaluate its in vitro and in vivo degradation behavior. PMID:20532960

  2. Effect of sulphur on the strengthening of a Zr Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. I.; Hong, S. I.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of sulphur on the strengthening and the thermally activated deformation of cold-worked Zr-1 Nb alloy was investigated. In the present study, the sulphur strengthening was observed even at room temperature unlike the previous study of Ferrer et al. The flow stress increased by 65 MPa at room temperature with the addition of sulphur as little as 20 ppm. With further increase of sulphur content up to 300 ppm, negligible change of the flow stress was observed. The additive strengthening behavior in which the entire stress-strain curve shift upward by the friction stress due to the addition of sulphur was observed in the Zr-Nb alloy of the present study. The activation volume decreased slightly (from 110b 3 to 80b 3) with the addition of 300 ppm sulphur at room temperature. The rate-controlling mechanism of the deformation can best be explained by the dislocation interaction mechanism in which the segregation of alloying elements such as oxygen and sulphur atoms affects the activation length of dislocations.

  3. Galactic abundance gradients from Cepheids. α and heavy elements in the outer disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasle, B.; François, P.; Genovali, K.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Bono, G.; Inno, L.; Laney, C. D.; Kaper, L.; Bergemann, M.; Fabrizio, M.; Matsunaga, N.; Pedicelli, S.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Galactic abundance gradients set strong constraints to chemo-dynamical evolutionary models of the Milky Way. Given the period-luminosity relations that provide accurate distances and the large number of spectral lines, Cepheids are excellent tracers of the present-day abundance gradients. Aims: We want to measure the Galactic abundance gradient of several chemical elements. While the slope of the Cepheid iron gradient did not vary much from the very first studies, the gradients of the other elements are not that well constrained. In this paper we focus on the inner and outer regions of the Galactic thin disk. Methods: We use high-resolution spectra (FEROS, ESPADONS, NARVAL) to measure the abundances of several light (Na, Al), α (Mg, Si, S, Ca), and heavy elements (Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Eu) in a sample of 65 Milky Way Cepheids. Combining these results with accurate distances from period-Wesenheit relations in the near-infrared enables us to determine the abundance gradients in the Milky Way. Results: Our results are in good agreement with previous studies on either Cepheids or other tracers. In particular, we confirm an upward shift of ≈0.2 dex for the Mg abundances, as has recently been reported. We also confirm the existence of a gradient for all the heavy elements studied in the context of a local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis. However, for Y, Nd, and especially La, we find lower abundances for Cepheids in the outer disk than reported in previous studies, leading to steeper gradients. This effect can be explained by the differences in the line lists used by different groups. Conclusions: Our data do not support a flattening of the gradients in the outer disk, in agreement with recent Cepheid studies and chemo-dynamical simulations. This is in contrast to the open cluster observations but remains compatible with a picture where the transition zone between the inner disk and the outer disk would move outward with time. Based on observations obtained

  4. On-line gas chromatographic studies of rutherfordium (Element 104), hahnium (Element 105), and homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Kadkhodayan, B.

    1993-05-01

    Gas-phase isothermal chromatogaphy is a method by which volatile compounds of different chemical elements can be separated according to their volatilities. The technique, coupled with theoretical modeling of the processes occurring in the chromatogaphy column, provides accurate determination of thermodynamic properties (e.g., adsorption enthalpies) for compounds of elements, such as the transactinides, which can only be produced on an atom-at-a-time basis. In addition, the chemical selectivity of the isothermal chromatogaphy technique provides the decontamination from interfering activities necessary for the determination of the nuclear decay properties of isotopes of the transactinide elements. Volatility measurements were performed on chloride species of Rf and its group 4 homologs, Zr and Hf, as well as Ha and its group 5 homologs, Nb and Ta. Adsorption enthalpies were calculated for all species using a Monte Carlo code simulation based on a microscopic model for gas thermochromatography in open columns with laminar flow of the carrier gas. Preliminary results are presented for Zr- and Nb-bromides.

  5. Atomic-scale simulation to study the dynamical properties and local structure of Cu-Zr and Ni-Zr metallic glass-forming alloys.

    PubMed

    Yang, M H; Li, Y; Li, J H; Liu, B X

    2016-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation with well-developed EAM potentials was carried out to investigate the transport properties and local atomic structure of Cu-Zr and Ni-Zr metallic glasses and supercooled liquids. It is found that Cu or Ni atoms have much faster dynamics than Zr atoms in relaxation timescales, while Zr atoms display faster dynamics in the Cu-Zr system than in the Ni-Zr system. A dynamical crossover phenomenon from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties was observed for the Cu65Zr35 system at Tx ≈ 1250 K and the Ni65Zr35 system at Tx ≈ 1500 K, respectively. Further structural analysis suggests that the dominant interconnected clusters in Cu65Zr35 and Ni65Zr35 systems are 〈0, 0, 12, 0〉, 〈0, 1, 10, 2〉, 〈0, 2, 8, 2〉 and 〈0, 3, 6, 4〉. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we regard the full icosahedra as the microscopic origin responsible for the formation of metallic glasses in the Cu65Zr35 system, while the metallic glass formation in the Ni65Zr35 system can be attributed to the slow dynamics of 〈0, 3, 6, 4〉, 〈0, 2, 8, 2〉 and 〈0, 1, 10, 2〉 Ni-centered Voronoi polyhedra. The local atomic order and dynamics for Cu65Zr35 and Ni65Zr35 systems are remarkably different, and these differences are presumed to hinder crystal nucleation and growth, hence promoting the largely different bulk glass-forming ability. PMID:26888279

  6. Hydrothermal Concentration of Zr, Y + HREE in the Lake Zone of the Thor Lake Rare Metal Deposit, Northwest Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheard, E. R.; Heiligmann, M.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2009-05-01

    The Thor Lake rare-metal (Zr, Y, REE, Nb, Ta, Be, Ga) deposit in Northwest Territories contains Canada's largest resource of Zr, Y and HREE and is one of the largest resources of these elements on the planet. Much of the mineralization was clearly concentrated by hydrothermal processes, providing compelling evidence for Zr mobility. Geologically, the deposit is situated at the southern edge of the Slave Province of the Canadian Shield, within the 2150 Ma alkaline to peralkaline Blachford Lake complex consisting of an early suite of gabbro, quartz syenite and granite, which was intruded by the Grace Lake granite and, in turn, by the Thor Lake syenite [1]. A layered alkaline intrusion dominated by nepheline syenite occurs below the Thor Lake syenite and is thought to represent the youngest phase of the complex. This intrusion comprises numerous sub- horizontal layers of sodalite syenite, alkali syenite and lujavrite. Evidence of cumulate and adcumulus textures, cyclic magmatic differentiation and rhythmic layering of mafic and felsic units on scales ranging from tens of centimetres to several metres indicate a complex history of pulsed injection of magma and magmatic differentiation. The upper part of the layered intrusion and the overlying Thor Lake syenite contain the bulk of the rare metal mineralization, with Zr hosted primarily by zircon, Nb primarily by ferrocolumbite and fergusonite, and Y + HREE by fergusonite and zircon. The LREE are hosted by monazite, allanite, bastnaesite and synchisite/parisite. The precursor rocks to the ore were pervasively altered by Fe- and K-rich hydrothermal fluids, which replaced much of the primary mineralogy by magnetite, biotite and K-feldspar and redistributed/concentrated the rare metals including Zr (as secondary zircon). This alteration was overprinted locally by intense sodic alteration. In other rare-metal-rich alkaline complexes such as Strange Lake, Ilimaussaq and Lovozero, the Zr, Nb, Y + REE mineralization has been

  7. Microstructures and Stability Origins of β-(Ti,Zr)-(Mo,Sn)-Nb Alloys with Low Young's Modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Li, Qun; Li, Xiaona; Zhang, Ruiqian; Gao, Xiaoxia; Dong, Chuang; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-09-01

    The present work investigates the microstructural evolution and β-phase stability of a multi-component [(Mo,Sn)-(Ti,Zr)14]-Nb alloy series developed using the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. Low Young's modulus ( E) can be reached, when both low- E elements, Sn and Zr, and β-Ti stabilizers, Mo and Nb, are properly incorporated in the so-called cluster formulas. After the X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis, and in combination with the β-Ti stability measured by the Mo equivalent, the Young's modulus of β-Ti alloys is found to increase with increasing β stabilities and is closely related to both the microstructures of the β matrix and the precipitated phases. More importantly, the morphologies of the β matrix change with β stabilities apparently so that high- E ( E >70 GPa) and low- E ( E ≤70 GPa) β-Ti alloys can be distinguished with the microstructures of the β matrix. The quinary alloy, formulated as [(Mo0.5Sn0.5)-(Ti13Zr1)]Nb1, owns its lowest E of 48 GPa among the present alloy series to the mixed thin-lamellar and rod-shaped morphology of the β structure with the lowest stability for the β formation.

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Microwave Sintered ZrO2 Bioceramics with TiO2 Addition

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2016-01-01

    The microwave sintered zirconia ceramics with 0, 1, 3, and 5 wt% TiO2 addition at a low sintering temperature of 1300°C and a short holding time of 1 hour were investigated. Effect of contents of TiO2 addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of microwave sintered zirconia bioceramics was reported. In the sintered samples, the main phase is monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2) phase and minor phase is tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) phase. The grain sizes increased with increasing the TiO2 contents under the sintering temperature of 1300°C. Although the TiO2 phase was not detected in the XRD pattern, Ti and O elements were detected in the EDS analysis. The presence of TiO2 effectively improved grain growth of the ZrO2 ceramics. The Vickers hardness was in the range of 125 to 300 Hv and increased with the increase of TiO2 contents. Sintering temperature dependence on the Vickers hardness was also investigated from 1150°C to 1300°C, showing the increase of Vickers hardness with the increase of the sintering temperature as well as TiO2 addition. PMID:27504072

  9. Characteristics of Ti-Nb, Ti-Zr and Ti-Al containing hydrogenated carbon nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaceanu, M.; Braic, V.; Braic, M.; Vladescu, A.; Zoita, C. N.; Grigorescu, C. E. A.; Grigore, E.; Ripeanu, R.

    2009-10-01

    Nanocomposite Me-C-N:H coatings (Me is TiNb, TiZr or TiAl), with relatively high non-metal/metal ratios, were prepared by cathodic arc method using TiNb, TiZr and TiAl alloy cathodes in a CH 4 + N 2 atmosphere. For comparison purposes, a-C-N:H films were also produced through evaporating a graphite cathode in a similar atmosphere. The films were characterized in terms of elemental and phase compositions, chemical bonds, texture, hardness, adhesion and friction behavior by GDOES, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and XRD techniques, surface profilometry, hardness and scratch adhesion measurements, and tribological tests. The nanocomposite films consisted of a mixture of crystalline metal carbonitride and amorphous carbon nitride. The non-metal/metal ratio in the films composition was found to range between 1.8 and 1.9. For the metal containing nanocomposites, grain size in the range 7-23 nm, depending on the metal nature, were determined. As compared with the a-C-N:H, the Me-C-N:H films exhibited a much higher hardness (up to about 39 GPa for Ti-Zr-C-N:H) and a better adhesion strength, while the coefficients of friction were somewhat higher (0.2-0.3 for Me-C-N:H and 0.1 for a-C-N:H).

  10. Doping Li and K into Na2ZrO3 Sorbent to Improve Its CO2 Capture Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yuhua

    Carbon dioxide is one of the major combustion products which once released into the air can contribute to global climate change. Solid sorbents have been reported in several previous studies to be promising candidates for CO2 sorbent applications due to their high CO2 absorption capacities at moderate working temperatures. However, at a given CO2 pressure, the turnover temperature (Tt) of an individual solid capture CO2 reaction is fixed and may be outside the operating temperature range (ΔTo) for a particularly capture technology. In order to shift such Tt for a solid into the range of ΔTo, its corresponding thermodynamic property must be changed by changing its structure by reacting (mixing) with other materials or doping with other elements. As an example, by combining thermodynamic database searching with ab initio thermodynamics calculations, in this work, we explored the Li- and K-doping effects on the Tt shifts of Na2ZrO3 at different doping levels. The obtained results showed that compared to pure Na2ZrO3, the Li- and K-doped mixtures Na2-αMαZrO3 (M =Li, K) have lower Tt and higher CO2 capture capacities.

  11. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 90Zr: Bottleneck in the s-Process Reaction Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliente, G.; Koehler, Paul Edward; Collaboration, n_TOF

    2008-03-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of the Zr isotopes have important implications in nuclear astrophysics and for reactor design. The small cross section of the neutron magic nucleus {sup 90}Zr, which accounts for more than 50% of natural zirconium represents one of the key isotopes for the stellar s-process, because it acts as a bottleneck in the neutron capture chain between the Fe seed and the heavier isotopes. The same element, Zr, also is an important component of the structural materials used in traditional and advanced nuclear reactors. The (n,{gamma}) cross section has been measured at CERN, using the n{_}TOF spallation neutron source. In total, 45 resonances could be resolved in the neutron energy range below 70 keV, 10 being observed for the first time thanks to the high resolution and low backgrounds at n{_}TOF. On average, the {Lambda}{sub {gamma}}widths obtained in resonance analyses with the R-matrix code SAMMY were 15% smaller than reported previously. By these results, the accuracy of the Maxwellian averaged cross section for s-process calculations has been improved by more than a factor of 2.

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Microwave Sintered ZrO2 Bioceramics with TiO2 Addition.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsien-Nan; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Tung-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    The microwave sintered zirconia ceramics with 0, 1, 3, and 5 wt% TiO2 addition at a low sintering temperature of 1300°C and a short holding time of 1 hour were investigated. Effect of contents of TiO2 addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of microwave sintered zirconia bioceramics was reported. In the sintered samples, the main phase is monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2) phase and minor phase is tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) phase. The grain sizes increased with increasing the TiO2 contents under the sintering temperature of 1300°C. Although the TiO2 phase was not detected in the XRD pattern, Ti and O elements were detected in the EDS analysis. The presence of TiO2 effectively improved grain growth of the ZrO2 ceramics. The Vickers hardness was in the range of 125 to 300 Hv and increased with the increase of TiO2 contents. Sintering temperature dependence on the Vickers hardness was also investigated from 1150°C to 1300°C, showing the increase of Vickers hardness with the increase of the sintering temperature as well as TiO2 addition. PMID:27504072

  13. Hydriding of TiZrNiFe nanocompounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żywczak, A.; Shinya, Daigo; Gondek, Ł.; Takasaki, Akito; Figiel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Ti-based quasicrystals belong to the second largest group of the stable quasicrystals, showing attractive properties as hydrogen storage materials. The Ti 45Zr 38Ni 17 intermetallic compound forms an icosahedral ( i-phase) structure, in which Ti and Zr atoms possess very good chemical affinity for hydrogen absorption. We modified the Ti 45Zr 38Ni 17 compounds by substituting 3d metals (iron) for Ni to obtain amorphous phase. The samples were produced by mechanical alloying. The 3d metal atoms are located in the same positions as nickel. The structural characterization was made by means of XRD measurements. Thermodynamic properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The obtained amorphous phases Ti 45Zr 38Ni (9,13)Fe (8,4) transform to the i-phase at the similar temperature range as Ti 45Zr 38Ni 17. The final concentration of absorbed hydrogen depends on the amount of Fe. When increasing the amount of iron, the hydrogen release temperature becomes lower. After hydriding, the samples decompose into simple metal hydrides.

  14. ZrCoCe Getter Films for MEMS Vacuum Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yaohua; Cui, Jiandong; Cui, Hang; Zhou, Hao; Yang, Zhimin; Du, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to specifically support the technology trend of increased miniaturization of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) devices, highly porous ZrCoCe non-evaporable getter (NEG) film has been produced by direct current magnetron sputtering from a preformed ZrCoCe alloy target. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the ZrCoCe film is constructed with porous columnar crystals, which are further built up with assembled ZrCoCe amorphous or nanocrystalline grains with an average grain size of 5 nm. Gas sorption investigation shows that this film can be activated at a low temperature of 300°C for 30 min and has excellent stable sorption characteristics. Sorption properties can be further improved with elevating activation temperatures due to nanocrystals growing and amorphous regions crystallizing. The capability of ZrCoCe films to withstand wafer physical or chemical cleaning processes is investigated, indicating their compatibility with MEMS vacuum packaging and the appropriate way to store them.

  15. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  16. Transmission electron microscopy study of the microstructure of a Ti–Fe–Zr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, G.H.; Liu, N.; Peng, J.C.; Li, X.; Shen, G.J.; Russell, A.M.

    2013-09-15

    A Ti–35Fe–30Zr (at.%) alloy was prepared by cold crucible levitation melting, and its microstructure was characterized. Electron microscope observations revealed a microstructure with a bi-modal phase size distribution. One phase was identified as a monoclinic TiFeZr compound with lattice parameters a = 0.895 nm, b = 0.502 nm, c = 0.969 nm, and α = 119.4° in C2 (space group). A bcc β-TiZr phase with lattice parameter a = 0.341 nm coexisted with the monoclinic phase. The mechanisms of phase formation are discussed. - Highlights: • Monoclinic TiFeZr phase was observed in as-cast Ti–35Fe–30Zr (at.%) alloy. • The space group of monoclinic TiFeZr phase is C2. • The β-TiZr phase formed in as-cast Ti–35Fe–30Zr alloy.

  17. Microstructural investigation of as-cast uranium rich U-Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuting; Wang, Xin; Zeng, Gang; Wang, Hui; Jia, Jianping; Sheng, Liusi; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2016-04-01

    The present study evaluates the microstructure in as-cast uranium rich U-Zr alloys, an important subsystem of U-Pu-Zr ternary metallic nuclear reactor fuel, as a function of the Zr content, from 2wt.% to 15wt.%Zr. It has been previously suggested that the unique intermetallic compound δ phase in U-Zr alloys is only present in as-cast U-Zr alloys with a Zr content exceeding 10wt.%Zr. However, our analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data shows that the δ phase is common to all as-cast alloys studied in this work. Furthermore, specific coherent orientation relationship is found between the α and δ phases, consistent with previous findings, and a third variant is discovered in this paper.

  18. Synthesis of Carboxylate Cp*Zr(IV) Species: Toward the Formation of Novel Metallocavitands.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Maxime; Bi, Wenhua; Légaré, Marc-André; Morin, Jean-François; Fontaine, Frédéric-Georges

    2015-06-01

    With the intent of generating metallocavitands isostructural to species [(CpZr)3(μ(3)-O)(μ(2)-OH)3(κO,O,μ(2)-O2C(R))3](+), the reaction of Cp*2ZrCl2 and Cp*ZrCl3 with phenylcarboxylic acids was carried out. Depending on the reaction conditions, five new complexes were obtained, which consisted of Cp*2ZrCl(κ(2)-OOCPh) (1), (Cp*ZrCl(κ(2)-OOCPh))2(μ-κ(2)-OOCPh)2 (2), [(Cp*Zr(κ(2)-OOCPh))2(μ-κ(2)-OOCPh)2(μ(2)-OH)2]·Et2O (3·Et2O), [[Cp*ZrCl2](μ-Cl)(μ-OH)(μ-O2CC6H5)[Cp*Zr

  19. Controlled Synthesis of ZrS2 Monolayer and Few Layers on Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Zhu, Yiming; Wang, Xinsheng; Feng, Qingliang; Qiao, Shanlin; Wen, Wen; Chen, Yanfeng; Cui, Menghua; Zhang, Jin; Cai, Congzhong; Xie, Liming

    2015-06-10

    Group IVB transition metal (Zr and Hf) dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers can have higher carrier mobility and higher tunneling current density than group VIB (Mo and W) TMD monolayers. Here we report the synthesis of hexagonal ZrS2 monolayer and few layers on hexagonal boron nitride (BN) using ZrCl4 and S as precursors. The domain size of ZrS2 hexagons is around 1-3 μm. The number of layers of ZrS2 was controlled by tuning the evaporation temperature of ZrCl4. The stacking angle between ZrS2 and BN characterized by transmission electron microscopy shows a preferred stacking angle of near 0°. Field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated on ZrS2 flakes showed n-type transport behavior with an estimated mobility of 0.1-1.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). PMID:25996159

  20. "Heavy" elements produced in neutrino-driven winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcones, Almudena

    2012-02-01

    We present nucleosynthesis studies based on trajectories of hydrodynamical simulations for core-collapse supernovae and their subsequent neutrino-driven winds. Based on recent hydrodynamical simulations, heavy r-process elements (Z > 56) cannot be synthesized in the neutrino-driven winds because the entropy is too low and ejected matter is proton-rich. We have shown that the lighter heavy elements (e.g., Sr, Y, Zr) are produced in neutron- and proton-rich winds and could explain the abundance observed in some very old halo stars.

  1. Detached Eddy Simulations of Incompressible Turbulent Flows Using the Finite Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    Laskowski, G M

    2001-08-01

    An explicit Galerkin finite-element formulation of the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) 1 - equation turbulent transport model was implemented into the incompressible flow module of a parallel, multi-domain, Galerkin finite-element, multi-physics code, using both a RANS formulation and a DES formulation. DES is a new technique for simulating/modeling turbulence using a hybrid RANSkES formulation. The turbulent viscosity is constructed from an intermediate viscosity obtained from the transport equation which is spatially discretized using Q1 elements and integrated in time via forward Euler time integration. Three simulations of plane channel flow on a RANS-type grid, using different turbulence models, were conducted in order to validate the implementation of the SA model: SA-RANS, SA-DES and Smagorinksy (without wall correction). Very good agreement was observed between the SA-RANS results and theory, namely the Log Law of the Wall (LLW), especially in the viscous sublayer region and, to a lesser extent, in the log-layer region. The results obtained using the SA-DES model did not agree as well with the LLW, and it is believed that this poor agreement can be attributed to using a DES model on a RANS grid, namely using an incorrect length-scale. It was observed that near the wall, the SA-DES model acted as an RANS model, and away from the wall it acted as an LES model.

  2. Ceramic Plutonium Target Development for the MASHA Separator for the Synthesis of Element 114

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, D A; Wilk, P A; Moody, K J; Kenneally, J M; Wild, J F; Stoyer, M A; Stoyer, N J; Patin, J B; Landrum, J H; Lougheed, R W; Oganessian, Y T; Yeremin, A V; Dmitriev, S N; Hartmann, T; Czerwinski, K R

    2005-06-29

    We are currently developing a Pu ceramic target for the MASHA mass separator. MASHA will use a Pu ceramic target capable of tolerating temperatures up to 2000 C. Reaction products will diffuse out of the target into an ion source, and transported through the separator to a position-sensitive focal-plane detector array for mass identification. Experiments on MASHA will allow us to make measurements that will cement our identification of element 114 and provide data for future experiments on chemical properties of the heaviest elements. In this study (Sm,Zr)O{sub 2-x} ceramics are produced and evaluated for studies on the production of Pb (homolog of element 114) by the reaction of Ca on Sm. This work will provide an initial analysis on the feasibility of using a ZrO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} as a target for the production of element 114.

  3. Reduction of chromium in Ni-base superalloys through element substitution and rapid solidification processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, H. D.; Muddl, B. C.

    1982-01-01

    The reduction in the use of Cr in Ni base superalloys by the combined approaches of both elemental substitution and rapid solidification processing is studied. The elements Si, Zr, Y and Hf were chosen as potential partial substitutes for Cr in Waspaloy and IN 713LC sine their separate addition to other alloys has previously resulted in enhanced oxidation resistance. The roles of Cr and these replacement elements in determining the microstructure and properties are evaluated. The elements Si, Zr, and Y and Hf are used as partial replacements for Cr in the base superalloys and these resultant alloys are processed using rapid solidification techniques. The mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of the processed materials are evaluated. The microstructure is characterized using state of the art techniques (e.g. analytical transmission electron microscopy), and the mechanism by which these structures are produced is determined.

  4. Effects of hydroxyapatite/Zr and bioglass/Zr coatings on morphology and corrosion behaviour of Rex-734 alloy.

    PubMed

    Say, Y; Aksakal, B

    2016-06-01

    To improve corrosion resistance of metallic implant surfaces, Rex-734 alloy was coated with two different bio-ceramics; single-Hydroxyapatite (HA), double-HA/Zirconia(Zr) and double-Bioglass (BG)/Zr by using sol-gel method. Porous surface morphologies at low crack density were obtained after coating and sintering processes. Corrosion characteristics of coatings were determined by Open circuit potential and Potentiodynamic polarization measurements during corrosion tests. Hardness and adhesion strength of coating layers were measured and their surface morphologies before and after corrosion were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), XRD and EDX. Through the SEM analysis, it was observed that corrosion caused degradation and sphere-like formations appeared with dimples on the coated surfaces. The coated substrates that exhibit high crack density, the corrosion was more effective by disturbing and transmitting through the coating layer, produced CrO3 and Cr3O8 oxide formation. It was found that the addition of Zr provided an increase in adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the coatings. However, BG/Zr coatings had lower adhesion strength than the HA/Zr coatings, but showed higher corrosion resistance. PMID:27094320

  5. B Removal by Zr Addition in Electromagnetic Solidification Refinement of Si with Si-Al Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yun; Ma, Wenhui; Sun, Luen; Dai, Yongnian; Morita, Kazuki

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated a new process of enhancing B removal by adding small amounts of Zr in the electromagnetic solidification refinement of Si with Si-Al melt. B in Si was removed by as much as 97.2 pct by adding less than 1057 ppma Zr, and the added Zr was removed by as much as 99.7 pct. In addition, Zr is more effective in enhancing B removal than Ti in the same electromagnetic solidification refining process.

  6. Site preference of ternary alloying additions to NiTi: Fe, Pt, Pd, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mosca, Hugo O.

    2004-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of the site substitution behavior of Pd in NiTi (J. Alloys and Comp. (2004), in press) has been extended to examine the behavior of several other alloying additions, namely, Fe, Pt, Au, Al, Cu, Zr and Hf in this important shape memory alloy. It was found that all elements, to a varying degree, displayed absolute preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice. How- ever, the energetics of the different substitutional schemes, coupled with large scale simulations indicate that the general trend in all cases is for the ternary addition to want to form stronger ordered structures with Ti.

  7. Dependence of the mechanical characteristics of fast-quenched amorphous Zr-Cu-Al alloys on their composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunyan, N. A.; Zaitsev, A. I.; Dunaev, S. F.; Kalmykov, K. B.; Plokhikh, A. I.; Fedotova, N. L.

    2016-06-01

    The thermal and mechanical characteristics of fast-quenched amorphous Zr-Cu-Al alloys with various concentrations of copper and aluminum are studied. It is shown that the crystallization temperature of glass-like compositions increases when copper is replaced with aluminum in concentrations of up to 10 at %, and that the hardness, Young's modulus, and fracture stress increase only at low concentrations of aluminum (no more than 6 at %). Upon a further increase in the concentration of the alloying element, fracture stress σf decreases because σf the change in the fracture mechanism, despite high hardness and Young's modulus.

  8. Volcanic sanidinites: an example for the mobilization of high field strength elements (HFSE) in magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aßbichler, Donjá; Heuss-Aßbichler, Soraya; Müller, Dirk; Kunzmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In earth science the mobility of high field strength elements (HFSE) is generally discussed in context of hydrothermal processes. Recent investigations mainly address processes in (late) magmatic-, metamorphic- and submarine hydrothermal systems. They have all in common that H2O is main solvent. The transport of HFSE is suggested to be favored by volatiles, like boron, fluorine, phosphate and sulfate (Jiang et al., 2005). In this study processes in magmatic system are investigated. Sanidinites are rare rocks of igneous origin and are found as volcanic ejecta of explosive volcanoes. They consist mainly of sanidine and minerals of the sodalite group. The very porous fabric of these rocks is an indication of their aggregation from a gaseous magmatic phase. The large sanidine crystals (up to several centimeters) are mostly interlocking, creating large cavities between some crystals. In these pores Zr crystallizes as oxide (baddeleyite, ZrO2) or silicate (zircon, ZrSiO4). The euhedral shape of these minerals is a further indication of their formation out of the gas phase. Furthermore, bubbles in glass observed in some samples are evidence for gas-rich reaction conditions during the formation of the sanidinites. The formation of sanidinites is suggested to be an example for solvothermal processes in natural systems. Solvothermal processes imply the solvation, transport and recrystallization of elements in a gas phase. Results obtained from whole rock analysis from sanidinites from Laacher See (Germany) show a positive correlation between LOI, sulfate, Cl, and Na with the HFSE like Zr. Na-rich conditions seem to ameliorate the solvothermal transport of Zr. All these features point to the formation of sanidinites in the upper part of a magma chamber, where fluid consisting of SO3 and Cl compounds in addition to H2O, CO2 and HFSE (high field strength elements) like Zr accumulate.

  9. Mandelazo I as a reagent for Zr(IV) determination

    SciTech Connect

    Rakha, T.H.; Filip, P.; Stefan, N.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometric study of the reaction of the Zr(IV) ions with Mandelazo I was carried out. Absorption spectra revealed that the maximum absorption of the zirconium compound appears at a wavelength (316 nm) different from the maxima of the reagent (253 and 390 nm). Beer-Lambert law is followed for zirconium concentrations of the order of 8.8 x 10/sup -5/ M (i.e. 8 ..mu..g Zr(IV)/mL). Possible interferences of ions such as Be(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Th(IV), U(VI), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) were investigated in connection with some masking agents such as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and C/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2 -/. Also, the solid state Zr(IV)- Mandelazo I compound was prepared and characterized by nitrogen and thermogravimetric analyses.

  10. Recrystallization behavior of cold-rolled Zr-1Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hang; Wang, Xitao; Gong, Weijia; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    The recrystallization behavior of cold-rolled Zr-1Nb alloy was investigated by measuring the micro-Vickers hardness of the specimens annealed for various times. Different deformation reductions and annealing temperatures were coupled to study the effects of deformation and temperature on the recrystallization behavior of Zr-1Nb alloy. The results show that both large deformation reduction and high annealing temperature accelerate the recrystallization process. The microstructural evolution during recrystallization was characterized by optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) to correlate with the variation of Vickers hardness. The TEM observation also revealed the distribution of different types of Nb-containing precipitates during recrystallization. The Vickers hardness data were fitted by using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation to derive the activation energies for recrystallization, giving the corresponding recrystallization maps. This study provides useful guidelines for the processing of a broad family of zirconium alloys based on Zr-1Nb.

  11. Mechanical Properties Evaluation of Zr Addition in L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) Using First-Principles Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yi; Xue, Jilai; Wang, Zengjie; Yang, Zhenhai; Qian, Ping

    2016-05-01

    L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) can be used as a grain refiner and recrystallization inhibitor in forming and heat-treatment of wrought aluminum alloy. In this work, the mechanical properties of L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) (0 < x< 0.5) have been systematically evaluated using first principles calculations. The optimized structural parameters obtained through the virtual crystal approximation were in good agreement with available experimental and calculated data. The computed bulk modulus of L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) increased while the shear modulus and Young's modulus decreased with increasing Zr addition. The ductility of L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) estimated by Pugh empirical criterion and Cauchy pressure were improved with Zr addition. The calculated ideal strength of L12-Al3(Sc1- x Zr x ) along the [001], [110] and { 111} [1bar{1}0] directions increased linearly with Zr additions. The addition of Zr gave great improvements in the ideal strength along the [110] direction and the ductility in the [001] direction, respectively. The calculated electronic density of states and the charge density distribution revealed that the valence electron increased with Zr addition and hence strengthened the p-d covalent bonding and d-d bonding, resulting in the improvements in ideal strength and ductility. The evaluation data would be useful in materials design and process optimization for Al alloys in forming and heat treatment.

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Grain Boundaries in ZrB2: Structure, Energetics, and Thermal Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Squire, Thomas H.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A combination of ab initio, atomistic and finite element methods (FEM) were used to investigate the structures, energetics and lattice thermal conductance of grain boundaries for the ultra high temperature ceramic ZrB2. Atomic models of idealized boundaries were relaxed using density functional theory. Information about bonding across the interfaces was determined from the electron localization function. The Kapitza conductance of larger scale versions of the boundary models were computed using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics. The interfacial thermal parameters together with single crystal thermal conductivities were used as parameters in microstructural computations. FEM meshes were constructed on top of microstructural images. From these computations, the effective thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline structure was determined.

  13. Adsorption and desorption kinetics in ZrO2 TiO2 by photoacoustic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto Neto, A.; Moura, D.; Kuranaga, C.; Silva, M. D.; Miranda, L. C. M.

    2005-06-01

    In this paper we report on the photoacoustic (PA) characterization of ZrO2-TiO2 ceramic wafers as a sensing element for solvent adulteration evaluation. The experiments consisted of photoacoustic time dependent monitoring of the sorption and desorption of a droplet of a solvent deposited on the outer face of a ceramic wafer. The used solvents were isopropanol and chloroform. For the polar isopropanol molecule the results shown diffusion into the sample, with a characteristic diffusion time τ_1, accompanied by the evaporation at a rate with a time constant τ_2. Indeed, for the non polar chloroform, wetting-drying kinetics is adequately described by a simple diffusion-evaporation.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Mn(II), Au(III) and Zr(IV) hippurates complexes.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; El-Korashy, Sabry A; Ahmed, Ahmed S

    2008-09-01

    Mn(II), Au(III) and Zr(III) complexes with N-benzoylglycine (hippuric acid) (abbreviation hipH) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic measurements, spectral methods (mid-infrared, 1H NMR, mass, X-ray powder diffraction and UV/vis spectra) and simultaneous thermal analysis (TG and DTG) techniques. The molar conductance measurements proved that all hippuric acid complexes are non-electrolytes. The electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to infer the structures. The IR spectra of the ligand and its complexes are used to identify the type of bonding. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E*, DeltaH*, DeltaS* and DeltaG* are estimated from the DTG curves. The free ligand and its complexes have been studied for their possible biological antifungal activity. PMID:17981497

  15. Magnetic leverage effects in amorphous SmCo/CoAlZr heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Procter, R. A. Hase, T. P. A.; Magnus, F.; Andersson, G.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Sánchez-Hanke, C.

    2015-08-10

    Although magnetic heterostructures are the basis of many magnetic technologies, the mechanisms involved in magnetization reversals in such structures are not fully understood, especially in amorphous multilayers. Here, we report on the SmCo/CoAlZr system and exploit resonant magnetic x-ray scattering to probe the element specific magnetization reversals. When combined into a tri-layer structure, two different switching fields and reversal mechanisms are observed for the Sm and Co sub-lattices. We argue that the decoupling of the sub-lattices arises from the local distribution of atomic species within the amorphous matrix leading to a strong magnetic leverage effect and exchange pinning. The decoupling arises due to strong interactions between regions of high Co density which span the interface. The relatively sparse interactions between Sm and Co induce a localized pinning of the Co-rich areas, resulting in an exchange bias in minor loops and an enhanced coercivity.

  16. Dissolution of amorphous Ti-Zr-Si alloy during anodic oxidation with formation of barrier films

    SciTech Connect

    Isaev, N.I.; Yakovlev, V.B.; Iovdal'skii, A.A.; Gorshkov, T.P.

    1988-07-01

    Radiometric analysis of a solution has been used to study kinetic mechanisms for dissolution of amorphous alloy components in acid aqueous solutions with anodic oxidation in different regimes. In a galvanostatic regime for alloy and crystalline Ti, Zr, and Ta two sections are detected: an initial section of accelerated dissolution and a steady section. An increase in dissolution of zirconium from the alloy has been revealed compared with pure crystalline zirconium. Potentiostatic oxidation is accompanied by a slowdown in dissolution similar to a change in current. Current yield has been analyzed for dissolution of the main elements and nonrectifying impurities of the alloy (for example copper). Gamma spectroscopy using the gamma radiation from neutron-activated isotopes of the components and impurities was performed.

  17. 40 CFR 1065.284 - Zirconia (ZrO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zirconia (ZrO2) analyzer. 1065.284 Section 1065.284 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION... Zirconia (ZrO2) analyzer. (a) Application. You may use a zirconia (ZrO2) analyzer to measure...

  18. Synthesis and thermal decomposition of a novel zirconium acetato-propionate cluster: [Zr12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Sarah; Morlens, Stéphanie; Yu, Zeming; Luneau, Dominique; Pilet, Guillaume; Soubeyroux, Jean-Louis; Odier, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    This work reports a novel Zirconium acetato-propionate complex herein called [Zr12] obtained by reaction of zirconium acetylacetonate Zr(acac) 4 with propionic acid. The molecular structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction on single crystals and proposed to be [Zr 12(μ 3-O) 16(CH 3CH 2CO 2) 12(CH 3CO 2) 8(μ 2-CH 3CH 2CO 2) 4]. This cluster involves oxo/hydroxo bonds in the direct surrounding of the metallic center. The decomposition of [Zr12] has been studied by thermal analysis and compared to Zr(acac) 4. Its temperature of decomposition is much lower than for acetylacetonate derivative. In consequence, the formation of ZrO 2 is easier from [Zr12] than from Zr(acac) 4. This phenomenon highlights the influence of the molecular structure on the process of decomposition. The local surrounding of Zr in [Zr12] and in ZrO 2 are very close, while it is markedly different in Zr(acac) 4.This difference of environment of the metallic ions is at the origin of the huge difference of thermal behavior of both compounds.

  19. Influence of irradiation on KISCC of Zr-1%Nb claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu. K.; Medvedev, A. V.; Nesterov, B. I.; Novikov, V. V.; Golovanov, V. N.; Eremin, S. G.; Yurtchenko, A. D.

    2000-06-01

    Experimental results on iodine induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in irradiated claddings from Zr-1%Nb alloy are analyzed. Fatigue cracks were grown at their inner surfaces. The irradiation was carried on in the liquid sodium cooled BOR-60 to the fluence not lower than 10 22 n/cm 2. The SCC-test was carried at 350°C, in argon gas at constant pressure and iodine surface concentration of 0.2 mg/cm 2. The threshold stress intensity factor for the irradiated Zr-1%Nb claddings was determined to be ˜2.0 MPa√m.

  20. Study of Collectivity in 88Zr Using the HORUS Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, N.; Fransen, C.; Bettermann, L.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.

    2009-03-01

    We report on a gamma gamma coincidence measurement on 88Zr. One point of interest was a potential 2+ mixed-symmetric state. We measured the multipole mixing ratio for the decays of the second and third 2+ states and precisely determined the energies of the 2+3 and 0+2 states. In addition, two new levels and seven new gamma transitions were observed. The experiment was performed at the FN-TANDEM accelerator at the University of Cologne, using the reaction 89Y(p,2n)88Zr at 17 MeV beam energy. The gamma -rays were detected with the HORUS HPGe array.

  1. Collective excitations in 88Zr studied with the HORUS spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Norbert; Fransen, Christoph; Jolie, Jan; Linnemann, Andreas; Bettermann, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Using the HORUS spectrometer at the Cologne FN-TANDEM accelerator, we performed a γγ coincidence measurement on 88Zr. The reaction used was 89Y(p,2n)88Zr. A particular point of interest was the search for a potential 2+ mixed-symmetric state. In the experiment, we measured the multipole mixing ratios of the decays of the 22+ and the 23+ states and determined the energies of the 23+ and 02+ states precisely. Furthermore, we found two new levels and seven new γ transitions.

  2. Lasnex Simulations of Axial Power Diagnostic for ZR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Heidi

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of energy loss through diagnostic and/or laser entrance holes with or without shine shields is of inertial confinement fusion experiments envisioned for the National Ignition and ZR Facilities. 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations using Lasnex for power diagnostic experiments using a secondary gold hohlraum fielded at the ZR facility are discussed. The axial radiation exiting the aperture of the dynamic hohlraum is modeled as time and spectrum-dependent 1-D and 2-D sources. Hohlraum energy balance and implications for the measured power are discussed.

  3. 89 Zr(n, γ) from a surrogate reaction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Shuya; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Escher, J. E.; Hughes, R. O.; Ressler, J. J.; Scielzo, N. D.; Thompson, I.; Austin, R. A. E.; McCleskey, E.; McCleskey, M.; Saastamoinen, A.; Benstead, J.; Ross, T.

    2014-09-01

    While recent studies have demonstrated the validity of the surrogate reaction approach for studying fission cross sections of short-lived actinides, its applicability for (n, γ) is still under investigation. We studied the γ-decay of 90Zr produced by 91Zr(p,d) in order to infer the 89Zr(n, γ) cross sections. The experiments were carried out at the K150 Cyclotron facility at Texas A&M University with a 28.5-MeV proton beam. The reaction deuterons were measured at forward angles of 30-60° with the STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) array of three segmented Micron S2 silicon detectors. Compound nuclei with energies up to a few MeV above the neutron separation thresholds were populated. The coincident γ-rays were measured with the LiTeR (Livermore Texas Richmond) array of five Compton-suppressed HPGe clovers. We will present results of γ-emission probabilities of 89Zr(n, γ) and some theoretical discussions. While recent studies have demonstrated the validity of the surrogate reaction approach for studying fission cross sections of short-lived actinides, its applicability for (n, γ) is still under investigation. We studied the γ-decay of 90Zr produced by 91Zr(p,d) in order to infer the 89Zr(n, γ) cross sections. The experiments were carried out at the K150 Cyclotron facility at Texas A&M University with a 28.5-MeV proton beam. The reaction deuterons were measured at forward angles of 30-60° with the STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) array of three segmented Micron S2 silicon detectors. Compound nuclei with energies up to a few MeV above the neutron separation thresholds were populated. The coincident γ-rays were measured with the LiTeR (Livermore Texas Richmond) array of five Compton-suppressed HPGe clovers. We will present results of γ-emission probabilities of 89Zr(n, γ) and some theoretical discussions. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  4. Shape coexistence and triaxiality in nuclei near 80Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. J.; Xu, F. R.; Shen, S. F.; Liu, H. L.; Wyss, R.; Yan, Y. P.

    2014-12-01

    Total-Routhian-surface calculations have been performed to investigate the shape evolutions of A ˜80 nuclei: Zr-8480,Sr-8076 , and Mo,8684 . Shape coexistences of spherical, prolate, and oblate deformations have been found in these nuclei. Particularly for the nuclei 80Sr and 82Zr , the energy differences between two shape-coexisting states are less than 220 keV. At high spins, the g9 /2 shell plays an important role in shape evolutions. It has been found that the alignment of the g9 /2 quasiparticles drives nuclei to be triaxial.

  5. Comment on “Correlation and relativistic effects in U metal and U-Zr alloy: Validation of ab initio approaches”

    SciTech Connect

    Söderlind, P.; Landa, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.

    2014-10-01

    In a recent paper, Xie et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 235128 (2013)], report that the density-functional theory (DFT) with the so-called DFT plus Hubbard U (DFT+U) modification improves energetics, volumes, and formation enthalpies over the standard form of DFT for uranium metal and U-Zr alloys. Also, spin-orbit coupling (SOC) was argued to advance the aforementioned properties in these systems. We demonstrate, contrarily, that neither the Hubbard U approach nor SOC is necessary for a correct description of uranium metal and U-Zr alloys. We further illustrate that the combination of DFT+U and SOC in the projector augmented-wave calculations by Xie et al. results in unrealistically large volume expansions, particularly for γ-U, in stark contrast to all previous calculations for elemental uranium. This in turn may also explain why the DFT+U with SOC model predicts negative enthalpy of mixing in the U-Zr alloy system contradicting conventional DFT as well as one of the main features of the experimental U-Zr phase diagram. The assertion by Xie et al. that DFT+U is an improvement over DFT for these systems is illustrated to be incorrect.

  6. Bone bonding bioactivity of Ti metal and Ti-Zr-Nb-Ta alloys with Ca ions incorporated on their surfaces by simple chemical and heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, A; Takemoto, M; Saito, T; Fujibayashi, S; Neo, M; Yamaguchi, S; Kizuki, T; Matsushita, T; Niinomi, M; Kokubo, T; Nakamura, T

    2011-03-01

    Ti15Zr4Nb4Ta and Ti29Nb13Ta4.6Zr, which do not contain the potentially cytotoxic elements V and Al, represent a new generation of alloys with improved corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, and cytocompatibility. Recently it has become possible for the apatite forming ability of these alloys to be ascertained by treatment with alkali, CaCl2, heat, and water (ACaHW). In order to confirm the actual in vivo bioactivity of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) and these alloys after subjecting them to ACaHW treatment at different temperatures, the bone bonding strength of implants made from these materials was evaluated. The failure load between implant and bone was measured for treated and untreated plates at 4, 8, 16, and 26 weeks after implantation in rabbit tibia. The untreated implants showed almost no bonding, whereas all treated implants showed successful bonding by 4 weeks, and the failure load subsequently increased with time. This suggests that a simple and economical ACaHW treatment could successfully be used to impart bone bonding bioactivity to Ti metal and Ti-Zr-Nb-Ta alloys in vivo. In particular, implants heat treated at 700 °C exhibited significantly greater bone bonding strength, as well as augmented in vitro apatite formation, in comparison with those treated at 600 °C. Thus, with this improved bioactive treatment process these advantageous Ti-Zr-Nb-Ta alloys can serve as useful candidates for orthopedic devices. PMID:20883837

  7. HRTEM studies of NiNbZr + Ag amorphous-nanocrystalline composites.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, L; Kovacova, A; Rogal, L; Maziarz, W

    2009-11-01

    Amorphous powder of composition corresponding to Ni60Ti20Zr20 (in at%) was obtained by ball milling in a high-energy mills starting from pure elements. Formation of the amorphous structure was observed already after 20 h of milling, although complete amorphization occurred after 40 h. The microhardness of powders increased from about 30 HV for pure elements to above 400 HV (1290 MPa) after 40 h of milling. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowed to identify nanocrystalline inclusions of intermetallic phases of size 2-10 nm. Uniaxial hot pressing was performed in vacuum at temperature below the crystallization T(x) it is 510 degrees C and pressure of 600 MPa, Mixed amorphous powders and nanocrystalline silver powders were used to form a composite, in which microhardness was near 970 MPa HV and 400 HV for the amorphous phase and nanocrystalline silver, respectively. The compression strength of the composite containing 20 wt% of nanocrystalline Ag powder was equal to 600 MPa and plastic strain was 2%. Microstructure studies showed low porosity of composites of less than 1%, uniform distribution of the silver phase and a transition zone between both components, about 150 nm thick, where diffusion of nickel, niobium and zirconium into silver was observed. High-resolution TEM allowed identifying the structure of nanocrystalline inclusions in the amorphous matrix after hot pressing as either Ni(3)Zr or Ni(17)Nb(3). The identification was performed basing on measurements of angles and interatomic distances using inverse Fourier transformed images with enhanced contrast using Digital Micrograph computer program. PMID:19903239

  8. Positive effect of Sc and Zr on globular microstructure formation in AA7075 thixoforming feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Rogal, L.; Dutkiewicz, J.; Litynska-Dobrzanska, L.; Olszowska-Sobieraj, B.; Modigell, M.

    2011-05-04

    One of methods of obtaining a fine globular microstructure in a semi-solid range, necessary for thixoforming process, is modifiers additions. For this purpose 0.5 weight percent of modifying elements-scandium and zirconium-was added to 7075 alloy. The microstructure of such alloy consisted of homogeneously distributed globular grains of solid solution with the following chemical composition: Mg - 1.9%, Al - 91.6%, Cu - 1.0%, Zn - 5.5%(all in wt.%). Quantitative metallographic analysis showed that the average grain size was 23.5 {mu}m, much smaller than in the alloy without additions and 3.08% volume fraction of precipitates in the form of a layer between spherical {alpha}(Al) grains. X-ray phase analysis of the 7075 alloy with Sc and Zr additions confirmed the dominant presence of aluminum solid solution and the intermetallic hexagonal phase MgZn{sub 2}. Electron diffraction pattern confirmed location of {eta}MgZn{sub 2} phase at the grain boundaries. EDS chemical analysis of the {eta}MgZn{sub 2} phase showed following content of elements: Mg - 17.2%, Al - 20.4%, Cu - 27.8%, Zn - 34.6%. The larger amount of Cu and Al indicated non-stoichiometry of the {eta} phase, which can be presented with a formula [Mg(Zn,Al,Cu){sub 2}]. Additionally, inside the aluminum solution, small, square-shaped precipitations enriched with Sc and Zr were observed. Electron diffraction pattern allowed identification of the precipitates as cubic Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase. The average hardness of feedstock was 105 HV5. DSC analysis during heating of the alloy enabled the estimation of a solidus line, at temperature of 548 deg. C and a liquidus line at temperature: 656 deg. C. For cooling, the temperatures for solidus and liquidus were 545 deg. C and 636 deg. C respectively. Additionally, the relation of liquid phase as a function of temperature was determined. Measurements of rheological properties in the semi-solid range, using the Searl system indicated that an increase of a particle size

  9. Interdiffusion and Reaction between Zr and Al Alloys from 425 degrees to 625 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    J. Dickson; L. Zhou; A. Ewh; M. Fu; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; Y. H. Sohn; A. Paz y Puente

    2014-06-01

    Zirconium has recently garnered attention for use as a diffusion barrier between U–Mo nuclear fuels and Al cladding alloys. Interdiffusion and reactions between Zr and Al, Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si or AA6061 were investigated using solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 425 degrees to 625 degrees C. In the binary Al and Zr system, the Al3Zr and Al2Zr phases were identified, and the activation energy for the growth of the Al3Zr phase was determined to be 347 kJ/mol. Negligible diffusional interactions were observed for diffusion couples between Zr vs. Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si and AA6061 annealed at or below 475 degrees C. In diffusion couples with the binary Al–Si alloys at 560 degrees C, a significant variation in the development of the phase constituents was observed including the thick t1 (Al5SiZr2) with Si content up to 12 at.%, and thin layers of (Si,Al)2Zr, (Al,Si)3Zr, Al3SiZr2 and Al2Zr phases. The use of AA6061 as a terminal alloy resulted in the development of both T1 (Al5SiZr2) and (Al,Si)3Zr phases with a very thin layer of (Al,Si)2Zr. At 560 degrees C, with increasing Si content in the Al–Si alloy, an increase in the overall rate of diffusional interaction was observed; however, the diffusional interaction of Zr in contact with multicomponent AA6061 with 0.4–0.8 wt.% Si was most rapid.

  10. Trace elements in magnetite as petrogenetic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges; Méric, Julien; Boutroy, Emilie; Potvin-Doucet, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    We have characterized the distribution of 25 trace elements in magnetite (Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sn, Hf, Ta, W, and Pb), using laser ablation ICP-MS and electron microprobe, from a variety of magmatic and hydrothermal ore-forming environments and compared them with data from the literature. We propose a new multielement diagram, normalized to bulk continental crust, designed to emphasize the partitioning behavior of trace elements between magnetite, the melt/fluid, and co-crystallizing phases. The normalized pattern of magnetite reflects the composition of the melt/fluid, which in both magmatic and hydrothermal systems varies with temperature. Thus, it is possible to distinguish magnetite formed at different degrees of crystal fractionation in both silicate and sulfide melts. The crystallization of ilmenite or sulfide before magnetite is recorded as a marked depletion in Ti or Cu, respectively. The chemical signature of hydrothermal magnetite is distinct being depleted in elements that are relatively immobile during alteration and commonly enriched in elements that are highly incompatible into magnetite (e.g., Si and Ca). Magnetite formed from low-temperature fluids has the lowest overall abundance of trace elements due to their lower solubility. Chemical zonation of magnetite is rare but occurs in some hydrothermal deposits where laser mapping reveals oscillatory zoning, which records the changing conditions and composition of the fluid during magnetite growth. This new way of plotting all 25 trace elements on 1 diagram, normalized to bulk continental crust and elements in order of compatibility into magnetite, provides a tool to help understand the processes that control partitioning of a full suit of trace elements in magnetite and aid discrimination of magnetite formed in different environments. It has applications in both petrogenetic and provenance studies, such as in the exploration of ore deposits and in

  11. Microstructure development and hydrogen gas interaction of oxidized Zr65Pd35 and Zr60Pd35Ce5 amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Kato, Shiro; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Yogo, Toshinobu; Yamamura, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure of composites derived from amorphous Zr65Pd35 and Zr65Pd35Ce5 alloys was studied. X-ray diffractograms, Raman spectroscopy profiles and scanning electron micrographs indicated that the mixtures containing ZrO2, metallic Pd, and PdO were formed for both amorphous alloys after heat treatment in air. The amorphous Zr60Pd35Ce5 alloy at temperatures of 280-400 °C changed to the composites in which very small Pd precipitates with a diameter less than 100 nm were embedded in a ZrO2 matrix. The hydrogen-temperature-programmed reduction was applied to study the reactivity of hydrogen gas with the oxidized Zr60Pd35Ce5 material. A rapid hydrogen absorption and release behavior was observed on the composite derived from the amorphous alloy.

  12. Methods for making a porous nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L; Williams, Brian E; Benander, Robert E

    2014-12-30

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  13. Thermodynamical properties of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Jitendra; Mishra, R. K.

    2015-11-01

    The temperature dependence of Gibb's free energy difference (ΔG), entropy difference (ΔS) and enthalpy difference (ΔH) between the undercooled melt and the corresponding equilibrium solid phases of bulk metallic glass (BMG) forming melts has been proved to be very useful in the study of their thermodynamical behavior. The present study is made by calculating ΔG, ΔS and ΔH in the entire temperature range Tm (melting temperature) to Tg (glass transition temperature) for three Zr-based samples of BMGs: Zr57Cu15.4Ni12.6Al10Nb5, Zr41.2Ti13.8Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 and Zr58.5Cu15.6Ni12.8Al10.3Nb2.8. The study is made on the basis of Taylor's series expansion and a comparative study is also performed between the present result and the result obtained in the framework of expansions proposed by earlier workers, and also with the experimental results. An attempt has also been made to study the glass forming ability for BMGs.

  14. Propagation of stress corrosion cracks in Zr-1% Nb claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibilashvily, Yu. K.; Dolgov, Yu. N.; Nesterov, B. I.; Novikov, V. V.

    1995-09-01

    Experimental results on iodine induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) are analyzed. The studies were performed at 350°C using Zr-1% Nb tubular specimens. Fatigue crack at internal surface served as an initial defect. The relationship was derived between crack propagation rate and stress intensity factor; the threshold stress intensity factor of 4.8 MPa m{1}/{2} was determined.

  15. SATPro: the system assessment test program for Z-R.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, Jane Marie; Bloomquist, Douglas D.; Drennan, Scott Allen; Guthrie, Douglas Wayne; Johnson, D. J.; Harjes, Henry Charles III; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Corley, John Phillip; Struve, Kenneth William; Hodge, Keith Conquest; Maenchen, John Eric

    2004-09-01

    In the mid-90's, breakthroughs were achieved at Sandia with z-pinches for high energy density physics on the Saturn machine. These initial tests led to the modification of the PBFA II machine to provide high currents rather than the high voltage it was initially designed for. The success of z-pinch for high energy density physics experiments insured a new mission for the converted accelerator, known as Z since 1997. Z now provides a unique capability to a number of basic science communities and has expanded its mission to include radiation effects research, inertial confinement fusion and material properties research. To achieve continued success, the physics community has requested higher peak current, better precision and pulse shaping versatility be incorporated into the refurbishment of the Z machine, known as ZR. In addition to the performance specification for ZR of a peak current of 26 MA with an implosion time of 100 ns, the machine also has a reliability specification to achieve 400 shots per year. While changes to the basic architecture of the Z machine are minor, the vast majority of its components have been redesigned. Moreover the increase in peak current from its present 18 MA to ZR's peak current of 26 MA at nominal operating parameters requires significantly higher voltages. These higher voltages, along with the reliability requirement, mandate a system assessment be performed to insure the requirements have been met. This paper will describe the System Assessment Test Program (SATPro) for the ZR project and report on the results.

  16. Accommodation of tin in tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, B. D. C.; Grimes, R. W.; Wenman, M. R.; Murphy, S. T.; Burr, P. A.

    2015-02-28

    Atomic scale computer simulations using density functional theory were used to investigate the behaviour of tin in the tetragonal phase oxide layer on Zr-based alloys. The Sn{sub Zr}{sup ×} defect was shown to be dominant across most oxygen partial pressures, with Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} charge compensated by V{sub O}{sup ••} occurring at partial pressures below 10{sup −31 }atm. Insertion of additional positive charge into the system was shown to significantly increase the critical partial pressure at which Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} is stable. Recently developed low-Sn nuclear fuel cladding alloys have demonstrated an improved corrosion resistance and a delayed transition compared to Sn-containing alloys, such as Zircaloy-4. The interaction between the positive charge and the tin defect is discussed in the context of alloying additions, such as niobium and their influence on corrosion of cladding alloys.

  17. Search for the β decay of 96Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, S. W.; Tornow, W.

    2016-01-01

    96Zr and 48Ca are unique among double-β decay candidate nuclides in that they may also undergo single-β decay. In the case of 96Zr, the single-β decay mode is dominated by the fourth-forbidden β decay with a 119 keV Q value. A search was conducted for the β decay of 96Zr by observing the decay of the daughter 96Nb nucleus. Two coaxial high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to detect the γ-ray cascade produced by the daughter nucleus as it de-excited to the ground state. The experiment was carried out at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility and produced 685.7 days of data with a 17.91 g enriched sample. No counts were seen above background, producing a limit of T1/2 > 2.4 ×1019 year. This is the first experimental search that is able to discern between the β decay and the double-β decay to an excited state of 96Zr.

  18. Pressure dependence of spin fluctuations in metallic glasses Ni sub 25 Zr sub 75 and Fe sub 100 minus x Zr sub x ( x =75,80)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamed, F.; Razavi, F.S.; Zaleski, H.; Bose, S.K. )

    1991-02-01

    The superconducting transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}} of metallic glasses Fe{sub 20}Zr{sub 80}, Fe{sub 25}Zr{sub 75}, and Cu{sub 25}Zr{sub 75} were measured under quasihydrostatic pressure up to 10 GPa. The volume (pressure) dependence of the electron-phonon coupling parameter, {lambda}{sub {ital e}-ph}, for Cu{sub 25}Zr{sub 75} was calculated using the McMillan equation. Using this volume dependence of {lambda}{sub {ital e}-ph} and the modified McMillan equation, which incorporates spin fluctuations, we determined the volume dependence of the spin-fluctuation parameter, {lambda}{sub SF}, in Ni{sub 25}Zr{sub 75} and Fe{sub 100{minus}{ital x}}Zr{sub {ital x}} ({ital x}=80, 75). It was found that with increasing pressure spin fluctuations are suppressed at a faster rate in Fe{sub 100{minus}{ital x}}Zr{sub {ital x}} as the Fe concentration is increased. The rate of suppression of spin fluctuations with pressure was also found to be higher in the Fe-Zr glasses than in Ni-Zr glasses of similar composition.

  19. Microstructure characteristics of ZrO2 coating produced by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xiong, Xiang; Li, Xiaobin

    2011-09-01

    To settle the problem of low growth rate when prepare ZrO2 thermal barrier coating by Metalorganic CVD (MOCVD), a simple method was employed-atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD). The paper firstly thermodynamic calculated the effect of O/Zr ratio and temperature on phase formation at various H/C ratios for ZrCl4-CO2-H2-Ar system. With temperature increment, the solid phase changes from C+ monoclinic ZrO2 to Monoclinic ZrO2 then to tetragonal ZrO2. With the increase of H/C ratio, the phase zone of C+ monoclinic ZrO2 expands. XRD and Raman spectrum were employed to measure phase structure of ZrO2 coating at different temperature. At 1300 degrees C, the coating contains a small amount tetragonal ZrO2 phase besides monoclinic phase; at 1100 degrees C, the coating is composed of monoclinic ZrO2 phase and a little C. The surface SEM images show the small grains evolve to polycrystals which have clear crystal form when raising temperature. The cross-section images show that dense ZrO2 column crystals arrange normal to the substrate. PMID:22097578

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of α-ZrP@CHI Drug Deliver System.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shiyong; Gao, Xuechuan; Zhang, Renfei; Li, Zhao; Tan, Zhibing; Su, Haiquan

    2016-04-01

    This paper described the controlled synthesis and release properties of a new kind of multifunctional drug-release system which was prepared by encapsulation of zirconium bis-(monohydrogen orthophosphate) monohydrate (α-ZrP) with chitosan (CHI). As obtained the α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposites were found to possess the structural features of both α-ZrP and CHI. The release properties of the α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposites were evaluated using Gentamicin sulfate as the model drug. And α-ZrP@CHI composites showed a prolonged drug release time compared with α-ZrP, which can be attributed to the unique lamellar structure and the encapsulation with CHI. The controlled synthesis of α-ZrP@CHI nanocomposite thus provided a new opportunity for future development of delivery vehicles. PMID:27451678

  1. Pressure and tension effects on mechanical properties of ZrAl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pinliang; Tang, Xiuzhang; Meng, Fanchen; Gong, Zizheng; Ji, Guangfu; Yang, Jinke

    2014-11-15

    Structural, elastic, thermodynamic of ZrAl{sub 2} under pressure, ideal strength and deformation mode under tension are investigated by the first-principles method. The calculated structural parameters at zero pressure are in consistent with experiments. Under pressure, elastic constants and their pressure dependence are obtained using the static finite strain technique. ZrAl{sub 2} exhibits lower elastic anisotropy. The linear thermal expansion coefficient shows greater effects of temperature at lower pressure. The ideal tensile have been investigated by stress–strain calculations. Finally, the microscopic mechanism that determines the structural stability is studied using the results of electronic structure calculations. We propose that the weakening of Zr-Zr leads to the significant change of stress–strain curve at strain ∼0.27, and the breaking of Zr{sub 2}-Zr{sub 3} leads to the structural instability of ZrAl{sub 2} under large tensile strains.

  2. Trace, isotopic analysis of micron-sized grains -- Mo, Zr analysis of stardust (SiC and graphite grains).

    SciTech Connect

    Pellin, M. J.; Nicolussi, G. K.

    1998-02-19

    Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry using resonant laser ionization can provide for both high useful yields and high discrimination while maintaining high lateral and depth resolutions. An example of the power of the method is measurement of the isotopic composition of Mo and Zr in 1-5 {micro}m presolar SiC and graphite grains isolated from the Murchison CM2 meteorite for the first time. These grains have survived the formation of the Solar System and isotopic analysis reveals a record of the stellar nucleosynthesis present during their formation. Mo and Zr, though present at less than 10 ppm in some grains, are particularly useful in that among their isotopes are members that can only be formed by distinct nucleosynthetic processes known as s-, p-, and r-process. Successful isotopic analysis of these elements requires both high selectivity (since these are trace elements) and high efficiency (since the total number of atoms available are limited). Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy is particularly useful and flexible in this application. While the sensitivity of this t.edmique has often been reported in the past, we focus hereon the very low noise properties of the technique. We further demonstrate the efficacy of noise removal by two complimentary methods. First we use the resonant nature of the signal to subtract background signal. Second we demonstrate that by choosing the appropriate resonance scheme background can often be dramatically reduced.

  3. Cryogenic and elevated temperature strengths of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy modified with Sc and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkova, S. V.; Senkov, O. N.; Miracle, D. B.

    2006-12-01

    The effect of minor additions of Sc and Zr on tensile properties of two developmental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys was studied in the temperature range -196°C to 300°C. Due to the presence of Sc and Zr in a fine dispersoid form, both low-temperature and elevated temperature strengths of these alloys are much higher than those of similar 7000 series alloys that do not contain these elements. After short holding times (up to 10 hours) at 205°C, the strength of these alloys is higher than those of high-temperature Al alloys 2219-T6 and 2618-T6; however, the latter alloys show better strength after longer holding times. It is suggested that additional alloying of the Sc-containing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with other dispersoid-forming elements, such as Ni, Fe, Mn, and Si, with a respective decrease in the amounts of Zn and Mg may further improve the elevated temperature strength and decrease the loss of strength with extended elevated temperature exposure.

  4. Characterization of ZrO2 buffer layers for sequentially evaporated Y-Ba-CuO on Si and Al2O3 substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valco, George J.; Rohrer, Norman J.; Pouch, John J.; Warner, Joseph D.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1988-01-01

    Thin film high temperature superconductors have the potential to change the microwave technology for space communications systems. For such applications it is desirable that the films be formed on substrates such as Al2O3 which have good microwave properties. The use of ZrO2 buffer layers between Y-Ba-Cu-O and the substrate has been investigated. These superconducting films have been formed by multilayer sequential electron beam evaporation of Cu, BaF2 and Y with subsequent annealing. The three layer sequence of Y/BaF2/Cu is repeated four times for a total of twelve layers. Such a multilayer film, approximately 1 micron thick, deposited directly on SrTiO3 and annealed at 900 C for 45 min produces a film with a superconducting onset of 93 K and critical temperature of 85 K. Auger electron spectroscopy in conjunction with argon ion sputtering was used to obtain the distribution of each element as a function of depth for an unannealed film, the annealed film on SrTiO3 and annealed films on ZrO2 buffer layers. The individual layers were apparent. After annealing, the bulk of the film on SrTiO3 is observed to be fairly uniform while films on the substrates with buffer layers are less uniform. The Y-Ba-Cu-O/ZrO2 interface is broad with a long Ba tail into the ZrO2, suggesting interaction between the film and the buffer layer. The underlying ZrO2/Si interface is sharper. The detailed Auger results are presented and compared with samples annealed at different temperatures and durations.

  5. Radiochemical Separation of Group 5 Elements. Model Experiments for Investigation of Dubnium Chemical Behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Tereshatov, E. E.; Bozhikov, G. A.; Aksenov, N. V.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Vostokin, G. K.; Shishkin, S. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Bruchertseifer, H.; Gaeggeler, H. W.

    2007-05-22

    Chemical behaviour of group 5 elements in the aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions was studied. The radiochemical method for the cation exchange separation of Nb (Pa) and Ta from Zr, Hf and lanthanides is presented. The developed scheme allows excluding of the presence of SF heavy actinides in fractions of separated elements. On the basis of the data of the present work, it is possible to suggest the following order of the stability of the fluoride complexes of group 4 and 5 elements: Nb {approx_equal} Pa > Zr > Hf > Ta. The order of the complex formation is in agreement with theoretical predictions. This analytical procedure can be used in future heavy nuclei synthesis experiments for the separation of dubnium (Db) from other reactions products and for its chemical identification.

  6. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al–Sc–Zr and Al–Mn–Sc–Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Vlach, M.; Stulikova, I.; Smola, B.; Kekule, T.; Kudrnova, H.; Danis, S.; Gemma, R.; Ocenasek, V.; Malek, J.; Tanprayoon, D.; Neubert, V.

    2013-12-15

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 °C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al{sub 3}Sc and/or Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 °C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al{sub 3}Sc and/or Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 °C. The precipitation of the Al{sub 6}Mn- and/or Al{sub 6}(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ∼ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 °C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al{sub 3}Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al{sub 6}Mn and/or Al{sub 6}(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al{sub 3}Sc-phase and the Al{sub 6}Mn-phase precipitation. - Highlights: • The Mn, Sc and Zr additions to Al totally suppresses recrystallization at 550 °C. • The Sc,Zr-containing particle

  7. Influence of Zr alloying on the mechanical properties, thermal stability and oxidation resistance of Cr-Al-N coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. Z.; Chen, Q. Z.; Polcar, T.; Serra, R.; Cavaleiro, A.

    2014-10-01

    Cr-Al-N coatings with Zr alloying (Zr contents from 0 to 29.5 at.%) were deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering. The chemical composition and the morphology of as-deposited coatings were characterized, and the phase structure, mechanical properties and wear resistance of the coatings before and after thermal annealing were analyzed and evaluated. With the increase of Zr content, both Cr and N contents decrease whereas Al shows a growing trend. Low Zr (<26.9 at.%) coatings are stoichiometric and present a fcc NaCl-type B1 structure with columnar morphology, while high Zr (≥26.9 at.%) coatings are in N deficiency and have low crystallinity degree. The alloying of low contents of Zr improves the coating hardness and H/E ratio; however, for low ordered coatings these properties decrease significantly. After thermal annealing, fcc structure is kept in low Zr films whereas the crystalline degree is improved in the high Zr ones and their mechanical properties were slightly improved. Two coatings were selected for further testing, representatives of low (CrAlZr5N) and high (CrAlZr27N) Zr contents. The onset oxidation temperature is ∼900 °C and 600 °C for CrAlZr5N and CrAlZr27N coatings, respectively. Mainly Cr2O3 is formed on low Zr coatings whereas mixed oxides of ZrO2 and Cr2O3 are detected on CrAlZr27N sample after thermal exposure. In all tribological tests, low Zr coating presents lower wear rate than the CrAlZr27N coating. In general, the addition of very high Zr contents (>20 at.%) with N deficiency markedly weakens the mechanical properties and the oxidation resistance of Cr-Al-Zr-N coatings.

  8. Structure of alloys and diagram of phase equilibria of the Zr-Ru-Ir system. II. Solidification pattern of alloys of the partial system Ru-ZrRu-ZrIr-Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.N.; Khoruzhaya, V.G.; Shtepa, T.D.

    1985-10-01

    The authors constructed the solidification diagram of alloys of the partial system Ru-ZrRu-ZrIr-Ir using data on the structure of alloys in the as-cast condition, yielded from metallographic examinations, microhardness determinations, and x-ray phase analyses together with results of an investigation of the solidus surface of the system. No ternary compounds were detected in the system. In accordance with the four three-phase regions found on the solidus surface, in the Ru-ZrRu-ZrIr-Ir system there are four invariant equilibria involving the participation of liquid, each of which is an equilibrium of the peritectic type. Their temperatures fall toward the Zr-Ru side of the composition triangle.

  9. HRTEM and TEM studies of amorphous structures in ZrNiTiCu base alloys obtained by rapid solidification or ball milling.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Lityńska, L; Maziarz, W; Kocisko, R; Molnarová, M; Kovácová, A

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous structure of Ti(25)Zr(17)Ni(29)Cu(29) composition was studied. Alloys were prepared either by rapid solidification using melt spinning or by high-energy ball milling. The composition of multi-component eutectic in slowly cooled samples of ZrNiTiCu alloy was determined using EDS measurements in scanning microscope of slowly cooled cast samples. The alloys of eutectic composition were melt-spun or ball-milled. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of melt-spun ribbons from alloys near eutectic composition did not show presence of nanocrystals within the amorphous structure. TEM studies of ball-milled powders showed presence of nanocrystallites of size 2-5 nm. The electron diffraction pattern showed intense diffused ring due to the presence of the amorphous phase and a weak spot due to crystalline phases which were difficult to identify. The high temperature high-pressure compaction in vacuum of amorphous ball-milled powders resulted in a similar structure like in the powders showing nanocrystals embedded in the amorphous matrix. The crystallites were imaged using HREM. Interplanar distances were measured in pictures obtained by inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) of atomic planes to obtain better contrast. Analysis of the IFFT from high-resolution micrographs allowed to identify Cu(10)Zr(7) phase. Point analysis and elemental mapping performed using nondispersive X-ray energy spectroscopy showed uniform elements distribution indicating that chemical segregation to nanocrystals is within measurement error. PMID:18614372

  10. The use of X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation to measure elemental composition of phytomass and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsenogyi, K. P.; Makarikova, R. P.; Milyutin, L. I.; Naumova, N. B.; Tarakanov, V. V.; Chankina, O. V.

    2007-05-01

    The method of X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation was used to estimate soil and phytomass elemental composition in the long-term field experiments with clones and climatypes of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. in West Siberia. Overall from 15 to 21 chemical elements (Fe, Ca, K, Ti, Mn, Zr, Sr, Rb, Co, Cr, Zn, V, Y, Sc, Nb, Pb, Ga, Cu, Ni, As, Mo) were detected. The elemental composition of dried needles and needle ash were compared. The influence of genetic variability of Scots pine on some element concentration in the topsoil was revealed. The temporal dynamics of interclonal variability of elemental composition of pine needles was revealed.

  11. Bio-corrosion and cytotoxicity studies on novel Zr55Co30Ti15 and Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, S.; Daiwile, A.; Devi, S. S.; Kramer, M. J.; Besser, M. F.; Murty, B. S.; Bhatt, Jatin

    2014-09-26

    Metallic glasses are a potential and compatible implant candidate for biomedical applications. In the present investigation, a comparative study between novel Zr55Co30Ti15 and Cu60Zr20Ti20 metallic glasses is carried out to evaluate in vitro biocompatibility using simulated body fluids. The bio-corrosion behavior of Zr- and Cu-based metallic glasses in different types of artificial body fluids such as artificial saliva solution, phosphate-buffered saline solution, artificial blood plasma solution, and Hank’s balanced saline solution is evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization studies at a constant body temperature of 310.15 K (37 °C). Surface morphology of samples after bio-corrosion experiments was observed by scanning electron microscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity test on glassy alloys were performed using human osteosarcoma cell line as per 10993-5 guidelines from International Organization for Standardization. As a result, the comparative study between Zr- and Cu-based glassy alloys provides vital information about the effect of elemental composition on biocompatibility of metallic glasses.

  12. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  13. Prediction des vibrations eoliennes d'un systeme conducteur-amortisseur avec une methode temporelle non lineaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, Sebastien

    Les vibrations eoliennes sont la cause principale de bris de conducteurs en fatigue des lignes aeriennes de transport d'energie electrique. Ces vibrations sont dues a des detachements tourbillonnaires produits dans le sillage du conducteur. Une methode commune de reduction des vibrations est l'ajout d'amortisseurs de vibrations pres des pinces de suspension. Contrairement aux essais en ligne experimentale, la modelisation numerique permet d'evaluer rapidement et a faible cout la performance d'un amortisseur de vibration sur une portee de ligne aerienne. La technologie la plus frequemment utilisee fait appel au principe de balance d'energie (PBE) en evaluant le niveau de vibrations pour lequel la puissance injectee par le vent est egale a la puissance dissipee par le conducteur et l'amortisseur. Les methodes actuelles pour la prediction des vibrations reposent sur des hypotheses simplificatrices quant a la modelisation de l'interaction conducteur-amortisseur. Une approche prometteuse pour la prediction des vibrations est l'utilisation d'un modele numerique temporel non lineaire qui permet de mieux representer la masse, la geometrie, la rigidite et l'amortissement du systeme. L'objectif principal de ce projet de recherche est de developper un modele numerique avec integration temporelle directe d'un conducteur et d'un amortisseur en vibration permettant de reproduire le comportement dynamique du systeme pour la gamme de frequence et d'amplitude typique des vibrations eoliennes des conducteurs. Un modele par elements finis d'un conducteur seul en vibration resolu par integration temporelle directe a d'abord ete developpe en considerant une rigidite de flexion variable. Comme une rigidite de flexion constante et egale a 50% de la rigidite de flexion maximale theorique ( EImax) est jugee adequate pour la modelisation du conducteur, c'est cette valeur qui a ete utilisee pour la suite du projet. Ensuite, des modeles non-lineaires pour deux types d'amortisseur de

  14. Evaluation of 89Zr-pertuzumab in Breast Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to HER2 and is used in combination with another HER2–specific monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, for the treatment of HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Pertuzumab binds to an HER2 binding site distinct from that of trastuzumab, and its affinity is enhanced when trastuzumab is present. We aim to exploit this enhanced affinity of pertuzumab for its HER2 binding epitope and adapt this antibody as a PET imaging agent by radiolabeling with 89Zr to increase the sensitivity of HER2 detection in vivo. Here, we investigate the biodistribution of 89Zr-pertuzumab in HER2–expressing BT-474 and HER2–nonexpressing MDA-MB-231 xenografts to quantitatively assess HER2 expression in vivo. In vitro cell binding studies were performed resulting in retained immunoreactivity and specificity for HER2–expressing cells. In vivo evaluation of 89Zr-pertuzumab was conducted in severely combined immunodeficient mice, subcutaneously inoculated with BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 cells. 89Zr-pertuzumab was systemically administered and imaged at 7 days postinjection (p.i.) followed by terminal biodistribution studies. Higher tumor uptake was observed in BT-474 compared to MDA-MB-231 xenografts with 47.5 ± 32.9 and 9.5 ± 1.7% ID/g, respectively at 7 days p.i (P = 0.0009) and blocking studies with excess unlabeled pertuzumab showed a 5-fold decrease in BT-474 tumor uptake (P = 0.0006), confirming the in vivo specificity of this radiotracer. Importantly, we observed that the tumor accumulation of 89Zr-pertuzumab was increased in the presence of unlabeled trastuzumab, at 173 ± 74.5% ID/g (P = 0.01). Biodistribution studies correlate with PET imaging quantification using max SUV (r = 0.98, P = 0.01). Collectively, these results illustrate that 89Zr-pertuzumab as a PET imaging agent may be beneficial for the quantitative and noninvasive assessment of HER2 expression in vivo especially for patients undergoing trastuzumab therapy. PMID:25058168

  15. Abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr in Metal-Poor Stars and Implications for Chemical Evolution in the Early Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Y.-Z.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2008-11-01

    We have attributed the elements from Sr through Ag in stars of low metallicities ([ Fe/H ] lesssim - 1.5) to charged-particle reactions (CPRs) in neutrino-driven winds, which are associated with neutron star formation in low-mass and normal supernovae (SNe) from progenitors of ~8-11 M⊙ and ~12-25 M⊙, respectively. Using this rule and attributing all Fe production to normal SNe, we previously developed a phenomenological two-component model, which predicts that [ Sr/Fe ] >= - 0.32 for all metal-poor stars. This is in direct conflict with the high-resolution data now available, which show that there is a great shortfall of Sr relative to Fe in many stars with [ Fe/H ] lesssim - 3. The same conflict also exists for the CPR elements Y and Zr. We show that the data require a stellar source leaving behind black holes and that hypernovae (HNe) from progenitors of ~25-50 M⊙ are the most plausible candidates. If we expand our previous model to include three components (low-mass and normal SNe and HNe), we find that essentially all of the data are very well described by the new model. The HN yield pattern for the low-A elements from Na through Zn (including Fe) is inferred from the stars deficient in Sr, Y, and Zr. We estimate that HNe contributed ~24% of the bulk solar Fe inventory while normal SNe contributed only ~9% (not the usually assumed ~33%). This implies a greatly reduced role of normal SNe in the chemical evolution of the low-A elements.

  16. New insights into magma source compositions: constraints from combined Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S.; Elliott, T.; Blundy, J.

    2003-04-01

    Knowledge of the behaviour of trace elements in the mantle is a pre-requisite for the modelling and ultimately, understanding of mantle processes. As new, improved analytical techniques are developed additional groups of elements can be exploited to this end. One such group are the High Field Strength Elements (HFSE). Conventional wisdom suggests that the HFSE pairs Zr-Hf and Nb-Ta should behave as "geochemical twins" retaining chondritic ratios during petrogenetic processes such as melt generation and fractional crystallisation. However, precise measurements of these elements using Isotope Dilution (ID)- Plasma Ionisation Multi-collector Mass Spectrometry (PIMMS) are able to demonstrate that Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta show considerable variation between samples [1,2,3]. We have also developed new high precision separation and measurement techniques for the HFSE to specifically investigate the origin of the "garnet signature" in MORB and OIB [4,5,6]. Experiments carried out in simple synthetic systems by van Westrenen et al [7] suggest that DZr < DHf for pyropic garnets, such as those found in garnet peridotite, but the reverse, DZr > DHf is true of grossular rich garnets as would be present in a eclogitic source component of recycled crustal origin. This suggests that the HFSE have the potential to distinguish between these two garnet-bearing mantle sources. We will present data on a range of mantle derived melts with variable "garnet signatures" in order to address this issue. [1]Weyer et al. (2003), EPSL 205, 309-324. [2]Büchl et al. (2002), Goldschmidt Abstracts, A108. [3]David et al. (2000), EPSL 178, 285-301. [4]Hirschmann and Stolper (1996), CMP 124, 185-208. [5]Hirschmann (1996), Nature 384, 215-217. [6]Stracke et al. (1999), G-cubed, 1. [7]van Westrenen et al. (1999), Am. Min 84, 838-847.

  17. Isotopic Composition and Trace Element Abundances of a Presolar SiC AB Grain Reconstructed by Atom-Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. B.; Isheim, D.; Floss, C.; Groopman, E.; Gyngard, F.; Seidman, D. N.

    2014-09-01

    C and Si isotopic ratios of a previously characterized SiC AB grain are consistent with earlier NanoSIMS results. N, Al and Ti are abundant and distributed uniformly throughout the grain; s-process elements such as Zr, Mo and Ba were not detected.

  18. Copernic: la piste des influences arabes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari, A.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Copernic a-t-il connu le travail des astronomes du Moyen-Orient ? S'en est-il inspiré pour élaborer sa théorie de l'héliocentrisme ? C'est l'hypothèse avancée par certains historiens des sciences pour comprendre le génie de celui qui, le premier, a placé le Soleil au centre du monde. Enquête.

  19. Research on the secondary electron yield of TiZrV-Pd thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Yanhui; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    In particle accelerators, the build-up of electron cloud may have important influence on beam quality. Especially for the positron and proton accelerators, massive electrons lead to electron cloud, which affects the stability, energy, emittance and beam life adversely. A secondary electron emission (SEE) measurement system has been designed and used to study the SEE of palladium (Pd), TiZrV and TiZrV-Pd with an independently adjustable energy from 50 eV to 5 keV. Here, we obtained the characteristics of the SEE from Pd, TiZrV and TiZrV-Pd film coatings with different thickness under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. Moreover, the maximum secondary electron yield (SEY), {\\delta}max, of the Pd, TiZrV and TiZrV-Pd film coatings under different primary electron doses were obtained, respectively. Finally, the variation of the secondary electron yield with the incident electron energy will be discussed for Pd, TiZrV and TiZrV-Pd thin film coatings. Low SEY is a new advantage of TiZrV-Pd films, besides high H2 absorption ability and prolonging the lifetime of TiZrV film, which will be of great value in the design of beam screen for Super Proton-Proton Collider (SPPC).

  20. Radiation-induced synthesis of ZrO2 nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of zirconium acetylacetonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, R. M.; Ahmed, G. A.-W.; Al-Wassil, A. I.; Siddiqui, M. R. H.; Al-Otaibi, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    ZrO2 nanoparticles were obtained by the thermal decomposition of un-irradiated and γ-irradiated zirconium acetylacetonate (ZrAcAc) precursors. Several influencing factors, including absorbed dose, calcination times, calcination temperatures and addition of surfactants, were thoroughly investigated. The results showed that the best conditions for the preparation of ZrO2 nanoparticles were achieved by calcinations of ZrAcAc for 5 h at 600°C in the presence of 1 mL of benzyl alcohol as the surfactant. Different phases, morphologies and sizes for the as-prepared ZrO2 nanoparticles were obtained by varying the dose of γ-ray absorbed. ZrO2 nanoparticles obtained by thermal decomposition of un-irradiated ZrAcAc have mixture of monoclinic and tetragonal crystal systems, the particles are monodispersed with an irregular shape. In the case of γ-irradiated ZrAcAc with 10, 102 and 103 KGy, ZrO2 nanoparticles have only a tetragonal system with different morphologies depending on the γ-ray dose absorbed. Thermal stability of ZrO2 nanoparticles was studied using thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer techniques. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were evaluated and discussed.

  1. Study of temperature dependent zirconium silicide phases in Zr/Si structure by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, Sk Abdul Kader Md; Ranjan Bhattachryya, Satya; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Chakraborty, Supratic

    2016-02-01

    The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique is employed to study the formation of different silicide compounds of Zr thin-film deposited on a 100 μm-thick Si (1 0 0) substrate by dc sputtering. A detailed analysis shows that silicide layers start growing at  ∼246 °C that changes to stable ZrSi2 at 627 °C via some compounds with different stoichiometric ratios of Zr and Si. It is further observed that oxygen starts reacting with Zr at  ∼540 °C but a stoichiometric ZrO2 film is formed after complete consumption of Zr metal at 857 °C. A further rise in temperature changes a part of ZrSi2 to Zr-Silicate. The synchrotron radiation-based grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies also corroborate the above findings. Atomic force microscopy is also carried out on the samples. It is evident from the observations that an intermixing and nucleation of Zr and Si occur at lower temperature prior to the formation of the interfacial silicate layer. Zr-Silicate formation takes place only at a higher temperature.

  2. Effects of incorporation of HA/ZrO(2) into glass ionomer cement (GIC).

    PubMed

    Gu, Y W; Yap, A U J; Cheang, P; Khor, K A

    2005-03-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are a class of bioactive cements that bond directly to bone. In this paper, a new bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA)/zirconia (ZrO(2))-filled GIC composite was developed to improve the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the GICs with the surrounding bone and connective tissues. Nano-sized HA/30 wt% ZrO(2) powders were heat treated at 700 degrees Celsius and 800 degrees Celsius for 3 h to elucidate the influence of the crystallinity of composite powders on the performance of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs. The effects of different volume percentages of HA/ZrO(2) powders (4, 12, 28 and 40 vol%) substituted within GICs were investigated based on their microhardness, compressive strength and diametral tensile strength. The HA/ZrO(2)-GICs composite was soaked in distilled water for 1 day and 1 week before subjecting the samples to mechanical testing. Results showed that the glass and HA/ZrO(2) particles were distributed uniformly in the GIC matrix. The substitution of highly crystalline HA/ZrO(2) improved the mechanical properties of the HA/ZrO(2)-GICs due to the slow resorption rate for highly crystalline powders in distilled water. The mechanical properties of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs increased with increasing soak time due to the continuous formation of aluminium salt bridges, which improved the final strength of the cements. The compositions 4 and 12 vol% HA/ZrO(2)-GICs exhibited superior mechanical properties than the original GICs. The mechanical properties of HA/ZrO(2)-GICs were found to be much better than those of HA-GICs because ZrO(2) has the attributes of high strength, high modulus, and is significantly harder than glass and HA particles. Furthermore, ZrO(2) does not dissolve with increasing soaking time. PMID:15350775

  3. The detailed crystal and electronic structures of the cotunnite-type ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Duan, Li; Ji, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The detailed crystal and orbital-decomposed electronic structures of cotunnite-type ZrO2 have been investigated by using the first-principles projector augmented wave (PAW) potential within the generalized gradient approximation as well as taking into account on-site Coulomb repulsive interaction (GGA+U). The optimized structure shows that the OI and OII anions are surrounded by an arbitrary tetrahedron of four Zr cations and an arbitrary pentahedron of five Zr cations, respectively, in turn, the Zr cation is surrounded by an arbitrary tetrakaidecahedron formed by nine oxygen ligands. Although one more Zr cation is coordinated to OII, the larger bond lengths between OII and its adjacent five Zr cations (dOII-Zr) than those between OI and its adjacent four Zr cations (dOI-Zr) makes density of states (DOS) of s and three p (px , py and pz) states of the OII anion driving down in lower energy region and driving up in higher energy region. No crystal-field splitting is observed between three p (px , py and pz) states of anions OI and OII (between three p (px , py and pz) states and five d (dxy , dyz , dxz , dz2 and dx2-y2) states of cation Zr) is resulted from the arrangements of the surrounding cations (anions) do not have any symmetry. The additional covalent character upon Zr-O ionic bonds is attributed to the hybridization of itinerant Zr(5s) and less filled Zr(4d) states to the separated O(2s) and O(2p) states.

  4. Spectroscopic, structure and antimicrobial activity of new Y(III) and Zr(IV) ciprofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.; Zordok, Wael A.; El-Didamony, Akram M.

    2011-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of the new solid complexes [Y(CIP) 2(H 2O) 2]Cl 3·10H 2O and [ZrO(CIP) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O formed in the reaction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with YCl 3 and ZrOCl 2·8H 2O in ethanol and methanol, respectively, at room temperature were reported. The isolated complexes have been characterized with elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductance measurements, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods and thermal analyses. The results support the formation of the complexes and indicate that ciprofloxacin reacts as a bidentate ligand bound to the metal ion through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylato oxygen. The activation energies, E*; entropies, Δ S*; enthalpies, Δ H*; Gibbs free energies, Δ G*, of the thermal decomposition reactions have been derived from thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves, using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzeger methods. The proposed structure of the two complexes was detected by using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/CEP-31G level of theory. The ligand as well as their metal complexes was also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and antifungal screening was studied against two species ( Penicillium ( P. rotatum) and Trichoderma ( T. sp.)). This study showed that the metal complexes are more antibacterial as compared to free ligand and no antifungal activity observed for ligand and their complexes.

  5. Retraction: Atomic-scale simulation to study the dynamical properties and local structure of Cu-Zr and Ni-Zr metallic glass-forming alloys.

    PubMed

    Yang, M H; Li, Y; Li, J H; Liu, B X

    2016-07-20

    Retraction of 'Atomic-scale simulation to study the dynamical properties and local structure of Cu-Zr and Ni-Zr metallic glass-forming alloys' by M. H. Yang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 7169-7183. PMID:27402030

  6. Understanding the Zr and Si interdispersion in Zr1-xSixO2 mesoporous thin films by using FTIR and XANES spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Andrini, Leandro; Angelomé, Paula C; Soler-Illia, Galo J A A; Requejo, Félix G

    2016-06-14

    Zr-Si mixed mesoporous oxides were obtained in a wide range of proportions, from 0 to 30% and from 70 to 100% of Si, using Si(OEt)4 and ZrCl4 as precursors and Pluronic F127 as a template. The oxide mesostructure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and 2D-small angle X-ray scattering. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements suggested a local homogeneous interdispersion of both cations. Further selective studies using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy for separately Zr and Si local environments, allowed for demonstrating that the Zr coordination varies from close to 7 to 6, when its concentration in the mixed oxide is reduced. In addition, it was possible to determine that in mixed oxides with low Zr concentrations, Zr can fit into the spaces occupied by Si in SiO2 pure oxide. An equivalent XANES result was obtained for Si, which is also compatible with the information obtained by FTIR. Furthermore, the Zr-O distance varied from close to 2.2 Å to 1.7 Å when the Zr concentration decreased. Finally, our study also demonstrates the usefulness of XANES to selectively assess the local structure (coordination, symmetry and chemical state) of specific atoms in nanostructured systems. PMID:27001695

  7. An ion beam study of hydrogen diffusion in oxides of Zr and Zr-Nb (2.5 wt%). I. Diffusion parameters for dense oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatamian, D.; Manchester, F. D.

    1989-08-01

    Diffusion of hydrogen in the oxides of pure Zr and Zr-2.5 wt% Nb alloy has been investigated by means of hydrogen depth profiling. Oxide films of ~1 μm were grown on the metal surfaces and were loaded with hydrogen, using ion-beam implantation, to give an implantation peak centered on a specific depth in the oxide layer. The initial and subsequent depth profiles of H, after different temperature/time treatments, were characterized by 15N(H, αγ) 12C nuclear reaction analysis. The progressive dispersion of the peak in hydrogen concentration at the implantation depth was followed by using a diffusion relation, with appropriate boundary conditions, to determine values for D at temperatures up to 700° C. The results obtained indicate that the diffusion of hydrogen in the ZrO 2 on pure Zr is much slower than in the oxide of the Zr-Nb alloy (e.g. at 500°C, D = 1.9 × 10 -19m2/ s and 7.1 × 10 -17m2/ s for H in ZrO 2 on Zr and Zr-2.5 wt% Nb, respectively).

  8. Tracer diffusion and mechanism of non-Arrhenius diffusion behavior of Zr and Nb in body-centered cubic Zr-Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzig, Chr.; Köhler, U.; Divinski, S. V.

    1999-06-01

    Tracer diffusion of 95Zr and 95Nb has been measured in a set of β-Zr-Nb alloys (Zr-5.5 at. % Nb, Zr-16.3 at. % Nb, and Zr-28.1 at. % Nb) in a wide temperature range from 1035 to 1871 K. All experimental concentration profiles revealed a Gaussian-like behavior over two to three decades in logarithm of concentrations. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of the Manning's random alloy model and the partial correlation factors were calculated as functions of temperature. The partial correlation factors vary smoothly over the whole temperature range, whereas the diffusivity shows a pronounced curvature of the Arrhenius plots. A correlation was found between the degree of deviation from the Arrhenius behavior of the diffusion coefficients of both components and the lattice dynamics features of the measured phonon dispersions in their dependence on the Nb content in these alloys. The temperature dependence of the isotope effect parameter E of Zr diffusion was measured in the Zr-5.5 at.% Nb alloy. E essentially increases with temperature and the energy transfer factor ΔK deduced for the alloy was found to be somewhat larger than the corresponding values for pure β-Zr, especially at low temperatures. The whole set of experimental data leads to the conclusion that only one diffusion mechanism—the vacancy mechanism—is operating in the whole investigated temperature range.

  9. Trace Element Diffusion in Basaltic Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holycross, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted high pressure, high temperature experiments to determine simultaneously the diffusivities of 24 trace elements (Sc, V, Rb, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, U) in liquids of basaltic composition. Pre-synthesis runs were conducted in graphite capsules in a piston-cylinder apparatus to create two glasses having relatively high and low trace element contents. These glasses were then powdered and paired in diffusion couples by repacking in graphite capsules. All diffusion experiments were executed in a piston cylinder apparatus at 1 GPa pressure and temperatures ranging from 1250-1500º C. Concentration gradients that developed in the glasses were characterized using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). Diffusion coefficients were determined from concentration profiles and show Arrhenian behavior within experimental error. Errors were assigned based on the linear fit of five time series experiments conducted over 500-9000 s to accurately represent the total experimental reproducibility of our results. Data show the highest activation energies are obtained for high field strength elements. Values for the pre-exponential factor, D0, also peak for the high field strength elements. We suggest that trace element diffusion in basaltic melts follows the compensation law (Winchell, 1969), with log D0 exhibiting linear dependence on activation energy. Calculated diffusivities indicate that transport through basaltic melt could be an effective mechanism for fractionating high field strength elements over geologically relevant time scales. Winchell (1969) High Temp. Sci. 1: 200-215

  10. Quantification of colloidal and aqueous element transfer in soils: The dual-phase mass balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Thompson, Aaron; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2015-01-01

    Mass balance models have become standard tools for characterizing element gains and losses and volumetric change during weathering and soil development. However, they rely on the assumption of complete immobility for an index element such as Ti or Zr. Here we describe a dual-phase mass balance model that eliminates the need for an assumption of immobility and in the process quantifies the contribution of aqueous versus colloidal element transfer. In the model, the high field strength elements Ti and Zr are assumed to be mobile only as suspended solids (colloids) and can therefore be used to distinguish elemental redistribution via colloids from redistribution via dissolved aqueous solutes. Calculations are based upon element concentrations in soil, parent material, and colloids dispersed from soil in the laboratory. We illustrate the utility of this model using a catena in South Africa. Traditional mass balance models systematically distort elemental gains and losses and changes in soil volume in this catena due to significant redistribution of Zr-bearing colloids. Applying the dual-phase model accounts for this colloidal redistribution and we find that the process accounts for a substantial portion of the major element (e.g., Al, Fe and Si) loss from eluvial soil. In addition, we find that in illuvial soils along this catena, gains of colloidal material significantly offset aqueous elemental loss. In other settings, processes such as accumulation of exogenous dust can mimic the geochemical effects of colloid redistribution and we suggest strategies for distinguishing between the two. The movement of clays and colloidal material is a major process in weathering and pedogenesis; the mass balance model presented here is a tool for quantifying effects of that process over time scales of soil development.

  11. Reusable molds for casting U-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.S.; Stevens, W.C. ); Trybus, C.L. )

    1992-09-01

    Refractory oxides, carbides, nitrides and sulfides were examined as mold coating materials for use in casting nuclear fuel. The molds require excellent high temperature chemical and mechanical stability combined with reasonable room temperature ductility to allow for fuel removal. Coatings were applied onto quartz and refractory metal coupons using various techniques. Sessile drop tests employing molten U-10%Zr (by weight) at 1550[degrees]C were used to characterize coating performance. Results indicate that NbC, TiN, and Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] were non-wetting with U-10%Zr. However, only the Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] coating completely prevented adhesion of the fuel. The paper describes coating methods and details of the sessile drop experiments.

  12. Reusable molds for casting U-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.S.; Stevens, W.C.; Trybus, C.L.

    1992-09-01

    Refractory oxides, carbides, nitrides and sulfides were examined as mold coating materials for use in casting nuclear fuel. The molds require excellent high temperature chemical and mechanical stability combined with reasonable room temperature ductility to allow for fuel removal. Coatings were applied onto quartz and refractory metal coupons using various techniques. Sessile drop tests employing molten U-10%Zr (by weight) at 1550{degrees}C were used to characterize coating performance. Results indicate that NbC, TiN, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were non-wetting with U-10%Zr. However, only the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating completely prevented adhesion of the fuel. The paper describes coating methods and details of the sessile drop experiments.

  13. Thermal fatigue damage of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arya; Mitra, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Rotti, C.; Ray, K. K.

    2013-11-01

    The primary aim of this investigation is to examine thermal fatigue damage (TFD) in Cu-Cr-Zr alloys used in High Heat Flux components of Tokamak and its subsystems. Thermal fatigue experiments have been carried out between 290 °C and 30 °C, which is analogous to the condition of service application on two Cu-Cr-Zr alloys having different aging treatments. The extents of TFD have been examined by standard measurements of electrical conductivity, lattice strain, residual stress and dynamic elastic modulus, supplemented by characterizations of microstructure and determination of hardness and tensile properties. The results lead to infer that the relative amounts of damage are different in the two alloys which are further dependent on their aging conditions; the reasons for the observed difference have been explained. The operative mechanisms of TFD are revealed to be as formation and subsequent coalescence of microvoids, and/or initiation and growth of microcracks.

  14. Possible magnetic structures of EuZrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ai-Yuan; Qin, Guo-Ping; Wu, Zhi-Min; Cui, Yu-Ting

    2015-06-01

    A comprehensive research of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) structures of perovskite-type EuZrO3 is carried out by use of the double-time Green’s function. Two possible types of AFM configurations are considered, and theoretical results are compared with experimental results to extract the values of parameters J1, J2, and D. The obtained exchanges are employed to calculate the magnetic susceptibility, which is then in turn compared with the experimental one. Therefore, we think that the magnetic structure of EuZrO3 may be an isotropic G-type structure or an anisotropic A-type structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404046, 11347217, and 61201119), the Basic Research Foundation of Chongqing Education Committee, China (Grant No. KJ130615), and the Chongqing Science & Technology Committee, China (Grant Nos. cstc2014jcyjA50013 and cstc2013jjB50001).

  15. Low-pressure oxidation of Cb-1Zr alloy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, T. F.

    1971-01-01

    Resistively heated strip specimens of Cb-1Zr alloy were exposed at 927 C in a vacuum chamber at various levels of total pressure in the 1-microtorr range and at various oxygen partial pressures in the .1-microtorr range. Oxygen reaction rates (sticking probabilities) were found to depend on whether or not the specimens were annealed immediately before the test exposure. It is shown that a normally undetectable oxide film exists on the Cb-1Zr surface as a result of oxidation by ambient air, and this film reduces the sticking probability as compared with a clean metal surface. The alloy is considerably strengthened by addition of oxygen to a level of about 6000 ppm, while still maintaining reasonably good room temperature ductility.

  16. Wear and friction behavior of Zr implanted D3 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Akbas, N.; Saklakoglu, I.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

    2001-08-23

    Multicharged, pure, high current and pulsed ion beams of Zr have been extracted from a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source and implanted into AISI D3 (C: 2-2,35%, Mn: 0,60%, Si: 0,60%, Cr: 11-13,50%, Ni: 0,30%, W: 1%, V: 1%) tool steel samples at the 3,6.1016, 5.1016 and 1.1017 ions/cm2 doses. The wear resistance and friction coefficient have been estimated using pin-on-disc wear tests. Implantation of Zr decreased the wear loss and friction coefficient. RBS, AES and SEM Microprobe analyses were used as a guide for explanation of implantation's effects.

  17. Thermophysical and electrical properties of equiatomic CuZr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, V. A.; Kulikova, T. V.; Yagodin, D. A.; Filippov, V. V.; Shunyaev, K. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry, laser flash technique, dilatometry, and a method based on a rotating magnetic field were used to study for the first time thermophysical and electrical properties of the Cu50Zr50 equiatomic alloy in the quenched state and after annealing at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1100 K. The thermal conductivity coefficient was calculated using the results of heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and density measurements. The sequence and temperatures of structural transformations in the quenched Cu50Zr50 alloy were determined during alloy heating. The electron component of thermal conductivity was estimated using the Wiedemann-Franz-Lorentz law. This law was found to be satisfied well for the quenched sample at temperatures above 600 K and for the annealed sample at temperatures beginning from 900 K. As the temperature decreases, the lattice contribution increases. This fact indicates the marked effect of strong chemical interaction between copper and zirconium on the heat- and electrotransport processes.

  18. ZrP nanoplates based fire-fighting foams stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lecheng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting foam, as a significant innovation in fire protection, greatly facilitates extinguishments for liquid pool fire. Recently, with developments in LNG industry, high-expansion firefighting foams are also used for extinguishing LNG fire or mitigating LNG leakage. Foam stabilizer, an ingredient in fire-fighting foam, stabilizes foam bubbles and maintains desired foam volume. Conventional foam stabilizers are organic molecules. In this work, we developed a inorganic based ZrP (Zr(HPO4)2 .H2O, Zirconium phosphate) plates functionalized as firefighting foam stabilizer, improving firefighting foam performance under harsh conditions. Several tests were conducted to illustrate performance. The mechanism for the foam stabilization is also proposed. Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3122

  19. Oxidation of ZrB2-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Halbig, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the oxidation behavior of ZrB2-20 vol% SiC is examined. Samples were exposed in stagnant air in a zirconia furnace (Deltech, Inc.) at temperatures of 1327, 1627, and 1927 C for ten ten-minute cycles. Samples were removed from the furnace after one, five, and ten cycles. Oxidized material was characterized by mass change when possible, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Oxidation kinetics, oxide scale development, and matrix recession were monitored as a function of time and temperature. Oxidation and recession rates of ZrB2 - 20 vol% SiC were adequately modeled by parabolic kinetics. Oxidation rates of this material are rapid, allowing only very short-term application in air or other high oxygen partial pressure environments.

  20. Reactions on interfaces in heterophase TiN-Mo, TiN-W, ZrN-Mo, and ZrN-W materials during sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Pshenichnaya, O.V.; Verkhovodov, P.A.

    1985-08-01

    This paper reports on a study of the reactions on contact surfaces of solid titanium nitride and zirconium nitride specimens with molybdenum and tungsten in a vacuum corresponding to 0.01 Pa at temperatures in the range, 1900-2150/sup 0/C. The starting materials were titanium nitride containing 21.3% N and 0.3% O/sub 2/ dissolved in the TIN lattice; zirconium nitride containing 0.6-0.8% O/sub 2/; molybdenum with the impurities 0.02% C, 0.05% Ti, and 0.08% Zr; and tungsten with the impurities of 0.01% Si and 0.02% Hf. Polished end faces of specimens were pressed against each other with a small force, and in that position the specimens were annealed for an hour, after which microsections prepared in planes perpendicular to the control surfaces were investigated metallographically and by electron probe microanalysis. It is concluded that the development of bonds at interfaces between titanium nitride and zirconium nitride on the one hand, and molybdenum and tungsten on the other, is a consequence of diffusional reactions between the elements of the nitride phases and the metals which are accompanied by the formation of metal-base solid solutions localized within narrow contact zones.

  1. Les Elements Legers: Diffusion dans les Enveloppes Stellaires et Implications Cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Jacques

    1992-01-01

    Les observations des abondances des elements legers (Z <= 5) sont utilisees pour estimer la quantitie de lithium qui a ete produite lors du Big -Bang, et obtenir simultanement des contraintes sur la nature des inhomogeneites qui ont pu exister durant la nucleosynthese primordiale. Nous utilisons un modele simple capable de simuler approximativement la diffusion et la retro-diffusion des neutrons a travers la matiere inhomogene durant les premieres minutes de l'expansion de l'Univers. Nous tenons compte de la difference possible entre l'abondance primordiale de Li et les abondances observees dans les plus vieilles etoiles. Cette difference (un facteur 2, environ) est estimee en construisant des modeles evolutifs d'etoiles peu massives de Population II, incluant la sedimentation gravitationnelle du lithium et de l'helium. Ces modeles montrent egalement que les ages des vieux amas stellaires sont grandement surestimes lorsqu'ils sont determines a partir de modeles stellaires n'incluant pas l'effet de la diffusion de He. Nous calculons ensuite comment evoluent les abondances de Li et Be dans des etoiles plus massives et plus jeunes, de la pre-sequence principale ou de la ZAMS, jusqu'a l'epuisement de leur hydrogene central. Les modeles incluent la sedimentation simultanee de l'helium a travers l'enveloppe. Une approche hierarchique (evolution du coeur--evolution de l'enveloppe --tri des elements traces) est utilisee pour simuler efficacement le grand nombre d'etoiles necessaire pour la construction d'isochrones. Une attention particuliere est portee aux consequences de la sedimentation de He sur l'etendue des zones convectives, et sur la diffusion de Li et Be. Les forces radiatives agissant sur ces deux elements sont calculees en detail a partir des donnees atomiques. Les etoiles simulees correspondent approximativement aux types spectraux A, F, et AmFm. Les abondances de Li et Be observees dans les etoiles jeunes de ces types sont comparees a nos predictions dans le

  2. Phonons in binary glass Cu65Zr35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambholja, S. G.; Ladva, A. L.; Thakore, B. Y.

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, the longitudinal and transverse phonon frequencies in binary metallic glass Cu65Zr35 is reported using the phenomenological model of Hubbard and Beeby in conjunction with model potential formalism. The ion-ion interaction is calculated within second order perturbation theory. The results of phonon frequencies are discussed in terms of collective excitation in glassy system. Further, some elastic constants are also calculated from the long wavelength limit of phonon frequencies.

  3. Isospin mixing at finite temperature in 80Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceruti, Simone; Giaz, A.; Camera, F.; Avigo, R.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Coelli, S.; Corsi, A.; Crespi, F.; Leoni, S.; Million, B.; Morales-Lopez, A. I.; Pellegri, L.; Nicolini, R.; Riboldi, S.; Vandone, V.; Wieland, O.; Bortolato, D.; Fanin, C.; Gottardo, A.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Bellato, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Montanari, D.; Recchia, F.; Farnea, E.; Ur, C.; Zieblinski, M.; Ciemala, M.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Myalski, S.; Styczen, J.

    2014-03-01

    Isospin mixing induced by the Coulomb interaction has been studied in the compound nucleus 80Zr at T~2 MeV produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction 40Ca+40Ca at Ebeam = 136 MeV. The isospin impurity was measured using the first step of the Giant Dipole Resonance γ decay. The preliminary value of the Coulomb spreading width has been extracted via statistical model analysis of the measured γ spectrum.

  4. Atomic Layer Deposition of Zirconium-Based High-k Metal Gate Oxide: Effect of Si Containing Zr Precursor.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang-Ick; Kim, Jong Hyun; Yim, Sang Jun; Shin, Hyung Soo; Han, Mi Jeong; Chae, Won Mook; Lee, Sung Duck; Ahn, Chi Young; Kim, Myong-Woon

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium based thin film have been deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) process using Zr and Si containing Zr precursor with ozone as oxidant. We have pursued a means to control composition by varying Zr and Si containing precursor by cycle frequency. The molar ratio of Si to Zr in the Zr based films was 0.2, 0.25, 0.33, and 0.5. Addition of Si containing Zr precursor on Zirconium based thin films was effective for the decrease of the roughness, while an increase of density. XPS analysis indicated that the addition of Si containing Zr precursors in the Zr based film formed the silicate structure. The XRD analysis of the all ZrO2-SiO2 mixed films annealed at 600 degrees C for 5 min indicated the presence of amorphous. However, the ZrO2 film showed diffraction peaks at 2θ = 30.6 degrees due to the presence of the Tetragonal ZrO2. The incorporation of Si into ZrO2 films helps stabilize an amorphous structure during deposition and annealing. The Zr based thin film (Si/Zr = 0.25) exhibited that the leakage current density was 6.2 x 10(-7) A/cm2 at a bias of - 1.5 V. PMID:26328365

  5. Radar Rainfall Estimation using a Quadratic Z-R equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Will; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to test a method that enables the input of event based drop size distributions to alter a quadratic reflectivity (Z) to rainfall (R) equation that is limited by fixed upper and lower points. Results will be compared to the Marshall-Palmer Z-R relation outputs and validated by a network of gauges and a single polarisation weather radar located close to Essen, Germany. The time window over which the drop size distribution measurements will be collected is varied to note any effect on the generated quadratic Z-R relation. The new quadratic algorithm shows some distinct improvement over the Marshall-Palmer relationship through multiple events. The inclusion of a minimum number of Z-R points helped to decrease the associated error by defaulting back to the Marshall-Palmer equation if the limit was not reached. More research will be done to discover why the quadratic performs poorly in some events as there appears to be little correlation between number of drops or mean rainfall amount and the associated error. In some cases it seems the spatial distribution of the disdrometers has a significant effect as a large percentage of the rain bands pass to the north of two of the three disdrometers, frequently in a slightly north-easterly direction. However during widespread precipitation events the new algorithm works very well with reductions compared to the Marshall-Palmer relation.

  6. Oxidation behavior of FeAl+Hf,Zr,B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Doychak, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of Fe-40Al-1Hf, Fe-40Al-1Hf-0.4B, and Fe-40Al-0.1Zr-0.4B (at. percent) alloys was characterized after 900, 1000, and 100 C exposures. Isothermal tests revealed parabolic kinetics after a period of transitional theta-alumina scale growth. The parabolic growth rates for the subsequent alpha-alumina scales were about five times higher than those for NiAl+0.1Zr alloys. The isothermally grown scales showed a propensity toward massive scale spallation due to both extensive rumpling from growth stresses and to an inner layer of HfO2. Cyclic oxidation for 200 1-hr cycles produced little degradation at 900 or 1000 C, but caused significant spallation at 1100 C in the form of small segments of the outer scale. The major difference in the cyclic oxidation of the three FeAl alloys was increased initial spallation for FeAl+Zr,B. Although these FeAl alloys showed many similarities to NiAl alloys, they were generally less oxidation resistant. It is believed that this resulted from nonoptimal levels of dopants and larger thermal expansion mismatch stresses.

  7. Various sized nanotubes on TiZr for antibacterial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorescu, Sabina; Ungureanu, Camelia; Kirchgeorg, Robin; Schmuki, Patrik; Demetrescu, Ioana

    2013-04-01

    A two-step anodization of a Ti50Zr alloy results in a various sized nanotube oxide structures, which show an improved antibacterial activity. The nanotubes were formed in glycol with 15 vol.% H2O and 0.2 M NH4F by two-step anodization. The oxide layer grown during 2 h was removed by sonication in deionized water and anodized again for 1 h at the same conditions as in the first step. The removed layer acts as a nano-prepatterned surface, where higher ordered and open nanotubes can be achieved. The surface morphologies were analyzed by SEM and AFM, the surface wettability by contact angle measurements. The diameter and the length of the grown nanotubes are potential dependent between 20 and 100 nm in diameter and 2.3 and 5.7 μm in length, respectively. The antibacterial properties were evaluated in vitro on the formed nanotubes on the TiZr alloy against gram negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The E. coli (ATCC 8738) were cultured in a tube containing Luria Bertani medium at 37 °C. The optical density was determined after 18 h of incubation. In comparison, the smallest nanotubes exhibited the most efficient antibacterial behavior against E. coli bacterium. This suggests the use of small diameter nanotubes on TiZr for antimicrobial surface applications, which are susceptible for biofilms and microbial cultures.

  8. Cold Spraying of Amorphous Cu50Zr50 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, A.; Gärtner, F.; Mori, T.; Schulze, M.; Assadi, H.; Kuroda, S.; Klassen, T.

    2015-01-01

    A new range of applications in cold spraying is expected for bulk metallic glass (BMG) coatings. For retaining amorphous structures in cast multi-component BMG parts, typically high purity raw material must be used. The present investigation explores an alternative approach, where cold spraying is used to deposit a technical-grade binary amorphous alloy. This approach is shown to be potentially cost-effective and suitable for rapid manufacturing. For this purpose, amorphous Cu50Zr50 was chosen as a model alloy system, and cold spraying was performed using nitrogen as process gas. By a systematic variation of the spray parameter sets, the critical velocities for coating formation were determined experimentally. Based on the current models of bonding of amorphous Cu50Zr50 powder in cold spraying, a new, more comprehensive concept of bonding and rebound is presented, which also considers the presence of liquefied interfaces and quenching rates for resolidification. Results concerning impact morphologies and coating formation demonstrate that under suitable choice of spray conditions, well-adhering coatings with amorphous structure of the Cu50Zr50 powders can be obtained by cold spraying.

  9. Energy-band alignments at ZrO2/Si, SiGe, and Ge interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. J.; Huan, A. C. H.; Foo, Y. L.; Chai, J. W.; Pan, J. S.; Li, Q.; Dong, Y. F.; Feng, Y. P.; Ong, C. K.

    2004-11-01

    The energy-band alignments for the ZrO2/Si, ZrO2/Si0.75Ge0.25, and ZrO2/Ge interfaces have been studied using x-ray photoemission. The valence-band offsets of ZrO2/Si, ZrO2/Si0.75Ge0.25, and ZrO2/Ge interfaces are determined to be 2.95, 3.13, and 3.36eV, respectively, while the conduction-band offsets are found to be the same value of 1.76±0.03eV for three interfaces. The upward shift of valence-band top accounts for the difference in the energy-band alignment at three interfaces.

  10. Preparation of a novel Zr(4+)-immobilized metal affinity membrane for selective adsorption of phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    He, Maofang; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a novel phosphate-Zr(4+) immobilized metal affinity membrane (IMAM) was prepared based on the surface initiated-atom transfer radical polymerization technique for the selective adsorption of phosphoprotein. The adsorption capacity and selectivity of the phosphate-Zr(4+) IMAM were evaluated by using the mixture of standard phosphoproteins (β-casein, ovalbumin) and nonphosphoproteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) as model samples. The adsorption isotherms and competitive adsorption results demonstrated that the phosphate-Zr(4+) IMAM had higher binding capacity and selectivity for phosphoproteins over nonphosphoproteins. Moreover, the phosphate-Zr(4+) IMAM exhibited good re-usability and re-productivity. Finally, the phosphate-Zr(4+) IMAM was applied to separate phosphoprotein from real samples with high purity. Therefore, the as-prepared phosphate-Zr(4+) IMAM could be a promising affinity material for the efficient enrichment of phosphoprotein from complex bio-samples. PMID:27433983

  11. A DFT + U study of cerium solubility in La2Zr2O7

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X J; Xiao, Haiyan; Zu, X T; Weber, William J

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theory plus Hubbard U correction is employed to study the solubility of cerium in La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The results show that La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Ce{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} form a solid solution over the whole range of cerium content. The solubility of Ce in La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} can be partially attributed to the similar ionic radii of La{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}. Electronic structures of the La{sub 2}yCeyZr{sub 2}O{sub 7} solid solution have been analyzed. The Ce 4f states are found to be partially occupied, and Ce in the La{sub 2}yCeyZr{sub 2}O{sub 7} solid solution exhibits a reduced charge state.

  12. Defining the Proton Topology of the Zr6-Based Metal-Organic Framework NU-1000.

    PubMed

    Planas, Nora; Mondloch, Joseph E; Tussupbayev, Samat; Borycz, Joshua; Gagliardi, Laura; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Cramer, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) constructed from Zr6-based nodes have recently received considerable attention given their exceptional thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability. Because of this, the structural diversity of Zr6-based MOFs has expanded considerably and in turn given rise to difficulty in their precise characterization. In particular it has been difficult to assign where protons (needed for charge balance) reside on some Zr6-based nodes. Elucidating the precise proton topologies in Zr6-based MOFs will have wide ranging implications in defining their chemical reactivity, acid/base characteristics, conductivity, and chemical catalysis. Here we have used a combined quantum mechanical and experimental approach to elucidate the precise proton topology of the Zr6-based framework NU-1000. Our data indicate that a mixed node topology, [Zr6(μ3-O)4(μ3-OH)4(OH)4 (OH2)4](8+), is preferred and simultaneously rule out five alternative node topologies. PMID:26278741

  13. Zr-based bulk metallic glass as a cylinder material for high pressure apparatuses

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsu, Kazuki; Munakata, Koji; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Sugiyama, Kazumasa; Matsuda, Masaaki

    2015-05-12

    Zirconium-based bulk metallic glass (Zr-based BMG) has outstanding properties as a cylinder mate- rial for piston-cylinder high pressure apparatuses and is especially useful for neutron scattering. The piston-cylinder consisting of a Zr-based BMG cylinder with outer/inner diameters of 8.8/2.5 mm sustains pressures up to 1.81 GPa and ruptured at 2.0 GPa, with pressure values determined by the superconduct- ing temperature of lead. The neutron attenuation of Zr-based BMG is similar to that of TiZr null-scattering alloy and more transparent than that of CuBe alloy. No contamination of sharp Bragg reflections is observed in the neutron diffraction pattern for Zr-based BMG. The magnetic susceptibility of Zr-based BMG is similar to that of CuBe alloy; this leads to a potential application for measurements of magnetic properties under pressure.

  14. Crystal structure of thin oxide films grown on Zr-Nb alloys studied by RHEED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatamian, D.; Lalonde, S. D.

    1997-05-01

    The highly surface sensitive reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) technique was used to determine thecrystal structure of oxide films grown on Zr-Nb alloys in air up to 673 K. The results show that the oxide films grown on Zr-2.5 wt% Nb(α-Zr + β-Zr) have a mixture of nearly-cubic-tetragona and monoclinic structures for films of 200 nm thick or less and that the outer layers of films thicker than 800 nm only have the monoclinic crystal structure. However, oxide films grown on Zr-20 wt% Nb (β-Zr) have a stabilized nearly-cubic-tetragonal structure for all film thicknesses, studied here, up to 2100 nm.

  15. On the deposition mechanisms and the formation of glassy Cu-Zr thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almyras, G. A.; Matenoglou, G. M.; Komninou, Ph.; Kosmidis, C.; Patsalas, P.; Evangelakis, G. A.

    2010-04-01

    We report on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and physical vapor deposition experimental results concerning the development of glassy and nanocrystalline Cu-Zr thin films. MD has revealed that when Cu and Zr are deposited sequentially, a thin film overlayer is formed that consists of nanocrystalline a-Zr and t-Zr2Cu, while if Cu and Zr are simultaneously deposited, amorphous CuZr thin film emerges, due to the formation of icosahedral-like clusters that impede nucleation. Thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and yielded unequivocal evidence that validates our MD predictions. These findings may indicate an alternative pathway for the growth of metallic nanocomposites or glassy films.

  16. Surface characteristics and castability of Zr-14Nb alloy dental castings.

    PubMed

    Kajima, Yuka; Doi, Hisashi; Takaichi, Atsushi; Hanawa, Takao; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical properties, surface characteristics and castability of Zr-14Nb dental castings. The mean 0.2% proof and ultimate tensile strengths of Zr-14Nb were approximately 68% and 76% those of Ti-6Al-7Nb, respectively, while they were comparable to Co-29Cr-6Mo. Elongation of Zr-14Nb was the highest of all alloys tested. The hardened reaction layer was formed on the surfaces of the Zr-14Nb castings. The layer consisted of oxygen and aluminum originating form investment. The castability of Zr-14Nb was comparable to that of Ti-6Al-7Nb. Dental castings of Zr-14Nb reveal mechanical properties that were within the range of the other dental alloys. Further improvements in castability and minimization of the surface reaction layer are needed for applications in dental prostheses. PMID:25273042

  17. Milling assisted synthesis of calcium zirconate СаZrО3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinkin, A. M.; Nevedomskii, V. N.; Kalinkina, E. V.; Balyakin, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    Monophase calcium zirconate (CaZrO3) has been prepared from the equimolar ZrO2 + CaCO3 mixture by two-step synthesis process. In the first step, mechanical treatment of the mixture is performed in an AGO-2 planetary ball mill. In the second step, the milled mixture is annealed to form calcium zirconate. High-energy ball milling of the (ZrO2+CaCO3) mixture results in decrease in the temperature of CaZrO3 formation during annealing at 950 °C. The enhancement of CaZrO3 synthesis is due to accumulation of excess energy by the reagents, decreasing the particle size and notable increase in the interphase area because of “smearing” of CaCO3 on ZrO2 particles during milling. Nanocrystalline calcium zirconate has been produced by controlling the annealing temperature and time.

  18. Epitaxial semimetallic HfxZr1-xB2 templates for optoelectronic integration on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roucka, Radek; An, YuJin; Chizmeshya, Andrew V. G.; Tolle, John; Kouvetakis, John; D'Costa, Vijay R.; Menéndez, José; Crozier, Peter

    2006-12-01

    High quality heteroepitaxial HfxZr1-xB2 (x=0-1) buffers were grown directly on Si(111). The compositional dependence of the film structure and ab initio elastic constants were used to show that hexagonal HfxZr1-xB2 possess tensile in-plane strain (0.5%) as grown. High quality HfB2 films were also grown on strain compensating ZrB2-buffered Si(111). Initial reflectivity measurements of thick ZrB2 films agree with first principles calculations which predict that the reflectivity of HfB2 increases by 20% relative to ZrB2 in the 2-8eV range. These tunable structural, thermoelastic, and optical properties suggest that HfxZr1-xB2 templates should be suitable for broad integration of III nitrides with Si.

  19. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Liu, Wei

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  20. Chemical Studies of the Transactinide Elements at JAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Nagame, Y.; Asai, M.; Hirata, M.; Ishii, Y.; Nishinaka, I.; Tome, H.; Toyoshima, A.; Tsukada, K.; Akiyama, K.; Goto, S.; Haba, H.

    2006-11-02

    Chemical properties of the transactinide element, rutherfordium (Rf), produced in the reaction 248Cm(18O, 5n) have been studied based on an atom-at-a-time scale. Ion-exchange chromatographic experiments on Rf together with the lighter homologues in the periodic table of the elements, group-4 elements Zr and Hf, in hydrofluoric acid solutions have been conducted with a rapid chemical separation apparatus. From the systematic study of the anion-exchange behavior of Rf, we have observed unexpected chemical behavior of Rf; the fluoride complex formation of Rf is significantly different from those of the homologues. Characteristics of the complexing strength of the Rf fluoride are briefly discussed by comparing with those of the homologues and with theoretical predictions by relativistic molecular density-functional calculations.

  1. Neutrinoless double-β decay and nuclear transition matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, P. K.

    2015-10-28

    Within mechanisms involving the light Majorana neutrinos, squark-neutrino, Majorons, sterile neutrinos and heavy Majorana neutrino, nuclear transition matrix elements for the neutrinoless (β{sup −}β{sup −}){sub 0ν} decay of {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 128,130}Te and {sup 150}Nd nuclei are calculated by employing the PHFB approach. Effects due to finite size of nucleons, higher order currents, short range correlations, and deformations of parent as well as daughter nuclei on the calculated matrix elements are estimated. Uncertainties in nuclear transition matrix elements within long-ranged mechanisms but for double Majoron accompanied (β{sup −}β{sup −}ϕϕ){sub 0ν} decay modes are 9%–15%. In the case of short ranged heavy Majorona neutrino exchange mechanism, the maximum uncertainty is about 35%. The maximum systematic error within the mechanism involving the exchange of light Majorana neutrino is about 46%.

  2. Extraction of the transplutonium elements from alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Karalova, Z.K.; Bukina, T.I.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1986-03-01

    This paper investigates the extraction of transplutonium elements (TPE) and other elements using aliquat-336 and alkylpyrocatechol from strongly alkaline solutions in the presence of complexforming substances. It was shown by the methods of NMR and IR spectroscopy that elements can be extracted from alkaline solutions both in the form of coordination-saturated internal complex compounds and in the form of ionic associates, the anionic portion of which consists either of hydroxo-complexes of the cooresponding metals or their compounds with the complex-forming substance. Together with the TPE and REE the authors also studied the extraction of Fe(III), Ru(III), Zr(IV), Pu(IV), Pa(V), Nb(V), U(VI), Cs(I), and Th(IV) from alkaline solutions.

  3. Neutrinoless double-β decay and nuclear transition matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, P. K.

    2015-10-01

    Within mechanisms involving the light Majorana neutrinos, squark-neutrino, Majorons, sterile neutrinos and heavy Majorana neutrino, nuclear transition matrix elements for the neutrinoless (β-β-)0ν decay of 96Zr, 100Mo, 128,130Te and 150Nd nuclei are calculated by employing the PHFB approach. Effects due to finite size of nucleons, higher order currents, short range correlations, and deformations of parent as well as daughter nuclei on the calculated matrix elements are estimated. Uncertainties in nuclear transition matrix elements within long-ranged mechanisms but for double Majoron accompanied (β-β-ϕϕ)0ν decay modes are 9%-15%. In the case of short ranged heavy Majorona neutrino exchange mechanism, the maximum uncertainty is about 35%. The maximum systematic error within the mechanism involving the exchange of light Majorana neutrino is about 46%.

  4. In Situ Assimilation Tracked By Trace Element Variation in Augite: Sausfjellet Pluton, North-Central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. G.; Coint, N.; Yoshinobu, A. S.; Prestvik, T.; Barnes, M. A. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Sausfjellet pluton is a sub-circular, 445 Ma pluton in the Bindal Batholith. It was intruded into mid-crustal level (~700 MPa), high-grade rocks during Taconian assembly of the Helgeland Nappe Complex. Stage 1 of the pluton is massive pyroxene hornblende gabbro with poikilitic hornblende. Stage 2, the subject of this study, occupies the central and western parts of the pluton and is gradationally zoned from central, layered, xenolith-rich hornblende biotite two-pyroxene diorite + anorthosite, to western, massive, xenolith-poor hornblende biotite three-pyroxene quartz monzonite. Bulk-rock compositions are consistent with widespread accumulation of pyroxene + plagioclase. In order to separate effects of accumulation from assimilation, trace element zoning profiles in augite were used as a proxy for changes in melt composition. Augite is normally zoned, with incompatible elements increasing from cores to rims. However, trace element variation among samples plots as multiple trends that can be resolved into two broad groups that correspond to the central and western zones. Augite in the layered central zone has lower abundances of REE, Pb and Hf and higher abundances of Cr, V, Ni, Sr, and P compared to the western zone. The two trends intersect at low concentrations of incompatible elements such as Zr. Calculation of melts in equilibrium with augite, combined with AFC-type modeling, suggest that variation in augite Zr contents requires assimilation of Zr-rich rocks in all Stage 2 rocks. In the western zone, increases in Zr, Hf, REE and Pb suggest assimilation of Neoproterozoic gneisses that are host to the western zone; this conclusion is consistent with bulk-rock δ18O values. We conclude that assimilation of host rocks was widespread in this mid-crustal magma body, and that augite preserves a trace element record of differentiation (AFC) that is difficult to identify using bulk-rock compositions alone.

  5. Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) Materials Proposed for Inert Matrix Fuel Applications.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John R; Grosvenor, Andrew P; Saoudi, Mouna

    2016-02-01

    Inert matrix fuels (IMF) consist of transuranic elements (i.e., Pu, Am, Np, Cm) embedded in a neutron transparent (inert) matrix and can be used to "burn up" (transmute) these elements in current or Generation IV nuclear reactors. Yttria-stabilized zirconia has been extensively studied for IMF applications, but the low thermal conductivity of this material limits its usefulness. Other elements can be used to stabilize the cubic zirconia structure, and the thermal conductivity of the fuel can be increased through the use of a lighter stabilizing element. To this end, a series of Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) materials has been synthesized via a co-precipitation reaction and characterized by multiple techniques (Nd was used as a surrogate for Am). The long-range and local structures of these materials were studied using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, the stability of these materials over a range of temperatures has been studied by annealing the materials at 1100 and 1400 °C. It was shown that the Nd(x)Sc(y)Zr(1-x-y)O(2-δ) materials maintained a single cubic phase upon annealing at high temperatures only when both Nd and Sc were present with y ≥ 0.10 and x + y > 0.15. PMID:26751283

  6. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  7. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer; Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal-transition metal and transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM-M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  8. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal–transition metal and transition metal–metalloid (TM–M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM–M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  9. Double-Beta Decay of 96Zr and Double-Electron Capture of 156Dy to Excited Final States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean W.

    Two separate experimental searches for second-order weak nuclear decays to excited final states were conducted. Both experiments were carried out at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility to provide shielding from cosmic rays. The first search is for the two-neutrino double-beta decay of 96Zr to excited final states of the daughter nucleus, 96Mo. As a by product of this experiment, the beta decay of 96Zr was also investigated. Two coaxial high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to detect gamma rays produced by the daughter nucleus as it de-excited to the ground state. After collecting 1.92 years of data with 17.91 g of enriched 96Zr, half-life limits at the level of 10 20 yr were produced. Measurements of this decay are important to test neutrinoless double-beta decay nuclear matrix element calculations, which are necessary to extract the neutrino mass from a measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life. The second experiment is a search for the resonantly-enhanced neutrinoless double-electron capture decay of 156Dy to excited states in 156Gd. Double-electron capture is a possible experimental alternative to neutrinoless-double beta decay, which could distinguish the Dirac or Majorana nature of the neutrino. Two clover high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to investigate the decay. A 213.5 mg enriched 156Dy sample was observed for 0.635 year, producing half-life limits of 10 17 yr. The limits produced by both of these experiments are currently the most stringent limits available for these decays.

  10. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer; Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal-transition metal and transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM-M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator. PMID:26395721

  11. Generalized melting criterion for amorphization. [NiZr, NiZr[sub 2], NiTi, FeTi

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, R. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R. ); Meshii, M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-12-01

    We present a thermodynamic model of solid-state amorphization based on a generalization of the well-known Lindemann criterion. The original Lindemann criterion proposes that melting occurs when the root-mean-square amplitude of thermal displacement exceeds a critical value. This criterion can be generalized to include solid-state amorphization by taking into account the static displacements. In an effort to verify the generalized melting criterion, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of radiation-induced amorphization in NiZr, NiZr[sub 2], NiTi and FeTi using embedded-atom potentials. The average shear elastic constant G was calculated as a function of the total mean-square atomic displacement following random atom-exchanges and introduction of Frenkel pairs. Results provide strong support for the generalized melting criterion.

  12. Zr-doped rutile TiO2: a nuclear quadrupole interaction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.; Das, S. K.; Das, P.; Thakare, S. V.; Butz, T.

    2010-04-01

    Role of Zr atom on the quadrupole interaction of 181Ta in rutile TiO2 has been investigated by time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) study. The quadrupole frequency remains same as that in the pure rutile TiO2 but its distribution increases with the amount of Zr. This indicates a metal-metal interaction between probe atom and Zr-atom in the nearest neighbour.

  13. Near-infrared spectrum of ZrF by intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Jack C.; O'Brien, Leah C.; Ni, Ann; Mahkdoom, Bilal; O'Brien, James J.

    2015-04-01

    The (1, 1) band of the CΩ = 3/2 - X2Δ3/2 transition of ZrF has been recorded at high resolution using intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy. The ZrF molecules were produced using a Zr-lined copper hollow cathode sputter source with a trace amount of SF6 as a fluoride source. Molecular constants from the analysis are presented and compared with previous work.

  14. Electrodeposition and characterization of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszczyńska, A.; Winiarski, J.; Szczygieł, B.; Szczygieł, I.

    2016-04-01

    Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite coatings were produced by electrodeposition technique from citrate electrolytes containing dispersed ZrO2 nanopowder. The influence of deposition parameters i.e. concentration of molybdate and ZrO2 nanoparticles in the electrolyte, bath pH and deposition current density on the composition and surface morphology of the coating has been investigated. The structure, microhardness and corrosion properties of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composites with different molybdenum and ZrO2 content have been also examined. It was found that ZrO2 content in the deposit is increased by rising the nanoparticles concentration in the plating solution up to 20 g dm-3. An increase in molybdate concentration in the electrolyte affects negatively the amount of codeposited ZrO2 nanoparticles. The correlation between the deposition current efficiency and ZrO2 content in the composite coating has been also observed. A decrease in deposition current efficiency leads to deposition of Ni-Mo-ZrO2 composite with low nanoparticles content. This may be explained by formation of higher amounts of gas bubbles on the cathode surface, which prevent the adsorption of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the growing deposit. The XRD analysis revealed that all the studied Ni-Mo-ZrO2 coatings were composed of a single, nanocrystalline phase with FCC structure. It was found that the incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles into Ni-Mo alloy matrix affects positively the microhardness and also slightly improves the corrosion properties of Ni-Mo alloy coating.

  15. CuCrZr alloy microstructure and mechanical properties after hot isostatic pressing bonding cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayssines, P.-E.; Gentzbittel, J.-M.; Guilloud, A.; Bucci, P.; Soreau, T.; Francois, N.; Primaux, F.; Heikkinen, S.; Zacchia, F.; Eaton, R.; Barabash, V.; Mitteau, R.

    2014-04-01

    ITER first wall (FW) panels are a layered structure made of the three following materials: 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel, CuCrZr alloy and beryllium. Two hot isostatic pressing (HIP) cycles are included in the reference fabrication route to bond these materials together for the normal heat flux design supplied by the European Union (EU). This reference fabrication route ensures sufficiently good mechanical properties for the materials and joints, which fulfil the ITER mechanical specifications, but often results in a coarse grain size for the CuCrZr alloy, which is not favourable, especially, for the thermal creep properties of the FW panels. To limit the abnormal grain growth of CuCrZr and make the ITER FW fabrication route more reliable, a study began in 2010 in the EU in the frame of an ITER task agreement. Two material fabrication approaches have been investigated. The first one was dedicated to the fabrication of solid CuCrZr alloy in close collaboration with an industrial copper alloys manufacturer. The second approach investigated was the manufacturing of CuCrZr alloy using the powder metallurgy (PM) route and HIP consolidation. This paper presents the main mechanical and microstructural results associated with the two CuCrZr approaches mentioned above. The mechanical properties of solid CuCrZr, PM CuCrZr and joints (solid CuCrZr/solid CuCrZr and solid CuCrZr/316L(N) and PM CuCrZr/316L(N)) are also presented.

  16. Amorphization of Zr/sub 3/Al by hydrogenation and subsequent electron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, W.J.; Koike, J.; Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.

    1988-12-01

    1-MeV electron irradiation of hydrogenated Zr/sub 3/Al (Zr/sub 3/AlH/sub 0.96/) at 10K is studied. A more than 20 fold reduction in the critical dose required for complete amorphization is observed for the hydrogenated specimen as compared to the un-hydrogenated Zr/sub 3/Al under identical irradiation conditions. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  17. 40 CFR 1065.284 - Zirconia (ZrO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconia (ZrO2) analyzer. 1065.284... Zirconia (ZrO2) analyzer. (a) Application. You may use a zirconia (ZrO2) analyzer to measure air-to-fuel...O2-based system must meet the linearity verification in § 1065.307. You may use a Zirconia...

  18. Ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with half-Heusler structure: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Gregor; Kratzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with C 1b crystal structure are introduced by calculating their basic structural, electronic, and phononic properties using density functional theory. Both the gradient-corrected PBE functional and the hybrid functional HSE06 are employed. While NiZrSn is found to be a small-band-gap semiconductor (Eg=0.46 eV in PBE and 0.60 eV in HSE06), CoZrBi has a band gap of 1.01 eV in PBE (1.34 eV in HSE06). Moreover, effective masses and deformation potentials are reported. In both materials A B C , the intrinsic point defects introduced by species A (Ni or Co) are calculated. The Co-induced defects in CoZrBi are found to have a higher formation energy compared to Ni-induced defects in NiZrSn. The interstitial Ni atom (Nii) as well as the VNiNii complex introduce defect states in the band gap, whereas the Ni vacancy (VNi) only reduces the size of the band gap. While Nii is electrically active and may act as a donor, the other two types of defects may compensate extrinsic doping. In CoZrBi, only the VCoCoi complex introduces a defect state in the band gap. Motivated by the reported use of NiZrSn for thermoelectric applications, the Seebeck coefficient of both materials, both in the p -type and the n -type regimes, is calculated. We find that CoZrBi displays a rather large thermopower of up to 500 μ V /K when p doped, whereas NiZrSn possesses its maximum thermopower in the n -type regime. The reported difficulties in achieving p -type doping in NiZrSn could be rationalized by the unintended formation of Nii2 + in conjunction with extrinsic acceptors, resulting in their compensation. Moreover, it is found that all types of defects considered, when present in concentrations as large as 3%, tend to reduce the thermopower compared to ideal bulk crystals at T =600 K. For NiZrSn, the calculated thermodynamic data suggest that additional Ni impurities could be removed by annealing, leading to precipitation of a metallic Ni2ZrSn phase.

  19. Behavior of nuclear waste elements during hydrothermal alteration of glassy rhyolite in an active geothermal system: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Sturchio, N.C.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-12-31

    The behavior of a group of nuclear waste elements (U, Th, Sr, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, and Sm) during hydrothermal alteration of glassy rhyolite is investigated through geochemical analyses of whole rocks, glass and mineral separates, and thermal waters. Significant enrichments of U, Sr, Sb, Cs, and Ba are found in altered rock relative to unaltered rock. Excess Sr, Cs, and Ba are concentrated in zeolites in altered rock. Excess U is associated with titanomagnetite surfaces. Th, Zr, and Sm are relatively immobile during alteration, and are strongly concentrated in celadonite. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Role of vacancy and metal doping on combustive oxidation of Zr/ZrO 2 core-shell particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Hyunwook; Chaudhuri, Santanu

    2010-11-01

    We studied self-propagated combustion synthesis of transition-metal-doped tetragonal ZrO 2 (t-ZrO 2) with first principles-based one-dimensional diffusion reaction model. The optimal reaction condition for the combustion process was investigated by calculating energetic stability and surface reactivity of oxygen vacancy defects on (101) surface termination of t-ZrO 2 using first-principles density functional methods. In the first-principles model, the surface was doped with 14 different metal impurities in the 4th and 5th row of the periodic table to examine the role of transition-metal doping on the combustion process. Results indicate that there are clear trends in the defect stability and reactivity depending upon the type of metal impurity and their relative location with respect to the oxygen vacancy. Surface density of states and charge density information also show that there is a trade-off between the vacancy stability and chemical activity of the surface defect states. Based on the thermodynamic information obtained from first principles, we analyze the combustion process of a Zr metal particle by using a one-dimensional diffusion-reaction model. The competition between the vacancy-assisted chemisorption and the vacancy diffusion results in an optimal point for rate of combustion reaction with respect to the vacancy stability. From this, we suggest a plausible screening strategy for metal-doping which can be applied at different temperatures and pressures, as well as with different particle sizes. Our analysis indicates that first-principles calculation provides key information that can be subsequently used for an optimization of the reaction rate for a self-sustained combustion process. An explicit inclusion of rates of defect and ionic transport will be introduced into our model in future work.

  1. Sensitivity of Z-R relations to aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Maximiliano; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Rain radars routinely rely on power functions to retrieve rain rates based on radar reflectivities measured at widely ranging spatial and temporal resolutions. The nonlinear nature of power functions may complicate the comparison of rainfall estimates employing reflectivities measured at different scales, as transforming reflectivity Z into rain rate R using relations that have been derived for other spatial and/or temporal scales results in a bias. We investigate the sensitivity of such power functions, known as Z-R relations, to spatial and temporal aggregation using high-resolution reflectivity fields measured with an X-band radar, for five rainfall events. Existing Z-R relations were employed to investigate the behavior of aggregated Z-R relations with scale, the aggregation bias and the variability of the estimated rain rate. The prefactor and the exponent of aggregated Z-R relations systematically diverge with scale, showing breaks that are event-dependent in the temporal domain and nearly constant in the spatial domain. The systematic behavior of prefactors and exponents with scale can be described with prescribed functions, notably power, linear and exponential functions. The systematic error associated with aggregation bias at a given scale can be of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding random error associated with intermittent sampling. The predictable bias can be constrained by including information about the variability of Z within a certain scale of aggregation, and is captured by simple functions of the coefficient of variation. Several descriptors of spatial and temporal variability of the reflectivity field show strong links with aggregation bias. Prefactors in Z-R relations can be related to multi-fractal properties of the rainfall field whereas scale dependencies in the exponent may be interpreted as a spurious artifact of the regression procedure. Shape factors of both bounded bilinear and unbounded exponential variogram models are

  2. Radiation damage in cubic ZrO2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2014-11-20

    Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulation on cubic ZrO2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to elucidate defect cluster formation resulting from radiation damage, and evaluate the impact of Y-dopants. Interstitial clusters composed of split-interstitial building blocks, i.e., Zr-Zr or Y-Zr are formed. Moreover, oxygen vacancies control cation defect migration; in their presence, Zr interstitials aggregate to form split-interstitials whereas in their absence Zr interstitials remain immobile, as isolated single-interstitials. Y-doping prevents interstitial cluster formation due to sequestration of oxygen vacancies.

  3. Radiation damage in cubic ZrO2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia from molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2014-11-20

    Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulation on cubic ZrO2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to elucidate defect cluster formation resulting from radiation damage, and evaluate the impact of Y-dopants. Interstitial clusters composed of split-interstitial building blocks, i.e., Zr-Zr or Y-Zr are formed. Moreover, oxygen vacancies control cation defect migration; in their presence, Zr interstitials aggregate to form split-interstitials whereas in their absence Zr interstitials remain immobile, as isolated single-interstitials. Y-doping prevents interstitial cluster formation due to sequestration of oxygen vacancies.

  4. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  5. Effects of Oxygen Impurities on Glass-Formation Ability in Zr2Cu Alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyu; Huang, Li; Yue, G Q; Shen, B; Dong, F; Zhang, R J; Zheng, Y X; Wang, S Y; Wang, C Z; Kramer, M J; Ho, K M; Chen, L Y

    2016-09-01

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we show that oxygen (O) impurities have a noticeable influence on the glass-formation ability (GFA) in Zr2Cu alloy. Cu-centered icosahedral clusters and Zr-centered Kasper polyhedra are the dominate short-range orders in undercooled Zr2Cu liquid which are most likely to be responsible for the glass formation in Zr2Cu systems. When O is introduced, a Zr octahedron is formed around the O impurity. Most of the Zr atoms in the octahedron also serve as the bridging atoms for cross-linked Kasper polyhedral network, resulting in an O-centered medium range order (MRO) structure. Meanwhile, Cu atoms are moved away from the first shell of O-centered octahedral clusters. With 1 at. % O impurities, the fractions of Zr-centered clusters are less affected, while the increase of ideal icosahedral order and decrease of distorted icosahedral order lead to a more stable atomic structure. This result suggests that a low concentration of O impurities would improve the GFA in Zr2Cu alloy. However, when ∼5 at. % O impurities are included, the ideal icosahedral clusters and Zr-centered Kasper polyhedra are seriously suppressed by the formation of O-centered MRO, which can lead to deterioration of GFA. Our analyses provide useful insight into glass formation behavior in O-doped metallic alloy systems. PMID:27509394

  6. Hydriding performances and modeling of a small-scale ZrCo bed

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, D.; Lee, J.; Park, J.; Paek, S.; Chung, H.; Chang, M.H.; Yun, S.H.; Cho, S.; Jung, K.J.

    2015-03-15

    In order to evaluate the performance of the hydriding of a ZrCo bed, a small-scale getter bed of ZrCo was designed and fabricated. The results show that the hydriding time at room temperature was somewhat shorter than that at higher temperatures of ZrCo and that the performance of hydriding at low temperatures of ZrCo was better than that at high temperatures of ZrCo. The experimental results of the hydrogen pressure of hydriding (ZrCoH{sub 2.8}) at different temperatures were in agreement with the computed values using a numerical modeling equation but with a small difference during the first 10 minutes of the hydriding of ZrCo. The model is based on the Kozeny-Carman equation. The effect of a helium blanket on hydriding was measured and analyzed. The hydriding with no helium blanket in the primary vessel of ZrCo is much faster than that with a helium blanket. The hydriding at a helium concentration of 8% is slower than that at 0%. As the helium concentration increases, the hydriding of ZrCo decreases. The experimental results of the hydriding with 0 %, 4%, and 8% of helium concentration are in agreement with the calculated values but with minimal differences during the first 10 minutes.

  7. Surface morphology study of Zr-based amorphous alloys after immersion in boiling nitric acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Poonam; Dhawan, Anil; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Weight loss studies have been performed to determine the corrosion resistance of amorphous Zr60Nb2Al10Ni8Cu20 and Zr59Nb3Al10Ni8Cu20 alloys in aqueous HNO3 media at boiling temperature. The FESEM micrographs has been obtained to know the surface morphology of specimens after immersion in 11.5M boiling aqueous HNO3 media. Zr59Nb3Al10Ni8Cu20 alloy shows better corrosion resistance in nitric acid media than Zr60Nb2Al10Ni8Cu20 alloy.

  8. Structural, optical and electrical properties of Zr-doped In₂O₃ thin films.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, C; Jothibas, M; Jeyakumar, S Johnson; Dhanapandian, S

    2015-06-15

    Undoped and zirconium doped indium oxide (ZrIO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate at a substrate temperature of 450°C by spray pyrolysis method. The effect of zirconium (Zr) dopant concentration (0-11 at.%) on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of n-type ZrIO films were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the ZrIO thin film with cubic structure. The grain size was decreased from 25 to 15.75 nm with Zr doping. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the surface morphology of the films were changed with Zr doping. The surface roughness of the films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and was found to be increased with the increasing of Zr doping percentage. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed. The optical band was gap decreased from 3.50 to 3.0eV with increase in Zr concentrations. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement of the deposited films indicated the incorporation of Zr in In2O3 lattice. The film had low resistivity of 6.4 × 10(-4)Ωcm and higher carrier concentration of 2.5 × 10(20) was obtained at a doping ratio of 7 at.%. PMID:25766478

  9. Effect of Ni, Fe intercalation on the superconducting properties of ZrTe3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, C. S.; Paulose, P. L.

    2012-06-01

    We report the superconductivity at enhanced temperature of 5.2 K in the polycrystalline sample of ZrTe3 and Ni intercalated ZrTe3. ZrTe3 is a Charge Density Wave (T = 63K) compound, which is known to superconduct only below 2K in single crystalline form. We discuss that the intergrain strains in the polycrystalline samples induces an intrinsic pressure and thus enhances the transition temperature. Fe intercalation of ZrTe3 kills both the charge density wave and superconducting states, gives rise to the magnetic ordering in the compound.

  10. Electrolytic deposition of hydroxyapatite coating on thermal treated Ti-40Zr.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Lin, Chih-Hung; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2009-09-01

    In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated on both thermal treated and untreated Ti-40Zr substrates by means of electrolytic deposition. It was predicted that the HA layer would increase the bioactivity and osteoconductivity of the Ti-40Zr substrate, and a thermal treatment would improve the bonding strength between the HA layer and Ti-40Zr substrate, and prevent the corrosion of the Ti-40Zr substrate. First, the Ti-40Zr samples were annealed at various temperatures (200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 degrees C respectively). After annealing, samples were immersed in a Ca(NO(3))(2).4H(2)O and (NH(4))(3)PO(4).3H(2)O solution for the electrolytic deposition of the HA coating. Various analyses of the coating were conducted, including surface morphology, phase structure, corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and bond strength between HA and Ti-40Zr. Experimental results indicated that the bonding strength of the HA coating on the thermal treated Ti-40Zr was markedly improved when compared to that of the HA coating on an untreated Ti-40Zr alloy. The corrosion resistance of Ti-40Zr was also improved by the use of the thermal treatment, as shown by a potentiodynamic polarization test. Finally, osteoblast-like cells cultured on the HA coating surface were found to have proliferated on all samples. PMID:19404722

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-Zr-Cr biomedical alloys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Feng, Yan; Liu, Fengchao; Wu, Lihong; Guan, Shaokang

    2015-06-01

    The Ti-15Zr-xCr (0≤x≤10, wt.%) alloys were investigated to develop new biomedical materials. It was found that the phase constitutions and mechanical properties strongly depended on the Cr content. The Ti-15Zr alloy was comprised of α' phase and a small fraction of β phase was detected with adding 1wt.% Cr. With addition of 5wt.% or more, the β phase was completely retained. In addition, the ω phase was detected in the Ti-15Zr-5Cr alloy and Ti-15Zr-7Cr alloy which exhibited the highest compressive Young's modulus and the lowest ductility. On the other hand, all the Ti-15Zr-xCr alloys without ω phase exhibited high microhardness, high yield strength and superior ductility. Furthermore, the elastic energy of Ti-15Zr-10Cr alloy (5.89MJ/m(3)) with only β phase and that of Ti-15Zr-3Cr alloy (4.04MJ/m(3)) with α' phase and small fraction of β phase was higher than the elastic energy of c.p. Ti (1.25MJ/m(3)). This study demonstrated that Ti-15Zr-3Cr alloy and Ti-15Zr-10Cr alloy with superior mechanical properties are potential materials for biomedical applications. PMID:25842119

  12. Microstructure and tribological properties of MoS2+Zr composite coatings in high humidity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Man; Zhang, Guojun; Ba, Yunwei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xin; Liu, Zhuanning

    2016-03-01

    MoS2+Zr composite coatings with different Zr contents and their pure MoS2 counterparts were deposited on silicon wafers and steel substrates by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. The microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of as-prepared coatings were systematically investigated using a number of analytical techniques and the effect of different Zr contents on tribological behaviors in humidity conditions of these as-deposited composite coatings was discussed. It is clearly uncovered from the present results that the MoS2+Zr composite coatings were amorphous nature embedding some nanocrystallites. Doping of MoS2 coatings with Zr can remarkably improve the mechanical and tribological properties of pure MoS2 coating in high humidity (68% RH) environment, rendering the coefficient of friction (COF) decreases with increasing Zr content. Additionally, MoS2+Zr composite coatings exhibit much more stable and lower friction coefficients with increasing applied load. The lowest friction coefficient of as-deposited MoS2+Zr composite coating was about 0.04 with an applied load of 20 N (at 68% RH), where the friction coefficient of pure MoS2 coating was around 0.7. The improved tribological property of the MoS2+Zr composite coatings in high humidity environment was discussed in terms of the obtained lower friction coefficient, higher hardness and better adhesion of the composite coatings combined with inhibition of MoS2 oxidation.

  13. Mössbauer study on surface crystallization behavior of amorphous Fe90Zr10 alloy ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinami, Masanori; Ujihira, Yusuke

    1986-03-01

    The precipitous drop of crystallization temperature at the surface of amorphous Fe90Zr10 ribbon is confirmed by TMS and CEMS. The deficiency in Zr at the surface amorphous phase, caused by the absorption and the diffusion of oxygen, is found to be responsible for it. The final crystalline products are assigned to α-Fe, Fe3Zr and Fe2Zr, whereas only α-Fe precipitates at the surfaces. Moreover, it is indicated that the crystallization behavior of the bulk is influenced by the ambient gases during annealing and quite different between in vacuum and in air.

  14. Novel Bifunctional Cyclic Chelator for 89Zr Labeling–Radiolabeling and Targeting Properties of RGD Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Within the last years 89Zr has attracted considerable attention as long-lived radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. So far desferrioxamine B (DFO) has been mainly used as bifunctional chelating system. Fusarinine C (FSC), having complexing properties comparable to DFO, was expected to be an alternative with potentially higher stability due to its cyclic structure. In this study, as proof of principle, various FSC-RGD conjugates targeting αvß3 integrins were synthesized using different conjugation strategies and labeled with 89Zr. In vitro stability, biodistribution, and microPET/CT imaging were evaluated using [89Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates or [89Zr]triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC). Quantitative 89Zr labeling was achieved within 90 min at room temperature. The distribution coefficients of the different radioligands indicate hydrophilic character. Compared to [89Zr]DFO, [89Zr]FSC derivatives showed excellent in vitro stability and resistance against transchelation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution (EDTA), and human serum for up to 7 days. Cell binding studies and biodistribution as well as microPET/CT imaging experiments showed efficient receptor-specific targeting of [89Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates. No bone uptake was observed analyzing PET images indicating high in vivo stability. These findings indicate that FSC is a highly promising chelator for the development of 89Zr-based PET imaging agents. PMID:25941834

  15. Identification of phases in the interaction layer between U-Mo-Zr/Al and U-Mo-Zr/Al-Si

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, C.L. Komar; Arico, S.F.; Mirandou, M.; Balart, S.N.; Gribaudo, L.M.

    2008-07-15

    Out-of-pile diffusion experiments were performed between U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr and Al or Al A356 (7,1wt.% Si) at 550 deg. C. In this work morphological characterization and phase identification on both interaction layer are presented. They were carried out by the use of different techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and WDS microanalysis. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al, the phases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} were identified. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al A356, the phases U(Al, Si) with 25at.% Si and Si{sub 5}U{sub 3} were identified. This last phase, with a higher Si concentration, was identified with XRD Synchrotron radiation performed at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brasil. (author)

  16. Major and trace elements of selected pedons in the USA.

    PubMed

    Burt, R; Wilson, M A; Mays, M D; Lee, C W

    2003-01-01

    Few studies of soil geochemistry over large geographic areas exist, especially studies encompassing data from major pedogenic horizons that evaluate both native concentrations of elements and anthropogenically contaminated soils. In this study, pedons (n = 486) were analyzed for trace (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and major (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Si, Ti, Zr) elements, as well as other soil properties. The objectives were to (i) determine the concentration range of selected elements in a variety of U.S. soils with and without known anthropogenic additions, (ii) illustrate the association of elemental source and content by assessing trace elemental content for several selected pedons, and (iii) evaluate relationships among and between elements and other soil properties. Trace element concentrations in the non-anthropogenic dataset (NAD) were in the order Mn > (Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu) > (Pb, Co) > (Cd, Hg), with greatest mean total concentrations for the Andisol order. Geometric means by horizon indicate that trace elements are concentrated in surface and/or B horizons over C horizons. Median values for trace elements are significantly higher in surface horizons of the anthropogenic dataset (AD) over the NAD. Total Al, Fe, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, pH, and clay exhibit significant correlations (0.56, 0.74, 0.50, 0.31, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively) with total trace element concentrations of all horizons of the NAD. Manganese shows the best inter-element correlation (0.33) with these associated total concentrations. Total Fe has one of the strongest relationships, explaining 55 and 30% of the variation in total trace element concentrations for all horizons in the NAD and AD, respectively. PMID:14674533

  17. [Vibrational spectrum and XPS contrastive studies on pyrochlore-type oxygen-rich Ce2Zr2O8 and oxygen-defective Nd2Zr2O7 phases].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hua; Wang, Lie-lin; Luo, De-li; Chen, Min

    2014-06-01

    Pyrochlore-type oxygen-rich Ce2Zr2O8 phase was prepared successfully by graphite reduction method. With the oxygen[U8]-defective Nd2Zr2O7 substituting for the oxidized precursor phase CeZrO3.5+Δ was carried out the structure comparative analysis with Ce2Zr2O8. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the crystal structure of samples. The XRD experimental results show that Ce2Zr2O8 bulk phase contains the typical structure of pyrochlore, the superstructure peaks that characterize Ce/Zr cations ordering arrangement are very obvious, but the Zr-O ligands had also transformed from octahedrons of the co-top connection in the precursor to cubes of co-edge connection in the Ce2Zr2O8, and the formation of [ZrO8] ligand reduced greatlly the structural stability of Ce2Zr2O8 phase. Raman and IR results show that vibrational spectra bands of Ce2Zr2O8 phase increased significantly, meaning that the enriched oxygen ions result in a removal of the degeneracy peak for Ce2Zr2O8 phase, which confirms further the structural symmetry of Ce2Zr2O8 phase lower than its precursor. XPS results show that Ce (IV) characteristic peak (916.3 eV) in the Ce2Zr2O8 phase surface is very obvious. No the appearance of Ce (III) peak (885 eV) suggests that Ce3+ from the precursor has been completely oxidized into Ce4+ in the Ce2Zr2O8 phase; the Zr(3d) binding energy is close to fluorite phase with Zr4+, which confirms that [ZrO8] ligand in the Ce2Zr2O8 surface is consistent with the bulk phase. The increasing low binding energy of O(1s) shows that oxygen species in the Ce2Zr2O8 bulk phase are between lattice oxygen and adsorbed oxygen, the presence of high oxygen peak suggests that the surface of Ce2Zr2O8 contains adsorbed oxygen, and the bonding strength between adsorption oxygen and Ce2Zr2O8 bulk phase is between CeO2 and Nd2Zr2O7. PMID:25358157

  18. Epitaxial thin-film growth of Ruddlesden-Popper-type Ba3Zr2O7 from a BaZrO3 target by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, Shariqa Hassan; Rafique, M. S.; Siraj, K.; Latif, A.; Afzal, Amina; Awan, M. S.; Bashir, Shazia; Iqbal, Nida

    2016-07-01

    Ruddlesden-Popper Ba3Zr2O7 thin films have been synthesized via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The optimization of deposition parameters in PLD enables the formation of thin film of metastable Ba3Zr2O7 phase from BaZrO3 target. In order to see the post-annealing effects on the structural and optical properties, the deposited Ba3Zr2O7 thin films were annealed at 500, 600 and 800 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the formation of Ba3Zr2O7 phase with tetragonal structure. The changes in the surface of the deposited films were analysed by FE-SEM and AFM. The thin film post-annealed at 500 °C exhibited the best structural, optical and surface properties. Furthermore, the chemical states and chemical composition of the films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) near the surface. The XPS results show that Ba, Zr and O exist mainly in the form of Ba3Zr2O7 Ruddlesden-Popper-type perovskite structure.

  19. Thermal stability of ultrathin ZrO{sub 2} films and structure determination of ZrSi{sub 2} islands on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbohm, Frank; Fluechter, Christian Rolf; Weier, Daniel; Luehr, Tobias; Berges, Ulf; Doering, Sven; Westphal, Carsten

    2009-10-15

    The temperature dependence of ultrathin ZrO{sub 2} films on clean (2x1)-reconstructed Si(100) was studied by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron diffraction (XPD). ZrO{sub 2} films with a thickness of approximately 11 A were grown by electron-beam evaporation. At temperatures of 650 deg. C and above it was found that the zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) films were transformed into ZrSi{sub 2}. The temperature region of structural transformation could be narrowed to the range from 650 to 725 deg. C. During the formation of ZrSi{sub 2} all oxygen was removed from the sample surface. After annealing at 725 deg. C neither zirconia nor silicon oxide could be verified on the sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements showed the ZrSi{sub 2} being arranged in islands on the surface after annealing. From the combined spectroscopy, SEM, and XPD analysis a model for the internal structure of ZrSi{sub 2} is proposed.

  20. Effect of UV lamp irradiation during oxidation of Zr/Pt/Si structure on electrical properties of Pt/ZrO 2/Pt/Si structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Joon Woo; Lim, Jae-Won; Mimura, Kouji; Uchikoshi, Masahito; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Isshiki, Minoru

    2010-03-01

    Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors were fabricated using ZrO 2 films and the effects of structural and native defects of the ZrO 2 films on the electrical and dielectric properties were investigated. For preparing ZrO 2 films, Zr films were deposited on Pt/Si substrates by ion beam deposition (IBD) system with/without substrate bias voltages and oxidized at 200 °C for 60 min under 0.1 MPa O 2 atmosphere with/without UV light irradiation ( λ = 193 nm, Deep UV lamp). The ZrO 2(˜12 nm) films on Pt(˜100 nm)/Si were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current-voltage ( I- V) measurements were carried out on MIM structures. ZrO 2 films, fabricated by oxidizing the Zr film deposited with substrate bias voltage under UV light irradiation, show the highest capacitance (784 pF) and the lowest leakage current density. The active oxygen species formed by UV irradiation are considered to play an important role in the reduction of the leakage current density, because they can reduce the density of oxygen vacancies.