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Sample records for des emetteurs alpha

  1. Radiosensibilité comparative des cellules épithéliales de trachée de rats après irradiation alpha in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugel, C.; Bailly-Despiney, I.; Lagroye, I.; Poncy, J. L.

    1998-04-01

    The main risk in nuclear industry is the internal contamination after inhalation of high LET alpha emitters radionuclides. Main targets of pulmonary carcinogenesis are epithelial respiratory tract cells. An in vitro study was performed in order to determine if a difference in the radiosensitivity occured in epithelial cells from the trachea of two rat strains: Sprague Dawley and Wistar Furth-Fischer F344 after alpha exposure. The cells were irradiated after sedimentation in a specific well. The irradiation was performed using 241Am electrodeposited sources. The irradiation dosecloning efficiency relation was evaluated. A kinetic study of the proliferation and the clonal growth has also been investigated. La contamination interne par inhalation de radionucléides émetteurs alpha de haut TEL est le risque majeur de l'industrie nucléaire. Les cibles principales de la cancérogenèse pulmonaire sont les cellules épithéliales de l'appareil respiratoire. Une étude in vitro a été menée pour déterminer s'il existe une différence de radiosensibilité aux rayonnement alpha, des cellules épithéliales trachéales de deux souches de rats : Sprague Dawley et Wistar Furth-Fischer F344. Les cellules sont irradiées sédimentées au fond d'un puit spécifique à l'aide de sources électrodéposées de 241Am. L'évaluation de la survie cellulaire en fonction de la dose d'irradiation est complétée par un suivi cinétique de la formation et de la prolifération des colonies.

  2. Sur la nature des absorbeurs dans l'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jean-Sebastien

    L'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique est l'une des plus recentes propositions de description des phenomenes du microcosme. En accord avec les predictions de la mecanique quantique standard, l'interpretation transactionnelle propose une alternative a celle de Copenhague. Son principal avantage est qu'elle permet de visualiser les mecanismes sous-jacents a l'echange d'energie, de quantite de mouvement ou d'autres quantites quantiques entre un emetteur et un absorbeur. Ces echanges sont le resultat, a l'instar de la theorie de l'absorbeur de Wheeler et Feynman, de l'utilisation autant d'ondes avancees que retardees. Bien que l'interpretation transactionnelle n'ait pas attire la plus grande attention scientifique, plusieurs critiques lui ont ete adressees. Dans les annees 1990, differentes experiences a mesure sans interaction ont ete concues. Depuis, il a ete avance que la version originale de l'interpretation transactionnelle pouvait difficilement rendre compte de ce type d'experience et meme qu'elle n'est pas compatible avec le concept d'univers quadridimensionnel. La recherche de ce memoire par article consiste a montrer que lorsque l'on utilise systematiquement l'interpretation transactionnelle en considerant la configuration totale des absorbeurs (incluant l'absorbeur universel), il n'est pas necessaire de faire appel a une hierarchie de transactions comme certains l'ont propose.

  3. Alpha-fetoprotein and des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin at twenty-four weeks after interferon-based therapy predict hepatocellular carcinoma development

    PubMed Central

    Shakado, Satoshi; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Chayama, Kazuaki; Okanoue, Takeshi; Toyoda, Joji; Izumi, Namiki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ido, Akio; Hiasa, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Kentaro; Nomura, Hideyuki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Seike, Masataka; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis (LC-C). METHODS: To evaluate the relationship between clinical factors including virological response and the development of HCC in patients with LC-C treated with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin, we conducted a multicenter, retrospective study in 14 hospitals in Japan. All patients had compensated LC-C with clinical or histological data available. HCC was diagnosed by the presence of typical hypervascular characteristics on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: HCC was diagnosis in 50 (21.6%) of 231 LC-C patients during a median observation period of 3.8 years after IFN and ribavirin therapy. Patients who developed HCC were older (P = 0.018) and had higher serum levels of pretreatment alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (P = 0.038). Multivariate analysis revealed the following independent risk factors for HCC development: history of treatment for HCC [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 15.27, 95%CI: 4.98-59.51], AFP levels of ≥ 10 ng/mL (P = 0.009, OR = 3.89, 95%CI: 1.38-11.94), and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) levels of ≥ 40 mAU/mL at 24 wk after the completion of IFN and ribavirin therapy (P < 0.001, OR = 24.43, 95%CI: 4.11-238.67). CONCLUSION: We suggested that the elevation of AFP and DCP levels at 24 wk after the completion of IFN and ribavirin therapy were strongly associated with the incidence of HCC irrespective of virological response among Japanese LC-C patients. PMID:26644819

  4. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  5. Alpha Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Term that is sometimes used to describe a helium nucleus, a positively charged particle that consists of two protons and two neutrons, bound together. Alpha particles, which were discovered by Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) in 1898, are emitted by atomic nuclei that are undergoing alpha radioactivity. During this process, an unstable heavy nucleus spontaneously emits an alpha particle and transmut...

  6. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  7. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  8. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  9. Clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of alpha-fetoprotein and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin for diagnosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in China: A multi-center case-controlled study of 1,153 subjects.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Feng, Xiaobin; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Song, Tianqiang; Zhang, Keming; Wang, Zhigang; Zheng, Shuguo; Ma, Kuansheng; Li, Qiang; Kong, Dalu; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Ti; Zhao, Xin; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Tang, Wei

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of alphafetoprotein (AFP) and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis in Chinese patients predominantly caused by hepatitis B virus infection by a multi-center case-controlled study. Subjects were 1,153 individuals from three major hospitals in China, including 550 cases in HCC group, 164 in Malignant disease group, 182 in Benign disease group, 85 in Chronic liver disease group, and 173 in Normal group. Serum levels of AFP and DCP were measured and clinicopathological features were determined for all subjects. Results showed that the levels of DCP and AFP were significantly higher in HCC group (550 patients, 74.18% with HBV infection) than that in other four groups (P < 0.001). Receiver operating curves (ROC) indicated the optimal cut-off value was 86 mAU/mL for DCP with a sensitivity of 71.50% and specificity of 86.30%, and 21 ng/mL for AFP with a sensitivity of 68.00% and specificity of 93.20%. The area under ROC curve was 0.846 for DCP, 0.832 for AFP, and 0.890 for the combination of DCP and AFP. The combination of DCP and AFP resulted in a higher Youden index and a sensitivity of approximately 90%, even for small tumors. The simultaneous measurement of AFP and DCP could achieve a better sensitivity in diagnosing Chinese HCC patients, even for small tumors. PMID:25382443

  10. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

  11. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  12. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  13. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  14. Spectroscopic confirmation of DES12S2a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Marshall, J.; Suntzeff, N.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Kessler, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gilhool, S.; Gladney, L.; Gupta, R.; Mosher, J.; Sako, M.; Campbell, H.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; March, M.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2013-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of a supernova (SN) candidate discovered by the Dark Energy Supernova Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (450-1000 nm) of DES12S2a was obtained with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (+Marcario Low-Resolution Spectrograph) by J. Caldwell. The spectrum shows a blue continuum with a narrow H-alpha emission feature atop a broader component indicative of a type IIn SN. The phase at the date of the spectrum given below is based on the DES light curves.

  15. Alpha-1 antitrypsin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003715.htm Alpha-1 antitrypsin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a laboratory test to measure the ...

  16. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures the level of the protein AAT in blood. Alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype testing evaluates the amount and type of AAT being produced and compares it to normal patterns. Alpha-1 antitrypsin genotype testing ( DNA testing) can ...

  17. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  18. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  19. Calibration issues in delta alpha /alpha .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, Paolo; Centurión, Miriam; Levshakov, Sergei

    Laser Comb Wavelength calibration shows that the ThAr one is locally unreliable with possible deviations of up to 100 {m s}-1 within one order range, while delivering an overall 1 {m s}-1 accuracy (Wilken et al 2009). Such deviation corresponds to delta alpha /alpha ≈ 7* 10-6 for a Fe II-Mg II pair. Comparison of line shifts among the 5 Fe II lines, with almost identical sensitivity to fine structure constant changes, offers a clean way to directly test the presence of possible local wavelength calibration errors of whatever origin. We analyzed 5 absorption systems, with zabs ranging from 1.15 to 2.19 towards 3 bright QSOs. The results show that while some lines are aligned within 20 {m s}-1, others reveal large deviations reaching 200 {m s}-1 or higher and corresponding to a delta alpha /alpha > 10-5 level. The origin of these deviations is not clearly identified but could be related to the adaptation of wavelength calibration to CCD manufacturing irregularities. These results suggest that to draw conclusions from delta alpha /alpha analysis based on one or only few lines must be done with extreme care.

  20. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  1. [Alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes and alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Ikunobu; Suzuki, Fumiko; Tanaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Hatsumi; Morishima, Shigeru

    2006-03-01

    Alpha(1)-adrenoceptors are widely distributed in the human body and play important physiologic roles. Three alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha(1A), alpha(1B) and alpha(1D)) have been cloned and show different pharmacologic profiles. In addition, a putative alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1L) subtype) has also been proposed. Recently, three drugs (tamsulosin, naftopidil, and silodosin) have been developed in Japan for the treatment of urinary obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this review, we describe recent alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subclassifications and the pharmacologic characteristics (subtype selectivity and clinical relevance) of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists. PMID:16518082

  2. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  4. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  5. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  6. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  7. The alpha channeling effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  8. Alpha-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Harteveld, Cornelis L; Higgs, Douglas R

    2010-01-01

    Alpha-thalassaemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by a microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a clinical phenotype varying from almost asymptomatic to a lethal haemolytic anaemia.It is probably the most common monogenic gene disorder in the world and is especially frequent in Mediterranean countries, South-East Asia, Africa, the Middle East and in the Indian subcontinent. During the last few decades the incidence of alpha thalassaemia in North-European countries and Northern America has increased because of demographic changes. Compound heterozygotes and some homozygotes have a moderate to severe form of alpha thalassaemia called HbH disease. Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis is a lethal form in which no alpha-globin is synthesized. Alpha thalassaemia most frequently results from deletion of one or both alpha genes from the chromosome and can be classified according to its genotype/phenotype correlation. The normal complement of four functional alpha-globin genes may be decreased by 1, 2, 3 or all 4 copies of the genes, explaining the clinical variation and increasing severity of the disease. All affected individuals have a variable degree of anaemia (low Hb), reduced mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH/pg), reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV/fl) and a normal/slightly reduced level of HbA2. Molecular analysis is usually required to confirm the haematological observations (especially in silent alpha-thalassaemia and alpha-thalassaemia trait). The predominant features in HbH disease are anaemia with variable amounts of HbH (0.8-40%). The type of mutation influences the clinical severity of HbH disease. The distinguishing features of the haemoglobin Bart's hydrops foetalis syndrome are the presence of Hb Bart's and the total absence of HbF. The mode of transmission of alpha thalassaemia is autosomal recessive. Genetic counselling is offered to couples at risk for HbH disease or haemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Foetalis Syndrome. Carriers of alpha+- or

  9. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  10. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  11. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  12. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  13. The Lyman alpha coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Reeves, E. M.; Kirkham, B.

    1977-01-01

    The rocket-borne Lyman alpha coronagraph (RLAC) is to be used in the absence of a natural solar eclipse to determine coronal temperatures from measurements of the line width of Lyman-alpha and to determine neutral hydrogen densities of coronal material from the absolute intensity. The coronagraph consists of a 75-cm Fastie-Ebert scanning spectrometer with an AMR 641 photoelectric detection system, an off-axis parabolic primary mirror, and an occulting system. A special optical arrangement achieves rejection of radiation from the solar disk.

  14. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  15. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  16. From Alpha to Omega

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Paul Clement

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha point of the authors' life as a Montessori educator began in 1959, when he was a graduate student studying philosophy at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. While studying the works of the great American philosopher William James, the author came across the writings of Maria Montessori and immediately became captivated by her…

  17. The polymerization and thrombin-binding properties of des-(B beta 1-42)-fibrin.

    PubMed

    Siebenlist, K R; DiOrio, J P; Budzynski, A Z; Mosesson, M W

    1990-10-25

    Multiple factors affect the thrombin-catalyzed conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, including: fibrinopeptide (FPA and FPB) release leading to exposure of two types of polymerization domains ("A" and "B," respectively) in the central portion of the molecule, and exposure of a noncatalytic "secondary" thrombin-binding site in fibrin. Fibrinogen containing the FPA sequence but lacking the B beta 1-42 sequence ("des-(B beta 1-42)-fibrinogen"), was compared to native fibrinogen (containing both FPA and FPB) to investigate the role played by B beta 1-42 in the polymerization of alpha-fibrin (i.e. fibrin lacking FPA), to compare reptilase and thrombin cleavage of FPA from fibrinogen, and to explore the location and function of the secondary thrombin-binding site. Electron microscopy of evolving polymer structures (mu, 0.14; pH 7.4) plus turbidity measurements, showed that early thin fibril formation as well as subsequent lateral fibril associations were impaired in des-(B beta 1-42)-alpha-fibrin, thus indicating that the B beta 1-42 sequence contributes to the A polymerization site. Reptilase-activated des-(B beta 1-42)-alpha-fibrin polymerized even more slowly than thrombin-activated des-(B beta 1-42)-alpha-fibrin, differences that disappeared when repolymerization of preformed fibrin monomers was carried out. Since existing data indicate that thrombin releases FPA in a concerted manner, resulting in relatively rapid evolution of fully functional divalent alpha-fibrin monomers, it can be inferred that delayed fibrin assembly of reptilase fibrin is due to slower formation of divalent alpha-fibrin monomers. Thrombin-activated des-(B beta 1-42)-alpha-fibrin polymerized more rapidly at low ionic strength (mu, 0.04) than did native alpha,beta-fibrin, a reversal of their behavior at physiological ionic strength (mu, 0.14). Concomitant measurement of FPA release revealed modest slowing of release at low ionic strength from des-(B beta 1-42)-fibrinogen (t1/2, 36.5 versus 21

  18. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  19. Alpha Condensates in Atomic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, H.

    2005-11-21

    Recent issues on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of {alpha}-particles in nuclei are reviewed. A candidate of condensates is discussed for some states in 12C and 16O by defining the amount of {alpha} condensation.

  20. Development and identification of monoclonal antibodies against meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha,-O-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyang; Huang, Xueying; Du, Li; Li, Weiguo; Qi, Chao

    2007-04-01

    The small molecule meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin was synthesized through the condensation of o-nitrobenzaldehyde and pyrrole followed by reduction of the meso-tetra (o-nitrophenyl) porphyrin. The small molecule, without carrier, was used as complete antigen to immunize BALB/ C mice. Spleen cells producing high titer antibody were removed and fused with myeloma cells of SP2/0 origin. Using a conventional immunization protocol, stable murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) producing cell lines to meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin 1F2 were obtained. Subclass determination showed that the clones produce IgG2a types of MAbs. The analytical results of HPLC and MALDI/TOFMS suggest that the purity of MAb 1F2 is 100%, and MAb 1F2 has a relative molecular weight of 156678.8 Da. Our results demonstrated that small molecule meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin, as semiantigen without carrier, can elicit the formation of MAbs. PMID:17451352

  1. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  2. Alpha-globin loci in homozygous beta-thalassemia intermedia.

    PubMed

    Triadou, P; Lapoumeroulie, C; Girot, R; Labie, D

    1983-01-01

    Homozygous beta-thalassemia intermediate (TI) differs from thalassemia major (TM) in being less severe clinically. Associated alpha-thalassemia could account for the TI phenotype by reducing the alpha/non-alpha chain imbalance. We have analyzed the alpha loci of 9 TI and 11 TM patients by restriction endonuclease mapping. All the TM and 7 of the TI patients have the normal complement of four alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha). One TI patient has three alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/-alpha), and another TI patient has five alpha genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha). PMID:6305827

  3. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  4. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Louis

    En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations

  5. Alpha-mannosidosis

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Dag; Nilssen, Øivind

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life), skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum), hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss), gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12). Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating manifestations. Infections must be

  6. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  7. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  8. Proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, Peter K; Bønsager, Birgit C

    2004-02-12

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous alpha-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological approaches have been outlined for exploitation of the inhibitory function. PMID:14871655

  9. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  10. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  11. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  12. ISS Update: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Trent Martin, Johnson Space Center project manager for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. Questions...

  13. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's Reading Improvement Program for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marable, June Morehead

    This document discusses the founding and establishment of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's reading experience pilot project. The efforts of this project were aligned with those of Right to Read and Reading Is Fundamental (RIF). Because of the response from parents and children, plans are being made to increase present operations within the next…

  14. Microscopic cluster model of {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, {alpha}+ {sup 3}He, and {alpha}+{alpha} elastic scattering from a realistic effective nuclear interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.

    2011-07-15

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction adapted to cluster-model calculations of collisions is derived from the realistic Argonne potential AV18 with the unitary correlation operator method. The unitary correlation is determined from the {alpha}+{alpha} elastic phase shifts calculated in a cluster approach by the generator coordinate method coupled with the microscopic R-matrix method. With this interaction, the elastic phase shifts for the {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, and {alpha}+{sup 3}He collisions are calculated within the same model. Without further adjustment, a good agreement with experimental data is obtained with a small model space.

  15. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  16. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    Alpha glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a unique class of anti-diabetic drugs. Derived from bacteria, these oral drugs are enzyme inhibitors which do not have a pancreato -centred mechanism of action. Working to delay carbohydrate absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, they control postprandial hyperglycaemia and provide unquestioned cardiovascular benefit. Specially suited for a traditional Pakistani carbohydrate-rich diet, AGIs have been termed the 'untapped diamonds' of diabetology. The use of these oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) that target pathophysiology in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, notably to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia will inevitably increase with time. This review describes the history of their development, mechanism of action, basic and clinical pharmacology, and suggests practical, evidence-based guidance for their optimal use. PMID:24864650

  17. DFT CONFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF ALPHA-MALTOTRIOSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent DFT optimization studies on alpha-maltose improved our understanding of the preferred conformations of alpha-maltose and the present study extends these studies to alpha-maltotriose with three alpha-D-glucopyranose residues linked by two alpha-[1-4] bridges, denoted herein as DP-3's. Combina...

  18. Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques. PMID:21991108

  19. Prothymosin alpha in human blood.

    PubMed Central

    Panneerselvam, C; Haritos, A A; Caldarella, J; Horecker, B L

    1987-01-01

    The major cross-reacting peptide in human plasma detected with a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for thymosin alpha 1 was identified as prothymosin alpha, based on its elution properties in gel-filtration chromatography and its amino acid composition after purification by HPLC. A small quantity (less than 10%) of the total cross-reacting material was recovered in fractions corresponding to lower molecular weight thymosin alpha 1-like peptides. The total quantity of cross-reacting material detected in human blood, expressed as thymosin alpha 1 equivalents, was 11-14 pmol/ml (approximately 90% was recovered in the leukocyte fraction, approximately 10% was in the plasma fraction, and 1-2% was in the erythrocyte fraction). The peptide present in leukocytes was also identified as prothymosin alpha. After correction for the 5-times lower molar reactivity of prothymosin alpha in the thymosin alpha 1 RIA employed in these experiments, we estimate that the content of prothymosin alpha in human blood is 55-70 pmol/ml (0.6-0.8 microgram/ml). The relatively small quantities recovered in the erythrocyte and plasma fractions may be attributed to contamination of the former by leukocytes or to leakage from leukocytes into the plasma. PMID:3474615

  20. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  1. EEG Alpha Power and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppelmayr, M.; Klimesch, W.; Stadler, W.; Pollhuber, D.; Heine, C.

    2002-01-01

    Tested whether alpha power in different sub-bands is selectively related to intelligence. For 74 Austrian subjects, the EEG was recorded during a resting session and 2 different intelligence tests were performed. Findings show a strong positive correlation between intelligence and alpha power. (SLD)

  2. Alpha Schottky junction energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc S.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Carroll, James J.; Bayne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Isotope batteries offer solutions for long-lived low-power sensor requirements. Alpha emitting isotopes have energy per decay 103 times that of beta emitters. Alpha particles are absorbed within 20 μm of most materials reducing shielding mitigation. However, damage to materials from the alphas limits their practical use. A Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) geometry is considered with an alpha emitting contact-layer on a diamond-like crystal semiconductor region. The radiation tolerance of diamond, the safety of alpha particles, combined with the internal field of the SBD is expected to generate current useful for low-power electronic devices over decades. Device design parameters and calculations of the expected current are described.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions alpha-mannosidosis alpha-mannosidosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare inherited disorder that causes ...

  4. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  5. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  6. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  7. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  8. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  9. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  10. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  11. Binding of tumor necrosis factor alpha to activated forms of human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg, G. K.; LaMarre, J.; Rosendal, S.; Gonias, S. L.; Hayes, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is a latent binding glycoprotein for human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Human recombinant 125I-TNF-alpha was incubated for 2 hours (37 degrees C) with purified native alpha 2M and with alpha 2M that was modified by reaction with methylamine or various proteinases. 125I-TNF-alpha/alpha 2M complexes were detected by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after autoradiography or by liquid chromatography on Superose-6. 125I-TNF-alpha bound strongly but noncovalently to alpha 2M-plasmin and alpha 2M-methylamine. There was minimal binding of 125I-TNF-alpha to native alpha 2M, alpha 2M-trypsin, or alpha 2M-thrombin. A 10(6) molar excess of porcine heparin did not reduce the binding of 125I-TNF-alpha to alpha 2M-methylamine or alpha 2M-plasmin. alpha 2M-plasmin or alpha 2M-methylamine added to human plasma or serum preferentially bound 125I-TNF-alpha in the presence of native alpha 2M. 125I-TNF-alpha also bound to 'fast' alpha-macroglobulins in methylamine-reacted human, rat, mouse, swine, equine, and bovine plasma. However, TNF-alpha, preincubated with either alpha 2M-plasmin or alpha 2M-methylamine, remained a potent necrogen for cultured L929 cells. Purified 125I-TNF-alpha/alpha 2M-plasmin complex injected intravenously in CD-1 mice rapidly cleared from the circulation, unless the alpha 2M-receptor pathway was blocked by coinjection of excess alpha 2M-trypsin. These findings demonstrate that alpha 2M is a latent plasmin-activated binding glycoprotein for TNF-alpha and that TNF-alpha/alpha 2M-plasmin complexes can be removed from the circulation by the alpha 2M-receptor pathway. This suggests that alpha 2M may be an important regulator of the activity and distribution of TNF-alpha in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1704186

  12. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... in each cell. Each copy is called an allele. For each gene, one allele is inherited from a person's father, and the ... person's mother. As a result, there are four alleles that produce alpha-globin. The different types of ...

  13. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's concept of a fully deployed International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS-A is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experiments.

  15. Detecting Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stoller, James K

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a widely underrecognized condition, with evidence of persisting long diagnostic delays and patients' frequent need to see multiple physicians before initial diagnosis. Reasons for underrecognition include inadequate understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency by physicians and allied health care providers; failure to implement available, guideline-based practice recommendations; and the belief that effective therapy is unavailable. Multiple studies have described both the results of screening and targeted detection of individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, with both varying strategies employed to identify at-risk individuals and varying results of testing. Also, various strategies to enhance detection of affected individuals have been examined, including use of the electronic medical record to prompt testing and empowerment of allied health providers, especially respiratory therapists, to promote testing for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Such efforts are likely to enhance detection with the expected result that the harmful effects of delayed diagnosis can be mitigated. PMID:27564667

  16. Alpha decay in electron surrounding

    SciTech Connect

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2013-12-15

    The influence of atomic electron shells on the constant of alpha decay of heavy and mediummass nuclei was considered in detail. A method for simultaneously taking into account the change in the potential-barrier shape and the effect of reflection of a diverging Coulomb wave in the classically allowed region was developed. The ratios of decay probabilities per unit time for a bare nucleus and the respective neutral atom were found for some alpha-decaying isotopes.

  17. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  18. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  19. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  20. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  1. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  2. Binding of actin to lens alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Actin has been coupled to a cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B column, then tested for binding to alpha, beta, and gamma crystallin preparations from the bovine lens. Alpha, but not beta or gamma, crystallins bound to the actin affinity column in a time dependent and saturable manner. Subfractionation of the alpha crystallin preparation into the alpha-A and alpha-B species, followed by incubation with the affinity column, demonstrated that both species bound approximately the same. Together, these studies demonstrate a specific and saturable binding of lens alpha-A and alpha-B with actin.

  3. Mechanism of alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate (alpha-TP) transport across the cell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that alpha-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-TP appears to be more potent than alpha-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...

  4. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent in reducing cell proliferation and the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor than the un-phosphorylated alpha-tocopherol (alpha T). We have now assessed the effects of alpha T an...

  5. Immunocytochemical Localization and Biochemical Characterization of alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormon in the Brain of the Rainbow Trout, Salmo gairdneri.

    PubMed

    Vallarino, M; Delbende, C; Ottonello, I; Tranchand-Bunel, D; Jegou, S; Vaudry, H

    1989-02-01

    Abstract The distribution of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase-antiperoxidase techniques, using a highly specific antiserum generated in rabbits against synthetic alpha-MSH. Immunoreactive perikarya were exclusively observed in the basal hypothalamus within the pars anterioris of the nucleus lateralis tuberis. In this region, a moderate number of small stained cell bodies were observed surrounding the dorsal wall of the anterior infundibular recess. These immunoreactive cells were organized in rostro-caudal rows extending over the whole portion of the nucleus. Positive fibres originating from these perikarya were visualized in the dorsal posterior lobe and the ventral hypothalamus. A dense tract of immunoreactive fibres projected ventrally through the pituitary stalk and terminated in the neurohypophysis. The concentrations of alpha-MSH in different regions of the brain were measured by means of a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay. The dilution curves obtained with synthetic alpha-MSH and serial dilutions of diencephalon, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, telencephalon or pituitary extracts were strictly parallel. The highest concentration of alpha-MSH in brain was found in the diencephalon (1.31 +/- 0.07 ng/mg protein). In contrast alpha-MSH was not detectable in cerebellar extracts. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay were used to characterize alpha-MSH-like peptides in the trout brain and pituitary. Two major forms of immunoreactive alpha-MSH were resolved by high performance liquid chromatography in hypothalamic extracts; these peptides exhibited the same retention times as des-Na-acetyl alpha-MSH and its sulfoxide derivative, respectively. Additional peaks of alpha-MSH immunoreactive material were detected in pituitary extract. These latter peptides

  6. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  7. Immunodiagnosis of alpha chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Doe, W F; Danon, F; Seligmann, M

    1979-01-01

    Since the early diagnosis of alpha chain disease (alphaCD)) is essential to successful treatment and to epidemiological studies, the available immunodiagnostic techniques were compared for their sensitivity, specificity and ease of performance on a panel of sixteen sera, comprising ten alphaCD sera and six control sera containing either IgA myeloma protein or high levels of polyclonal IgA. Immunoselection by immunoelectrophoresis into gel containing a specially developed anti-Fabalpha antiserum provided the most sensitive and specific detection system for alphaCD protein. The same technique using anti-light chain antiserum for immunoselection was also highly sensitive, but proved less specific, being prone to false positives with difficult IgA myeloma proteins. Somewhat less sensitive, but specific and simple to perform, was immunoelectrophoresis using an antiserum recognizing the conformational specificities of Fabalpha as well as those of the constant region of alpha chains. Immunoselection using the Ouchterlony or rocket techniques proved to be less sensitive and prone to false positives when some IgA myeloma sera were tested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:113152

  8. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  9. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  10. alpha-Thalassemia caused by an unstable alpha-globin mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W

    1983-01-01

    In a previous study, molecular cloning of the alpha-globin genes from a patient with nondeletion Hb-H disease (genotype--/alpha alpha) showed that a single nucleotide mutation (CTG to CCG) in one of the genes resulted in a leucine to proline substitution. This paper describes the approach we used to detect the abnormal alpha-globin chain. The chain was identified using a cell-free translation system. It turned over rapidly both in vitro and in vivo in the patient's reticulocytes. The unusual feature of this unstable alpha-globin is that the alpha-globin deficiency causes alpha-thalassemia. Simple heterozygotes for this lesion (alpha Pro alpha/alpha alpha) resemble alpha-thalassemia carriers and do not exhibit the hemolytic anemia usually associated with unstable hemoglobins. Images PMID:6826718

  11. Bremsstrahlung in {alpha} Decay Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Jentschura, U. D.; Koeck, F.; Lauer, M.; Schwalm, D.; Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S.

    2007-07-13

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of {approx}500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the {alpha} particle and the emitted photon.

  12. NACA Physicist Studying Alpha Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    NACA Physicits studying Alpha Rays in a continuous cloud chamber. A cloud chamber is used by Lewis scientists to obtain information aimed at minimizing undesirable effects of radiation on nuclear-powered aircraft components. Here, alpha particles from a polonium source emit in a flower-like pattern at the cloud chamber's center. The particles are made visible by means of alcohol vapor diffusing from an area at room temperature to an area at minus -78 deg. Centigrade. Nuclear-powered aircraft were never developed and aircraft nuclear propulsion systems were canceled in the early 1960s.

  13. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  14. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  15. Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the Japanese flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Amiya, Noriko; Amano, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in the Japanese flounder were examined by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) and immunohistochemistry. A TR-FIA for alpha-MSH was newly developed, and its levels in the pituitary gland and plasma of Japanese flounder reared in a white or black tank for 5 months were compared. A competitive assay using two antibodies was performed among secondary antibodies in the solid phase, alpha-MSH antibodies, samples, and europium-labeled Des-Ac-alpha-MSH. The sensitivity of the assay, defined as twice the standard deviation at a zero dose, was 0.98 ng/ml (49 pg/well). The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of the assay were 8.8% (n=8) and 17.3% (n=5), respectively, at about 50% binding. Cross-reactivities of Des-Ac-alpha-MSH and Di-Ac-alpha-MSH were about 100%. Cross-reactivities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH), and chicken GnRH-II were less than 0.2%, and that of melanin-concentrating hormone was less than 2.0% at 50% binding. Displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus extract, pituitary gland extract, and plasma extract of Japanese flounder with the assay buffer were parallel to the alpha-MSH standard curve. Moreover, displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland extract of masu salmon, goldfish, red seabream, Japanese eel, tiger puffer, and barfin flounder with the assay buffer were also parallel to the alpha-MSH standard. In Japanese flounder, total immunoreactive (ir)-alpha-MSH levels in the pituitary gland were lower in the black tank, whereas those in the plasma tended to be higher in the black tank, suggesting that the synthesis and release of alpha-MSH are higher in the black tank. alpha-MSH-ir cells were detected in the pars intermedia and a small part of the pars distalis of the pituitary gland. alpha-MSH-ir cell bodies were located in the basal hypothalamus and alpha

  16. Alpha Testing Escape from Diab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha testing was conducted of sessions 2 and 3 from Diab to assess whether the activities worked as expected, and whether children in the target ages enjoyed it. Data include both RA observations of child performance while playing the games and cognitive interview responses from the players after t...

  17. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  18. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  19. Meet the Alpha-Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitlaw, Jo Ann Bruce; Frank, Cheryl Standish

    1985-01-01

    "Alpha-Pets" are the focal point of an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum. Each pet is featured for a week in a vocabulary-rich story and introduces related activities beginning with the featured letter, such as the four food groups during Freddie Fish's week or universe during Ulysses Unicorn's week. (MT)

  20. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan Shahrian; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2016-07-01

    Existing color sampling based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from pairs of foreground (F) and background (B) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected (F,B) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to (F,B) pairs, this method allows for better alpha estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art in image and video matting.

  1. Elevated alpha-fetoprotein: differential diagnosis - hepatocellular carcinoma and other disorders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Robert J; Ahmed, Aijaz; Gish, Robert G

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of cirrhosis-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rising. Curative surgical options are available; outcomes are acceptable with early diagnosis. Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) are HCC risk markers. A high or increasing serum biomarker level can be predictive of the eventual development of HCC, large tumor size, advanced stage, extrahepatic metastases, portal vein thrombosis, and postoperative HCC recurrence. Based on FDA guidelines for HCC risk assessment, clinicians can consider using either the combination of AFP-L3 with DCP, or the combination of AFP-L3 with AFP and DCP. PMID:25921665

  2. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in thp-1 monocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent than the un-phosphorylated alpha alpha-tocopherol (alphaT). We have now measured plasma levels of alphaTP and compared the cellular effects of alphaTP and gamma-tocopheryl phosphate ...

  3. Coexistence of {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in {sup 10}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Itagaki, N.; Ito, M.; Milin, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.

    2008-06-15

    The coexistence of the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in the excited states of {sup 10}Be has been discussed. In the previous analysis, all the low-lying states of {sup 10}Be were found to be well described by the motion of the two valence neutrons around two {alpha} clusters. However, the {alpha}+t+t cluster structure was found to coexist with the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n structure around E{sub x}=15 MeV, close to the corresponding threshold. We have introduced a microscopic model to solve the coupling effect between these two configurations. The K=0 and K=1 states are generated from the {alpha}+t+t configurations due to the spin coupling of two triton clusters. The present case of {sup 10}Be is one of the few examples in which completely different configurations of triton-type ({alpha}+t+t three-center) and {alpha}-type ({alpha}+{alpha}+n+n two-center) clusters coexist in a single nucleus in the same energy region.

  4. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" ... have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from each parent. These genes tell cells in ...

  5. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has no cure, but its ... of these treatments are the same as the ones used for a lung disease called COPD (chronic ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: 5-alpha reductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called steroid 5-alpha reductase 2. This enzyme is involved ... external genitalia. Mutations in the SRD5A2 gene prevent steroid 5-alpha reductase 2 from effectively converting testosterone ...

  7. Aversive Situational Effects on Alpha Feedback Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orne, Martin T.; Paskeqitz, David A.

    1974-01-01

    Anticipation of electric shock did not depress alpha activity in a feedback situation. Contrary to previous reports, a reduction in alpha activity is not a necessary consequence of apprehension or heightened arousal. (Author)

  8. Q (Alpha) Function and Squeezing Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunjie, Xia; Xianghe, Kong; Kezhu, Yan; Wanping, Chen

    1996-01-01

    The relation of squeezing and Q(alpha) function is discussed in this paper. By means of Q function, the squeezing of field with gaussian Q(alpha) function or negative P(a)function is also discussed in detail.

  9. Association of actin with alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The alpha crystallins are cytosolic proteins that co-localize and co-purify with actin-containing microfilaments. Affinity column chromatography employing both covalently-coupled actin or alpha crystallin was used to demonstrate specific and saturable binding of actin with alpha crystallin. This conclusion was confirmed by direct visualization of alpha aggregates bound to actin polymerized in vitro. The significance of this interaction in relation to the functional properties of these two polypeptides will be discussed.

  10. The ultraviolet spectra of Alpha Aquilae and Alpha Canis Minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Bruzual A., G.; Kurucz, R. L.; Spinrad, H.

    1977-01-01

    Scans of Alpha Aql (A7 IV, V) and Alpha CMi (F5 IV-V) obtained with the Copernicus satellite spectrometer over the wavelength range from 2100 to 3200 A are presented along with a spectrum of the integrated solar disk over the same range procured during a calibrated rocket flight. About 1500 fairly strong absorption lines in the Alpha CMi spectrum between 2400 and 2961 A are identified by comparison with a solar atlas and by using a theoretical spectrum synthesized from a blanketed LTE model with an effective temperature of 6500 K and a surface gravity of 10,000 cm/sec per sec. The Mg II resonance doublet at 2795.528 and 2802.704 A is found to be present in all three stars together with a discontinuity at 2635 A due to Fe II, Fe I, Cr I, and Mn II. It is concluded that the Mg II resonance lines and the 2635-A continuum break would be the best spectral features for estimating the redshift of a galaxy observed at low resolution provided the redshift is not less than about 0.75.

  11. Effectiveness of Alpha Biofeedback Therapy: Negative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Charles G.; Herder, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the utility of alpha biofeedback training in the treatment of patients (N=66). Biofeedback and placebo biofeedback groups were given alpha or mock-alpha training sessions. Improvement on 54 variables was compared to that of no-treatment controls. Only a chance number of significant changes appeared among the groups. (Author)

  12. Recent Results on the CKM Angle Alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalyi, A.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-10-18

    The method to measure the CKM angle {alpha} and the modes sensitive to it are discussed. It is shown that the B {yields} {rho}{rho} decays provide the most stringent constraint on {alpha}, which is found to be {alpha} = 96{sup o} {+-} 10{sup o}(stat) {+-} 4{sup o}(syst){+-} 13{sup o}(penguin).

  13. 6 alpha-Fluoro- and 6 alpha,9 alpha-difluoro-11 beta,21-dihydroxy-16 alpha,17 alpha-propylmethylenedioxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione: synthesis and evaluation of activity and kinetics of their C-22 epimers.

    PubMed

    Thalén, B A; Axelsson, B I; Andersson, P H; Brattsand, R L; Nylander, B; Wickström, L I

    1998-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticosteroids cannot be separated from their adverse effects at the receptor level. However, modification of the pharmacokinetics through structural alterations could provide steroids with a better therapeutic index than those currently used. Thus, new 16 alpha,17 alpha-acetals between butyraldehyde and 6 alpha-fluoro- or 6 alpha,9 alpha-difluoro-16 alpha-hydroxycortisol were synthesized and studied. Acetalization of the corresponding 16 alpha,17 alpha-diols or transacetalization of their 16 alpha,17 alpha-acetonides in dioxane produced mixtures of C-22 epimers, which were resolved by preparative chromatography. Alternatively, an efficient method was used to produce the 22R-epimer stereoselectively through performing the acetalization and transacetalization in a hydrocarbon with an inert material present. The C-22 configuration of (22R)-6 alpha,9 alpha-difluoro-11 beta,21-dihydroxy-16 alpha,17 alpha-propylmethylenedioxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione was unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The present compounds, especially the 22R-epimer just mentioned, bind to the rat thymus glucocorticoid receptor with high potency. The C-22 epimers of the 6 alpha,9 alpha-difluoro derivatives showed a 10-fold higher biotransformation rate than the budesonide 22R-epimer when incubated with human liver S9 subcellular fraction. The high receptor affinity in combination with the high biotransformation rate indicates that (22R)-6 alpha,9 alpha-difluoro-11 beta,21-dihydroxy-16 alpha,17 alpha-propylmethylenedioxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione may be an improved 16 alpha,17 alpha-acetal glucocorticosteroid for therapy of inflammatory diseases, in which the mucous membranes are involved, such as those in the intestinal tract as well in the respiratory tract. PMID:9437793

  14. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  15. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Matthew; Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Cannon, John M.; Herenz, E. Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.

  16. Alpha channeling in a rotating plasma.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Abraham J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2008-11-14

    The wave-particle alpha-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with alpha particles in a mirror machine with ExB rotation to diffuse the alpha particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the alpha-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the rf waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity. PMID:19113347

  17. Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.

  18. Subjective pain perception mediated by alpha rhythms.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weiwei; Babiloni, Claudio; Mao, Yanhui; Hu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Suppression of spontaneous alpha oscillatory activities, interpreted as cortical excitability, was observed in response to both transient and tonic painful stimuli. The changes of alpha rhythms induced by pain could be modulated by painful sensory inputs, experimental tasks, and top-down cognitive regulations such as attention. The temporal and spatial characteristics, as well as neural functions of pain induced alpha responses, depend much on how these factors contribute to the observed alpha event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS). How sensory-, task-, and cognitive-related changes of alpha oscillatory activities interact in pain perception process is reviewed in the current study, and the following conclusions are made: (1) the functional inhibition hypothesis that has been proposed in auditory and visual modalities could be applied also in pain modality; (2) the neural functions of pain induced alpha ERD/ERS were highly dependent on the cortical regions where it is observed, e.g., somatosensory cortex alpha ERD/ERS in pain perception for painful stimulus processing; (3) the attention modulation of pain perception, i.e., influences on the sensory and affective dimensions of pain experience, could be mediated by changes of alpha rhythms. Finally, we propose a model regarding the determinants of pain related alpha oscillatory activity, i.e., sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational, and cognitive-modulative aspects of pain experience, would affect and determine pain related alpha oscillatory activities in an integrated way within the distributed alpha system. PMID:26026894

  19. Identification of noncollagenous sites encoding specific interactions and quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen: implications for Alport gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Suk; Colon, Selene; Hellmark, Thomas; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2008-12-12

    Defective assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen in the glomerular basement membrane causes Alport syndrome, a hereditary glomerulonephritis progressing to end-stage kidney failure. Assembly of collagen IV chains into heterotrimeric molecules and networks is driven by their noncollagenous (NC1) domains, but the sites encoding the specificity of these interactions are not known. To identify the sites directing quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen, correctly folded NC1 chimeras were produced, and their interactions with other NC1 monomers were evaluated. All alpha1/alpha 5 chimeras containing alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 replicated the ability of alpha 5 NC1 to bind to alpha3NC1 and co-assemble into NC1 hexamers. Conversely, substitution of alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 by alpha1NC1 abolished these quaternary interactions. The amino-terminal 58 residues of alpha3NC1 encoded binding to alpha 5 NC1, but this interaction was not sufficient for hexamer co-assembly. Because alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 are necessary and sufficient for assembly into alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5 NC1 hexamers, whereas the immunodominant alloantigenic sites of alpha 5 NC1 do not encode specific quaternary interactions, the findings provide a basis for the rational design of less immunogenic alpha 5(IV) collagen constructs for the gene therapy of X-linked Alport patients. PMID:18930919

  20. alpha-Tocopheryl phosphate – an active lipid mediator?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol, alphaT) derivative, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), is detectable in small amounts in plasma, tissues, and cultured cells. Studies done in vitro and in vivo suggest that alphaT can become phosphorylated and alphaTP dephosphorylated, suggesting the existence of ...

  1. Preclinical pharmacology of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Martin, D J

    1999-01-01

    The implication of a single adrenoceptor subtype in the contractility of prostatic and urethral smooth muscle cells led to the concept that drugs with selectivity for this subtype may exhibit functional uroselectivity. Comparison of the affinities of the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists revealed that few compounds show selectivity for one of the three cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha1a/A, alpha1b/B, alpha1d/D) whereas most of them had a similar affinity for the three subtypes. Moreover, data supporting a relationship between selectivity for the alpha1a/A-adrenoceptor subtype and functional uroselectivity are still lacking and recent data challenged the relevance of the selectivity for a given cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype in predicting functional uroselectivity. In vivo data showed that alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists without adrenoceptor subtype selectivity, like alfuzosin or to a minor extent doxazosin, showed functional uroselectivity whereas prazosin and terazosin were not shown to be uroselective. Compounds considered to be selective for the alpha1a/A-adrenoceptor, like tamsulosin or 5-Me-urapidil, did not show functional uroselectivity since they modified urethral and blood pressures in a manner which was not correlated to their selectivity for the cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. Meanwhile, the identification in prostatic tissue, of a new sub-family of alpha1-adrenoceptors with low affinity for prazosin and denominated alpha1L gave rise to numerous studies. However, its functional role as well as the affinity of the known antagonists for this receptor subtype remains to be clarified. In conclusion, the existing alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists have different pharmacological profiles in vivo which are yet not predictable from their receptor pharmacology based on the actual state of knowledge of the alpha1-adrenoceptor classification. PMID:10393471

  2. Resting-state alpha in autism spectrum disorder and alpha associations with thalamic volume.

    PubMed

    Edgar, J Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E; Schultz, Robert T; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2015-03-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha rhythms, associations between thalamic structure and alpha activity were examined. RS magnetoencephalography was obtained from 47 typically-developing children (TDC) and 41 children with ASD. RS alpha activity was measured using distributed source localization. Left and right thalamic volume measurements were also obtained. In both groups, the strongest alpha activity was observed in Calcarine Sulcus regions. In Calcarine regions, only TDC showed the expected association between age and alpha peak frequency. ASD had more alpha activity than TDC in regions bordering the Central Sulcus as well as parietal association cortices. In ASD, whereas greater left Central Sulcus relative alpha activity was associated with higher Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores, greater Calcarine region relative alpha activity was associated with lower SRS scores. Although thalamic volume group differences were not observed, relationships between thalamic volume and Calcarine alpha power were unique to TDC. The present study also identified a failure to shift peak alpha frequency as a function of age in primary alpha-generating areas in children with ASD. Findings suggested that increased RS alpha activity in primary motor and somatosensory as well as parietal multimodal areas-with increased alpha thought to reflect greater inhibition-might impair the ability to identify or interpret social cues. Finally, to our knowledge, this is the first study to report associations between thalamic volume and alpha power, an association observed only in TDC. The lack of thalamic and alpha associations in ASD suggests thalamic contributions to RS alpha

  3. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  4. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  5. A study of presynaptic alpha2-autoreceptors in alpha2A/D-, alpha2B- and alpha2C-adrenoceptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, A U; Klebroff, W; Hein, L; Starke, K

    2001-08-01

    The function of presynaptic alpha2-autoreceptors was studied in the hippocampus, occipito-parietal cortex, atria and vas deferens of NMRI mice, mice in which the alpha2A/D-, the alpha2B- or alpha2c-adrenoceptor gene had been disrupted (alpha2A/DKO, alpha2BKO and alpha2CKO, respectively), and the wildtype mice from which the knockout animals had been generated. Tissue pieces were preincubated with 3H-noradrenaline and then superfused and stimulated electrically. The alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine reduced the electrically evoked overflow of tritium in all tissues from all mouse strains (stimulation with single pulses or single high-frequency pulse trains, called POPs, i.e. pulse patterns leading to minimal autoinhibition). The effects of medetomidine did not differ in NMRI, wildtype, alpha2BKO and alpha2CKO mice but were greatly reduced in alpha2A/DKO brain preparations and to a lesser extent in alpha2A/DKO atria and vasa deferentia. Six drugs were tested as antagonists against medetomidine. Their pKd values indicated that the hippocampal and occipito-parietal alpha2-autoreceptors in NMRI and wildtype mice were alpha2D (the rodent variant of the alpha2A/D-adrenoceptor) whereas the atrial and vas deferens alpha2-autoreceptors in NMRI and wildtype mice could not be identified with a single alpha2 subtype. Deletion of the alpha2A/D gene changed the pKd values in all tissues so that they now reflected alpha2C properties, whereas deletion of the alpha2C gene changed the pKd values in atria and vasa deferentia so that they now had alpha2D properties (as they had in NMRI and wildtype brain preparations). Autoinhibition by released noradrenaline was created using trains of up to 64 pulses or up to 4 POPs, and the overflow-enhancing effect of the alpha2 antagonist rauwolscine was determined. Results did not differ, irrespective of whether preparations were obtained from NMRI, wildtype, alpha2BKO or alpha2CKO mice: the overflow of tritium elicited by p pulses or POPs

  6. The solar Ly-alpha line profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.; White, O. R.; Fontenla, Juan; Avrett, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    Solar Ly-alpha irradiance measurements from the SOLar STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) have been made since 1991 October with a spectral resolution of 0.1 nm. The uniqueness of the small molecular oxygen cross section near Ly-alpha permits the Ly-alpha radiation to penetrate much deeper into the atmosphere than the other emissions near Ly-alpha. We have taken advantage of this phenomenon by performing solar occultation experiments near the Ly-alpha to evaluate precisely the instrument scattered light contribution. After correcting for scattered light, the broad wings of the solar Ly-alpha line can be extracted out to 5 nm from line center with a typical accuracy of +/-20%. The variability in the Ly-alpha wings near 2 nm from line center is about one-half that of the Ly-alpha core emission, defined within 0.1 nm from line center. These Ly-alpha profile measurements are found to be consistent with the Skylab radiance measurements and theoretical models of the Ly-alpha line profiles computed using partial redistribution of photons in the source function.

  7. Le Phénomène Wolf-Rayet au Sein des Etoiles chaudes de Populations I et II: Histoire des Vents stellaires et Impact sur la Structure nébulaire circumstellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosdidier, Yves

    2000-12-01

    Les spectres des étoiles Wolf-Rayet pop. I (WR) présentent de larges raies en émission dues à des vents stellaires chauds en expansion rapide (vitesse terminale de l'ordre de 1000 km/s). Le modèle standard des étoiles WR reproduit qualitativement le profil général et l'intensité des raies observées. Mais la spectroscopie intensive à moyenne résolution de ces étoiles révèle l'existence de variations stochastiques dans les raies (sous-pics mobiles en accélération échelles de temps: environ 10-100 min.). Ces variations ne sont pas comprises dans le cadre du modèle standard et suggèrent une fragmentation intrinsèque des vents. Cette thèse de doctorat présente une étude de la variabilité des raies spectrales en émission des étoiles WR pop. II; la question de l'impact d'un vent WR fragmenté sur le milieu circumstellaire est aussi étudiée: 1) à partir du suivi spectroscopique intensif des raies CIIIl5696 et CIVl5801/12, nous analysons quantitativement (via le calcul des Spectres de Variance Temporelle) les vents issus de 5 étoiles centrales de nébuleuses planétaires (NP) galactiques présentant le phénomène WR; 2) nous étudions l'impact de la fragmentation des vents issus de deux étoiles WR pop. I sur le milieu circumstellaire via: i) l'imagerie IR (NICMOS2/HST) de WR 137, et ii) l'imagerie H-alpha (WFPC2/HST) et l'interférométrie Fabry-Perot H-alpha (SIS-CFHT) de la nébuleuse M 1-67 (étoile centrale: WR 124). Les principaux résultats sont les suivants: VENTS WR POP. II: (1) Nous démontrons la variabilité spectroscopique intrinsèque des vents issus des noyaux de NP HD 826 ([WC 8]), BD +30 3639 ([WC 9]) et LSS 3169 ([WC 9]), observés durant respectivement 22, 15 et 1 nuits, et rapportons des indications de variabilité pour les noyaux [WC 9] HD 167362 et He 2-142. Les variabilités de HD 826 et BD +30 3639 apparaissent parfois plus soutenues (``bursts'' qui se maintiennent durant plusieurs nuits); (2) La cinématique des sous

  8. Copernic: la piste des influences arabes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari, A.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Copernic a-t-il connu le travail des astronomes du Moyen-Orient ? S'en est-il inspiré pour élaborer sa théorie de l'héliocentrisme ? C'est l'hypothèse avancée par certains historiens des sciences pour comprendre le génie de celui qui, le premier, a placé le Soleil au centre du monde. Enquête.

  9. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Barry J.; Raja, Chand; Rizvi, Syed; Li, Yong; Tsui, Wendy; Zhang, David; Song, Emma; Qu, Chang Fa; Kearsley, John; Graham, Peter; Thompson, John

    2004-08-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The 213Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 µCi in human

  10. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  11. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; Bounds, John A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.

    1996-01-01

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  12. Reliability of {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2} from lattice codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.

    1996-10-01

    Whether the higher-order terms in the momentum-compaction factor, {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2}, can be obtained reliably from lattice codes is an important issue for some quasi-isochronous rings. A FODO lattice consisting of thin quadrupoles, dipoles filling all spaces, and two families of thin sextupoles is solved and {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2} are derived analytically. We find accurate agreement with SYNCH is examined. Some methods of measurement of {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2} are discussed.

  13. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des

  14. Microtubule depolymerization potentiates alpha-synuclein oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Esteves, A Raquel; Arduíno, Daniela M; Swerdlow, Russell H; Oliveira, Catarina R; Cardoso, Sandra M

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with perturbed mitochondria function and alpha-synuclein fibrillization. We evaluated potential mechanistic links between mitochondrial dysfunction and alpha-synuclein aggregation. We studied a PD cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell line in which platelet mitochondria from a PD subject were transferred to NT2 neuronal cells previously depleted of endogenous mitochondrial DNA. Compared to a control cybrid cell line, the PD line showed reduced ATP levels, an increased free/polymerized tubulin ratio, and alpha-synuclein oligomer accumulation. Taxol (which stabilizes microtubules) normalized the PD tubulin ratio and reduced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. A nexus exists between mitochondrial function, cytoskeleton homeostasis, and alpha-synuclein oligomerization. In our model, mitochondrial dysfunction triggers an increased free tubulin, which destabilizes the microtubular network and promotes alpha-synuclein oligomerization. PMID:20552056

  15. Selective sorting of alpha-granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Italiano, J.E.; Battinelli, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary One of the main functions of blood platelets is to secrete a variety of substances that can modify a developing thrombus, regulate the growth of the vasculature, promote wound repair, and contribute to cell-adhesive events. The majority of this vast array of secreted proteins is stored in alpha-granules. Until recently, it was assumed that platelets contained one homogeneous population of alpha-granules that undergo complete de-granulation during platelet activation. This review focuses on the mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis and secretion, with a particular emphasis on recent findings that clearly demonstrate that platelets contain distinct subpopulations of alpha-granules that undergo differential release during activation. We consider the implications of this new paradigm of platelet secretion, discuss mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis, and review the molecular basis of transport and delivery of alpha-granules to assembling platelets. PMID:19630794

  16. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  17. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  18. Alpha-physics and measurement requirements for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Young, K.M.; Putvinski, S.; Petrov, M.P.; Sadler, G.; Tobita, K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews alpha particle physics issues in ITER and their implications for alpha particle measurements. A comparison is made between alpha heating in ITER and NBI and ICRH heating systems in present tokamaks, and alpha particle issues in ITER are discussed in three physics areas: `single particle` alpha effects, `collective` alpha effects, and RF interactions with alpha particles. 29 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  20. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Ristić, Gordana; Tepsić, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANCE AND METABOLISM OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be produced in the body and must be taken by food. Both in animals and humans, alpha-linolenic acid is desaturated and elongated into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also incorporated into plasma and tissue lipids and its conversion is affected by levels of linoleic acid. POTENTIAL ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the incidence of cardiac death. Studies have shown that alpha linolenic acid prevents ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of cardiac death. Studies in rats suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may be more effective in preventing ventricular fibrillations than eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid is the main fatty acid decreasing platalet aggregation which is an important step in thrombosis i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. DIETARY SOURCES AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary sources include flaxseed and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean and soybean oil, pumpkin seed and pumpkin oil, walnuts and walnut oil. Strong evidence supports beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid and its dietary sources should be incorporated into balanced diet for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The recommended daily intake is 2 g with a ratio of 5/1 for linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:15510909

  1. Teaching calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to Wolfram|Alpha in our differential and integral calculus labs, together with the positive results from our experience. We also discuss the current limitations of Wolfram|Alpha, including a discussion on why we still use a CAS for our multivariate calculus labs.

  2. Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H

    1996-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570

  3. Expression of the alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 isoforms of the GABAA receptor in human alcoholic brain.

    PubMed

    Lewohl, J M; Crane, D I; Dodd, P R

    1997-03-14

    The expression of the alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 isoforms of the GABAA receptor was studied in the superior frontal and motor cortices of 10 control, 10 uncomplicated alcoholic and 7 cirrhotic alcoholic cases matched for age and post-mortem delay. The assay was based on competitive RT/PCR using a single set of primers specific to the alpha class of isoform mRNA species, and was normalized against a synthetic cRNA internal standard. The assay was shown to be quantitative for all three isoform mRNA species. Neither the patient's age nor the post-mortem interval significantly affected the expression of any isoform in either cortical area. The profile of expression was shown to be significantly different between the case groups, particularly because alpha 1 expression was raised in both groups of alcoholics of controls. The two groups of alcoholics could be differentiated on the basis of regional variations in alpha 1 expression. In frontal cortex, alpha 1 mRNA expression was significantly increased when uncomplicated alcoholics were compared with control cases whereas alcoholic-cirrhotic cases were not significantly different from either controls or uncomplicated alcoholic cases. In the motor cortex, alpha 1 expression was elevated only when alcoholic-cirrhotic cases were compared with control cases. There was no significant difference between case groups or areas for any other isoform. PMID:9098573

  4. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  5. Optical Model Parameters for the Ar-36+{alpha} and Ca-40+{alpha} Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Generalov, L.; Zvenigorodskii, A.

    2005-05-24

    For 36Ar+{alpha} and 40Ca+{alpha} systems there are presented the parameters of Woods-Saxon potential with volume absorption in the {alpha}-particle energy range lower and higher than the Coulomb barrier. They were obtained as a result of existing optical potentials modification.

  6. Cross-talk between integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 in renal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abair, Tristin D.; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Chen, Dong; Heino, Jyrki; Ivaska, Johanna; Hudson, Billy G.; Sanders, Charles R.; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2008-11-15

    The collagen-binding integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 have profoundly different functions, yet they are often co-expressed in epithelial cells. When both integrins are expressed in the same cell, it has been suggested that {alpha}1{beta}1 negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent functions. In this study we utilized murine ureteric bud (UB) epithelial cells, which express no functionally detectable levels of endogenous integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1, to determine the mechanism whereby this regulation occurs. We demonstrate that UB cells expressing integrin {alpha}2{beta}1, but not {alpha}1{beta}1 adhere, migrate and proliferate on collagen I as well as form cellular cords in 3D collagen I gels. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of the integrin {alpha}2 subunit with that of {alpha}1 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and cord formation. In contrast, substitution of the integrin {alpha}2 cytoplasmic tail with that of {alpha}1, decreases cell migration and cord formation, but increases proliferation. When integrin {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 subunits are co-expressed in UB cells, the {alpha}1 subunit negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent cord formation, adhesion and migration and this inhibition requires expression of both {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 tails. Thus, we provide evidence that the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the {alpha}2 integrin subunit, as well as the {alpha}1 integrin subunit, regulate integrin {alpha}2{beta}1 cell function.

  7. Solution conformation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA that discriminates {alpha}3 vs. {alpha}6 nAChR subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr

    2006-06-23

    {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {alpha}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {alpha}3{beta}2 over the {alpha}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {alpha}-helix. Structural features of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {alpha}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.

  8. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Inherited Emphysema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 protein in the blood with normal alpha-1 antitrypsin from healthy plasma donors. It is given in a vein (IV). The dose is adjusted based on body weight. This treatment is often given once a week. There are three ... the management of Alpha-1 related emphysema includes: • Exercise and a healthy lifestyle ...

  9. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  10. Elementary Processes Underlying Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    NM.J. Fisch

    2012-06-15

    Alpha channeling in tokamaks is speculative, but also extraordinarily attractive. Waves that can accomplish this effect have been identified. Key aspects of the theory now enjoy experimental confirmation. This paper will review the elementary processes of wave-particle interactions in plasma that underlie the alpha channeling effect

  11. Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…

  12. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  13. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  14. Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…

  15. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  16. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  17. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  18. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  19. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.95 Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at...

  20. Alpha particle spectrometry using superconducting microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horansky, Robert; Ullom, Joel; Beall, James; Hilton, Gene; Stiehl, Gregory; Irwin, Kent; Plionis, Alexander; Lamont, Stephen; Rudy, Clifford; Rabin, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Alpha spectrometry is the preferred technique for analyzing trace samples of radioactive material because the alpha particle flux can be significantly higher than the gamma-ray flux from nuclear materials of interest. Traditionally, alpha spectrometry is performed with Si detectors whose resolution is at best 8 keV FWHM. Here, we describe the design and operation of a microcalorimeter alpha detector with an energy resolution of 1.06 keV FWHM at 5 MeV. We demonstrate the ability of the microcalorimeter to clearly resolve the alpha particles from Pu-239 and Pu-240, whose ratio differentiates reactor-grade Pu from weapons-grade. We also show the first direct observation of the decay of Po-209 to the ground state of Pb-205 which has traditionally been obscured by a much stronger alpha line 2 keV away. Finally, the 1.06 keV resolution observed for alpha particles is far worse than the 0.12 keV resolution predicted from thermal fluctuations and measurement of gamma-rays. The cause of the resolution degradation may be ion damage in the tin. Hence, alpha particle microcalorimeters may provide a novel tool for studying ion damage and lattice displacement energies in bulk materials.

  1. Local Structure and Vibrational Properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-U, and the alpha-U Charge Density Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Booth, C H

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure {alpha}-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}'-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}'-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  2. An Alpha Schottky Junction Power Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc; Carroll, James; Henriquez, Stan

    2011-10-01

    Isotope batteries present solutions for long-lived low power sources. Compact sensors, and electronic circuit boards can be powered for the lifetime of infrastructure. Alpha sources are practical for safety reasons because of the limited distance before energy absorption in materials, and the high energy (~5MeV) per particle. Damage to materials from the alphas limits the practical use. A Schottky diode geometry is created from an alpha foil on a diamond-like crystal. A power source is proposed that takes advantage of the radiation damage tolerance of diamond, combined with the short range of the alpha radiation. The internal field of the Schottky barrier creates a current through the diode from electron-hole pairs created by alpha bombardment in the gap. Calculations of the expected current, circuit model results, and design parameters for a device are described.

  3. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  4. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  5. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  6. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  7. Catalytic Mechanism of Human Alpha-galactosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Guce, A.; Clark, N; Salgado, E; Ivanen, D; Kulinskaya, A; Brumer, H; Garman, S

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme {alpha}-galactosidase ({alpha}-GAL, also known as {alpha}-GAL A; E.C. 3.2.1.22) is responsible for the breakdown of {alpha}-galactosides in the lysosome. Defects in human {alpha}-GAL lead to the development of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the buildup of {alpha}-galactosylated substrates in the tissues. {alpha}-GAL is an active target of clinical research: there are currently two treatment options for Fabry disease, recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (approved in the United States in 2003) and pharmacological chaperone therapy (currently in clinical trials). Previously, we have reported the structure of human {alpha}-GAL, which revealed the overall structure of the enzyme and established the locations of hundreds of mutations that lead to the development of Fabry disease. Here, we describe the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme derived from x-ray crystal structures of each of the four stages of the double displacement reaction mechanism. Use of a difluoro-{alpha}-galactopyranoside allowed trapping of a covalent intermediate. The ensemble of structures reveals distortion of the ligand into a {sup 1}S{sub 3} skew (or twist) boat conformation in the middle of the reaction cycle. The high resolution structures of each step in the catalytic cycle will allow for improved drug design efforts on {alpha}-GAL and other glycoside hydrolase family 27 enzymes by developing ligands that specifically target different states of the catalytic cycle. Additionally, the structures revealed a second ligand-binding site suitable for targeting by novel pharmacological chaperones.

  8. Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn; Stevens, Victoria L.; Owens, Timothy R.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.

    2009-11-01

    We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNA staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.

  9. Human podocytes adhere to the KRGDS motif of the alpha3alpha4alpha5 collagen IV network.

    PubMed

    Borza, Corina M; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Pedchenko, Vadim; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Heather M; Pozzi, Ambra; Saus, Juan; Abrahamson, Dale R; Zent, Roy; Hudson, Billy G

    2008-04-01

    Podocyte adhesion to the glomerular basement membrane is required for proper function of the glomerular filtration barrier. However, the mechanism whereby podocytes adhere to collagen IV networks, a major component of the glomerular basement membrane, is poorly understood. The predominant collagen IV network is composed of triple helical protomers containing the alpha3alpha4alpha5 chains. The protomers connect via the trimeric noncollagenous (NC1) domains to form hexamers at the interface. Because the NC1 domains of this network can potentially support integrin-dependent cell adhesion, it was determined whether individual NC1 monomers or alpha3alpha4alpha5 hexamers support podocyte adhesion. It was found that, although human podocytes did not adhere to NC1 domains proper, they did adhere via integrin alphavbeta3 to a KRGDS motif located adjacent to alpha3NC1 domains. Because the KRGDS motif is a site of phosphorylation, its interactions with integrin alphavbeta3 may play a critical role in cell signaling in physiologic and pathologic states. PMID:18235087

  10. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.

  11. [Contents and its change during storage of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in potatoes].

    PubMed

    Shindo, Tetsuya; Ushiyama, Hirofumi; Kan, Kimiko; Yasuda, Kazuo; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in native species of potato (May Queen, Danshaku and Waseshiro), and in species (Jagakids Red '90 (Red) and Jagakids Purple '90 (Purple)) on the market, and their change during storage at room temparature were investigated. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were extracted from potatoes with methanol, cleaned up by using a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge, and then subjected to HPLC. The recoveries of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine from potatoes were both more than 96%, and the quantitation limits were both 2 microg/g. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in periderm in all samples at the levels of 260-320 microg/g in May Queen,190-240 microg/g in Danshaku, 43-63 microg/g in Waseshiro, 140-200 microg/g in Red and 84-130 microg/g in Purple, respectively. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in the cortex in all samples of May Queen and Danshaku at the levels of 2.7-12 microg/g and 5.8-31 microg/g, respectively. Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the cortex of May Queen and Danshaku were less than 10% of those in the periderm. When potatoes were stored for 90 days at room temparature in a dark place, no marked change in the contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine was observed in any of the potato samples. PMID:15678944

  12. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis III alpha/beta mucolipidosis III alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis III alpha/beta is a slowly progressive disorder that affects ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis II alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis II alpha/beta mucolipidosis II alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis II alpha/beta (also known as I-cell disease) is ...

  14. Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-Uand the alpha-U charge density wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.J.; Allen, P.G.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, W.A.; Booth, C.H.

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure a-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}{prime}-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}{prime}-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  15. The GBT-SerDes ASIC prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, P.; Baron, S.; Bonacini, S.; Cobanoglu, O.; Faccio, F.; Feger, S.; Francisco, R.; Gui, P.; Li, J.; Marchioro, A.; Paillard, C.; Porret, D.; Wyllie, K.

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the GigaBit Transceiver project (GBT), a prototype, the GBT-SerDes ASIC, was developed, fabricated and tested. To sustain high radiation doses while operating at 4.8Gb/s, the ASIC was fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology employing radiation tolerant techniques and circuits. The transceiver serializes-deserializes the data, Reed-Solomon encodes and decodes the data and scrambles and descrambles the data for transmission over optical fibre links. This paper describes the GBT-SerDes architecture, and presents the test results.

  16. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed. PMID:7162915

  17. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  18. Applying alpha-channeling to mirror machines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhmoginov, A. I.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-05-15

    The {alpha}-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic {alpha} particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefit open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of {alpha} channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the {alpha}-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the {alpha}-channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly damped modes are identified. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the {alpha}-channeling effect can be significantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the {alpha}-channeling wave to the fuel ions.

  19. Scalable encryption using alpha rooting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, Eric J.; Panetta, Karen A.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2008-04-01

    Full and partial encryption methods are important for subscription based content providers, such as internet and cable TV pay channels. Providers need to be able to protect their products while at the same time being able to provide demonstrations to attract new customers without giving away the full value of the content. If an algorithm were introduced which could provide any level of full or partial encryption in a fast and cost effective manner, the applications to real-time commercial implementation would be numerous. In this paper, we present a novel application of alpha rooting, using it to achieve fast and straightforward scalable encryption with a single algorithm. We further present use of the measure of enhancement, the Logarithmic AME, to select optimal parameters for the partial encryption. When parameters are selected using the measure, the output image achieves a balance between protecting the important data in the image while still containing a good overall representation of the image. We will show results for this encryption method on a number of images, using histograms to evaluate the effectiveness of the encryption.

  20. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe smallscale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mAngstroms (33mAngstroms pixels) across a broad 20Angstrom spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-a emission at 1216Angstroms. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  1. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Allred, J.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Fontenla, J.; McIntosh, S.; de Pontieu, B.

    2011-05-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events” (RBEs), the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1” pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  3. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Allred, J. C.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Mcintosh, S. W.; De Pontieu, B.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  4. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  5. Fibrinogen {alpha} genes: Conservation of bipartite transcripts and carboxy-terminal-extended {alpha} subunits in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Cao, Y.; Hertzberg, K.M.; Grieninger, G.

    1995-11-01

    All three well-studied subunits of the clotting protein fibrinogen ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) share N-terminal structural homologies, but until recently only the {beta} and {gamma} chains were recognized as having similar globular C-termini. With the discovery of an extra exon in the human fibrinogen {alpha} gene (exon VI), a minor form of the {alpha} subunit ({alpha}{sub E}) with an extended {beta}- and {gamma}-like C-terminus has been identified. In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify sequences that encode counterparts to {alpha}{sub E} in chicken, rabbit, rat, and baboon. The basic six-exon structure of the fibrinogen {alpha} genes is shown to be conserved among mammals and birds, as are the intron positions. Bipartite transcripts - still bearing an intron prior to the last exon - are found among the products of the various vertebrate fibrinogen {alpha} genes. The last exon represents the largest conserved segment of the gene and, in each species examined, encodes exactly 236 amino acids. The C-termini of these {alpha}{sub E} chains align without a single gap and are between 76 and 99% identical. Since the exon VI-encoded domain of {alpha}{sub E} is as well conserved as the corresponding regions of the {beta} and {gamma} chains, it follows that it is equally important and that {alpha}{sub E}-fibrinogen plays a vital, if as-yet unrecognized physiological role. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Divergence of human [alpha]-chain constant region gene sequences: A novel recombinant [alpha]2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Chintalacharuvu, K. R.; Morrison, S.L. ); Raines, M. )

    1994-06-01

    IgA is the major Ig synthesized in humans and provides the first line of defense at the mucosal surfaces. The constant region of IgA heavy chain is encoded by the [alpha] gene on chromosome 14. Previous studies have indicated the presence of two [alpha] genes, [alpha]1 and [alpha]2 existing in two allotypic forms, [alpha]2 m(1) and [alpha]2 m(2). Here the authors report the cloning and complete nucleotide sequence determination of a novel human [alpha] gene. Nucleotide sequence comparison with the published [alpha] sequences suggests that the gene arose as a consequence of recombination or gene conversion between the two [alpha]2 alleles. The authors have expressed the gene as a chimeric protein in myeloma cells indicating that it encodes a functional protein. The novel IgA resembles IgA2 m(2) in that disulfide bonds link H and L chains. This novel recombinant gene provides insights into the mechanisms of generation of different constant regions and suggests that within human populations, multiple alleles of [alpha] may be present providing IgAs of different structures.

  7. Methylation of alpha-type embryonic globin gene alpha pi represses transcription in primary erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Singal, Rakesh; vanWert, Jane M; Ferdinand, Larry

    2002-12-01

    The inverse relationship between expression and methylation of beta-type globin genes is well established. However, little is known about the relationship between expression and methylation of avian alpha-type globin genes. The embryonic alpha(pi)-globin promoter was unmethylated, and alpha(pi)-globin RNA was easily detected in 5-day chicken erythroid cells. A progressive methylation of the CpG dinucleotides in the alpha(pi) promoter associated with loss of expression of alpha(pi)-globin gene was seen during development in primary erythroid cells. A 315-bp alpha(pi)-globin promoter region was cloned in an expression construct (alpha(pi)pGL3E) containing a luciferase reporter gene and SV40 enhancer. The alpha(pi)pGL3E construct was transfected into primary erythroid cells derived from 5-day-old chicken embryos. Methylation of alpha(pi)pGL3E plasmid and alpha(pi)-globin promoter alone resulted in a 20-fold and 7-fold inhibition of expression, respectively. The fully methylated but not the unmethylated 315-bp alpha(pi)-globin gene promoter fragment formed a methyl cytosine-binding protein complex (MeCPC). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were combined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess histone acetylation associated with the alpha(pi)-globin gene promoter. Slight hyperacetylation of histone H3 but a marked hyperacetylation of histone H4 was seen in 5-day when compared with 14-day erythroid cells. These results demonstrate that methylation can silence transcription of an avian alpha-type embryonic globin gene in homologous primary erythroid cells, possibly by interacting with an MeCPC and histone deacetylase complex. PMID:12393573

  8. Alpha particle confinement in tandem mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, R.S.; Ohnishi, M.; Kerns, J.; Woo, J.T.

    1980-10-10

    Mechanisms leading to loss of alpha particles from non-axisymmetric tandem mirrors are considered. Stochastic diffusion due to bounce-drift resonances, which can cause rapid radial losses of high-energy alpha particles, can be suppressed by imposing a 20% rise in axisymmetric fields before the quadrupole transition sections. Alpha particles should then be well-confined until thermal energies when they enter the resonant plateau require. A fast code for computation of drift behavior in reactors is described. Sample calculations are presented for resonant particles in a proposed coil set for the Tandem Mirror Next Step.

  9. Lyman alpha airglow observations from SORCE SOLSTICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinar, E.; Snow, M.; Holsclaw, G.; Thomas, G. E.; Woods, T. N.

    2010-12-01

    The Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument on board the Solar Radiation Climate Experiment (SORCE) spacecraft in low Earth orbit observes stars every orbit for in-flight calibration. It also observes several star-free regions of the sky near the wavelength of Lyman alpha to correct for airglow emission in the stellar measurements. Although the airglow measurements are only taken during the eclipse portion of the orbit, the look directions cover nearly the entire anti-sunward hemisphere. This seven-year record of Lyman alpha airglow observations (2003-2010) shows the response of the Hydrogen geocorona to changes in the solar Lyman alpha irradiance over the solar cycle.

  10. alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors from Commelina communis.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Kim, Y H; Hong, Y S; Paek, N S; Lee, H S; Kim, T H; Kim, K W; Lee, J J

    1999-06-01

    A methanolic extract of Commelina communis showed potent inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase. One pyrrolidine alkaloid, 2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine (DMDP, 1) and four piperidine alkaloids, 1-deoxymannojirimycin (2), 1-deoxynojirimycin (3), alpha-homonojirimycin (4) and 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl alpha-homonojirimycin (5) were isolated by bioassay-directed fractionation and separation. These compounds have been identified for the first time from Commelina communis, supporting the pharmacological basis of this plant that has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:10418330

  11. Human placenta type V collagens. Evidence for the existence of an alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V) collagen molecule.

    PubMed

    Niyibizi, C; Fietzek, P P; van der Rest, M

    1984-11-25

    Human type V collagen was purified from placenta and found to contain alpha 1(V), alpha 2(V), and alpha 3(V) chains in varying ratios. Using any of three independent nondenaturing methods (phosphocellulose chromatography, high-performance ion-exchange chromatography on IEX-540 DEAE, and ammonium sulfate precipitation), this preparation could be resolved into two fractions. Analysis of the two fractions by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that one fraction contained alpha 1(V) and alpha 2(V) in a 2:1 ratio and the other contained alpha 1(V), alpha 2(V), and alpha 3(V) in a 1:1:1 ratio. When the crude placental type V collagen was electrophoresed under nondenaturing conditions, two bands were observed, one co-migrating with purified (alpha 1(V]2 alpha 2(V) and the other co-migrating with the fractions containing alpha 1(V), alpha 2(V), and alpha 3(V) chains in a 1:1:1 ratio. Electrophoresis in a second dimension under denaturing conditions confirmed that the fast-migrating band contained (alpha 1(V]2 alpha 2(V) and that the slow-migrating band contained the three chains in equimolar ratio. CD spectra of the two fractions and resistance to trypsin-chymotrypsin digestion confirmed that the two fractions contain triple helical collagen. Thermal denaturations were monitored by the changes in CD signal at 221 nm. The two fractions purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation melted at 39.1 and 36.4 degrees C for the (alpha 1(V]2 alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V) fractions, respectively. Trypsin cleavage of these two native fractions at temperatures near melting produced completely different fragmentation patterns, indicating different partial unwinding sites of the alpha 1(V) and alpha 2(V) chains in the two preparations and thus different molecular assemblies. Our data demonstrate the existence of two different molecular assemblies of type V collagen in human placenta consisting of (alpha 1(V]2 alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(V

  12. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  13. Etudes des Reactions de Transfert LITHIUM-7/LITHIUM -6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddou, Djafer

    Les reactions de transfert de deux nucleons ^7Li/^6Li(^3He, rm p)^8Be/^9Be ont ete effectuees a partir d'um faisceau d'^3He initialement polarise et d'energie incidente egale a 4.58 MeV au centre de la cible. Le faisceau d'^3He est simplement ionise et il est accelere par l'accelerateur Van de Graaff de l'Universite Laval. Ce faisceau d' ^3He est de polarisation egale a 40% et il est obtenu a partir d'une source d'^3He a l'etat metastable. Nous avons decrit la reaction depuis la production et le transport du faisceau initial de l'^3 He jusqu'a la chambre de reaction. Par la suite, nous avons obtenu les distributions angulaires de la section efficace differentielle et du pouvoir d'analyse de ces reactions. Elles ont ete comparees a la theorie DWBA a l'approximation zero. La theorie a montre qu'il s'agit d'un transfert de deux particules independants (neutron, proton) pour le cas de la reaction ^7Li( ^3He,rm p)^9Be et d'un transfert de "cluster" deuteron pour le cas de la reaction ^6Li(^3He, rm p)^8Be. Notons que pour cette reaction l'instabilite du ^8Be ne nous permet pas d'avoir une diffusion elastique permettant la determination des parametres du modele optique entre ce noyau et la particule diffusee. Afin de contourner cette difficulte, nous supposons que le ^8 Be est un noyau compose de deux particules alpha et nous avons teste cette hypothese avec les reactions ^6Li(^3He, rm p)^8Be et ^7Li( ^3He,rm d)^8Be. Nous mentionnons a la fin que nous avons observe que l'etat fondamental de la reaction ^6Li( ^3He,rm p)^8Be et l'etat excite 2.43 MeV de la reaction ^7Li(^3He,rm p)^9Be sont des reactions directes alors que le premier etat excite (2.96 MeV) de la reaction ^6Li(^3He,rm p)^8Be et l'etat fondamental de la reaction ^7Li(^3He,rm p)^9Be peuvent etre domines par une reaction a noyau compose.

  14. GAS KINEMATICS IN Ly{alpha} NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yujin; Jahnke, Knud; Zabludoff, Ann; Eisenstein, Daniel; Dave, Romeel; Shectman, Stephen A.; Kelson, Daniel D.

    2011-07-10

    Exploring the origin of Ly{alpha} nebulae ('blobs') at high redshift requires measurements of their gas kinematics that are impossible with only the resonant, optically thick Ly{alpha} line. To define gas motions relative to the systemic velocity of the blob, the Ly{alpha} line must be compared with an optically thin line like H{alpha} {lambda}6563, which is not much altered by radiative transfer effects and is more concentrated about the galaxies embedded in the nebula's core. We obtain optical and near-IR (NIR) spectra of the two brightest Ly{alpha} blobs (CDFS-LAB01 and CDFS-LAB02) from the Yang et al. sample using the Magellan/Magellan Echellette Spectrograph optical and Very Large Telescope/SINFONI NIR spectrographs. Both the Ly{alpha} and H{alpha} lines confirm that these blobs lie at the survey redshift, z {approx} 2.3. Within each blob, we detect several H{alpha} sources, which roughly correspond to galaxies seen in Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame UV images. The H{alpha} detections show that these galaxies have large internal velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub v} = 130-190 km s{sup -1}) and that, in the one system (LAB01), where we can reliably extract profiles for two H{alpha} sources, their velocity difference is {Delta}v {approx} 440 km s{sup -1}. The presence of multiple galaxies within the blobs, and those galaxies' large velocity dispersions and large relative motion, is consistent with our previous finding that Ly{alpha} blobs inhabit massive dark matter halos that will evolve into those typical of present-day rich clusters and that the embedded galaxies may eventually become brightest cluster galaxies. To determine whether the gas near the embedded galaxies is predominantly infalling or outflowing, we compare the Ly{alpha} and H{alpha} line centers, finding that Ly{alpha} is not offset ({Delta}v{sub Ly{alpha}} = +0 km s{sup -1}) in LAB01 and redshifted by only +230 km s{sup -1} in LAB02. These offsets are small compared to those of Lyman break

  15. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  16. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  17. The "Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The overall mission of the Conservatoire national des arts et metiers--(CNAM) [National Conservatory of Industrial Arts and Trades] is outlined. One of its centers, the "Centre national de l'entrepreneuriat"--(CNE) [National Center for Entrepreneurship] is described in greater detail. In particular, this center offers various services, notably…

  18. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  19. Influence of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha buildup on tokamak reactor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1987-11-01

    The effect of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha accumulation on the confinement capability of a candidate Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) plasma (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER-II)) in achieving ignition and steady-state driven operation has been assessed using both global and 1-1/2-D transport models. Estimates are made of the threshold for radial diffusion of fast alphas and thermal alpha buildup. It is shown that a relatively low level of radial transport, when combined with large gradients in the fast alpha density, leads to a significant radial flow with a deleterious effect on plasma performance. Similarly, modest levels of thermal alpha concentration significantly influence the ignition and steady-state burn capability. 23 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. An alpha-omega-dynamo with an alpha-effect due to magnetostrophic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1987-03-01

    The effects of the latitude dependence of the dynamic alpha-effect on the solution of equations of alpha-omega-dynamos are investigated. The equations of kinematic rotationally symmetric alpha-omega-dynamos are evaluated using the spherical solar dynamo model of Deinzer and Stix (1971), in which the induction effects, differential rotation, and alpha-effect act in two separate infinitesimal thin shells. Butterfly diagrams are derived and analyzed. It is observed that the diagram has two branches: the ordinary sunspot branch, migrating from midlatitudes toward the equator during the cycle, and the polar branch, which migrates from the midlatitudes toward the pole. It is also found that, in order to obtain the correct propagation direction of the two dynamos, the alpha of the magnetostrophic waves requires a rotation decreasing with depth. The influence of various locations of the induction layers of alpha- and omega-effect are examined.

  1. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  2. Five cases of alpha chain disease

    PubMed Central

    Doe, William F.; Henry, K.; Hobbs, J. R.; Jones, F. Avery; Dent, C. E.; Booth, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Five patients suffering from alpha chain disease are described. Clinically the patients presented with clubbing and the symptoms of malabsorption. There was a characteristic, predominantly plasma cell infiltrate of the wall of the small intestine. Spread of the plasmacytosis beyond the small intestine to bone marrow (1), peripheral blood (1), and probably the nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue (1) is described. Fragments of the heavy chain of IgA (alpha chain) were found in serum (5), urine (3), jejunal fluid (2), and saliva (1). The jejunal biopsy of one patient was shown to synthesize free alpha chain in tissue culture. A new and simple immunoselection technique for the identification of free alpha chain is described. Marked clinical remissions were achieved in two patients treated with intermittent cytotoxic and steroid therapy, and in a third patient who received intermittent cytotoxic therapy and tetracycline. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4119805

  3. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E. Jr.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-11-23

    This invention relates generally to high energy confined plasmas and more particularly is directed to measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a confined energetic plasma.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... and genetic modifiers of emphysema risk. Thorax. 2004 Mar;59(3):259-64. Review. Citation on PubMed ... alpha}1-antitrypsin deficiency. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23;169(6):546-50. doi: 10.1001/ ...

  5. International Space Station (ISS) Alpha Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Artist's concept of the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  6. Alpha Coincidence Spectroscopy studied with GEANT4

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Warren, Glen A.

    2013-11-02

    Abstract The high-energy side of peaks in alpha spectra, e.g. 241Am, as measured with a silicon detector has structure caused mainly by alpha-conversion electron and to some extent alphagamma coincidences. We compare GEANT4 simulation results to 241Am alpha spectroscopy measurements with a passivated implanted planar silicon detector. A large discrepancy between the measurements and simulations suggest that the GEANT4 photon evaporation database for 237Np (daughter of 241Am decay) does not accurately describe the conversion electron spectrum and therefore was found to have large discrepancies with experimental measurements. We describe how to improve the agreement between GEANT4 and alpha spectroscopy for actinides of interest by including experimental measurements of conversion electron spectroscopy into the photon evaporation database.

  7. Different polyphenolic components of soft fruits inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Gordon J; Shpiro, Faina; Dobson, Patricia; Smith, Pauline; Blake, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2005-04-01

    Polyphenol-rich extracts from soft fruits were tested for their ability to inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. All extracts tested caused some inhibition of alpha-amylase, but there was a 10-fold difference between the least and most effective extracts. Strawberry and raspberry extracts were more effective alpha-amylase inhibitors than blueberry, blackcurrant, or red cabbage. Conversely, alpha-glucosidase was more readily inhibited by blueberry and blackcurrant extracts. The extent of inhibition of alpha-glucosidase was related to their anthocyanin content. For example, blueberry and blackcurrant extracts, which have the highest anthocyanin content, were the most effective inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase. The extracts most effective in inhibiting alpha-amylase (strawberry and raspberry) contain appreciable amounts of soluble tannins. Other tannin-rich extracts (red grape, red wine, and green tea) were also effective inhibitors of alpha-amylase. Indeed, removing tannins from strawberry extracts with gelatin also removed inhibition. Fractionation of raspberry extracts on Sephadex LH-20 produced an unbound fraction enriched in anthocyanins and a bound fraction enriched in tannin-like polyphenols. The unbound anthocyanin-enriched fraction was more effective against alpha-glucosidase than the original extract, whereas the alpha-amylase inhibitors were concentrated in the bound fraction. The LH-20 bound sample was separated by preparative HPLC, and fractions were assayed for inhibition of alpha-amylase. The inhibitory components were identified as ellagitannins using LC-MS-MS. This study suggests that different polyphenolic components of fruits may influence different steps in starch digestion in a synergistic manner. PMID:15796622

  8. Integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for the rotavirus enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Neung-Seon; Zeng, Carl Q-Y; Hyser, Joseph M; Utama, Budi; Crawford, Sue E; Kim, Kate J; Höök, Magnus; Estes, Mary K

    2008-07-01

    Rotavirus NSP4 is a viral enterotoxin capable of causing diarrhea in neonatal mice. This process is initiated by the binding of extracellular NSP4 to target molecule(s) on the cell surface that triggers a signaling cascade leading to diarrhea. We now report that the integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for NSP4. NSP4 specifically binds to the alpha1 and alpha2 I domains with apparent K(d) = 1-2.7 muM. Binding is mediated by the I domain metal ion-dependent adhesion site motif, requires Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), is abolished with EDTA, and an NSP4 point mutant, E(120)A, fails to bind alpha2 integrin I domain. NSP4 has two distinct integrin interaction domains. NSP4 amino acids 114-130 are essential for binding to the I domain, and NSP4 peptide 114-135 blocks binding of the natural ligand, collagen I, to integrin alpha2. NSP4 amino acids 131-140 are not associated with the initial binding to the I domain, but elicit signaling that leads to the spreading of attached C2C12-alpha2 cells, mouse myoblast cells stably expressing the human alpha2 integrin. NSP4 colocalizes with integrin alpha2 on the basolateral surface of rotavirus-infected polarized intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells as well as surrounding noninfected cells. NSP4 mutants that fail to bind or signal through integrin alpha2 were attenuated in diarrhea induction in neonatal mice. These results indicate that NSP4 interaction with integrin alpha1 and alpha2 is an important component of enterotoxin function and rotavirus pathogenesis, further distinguishing this viral virulence factor from other microbial enterotoxins. PMID:18587047

  9. Acid-induced dissociation of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin homopolymers.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A; Augusteyn, R C

    1993-01-01

    Homopolymers were constructed from the alpha A and alpha B polypeptides isolated from the lens protein alpha-crystallin. As the pH is lowered from 7.0 to 3.4, these homopolymers dissociate to smaller species with molecular masses ranging from 80 to 250 kDa for the alpha A and around 140 kDa for the alpha B dissociation products. The pKa for this dissociation was 3.8 +/- 0.2 for alpha A and 4.1 +/- 0.1 for alpha B homopolymers. Further decreases in pH, to 2.5, resulted in the presence of only denatured alpha B polypeptides, whereas the alpha A dissociation products remained intact. Fractionation of the acid dissociation products from the alpha A homopolymer at pH 2.5 yielded stable species with molecular masses of 220 +/- 30, 160 +/- 20, and 90 +/- 10 kDa. The majority of the population at acid pH consisted of the 160 kDa species. Conformational analysis of these species revealed that most of the secondary structure of the original alpha A homopolymer was retained but that the tertiary structure was perturbed. Fluorescence quenching and energy transfer measurements suggested that the molecule had undergone acid expansion, with the greatest perturbation observed in the smallest particles. The results from this work suggest that alpha A homopolymers are heterogeneous populations of aggregates of a "monomeric" molecule with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. This "monomeric" molecule may be formed from the association of two tetrameric units. PMID:8274652

  10. Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2005-05-19

    The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

  11. Beteigeuze (Alpha Orionis) und Mintaka (Delta Orionis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmann, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Magnitude measures transformed to Johnson V of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and Delta Orionis with a wide-angle lens and DSLR are presented and discussed. Alpha Orionis light changes are shown clearly. The primary and secondary eclipses of Delta Orionis with amplitudes of 0.12 and 0.05 mag respectively are clearly recorded. They occur near phase 0.00 and 0.50 respectively of current elements from VSX (2).

  12. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    A workshop on ``Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy`` was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference.

  13. Preparation and properties of (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2. 2. 2)oct-3-yl- (R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4-( sup 125 I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2. 2. 2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha- (4-( sup 125 I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate as potential radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, V.I.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Fan, L.H.; Reba, R.C. )

    1989-10-01

    rac-4-Nitrobenzilic acid was synthesized and resolved with quinidine and quinine to give the corresponding (R)- and (S)-salts. The resolved diastereomeric salts were converted to (R)- and (S)-4-nitrobenzilic acids and subsequent esterification gave their corresponding ethyl esters. Transesterification with (R)-(-)-3-quinuclidinol afforded (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha- (4-nitrophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy- alpha-(4-nitrophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. After hydrogenation, the (R,R)- and (R,S)-amines were converted to the respective triazene derivatives. The triazene derivatives reacted with sodium ({sup 125}I)iodide to give (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)- alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy- alpha-(4-(125I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. The evaluation of their affinities to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (MAcChR) shows that (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4- ({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate exhibits an affinity for the MAcChR from corpus striatum that is approximately threefold lower than that of (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4- ({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate.

  14. Alpha particle analysis using PEARLS spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McKlveen, J.W.; Klingler, G.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha particle assay by conventional plate-counting methods is difficult because chemical separation, tracer techniques, and/or self-absorption losses in the final sample may cause either non-reproducible results or create unacceptable errors. PEARLS (Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) Spectrometry is an attractive alternative since radionuclides may be extracted into a scintillator in which there would be no self-absorption or geometry problems and in which up to 100% chemical recovery and counting efficiency is possible. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillator. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to provide discrete alpha spectra and virtual absence of beta and gamma backgrounds. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 100 +-1% range. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. This paper will review liquid scintillation alpha counting methods and reference some of the specific applications. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Alpha-dispersion in human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G.

    2010-04-01

    Beta dispersion is found in living tissue in the kilohertz - megahertz range and is caused by the cellular structure of biological materials with low frequency properties caused by cell membranes. Alpha dispersion is found in the hertz range and the causes are not so well known. Alpha dispersions are the first to disappear when tissue dies. Tissue data have often been based upon excised specimen from animals and are therefore not necessarily representative for human tissue alpha dispersions. Here we present data obtained with non-invasive skin surface electrodes for different segments of the living human body. We found alpha dispersions in all cases; the ankle-wrist results had the smallest. Large alpha dispersions were found where the distance between the electrodes and muscle masses was small, e.g. on the calf. Further studies on electrode technique and reciprocity, electrode positioning, statistical variations, gender, age and bodily constitutions are necessary in order to reveal more about the alpha dispersion, its appearance and disappearance.

  16. [Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Camelier, Aquiles A; Winter, Daniel Hugo; Jardim, José Roberto; Barboza, Carlos Eduardo Galvão; Cukier, Alberto; Miravitlles, Marc

    2008-07-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a recently identified genetic disease that occurs almost as frequently as cystic fibrosis. It is caused by various mutations in the SERPINA1 gene, and has numerous clinical implications. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is mainly produced in the liver and acts as an antiprotease. Its principal function is to inactivate neutrophil elastase, preventing tissue damage. The mutation most commonly associated with the clinical disease is the Z allele, which causes polymerization and accumulation within hepatocytes. The accumulation of and the consequent reduction in the serum levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin cause, respectively, liver and lung disease, the latter occurring mainly as early emphysema, predominantly in the lung bases. Diagnosis involves detection of low serum levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin as well as phenotypic confirmation. In addition to the standard treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, specific therapy consisting of infusion of purified alpha-1 antitrypsin is currently available. The clinical efficacy of this therapy, which appears to be safe, has yet to be definitively established, and its cost-effectiveness is also a controversial issue that is rarely addressed. Despite its importance, in Brazil, there are no epidemiological data on the prevalence of the disease or the frequency of occurrence of deficiency alleles. Underdiagnosis has also been a significant limitation to the study of the disease as well as to appropriate treatment of patients. It is hoped that the creation of the Alpha One International Registry will resolve these and other important issues. PMID:18695797

  17. Methods for the synthesis and polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-p-xylenes

    DOEpatents

    Ferraris, John P.; Neef, Charles J.

    2002-07-30

    The present invention describes an improved method for the polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.-dihalo-p-xylene's such as the .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-xylene's. The procedure for synthesis is based on the specific order of addition of reagents and the use of an anionic initiator that allows control of the molecular weight of the polymer. The molecular weight control allows processability of the polymer which is important for its utility in applications including in light-emitting-diodes, field effect transistors and photovoltaic devices.

  18. Alpha-particle scattering from sup 6 Li near the. alpha. - d breakup threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, C.; Ghosh, S.; Lahiri, M. ); Ray, S. ); Banerjee, S.R. )

    1992-04-01

    The {sup 6}Li({alpha},{alpha}{prime}) reaction was studied at {ital E}{sub {alpha}}=50 MeV. The angular distribution of the continuum region near the {sup 6}Li{r arrow}{alpha}+{ital d} breakup threshold (1.475 MeV) was measured for {theta}{sub lab}=7{degree}--40{degree}. The data were analyzed in terms of plane-wave and distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations. To study the possible effects of recombination of the breakup clusters in the exit channel, distorted-wave Born approximation calculations were also performed.

  19. Contribution from 3 alpha-Condensed States to the Triple-Alpha Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Kurokawa, Chie; Arai, Koji

    2010-06-01

    The alpha-condensed state in nuclear systems has been proposed by Tohsaki et al. and has given rise to interesting discussions. The Hoyle state of {sup 12}C has been studied as the most typical example of such an alpha-condensed state. A new resonant 0{sub 3}{sup +} state (E{sub r} = 1.66 MeV, GAMMA = 1.48 MeV) is predicted as an excited alpha-condensed state in addition to the second 0{sup +} state of the Hoyle state by calculations of the 3 alpha orthogonality condition model (3 alpha OCM) using the complex scaling method. Based on this result, the breakup strengths of the inversion reaction for sequential ({sup 8}Be+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) and direct (alpha+alpha+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) processes are calculated. It is discussed that a large reaction strength calculated recently by Ogata et al. in non-resonant energies is considered as a contribution from the excited 0{sub 3}{sup +} state.

  20. Meperidine, remifentanil and tramadol but not sufentanil interact with alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor knock out mice brain.

    PubMed

    Höcker, Jan; Weber, Bernd; Tonner, Peter H; Scholz, Jens; Brand, Philipp-Alexander; Ohnesorge, Henning; Bein, Berthold

    2008-03-17

    alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists like clonidine or dexmedetomidine increase the sedative and analgesic actions of opioids. Furthermore opioids like meperidine show potent anti-shivering effects like alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are still poorly defined. The authors therefore studied the ability of four different opioids (meperidine, remifentanil, sufentanil and tramadol) to interact with different alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes in mice lacking individual alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- or alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2)-adrenoceptor knock out (alpha(2)-AR KO) mice)). The interaction of opioids with alpha(2)-adrenoceptors was investigated by quantitative receptor autoradiography in brain slices of alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- or alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor deficient mice. Displacement of the radiolabelled alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist [(125)I]-paraiodoclonidine ([(125)I]-PIC) from alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in different brain regions by increasing opioid concentrations was measured, and binding affinity of the analysed opioids to alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes in different brain regions was quantified. Meperidine, remifentanil and tramadol but not sufentanil provoked dose dependent displacement of specifically bound [(125)I]-PIC from all alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes in cortex, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, thalamus, hippocampus and pons. Required concentrations of meperidine and remifentanil for [(125)I]-PIC displacement from alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors were lower than from alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors, indicating higher binding affinity for alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. In contrast, [(125)I]-PIC displacement by tramadol indicated higher binding affinity to alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors than to alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. Our results indicate that meperidine, remifentanil and tramadol interact with alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in mouse brain showing different affinity for alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C

  1. Fibronectin receptor functions in embryonic cells deficient in alpha 5 beta 1 integrin can be replaced by alpha V integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J T; Hynes, R O

    1996-01-01

    alpha 5 beta 1 integrin mediates cell adhesion to extracellular matrix by interacting with fibronectin (FN). Mouse lines carrying null mutations in genes encoding either the alpha 5 integrin subunit or FN have been generated previously. Both mutations are embryonic lethal with overlapping defects, but the defects of alpha 5-null embryos are less severe. Primary embryonic cells lacking alpha 5 beta 1 are able to adhere to FN, form focal contacts, migrate on FN, and assemble FN matrix. These results suggest the involvement of (an)other FN receptors(s). In this study, we examined functions of alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha V integrins in embryonic cells lacking alpha 5 beta 1. Our analysis of cells lacking both alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 showed that alpha 4 beta 1 is also not required for these FN-dependent functions. Using alpha V-specific blocking reagents, we showed that alpha V integrins are required for alpha 5-null cells, but not wild-type cells, to adhere and spread on FN. Our data also showed that, although the expression levels of alpha V integrins on the wild-type and alpha 5-null cells are similar, there is an increase in recruitment of alpha V integrins into focal contacts in alpha 5-null cells plated on FN, indicating that alpha V integrins can compensate functionally for the loss of alpha 5 beta 1 in focal contacts of alpha 5-null cells. Finally, our data suggested possible roles for alpha V integrins in replacing the role of alpha 5 beta 1 in FN matrix assembly in vitro and in FN-dependent embryonic functions in vivo. Images PMID:8930896

  2. alpha-Thalassaemia in Tunisia: some epidemiological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Siala, H; Ouali, F; Messaoud, T; Bibi, A; Fattoum, S

    2008-12-01

    Unlike the other haemoglobinopathies, few researches have been published concerning alpha-thalassaemia in Tunisia. The aim of the present work is to acquire further data concerning alpha-thalassaemia prevalence and molecular defects spectrum in Tunisia, by collecting and studying several kinds of samples carrying alpha-thalassaemia. The first survey conducted on 529 cord blood samples using cellulose acetate electrophoresis, have displayed the prevalence of 7.38% Hb Bart's carriers at birth. Molecular analyses were conducted by PCR and DNA sequencing on 20 families' cases from the above survey carrying the Hb Bart's at birth and on 10 Hb H diseased patients. The results showed six alpha-globin gene molecular defects and were responsible for alpha-thalassaemia: -alpha(3.7), - -(MedI), alpha(TSaudi), alpha(2)(cd23GAG->Stop), Hb Greone Hart: alpha(1)(119CCT->TCT) corresponding to 11 genotypes out of which two are responsible for Hb H disease (- -(Med)/-alpha(3.7)) and (alpha(TSaudi)alpha/alpha(TSaudi)alpha) and a newly described polymorphism: alpha+6C->G. The geographical repartition of alpha-thal carriers showed that the -alpha3.7 deletion is distributed all over the country, respectively the alpha(HphI) and alpha(TSaudi) seem to be more frequent in the central region of the northeast region. The haematological and clinical data showed a moderate phenotype with a late age of diagnosis for Hb H disease. This work had permitted, in addition to an overview on alpha-thalassaemia in the country, the optimization of protocols for alpha-thalassaemia detection in our lab, allowing further investigations concerning phenotype-genotype correlation in sickle cell disease or beta-thalassaemia. PMID:19147907

  3. Profil epidemiologique des brulures d'enfants admis au Centre National des Brules, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, A.; Atannaz, J.; Alaoui, M.; Rafik, A.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Chlihi, A.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ce travail rétrospectif analyse les particularités épidémiologiques de 543 cas de brûlures d'enfants, représentant 45,7% des admissions de notre centre, en vue de déterminer les éléments pouvant contribuer à renforcer la prévention, qui reste le traitement de choix de cette pathologie. La moyenne d'âge est de 4,25 ans avec une prédilection pour la tranche d'âge d'un à cinq ans, avec 42,5% des cas. Une atteinte masculine est retrouvée dans 63,5% des cas. La brûlure survient à domicile dans 85,1% et accidentellement dans 95% des cas. Les brûlures thermiques représentent 96,5% des causes dominées par les liquides dans 69,3% des cas. La surface cutanée brûlée est ≥ 20% dans 52,3%. La brûlure intéresse essentiellement les membres supérieurs (79,1%). 56,8% des enfants sont transférés par d'autres hôpitaux et le délai de prise en charge hospitalière est supérieur à 6 heures dans 65,5%. Le taux de mortalité a été de 13,2%. PMID:22639559

  4. A Method for Maximizing the Internal Consistency Coefficient Alpha.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Michel

    This paper presents three different ways of computing the internal consistency coefficient alpha for a same set of data. The main objective of the paper is the illustration of a method for maximizing coefficient alpha. The maximization of alpha can be achieved with the aid of a principal component analysis. The relation between alpha max. and the…

  5. Alpha Com eclipse observing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-12-01

    Drs. Matthew W. Muterspaugh and Gregory W. Henry (Tennessee State University) have requested AAVSO observers' ssistance in monitoring the possible Algol-like binary star alpha Com before, during, and after the eclipse they have predicted for mid-to-late January 2015. The PIs will be using the Fairborn Observatory automated photometric telescopes on Mt. Hopkins, but they are requesting additional observations not only to supplement theirs but also specifically to have good coverage in the event of bad weather at Mt. Hopkins. Alf Com has a 26-year period and is 4.32V at maximum. The expected amplitude of the eclipse is about 0.8 magnitude and the duration somewhere between 28 and 45 hours. The eclipse is predicted for January 25 ± three days (JD 2457047 ± 3). Muterspaugh at al. first calculated the possibility of a 2015 eclipse in 2010 (AJ). Muterspaugh and Henry recently published an article with updated information (arXiv 2014). V and/or R photometry (other bands welcome) is requested, with a minimal cadence of one measurement/2 hours, to make sure the eclipse is caught right as it begins and to ensure having multiple data points on any unseen objects that might eclipse as well. During eclipse, continuous observations are important. Infrared (H-band) observations could be interesting, should the CHARA array image the event. The precision photometry in the weeks before and after the eclipse is requested in order to catch possible evidence for planets or other materials around the eclipsing star. Updated astrometry from the current epoch would greatly improve the eclipse preductions. Charts with comparison star sequence for alf Com may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). The PIs recommend using the comparison stars HD 113848 (39 Com, HR 4946, HIP 63948, V=5.990, B-V=0.39, F4V) and HD 114520 (HIP 64312, V=6.820, B-V=0.46,F2II). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See AAVSO Alert Notice 506

  6. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities of new steroidal antedrugs: [16alpha,17alpha-d] Isoxazoline and [16alpha,17alpha-d]-3'-hydroxy-iminoformyl isoxazoline derivatives of prednisolone and 9alpha-fluoroprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwan-K; Ko, Dong-H; You, Z; Khan, M Omar F; Lee, Henry J

    2006-03-01

    A series of new anti-inflammatory steroidal antedrugs with C-16,17-isoxazoline ring system were synthesized and their pharmacological activities were evaluated. We reported earlier that these compounds are promising antedrugs based on the results of 5-day rat croton oil ear edema assay. In the present study, most of these compounds showed high binding affinities to the glucocorticoid receptor of liver cytosol. 21-acetyloxy-9alpha-fluoro-11beta-hydroxy-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadieno [16alpha,17alpha-d] isoxazoline (FP-ISO-21AC) and 11beta,21-dihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadieno [16alpha,17alpha-d] isoxazoline (FP-ISO-21OH) were found 5.0-, 5.3-fold more potent than prednisolone, respectively. Inhibitory effects of the antedrugs on the nitric oxide (NO) production were assessed using LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. All these steroidal antedrugs exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of NO production, but their relative potencies were lower than prednisolone. In vitro metabolism study in rat plasma showed that FP-ISO-21AC and 21-acetyloxy-9alpha-fluoro-11beta-hydroxy-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadieno [16alpha,17alpha-d]-3'-hydroxyiminoformyl isoxazoline (FP-OXIM-21AC) were hydrolyzed rapidly, with the half-lives of 2.1 and 4.2 min, respectively. The half-lives of FP-ISO-21OH and 11beta,21-dihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadieno [16alpha,17alpha-d]-3'-hydroxyiminoformyl isoxazoline (FP-OXIM-21OH) were 92.2 and 110.2 min, respectively. PMID:16309722

  7. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  8. Alpha-keto and alpha-hydroxy branched-chain acid interrelationships in normal humans.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, L J; Taveroff, A; Robitaille, L; Mamer, O A; Reimer, M L

    1993-09-01

    Plasma concentrations of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, and those of leucine's and isoleucine's transamination products alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA) and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMVA), respectively, are known to increase after a protein meal or during extended fasting, but little or no increase in the concentration of valine's transamination product, alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIVA), has been observed under these conditions. To determine whether this could be explained by the conversion of KIVA to its alpha-hydroxy analogue, we measured the plasma concentrations of KICA, KMVA and KIVA, as well as their alpha-hydroxy analogues [alpha-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA), alpha-hydroxy-beta-methylvaleric acid (HMVA) and alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid (HIVA)], in normal volunteers immediately after a protein meal or during a 60-h fast. We also determined the oxidoreduction equilibrium constants for HIVA/KIVA and HICA/KICA and their extent of plasma protein binding. In subjects in the postabsorptive state, the plasma concentrations of KICA and KMVA were 100 times those of HICA and HMVA, whereas that of KIVA was only twice that of HIVA. Shortly after a protein meal, KICA and KMVA concentrations increased significantly by 30 and 60%, respectively, whereas that of KIVA decreased by 25% (P < 0.05). HICA, HMVA and HIVA concentrations did not change. During prolonged fasting the plasma concentrations of all six metabolites increased gradually. The high plasma keto/hydroxy acid ratios were not related to their K(eq), which favored alpha-hydroxy analogue formation. The reduction of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids to their alpha-hydroxy analogues seems to take place too slowly to attain thermodynamic equilibrium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8360777

  9. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  10. Overview Of Suborbital Human Transportation Concept Alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirim, H.; Pilz, N.; Marini, M.; Hendrick, P.; Schmid, M.; Behr, R.; Barth, T.; Tarfeld, F.; Wiegand, A.; Charbonnier, D.; Haya Ramos, R.; Steeland, J.; Mack, A.

    2011-05-01

    Within the EC co-funded project FAST20XX (Future high-Altitude high-Speed Transport 20XX), the European suborbital passenger transportation system concept ALPHA (Airplane Launched PHoenix Aircraft), which shall be based to a maximum extent on existing technologies and capabilities, is currently being investigated as collaborative project by a European consortium under coordination of ESA. The ALPHA concept incorporates an air-launch from a carrier aircraft, which shall be used as first stage. The ALPHA vehicle shall be capable of transporting up to four passengers plus one pilot to an altitude of at least 100 km. The ALPHA vehicle is a down-scaled version of the suborbital space transportation concept Hopper, which was already deeply investigated within the European FESTIP System Study and the German ASTRA program including the successfully flown experimental landing demonstrator Phoenix. This approach has allowed the use of existing aerodynamic vehicle data and has led to the adaptation of the external Hopper/Phoenix configuration for ALPHA. In FESTIP and ASTRA, the Hopper configuration showed sufficient stability margins. Due to the geometric similarity of the ALPHA and Hopper vehicles, a trimable and flyable configuration could be derived by means of ALPHA flight trajectory calculations. In its current configuration, the ALPHA vehicle has a length of ca. 9 m and a gross take-off mass of ca. 3.5 Mg. The launch, staging and separation of ALPHA shall be performed either as internal air-launch from the cargo bay of the carrier aircraft, as under-wing air-launch or as towed air-launch. After separation from the carrier aircraft, the ALPHA vehicle ignites its onboard rocket propulsion system. Since conventional liquid and solid propulsion did not seem suitable for ALPHA due to Their high cost, limited safety and toxicity, a low-cost, “green” and non-hazardous hybrid propulsion system based on liquid nitrous oxide in combination with a solid polymer fuel was

  11. Cancer radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Olivier; Supiot, Stéphane; Degraef-Mougin, Marie; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Carlier, Thomas; Chatal, Jean-François; Davodeau, François; Cherel, Michel

    2005-05-01

    In lymphoid malignancies and in certain solid cancers such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, somewhat mixed success has been achieved when applying radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with beta-emitters for the treatment of refractory cases. The development of novel RIT with alpha-emitters has created new opportunities and theoretical advantages due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the short path length in biological tissue of alpha-particles. These physical properties offer the prospect of achieving selective tumoural cell killing. Thus, RIT with alpha-emitters appears particularly suited for the elimination of circulating single cells or cell clusters or for the treatment of micrometastases at an early stage. However, to avoid non-specific irradiation of healthy tissues, it is necessary to identify accessible tumoural targets easily and rapidly. For this purpose, a small number of alpha-emitters have been investigated, among which only a few have been used for in vivo preclinical studies. Another problem is the availability and cost of these radionuclides; for instance, the low cost and the development of a reliable actinium-225/bismuth-213 generator were probably determining elements in the choice of bismuth-213 in the only human trial of RIT with an alpha-emitter. This article reviews the literature concerning monoclonal antibodies radiolabelled with alpha-emitters that have been developed for possible RIT in cancer patients. The principal radio-immunoconjugates are considered, starting with physical and chemical properties of alpha-emitters, their mode of production, the possibilities and difficulties of labelling, in vitro studies and finally, when available, in vivo preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:15841373

  12. A chimera-like alpha-amylase inhibitor suggesting the evolution of Phaseolus vulgaris alpha-amylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wato, S; Kamei, K; Arakawa, T; Philo, J S; Wen, J; Hara, S; Yamaguchi, H

    2000-07-01

    White kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contains two kinds of alpha-amylase inhibitors, one heat-stable (alpha AI-s) and one heat-labile (alpha AI-u). alpha AI-s has recently been revealed to be a tetrameric complex, alpha(2)beta(2), with two active sites [Kasahara et al. (1996) J. Biochem. 120, 177-183]. The present study was undertaken to reveal the molecular features of alpha AI-u, which is composed of three kinds of subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma. The gamma-subunit, in contrast to the alpha- and beta-subunits that are indistinguishable from the alpha- and beta-subunits of alpha AI-s, was found to correspond to a subunit of an alpha-amylase inhibitor-like protein, which has been identified as an inactive, evolutionary intermediate between arcelin and the alpha-amylase inhibitor in a P. vulgaris defense protein family. The polypeptide molecular weight of alpha AI-u determined by the light-scattering technique, together with the polypeptide molecular weights of the subunits, suggests that alpha AI-u is a trimeric complex, alpha beta gamma. The inhibition of alpha AI-u by increasing amounts of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) indicates that an inactive 1:1 complex is formed between alpha AI-u and PPA. Molecular weight estimation of the complex by the light-scattering technique confirmed that it is a complex of alpha AI-u with one PPA molecule. Thus it seems probable that alpha AI-u is an evolutionary intermediate of the P. vulgaris alpha-amylase inhibitor. PMID:10876168

  13. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid.

    PubMed

    Kakiyama, Genta; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hagey, Lee R; Schteingart, Claudio D; Hofmann, Alan F

    2006-07-01

    By HPLC, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus. The bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine N-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. The compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the taurine conjugate of authentic 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, previously synthesized by us from ursodeoxycholic acid. By HPLC, the taurine conjugate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid was found to be present in 6 of 6 species in the subfamily Dendrocygninae (tree ducks) and in 10 of 13 species in the subfamily Anserinae (swans and geese) but not in other subfamilies in the Anatidae family. It was also not present in species from the other two families of the order Anseriformes. 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid is a new primary bile acid that is present in the biliary bile acids of swans, tree ducks, and geese and may be termed 15alpha-hydroxy-chenodeoxycholic acid. PMID:16648547

  14. Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves

    SciTech Connect

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high nθ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

  15. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report. Fort Des Moines, Des Moines, Iowa. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.; Rausch, K.; Kang, J.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by The Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) at the Fort Des Moines, a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA Federal agencies are required to identify real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. Fort Des Moines is a 53.28-acre site located in Polk County, Iowa, within the city limits of Des Moines. The installation's primary mission is to provide support and shelter for the U.S. Army Reserve. Activities associated with the property that have environmental significance are photographic processing, vehicle maintenance, printing, and fuel storage. TETC reviewed existing investigation documents; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), State, and county regulatory records; environmental data bases; and title documents pertaining to Fort Des Moines during this investigation. In addition, TETC conducted interviews and visual inspections of Fort Des Moines as well as visual inspections and data base searches for the surrounding properties. Information in this CERFA Report was current as of April 1994.

  16. Amyloid formation and disaggregation of {alpha}-synuclein and its tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR)

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Song Yi; Kim, Seulgi; Hwang, Heejin; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Yoon, Hyun C.; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, SangYoon; Kim, T. Doohun

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Formation of the {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils by [BIMbF{sub 3}Im]. {yields} Disaggregation of amyloid fibrils by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. {yields} Amyloid formation of {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR). -- Abstract: The aggregation of {alpha}-synuclein is clearly related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, detailed understanding of the mechanism of fibril formation is highly valuable for the development of clinical treatment and also of the diagnostic tools. Here, we have investigated the interaction of {alpha}-synuclein with ionic liquids by using several biochemical techniques including Thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our data shows a rapid formation of {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils was stimulated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BIMbF{sub 3}Im], and these fibrils could be disaggregated by polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. Furthermore, the effect of [BIMbF{sub 3}Im] on the {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR) in the aggregation process was studied.

  17. Alpha-7 and alpha-4 nicotinic receptor subunit immunoreactivity in genioglossus muscle motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Ozra; Millis, Richard M; Dennis, Gary C; Coleman, Bernell R; Johnson, Sheree M; Changizi, Loubat; Ovid Trouth, C

    2005-02-15

    In the present study, immunohistochemistry combined with retrograde labeling techniques were used to determine if hypoglossal motoneurons (HMNs), retrogradely labeled after cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) injection to the genioglossus muscle in rats, show immunoreactivity for alpha-7 and alpha-4 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). CTB-positive HMNs projecting to the genioglossus muscle were consistently labeled throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the hypoglossal nuclei with the greatest labeling at and caudal to area postrema. Alpha-7 subunit immunoreactivity was found in 39.44+/-5.10% of 870 CTB-labeled motoneurons and the alpha-4 subunit in 51.01+/-3.71% of 983 CTB-positive neurons. Rostrally, the number of genioglossal motoneurons demonstrating immunoreactivity for the alpha-7 subunit was 45.85+/-10.04% compared to 34.96+/-5.11% at and caudal to area postrema (P>0.1). The number of genioglossal motoneurons that showed immunoreactivity for the alpha-4 subunit was 55.03+/-4.83% at and caudal to area postrema compared to 42.98+/-3.90% in rostral areas (P=0.074). These results demonstrate that nAChR immunoreactivity is present in genioglossal motoneurons and suggest a role for alpha-7 and alpha-4 subunits containing nAChRs in the regulation of upper airway patency. PMID:15705531

  18. Correcting Coefficient Alpha for Correlated Errors: Is [alpha][K]a Lower Bound to Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    When errors of measurement are positively correlated, coefficient alpha may overestimate the "true" reliability of a composite. To reduce this inflation bias, Komaroff (1997) has proposed an adjusted alpha coefficient, ak. This article shows that ak is only guaranteed to be a lower bound to reliability if the latter does not include correlated…

  19. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid,...

  2. Reaction of. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. ,omega-trihydroperfluoroalkanols with thionyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Krolevets, A.A.; Ragulin, L.I.; Popov, A.G.

    1987-06-10

    The effect of catalysts on the reaction of thionyl chloride with ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..,omega-trihydroperfluoroalkanols was investigated. It was shown that the use of calcium chloride, aluminum chloride, ferric chloride, and magnesium chloride as catalysts makes it possible to obtain polyfluoroalkyl chlorosulfites and bis(polyfluoroalkyl) sulfites with good yields.

  3. Experimental and Theoretical Electron Density Distribution of Alpha,Alpha-Trehalose Dihydrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha,alpha-rehalose is of interest because of its cryoprotective and antidessicant properties, and because it possesses various technical anomalies such as 13C NMR spectra that give misleading indications of intramolecular structural symmetry. It is a non-reducing disaccharide, with the glycosidic...

  4. Simultaneous measurements of the hydrogen airglow emissions of Lyman alpha, Lyman beta, and Balmer alpha.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, C. S.; Meier, R. R.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1971-01-01

    Comparison of Lyman-alpha, 740- to 1050-A, and Balmer-alpha airglow measurements made at 134 deg solar-zenith angle on Oct. 13, 1969, with resonance-scattering models of solar radiation. Model comparison with Lyman-alpha data fixes the hydrogen column abundance over 215 km to 2 x 10 to the 13th per cu cm within a factor of 2. Differences between the Lyman-alpha model and data indicate a polar-equatorial departure from spherical symmetry in the hydrogen distribution. A Lyman-beta model based on the hydrogen distribution found to fit the Lyman-alpha data fits the spatial variation of the 740- to 1050-A data well from 100 to 130 km, but it does not fit the data well at higher altitudes; thus the presence of more rapidly absorbed shorter-wavelength radiation is indicated. This same resonance-scattering model yields Balmer-alpha intensities that result in good spatial agreement with the Balmer-alpha measurements, but a fivefold increase in the measured solar line center Lyman-beta flux is required (as required for the Lyman-beta measurement). The intensity ratio of Lyman-beta and Balmer-alpha at night is found to be a simple measure of the hydrogen optical depth if measurements with good accuracy can be made in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum.

  5. Etude des phenomenes de penetration des especes chimiques dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisson, Pierre-Yves

    Cette these decrit l'etude effectuee sur les phenomenes d'insertion du sodium et de penetration du bain electrolytique dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium. L'etude fut effectuee a l'aide d'un montage permettant d'effectuer l'electrolyse en laboratoire. Trois types de revetement cathodiques furent etudies : des blocs semi-graphitique, des blocs graphitiques et des blocs graphitises. L'insertion du sodium dans les trois differents types de blocs fut etudiee a l'aide de la spectrometrie des photoelectrons X (XPS). L'analyse a permis de mettre en evidence deux formes de sodium dans l'anthracite et la phase liante des materiaux semi-graphitiques et graphitiques, indiquant qu'une fraction du sodium se retrouve sous forme adsorbee dans les micropores des materiaux alors que l'autre fraction est inseree dans la structure cristalline du carbone. Dans les phases graphitiques (materiaux graphitises et graphitiques), seuls les micropores sont occupes par le sodium Ce resultat explique la tendance observee selon laquelle l'ajout de graphite dans les blocs permet d'abaisser le gonflement sodique. Les mecanismes de penetration du bain dans le reseau poreux des materiaux furent etudies en microscopie electronique et en diffraction des rayons X sur des echantillons apres differents temps d'electrolyses et en variant l'atmosphere (soit sous argon ou sous azote). Ces analyses ont permis d'identifier le mecanisme conduisant a la mouillabilite du bain sur le carbone en fonction de l'atmosphere entourant l'electrolyse. Ainsi, sous azote, la formation de NaCN dans les pores des materiaux par reactions entre le sodium et l'azote permet une mouillabilite accrue du bain alors qu'en absence d'azote (sous argon), le carbure d'aluminium, formes a la surface des pores, joue un role similaire. Dans ce dernier cas, la penetration du bain est moins rapide etant donnee la necessite de toujours amener des especes contenant de l'aluminium en tete du front de

  6. Syntheses of alpha-tocopheryl glycosides by glucosidases.

    PubMed

    Ponrasu, Thangavel; Charles, Rajachristu Einstein; Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Divakar, Soundar

    2008-08-01

    Enzymatic syntheses of water-soluble alpha-tocopheryl glycosides were carried out in di-isopropyl ether using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold or beta-glucosidase isolated from sweet almond. Optimum conditions for the amyloglucosidase were: alpha-tocopherol 0.5 mmol, D-glucose 0.5 mmol, 400 activity unit (AU) amyloglucosidase, 0.2 mM pH 7 phosphate buffer and 72 h; and for the beta-glucosidase: alpha-tocopherol 0.5 mmol, D: -glucose 0.5 mmol, 110 AU beta-glucosidase, 0.1 mM pH 6 phosphate buffer and 72 h. Out of 11 carbohydrates employed, amyloglucosidase reacted only with D-glucose to give 50% of 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol. However, the beta-glucosidase gave 6-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol and 6-O-(beta-D-mannopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol in yields ranging from 10-25%. Water solubility of 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol was 26 g/l at 25 degrees C. alpha-Tocopheryl glycosides showed antioxidant activities with IC(50) values from 0.5 to 1 mM and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with IC(50) values from 1.3 to 2.6 mM. PMID:18368294

  7. Phosphorylation-independent stimulation of DNA topoisomerase II alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Saijo, M; Tanaka, M; Enomoto, T

    1996-05-01

    It has been suggested that casein kinase II phosphorylates DNA topoisomerase II alpha (topo II alpha) in mouse FM3A cells, by comparison of phosphopeptide maps of topo II alpha labeled in intact cells and of topo II alpha phosphorylated by various kinases in vitro. The phosphorylation of purified topo II alpha by casein kinase II, which attached a maximum of two phosphate groups per topo II alpha molecule, had no effect on the activity of topo II alpha. Dephosphorylation of purified topo II alpha by potato acid phosphatase, which almost completely dephosphorylated the topo II alpha, did not reduce the activity of topo II alpha. The incubation itself, regardless of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation status, stimulated the enzyme activity in both reactions. Topo II alpha activity was stimulated by incubation in a medium containing low concentrations of glycerol but not in that containing high concentrations of glycerol, such as the 50% in which purified topo II alpha is stored. The stimulation of topo II alpha activity by incubation was dependent on the concentration of topo II alpha, requiring a relatively high concentration of topo II alpha. PMID:8631919

  8. TRANSPLANTATION EN MASSE DES ORGANES ABDOMINAUX

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, T.

    2010-01-01

    Les transplantations multi-organes, comprenant les blocs foie-duodénum-pancréas, foie-estomac-duodénum-pancréas, et foie-intestin sont réalisées avec un succés croissant Ces techniques et leurs combinaisons variées de transplantation monobloc ne sont pas de pratique courante. Les techniques de prélévement, de conservation et de soins post-opératoires sont décrites pour la transplantation multi-organes compléte ainsi que pour les variantes incomplétes. Le probléme particulier à ce type de transplantation est celui de la transplantation intestinale, c’est-à-dire la transplantation d’un organe à composante lymphoréticulaire complexe ce qui peut provoquer un syndrome greffon contre hôte. Par erreur de conception, et un peu par esprit de systéme, les efforts par le passé étaient dirigés sur la modification et la destruction des systémes lymphoréticulaires grâce au traitement préalable du donneur ou des organes transplantés, par médicaments, radiation ou autres moyens. Actuellement, I’idée directrice est de garder intacte les systémes lymphoréticulaires qui deviennent alors le site d’une circulation à double sens aprés transplantation. Avec la puissante immunodépression que fournit le FK 506, les cellules lymphoréticulaires du donneur peuvent circuler chez le receveur sans créer de syndrome du greffon contre hôte clinique et les cellules de la greffe s’assimilent à celles du receveur (chimérisme local) sans provoquer de rejet. Même si I’on évite le rejet ou le syndrome greffon contre hôte, il existe, à côté de ces entités, des relations métaboliques entre les organes greffés ainsi qu’entre les organes greffés et les viscéres du receveur laissés en place, qui peuvent influencer I’avenir soit des organes greffés, soit des organes laissés en place. Parmi les échanges métaboliques les mieux connus actuellement, il y a les facteurs splanchniques hépatotrophes endogénes, dont I’insuline est la mieux

  9. {alpha}-nucleus potentials, {alpha}-decay half-lives, and shell closures for superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Peter

    2006-03-15

    Systematic {alpha}-nucleus folding potentials are used to analyze {alpha}-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei. Preformation factors of about several percent are found for all nuclei under study. The systematic behavior of the preformation factors and the volume integrals of the potentials allows predictions of {alpha}-decay energies and half-lives for unknown nuclei. Shell closures can be determined from measured {alpha}-decay energies using the discontinuity of the volume integral at shell closures. For the first time a double shell closure is predicted for Z{sub magic}=132,N{sub magic}=194, and A{sub magic}=326 from the systematics of folding potentials. The calculated {alpha}-decay half-lives remain far below 1 ns for superheavy nuclei with double shell closure and masses A>300 independent of the precise knowledge of the magic proton and neutron numbers.

  10. Alpha globin gene analysis in a Sardinian family with interacting alpha and beta thalassaemia genes.

    PubMed

    Melis, M A; Galanello, R; Cao, A

    1983-04-01

    This paper reports the results of alpha globin gene analysis in a Sardinian family with interacting alpha and beta thalassaemia genes. The propositus, who was identified in a newborn survey as he had 26.0% Hb Bart's and 74.0% Hb F, successively developed the clinical and haematological picture of a transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major. According to the haemoglobin pattern, restriction endonuclease analysis of the DNA from this patient showed the deletion of three of the four alpha-globin structural genes. Thus beta 0-thalassaemia homozygotes with the delection of three alpha-structural genes seem to have a severe clinical phenotype similar to that of patients with a full complement of four alpha-globin structural genes. PMID:6299325