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Sample records for des fiches ht

  1. 5-HT3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A. J.; Lummis, S. C. R.

    2009-01-01

    The 5-HT3 receptor is a member of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels. These receptors are located in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, where functional receptors are constructed from five subunits. These subunits may be the same (homopentameric 5-HT3A receptors) or different (heteropentameric receptors, usually comprising of 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B receptor subunits), with the latter having a number of distinct properties. The 5-HT3 receptor binding site is comprised of six loops from two adjacent subunits, and critical ligand binding amino acids in these loops have been largely identified. There are a range of selective agonists and antagonists for these receptors and the pharmacophore is reasonably well understood. There are also a wide range of compounds that can modulate receptor activity. Studies have suggested many diverse potential disease targets that might be amenable to alleviation by 5-HT3 receptor selective compounds but to date only two applications have been fully realised in the clinic: the treatment of emesis and irritable-bowel syndrome. PMID:17073663

  2. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative

  3. Endogenous 5-HT outflow from chicken aorta by 5-HT uptake inhibitors and amphetamine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    DELGERMURUN, Dugar; ITO, Shigeo; OHTA, Toshio; YAMAGUCHI, Soichiro; OTSUGURO, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreceptor cells aggregating in clusters in the chicken thoracic aorta contain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and have voltage-dependent ion channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are characteristics typically associated with neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 5-HT uptake inhibitors, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine and clomipramine (CLM), and amphetamine derivatives, p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and methamphetamine (MET), on endogenous 5-HT outflow from the isolated chick thoracic aorta in vitro. 5-HT was measured by using a HPLC system with electrochemical detection. The amphetamine derivatives and 5-HT uptake inhibitors caused concentration-dependent increases in endogenous 5-HT outflow. PCA was about ten times more effective in eliciting 5-HT outflow than MET. The 5-HT uptake inhibitors examined had similar potency for 5-HT outflow. PCA and CLM increased 5-HT outflow in a temperature-dependent manner. The outflow of 5-HT induced by PCA or 5-HT uptake inhibitors was independent of extracellular Ca2+ concentration. The 5-HT outflow induced by CLM, but not that by PCA, was dependent on the extracellular NaCl concentration. These results suggest that the 5-HT uptake system of 5-HT-containing chemoreceptor cells in the chicken thoracic aorta has characteristics similar to those of 5-HT-containing neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). PMID:26321443

  4. Endogenous 5-HT outflow from chicken aorta by 5-HT uptake inhibitors and amphetamine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Delgermurun, Dugar; Ito, Shigeo; Ohta, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Chemoreceptor cells aggregating in clusters in the chicken thoracic aorta contain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and have voltage-dependent ion channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are characteristics typically associated with neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 5-HT uptake inhibitors, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine and clomipramine (CLM), and amphetamine derivatives, p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and methamphetamine (MET), on endogenous 5-HT outflow from the isolated chick thoracic aorta in vitro. 5-HT was measured by using a HPLC system with electrochemical detection. The amphetamine derivatives and 5-HT uptake inhibitors caused concentration-dependent increases in endogenous 5-HT outflow. PCA was about ten times more effective in eliciting 5-HT outflow than MET. The 5-HT uptake inhibitors examined had similar potency for 5-HT outflow. PCA and CLM increased 5-HT outflow in a temperature-dependent manner. The outflow of 5-HT induced by PCA or 5-HT uptake inhibitors was independent of extracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The 5-HT outflow induced by CLM, but not that by PCA, was dependent on the extracellular NaCl concentration. These results suggest that the 5-HT uptake system of 5-HT-containing chemoreceptor cells in the chicken thoracic aorta has characteristics similar to those of 5-HT-containing neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). PMID:26321443

  5. Dielectric strength of parylene HT

    SciTech Connect

    Diaham, S. Bechara, M.; Locatelli, M.-L.; Khazaka, R.; Tenailleau, C.

    2014-02-07

    The dielectric strength of parylene HT (PA-HT) films was studied at room temperature in a wide thickness range from 500 nm to 50 μm and was correlated with nano- and microstructure analyses. X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy have revealed an enhancement of crystallization and spherulites development, respectively, with increasing the material thickness (d). Moreover, a critical thickness d{sub C} (between 5 and 10 μm) is identified corresponding to the beginning of spherulite developments in the films. Two distinct behaviors of the dielectric strength (F{sub B}) appear in the thickness range. For d ≥ d{sub C}, PA-HT films exhibit a decrease in the breakdown field following a negative slope (F{sub B} ∼ d{sup −0.4}), while for d < d{sub C}, it increases with increasing the thickness (F{sub B} ∼ d{sup 0.3}). An optimal thickness d{sub optim} ∼ 5 μm corresponding to a maximum dielectric strength (F{sub B} ∼ 10 MV/cm) is obtained. A model of spherulite development in PA-HT films with increasing the thickness is proposed. The decrease in F{sub B} above d{sub C} is explained by the spherulites development, whereas its increase below d{sub C} is induced by the crystallites growth. An annealing of the material shows both an enhancement of F{sub B} and an increase of the crystallites and spherulites dimensions, whatever the thickness. The breakdown field becomes thickness-independent below d{sub C} showing a strong influence of the nano-scale structural parameters. On the contrary, both nano- and micro-scale structural parameters appear as influent on F{sub B} for d ≥ d{sub C}.

  6. Dielectric strength of parylene HT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaham, S.; Bechara, M.; Locatelli, M.-L.; Khazaka, R.; Tenailleau, C.; Kumar, R.

    2014-02-01

    The dielectric strength of parylene HT (PA-HT) films was studied at room temperature in a wide thickness range from 500 nm to 50 μm and was correlated with nano- and microstructure analyses. X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy have revealed an enhancement of crystallization and spherulites development, respectively, with increasing the material thickness (d). Moreover, a critical thickness dC (between 5 and 10 μm) is identified corresponding to the beginning of spherulite developments in the films. Two distinct behaviors of the dielectric strength (FB) appear in the thickness range. For d ≥ dC, PA-HT films exhibit a decrease in the breakdown field following a negative slope (FB ˜ d-0.4), while for d < dC, it increases with increasing the thickness (FB ˜ d0.3). An optimal thickness doptim ˜ 5 μm corresponding to a maximum dielectric strength (FB ˜ 10 MV/cm) is obtained. A model of spherulite development in PA-HT films with increasing the thickness is proposed. The decrease in FB above dC is explained by the spherulites development, whereas its increase below dC is induced by the crystallites growth. An annealing of the material shows both an enhancement of FB and an increase of the crystallites and spherulites dimensions, whatever the thickness. The breakdown field becomes thickness-independent below dC showing a strong influence of the nano-scale structural parameters. On the contrary, both nano- and micro-scale structural parameters appear as influent on FB for d ≥ dC.

  7. Hydrostatic compaction of Microtherm HT.

    SciTech Connect

    Broome, Scott Thomas; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2010-09-01

    Two samples of jacketed Microtherm{reg_sign}HT were hydrostatically pressurized to maximum pressures of 29,000 psi to evaluate both pressure-volume response and change in bulk modulus as a function of density. During testing, each of the two samples exhibited large irreversible compactive volumetric strains with only small increases in pressure; however at volumetric strains of approximately 50%, the Microtherm{reg_sign}HT stiffened noticeably at ever increasing rates. At the maximum pressure of 29,000 psi, the volumetric strains for both samples were approximately 70%. Bulk modulus, as determined from hydrostatic unload/reload loops, increased by more than two-orders of magnitude (from about 4500 psi to over 500,000 psi) from an initial material density of {approx}0.3 g/cc to a final density of {approx}1.1 g/cc. An empirical fit to the density vs. bulk modulus data is K = 492769{rho}{sup 4.6548}, where K is the bulk modulus in psi, and {rho} is the material density in g/cm{sup 3}. The porosity decreased from 88% to {approx}20% indicating that much higher pressures would be required to compact the material fully.

  8. Fiches Pratiques (Practical Notes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debyser, Amina; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Techniques and class activities for French instruction are presented, including a press conference simulation, a game using noun families, a college-level contemporary fiction curriculum, and speed-reading techniques for beginning students. (MSE)

  9. Fiches pratiques (Practical Notes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francais dans le Monde, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Four classroom language activities aimed at different audiences and developed for honing different skills are described. These activities include an exercise in art appreciation, reconstruction of a fragmented text, a verb use exercise, and study of street art and slogans. (MSE)

  10. Fiches Pratiques (Practical Ideas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Francois; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Lists activities designed to improve students' skills in speaking, writing, singing, and grammar in a foreign language. These activities include talking about resolving a problem situation, writing a narrative in the foreign language being studied, listening to a song and associating its words with images, and engaging in conversation designed to…

  11. Fiches Pratiques (Practical Ideas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parizet, Marie-Louise; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses various class activities conducive to second-language learning. These include working on a legal document, group singing, a presentation on environmental pollution resulting from plastic bags, and listening to a tape on an organization and then posing and answering questions regarding dealings with that group. (CK)

  12. Fiches Pratiques (Practical Ideas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Store-Rao, Neelambari; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents various activities for use in the foreign language classroom. These include listening to songs to develop an awareness of intonation and rhythm, reading literature to learn the functions of relative pronouns, engaging in conversation to become proficient in a second language, and preparing a weather report to improve one's vocabulary…

  13. Fiche pratique: Choisir sa voix; Faites des transparents; Preparer un voyage d'entreprise; Radio reporter (Practical Ideas: Choosing a Voice; Make Transparencies; Preparing a Tour; Radio Reporting).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francais dans le Monde, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Four ideas for classroom French language instruction are described, including an exercise in selection of passive and active voice, a project in which students prepare transparencies for an oral presentation, an activity in which Italian students develop a tour for French visitors, and a radio broadcast project. (MSE)

  14. Differential interactions of dimethyltryptamine (DMT) with 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Deliganis, A V; Pierce, P A; Peroutka, S J

    1991-06-01

    The interactions of the indolealkylamine N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) with 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) and 5-HT2 receptors in rat brain were analyzed using radioligand binding techniques and biochemical functional assays. The affinity of DMT for 5-HT1A sites labeled by [3H]-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin ([3H]-8-OH-DPAT) was decreased in the presence of 10(-4) M GTP, suggesting agonist activity of DMT at this receptor. Adenylate cyclase studies in rat hippocampi showed that DMT inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclase activity, a 5-HT1A agonist effect. DMT displayed full agonist activity with an EC50 of 4 x 10(-6) M in the cyclase assay. In contrast to the agonist actions of DMT at 5-HT1A receptors, DMT appeared to have antagonistic properties at 5-HT2 receptors. The ability of DMT to compete for [3H]-ketanserin-labeled 5-HT2 receptors was not affected by the presence of 10(-4) M GTP, suggesting antagonist activity of DMT at 5-HT2 receptors. In addition, DMT antagonized 5-HT2-receptor-mediated phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover in rat cortex at concentrations above 10(-7) M, with 70% of the 5-HT-induced PI response inhibited at 10(-4) M DMT. Micromolar concentrations of DMT produced a slight PI stimulation that was not blocked by the 5-HT2 antagonist ketanserin. These studies suggest that DMT has opposing actions on 5-HT receptor subtypes, displaying agonist activity at 5-HT1A receptors and antagonist activity at 5-HT2 receptors. PMID:1828347

  15. Effects of metformin on intestinal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release and on 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Cubeddu, L X; Bönisch, H; Göthert, M; Molderings, G; Racké, K; Ramadori, G; Miller, K J; Schwörer, H

    2000-01-01

    Nearly 30% of patients treated with metformin experience gastrointestinal side effects. Since release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from the intestine is associated with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, we examined whether metformin induces 5-HT release from the intestinal mucosa. In 40% of tissue biopsy specimens of human duodenal mucosa, metformin (1, 10, and 30 microM) caused an increase in 5-HT outflow by 35, 70, and 98%, respectively. Peak increases in 5-HT outflow were observed after 10-15 min exposure to metformin, returning to baseline levels after 25 min. Tetrodotoxin (1 microM) reduced by about 50% the metformin-evoked increase in 5-HT outflow (P<0.05). Metformin-evoked release was not affected by scopolamine + hexamethonium, propranolol, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist dolasetron, naloxone, or the NK1 receptor antagonist L703606. In the presence of tetrodotoxin (1 microM), somatostatin (1 microM) further reduced metformin-induced 5-HT release by 15-20%. In view of the 5-HT releasing effects of selective 5-HT3 receptor agonists to which metformin (N-N-dimethylbiguanide) is structurally related, we investigated whether metformin directly interacts with 5-HT3 receptors. Receptor binding (inhibition of [3H]-GR65630 binding) and agonist effects (stimulation of [14C]-guanidinium influx) at 5-HT3 receptors were studied in murine neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells, which express functional 5-HT3 receptors. Metformin up to 0.3 mM failed to inhibit [3H]-GR65630 binding and to modify displacement of [3H]-GR65630 binding induced by 5-HT. 5-HT (3 microM) stimulated the influx of [14C]-guanidinium in intact N1E-115 cells. Metformin up to 1 mM failed to modify basal influx, 5-HT-induced influx, and 5-HT+ substance P-induced influx of [14C]-guanidinium. Our results indicate that metformin induces 5-HT3 receptor-independent release of 5-HT from human duodenal mucosa via neuronal and non-neuronal mechanisms. Part of the gastrointestinal side effects observed during treatment with

  16. 5-HT6 receptors and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, the 5-HT6 receptor has received increasing attention and become a promising target for improving cognition. Several studies with structurally different compounds have shown that not only antagonists but also 5-HT6 receptor agonists improve learning and memory in animal models. A large number of publications describing the development of ligands for this receptor have come to light, and it is now quite evident that 5-HT6 receptors have great pharmaceutical potential in terms of related patents. However, 5-HT6 receptor functionality is much more complex than initially defined. According to the existing data, different cellular pathways may be activated, depending on the drug being used. This article reviews preclinical and clinical evidence of the effects that 5-HT6 receptor compounds have on cognition. In addition, the biochemical and neurochemical mechanisms of action through which 5-HT6 receptor compounds can influence cognition will be described. Overall, several 5-HT6-targeted compounds can reasonably be regarded as powerful drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23607787

  17. Characterization of a ( sub 3 H)-5-hydroxtyryptamine binding site in rabbit caudate nucleus that differs from the 5-HT sub 1A , 5-HT sub 1B , 5-HT sub 1C and 5-HT sub 1D subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Wencheng; Nelson, D.L. )

    1989-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)5-HT binding sites were analyzed in membranes prepared from the rabbit caudate nucleus (CN). ({sup 3}H)5-HT labeled both 5-HT{sub 1A} and 5-HT{sub 1C} recognition sites, defined by nanomolar affinity for 8-OH-DPAT and mesulergine respectively; however, these represented only a fraction of total specific ({sup 3}H)5-HT binding. Saturation experiments of ({sup 3}H)5-HT binding in the presence of 100 nM 8-OH-DPAT and 100 nM mesulergine to block 5-HT{sub 1A} and 5-HT{sub 1C} sites revealed that non-5-HT{sub 1A}/non-5-HT{sub 1C} sites represented about 60% of the total 5-HT{sub 1} sites and that they exhibited saturable, high affinity, and homogeneous binding. The pharmacological profile of the non-5-HT{sub 1A}/non-5-HT{sub 1C} sites (designated 5-HT{sub 1R}) also differed from that of 5-HT{sub 1B} and 5-HT{sub 2} sites, but was similar to that of the 5-HT{sub 1D} site. However, significant differences existed between the 5-HT{sub 1D} and 5-HT{sub 1B} sites for their K{sub i} values for spiperone, spirilene, metergoline, and methiothepin. The study of modulatory agents also showed differences between the 5-HT{sub 1R} and 5-HT{sub 1D} sites. In addition, calcium enhanced the effects of GTP on the 5-HT{sub 1R} sites, whereas calcium inhibited the GTP effect on the 5-HT{sub 1D} sites.

  18. Serotonin receptor diversity in the human colon: Expression of serotonin type 3 receptor subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E

    PubMed Central

    Kapeller, Johannes; Möller, Dorothee; Lasitschka, Felix; Autschbach, Frank; Hovius, Ruud; Rappold, Gudrun; Brüss, Michael; Gershon, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Since the first description of 5-HT3 receptors more than 50 years ago, there has been speculation about the molecular basis of their receptor heterogeneity. We have cloned the genes encoding novel 5-HT3 subunits 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E and have shown that these subunits are able to form functional heteromeric receptors when coexpressed with the 5-HT3A subunit. However, whether these subunits are actually expressed in human tissue remained to be confirmed. In the current study, we performed immunocytochemistry to locate the 5-HT3A as well as the 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits within the human colon. Western blot analysis was used to confirm subunit expression, and RT-PCR was employed to detect transcripts encoding 5-HT3 receptor subunits in microdissected tissue samples. This investigation revealed, for the first time, that 5-HT3C, 5-HT3D, and 5-HT3E subunits are coexpressed with 5-HT3A in cell bodies of myenteric neurons. Furthermore, 5-HT3A and 5-HT3D were found to be expressed in submucosal plexus of the human large intestine. These data provide a strong basis for future studies of the roles that specific 5-HT3 receptor subtypes play in the function of the enteric and central nervous systems and the contribution that specific 5-HT3 receptors make to the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia. PMID:21192076

  19. TARS-HT1 and TARS-HT2 heat-tolerant dry bean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TARS-HT1 (Reg no. __, PI ___) and TARS-HT2 (Reg no. __, PI ___) are heat tolerant dark red and light red, respectively, kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS), the University of Puerto Rico, Cornell University, and th...

  20. Design and synthesis of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Edward; Zhu, Xue Y; Etukala, Jagan R; Peprah, Kwakye; Jordan, Kamanski R; Adkins, Adia A; Bricker, Barbara A; Kang, Hye J; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2016-08-15

    5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors have been at the center of discussions recently due in part to their major role in the etiology of major central nervous system diseases such as depression, sleep disorders, and schizophrenia. As part of our search to identify dual targeting ligands for these receptors, we have carried out a systematic modification of a selective 5HT7 receptor ligand culminating in the identification of several dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands. Compound 16, a butyrophenone derivative of tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ), was identified as the most potent agent with low nanomolar binding affinities to both receptors. Interestingly, compound 16 also displayed moderate affinity to other clinically relevant dopamine receptors. Thus, it is anticipated that compound 16 may serve as a lead for further exploitation in our quest to identify new ligands with the potential to treat diseases of CNS origin. PMID:27312422

  1. Intrathecal 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in mice modulates 5-HT1 and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Alhaider, A A; Hamon, M; Wilcox, G L

    1993-11-01

    The antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), a potent 5-HT receptor agonist, were studied in three behavioral tests in mice: the tail-flick test and the intrathecal substance P and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) assays. Intrathecal administration of 5-MeO-DMT (4.6-92 nmol/mouse) produced a significant prolongation of the tail-flick latency. This action was blocked by 5-HT3 and gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor antagonists but not by 5-HT2, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1S receptor antagonists. Binding studies indicated that 5-MeO-DMT had very low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors. 5-MeO-DMT inhibited biting behavior while increasing scratching behavior induced by intrathecally administered substance P. The inhibition of biting behavior was antagonized by intrathecal co-administration of 5-HT1B and GABAA receptor antagonists while 5-HT1A, 5-HT1S, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists had no effect. 5-MeO-DMT-enhanced scratching behavior was inhibited by all the antagonists used except ketanserin and bicuculline, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1S, 5-HT3 and GABAA receptors. NMDA-induced biting behavior was inhibited by 5-MeO-DMT pretreatment; this action was antagonized by 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 and GABAA receptor antagonists. The involvement of these receptors in 5-MeO-DMT action suggests that it may promote release of 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin). PMID:7507056

  2. Measuring straight line segments using HT butterflies.

    PubMed

    Du, Shengzhi; Tu, Chunling; van Wyk, Barend J; Ochola, Elisha Oketch; Chen, Zengqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently proposed to employ these relationships in order to discover the parameters of segments. Power line inspection is considered as an application of the proposed method. The application demonstrates that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection, especially for corner detection when they cross poles. PMID:22479442

  3. Transient failure behavior of HT9

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.H.

    1994-07-01

    Alloy HT9 has-been chosen as candidate materials for fast and fusion reactor applications because the.material exhibits excellent resistance to void swelling. However, ferritic alloys are known to undergo a ductile-brittle transition as the test temperature is decreased. This inherent problem has limited their applications to reactor component materials subjected to low neutron exposures. Despite the ductile-brittle transition problem, results show that the materials exhibit superior resistance to fracture under very high neutron fluences at irradiation temperatures above 380C. Results also show that the transient behavior for HT9 cladding specimens taken from the fuel column region and cladding taken from outside the fuel column or unirradiated cladding are the same. HT9 cladding maintained its transient strength with irradiation to a fluence of 9 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV).

  4. Constitutively Active 5-HT Receptors: An Explanation of How 5-HT Antagonists Inhibit Gut Motility in Species Where 5-HT is Not an Enteric Neurotransmitter?

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Nick J.

    2015-01-01

    Antagonists of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors are well known to inhibit gastrointestinal (GI)-motility and transit in a variety of mammals, including humans. Originally, these observations had been interpreted by many investigators (including us) as evidence that endogenous 5-HT plays a major role in GI motility. This seemed a logical assumption. However, the story changed dramatically after recent studies revealed that 5-HT antagonists still blocked major GI motility patterns (peristalsis and colonic migrating motor complexes) in segments of intestine depleted of all 5-HT. Then, these results were further supported by Dr. Gershons' laboratory, which showed that genetic deletion of all genes that synthesizes 5-HT had minor, or no inhibitory effects on GI transit in vivo. If 5-HT was essential for GI motility patterns and transit, then one would expect major disruptions in motility and transit when 5-HT synthesis was genetically ablated. This does not occur. The inhibitory effects of 5-HT antagonists on GI motility clearly occur independently of any 5-HT in the gut. Evidence now suggests that 5-HT antagonists act on 5-HT receptors in the gut which are constitutively active, and don't require 5-HT for their activation. This would explain a long-standing mystery of how 5-HT antagonists inhibit gut motility in species like mice, rats, and humans where 5-HT is not an enteric neurotransmitter. Studies are now increasingly demonstrating that the presence of a neurochemical in enteric neurons does not mean they function as neurotransmitters. Caution should be exercised when interpreting any inhibitory effects of 5-HT antagonists on GI motility. PMID:26732863

  5. The 5-HT1-like receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor outflow in the pithed rat: operational correlation with the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, Carlos M; Centurión, David; Rabelo, Gonzalo; de Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R; Sánchez-López, Araceli

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that the inhibition of sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses produced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in pithed rats is mediated by 5-HT1-like receptors. The present study has re-analysed this suggestion with regard to the classification schemes recently proposed by the NC-IUPHAR subcommittee on 5-HT receptors.Intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of 5-HT and the 5-HT1 receptor agonists, 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A), indorenate (5-HT1A), CP 93,129 (5-HT1B) and sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D), resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses.The sympatho-inhibitory responses induced by 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT, indorenate, CP 93,129 or sumatriptan were analysed before and after i.v. treatment with blocking doses of the putative 5-HT receptor antagonists, WAY 100635 (5-HT1A), cyanopindolol (5-HT1A/1B) or GR 127935 (5-HT1B/1D). Thus, after WAY 100635, the responses to 5-HT and indorenate, but not to 8-OH-DPAT, CP 93,129 and sumatriptan, were blocked. After cyanopindolol, the responses to 5-HT, indorenate and CP 93,129 were abolished, whilst those to 8-OH-DPAT and sumatriptan (except at the lowest frequency of stimulation) remained unaltered. In contrast, after GR 127935, the responses to 5-HT, CP 93,129 and sumatriptan, but not to 8-OH-DPAT and indorenate, were abolished.In additional experiments, the inhibition induced by 5-HT was not modified after 5-HT7 receptor blocking doses of mesulergine.The above results suggest that the 5-HT1-like receptors, which inhibit the sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats, display the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D, but not that of 5-HT7, receptors. PMID:9692787

  6. 5-HT4 and 5-HT2 receptors antagonistically influence gap junctional coupling between rat auricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Derangeon, Mickaël; Bozon, Véronique; Defamie, Norah; Peineau, Nicolas; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Sarrouilhe, Denis; Argibay, Jorge A; Hervé, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT(4)) receptors have been proposed to contribute to the generation of atrial fibrillation in human atrial myocytes, but it is unclear if these receptors are present in the hearts of small laboratory animals (e.g. rat). In this study, we examined presence and functionality of 5-HT(4) receptors in auricular myocytes of newborn rats and their possible involvement in regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC, responsible for the cell-to-cell propagation of the cardiac excitation). Western-blotting assays showed that 5-HT(4) receptors were present and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that 5-HT(4b) was the predominant isoform. Serotonin (1 microM) significantly reduced cAMP concentration unless a selective 5-HT(4) inhibitor (GR113808 or ML10375, both 1 microM) was present. Serotonin also reduced the amplitude of L-type calcium currents and influenced the strength of GJIC without modifying the phosphorylation profiles of the different channel-forming proteins or connexins (Cxs), namely Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45. GJIC was markedly increased when serotonin exposure occurred in presence of a 5-HT(4) inhibitor but strongly reduced when 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors were inhibited, showing that activation of these receptors antagonistically regulated GJIC. The serotoninergic response was completely abolished when 5-HT(4), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) were simultaneously inhibited. A 24 h serotonin exposure strongly reduced Cx40 expression whereas Cx45 was less affected and Cx43 still less. In conclusion, this study revealed that 5-HT(4) (mainly 5-HT(4b)), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors coexisted in auricular myocytes of newborn rat, that 5-HT(4) activation reduced cAMP concentration, I(Ca)(L) and intercellular coupling whereas 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2B) activation conversely enhanced GJIC. PMID:19615378

  7. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  8. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding.

    PubMed

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Jensen, Peter Steen; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2016-04-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well as BPAQ physical aggression (P = 0.025). No main effect of global 5-HT4R on trait aggression or impulsivity was found in the mixed gender sample, but there was evidence for sex interaction effects in the relationship between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ physical aggression. In conclusion we found that low cerebral 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4R binding were associated with high trait aggression in males, but not in females. PMID:26772668

  9. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) Cellular Sequestration during Chronic Exposure Delays 5-HT3 Receptor Resensitization due to Its Subsequent Release*

    PubMed Central

    Hothersall, J. Daniel; Alexander, Amy; Samson, Andrew J.; Moffat, Christopher; Bollan, Karen A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic synapse is dynamically regulated by serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) with elevated levels leading to the down-regulation of the serotonin transporter and a variety of 5-HT receptors, including the 5-HT type-3 (5-HT3) receptors. We report that recombinantly expressed 5-HT3 receptor binding sites are reduced by chronic exposure to 5-HT (IC50 of 154.0 ± 45.7 μm, t½ = 28.6 min). This is confirmed for 5-HT3 receptor-induced contractions in the guinea pig ileum, which are down-regulated after chronic, but not acute, exposure to 5-HT. The loss of receptor function does not involve endocytosis, and surface receptor levels are unaltered. The rate and extent of down-regulation is potentiated by serotonin transporter function (IC50 of 2.3 ± 1.0 μm, t½ = 3.4 min). Interestingly, the level of 5-HT uptake correlates with the extent of down-regulation. Using TX-114 extraction, we find that accumulated 5-HT remains soluble and not membrane-bound. This cytoplasmically sequestered 5-HT is readily releasable from both COS-7 cells and the guinea pig ileum. Moreover, the 5-HT level released is sufficient to prevent recovery from receptor desensitization in the guinea pig ileum. Together, these findings suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of down-regulation where the chronic release of sequestered 5-HT prolongs receptor desensitization. PMID:25281748

  10. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT2A receptor agonists suppress lipolysis in primary rat adipose cells.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Björn; Medina, Anya; Fryklund, Claes; Fex, Malin; Stenkula, Karin G

    2016-05-27

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a biogenic monoamine that functions both as a neurotransmitter and a circulating hormone. Recently, the metabolic effects of 5-HT have gained interest and peripheral 5-HT has been proposed to influence lipid metabolism in various ways. Here, we investigated the metabolic effects of 5-HT in isolated, primary rat adipose cells. Incubation with 5-HT suppressed β-adrenergically stimulated glycerol release and decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent substrates, hormone sensitive lipase (Ser563) and perilipin (Ser522). The inhibitory effect of 5-HT on lipolysis enhanced the anti-lipolytic effect of insulin, but sustained in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, OPC3911 and isobuthylmethylxanthine (IBMX). The relative expression of 5-HT1A, -2B and -4 receptor class family were significantly higher in adipose tissue compared to adipose cells, whereas 5-HT1D, -2A and -7 were highly expressed in isolated adipose cells. Similar to 5-HT, 5-HT2 receptor agonists reduced lipolysis while 5-HT1 receptor agonists rather decreased non-stimulated and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Together, these data provide evidence of a direct effect of 5-HT on adipose cells, where 5-HT suppresses lipolysis and glucose uptake, which could contribute to altered systemic lipid- and glucose metabolism. PMID:27109474

  11. Circadian 5-HT production regulated by adrenergic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xing; Deng, Jie; Liu, Tiecheng; Borjigin, Jimo

    2002-01-01

    Using on-line microdialysis, we have characterized in vivo dynamics of pineal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) release. Daily pineal 5-HT output is triphasic: (i) 5-HT levels are constant and high during the day; (ii) early in the night, there is a novel sharp rise in 5-HT synthesis and release, which precedes the nocturnal rise in melatonin synthesis; and (iii) late in the night, levels are low. This triphasic 5-HT production persists in constant darkness and is influenced strongly by intrusion of light at night. We demonstrate that both diurnal 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT release are activated by sympathetic innervation from the superior cervical ganglion and show that these processes are controlled by distinct receptors. The increase in 5-HT synthesis is controlled by β-adrenergic receptors, whereas the increase in 5-HT release is mediated by α-adrenergic signaling. On the other hand, the marked decrease in 5-HT content and release late at night is a passive process, influenced by the extent of melatonin synthesis. In the absence of melatonin synthesis, the late-night decline in 5-HT release is prevented, reaching levels roughly twice as high as that of the day value. In summary, our results demonstrate that 5-HT levels display marked circadian rhythms that depend on adrenergic signaling. PMID:11917109

  12. Recombinant HT.sub.m4 gene, protein and assays

    DOEpatents

    Lim, Bing; Adra, Chaker N.; Lelias, Jean-Michel

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which encodes a HT.sub.m4 protein, a transformed host cell which has been stably transfected with a DNA molecule which encodes a HT.sub.m4 protein and a recombinant HT.sub.m4 protein. The invention also relates to a method for detecting the presence of a hereditary atopy.

  13. Antibodies specific for HT.sub.m4

    DOEpatents

    Lim, Bing; Adra, Chaker N.; Lelias, Jean-Michel

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which encodes a HT.sub.m4 protein, a transformed host cell which has been stably transfected with a DNA molecule which encodes a HT.sub.m4 protein and a recombinant HT.sub.m4 protein. The invention also relates to a method for detecting the presence of a hereditary atopy.

  14. Aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines as 5-HT7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Kim, Youngjae; Tae, Jinsung; Yeom, Miyoung; Moon, Bongjin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Lee, Kangho; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Il Han; Chong, Youhoon; Keum, Gyochang; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choo, Hyunah

    2013-11-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7 R) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of depression and neuropathic pain. The 5-HT7 R antagonist SB-269970 exhibited antidepressant-like activity, whereas systemic administration of the 5-HT7 R agonist AS-19 significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. In our efforts to discover selective 5-HT7 R antagonists or agonists, aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated against the 5-HT7 R. Among the synthesized compounds, 1-([2'-methoxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl]methyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (28) was the best binder to the 5-HT7 R (pKi =7.83), and its antagonistic property was confirmed by functional assays. The selectivity profile of compound 28 was also recorded for the 5-HT7 R over other serotonin receptor subtypes, such as 5-HT1 R, 5-HT2 R, 5-HT3 R, and 5-HT6 R. In a molecular modeling study, the 2-methoxyphenyl moiety attached to the piperazine ring of compound 28 was proposed to be essential for the antagonistic function. PMID:24039134

  15. The 5-HT3B subunit affects high-potency inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors by morphine

    PubMed Central

    Baptista-Hon, Daniel T; Deeb, Tarek Z; Othman, Nidaa A; Sharp, Douglas; Hales, Tim G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Morphine is an antagonist at 5-HT3A receptors. 5-HT3 and opioid receptors are expressed in many of the same neuronal pathways where they modulate gut motility, pain and reinforcement. There is increasing interest in the 5-HT3B subunit, which confers altered pharmacology to 5-HT3 receptors. We investigated the mechanisms of inhibition by morphine of 5-HT3 receptors and the influence of the 5-HT3B subunit. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH 5-HT-evoked currents were recorded from voltage-clamped HEK293 cells expressing human 5-HT3A subunits alone or in combination with 5-HT3B subunits. The affinity of morphine for the orthosteric site of 5-HT3A or 5-HT3AB receptors was assessed using radioligand binding with the antagonist [3H]GR65630. KEY RESULTS When pre-applied, morphine potently inhibited 5-HT-evoked currents mediated by 5-HT3A receptors. The 5-HT3B subunit reduced the potency of morphine fourfold and increased the rates of inhibition and recovery. Inhibition by pre-applied morphine was insurmountable by 5-HT, was voltage-independent and occurred through a site outside the second membrane-spanning domain. When applied simultaneously with 5-HT, morphine caused a lower potency, surmountable inhibition of 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors. Morphine also fully displaced [3H]GR65630 from 5-HT3A and 5-HT3AB receptors with similar potency. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings suggest that morphine has two sites of action, a low-affinity, competitive site and a high-affinity, non-competitive site that is not available when the channel is activated. The affinity of morphine for the latter is reduced by the 5-HT3B subunit. Our results reveal that morphine causes a high-affinity, insurmountable and subunit-dependent inhibition of human 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:21740409

  16. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Stocker, Claire J; Wargent, Edward T; Cripps, Roselle L; Garfield, Alastair S; Jovanovic, Zorica; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Yeo, Giles S H; Cawthorne, Michael A; Arch, Jonathan R S; Heisler, Lora K; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-04-01

    Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus ofin uterogrowth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist. PMID:26769798

  17. 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors as hypothalamic targets of developmental programming in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; Stocker, Claire J.; Wargent, Edward T.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Garfield, Alastair S.; Jovanovic, Zorica; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Yeo, Giles S. H.; Cawthorne, Michael A.; Arch, Jonathan R. S.; Heisler, Lora K.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life. Consistent with our hypothesis, pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet exhibited elevated serum levels of 5-HT, which was also evident in the placenta and fetal brains at embryonic day 16.5. This increase was associated with reduced levels of 5-HT2CR, the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite, in the fetal, neonatal and adult hypothalamus. As expected, a reduction of 5-HT2CR was associated with impaired sensitivity to 5-HT-mediated appetite suppression in adulthood. 5-HT primarily achieves effects on appetite by 5-HT2CR stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). We show that 5-HT2ARs are also anatomically positioned to influence the activity of ARC POMC neurons and that mRNA encoding 5-HT2AR is increased in the hypothalamus of in utero growth-restricted offspring that underwent rapid postnatal catch-up growth. Furthermore, these animals at 3 months of age are more sensitive to appetite suppression induced by 5-HT2AR agonists. These findings not only reveal a 5-HT-mediated mechanism underlying the programming of susceptibility to obesity, but also provide a promising means to correct it, by treatment with a 5-HT2AR agonist. PMID:26769798

  18. Arterial expression of 5-HT2B and 5-HT1B receptors during development of DOCA-salt hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Banes, Amy KL; Watts, Stephanie W

    2003-01-01

    Background 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2B and 5-HT1B receptors are upregulated in arteries from hypertensive DOCA-salt rats and directly by mineralocorticoids. We hypothesized that increased 5-HT2B and 5-HT1B receptor density and contractile function would precede increased blood pressure in DOCA-high salt rats. We performed DOCA-salt time course (days 1, 3, 5 and 7) studies using treatment groups of: DOCA-high salt, DOCA-low salt, Sham and Sham-high salt rats. Results In isolated-tissue baths, DOCA-high salt aorta contracted to the 5-HT2B receptor agonist BW723C86 on day 1; Sham aorta did not contract. The 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP93129 had no effect in arteries from any group. On days 3, 5 and 7 CP93129 and BW723C86 contracted DOCA-high salt and Sham-high salt aorta; Sham and DOCA-low salt aorta did not respond. Western analysis of DOCA-high salt aortic homogenates revealed increased 5-HT2B receptor levels by day 3; 5-HT1B receptor density was unchanged. Aortic homogenates from the other groups showed unchanged 5-HT2B and 5-HT1B receptor levels. Conclusion These data suggest that functional changes of 5-HT2B but not 5-HT1B receptors may play a role in the development of DOCA-salt hypertension. PMID:12974983

  19. Chronic activation of 5-HT4 receptors or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors improve memory performances.

    PubMed

    Quiedeville, Anne; Boulouard, Michel; Hamidouche, Katia; Da Silva Costa-Aze, Virginie; Nee, Gerald; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick; Fabis, Frédéric; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine

    2015-10-15

    5-HT4 and 5-HT6 serotonergic receptors are located in brain structures involved in memory processes. Neurochemical and behavioural studies have demonstrated that acute activation of 5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) or blockade of 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) improves memory. To evaluate the potential of these two receptors as targets in the treatment of memory disorders encountered in several situations (ageing, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, etc.), it is necessary to assess whether their beneficial effects occur after chronic administration, and if such treatment induces adverse effects. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of chronic 5-HT4R or 5-HT6R modulation on recognition memory, and to observe the possible manifestation of side effects (modification of weight gain, locomotor activity or exploratory behaviour, etc.). Mice were treated for 14 days with a 5-HT4R partial agonist (RS-67333) or a 5-HT6R antagonist (SB-271046) at increasing doses. Memory performances, locomotor activity, and exploration were assessed. Both chronic 5-HT4R activation and 5-HT6R blockade extended memory traces in an object recognition test, and were not associated with any adverse effects in the parameters assessed. Chronic modulation of one or both of these receptors thus seems promising as a potential strategy for the treatment memory deficits. PMID:26187692

  20. Synergism Between a Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor (5-HT2AR) Antagonist and 5-HT2CR Agonist Suggests New Pharmacotherapeutics for Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Relapse to cocaine dependence, even after extended abstinence, involves a number of liability factors including impulsivity (predisposition toward rapid, unplanned reactions to stimuli without regard to negative consequences) and cue reactivity (sensitivity to cues associated with cocaine-taking which can promote cocaine-seeking). These factors have been mechanistically linked to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling through the 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) and 5-HT2CR; either a selective 5-HT2AR antagonist or a 5-HT2CR agonist suppresses impulsivity and cocaine-seeking in preclinical models. We conducted proof-of-concept analyses to evaluate whether a combination of 5-HT2AR antagonist plus 5-HT2CR agonist would have synergistic effects over these liability factors for relapse as measured in a 1-choice serial reaction time task and cocaine self-administration/reinstatement assay. Combined administration of a dose of the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907 plus the 5-HT2CR agonist WAY163909, each ineffective alone, synergistically suppressed cocaine-induced hyperactivity, inherent and cocaine-evoked impulsive action, as well as cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. The identification of synergism between a 5-HT2AR antagonist plus a 5-HT2CR agonist to attenuate these factors important in relapse indicates the promise of a bifunctional ligand as an anti-addiction pharmacotherapeutic, setting the stage to develop new ligands with improved efficacy, potency, selectivity, and in vivo profiles over the individual molecules. PMID:23336050

  1. Synergism between a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) antagonist and 5-HT2CR agonist suggests new pharmacotherapeutics for cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kathryn A; Anastasio, Noelle C; Fox, Robert G; Stutz, Sonja J; Bubar, Marcy J; Swinford, Sarah E; Watson, Cheryl S; Gilbertson, Scott R; Rice, Kenner C; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Moeller, F Gerard

    2013-01-16

    Relapse to cocaine dependence, even after extended abstinence, involves a number of liability factors including impulsivity (predisposition toward rapid, unplanned reactions to stimuli without regard to negative consequences) and cue reactivity (sensitivity to cues associated with cocaine-taking which can promote cocaine-seeking). These factors have been mechanistically linked to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling through the 5-HT(2A) receptor (5-HT(2A)R) and 5-HT(2C)R; either a selective 5-HT(2A)R antagonist or a 5-HT(2C)R agonist suppresses impulsivity and cocaine-seeking in preclinical models. We conducted proof-of-concept analyses to evaluate whether a combination of 5-HT(2A)R antagonist plus 5-HT(2C)R agonist would have synergistic effects over these liability factors for relapse as measured in a 1-choice serial reaction time task and cocaine self-administration/reinstatement assay. Combined administration of a dose of the selective 5-HT(2A)R antagonist M100907 plus the 5-HT(2C)R agonist WAY163909, each ineffective alone, synergistically suppressed cocaine-induced hyperactivity, inherent and cocaine-evoked impulsive action, as well as cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. The identification of synergism between a 5-HT(2A)R antagonist plus a 5-HT(2C)R agonist to attenuate these factors important in relapse indicates the promise of a bifunctional ligand as an anti-addiction pharmacotherapeutic, setting the stage to develop new ligands with improved efficacy, potency, selectivity, and in vivo profiles over the individual molecules. PMID:23336050

  2. 5-HT spatial distribution imaging with multiphoton excitation of 5-HT correlative visible fluorescence in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Zeng, Shaoqun; Liu, Yafeng; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Tongsheng; Luo, Qingming

    2002-04-01

    The autofluorescence of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) loaded rat mucosal mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells) is imaged with multiphoton excitation laser scanning microscope (MPELSM). 5-HT correlative visible fluorescence (Fco-vis) excited with 740-nm multiphoton excitation is observed in live cells for the first time, and the generating mechanism of 5-HT Fco-vis is studied. The spatial distribution of 5-HT in live cells is imaged at high spatial resolution in our experiment, which provides a new way to study the correlation between 5-HT spatial distribution and content, and the cellular functional state in live tissue or cells.

  3. Recombinant saphenous vein 5-HT1B receptors of the rabbit: comparative pharmacology with human 5-HT1B receptors.

    PubMed

    Wurch, T; Palmier, C; Colpaert, F C; Pauwels, P J

    1997-01-01

    1. The rabbit recombinant saphenous vein 5-hydroxytryptamine1B (r 5-HT1B) receptor stably transfected in rat C6-glial cells was characterized by measuring adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cycle AMP) formation upon exposure to various 5-HT receptor ligands. The effects of agonists and antagonists were compared with their effects determined previously at the human cloned 5-HT1B (h 5-HT1B) receptor under similar experimental conditions. 2. Intact C6-glial cells expressing rb HT1B receptors exhibited [3H]-5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) binding sites with a Kd of 0.80 +/- 0.13 nM and a Bmax between 225 to 570 fmol mg-1 protein. The binding affinities of a series of 5-HT receptor ligands determined in a membrane preparation with [3H]-5-CT or [3H]-N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]-3-methyl-4-(-4 -pyridyl) benzamide (GR 125,743) were similar. With the exception of ketanserin, ligand affinities were comparable to those determined at the clones h 5-HT1B receptor site. 3. rb 5-HT1B receptors were negatively coupled to cyclic AMP formation upon stimulation with 5-HT agonists. Of the several 5-HT agonists tested, 5-CT was the most potent, the potency rank order being: 5-CT > 5-HT > zolmitriptan > naratriptan > rizatriptan > sumatriptan > R (+)-8-(hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). The maximal responses of these agonists were similar to those induced by 5-HT. The potency of these agonists showed a positive correlation (r2 = 0.87; P < 0.002) with their potency at the cloned h 5-HT1B receptor subtype. 4. 2'-Methyl-4-(5-methyl-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl)-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid [4-methoxy-e-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amide (GR 127,935), methiothepin and ketanserin each behaved as silent, competitive antagonists at rb 5HT1B receptors; pKB values were 8.41, 8.32 and 7.05, respectively when naratriptan was used as an agonist. These estimates accorded with their binding affinities and the potencies found on 5-HT and/or sumatriptan

  4. Convergence of melatonin and serotonin (5-HT) signaling at MT2/5-HT2C receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Maud; Gbahou, Florence; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Daulat, Avais M; Benleulmi-Chaachoua, Abla; Luka, Marine; Chen, Patty; Kalbasi Anaraki, Dina; Baroncini, Marc; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J; Prevot, Vincent; Delagrange, Philippe; Jockers, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    Inasmuch as the neurohormone melatonin is synthetically derived from serotonin (5-HT), a close interrelationship between both has long been suspected. The present study reveals a hitherto unrecognized cross-talk mediated via physical association of melatonin MT2 and 5-HT2C receptors into functional heteromers. This is of particular interest in light of the "synergistic" melatonin agonist/5-HT2C antagonist profile of the novel antidepressant agomelatine. A suite of co-immunoprecipitation, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, and pharmacological techniques was exploited to demonstrate formation of functional MT2 and 5-HT2C receptor heteromers both in transfected cells and in human cortex and hippocampus. MT2/5-HT2C heteromers amplified the 5-HT-mediated Gq/phospholipase C response and triggered melatonin-induced unidirectional transactivation of the 5-HT2C protomer of MT2/5-HT2C heteromers. Pharmacological studies revealed distinct functional properties for agomelatine, which shows "biased signaling." These observations demonstrate the existence of functionally unique MT2/5-HT2C heteromers and suggest that the antidepressant agomelatine has a distinctive profile at these sites potentially involved in its therapeutic effects on major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Finally, MT2/5-HT2C heteromers provide a new strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25770211

  5. Antibodies specific for HT{sub m4}

    DOEpatents

    Lim, B.; Adra, C.N.; Lelias, J.M.

    1998-01-06

    The invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which encodes a HT{sub m4} protein, a transformed host cell which has been stably transfected with a DNA molecule which encodes a HT{sub m4} protein and a recombinant HT{sub m4} protein. The invention also relates to a method for detecting the presence of a hereditary atopy. 2 figs.

  6. Recombinant HT{sub m4} gene, protein and assays

    DOEpatents

    Lim, B.; Adra, C.N.; Lelias, J.M.

    1996-09-03

    The invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which encodes a HT{sub m4} protein, a transformed host cell which has been stably transfected with a DNA molecule which encodes a HT{sub m4} protein and a recombinant HT{sub m4} protein. The invention also relates to a method for detecting the presence of a hereditary atopy. 2 figs.

  7. Cellular resilience: 5-HT neurons in Tph2(-/-) mice retain normal firing behavior despite the lack of brain 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Alberto; Waider, Jonas; Barbieri, Mario; Baytas, Ozan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Corradetti, Renato; Mlinar, Boris

    2015-11-01

    Considerable evidence links dysfunction of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transmission to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders characterized by compromised "social" cognition and emotion regulation. It is well established that the brain 5-HT system is under autoregulatory control by its principal transmitter 5-HT via its effects on activity and expression of 5-HT system-related proteins. To examine whether 5-HT itself also has a crucial role in the acquisition and maintenance of characteristic rhythmic firing of 5-HT neurons, we compared their intrinsic electrophysiological properties in mice lacking brain 5-HT, i.e. tryptophan hydroxylase-2 null mice (Tph2(-/-)) and their littermates, Tph2(+/-) and Tph2(+/+), by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in a brainstem slice preparation and single unit recording in anesthetized animals. We report that the active properties of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons in vivo (firing rate magnitude and variability; the presence of spike doublets) and in vitro (firing in response to depolarizing current pulses; action potential shape) as well as the resting membrane potential remained essentially unchanged across Tph2 genotypes. However, there were subtle differences in subthreshold properties, most notably, an approximately 25% higher input conductance in Tph2(-/-) mice compared with Tph2(+/-) and Tph2(+/+) littermates (p<0.0001). This difference may at least in part be a consequence of slightly bigger size of the DRN 5-HT neurons in Tph2(-/-) mice (approximately 10%, p<0.0001). Taken together, these findings show that 5-HT neurons acquire and maintain their signature firing properties independently of the presence of their principal neurotransmitter 5-HT, displaying an unexpected functional resilience to complete brain 5-HT deficiency. PMID:26409296

  8. Incubation of cocaine cue reactivity associates with neuroadaptations in the cortical serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) system.

    PubMed

    Swinford-Jackson, S E; Anastasio, N C; Fox, R G; Stutz, S J; Cunningham, K A

    2016-06-01

    Intensification of craving elicited by drug-associated cues during abstinence occurs over time in human cocaine users while elevation of cue reactivity ("incubation") is observed in rats exposed to extended forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation in rodents has been linked to time-dependent neuronal plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We tested the hypothesis that incubation of cue reactivity during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is accompanied by lower potency and/or efficacy of the selective serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C​ receptor (5-HT2CR) agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity and a shift in the subcellular localization profile of the mPFC 5-HT2CR protein. We observed incubation of cue reactivity (measured as lever presses reinforced by the discrete cue complex) between Day 1 and Day 30 of forced abstinence from cocaine relative to sucrose self-administration. Pharmacological and biochemical analyses revealed that the potency of the selective 5-HT2CR agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity, the expression of synaptosomal 5-HT2CR protein in the mPFC, and the membrane to cytoplasmic expression of the 5-HT2CR in mPFC were lower on Day 30 vs. Day 1 of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation of cue reactivity assessed during forced abstinence from sucrose self-administration did not associate with 5-HT2CR protein expression in the mPFC. Collectively, these outcomes are the first indication that neuroadaptations in the 5-HT2CR system may contribute to incubation of cocaine cue reactivity. PMID:26926963

  9. Functional effects of the muscarinic receptor agonist, xanomeline, at 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J; Brough, S; Coldwell, M C; Gager, T; Ho, M; Hunter, A J; Jerman, J; Middlemiss, D N; Riley, G J; Brown, A M

    1998-01-01

    Xanomeline [3(3-hexyloxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyridine] has been reported to act as a functionally selective muscarinic partial agonist with potential use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study examined the functional activity of xanomeline at 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors in native tissue and/or human cloned receptors.Xanomeline had affinity for muscarinic receptors in rat cortical membranes where the ratio of the displacement affinity of [3H]-Quinuclidinyl benzilate vs that of [3H]-Oxotremorine-M was 16, indicative of partial agonist activity. Radioligand binding studies on human cloned receptors confirmed that xanomeline had substantial affinity for M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 receptors and also for 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Carbachol and xanomeline stimulated basal [35S]-GTPγS binding in rat cortical membranes with micromolar affinity. The response to carbachol was attenuated by himbacine and pirenzepine with pA2 of 8.2, 6.9 respectively consistent with the response being mediated, predominantly, via M2 and M4 receptors. Xanomeline-induced stimulation of [35S]-GTPγS binding was inhibited by himbacine with an apparent pKb of 6.3, was not attenuated by pirenzepine up to 3 μM and was inhibited by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635 with an apparent pKb of 9.4. These data suggest the agonist effect of xanomeline in this tissue is, in part, via 5-HT1A receptors. Similar studies on human cloned receptors confirmed that xanomeline is an agonist at human cloned 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors.In studies using the fluorescent cytoplasmic Ca2+ indicator FLUO-3AM, xanomeline induced an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in SH-SY5Y cells expressing recombinant human 5-HT2C receptors. Atropine antagonized this response, consistent with mediation via endogenously-expressed muscarinic receptors. In the presence of atropine, xanomeline antagonized 5-HT-induced cytoplasmic changes in Ca2+ concentration in cells expressing h5

  10. Spinal 5-HT1A, not the 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors, mediates descending serotonergic inhibition for late-phase mechanical allodynia of carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung Min; Jeong, Seong Wook; Yang, Jihoon; Lee, Seong Heon; Kim, Woon Mo; Jeong, Seongtae; Bae, Hong Beom; Yoon, Myung Ha; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-07-23

    Previous electrophysiological studies demonstrated a limited role of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3R), but facilitatory role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT1BR in spinal nociceptive processing of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. The release of spinal 5-HT was shown to peak in early-phase and return to baseline in late-phase of carrageenan inflammation. We examined the role of the descending serotonergic projections involving 5-HT1AR, 5-HT1BR, and 5-HT3R in mechanical allodynia of early- (first 4h) and late-phase (24h after) carrageenan-induced inflammation. Intrathecal administration of 5-HT produced a significant anti-allodynic effect in late-phase, but not in early-phase. Similarly, intrathecal 5-HT1AR agonist (8-OH-DPAT) attenuated the intensity of late-phase allodynia in a dose dependent fashion which was antagonized by 5-HT1AR antagonist (WAY-100635), but produced no effect on the early-phase allodynia. However, other agonists or antagonists of 5-HT1BR (CP-93129, SB-224289) and 5-HT3R (m-CPBG, ondansetron) did not produce any anti- or pro-allodynic effect in both early- and late- phase allodynia. These results suggest that spinal 5-HT1A, but not 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors mediate descending serotonergic inhibition on nociceptive processing of late-phase mechanical allodynia in carrageenan-induced inflammation. PMID:26037417

  11. Agonist properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Canton, H; Barrett, R J; Sanders-Bush, E

    1998-11-01

    Extensive behavioral and biochemical evidence suggests an agonist role at the 5-HT2A receptor, and perhaps the 5-HT2C receptor, in the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. However the published in vitro pharmacological properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an hallucinogenic tryptamine analog, are not consistent with this hypothesis. We, therefore, undertook an extensive investigation into the properties of DMT at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. In fibroblasts transfected with the 5-HT2A receptor or the 5-HT2C receptor, DMT activated the major intracellular signaling pathway (phosphoinositide hydrolysis) to an extent comparable to that produced by serotonin. Because drug efficacy changes with receptor density and cellular microenvironment, we also examined the properties of DMT in native preparations using a behavioral and biochemical approach. Rats were trained to discriminate an antagonist ketanserin from an agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) in a two-lever choice paradigm. Pharmacological studies showed that responding on the DOI and ketanserin lever reflected agonist and antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors, and hence, was a suitable model for evaluating the in vivo functional properties of DMT. Like other 5-HT2A receptor agonists, DMT substituted fully for DOI. Intact choroid plexus was used to evaluate the agonist properties at endogenous 5-HT2C receptors; DMT was a partial agonist at 5-HT2C receptors in this native preparation. Thus, we conclude that DMT behaves as an agonist at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2A receptors. One difference was evident in that the 5-HT2C, but not the 5-HT2A, receptor showed a profound desensitization to DMT over time. This difference is interesting in light of the recent report that the hallucinogenic activity of DMT does not tolerate in humans and suggests the 5-HT2C receptor plays a less prominent role in the action of DMT. PMID:9768567

  12. Pharmacological Characterization of 5-HT1A Autoreceptor-Coupled GIRK Channels in Rat Dorsal Raphe 5-HT Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Montalbano, Alberto; Corradetti, Renato; Mlinar, Boris

    2015-01-01

    G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels in 5-HT neurons are assumed to be principal effectors of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) autoreceptors, but their pharmacology, subunit composition and the role in regulation of 5-HT neuron activity have not been fully elucidated. We sought for a pharmacological tool for assessing the functional role of GIRK channels in 5-HT neurons by characterizing the effects of drugs known to block GIRK channels in the submicromolar range of concentrations. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recording in brainstem slices were used to determine concentration-response relationships for the selected GIRK channel blockers on 5-HT1A autoreceptor-activated inwardly rectifying K+ conductance in rat dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons. 5-HT1A autoreceptor-activated GIRK conductance was completely blocked by the nonselective inwardly rectifying potassium channels blocker Ba2+ (EC50 = 9.4 μM, full block with 100 μM) and by SCH23390 (EC50 = 1.95 μM, full block with 30 μM). GIRK-specific blocker tertiapin-Q blocked 5-HT1A autoreceptor-activated GIRK conductance with high potency (EC50 = 33.6 nM), but incompletely, i.e. ~16% of total conductance resulted to be tertiapin-Q-resistant. U73343 and SCH28080, reported to block GIRK channels with submicromolar EC50s, were essentially ineffective in 5-HT neurons. Our data show that inwardly rectifying K+ channels coupled to 5-HT1A autoreceptors display pharmacological properties generally expected for neuronal GIRK channels, but different from GIRK1-GIRK2 heteromers, the predominant form of brain GIRK channels. Distinct pharmacological properties of GIRK channels in 5-HT neurons should be explored for the development of new therapeutic agents for mood disorders. PMID:26460748

  13. Object-Oriented Version of Glenn-HT Code Released: Glenn-HT2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James D.; Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David I.; Garg, Vijay K.; Fabian, John C.; Lucci, Barbara L.; Steinthorsson, Erlendur

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center s General Multi-Block Navier-Stokes Convective Heat Transfer Code (Glenn-HT) has been used extensively to predict heat transfer and fluid flow for a variety of steady gas turbine engine problems. Efforts have focused on turbine heat transfer, where computations have modeled tip clearance, internal coolant, and film cooling flows. Excellent agreement has been achieved for a variety of experimental test cases, and results have been published in over 40 technical publications. The code is available to U.S. industry and has been used by several domestic gas turbine engine companies. The following figure shows a typical flow solution from the Glenn-HT code for a film-cooled turbine blade.

  14. (1R, 3S)-(−)-Trans-PAT: A novel full-efficacy serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist with 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor inverse agonist/antagonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Raymond G.; Fang, Lijuan; Huang, Yingsu; Wilczynski, Andrzej; Sivendran, Sashikala

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors signal primarily through Gαq to activate phospholipase C (PLC) and formation of inositol phosphates (IP) and diacylglycerol. The human 5-HT2C receptor, expressed exclusively in the central nervous system, is involved in several physiological and psychological processes. Development of 5-HT2C agonists that do not also activate 5-HT2A or 5-HT2B receptors is challenging because transmembrane domain identity is about 75% among 5-HT2 subtypes. This paper reports 5-HT2 receptor affinity and function of (1R,3S)-(−)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT), a small molecule that produces anorexia and weight-loss after peripheral administration to mice. (−)-Trans-PAT is a stereoselective full-efficacy agonist at human 5-HT2C receptors, plus, it is a 5-HT2A/5-HT2B inverse agonist and competitive antagonist. The Ki of (−)-trans-PAT at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors is 410, 1200, and 37 nM, respectively. Functional studies measured activation of PLC/[3H]-IP formation in clonal cells expressing human 5-HT2 receptors. At 5-HT2C receptors, (−)-trans-PAT is an agonist (EC50 = 20 nM) comparable to serotonin in potency and efficacy. At 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, (−)-trans-PAT is an inverse agonist (IC50 = 490 and 1,000 nM, respectively) and competitive antagonist (KB = 460 and 1400 nM, respectively) of serotonin. Experimental results are interpreted in light of molecular modeling studies indicating the (−)-trans-PAT protonated amine can form an ionic bond with D3.32 of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, but, not with 5-HT2B receptors. In addition to probing 5-HT2 receptor structure and function, (−)-trans-PAT is a novel lead regarding 5-HT2C agonist/5-HT2A inverse agonist drug development for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19397907

  15. The action of SDZ 205,557 at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3 and 5-HT4) receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R. M.; Alvarez, R.; Johnson, L. G.; Leung, E.; Wong, E. H.

    1993-01-01

    1. The interaction of the novel antagonist, SDZ 205,557 (2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chloro benzoic acid 2-(diethylamino) ethyl ester), at 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors has been assessed in vitro and in vivo. 2. In guinea-pig hippocampus and in the presence of 0.4 microM 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-HT4-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase was competitively antagonized by SDZ 205,557, with a pA2 value of 7.5, and a Schild slope of 0.81. In rat carbachol-contracted oesophagus, 5-HT4-receptor mediated relaxations were surmountably antagonized by SDZ 205,557 with a similar pA2 value (7.3). This value was agonist-independent with the exception of (R)-zacopride, against which a significantly lower value (6.4) was observed. 3. In functional studies of 5-HT3 receptors, SDZ 205,557 exhibited an affinity of 6.2 in guinea-pig ileum compared with 6.9 at binding sites labelled by [3H]-quipazine in NG108-15 cells. In the anaesthetized, vagotomized micropig, SDZ 205,557 produced only a transient blockade of 5-HT4-mediated tachycardia. This contrasted with tropisetron, which was active for over 60 min after administration. The half-lives for the inhibitory responses of SDZ 205,557 and tropisetron were 23 and 116 min, respectively. 4. In conclusion, SDZ 205,557 has similar affinity for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. The apparent selectivity observed in guinea-pig is due to the atypical nature of the 5-HT3 receptor in this species. The short duration of action of this novel antagonist may complicate its use in vivo. SDZ 205,557 should, therefore, be used with appropriate caution in studies defining the 5-HT4 receptor. PMID:8448587

  16. Specific Noncompetitive Immunoassay for HT-2 Mycotoxin Detection.

    PubMed

    Arola, Henri O; Tullila, Antti; Kiljunen, Harri; Campbell, Katrina; Siitari, Harri; Nevanen, Tarja K

    2016-02-16

    Here we demonstrate a novel homogeneous one-step immunoassay, utilizing a pair of recombinant antibody antigen-binding fragments (Fab), that is specific for HT-2 toxin and has a positive readout. Advantages over the conventional competitive immunoassay formats such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the specificity, speed, and simplicity of the assay. Recombinant antibody HT2-10 Fab recognizing both HT-2 and T-2 toxins was developed from a phage display antibody library containing 6 × 10(7) different antibody clones. Specificity of the immunoassay was introduced by an anti-immune complex (IC) antibody binding the primary antibody-HT-2 toxin complex. When the noncompetitive immune complex assay was compared to the traditional competitive assay, an over 10-fold improvement in sensitivity was observed. Although the HT2-10 antibody has 100% cross-reactivity for HT-2 and T-2 toxins, the immune complex assay is highly specific for HT-2 alone. The assay performance with real samples was evaluated using naturally contaminated wheat reference material. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of the time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay was 9.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.38 ng/mL (19 μg/kg). The labeled antibodies can be predried to the assay vials, e.g., microtiter plate wells, and readout is ready in 10 min after the sample application. PMID:26785138

  17. The 5-HT(7) receptor in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Amanda J; Hedlund, Peter B

    2012-04-01

    The 5-HT(7) receptor is a more recently discovered G-protein-coupled receptor for serotonin. The functions and possible clinical relevance of this receptor are not yet fully understood. The present paper reviews to what extent the use of animal models of learning and memory and other techniques have implicated the 5-HT(7) receptor in such processes. The studies have used a combination of pharmacological and genetic tools targeting the receptor to evaluate effects on behavior and cellular mechanisms. In tests such as the Barnes maze, contextual fear conditioning and novel location recognition that involve spatial learning and memory there is a considerable amount of evidence supporting an involvement of the 5-HT(7) receptor. Supporting evidence has also been obtained in studies of mRNA expression and cellular signaling as well as in electrophysiological experiments. Especially interesting are the subtle but distinct effects observed in hippocampus-dependent models of place learning where impairments have been described in mice lacking the 5-HT(7) receptor or after administration of a selective antagonist. While more work is required, it appears that 5-HT(7) receptors are particularly important in allocentric representation processes. In instrumental learning tasks both procognitive effects and impairments in memory have been observed using pharmacological tools targeting the 5-HT(7) receptor. In conclusion, the use of pharmacological and genetic tools in animal studies of learning and memory suggest a potentially important role for the 5-HT(7) receptor in cognitive processes. PMID:21484935

  18. Troubles des conduites alimentaires et tempérament cyclothymique: étude transversale à propos de 107 étudiants Tunisiens

    PubMed Central

    Jaweher, Masmoudi; Sonda, Trabelsi; Uta, Ouali; Inès, Feki; Rim, Sallemi; Imene, Baati; Abdelaziz, Jaoua

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les objectifs de notre étude ont été d'estimer la prévalence des troubles des conduites alimentaires (TCA) chez les jeunes tunisiens et étudier la relation entre le tempérament cyclothymique et les TCA. Méthodes Nous avons ainsi mené une étude transversale descriptive et analytique. Elle a concerné 107 étudiants de l'Institut de Presse et des Sciences de l'Information de la Manouba, Tunisie. Pour l’évaluation des TCA, nous avons procédé par la passation de l'auto questionnaire EAT 40, dans sa version validée en Tunisie. C'est l'outil le plus utilisé pour le dépistage des TCA dans le monde. Pour l’évaluation du tempérament cyclothymique, nous avons utilisé le TEMPS A dans sa version arabe validée. Une fiche épidémiologique associée a permis de recueillir quelques facteurs sociodémographiques et hygiéno-diététiques. Résultats La prévalence des troubles de conduites alimentaires a été de 24,3%. Le pourcentage des étudiants ayant un score de tempérament cyclothymique ≥14 a été de 37,4%. Une association a été trouvée entre les troubles de conduites alimentaires et le tempérament affectif cyclothymique que ce soit selon l'approche dimensionnelle (p=0,005) ou selon celle catégorielle (p=0,046). Le tempérament cyclothymique multiplie par deux le risque de développer un TCA chez les étudiants de sexe féminin (p=0,04). Conclusion Es TCA sont fréquents chez nos étudiants particulièrement de sexe féminin. De plus, la présence d'un tempérament cyclothymique associé permettrait de suspecter doublement une appartenance au spectre bipolaire et devrait conduire à une attention particulière de la part du clinicien pour définir au mieux les stratégies thérapeutiques. PMID:25404977

  19. Aspects cliniques et thérapeutiques des anomalies de la jonction pyélo-urétérale au CHU du point G

    PubMed Central

    Tembely, Aly; Kassogué, Amadou; Berthé, Honoré; Ouattara, Zanafon

    2016-01-01

    Cette étude a été faite pour analyser les aspects cliniques et thérapeutiques des anomalies de la jonction pyélo-urétérale. Etude transversale et descriptive portant sur 35 cas d'anomalies de la jonction pyélo-urétérale (AJPU) colligés au service d'Urologie du CHU du Point G durant une période de 4 ans (Janvier 2010 au Décembre 2014). Les données ont été recueillies sur les fiches d'enquête, les dossiers médicaux et les registres du bloc. Les données sociodémographique, clinique et thérapeutique ont été saisies sur Microsoft Word 2007 et analysées sur Excel 2007 et SPSS 18.0. 35 cas d'AJPU ont été colligés en 4 ans. La moyenne d’âge était de 29,3 ans. La douleur lombaire était le motif de consultation le plus fréquent soit 40%. 20% des patients ont été en consultation pour la première fois 10 ans d’évolution symptomatique. Une destruction rénale avait été observée dans 28,6%. Le couple Echographie + UIV a permis d’établir le diagnostic chez 37,1%. La complication lithiasique était présente chez 17,1% des patients. 51,4% des patients ont reçu une pyéloplastie à ciel ouvert selon Anderson KUSS. L'anomalie de la jonction pyélo-urétérale dans notre étude a été caractérisée par un retard de consultation avec des complications redoutables. La chirurgie à ciel ouvert a été le gold standard avec des résultats satisfaisants. L'endopyéloplastie, la cure de la jonction coelioscopique sont des chirurgies mini invasives non disponible chez nous mais à encourager et à intégrer dans l'arsenal thérapeutique. PMID:27516821

  20. Adaptation of antenna profiles for control of MR guided hyperthermia (HT) in a hybrid MR-HT system

    SciTech Connect

    Weihrauch, Mirko; Wust, Peter; Weiser, Martin; Nadobny, Jacek; Eisenhardt, Steffen; Budach, Volker; Gellermann, Johanna

    2007-12-15

    A combined numerical-experimental iterative procedure, based on the Gauss-Newton algorithm, has been developed for control of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided hyperthermia (HT) applications in a hybrid MR-HT system BSD 2000 3D-MRI. In this MR-HT system, composed of a 3-D HT applicator Sigma-Eye placed inside a tunnel-type MR tomograph Siemens MAGNETOM Symphony (1.5 T), the temperature rise due to the HT radiation can be measured on-line in three dimensions by use of the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) method. The basic idea of our iterative procedure is the improvement of the system's characterization by a step-by-step modification of the theoretical HT antenna profiles (electric fields radiated by single antennas). The adaptation of antenna profiles is efficient if the initial estimates are radiation fields calculated from a good a priori electromagnetic model. Throughout the iterative procedure, the calculated antenna fields (FDTD) are step-by-step modified by comparing the calculated and experimental data, the latter obtained using the PRFS method. The procedure has been experimentally tested on homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms. It is shown that only few comparison steps are necessary for obtaining a dramatic improvement of the general predictability and quality of the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the MR-HT hybrid system.

  1. Evidence for 5-HT7 receptors mediating relaxation of human colonic circular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Nicolaas H; Briejer, Michel R; Van Bergen, Patrick J E; Akkermans, Louis M A; Schuurkes, Jan A J

    1999-01-01

    5-HT4 receptors mediate relaxation of human colon circular muscle. However, after 5-HT4 receptor blockade (SB 204070 10 nM), 5-HT still induced a relaxation (pEC50 6.3). 5-HT4 receptors were sufficiently blocked, as the curves to 5-HT obtained in the presence of 10 and 100 nM SB 204070 were indistinguishable. This 5-HT-induced relaxation was tetrodotoxin-insensitive, indicative of a smooth muscle relaxant 5-HT receptor. This, and the rank order of potency (5-CT=5-MeOT=5-HT) suggested involvement of 5-HT1 or 5-HT7 receptors. Mesulergine, a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist at nanomolar concentrations, and a 5-HT1 receptor antagonist at micromolar concentrations, competitively antagonized the 5-HT-induced relaxation (pKB 8.3) and antagonized the relaxation to 5-CT. Methysergide antagonized the 5-HT-induced relaxation (pA2 7.6). It is concluded that the profile of the smooth muscle inhibitory 5-HT receptor resembles that of the 5-HT7 receptor. These data provide the first evidence for functional human 5-HT7 receptors. PMID:10556917

  2. RU 24969-induced emesis in the cat - 5-HT1 sites other than 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C implicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.

    1990-01-01

    RU 24969 was administered s.c. to cats and found to elicit emesis with a maximally effective dose of 1.0 mg/kg 5-Methoxytryptamine was found to have lower efficacy and to produce a higher incidence of nonspecific effects while trifluoromethylphenylpiperizine (TFMPP) was devoid of emetic effects. The emesis elicited by 1.0 mg/kg of RU 24969 was not altered by pretreatment with phentolamine, haloperidol, yohimbine or (-)-propranolol, indicating that catecholamines played no role in this response. The emesis was prevented by metergoline and methysergide but not by ketanserin, cyproheptadine, mesulergine, ICS 205 930, methiothepin, trimethobenzamide or BMY 7378. An indirect argument is presented that implicates a role for 5-HT1D sites. This conclusion must remain tentative until drugs selective for this site are synthesized and tested. The emesis was also prevented by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), confirming that this drug has a general antiemetic effect in cats.

  3. Ion permeation and conduction in a human recombinant 5-HT3 receptor subunit (h5-HT3A)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A M; Hope, A G; Lambert, J J; Peters, J A

    1998-01-01

    A human recombinant homo-oligomeric 5-HT3 receptor (h5-HT3A) expressed in a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293) was characterized using the whole-cell recording configuration of the patch clamp technique. 5-HT evoked transient inward currents (EC50 = 3.4 μm; Hill coefficient = 1.8) that were blocked by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (IC50 = 103 pm) and by the non-selective agents metoclopramide (IC50 = 69 nm), cocaine (IC50 = 459 nm) and (+)-tubocurarine (IC50 = 2.8 μm). 5-HT-induced currents rectified inwardly and reversed in sign (E5-HT) at a potential of −2.2 mV. N-Methyl-d-glucamine was finitely permeant. Permeability ratios PNa/PCs and PNMDG/PCs were 0.90 and 0.083, respectively. Permeability towards divalent cations was assessed from measurements of E5-HT in media where Ca2+ and Mg2+ replaced Na+. PCa/PCs and PMg/PCs were calculated to be 1.00 and 0.61, respectively. Single channel chord conductance (γ) estimated from fluctuation analysis of macroscopic currents increased with membrane hyperpolarization from 243 fS at −40 mV to 742 fS at −100 mV. Reducing [Ca2+]o from 2 to 0.1 mm caused an increase in the whole-cell current evoked by 5-HT. A concomitant reduction in [Mg2+]o produced further potentiation. Fluctuation analysis indicates that a voltage-independent augmentation of γ contributes to this phenomenon. The data indicate that homo-oligomeric receptors composed of h5-HT3A subunits form inwardly rectifying cation-selective ion channels of low conductance that are permeable to Ca2+ and Mg2+. PMID:9508827

  4. Vortioxetine, but not escitalopram or duloxetine, reverses memory impairment induced by central 5-HT depletion in rats: evidence for direct 5-HT receptor modulation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jesper Bornø; du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Song, Dekun; Budac, David; Smagin, Gennady; Sanchez, Connie; Pehrson, Alan Lars

    2014-01-01

    Depressed patients suffer from cognitive dysfunction, including memory deficits. Acute serotonin (5-HT) depletion impairs memory and mood in vulnerable patients. The investigational multimodal acting antidepressant vortioxetine is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor that enhances memory in normal rats in novel object recognition (NOR) and conditioned fear (Mørk et al., 2013). We hypothesized that vortioxetine's 5-HT receptor mechanisms are involved in its memory effects, and therefore investigated these effects in 5-HT depleted rats. Four injections of the irreversible tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor 4-chloro-dl-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA, 86mg/kg, s.c.) induced 5-HT depletion, as measured in hippocampal homogenate and microdialysate. The effects of acute challenge with vortioxetine or the 5-HT releaser fenfluramine on extracellular 5-HT were measured in PCPA-treated and control rats. PCPA's effects on NOR and spontaneous alternation (SA) performance were assessed along with the effects of acute treatment with 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), vortioxetine, the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram, or the 5-HT norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor duloxetine. SERT occupancies were estimated by ex vivo autoradiography. PCPA depleted central 5-HT by >90% in tissue and microdialysate, and impaired NOR and SA performance. Restoring central 5-HT with 5-HTP reversed these deficits. At similar SERT occupancies (>90%) vortioxetine, but not escitalopram or duloxetine, restored memory performance. Acute fenfluramine significantly increased extracellular 5-HT in control and PCPA-treated rats, while vortioxetine did so only in control rats. Thus, vortioxetine restores 5-HT depletion impaired memory performance in rats through one or more of its receptor activities. PMID:24284262

  5. Performance of HT9 clad metallic fuel at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Hayes, S.L.

    1992-12-01

    Steady-state testing of HT9 clad metallic fuel at high temperatures was initiated in EBR-II in November of 1987. At that time U-10 wt. % Zr fuel clad with the low-swelling ferritic/martensitic alloy HT9 was being considered as driver fuel options for both EBR-II and FFTF. The objective of the X447 test described here was to determine the lifetime of HT9 cladding when operated with metallic fuel at beginning of life inside wall temperatures approaching {approximately}660{degree}C. Though stress-temperature design limits for HT9 preclude its use for high burnup applications under these conditions due to excessive thermal creep, the X447 test was carried out to obtain data on high temperature breach phenomena involving metallic fuel since little data existed in that area.

  6. Performance of HT9 clad metallic fuel at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Hayes, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Steady-state testing of HT9 clad metallic fuel at high temperatures was initiated in EBR-II in November of 1987. At that time U-10 wt. % Zr fuel clad with the low-swelling ferritic/martensitic alloy HT9 was being considered as driver fuel options for both EBR-II and FFTF. The objective of the X447 test described here was to determine the lifetime of HT9 cladding when operated with metallic fuel at beginning of life inside wall temperatures approaching [approximately]660[degree]C. Though stress-temperature design limits for HT9 preclude its use for high burnup applications under these conditions due to excessive thermal creep, the X447 test was carried out to obtain data on high temperature breach phenomena involving metallic fuel since little data existed in that area.

  7. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT6 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Karila, Delphine; Freret, Thomas; Bouet, Valentine; Boulouard, Michel; Dallemagne, Patrick; Rochais, Christophe

    2015-10-22

    Given its predominant expression in the central nervous system (CNS), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT: serotonin) subtype 6 receptor (5-HT6R) has been considered as a valuable target for the development of CNS drugs with limited side effects. After 2 decades of intense research, numerous selective ligands have been developed to target this receptor; this holds potential interest for the treatment of neuropathological disorders. In fact, some agents (mainly antagonists) are currently undergoing clinical trial. More recently, a series of potent and selective agonists have been developed, and preclinical studies have been conducted that suggest the therapeutic interest of 5-HT6R agonists. This review details the medicinal chemistry of these agonists, highlights their activities, and discusses their potential for treating cognitive issues associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression, or obesity. Surprisingly, some studies have shown that both 5-HT6R agonists and antagonists exert similar procognitive activities. This article summarizes the hypotheses that could explain this paradox. PMID:26099069

  8. Selective 5-HT2C agonists as potential antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Leysen, D C

    1999-02-01

    The antidepressants currently used need improvement, especially in terms of efficacy, relapse rate and onset of action. In this review the clinical and experimental data which support the rationale for 5-HT2C agonists in the treatment of depression are listed. Next, the results obtained with the non-selective 5-HT2C agonists on the market and in clinical development are described. Finally, the preclinical data on the more selective 5-HT2C agonists are summarized. These recent preclinical results reveal a greater potency and effect size compared to fluoxetine, good tolerability and no evidence of tolerance development. Selective 5-HT2C agonists might become innovative drugs for the treatment of depression, panic, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), some forms of aggression and eating disorders. PMID:16160946

  9. Vortioxetine dose-dependently reverses 5-HT depletion-induced deficits in spatial working and object recognition memory: a potential role for 5-HT1A receptor agonism and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Jensen, Jesper Bornø; Sanchez, Connie; Pehrson, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that the investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, reversed 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits while escitalopram and duloxetine did not. The present report studied the effects of vortioxetine and the potential impact of its 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist properties on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits. Recognition and spatial working memory were assessed in the object recognition (OR) and Y-maze spontaneous alternation (SA) tests, respectively. 5-HT depletion was induced in female Long-Evans rats using 4-cholro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester HCl (PCPA) and receptor occupancies were determined by ex vivo autoradiography. Rats were acutely dosed with vortioxetine, ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or flesinoxan (5-HT1A receptor agonist). The effects of chronic vortioxetine administration on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits were also assessed. 5-HT depletion reliably impaired memory performance in both the tests. Vortioxetine reversed PCPA-induced memory deficits dose-dependently with a minimal effective dose (MED) ≤0.1mg/kg (∼80% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR) and ≤3.0mg/kg (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 receptor occupancy: ∼15%, 60%, 95%) in SA. Ondansetron exhibited a MED ≤3.0μg/kg (∼25% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR), but was inactive in the SA test. Flesinoxan had a MED ≤1.0mg/kg (∼25% 5-HT1A receptor occupancy; SA); only 1.0mg/kg ameliorated deficits in the NOR. Chronic p.o. vortioxetine administration significantly improved memory performance in OR and occupied 95%, 66%, and 9.5% of 5-HT3, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. Vortioxetine's effects on SA performance may involve 5-HT1A receptor agonism, but not 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, whereas the effects on OR performance may involve 5-HT3 receptor antagonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism. PMID:23916504

  10. 5-HT3 Receptor Brain-Type B-Subunits are Differentially Expressed in Heterologous Systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Genes for five different 5-HT3 receptor subunits have been identified. Most of the subunits have multiple isoforms, but two isoforms of the B subunits, brain-type 1 (Br1) and brain-type 2 (Br2) are of particular interest as they appear to be abundantly expressed in human brain, where 5-HT3B subunit RNA consists of approximately 75% 5-HT3Br2, 24% 5-HT3Br1, and <1% 5-HT3B. Here we use two-electrode voltage-clamp, radioligand binding, fluorescence, whole cell, and single channel patch-clamp studies to characterize the roles of 5-HT3Br1 and 5-HT3Br2 subunits on function and pharmacology in heterologously expressed 5-HT3 receptors. The data show that the 5-HT3Br1 transcriptional variant, when coexpressed with 5-HT3A subunits, alters the EC50, nH, and single channel conductance of the 5-HT3 receptor, but has no effect on the potency of competitive antagonists; thus, 5-HT3ABr1 receptors have the same characteristics as 5-HT3AB receptors. There were some differences in the shapes of 5-HT3AB and 5-HT3ABr1 receptor responses, which were likely due to a greater proportion of homomeric 5-HT3A versus heteromeric 5-HT3ABr1 receptors in the latter, as expression of the 5-HT3Br1 compared to the 5-HT3B subunit is less efficient. Conversely, the 5-HT3Br2 subunit does not appear to form functional channels with the 5-HT3A subunit in either oocytes or HEK293 cells, and the role of this subunit is yet to be determined. PMID:25951416

  11. P3HT-based nanoarchitectural Fano solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen-Pin; Su, Yen-Hsun; Huang, Yun-Kai; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Huang, Li-Wen; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2014-10-22

    The finite difference time domain simulation shows the existence of an asymmetric quadrupole of Fano resonance on the surface of a gold-silica core-shell (Au@silica) nanoparticle (NP) as being incorporated into the metal oxide nanoarchitecture/P3HT hybrid. Compared to the metal oxide nanoarchitecture/P3HT hybrid solar cell, a 30% enrichment of the short-circuit current density (Jsc) is attained in the P3HT-based nanoarchitectural Fano solar cell with the Au@silica NPs. The enhancement of charge separation in the cell by the electric field of the Fano resonance is directly evidenced by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The increase of the degree of P3HT order in the hybrid by the incorporation of Au@silica NPs into the hybrid active layer may also contribute to the enhancement in the Jsc. Charge carrier dynamic measurements show that an electron collection efficiency of ∼97% can be maintained in the P3HT-based nanoarchitectural Fano solar cell. Significant improvement of the efficiency of the inverted metal oxide/P3HT hybrid solar cell is therefore achieved. PMID:25223500

  12. The 5-HT[subscript 3A] Receptor Is Essential for Fear Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Makoto; Nakamura, Yukiko; Ishida, Yusuke; Yamada, Takahiro; Shimada, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    The 5-HT [subscript 3] receptor, the only ionotropic 5-HT receptor, is expressed in limbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. However, it is not known whether it has a role in fear memory processes. Analysis of 5-HT [subscript 3A] receptor knockout mice in fear conditioning paradigms revealed that the 5-HT [subscript 3A]…

  13. 5-HT2CRs expressed by pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate insulin sensitivity in liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mice lacking 5-HT 2C receptors displayed hepatic insulin resistance, a phenotype normalized by re-expression of 5-HT2CRs only in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. 5-HT2CR deficiency also abolished the anti-diabetic effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (a 5-HT2CR agonist); these effects were re...

  14. Development of a HT seismic downhole tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, Frank P.; Greving, Jeffrey J.; Henfling, Joseph Anthony; Chavira, David J.; Uhl, James Eugene; Polsky, Yarom

    2009-06-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) require the stimulation of the drilled well, likely through hydraulic fracturing. Whether fracturing of the rock occurs by shear destabilization of natural fractures or by extensional failure of weaker zones, control of the fracture process will be required to create the flow paths necessary for effective heat mining. As such, microseismic monitoring provides one method for real-time mapping of the fractures created during the hydraulic fracturing process. This monitoring is necessary to help assess stimulation effectiveness and provide the information necessary to properly create the reservoir. In addition, reservoir monitoring of the microseismic activity can provide information on reservoir performance and evolution over time. To our knowledge, no seismic tool exists that will operate above 125 C for the long monitoring durations that may be necessary. Replacing failed tools is costly and introduces potential errors such as depth variance, etc. Sandia has designed a high temperature seismic tool for long-term deployment in geothermal applications. It is capable of detecting microseismic events and operating continuously at temperatures up to 240 C. This project includes the design and fabrication of two High Temperature (HT) seismic tools that will have the capability to operate in both temporary and long-term monitoring modes. To ensure the developed tool meets industry requirements for high sampling rates (>2ksps) and high resolution (24-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter) two electronic designs will be implemented. One electronic design will utilize newly developed 200 C electronic components. The other design will use qualified Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) devices and will have a continuous operating temperature of 240 C.

  15. Modulation of dopamine transmission by 5HT2C and 5HT3 receptors: a role in the antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; Weizmann, Yifat; Kinor, Noa; Gispan-Herman, Iris; Yadid, Gal

    2006-02-01

    Dopaminergic mesolimbic and mesocortical systems are fundamental in hedonia and motivation. Therefore their regulation should be central in understanding depression treatment. This review highlights the dopaminergic activity in relation to depressive behavior and suggests two putative receptors as potential targets for research and development of future antidepressants. In this article we review data that describe the role of serotonin in regulating dopamine release, via 5HT2C and 5HT3 receptors. This action of serotonin appears to be linked to depressive-like behavior and to onset of behavioral effects of antidepressants in an animal model of depression. We suggest that drugs or strategies that decrease 5HT2C and increase 5HT3 receptor-mediated dopamine release in the limbic areas of the brain may provide a fast onset of therapeutic effect. Clinical and basic research data supporting this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:16475958

  16. Effects of dominance status on conditioned defeat and expression of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathleen E.; Swallows, Cody L.; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Past experience can alter how individuals respond to stressful events. The brain serotonin system is a key factor modulating stress-related behavior and may contribute to individual variation in coping styles. In this study we investigated whether dominant and subordinate hamsters respond differently to social defeat and whether their behavioral responses are associated with changes in 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor immunoreactivity in several limbic brain regions. We paired weight-matched hamsters in daily aggressive encounters for two weeks so that they formed a stable dominance relationship. We also included controls that were exposed to an empty cage each day for two weeks. Twenty-four hours after the final pairing or empty cage exposure, subjects were socially defeated in 3, 5-min encounters with a more aggressive hamster. Twenty-four hours after social defeat, animals were tested for conditioned defeat in a 5-min social interaction test with a non-aggressive intruder. We collected brains following conditioned defeat testing and performed immunohistochemistry for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. We found that dominants showed less submissive and defensive behavior at conditioned defeat testing compared to both subordinates and controls. Additionally, both dominants and subordinates had an increased number of 5-HT1A immunopositive cells in the basolateral amygdala compared to controls. Subordinates also had more 5-HT1A immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial amygdala than did controls. Finally, dominants had fewer 5-HT1A immunopositive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus compared to controls. Our results indicate that dominant social status results in a blunted conditioned defeat response and a distinct pattern of 5-HT1A receptor expression, which may contribute to resistance to conditioned defeat. PMID:21362435

  17. Preclinical profile of the mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT2A receptor antagonist S 21,357.

    PubMed

    Griebel, G; Blanchard, D C; Rettori, M C; Guardiola-Lemaître, B; Blanchard, R J

    1996-06-01

    This study evaluated the pharmacological and behavioral effects of S 21,357, a drug with high affinity for both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. The drug behaved as antagonist at both 5-HT1A autoreceptors and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, as it prevented the inhibitory effect of lesopitron on the electrical discharge of the dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons and the activity of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in hippocampal homogenates. In addition, S 21,357 (4 and 128 mg/kg, PO) inhibited 5-HTP-induced head-twitch responses in mice, indicating that it possesses 5-HT2A antagonistic properties. In a test battery designed to assess defensive behaviors of Swiss-Webster mice to the presence of, or situations associated with, a natural threat stimulus (i.e., rat), S 21,357 (0.12-2 mg/kg, IP) reduced contextual defense reactions after the rat was removed, risk assessment activities when the subject was chased, and finally, defensive attack behavior. These behavioral changes are consistent with fear/anxiety reduction. Furthermore, the drug strongly reduced flight reactions in response to the approaching rat. This last finding, taken together with recent results with panic-modulating drugs, suggest that S 21,357 may have potential efficacy against panic attack. Finally, our results suggest that compounds sharing high affinities for both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors may directly or synergistically increase the range of defensive behaviors affected. PMID:8743616

  18. Testosterone and its metabolites modulate 5HT1A and 5HT1B agonist effects on intermale aggression.

    PubMed

    Simon, N G; Cologer-Clifford, A; Lu, S F; McKenna, S E; Hu, S

    1998-01-01

    Our understanding of the neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems' regulating the display of offensive intermale aggression has progressed substantially over the past twenty years. Pharmacological studies have shown that serotonin, via its action at 5HT1A and/or 5HT1B receptor sites, modulates the display of intermale aggressive behavior and that its effects serve to decrease behavioral expression. Neuroendocrine investigations, in turn, have demonstrated that male-typical aggression is testosterone-dependent and studies of genetic effects, metabolic function and steroid receptor binding have shown that facilitation of behavioral displays can occur via independent androgen-sensitive or estrogen-sensitive pathways. Remarkably, there have been virtually no studies that examined the interrelationship between these facilitative and inhibitory systems. As an initial step toward characterizing the interaction between the systems, studies were conducted that assessed hormonal modulation of serotonin function at 5HT1A and 5HT1B receptor sites. They demonstrated: (1) that the androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of testosterone differentially modulate the ability of systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT (a 5HT1A agonist) and CGS12066B (a 5HT1B agonist) to decrease offensive aggression; and (2) when microinjected into the lateral septum (LS) or medial preoptic area (MPO), the aggression-attenuating effects of 1A and 1B agonists differ regionally and vary with the steroidal milieu. In general, the results suggest that estrogens establish a restrictive environment for attenuation of T-dependent aggression by 8-OH-DPAT and CGS 12066B, while androgens either do not inhibit, or perhaps even facilitate, the ability of 5HT1A and 5HT1B agonists to reduce aggression. Potential mechanisms involved in the production of these steroidal effects are discussed and emerging issues that may impact on efforts to develop an integrative neurobiological model of offensive, intermale aggression

  19. Fiche pratique: Des proverbes en pagaille; Debat filme; Faire un journal televise; Du bon usage d'un medicament (Practical Ideas: Proverbs in a Muddle; Filmed Debate; To Make a Televised Journal; Good Use of a Medicine).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisboa, Maria Fernanda Araujo; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four French language class activities are described, including a game using proverbs to review animal names and encourage comprehension; videotaping a class debate in French, to promote both exchange of ideas and student confidence before a group; a role-playing exercise in which a television news program is created; and a specialized activity to…

  20. Fiche pratique: Systeme temporel du passe II; Donne-moi la lune; FDM Frequence plus: Economie; Avec des photos (Practical Ideas: Temporal System of the Past Tense II; Give Me the Moon; FDM's "Economy"; With Photos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalen, Aurore; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four ideas for French language classroom activities include an exercise in the use of past tense in narrative, a children's vocabulary game, an introduction to the language of economics, and an activity combining self-expression and cultural awareness through photographs. (MSE)

  1. Fiches pratiques: En deux temps, trois mouvements; Bonjour, la France; Mots-Valise; A l'heure des titres (Practical Ideas: In Two Tenses, Three Movements; Hello France; Suitcase-Words; Understanding Titles).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Clara; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including exploration of the relationships between the perfect, imperfect, and pluperfect tenses; an introductory French geography activity; vocabulary development through creation of new words; and exercises to enhance comprehension of the titles and subtitles of newspaper articles.…

  2. Effect of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors on temporal discrimination by mice.

    PubMed

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Sindhunata, Ivan S; Scheffers, Kees; Flynn, Aaron D; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W

    2016-08-01

    Timing deficits are observed in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonergic hallucinogens can also alter the subjective experience of time. Characterizing the mechanism through which the serotonergic system regulates timing will increase our understanding of the linkage between serotonin (5-HT) and schizophrenia, and will provide insight into the mechanism of action of hallucinogens. We investigated whether interval timing in mice is altered by hallucinogens and other 5-HT2 receptor ligands. C57BL/6J mice were trained to perform a discrete-trials temporal discrimination task. In the discrete-trials task, mice were presented with two levers after a variable interval. Responding on lever A was reinforced if the interval was <6.5 s, and responding on lever B was reinforced if the interval was >6.5 s. A 2-parameter logistic function was fitted to the proportional choice for lever B (%B responding), yielding estimates of the indifference point (T50) and the Weber fraction (a measure of timing precision). The 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 increased T50, whereas the 5-HT2C antagonist SB-242,084 reduced T50. The results indicate that 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors have countervailing effects on the speed of the internal pacemaker. The hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 3 mg/kg IP), a 5-HT2 agonist, flattened the response curve at long stimulus intervals and shifted it to the right, causing both T50 and the Weber fraction to increase. The effect of DOI was antagonized by M100907 (0.03 mg/kg SC) but was unaffected by SB-242,084 (0.1 mg/kg SC). Similar to DOI, the selective 5-HT2A agonist 25CN-NBOH (6 mg/kg SC) reduced %B responding at long stimulus intervals, and increased T50 and the Weber fraction. These results demonstrate that hallucinogens alter temporal perception in mice, effects that are mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. It appears that 5-HT regulates temporal perception, suggesting that altered serotonergic signaling may contribute to the timing deficits

  3. Opposing actions of 5HT1A and 5HT2-like serotonin receptors on modulations of the electric signal waveform in the electric fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Allee, Susan J.; Markham, Michael R.; Salazar, Vielka L.; Stoddard, Philip K.

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an indirect modulator of the electric organ discharge (EOD) in the weakly electric gymnotiform fish, Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus. Injections of 5-HT enhance EOD waveform “masculinity”, increasing both waveform amplitude and the duration of the second phase. This study investigated the pharmacological identity of 5-HT receptors that regulate the electric waveform and their effects on EOD amplitude and duration. We present evidence that two sets of serotonin receptors modulate the EOD in opposite directions. We found that the 5HT1AR agonist 8-OH-DPAT diminishes EOD duration and amplitude while the 5HT1AR antagonist WAY100635 increases these parameters. In contrast, the 5HT2R agonist α-Me-5-HT increases EOD amplitude but not duration, yet 5-HT-induced increases in EOD duration can be inhibited by blocking 5HT2A/2C-like receptors with ketanserin. These results show that 5-HT exerts bi-directional control of EOD modulations in B. pinnicaudatus via action at receptors similar to mammalian 5HT1A and 5HT2 receptors. The discordant amplitude and duration response suggests separate mechanisms for modulating these waveform parameters. PMID:18206154

  4. Long-term Stress with Hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced Hepatic Steatosis with VLDL Overproduction Is Dependent on both 5-HT2 Receptor and 5-HT Synthesis in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jihua; Ma, Shaoxin; Li, Xin; An, Shanshan; Li, Tao; Guo, Keke; Lin, Min; Qu, Wei; Wang, Shanshan; Dong, Xinyue; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Huang, Xinping; Wang, Tianying; He, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic triglycerides production and adipose lipolysis are pivotal for long-term stress (LTS) or hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced insulin resistance. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been demonstrated to induce hepatic lipid metabolic abnormality by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In present study, we explored whether 5-HT is involved in LTS effects in liver using restraint stress-exposed rats and cultured primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. LTS with hyperglucocorticoidemia induced hepatic 5-HT synthetic increase with tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) up-regulation, and 5-HT2 receptor (5-HT2R, including 5-HT2A, 2B receptor) up-regulation in liver and visceral adipose, as well as hepatic mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction with steatosis, and visceral adipose lipolytic increase with high blood free fatty acids (FFAs) level. 5-HT exposure exhibited LTS-like effects in both tissues, and both LTS and 5-HT effects could be abolished significantly by blocking 5-HT2R. In HepG2 cells dexamethasone or palmitate-induced mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction were accompanied by up-regulations of 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R, which were significantly abolished by gene silencing Tph1 or 5-HT2R and were almost fully abolished by co-silencing of both, especially on VLDL overproduction. Chemical inhibition of Tph1 or/and 5-HT2R in both hepatocytes exhibited similar abolishment with genetic inhibition on dexamethason-induced effects. 5-HT-stimulated effects in both hepatocytes were fully abolished by blocking 5-HT2R, while 5-HT itself also up-regulated 5-HT2R. In conclusion, up-regulated hepatic 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R induced by both glucocorticoid and FFAs are crucial for LTS-induced hepatic steatosis with VLDL overproduction, while 5-HT by acting on 5-HT2R mediates mTOR activation in liver. PMID:26884719

  5. Evidence for 5-HT1-like receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in human pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, M. R.; Clayton, R. A.; Templeton, A. G.; Morecroft, I.

    1996-01-01

    1. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors mediating contraction of human isolated pulmonary artery rings were investigated. Responses to the agonists 5-carboximidotryptamine (5-CT, non-selective 5-HT1 agonist), sumatriptan (5-HT1D-like receptor agonist), 5-HT and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 5-HT1A receptor agonist) were studied. Responses to 5-HT and sumatriptan in the presence of the antagonists, methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT1+2-receptor antagonist), ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and the novel antagonist, GR55562 (5-HT1D receptor antagonist) were also studied. 2. All agonists contracted human pulmonary artery ring preparations in the following order of potency 5-CT > 5-HT = sumatriptan > 8-OH-DPAT. Maximum responses to 5-HT, 5-CT and sumatriptan were not significantly different. 3. Methiothepin 1 nM and 10 nM, but not 0.1 nM reduced the maximum contractile responses to 5-HT but did not alter tissue sensitivity to 5-HT. Methiothepin 0.1 nM, 1 nM and 10 nM had a similar effect on responses to sumatriptan. 4. The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (10 nM, 100 nM and 1 microM) also reduced the maximum contractile response to both 5-HT and sumatriptan without affecting tissue sensitivity to these agonists. 5. The novel 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, GR55562, inhibited responses to 5-HT and sumatriptan in a true competitive fashion. 6. The results suggest that the human pulmonary artery has a functional population of 5-HT1D-like receptors which are involved in the contractile response to 5-HT. PMID:8886409

  6. Functional characterization of 5-HT1D autoreceptors on the modulation of 5-HT release in guinea-pig mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex.

    PubMed Central

    el Mansari, M.; Blier, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. The aims of the present study were (i) to characterize further the pharmacology of 5-HT1D autoreceptors modulating 5-HT release in guinea-pig mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex; (ii) to determine whether 5-HT1D receptors in the mesencephalic raphe are located on 5-HT neurones; (iii) to determine whether 5-HT1D autoreceptors are coupled to G proteins; and (iv) to assess their sensitivity following long-term 5-HT reuptake blockade and inhibition of type-A monoamine oxidase. 2. In mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex slices, the 5-HT1D/1B receptor agonist, sumatriptan and the 5-HT1 receptor agonist, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) but not the 5-HT1B receptor agonist, CP93129, inhibited electrically the evoked release of [3H]-5-HT in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was antagonized by the 5-HT1D/1B receptor antagonist GR127935 in the three structures, but not by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (+)-WAY100635 in mesencephalic raphe slices. These results confirm the presence of functional 5-HT1D autoreceptors controlling 5-HT release within the mesencephalic raphe as well as in terminal regions. 3. The inhibitory effect of sumatriptan on K(+)-evoked release of [3H]-5-HT was not reduced by the addition of the Na+ channel blocker, tetrodotoxin to the superfusion medium, suggesting that these 5-HT1D receptors in the mesencephalic raphe are located on 5-HT neurones and may be considered autoreceptors. 4. The in vitro treatment with the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was used to determine whether these 5-HT1D autoreceptors are coupled to G proteins. The inhibitory effect of sumatriptan on electrically evoked release of [3H]-5-HT was attenuated in NEM-pretreated slices from mesencephalic raphe, hippocampus and frontal cortex, indicating that the 5-HT1D autoreceptors activated by sumatriptan are coupled to G proteins in these three structures. Taken together with our previous results, this suggests that, in addition to the 5

  7. A history of atmospheric tritium gas (HT) 1950 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Happell, James D.; Östlund, Göte; Mason, Allen S.

    2004-07-01

    Data collected as a part of this study from 1968 2002 and data from other studies from 1950 1967 show that the maximum atmospheric concentration of tritium gas (HT) occurred in the early to mid 1970s, which corresponds to the era of frequent, large underground nuclear tests. These data clearly show that the major source of HT to the atmosphere between 1962 and the early 1990s was the underground testing of nuclear weapons. Samples collected at both our Alaska and Miami stations clearly show marked increases in the autumn of each year between 1970 and 1975 that were associated with large underground explosions conducted by the former Soviet Union at the Novaya Zemlya test site. Other significant sources of HT include accidental releases of HT used in the manufacture and maintenance of nuclear weapons stockpiles, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel rods and emissions from nuclear power plants. Since the early 1990s, when underground testing largely ceased, emission estimates from our data agree very well with United Nations estimates of worldwide releases from fuel reprocessing and nuclear power plants, suggesting that the nuclear power industry is now the major source of HT to the atmosphere.

  8. Altered serotonin and dopamine metabolism in the CNS of serotonin 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1B) receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ase, A R; Reader, T A; Hen, R; Riad, M; Descarries, L

    2000-12-01

    Measurements of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline, and of 5-HT and DA metabolites, were obtained by HPLC from 16 brain regions and the spinal cord of 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1B) knockout and wild-type mice of the 129/Sv strain. In 5-HT(1A) knockouts, 5-HT concentrations were unchanged throughout, but levels of 5-HT metabolites were higher than those of the wild type in dorsal/medial raphe nuclei, olfactory bulb, substantia nigra, and locus coeruleus. This was taken as an indication of increased 5-HT turnover, reflecting an augmented basal activity of midbrain raphe neurons and consequent increase in their somatodendritic and axon terminal release of 5-HT. It provided a likely explanation for the increased anxious-like behavior observed in 5-HT(1A) knockout mice. Concomitant increases in DA content and/or DA turnover were interpreted as the result of a disinhibition of DA, whereas increases in noradrenaline concentration in some territories of projection of the locus coeruleus could reflect a diminished activity of its neurons. In 5-HT(1B) knockouts, 5-HT concentrations were lower than those of the wild type in nucleus accumbens, locus coeruleus, spinal cord, and probably also several other territories of 5-HT innervation. A decrease in DA, associated with increased DA turnover, was measured in nucleus accumbens. These changes in 5-HT and DA metabolism were consistent with the increased aggressiveness and the supersensitivity to cocaine reported in 5-HT(1B) knockout mice. Thus, markedly different alterations in CNS monoamine metabolism may contribute to the opposite behavioral phenotypes of these two knockouts. PMID:11080193

  9. The 5-HT4 receptor: molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of two splice variants.

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, C; Adham, N; Kao, H T; Olsen, M A; Laz, T M; Schechter, L E; Bard, J A; Vaysse, P J; Hartig, P R; Branchek, T A

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cloning efforts have provided primary amino acid sequence and signal transduction data for a large collection of serotonin receptor subtypes. These include five 5-HT1-like receptors, three 5-HT2 receptors, one 5-HT3 receptor, two 5-HT5 receptors, one 5-HT6 receptor and one 5-HT7 receptor. Molecular biological information on the 5-HT4 receptor is notably absent from this list. We now report the cloning of the pharmacologically defined 5-HT4 receptor. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers, we identified a rat brain PCR fragment which encoded a '5-HT receptor-like' amino acid sequence. The corresponding full length cDNA was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library. Transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, this receptor stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity and is sensitive to the benzamide derivative cisapride. The response is also blocked by ICS-205930. Interestingly, we isolated two splice variants of the receptor, 5-HT4L and 5-HT4S, differing in the length and sequence of their C-termini. In rat brain, the 5-HT4S transcripts are restricted to the striatum, but the 5-HT4L transcripts are expressed throughout the brain, except in the cerebellum where it was barely detectable. In peripheral tissues, differential expression was also observed in the atrium of the heart where only the 5-HT4S isoform was detectable. Images PMID:7796807

  10. Recent Progress of HT-7U Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Pei-de

    2002-12-01

    HT-7U is a superconducting tokamak, which is being constructed in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The mission of the HT-7U project is to develop a scientific and engineering basis of the steady state operation of advanced tokamak. The engineering design of the device has been optimized. The R&D program is going on. Short samples of the conductor and a CS model coil were tested. All the TF and PF coils will be manufactured and tested in Institute of Plasma Physics. Therefore, a 600-meter long jacketing line for cable-in-conduit conductors along with two winding machines, a set of VPI equipment and a test facility for the TF and PF coils are ready in ASIPP now. In this paper, the recent progress of the HT-7U is described.

  11. Dorsal Raphe Neurons Signal Reward through 5-HT and Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhixiang; Zhou, Jingfeng; Li, Yi; Hu, Fei; Lu, Yao; Ma, Ming; Feng, Qiru; Zhang, Ju-en; Wang, Daqing; Zeng, Jiawei; Bao, Junhong; Kim, Ji-Young; Chen, Zhou-Feng; Mestikawy, Salah El; Luo, Minmin

    2015-01-01

    Summary The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain is a key center for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) expressing neurons. Serotonergic neurons in the DRN have been theorized to encode punishment by opposing the reward signaling of dopamine neurons. Here, we show that DRN neurons encode reward, but not punishment, through 5-HT and glutamate. Optogenetic stimulation of DRN Pet-1 neurons reinforces mice to explore the stimulation-coupled spatial region, shifts sucrose preference, drives optical self-stimulation, and directs sensory discrimination learning. DRN Pet-1 neurons increase their firing activity during reward tasks and this activation can be used to rapidly change neuronal activity patterns in the cortnassociated with 5-HT, they also release glutamate, and both neurotransmitters contribute to reward signaling. These experiments demonstrate the ability of DRN neurons to organize reward behaviors and might provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of learning facilitation and anhedonia treatment. PMID:24656254

  12. Comment on "Collinear Segment Detection Using HT Neighborhoods".

    PubMed

    Rahmdel, Payam S; Shi, Daming; Comley, Richard

    2014-02-01

    A novel application of the Hough transform (HT) neighborhood approach to collinear segment detection was proposed in [1]. It, however, suffered from one major weakness in that it could not provide an effective solution to the case of segment intersection. This paper analyzes a vital prerequisite step, disturbance elimination in the Hough space, and shows why, this method alone, is incapable of distinguishing the true segment endpoints. To address the problem, a unique HT butterfly separation method is proposed in this correspondence, as an essential complement to the above publication. PMID:26270930

  13. GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in anesthetized rats: are 5-HT5B receptors involved?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Maldonado, Carolina; López-Sánchez, Pedro; Anguiano-Robledo, Liliana; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Terrón, José A

    2015-04-01

    The 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR-127935, inhibits hypotensive responses produced by the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT7 receptor agonist, and 5-HT5A/5B receptor ligand, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), in rats. This work further characterized the above mechanism using more selective 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor antagonists. Also, expression of 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in blood vessels was searched by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Decreases in diastolic blood pressure induced by 5-CT (0.001-10 μg/kg, intravenously) were analyzed in anesthetized rats that had received intravenous vehicle (1 mL/kg), SB-224289 (5-HT1B antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), BRL15572 (5-HT1D antagonist; 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg), SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each), or SB-224289 + BRL15572 (0.3 mg/kg, each) + GR-127935 (1 mg/kg). Because only the latter treatment inhibited 5-CT-induced hypotension, suggestive of a mechanism unrelated to 5-HT1B/1D receptors, the effects of antagonists/ligands at 5-HT5A (SB-699551, 1 mg/kg), 5-HT6 (SB-399885, 1 mg/kg), and 5-HT1B/1D/5A/5B/7 receptors (ergotamine, 0.1 mg/kg) on 5-CT-induced hypotension were tested. Interestingly, only ergotamine blocked 5-CT-induced responses; this effect closely paralleled that of SB-224289 + BRL-15572 + GR-127935. Neither did ergotamine nor GR-127935 inhibit hypotensive responses induced by the 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-44. Faint but clear bands corresponding to 5-HT5A and 5-HT5B receptor mRNAs in aorta and mesenteric arteries were detected. Results suggest that the GR-127935-sensitive mechanism mediating hypotension in rats is unrelated to 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT5A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. This mechanism, however, resembles putative 5-HT5B receptors. PMID:25502305

  14. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  15. Variation within the serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor system aligns with vulnerability to cocaine cue reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, N C; Liu, S; Maili, L; Swinford, S E; Lane, S D; Fox, R G; Hamon, S C; Nielsen, D A; Cunningham, K A; Moeller, F G

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine dependence remains a challenging public health problem with relapse cited as a major determinant in its chronicity and severity. Environmental contexts and stimuli become reliably associated with its use leading to durable conditioned responses (‘cue reactivity') that can predict relapse as well as treatment success. Individual variation in the magnitude and influence of cue reactivity over behavior in humans and animals suggest that cue-reactive individuals may be at greater risk for the progression to addiction and/or relapse. In the present translational study, we investigated the contribution of variation in the serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) system in individual differences in cocaine cue reactivity in humans and rodents. We found that cocaine-dependent subjects carrying a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the HTR2C gene that encodes for the conversion of cysteine to serine at codon 23 (Ser23 variant) exhibited significantly higher attentional bias to cocaine cues in the cocaine-word Stroop task than those carrying the Cys23 variant. In a model of individual differences in cocaine cue reactivity in rats, we identified that high cocaine cue reactivity measured as appetitive approach behavior (lever presses reinforced by the discrete cue complex) correlated with lower 5-HT2CR protein expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and blunted sensitivity to the suppressive effects of the selective 5-HT2CR agonist WAY163909. Our translational findings suggest that the functional status of the 5-HT2CR system is a mechanistic factor in the generation of vulnerability to cocaine-associated cues, an observation that opens new avenues for future development of biomarker and therapeutic approaches to suppress relapse in cocaine dependence. PMID:24618688

  16. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Gordon F; Smith, Haleigh R; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B

    2015-07-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT(2A) receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1b(f/f/p)) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT(2A), but not 5-HT(2C), receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT(2A) receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  17. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  18. Hippocampal 5-HT1A Receptor and Spatial Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Saling, Michael M.; Reutens, David C.; Stout, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition is fundamental for survival in the topographically complex environments inhabited by humans and other animals. The hippocampus, which has a central role in spatial cognition, is characterized by high concentration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptor binding sites, particularly of the 1A receptor (5-HT1A) subtype. This review highlights converging evidence for the role of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in spatial learning and memory. We consider studies showing that activation or blockade of the 5-HT1A receptors using agonists or antagonists, respectively, lead to changes in spatial learning and memory. For example, pharmacological manipulation to induce 5-HT release, or to block 5-HT uptake, have indicated that increased extracellular 5-HT concentrations maintain or improve memory performance. In contrast, reduced levels of 5-HT have been shown to impair spatial memory. Furthermore, the lack of 5-HT1A receptor subtype in single gene knockout mice is specifically associated with spatial memory impairments. These findings, along with evidence from recent cognitive imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and studies of individual genetic variance in 5-HT1A receptor availability, strongly suggests that 5-HT, mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, plays a key role in spatial learning and memory. PMID:26696889

  19. Physiologically identified 5-HT2-like receptors at the crayfish neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Jami N; Cooper, Robin L

    2002-04-01

    The model synaptic preparation of the crayfish opener neuromuscular junction is known to be responsive to exogenous application of 5-HT. The primary effect of 5-HT is an enhancement of vesicular release from the presynaptic motor nerve terminal. 5-HT is known to act through an IP(3) cascade which suggests the presence of a 5-HT(2) receptor subtype; however, this is based on vertebrate 5-HT receptor classification. We examined this possibility by using a selective agonist and two antagonists of the vertebrate 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes. The antagonist ketanserin and spiperone reduce the responsiveness of 5-HT in a dose-dependent manner. The broad 5-HT(2) receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-Me-5-HT) enhances synaptic transmission, in a concentration-dependent manner, but it is not as potent as 5-HT. These results support the notion that a 5-HT(2) receptor subtype is present presynaptically on the crayfish motor nerve terminals. By knowing the types of 5-HT receptors present on the presynaptic motor nerve terminals in this model synaptic preparation, a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of 5-HT on vesicular release will be forthcoming. PMID:11911865

  20. 5-HT1B receptor modulation of the serotonin transporter in vivo: studies using KO mice.

    PubMed

    Montañez, Sylvia; Munn, Jaclyn L; Owens, W Anthony; Horton, Rebecca E; Daws, Lynette C

    2014-07-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) controls the strength and duration of serotonergic neurotransmission by the high-affinity uptake of serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular fluid. SERT is a key target for many psychotherapeutic and abused drugs, therefore understanding how SERT activity and expression are regulated is of fundamental importance. A growing literature suggests that SERT activity is under regulatory control of the 5-HT1B autoreceptor. The present studies made use of mice with a constitutive reduction (5-HT1B+/-) or knockout of 5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1B-/-), as well as mice with a constitutive knockout of SERT (SERT-/-) to further explore the relationship between SERT activity and 5-HT1B receptor expression. High-speed chronoamperometry was used to measure clearance of 5-HT from CA3 region of hippocampus in vivo. Serotonin clearance rate, over a range of 5-HT concentrations, did not differ among 5-HT1B receptor genotypes, nor did [(3)H]cyanoimipramine binding to SERT in this brain region, suggesting that SERT activity is not affected by constitutive reduction or loss of 5-HT1B receptors; alternatively, it might be that other transport mechanisms for 5-HT compensate for loss of 5-HT1B receptors. Consistent with previous reports, we found that the 5-HT1B receptor antagonist, cyanopindolol, inhibited 5-HT clearance in wild-type mice. However, this effect of cyanopindolol was lost in 5-HT1B-/- mice and diminished in 5-HT1B+/- mice, indicating that the 5-HT1B receptor is necessary for cyanopindolol to inhibit 5-HT clearance. Likewise, cyanopindolol was without effect on 5-HT clearance in SERT-/- mice, demonstrating a requirement for the presence of both SERT and 5-HT1B receptors in order for cyanopindolol to inhibit 5-HT clearance in CA3 region of hippocampus. Our findings are consistent with SERT being under the regulatory control of 5-HT1B autoreceptors. Future studies to identify signaling pathways involved may help elucidate novel therapeutic targets for the

  1. Participation of 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2A receptors in the contraction of human temporal artery by 5-hydroxytryptamine and related drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Verheggen, R.; Freudenthaler, S.; Meyer-Dulheuer, F.; Kaumann, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We investigated the hypothesis that, as in some other large human arteries, 5-HT-induced contraction of the temporal artery is mediated through two co-existing receptor populations, 5-HT1-like- and 5-HT2A. Temporal arterial segments were obtained from patients undergoing brain surgery and rings prepared set up to contract with 5-HT and related agents. Fractions of maximal 5-HT responses mediated through 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2A receptors, f1 and f2 = 1-f1, were estimated by use of the 5-HT2A-selective antagonist ketanserin. 2. In rings with intact endothelium 5-HT evoked contractions with a -log EC50, M of 7.0. Ketanserin (10-1000 nM) antagonized part of the 5-HT-induced contractions. Ketanserin-resistant components of 5-HT-induced contractions were found with -log EC50, M of 6.9 and f1 of 0.17 (100 nM ketanserin) and -log EC50, M of 6.4 and f1 of 0.20 (1000 nM ketanserin). 3. In rings with endothelial function attenuated by enzymatic treatment, 5-HT caused contractions with a -log EC50, M of 7.2 that were partially blocked by ketanserin. Ketanserin-resistant components of 5-HT-induced contractions were found with -log EC50, M 7.4 and f1 of 0.16 (100 nM ketanserin) and -log EC50, M of 7.5 and f1 of 0.14 (1000 nM ketanserin). 4. The ketanserin-resistant component of 5-HT-evoked contraction was blocked by methiothepin (100-1000 nM) consistent with mediation through 5-HT1-like receptors. 5. In rings with intact endothelium the 5-HT1-like-selective agonist, sumatriptan, caused small contractions with a -log EC50, M of 6.5 and intrinsic activity of 0.21 with respect to 5-HT that were resistant to blockade by 1000 nM ketanserin but antagonized by 100 nM methiothepin. 6. In rings with intact endothelium the 5-HT2A receptor partial agonist SK&F 103829 (2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8[methyl sulphonyl]-1H3-benzazepin-7-ol methensulphonate) contracted rings with a -log EC50, M of 5.0 and an intrinsic activity of 0.49 with respect to 5-HT; the effects were antagonized by ketanserin 1000

  2. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  3. Serotonin (5-HT) 2C Receptor (5-HT2CR) Protein Expression is Enriched in Synaptosomal and Postsynaptic Compartments of Rat Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Noelle C.; Lanfranco, Maria Fe; Bubar, Marcy J.; Seitz, Patricia K.; Stutz, Sonja J.; McGinnis, Andrew G.; Watson, Cheryl S.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    The action of serotonin (5-HT) at the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) in cerebral cortex is emerging as a candidate modulator of neural processes that mediate core phenotypic facets of several psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, our understanding of the neurobiology of the cortical 5-HT2CR protein complex is currently limited. The goal of the present study was to explore the subcellular localization of the 5-HT2CR in synaptosomes and the postsynaptic density, an electron-dense thickening specialized for postsynaptic signaling and neuronal plasticity. Utilizing multiples tissues (brain, peripheral tissues), protein fractions (synaptosomal, postsynaptic density), and controls (peptide neutralization, 5-HT2CR stable-expressing cells), we established the selectivity of two commercially available 5-HT2CR antibodies and employed the antibodies in Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies of PFC and motor cortex, two regions implicated in cognitive, emotional and motor dysfunction. For the first time, we demonstrated the expression of the 5-HT2CR in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions from both PFC and motor cortex. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed the presence of PSD-95 within the 5-HT2CR protein complex expressed in PFC and motor cortex. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that the 5-HT2CR is localized within the postsynaptic thickening of synapses and is therefore positioned to directly modulate synaptic plasticity in cortical neurons. PMID:20345755

  4. Genotype-Dependent Difference in 5-HT2C Receptor-Induced Hypolocomotion: Comparison with 5-HT2A Receptor Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bazovkina, Darya V.; Kondaurova, Elena M.; Naumenko, Vladimir S.; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In the present study behavioral effects of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor were investigated in different mouse strains. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK-212 applied intraperitoneally induced significant dose-dependent reduction of distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac mice. This effect was receptor-specific because it was inhibited by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS102221. To study the role of genotype in 5-HT2C receptor-induced hypolocomotion, locomotor activity of seven inbred mouse strains was measured after MK-212 acute treatment. We found that the 5-HT2C receptor stimulation by MK-212 decreased distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac, C57Bl/6, C3H/He, and ICR mice, whereas it failed to affect locomotor activity in DBA/2J, Asn, and Balb/c mice. We also compared the interstrain differences in functional response to 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors activation measured by the quantification of receptor-mediated head-twitches. These experiments revealed significant positive correlation between 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors functional responses for all investigated mouse strains. Moreover, we found that 5-HT2A receptor activation with DOI did not change locomotor activity in CBA/Lac mice. Taken together, our data indicate the implication of 5-HT2C receptors in regulation of locomotor activity and suggest the shared mechanism for functional responses mediated by 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors. PMID:26380122

  5. Effects of ginger constituents on the gastrointestinal tract: role of cholinergic M3 and serotonergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pertz, Heinz H; Lehmann, Jochen; Roth-Ehrang, René; Elz, Sigurd

    2011-07-01

    The herbal drug ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) may be effective for treating nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypomotility. In these conditions, cholinergic M (3) receptors and serotonergic 5-HT (3) and 5-HT (4) receptors are involved. The major chemical constituents of ginger are [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol. We studied the interaction of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol (racemates), and [6]-shogaol with guinea pig M (3) receptors, guinea pig 5-HT (3) receptors, and rat 5-HT (4) receptors. In whole segments of guinea pig ileum (bioassay for contractile M (3) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol slightly but significantly depressed the maximal carbachol response at an antagonist concentration of 10 µM. In the guinea pig myenteric plexus preparation (bioassay for contractile 5-HT (3) receptors), 5-HT maximal responses were depressed by [10]-gingerol from 93 ± 3 % to 65 ± 6 % at an antagonist concentration of 3 µM and to 48 ± 3 % at an antagonist concentration of 5 µM following desensitization of 5-HT (4) receptors and blockade of 5-HT (1) and 5-HT (2) receptors. [6]-Shogaol (3 µM) induced depression to 61 ± 3 %. In rat esophageal tunica muscularis mucosae (bioassay for relaxant 5-HT (4) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol (2-6.3 µM) showed no agonist effects. The maximal 5-HT response remained unaffected in the presence of the compounds. It is concluded that the efficiency of ginger in reducing nausea and vomiting may be based on a weak inhibitory effect of gingerols and shogaols at M (3) and 5-HT (3) receptors. 5-HT (4) receptors, which play a role in gastroduodenal motility, appear not to be involved in the action of these compounds. PMID:21305447

  6. Role for serotonin2A (5-HT2A) and 2C (5-HT2C) receptors in experimental absence seizures.

    PubMed

    Venzi, Marcello; David, François; Bellet, Joachim; Cavaccini, Anna; Bombardi, Cristiano; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Absence seizures (ASs) are the hallmark of childhood/juvenile absence epilepsy. Monotherapy with first-line anti-absence drugs only controls ASs in 50% of patients, indicating the need for novel therapeutic targets. Since serotonin family-2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) are known to modulate neuronal activity in the cortico-thalamo-cortical loop, the main network involved in AS generation, we investigated the effect of selective 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR ligands on ASs in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a well established polygenic rat model of these non-convulsive seizures. GAERS rats were implanted with fronto-parietal EEG electrodes under general anesthesia, and their ASs were later recorded under freely moving conditions before and after intraperitoneal administration of various 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR ligands. The 5-HT2A agonist TCB-2 dose-dependently decreased the total time spent in ASs, an effect that was blocked by the selective 5-HT2A antagonist MDL11,939. Both MDL11,939 and another selective 5-HT2A antagonist (M100,907) increased the length of individual seizures when injected alone. The 5-HT2C agonists lorcaserin and CP-809,101 dose-dependently suppressed ASs, an effect blocked by the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242984. In summary, 5-HT2ARs and 5-HT2CRs negatively control the expression of experimental ASs, indicating that selective agonists at these 5-HT2R subtypes might be potential novel anti-absence drugs. PMID:27085605

  7. Genotype-Dependent Difference in 5-HT2C Receptor-Induced Hypolocomotion: Comparison with 5-HT2A Receptor Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Bazovkina, Darya V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Naumenko, Vladimir S; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In the present study behavioral effects of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor were investigated in different mouse strains. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK-212 applied intraperitoneally induced significant dose-dependent reduction of distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac mice. This effect was receptor-specific because it was inhibited by the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist RS102221. To study the role of genotype in 5-HT2C receptor-induced hypolocomotion, locomotor activity of seven inbred mouse strains was measured after MK-212 acute treatment. We found that the 5-HT2C receptor stimulation by MK-212 decreased distance traveled in the open field test in CBA/Lac, C57Bl/6, C3H/He, and ICR mice, whereas it failed to affect locomotor activity in DBA/2J, Asn, and Balb/c mice. We also compared the interstrain differences in functional response to 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors activation measured by the quantification of receptor-mediated head-twitches. These experiments revealed significant positive correlation between 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors functional responses for all investigated mouse strains. Moreover, we found that 5-HT2A receptor activation with DOI did not change locomotor activity in CBA/Lac mice. Taken together, our data indicate the implication of 5-HT2C receptors in regulation of locomotor activity and suggest the shared mechanism for functional responses mediated by 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors. PMID:26380122

  8. The opposite effect of a 5-HT1B receptor agonist on 5-HT synthesis, as well as its resistant counterpart, in an animal model of depression

    PubMed Central

    Skelin, Ivan; Kovačević, Tomislav; Sato, Hiroki; Diksic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat is as an animal model of depression with altered parameters of the serotonergic (5-HT) system function (5-HT synthesis rates, tissue concentrations, release, receptor density and affinity), as well as an altered sensitivity of these parameters to different 5-HT based antidepressants. The effects of acute and chronic treatments with the 5-HT1B agonist, CP-94253 on 5-HT synthesis, in the FSL rats and the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) controls were measured using α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan (α-MTrp) autoradiography. CP-94253 (5 mg/kg), or an adequate volume of saline, was injected i.p. as a single dose in the acute experiment or delivered via the subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipump (5 mg/kg/day for 14 days) in the chronic experiment. The acute treatment with CP-94253 significantly decreased the 5-HT synthesis in both the FRL and FSL rats, with a more widespread effect in the FRL rats. Chronic treatment with CP-94253 significantly decreased 5-HT synthesis in the FRL rats, while 5-HT synthesis in the FSL rats was significantly increased throughout the brain. In both the acute and chronic experiment, the FRL rats had higher brain 5-HT synthesis rates, relative to the FSL rats. The shift in the direction of the treatment effect from acute to chronic, using the 5-HT1B agonist, CP-94253, on 5-HT synthesis in the FSL model of depression, with an opposite effect on the control FRL rats, suggests the differential adaptation of the 5-HT system in the FSL and FRL rats to chronic stimulation of 5-HT1B receptors. PMID:22542420

  9. The human 5-HT7 serotonin receptor splice variants: constitutive activity and inverse agonist effects

    PubMed Central

    Krobert, Kurt A; Levy, Finn Olav

    2002-01-01

    Using membranes from stably or transiently transfected HEK293 cells cultured in 5-HT-free medium and expressing the recombinant human 5-HT7 receptor splice variants (h5-HT7(a), h5-HT7(b) and h5-HT7(d)), we compared their abilities to constitutively activate adenylyl cyclase (AC).All h5-HT7 splice variants elevated basal and forskolin-stimulated AC. The basal AC activity was reduced by the 5-HT7 antagonist methiothepin and this effect was blocked by mesulergine (neutral 5-HT7 antagonist) indicating that the inhibitory effect of methiothepin is inverse agonism at the 5-HT7 receptor.Receptor density correlated poorly with constitutive AC activity in stable clonal cell lines and transiently transfected cells. Mean constitutive AC activity as a percentage of forskolin-stimulated AC was significantly higher for the h5-HT7(b) splice variant compared to the h5-HT7(a) and h5-HT7(d) splice variants but only in stable cell lines.All eight 5-HT antagonists tested inhibited constitutive AC activity of all splice variants in a concentration-dependent manner. No differences in inverse agonist potencies (pIC50) were observed between the splice variants. The rank order of potencies was in agreement and highly correlated with antagonist potencies (pKb) determined by antagonism of 5-HT-stimulated AC activity (methiothepin>metergoline>mesulergine⩾clozapine⩾spiperone⩾ritanserin>methysergide>ketanserin).The efficacy of inverse agonism was not receptor level dependent and varied for several 5-HT antagonists between membrane preparations of transiently and stably transfected cells.It is concluded that the h5-HT7 splice variants display similar constitutive activity and inverse agonist properties. PMID:11906971

  10. Agonist actions of dihydroergotamine at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors and their possible relevance to antimigraine efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Schaerlinger, B; Hickel, P; Etienne, N; Guesnier, L; Maroteaux, L

    2003-01-01

    The pharmaceutical compound, dihydroergotamine (DHE) is dispensed to prevent and reduce the occurrence of migraine attacks. Although still controversial, the prophylactic effect of this drug is believed to be caused through blockade and/or activation of numerous receptors including serotonin (5-HT) receptors of the 5-HT2 subtype. To elucidate if 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) may be involved in DHE prophylactic effect, we performed investigations aimed to determine the respective pharmacological profile of DHE and of its major metabolite 8′-hydroxy-DHE (8′-OH-DHE) at the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2CRs by binding, inositol triphosphate (IP3) or cyclic GMP (cGMP) coupling studies in transfected fibroblasts. DHE and 8′-OH-DHE are competitive compounds at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2CRs. 8′-OH-DHE interaction at (5-HT2BRs) was best fitted by a biphasic competition curve and displayed the highest affinity with a Ki of 5 nM. These two compounds acted as agonists for both receptors in respect to cGMP production with pEC50 of 8.32±0.09 for 8′-OH-DHE at 5-HT2B and 7.83±0.06 at 5-HT2CRs. Knowing that the antimigraine prophylactic effect of DHE is only observed after long-term treatment, we chronically exposed the recombinant cells to DHE and 8′-OH-DHE. The number of 5-HT2BR-binding sites was always more affected than 5-HT2CRs. At 5-HT2BRs, 8′-OH-DHE was more effective than DHE, with an uncoupling that persisted for more than 40 h for IP3 or cGMP. By contrast, the 5-HT2CR coupling was reversible after either treatment. Chronic exposure to 8′-OH-DHE caused a persistent agonist-mediated desensitisation of 5-HT2B, but not 5-HT2CRs. This may be of relevance to therapeutic actions of the compound. PMID:12970106

  11. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  12. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  13. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  14. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  15. Localization and Function of a 5-HT Transporter in Crypt Epithelia of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Wade, P. R.; Chen, J.; Jaffe, B.; Kassem, I. S.; Blakely, R. D.; Gershon, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    The peristaltic reflex can be evoked in the absence of input from the CNS because the responsible neural pathways are intrinsic to the intestine. Mucosal enterochromaffin cells have been postulated to be pressure transducers, which activate the intrinsic sensory neurons that initiate the reflex by secreting 5-HT. All of the criteria necessary to establish 5-HT as this transmitter have been fulfilled previously, except that no mucosal mechanism for 5-HT inactivation was known. In the current investigation, desensitization of 5-HT receptors was demonstrated to inhibit the peristaltic reflex in the guinea pig large intestine in vitro. At low concentration (1.0 nM), the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine potentiated the reflex, but higher concentrations blocked it, suggesting that the peristaltic reflex depends on the 5-HT transporter-mediated inactivation of 5-HT. Specific (Na+-dependent, fluoxetine-sensitive) uptake of 3H- 5-HT by intestinal crypt epithelial cells was found by radioautography. mRNA encoding the neuronal 5-HT transporter was demonstrated in the intestinal mucosa by Northern analysis and located in crypt epithelial cells as well as in myenteric neurons by in situ hybridization. cDNA encoding the 5-HT transporter was cloned from the mucosa and completely sequenced. 5-HT transporter immunoreactivity was detected in crypt epithelial cells and enteric neurons. Mucosal epithelial cells thus express a plasmalemmal 5-HT transporter identical to that of serotonergic neurons. This molecule seems to play a critical role in the peristaltic reflex. PMID:8601815

  16. Immunohistological localization of 5-HT in the CNS and feeding system of the Stable Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    5-HT immunoreactive neurons were detected in the CNS of the stable fly. The finding of strong innervations of the cibarial pump muscles and the foregut by 5-HT IR neurons in the feeding-related systems suggests that 5-HT may play a crucial role in the control of the feeding behavior in both the larv...

  17. The role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in memory and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gongliang; Stackman, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) are widely distributed in the central nervous system, especially in brain region essential for learning and cognition. In addition to endogenous 5-HT, several hallucinogens, antipsychotics, and antidepressants function by targeting 5-HT2ARs. Preclinical studies show that 5-HT2AR antagonists have antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, whereas agonist ligands possess cognition-enhancing and hallucinogenic properties. Abnormal 5-HT2AR activity is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders and conditions, including depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In addition to its traditional activity as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), recent studies have defined novel operations of 5-HT2ARs. Here we review progress in the (1) receptor anatomy and biology: distribution, signaling, polymerization and allosteric modulation; and (2) receptor functions: learning and memory, hallucination and spatial cognition, and mental disorders. Based on the recent progress in basic research on the 5-HT2AR, it appears that post-training 5-HT2AR activation enhances non-spatial memory consolidation, while pre-training 5-HT2AR activation facilitates fear extinction. Further, the potential influence that 5-HT2AR-elicited visual hallucinations may have on visual cue (i.e., landmark) guided spatial cognition is discussed. We conclude that the development of selective 5-HT2AR modulators to target distinct signaling pathways and neural circuits represents a new possibility for treating emotional, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26500553

  18. HT.sub.m4 methods of treatment and assays, agonists and antagonists

    DOEpatents

    Lim, Bing; Adra, Chaker N.; Lelias, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which encodes a HT.sub.m4 protein, a transformed host cell which has been stably transfected with a DNA molecule which encodes a HT.sub.m4 protein and a recombinant HT.sub.m4 protein. The invention also relates to a method for detecting the presence of a hereditary atopy.

  19. Towards novel 5-HT7versus 5-HT1A receptor ligands among LCAPs with cyclic amino acid amide fragments: design, synthesis, and antidepressant properties. Part II.

    PubMed

    Canale, Vittorio; Kurczab, Rafał; Partyka, Anna; Satała, Grzegorz; Witek, Jagna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Pawłowski, Maciej; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Wesołowska, Anna; Zajdel, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    A 26-membered library of novel long-chain arylpiperazines, which contained primary and tertiary amides of cyclic amino acids (proline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide) in the terminal fragment was synthesized and biologically evaluated for binding affinity for 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. Docking studies confirmed advantages of Tic-amide over Pro-amide fragment for interaction with 5-HT7 receptors. Selected compounds 32 and 28, which behaved as 5-HT7Rs antagonist and 5-HT1A partial agonist, respectively, produced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test in mice after acute treatment in doses of 10 mg/kg (32) and 1.25 mg/kg (28). Compound 32 reduced immobility in a manner similar to the selective 5-HT7 antagonist SB-269970. PMID:25555143

  20. Critical role of 5-HT1A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptor subtypes in the initiation, generation, and propagation of the murine colonic migrating motor complex.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Eamonn J; Heredia, Dante J; Smith, Terence K

    2010-07-01

    The colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC) is necessary for fecal pellet propulsion in the murine colon. We have previously shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) released from enterochromaffin cells activates 5-HT(3) receptors on the mucosal processes of myenteric Dogiel type II neurons to initiate the events underlying the CMMC. Our aims were to further investigate the roles of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(3), and 5-HT(7) receptor subtypes in generating and propagating the CMMC using intracellular microelectrodes or tension recordings from the circular muscle (CM) in preparations with and without the mucosa. Spontaneous CMMCs were recorded from the CM in isolated murine colons but not in preparations without the mucosa. In mucosaless preparations, ondansetron (3 microM; 5-HT(3) antagonist) plus hexamethonium (100 microM) completely blocked spontaneous inhibitory junction potentials, depolarized the CM. Ondansetron blocked the preceding hyperpolarization associated with a CMMC. Spontaneous CMMCs and CMMCs evoked by spritzing 5-HT (10 and 100 microM) or nerve stimulation in preparations without the mucosa were blocked by SB 258719 or SB 269970 (1-5 microM; 5-HT(7) antagonists). Both NAN-190 and (S)-WAY100135 (1-5 microM; 5-HT(1A) antagonists) blocked spontaneous CMMCs and neurally evoked CMMCs in preparations without the mucosa. Both NAN-190 and (S)-WAY100135 caused an atropine-sensitive depolarization of the CM. The precursor of 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) (10 microM), and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (5 microM; 5-HT(1/5/7) agonist) increased the frequency of spontaneous CMMCs. 5-HTP and 5-CT also induced CMMCs in preparations with and without the mucosa, which were blocked by SB 258719. 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(3), and 5-HT(7) receptors, most likely on Dogiel Type II/AH neurons, are important in initiating, generating, and propagating the CMMC. Tonic inhibition of the CM appears to be driven by ongoing activity in descending serotonergic interneurons; by activating 5-HT(7

  1. Functional Status of the Serotonin 5-HT2C Receptor (5-HT2CR) Drives Interlocked Phenotypes that Precipitate Relapse-Like Behaviors in Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Noelle C; Stutz, Sonja J; Fox, Robert G; Sears, Robert M; Emeson, Ronald B; DiLeone, Ralph J; O'Neil, Richard T; Fink, Latham H; Li, Dingge; Green, Thomas A; Gerard Moeller, F; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Relapse vulnerability in cocaine dependence is rooted in genetic and environmental determinants, and propelled by both impulsivity and the responsivity to cocaine-linked cues (‘cue reactivity'). The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is uniquely poised to serve as a strategic nexus to mechanistically control these behaviors. The 5-HT2CR functional capacity is regulated by a number of factors including availability of active membrane receptor pools, the composition of the 5-HT2CR macromolecular protein complex, and editing of the 5-HT2CR pre-mRNA. The one-choice serial reaction time (1-CSRT) task was used to identify impulsive action phenotypes in an outbred rat population before cocaine self-administration and assessment of cue reactivity in the form of lever presses reinforced by the cocaine-associated discrete cue complex during forced abstinence. The 1-CSRT task reliably and reproducibly identified high impulsive (HI) and low impulsive (LI) action phenotypes; HI action predicted high cue reactivity. Lower cortical 5-HT2CR membrane protein levels concomitant with higher levels of 5-HT2CR:postsynaptic density 95 complex distinguished HI rats from LI rats. The frequency of edited 5-HT2CR mRNA variants was elevated with the prediction that the protein population in HI rats favors those isoforms linked to reduced signaling capacity. Genetic loss of the mPFC 5-HT2CR induced aggregate impulsive action/cue reactivity, suggesting that depressed cortical 5-HT2CR tone confers vulnerability to these interlocked behaviors. Thus, impulsive action and cue reactivity appear to neuromechanistically overlap in rodents, with the 5-HT2CR functional status acting as a neural rheostat to regulate, in part, the intersection between these vulnerability behaviors. PMID:23939424

  2. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. PMID:26631478

  3. Interaction of 5-HT1B/D ligands with recombinant h 5-HT1A receptors: intrinsic activity and modulation by G-protein activation state.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, P J; Palmier, C; Dupuis, D S; Colpaert, F C

    1998-05-01

    Many 5-HT1B/D receptor ligands have affinity for 5-HT1A receptors. In the present study, the intrinsic activity of a series of 5-HT1B/D ligands was investigated at human 5-HT1A (h 5-HT1A) receptors by measuring G-protein activation in recombinant C6-glial and HeLa membranes, using agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding. In these two membrane preparations, the density of h 5-HT1A receptors (i.e., 246 to 320 fmol mg(-1) protein) and of their G-proteins, and the receptor: G-protein density ratio (0.08 to 0.18) appeared to be similar. It was found that: (i) the maximal [35S]GTPgammaS binding responses induced by the 5-HT1B/D receptor ligands in the HeLa preparation at 30 microM GDP were comparable to that of the native agonist 5-HT; (ii) as compared to 5-HT (1.00), similar potencies but lower maximal responses were observed in the C6-glial preparation at 0.3 microM GDP for zolmitriptan (0.89), dihydroergotamine (0.81), rizatriptan (0.71), CP122638 (0.69), naratriptan (0.60) and sumatriptan (0.53); and that (iii) maximal [35S]GTPgammaS binding responses induced by 5-HT1B/D ligands in the C6-glial preparation were either unaffected or significantly enhanced by increasing the GDP concentration from 0.3 to 30 microM and higher concentrations. These features differ from those observed with 5-HT1A receptor agonists; the latter display the same rank order of potency and efficacy in both membrane preparations, and increasing the amount of GDP with C6-glial membranes results in an attenuation of both the agonist's maximal effect and the apparent potency of partial agonists. The differential regulation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B/D agonist responses by GDP suggests that different G-protein subtypes are involved upon 5-HT1A receptor activation by 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B/D agonists. PMID:9650800

  4. Evaluation of gene expression changes of serotonin receptors, 5-HT3AR and 5-HT2AR as main stress factors in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Seyed Hesam; Ahangari, Ghasem; Pornour, Majid; Deezagi, Abdolkhaleagh; Aminzadeh, Saeed; Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid Reza; Akbari, Mohamad Esmail

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious and potentially lethal multi-factor disease among 40-50 aged women in both developed and developing countries. Also, various studies have pointed to roles of neurotransmitters like serotonin in development of cancers, through action on various types of receptors. This study was conducted to evaluate serotonin receptor (5HT2AR and 5HT3AR) genes expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of breast cancer patients in comparison with the healthy people and in the MCF7 cell line. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 30 patients and 30 healthy individuals. Total RNA was extracted from PBMCs and MCF-7 cells. and 5HT2AR and 5HT3AR were detected by RT-PCR techniques. Finally, serotonin receptor gene expression variation in breast cancer patients and MCF-7 cells were determined by real time-PCR. This latter indicated significant promotion in expression of 5HT3AR and 5HT2AR in PBMCs in breast cancer patients but expression of 5HT2AR in the MCF-7 cell line was significantly decreased. In conclusion, after performing complimentary tests, determine of gene expression changes in serotonin receptors (5HT2AR and 5HT3AR) may be useful as a new approach in treatment of breast cancer based on use of antagonists. PMID:24969868

  5. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-01-01

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis. PMID:27064876

  6. New halogenated tris-(phenylalkyl)amines as h5-HT2B receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Nirav; Ahmed, Shahrear; Harding, Wayne W

    2016-07-15

    A series of compounds in which various halogen substituents were incorporated into a phenyl ring of a tris-(phenylalkyl)amine scaffold, was synthesized and evaluated for affinity to h5-HT2 receptors. In general, all compounds were found to have good affinity for the 5-HT2B receptor and were selective over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Compound 9i was the most selective compound in this study and is the highest affinity 5-HT2B receptor ligand bearing a tris-(phenylalkyl)amine scaffold to date. PMID:27261181

  7. NASA Rotor 37 CFD Code Validation: Glenn-HT Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to advance the goals of NASA aeronautics programs, it is necessary to continuously evaluate and improve the computational tools used for research and design at NASA. One such code is the Glenn-HT code which is used at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for turbomachinery computations. Although the code has been thoroughly validated for turbine heat transfer computations, it has not been utilized for compressors. In this work, Glenn-HT was used to compute the flow in a transonic compressor and comparisons were made to experimental data. The results presented here are in good agreement with this data. Most of the measures of performance are well within the measurement uncertainties and the exit profiles of interest agree with the experimental measurements.

  8. The 5-HT1A receptor in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joshua; DeLorenzo, Christine; Choudhury, Sunia; Parsey, Ramin V

    2016-03-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric diagnosis that is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. This debilitating disorder is currently one of the leading causes of disability nationwide and is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. A large body of previous research has theorized that serotonergic dysfunction, specifically of the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, plays a key role in the development of MDD. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of our current understanding of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and its role in the pathophysiology MDD through the discussion of animal, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), pharmacologic and genetic studies. PMID:26851834

  9. Deletion of the 5-HT3A-receptor subunit blunts the induction of cocaine sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, C. W.; Bratt, A. M.; Kelley, S. P.

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are classified into seven groups (5-HT1–7), comprising at least 14 structurally and pharmacologically distinct receptor subtypes. Pharma-cological antagonism of ionotropic 5-HT3 receptors has been shown to modulate both behavioral and neuro-chemical aspects of the induction of sensitization to cocaine. It is not known, however, if specific molecular subunits of the 5-HT3 receptor influence the development of cocaine sensitization. To address this question, we studied the effects of acute and chronic intermittent cocaine administration in mice with a targeted deletion of the gene for the 5-HT3A-receptor subunit (5-HT3A −/−). 5-HT3A (−/−) mice showed blunted induction of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization as compared with wild-type littermate controls. 5-HT3A (−/−) mice did not differ from wild-type littermate controls on measures of basal motor activity or response to acute cocaine treatment. Enhanced locomotor response to saline injection following cocaine sensitization was observed equally in 5-HT3A (−/−) and wild-type mice suggesting similar conditioned effects associated with chronic cocaine treatment. These data show a role for the 5-HT3A-receptor subunit in the induction of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and suggest that the 5-HT3A molecular subunit modulates neurobehavioral adaptations to cocaine, which may underlie aspects of addiction. PMID:17559417

  10. A Subpopulation of Serotonergic Neurons That Do Not Express the 5-HT1A Autoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    5-HT neurons are topographically organized in the hindbrain, and have been implicated in the etiology and treatment of psychiatric diseases such as depression and anxiety. Early studies suggested that the raphe 5-HT neurons were a homogeneous population showing similar electrical properties, and feedback inhibition mediated by 5-HT1A autoreceptors. We utilized histochemistry techniques in ePet1-eGFP and 5-HT1A-iCre/R26R mice to show that a subpopulation of 5-HT neurons do not express the somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptor mRNA. In addition, we performed patch-clamp recordings followed by single-cell PCR in ePet1-eGFP mice. From 134 recorded 5-HT neurons located in the dorsal, lateral, and median raphe, we found lack of 5-HT1A mRNA expression in 22 cells, evenly distributed across raphe subfields. We compared the cellular characteristics of these neuronal types and found no difference in passive membrane properties and general excitability. However, when injected with large depolarizing current, 5-HT1A-negative neurons fired more action potentials, suggesting a lack of autoinhibitory action of local 5-HT release. Our results support the hypothesis that the 5-HT system is composed of subpopulations of serotonergic neurons with different capacity for adaptation. PMID:23336048

  11. Distribution of cells responsive to 5-HT6 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, Alastair S.; Burke, Luke K.; Shaw, Jill; Evans, Mark L.; Heisler, Lora K.

    2014-01-01

    The central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system is well established as an important regulator of appetite and continues to remain a focus of obesity research. While much emphasis has focussed on the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) in 5-HT's anorectic effect, pharmacological manipulation of the 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) also reduces appetite and body weight and may be amenable to obesity treatment. However, the neurological circuits that underlie 5-HT6R-induced hypophagia remain to be identified. Using c-fos immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) as a marker of neuronal activation, here we mapped the neuroanatomical targets activated by an anorectic dose of the 5-HT6R antagonist SB-399885 throughout the brain. Furthermore, we quantified SB-399855 activated cells within brain appetitive nuclei, the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Our results reveal that 5-HT6R antagonist-induced hypophagia is associated with significantly increased neuronal activation in two nuclei with an established role in the central control of appetite, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the NTS. In contrast, no changes in FOS-IR were observed between treatment groups within other hypothalamic nuclei or DRN. The data presented here provide a first insight into the neural circuitry underlying 5-HT6R antagonist-induced appetite suppression and highlight the PVH and NTS in the coordination of 5-HT6R hypophagia. PMID:24566060

  12. The serotonin 5-HT7 receptors: two decades of research.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Evelien; Heyninck, Karen; Andressen, Kjetil W; Haegeman, Guy; Levy, Finn Olav; Vanhoenacker, Peter; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Like most neurotransmitters, serotonin possesses a simple structure. However, the pharmacological consequences are more complex and diverse. Serotonin is involved in numerous functions in the human body including the control of appetite, sleep, memory and learning, temperature regulation, mood, behavior, cardiovascular function, muscle contraction, endocrine regulation, and depression. Low levels of serotonin may be associated with several disorders, namely increase in aggressive and angry behaviors, clinical depression, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, tinnitus, and bipolar disease. These effects are mediated via different serotonin (5-HT) receptors. In this review, we will focus on the last discovered member of this serotonin receptor family, the 5-HT7 receptor. This receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and was cloned two decades ago. Later, different splice variants were described but no major functional differences have been described so far. All 5-HT7 receptor variants are coupled to Gαs proteins and stimulate cAMP formation. Recently, several interacting proteins have been reported, which can influence receptor signaling and trafficking. PMID:24042216

  13. The influence of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists to modify drug induced disinhibitory effects in the mouse light/dark test

    PubMed Central

    Costall, Brenda; Naylor, Robert J

    1997-01-01

    The ability of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists to modify the disinhibitory profile of diazepam and other agents was investigated in male BKW mice in the light/dark test box. The 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor antagonists ritanserin, MDL11939 and RP62203 and also methysergide, which failed to modify mouse behaviour when administered alone, caused dose-related enhancements (4 to 8 fold) in the potency of diazepam to disinhibit behavioural responding to the aversive situation of the test box. Ritanserin was shown to enhance the disinhibitory potency of other benzodiazepines, chlordiazepoxide (4 fold), temazepam (10 fold) and lorazepam (10 fold), the 5-HT1A receptor ligands, 8-OH-DPAT (25 fold), buspirone (100 fold) and lesopitron (500 fold), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, ondansetron (100 fold) R(+)-zacopride (100 fold) and S(−)-zacopride (greater than a 1000 fold), the substituted benzamides, sulpiride (10 fold) and tiapride (5 to 10 fold) and the cholecystokinin (CCK)A receptor antagonist, devazepide (100 fold). It also reduced the onset of action of disinhibition following treatment with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine. Ritanserin failed to enhance the disinhibitory effects of the CCKB receptor antagonist CI-988, the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist losarten or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ceranapril. The 5-HT4 receptor antagonists SDZ205-557, GR113808 and SB204070 caused dose-related reductions in the disinhibitory effect of diazepam, returning values to those shown in vehicle treated controls. The antagonists failed to modify mouse behaviour when administered alone. GR113808 was also shown to cause a dose-related antagonism of the disinhibitory effects of chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone, lesopitron, ondansetron, R(+)-zacopride, sulpiride, tiapride, devazepide, CI-988, losarten, ceranapril and parachlorophenylalanine. It was concluded that in BKW mice (a) the failure of 5-HT2 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists

  14. Density and Function of Central Serotonin (5-HT) Transporters, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptors, and Effects of their Targeting on BTBR T+tf/J Mouse Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Georgianna G.; Hensler, Julie G.; Burke, Teresa F.; Benno, Robert H.; Onaivi, Emmanuel S.; Daws, Lynette C.

    2010-01-01

    BTBR mice are potentially useful tools for autism research because their behavior parallels core social interaction impairments and restricted-repetitive behaviors. Altered regulation of central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission may underlie such behavioral deficits. To test this, we compared 5-HT transporter (SERT), 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor densities among BTBR and C57 strains. Autoradiographic [3H] cyanoimipramine (1nM) binding to SERT was 20–30% lower throughout the adult BTBR brain as compared to C57BL/10J mice. In hippocampal membrane homogenates [3H] citalopram maximal binding (Bmax) to SERT was 95 ± 13 fmol/mg protein in BTBR and 171 ± 20 fmol/mg protein in C57BL/6J mice, and the BTBR dissociation constant (KD) was 2 ± 0.3 nM vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 in C57BL/6J mice. Hippocampal 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor binding was similar among strains. However, 8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [35S] GTPγS binding in the BTBR hippocampal CA1 region was 28% higher, indicating elevated 5-HT1A capacity to activate G-proteins. In BTBR mice, the SERT blocker, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and the 5-HT1A receptor partial-agonist, buspirone (2 mg/kg) enhanced social interactions. The D2/5-HT2 receptor antagonist, risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) reduced marble burying but failed to improve sociability. Overall, altered SERT and/or 5-HT1A functionality in hippocampus could contribute to the relatively low sociability of BTBR mice. PMID:21070242

  15. Evaluation of the ocular hypotensive response of serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptor ligands in conscious ocular hypertensive cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    May, Jesse A; McLaughlin, Marsha A; Sharif, Najam A; Hellberg, Mark R; Dean, Thomas R

    2003-07-01

    Published investigations of serotonin-1A (5-hydroxytryptamine1A; 5-HT1A) receptor agonists and serotonin-2A (5-hydroxytryptamine2A; 5-HT2A) receptor antagonists in nonprimate species provide conflicting results with regard to their intraocular pressure-lowering efficacy. Thus, their therapeutic utility in the treatment of human glaucoma has been confusing. We evaluated the effect of selected 5-HT1A agonists and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists on intraocular pressure in a nonhuman primate model, the conscious cynomolgus monkey with laser-induced ocular hypertension. Neither selective 5-HT1A agonists [e.g., R-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin and flesinoxan] nor selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonists [e.g., R-(+)-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-4-piperidinemethanol (M-100907) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxamide (SB-242084)] lowered intraocular pressure in the primate model following topical ocular administration. However, compounds that function as agonists at both the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors were found to effectively lower intraocular pressure in the model: 5-hydroxy-alpha-methyltryptamine, 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine, 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (bufotenine), and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Furthermore, the selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist R-(-)-1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane lowered intraocular pressure in the primate model, demonstrating a pharmacological response associated with activation of the 5-HT2 receptor. These observations suggest that compounds that function as efficient agonists at 5-HT2 receptors should be considered as potential agents for the control of intraocular pressure in the treatment of ocular hypertension and glaucoma in humans. PMID:12676887

  16. Effects of chronic citalopram treatment on 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in group- and isolation-housed mice.

    PubMed

    Günther, Lydia; Liebscher, Sabine; Jähkel, Monika; Oehler, Jochen

    2008-09-28

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are characterized by high clinical effectiveness and good tolerability. A 2-3 week delay in the onset of effects is caused by adaptive mechanisms, probably at the serotonergic (5-HT) receptor level. To analyze this in detail, we measured 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor bindings in vitro after 3 weeks of citalopram treatment (20 mg/kg i.p. daily) in group-housed as well as isolation-housed mice, reflecting neurobiological aspects seen in psychiatric patients. Isolation housing increased somatodendritic (+52%) and postsynaptic (+30-95%) 5-HT(1A) as well as postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptor binding (+25-34%), which confirms previous findings. Chronic citalopram treatment did not induce alterations in raphe 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor binding, independent of housing conditions. Housing-dependent citalopram effects on postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor binding were found with increases in group- (+11-42%) but decreases in isolation-housed (-11 to 35%) mice. Forebrain 5-HT(2A) receptor binding decreased between 11 and 38% after chronic citalopram administration, independent of housing conditions. Citalopram's long-term action comprises alterations at the postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding levels. Housing conditions interact with citalopram effects, especially on 5-HT(1A) receptor binding, and should be more strongly considered in pharmacological studies. In general, SSRI-induced alterations were more pronounced and affected more brain regions in isolates, supporting the concept of a higher responsiveness in "stressed" animals. Isolation-induced receptor binding changes were partly normalized by chronic citalopram treatment, suggesting the isolation housing model for further analyses of SSRI effects, especially at the behavioral level. PMID:18657534

  17. Role of 5-HT5A and 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the antinociception produced by ergotamine and valerenic acid in the rat formalin test.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Cantú, Guadalupe C; Jiménez-Hernández, Mildred; Rocha-González, Héctor I; Villalón, Carlos M; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta

    2016-06-15

    Sumatriptan, dihydroergotamine and methysergide inhibit 1% formalin-induced nociception by activation of peripheral 5-HT1B/1D receptors. This study set out to investigate the pharmacological profile of the antinociception produced by intrathecal and intraplantar administration of ergotamine (a 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT5A/5B receptor agonist) and valerenic acid (a partial agonist at 5-HT5A receptors). Intraplantar injection of 1% formalin in the right hind paw resulted in spontaneous flinching behavior of the injected hindpaw of female Wistar rats. Intrathecal ergotamine (15nmol) or valerenic acid (1 nmol) blocked in a dose dependent manner formalin-induced nociception. The antinociception by intrathecal ergotamine (15nmol) or valerenic acid (1nmol) was partly or completely blocked by intrathecal administration of the antagonists: (i) methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT5A/5B; 0.01-0.1nmol); (ii) SB-699551 (selective 5-HT5A; up to 10nmol); (iii) anti-5-HT5A antibody; (iv) SB-224289 (selective 5-HT1B; 0.1-1nmol); or (v) BRL-15572 (selective 5-HT1D; 0.1-1nmol). Likewise, antinociception by intraplantar ergotamine (15nmol) and valerenic acid (10nmol) was: (i) partially blocked by methiothepin (1nmol), SB-699551 (10nmol) or SB-224289 (1nmol); and (ii) abolished by BRL-15572 (1nmol). The above doses of antagonists (which did not affect per se the formalin-induced nociception) were high enough to completely block their respective receptors. Our results suggest that ergotamine and valerenic acid produce antinociception via 5-HT5A and 5-HT1B/1D receptors located at both spinal and peripheral sites. This provides new evidence for understanding the modulation of nociceptive pathways in inflammatory pain. PMID:27068146

  18. Increased expression of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors in detrusor muscle after partial bladder outlet obstruction in rats.

    PubMed

    Michishita, Mai; Yano, Kazuo; Kasahara, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Ken-ichi; Matsuzaki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-induced bladder contraction is enhanced after partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO) in rats. We investigated time-dependent changes in bladder contraction and expression of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptor mRNA in bladder tissue to elucidate the mechanism of this enhancement. On day 3 and 7 after pBOO, contractile responses of isolated rat bladder strips to 5-HT were increased compared with that in sham-operated rats; on day 14, the response had decreased to the same level as that in sham rat bladders. In contrast, carbacholinduced contraction was not enhanced by pBOO at any time point. In sham rats, 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA was expressed in the urothelium, and 5-HT(2B) receptor mRNA was expressed in the detrusor muscle layer. In pBOO rats, both receptor mRNAs were increased in the detrusor muscle and subserosal layers, but not in the urothelium. The increase of 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA was maintained from day 3 to day 14 after pBOO, and 5-HT(2B) receptor mRNA was increased on day 7 after pBOO. These results suggested that pBOO induced up-regulation of the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors in the detrusor muscle and subserosal layers of the bladder, and such up-regulation may be related to the enhanced bladder contractile response to 5-HT. PMID:26106048

  19. 5-HT1D receptor inhibits renal sympathetic neurotransmission by nitric oxide pathway in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    García-Pedraza, José-Ángel; García, Mónica; Martín, María-Luisa; Morán, Asunción

    2015-09-01

    Although serotonin has been shown to inhibit peripheral sympathetic outflow, serotonin regulation on renal sympathetic outflow has not yet been elucidated. This study investigated which 5-HT receptor subtypes are involved. Wistar rats were anesthetized (sodium pentobarbital; 60mg/kg, i.p.), and prepared for in situ autoperfused rat kidney, which allows continuous measurement of systemic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and renal perfusion pressure (PP). Electrical stimulation of renal sympathetic nerves resulted in frequency-dependent increases in PP (18.3±1.0, 43.7±2.7 and 66.7±4.0 for 2, 4 and 6Hz, respectively), without altering SBP or HR. 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-HT1/7 agonist) (0.00000125-0.1μg/kg each) or l-694,247 (5-HT1D agonist; 0.0125μg/kg) i.a. bolus inhibited vasopressor responses by renal nerve electrical stimulation, unlike i.a. bolus of agonists α-methyl-5-HT (5-HT2), 1-PBG (5-HT3), cisapride (5-HT4), AS-19 (5-HT7), CGS-12066B (5-HT1B) or 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A) (0.0125μg/kg each). The effect of l-694,247 did not affect the exogenous norepinephrine-induced vasoconstrictions, whereas was abolished by antagonist LY310762 (5-HT1D; 1mg/kg) or l-NAME (nitric oxide; 10mg/kg), but not by indomethacin (COX1/2; 2mg/kg) or glibenclamide (ATP-dependent K(+) channel; 20mg/kg). These results suggest that 5-HT mechanism-induced inhibition of rat vasopressor renal sympathetic outflow is mainly mediated by prejunctional 5-HT1D receptors via nitric oxide release. PMID:26003124

  20. New therapeutic opportunities for 5-HT2C receptor ligands in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; De Deurwaerdère, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The 5-HT2C receptor (R) displays a widespread distribution in the CNS and is involved in the action of 5-HT in all brain areas. Knowledge of its functional role in the CNS pathophysiology has been impaired for many years due to the lack of drugs capable of discriminating among 5-HT2R subtypes, and to a lesser extent to the 5-HT1B, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7Rs. The situation has changed since the mid-90s due to the increased availability of new and selective synthesized compounds, the creation of 5-HT2C knock out mice, and the progress made in molecular biology. Many pharmacological classes of drugs including antipsychotics, antidepressants and anxiolytics display affinities toward 5-HT2CRs and new 5-HT2C ligands have been developed for various neuropsychiatric disorders. The 5-HT2CR is presumed to mediate tonic/constitutive and phasic controls on the activity of different central neurobiological networks. Preclinical data illustrate this complexity to a point that pharmaceutical companies developed either agonists or antagonists for the same disease. In order to better comprehend this complexity, this review will briefly describe the molecular pharmacology of 5-HT2CRs, as well as their cellular impacts in general, before addressing its central distribution in the mammalian brain. Thereafter, we review the preclinical efficacy of 5-HT2C ligands in numerous behavioral tests modeling human diseases, highlighting the multiple and competing actions of the 5-HT2CRs in neurobiological networks and monoaminergic systems. Notably, we will focus this evidence in the context of the physiopathology of psychiatric and neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and epilepsy. PMID:26617215

  1. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT3A promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT3A mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μm 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μm ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μm m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Historically, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been described as a candidate neurotransmitter in the gustatory system and recent studies show that type III taste receptor cells release 5-HT in response to various taste stimuli. In the present study, we demonstrate that a subset of gustatory sensory neurons express functional

  2. 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors control the firing of serotoninergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the mouse: studies in 5-HT1B knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Evrard, A; Laporte, A M; Chastanet, M; Hen, R; Hamon, M; Adrien, J

    1999-11-01

    The characteristics of the spontaneous firing of serotoninergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus and its control by serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors were investigated in wild-type and 5-HT1B knock-out (5-HT1B-/-) mice of the 129/Sv strain, anaesthetized with chloral hydrate. In both groups of mice, 5-HT neurons exhibited a regular activity with an identical firing rate of 0.5-4.5 spikes/s. Intravenous administration of the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram or the 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of 5-HT neuronal firing which could be reversed by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohe xane carboxamide (WAY 100635). Both strains were equally sensitive to 8-OH-DPAT (ED50 approximately 6.3 microgram/kg i.v.), but the mutants were less sensitive than wild-type animals to citalopram (ED50 = 0.49 +/- 0.02 and 0.28 +/- 0.01 mg/kg i.v., respectively, P < 0.05). This difference could be reduced by pre-treatment of wild-type mice with the 5-HT1B/1D antagonist 2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl)-biphenyl-4-carbox yli c acid [4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-yl)-phenyl]amide (GR 127935), and might be accounted for by the lack of 5-HT1B receptors and a higher density of 5-HT reuptake sites (specifically labelled by [3H]citalopram) in 5-HT1B-/- mice. In wild-type but not 5-HT1B-/- mice, the 5-HT1B agonists 3-(1,2,5, 6-tetrahydro-4-pyridyl)-5-propoxypyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine (CP 94253, 3 mg/kg i.v.) and 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indole (RU 24969, 0.6 mg/kg i.v.) increased the firing rate of 5-HT neurons (+22.4 +/- 2.8% and +13.7 +/- 6.0%, respectively, P < 0.05), and this effect could be prevented by the 5-HT1B antagonist GR 127935 (1 mg/kg i.v.). Altogether, these data indicate that in the mouse, the firing of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus is under both an inhibitory control through 5-HT1A

  3. Characterisation of the 5-HT receptor binding profile of eletriptan and kinetics of [3H]eletriptan binding at human 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors.

    PubMed

    Napier, C; Stewart, M; Melrose, H; Hopkins, B; McHarg, A; Wallis, R

    1999-03-01

    The affinity of eletriptan ((R)-3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinylmethyl)-5-[2-(phenylsulphonyl )ethyl]-1H-indole) for a range of 5-HT receptors was compared to values obtained for other 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists known to be effective in the treatment of migraine. Eletriptan, like sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan and rizatriptan had highest affinity for the human 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and putative 5-ht1f receptor. Kinetic studies comparing the binding of [3H]eletriptan and [3H]sumatriptan to the human recombinant 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors expressed in HeLa cells revealed that both radioligands bound with high specificity (>90%) and reached equilibrium within 10-15 min. However, [3H]eletriptan had over 6-fold higher affinity than [3H]sumatriptan at the 5-HT1D receptor (K(D)): 0.92 and 6.58 nM, respectively) and over 3-fold higher affinity than [3H]sumatriptan at the 5-HT1B receptor (K(D): 3.14 and 11.07 nM, respectively). Association and dissociation rates for both radioligands could only be accurately determined at the 5-HT1D receptor and then only at 4 degrees C. At this temperature, [3H]eletriptan had a significantly (P<0.05) faster association rate (K(on) 0.249 min(-1) nM(-1)) than [3H]sumatriptan (K(on) 0.024 min(-1) nM(-1)) and a significantly (P<0.05) slower off-rate (K(off) 0.027 min(-1) compared to 0.037 min(-1) for [3H]sumatriptan). These data indicate that eletriptan is a potent ligand at the human 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, and 5-ht1f receptors and are consistent with its potent vasoconstrictor activity and use as a drug for the acute treatment of migraine headache. PMID:10193663

  4. Morphologic differentiation of colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and HT-29KM in rotating-wall vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Jessup, J. M.; Wolf, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A new low shear stress microcarrier culture system has been developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center that permits three-dimensional tissue culture. Two established human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, HT-29, an undifferentiated, and HT-29KM, a stable, moderately differentiated subline of HT-29, were grown in new tissue culture bioreactors called Rotating-Wall Vessels (RWVs). RWVs are used in conjunction with multicellular cocultivation to develop a unique in vitro tissue modeling system. Cells were cultivated on Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads, with and without mixed normal human colonic fibroblasts, which served as the mesenchymal layer. Culture of the tumor lines in the absence of fibroblasts produced spheroidlike growth and minimal differentiation. In contrast, when tumor lines were co-cultivated with normal colonic fibroblasts, initial growth was confined to the fibroblast population until the microcarriers were covered. The tumor cells then commenced proliferation at an accelerated rate, organizing themselves into three-dimensional tissue masses that achieved 1.0- to 1.5-cm diameters. The masses displayed glandular structures, apical and internal glandular microvilli, tight intercellular junctions, desmosomes, cellular polarity, sinusoid development, internalized mucin, and structural organization akin to normal colon crypt development. Differentiated samples were subjected to transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histologic analysis, revealing embryoniclike mesenchymal cells lining the areas around the growth matrices. Necrosis was minimal throughout the tissue masses. These data suggest that the RWV affords a new model for investigation and isolation of growth, regulatory, and structural processes within neoplastic and normal tissue.

  5. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori . E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.

  6. Conformational state of human cardiac 5-HT(4(g)) receptors influences the functional effects of polyclonal anti-5-HT(4) receptor antibodies.

    PubMed

    Di Scala, Emmanuella; Rose, Stéphanie; Hérault, Olivier; Argibay, Jorge; Cosnay, Pierre; Bozon, Véronique

    2007-04-01

    The functional effects of the anti-G21V antibody directed against the second extracellular loop of human heart 5-HT(4) receptors can differ when the receptors are expressed in different cell lines. Here, we extend these studies to show variation in the responses of 5-HT(4(g)) receptors to the antibody within the same expression system. In a previous report no effect of the anti-G21V antibodies had been shown upon 5-HT(4(g)) receptors expressed in CHO cells. Here the same antibodies alone or when added before 5-HT had a functional "inverse-agonist like" effect upon 5-HT(4(g)) receptors expressed in a separate line of CHO cells. Although these CHO cells showed a lower efficacy of cAMP production evoked by 5-HT than the previous report they express a similar h5-HT(4(g)) receptor density. Inhibition of either phosphodiesterases or Gi proteins had no effect upon the action of the antibody. Conformational states of the 5-HT(4) receptor and/or equilibrium between different states of receptors may then determine the functional effect of antibodies against this receptor. PMID:17222392

  7. The impact of P3HT molecular weight and solvent composition on P3HT films processed from binary solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Lawson; Gordon, Madeleine; Boucher, David

    2015-03-01

    Recent experimental endeavors have shown that well-ordered P3HT assemblies formed in solution can improve the crystallinity and morphological uniformity of thin films and composites, thereby providing a promising new route to more efficient polymeric optoelectronic materials. We have studied the assembly and crystallinity of two regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) samples, Mn ~ 28 kDa and Mn ~ 65 kDa, in several different binary mixtures of organic solvents. We use an excitonic coupling analysis of the UV/Vis absorbance spectra to assess the impact that the solvent and the molecular weight of P3HT have on the relative structural order of the polymer assemblies. In addition, we investigate the influence that the solvent composition and the structural order of P3HT aggregates have on the assembly and organization of P3HT films. We use optical and atomic force microscopy techniques to study thin films of P3HT processed from different solvent mixtures. Our results show that relatively small variations to the P3HT solutions can produce significant changes in the morphology and macromolecular structures of the P3HT films.

  8. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  9. Cloning, expression and pharmacology of a truncated splice variant of the human 5-HT7 receptor (h5-HT7(b))

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, J R; Kosaka, A; To, Z P; Chang, D J; Eglen, R M

    1997-01-01

    The rat 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)7 receptor displays two splice variations, a long form, and a truncated splice isoform, arising from the introduction of a stop codon near the carboxy-terminus. The human 5-HT7 receptor gene contains at least two introns and encodes a 445 amino acid 5-HT receptor. A truncated splice variation in the human 5-HT7 receptor was isolated from a human placental cDNA library. In accordance with current NC-IUPHAR nomenclature guidelines, it is suggested that this receptor be denoted as the h5-HT7(b) receptor and the long form of the receptor as h5-HT7(a). The h5-HT7(b) receptor was stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and ligand affinities were determined by displacement of [3H]-5-carboxyamidotryptamine (5-CT; Kd=0.28±0.06 nM, Bmax=7.3±1.7 pmol mg−1 protein). The rank order of affinities (pKi) for a series of ligands was: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 9.65)>5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 9.41)>methiothepin (8.87)>mesulergine (7.87)>8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 6.85)>ketanserin (6.44). The h5-HT7(b) receptor coupled positively to adenylyl cyclase in HEK 293 cells. This response was elicited by a number of agonists with the following order of potency (pEC50): 5-CT (8.7±0.11)>5-MeOT (5-methoxytryptamine; 8.1±0.20)>5-HT (7.5±0.13)>tryptamine (5.6±0.36)>8-OH-DPAT (5.3±0.28)>5-methoxytryptamine (5.0±0.06). This rank order was comparable to that observed in the radioligand binding studies. In a similar fashion to that described for the 5-HT7(a) receptor, PCR studies suggested that the 5-HT7(b) receptor mRNA is found in great abundance throughout the brain, in the small intestine and aorta. It is concluded that the h5-HT7 receptor, like the rat receptor, exists as splice variants exhibiting similar pharmacology, signal transduction and distribution. It is thus likely that there exists a complex physiological role for alternate splicing products of the 5-HT7 receptor gene. PMID:9298538

  10. Down-regulation of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors inhibits proliferation, clonogenicity and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Nilgun; Ashour, Ahmed A; Alpay, S Neslihan; Ozpolat, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by extensive local tumor invasion, metastasis and early systemic dissemination. The vast majority of pancreatic cancer (PaCa) patients already have metastatic complications at the time of diagnosis, and the death rate of this lethal type of cancer has increased over the past decades. Thus, efforts at identifying novel molecularly targeted therapies are priorities. Recent studies have suggested that serotonin (5-HT) contributes to the tumor growth in a variety of cancers including prostate, colon, bladder and liver cancer. However, there is lack of evidence about the impact of 5-HT receptors on promoting pancreatic cancer. Having considered the role of 5-HT-1 receptors, especially 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes in different types of malignancies, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in PaCa growth and progression and analyze their potential as cytotoxic targets. We found that knockdown of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors expression, using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), induced significant inhibition of proliferation and clonogenicity of PaCa cells. Also, it significantly suppressed PaCa cells invasion and reduced the activity of uPAR/MMP-2 signaling and Integrin/Src/Fak-mediated signaling, as integral tumor cell pathways associated with invasion, migration, adhesion, and proliferation. Moreover, targeting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors down-regulates zinc finger ZEB1 and Snail proteins, the hallmarks transcription factors regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), concomitantly with up-regulating of claudin-1 and E-Cadherin. In conclusion, our data suggests that 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1D- mediated signaling play an important role in the regulation of the proliferative and invasive phenotype of PaCa. It also highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the treatment of PaCa, and opens a new avenue for biomarkers identification, and valuable new

  11. Down-regulation of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors inhibits proliferation, clonogenicity and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Nilgun; Ashour, Ahmed A; Alpay, S Neslihan; Ozpolat, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by extensive local tumor invasion, metastasis and early systemic dissemination. The vast majority of pancreatic cancer (PaCa) patients already have metastatic complications at the time of diagnosis, and the death rate of this lethal type of cancer has increased over the past decades. Thus, efforts at identifying novel molecularly targeted therapies are priorities. Recent studies have suggested that serotonin (5-HT) contributes to the tumor growth in a variety of cancers including prostate, colon, bladder and liver cancer. However, there is lack of evidence about the impact of 5-HT receptors on promoting pancreatic cancer. Having considered the role of 5-HT-1 receptors, especially 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes in different types of malignancies, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in PaCa growth and progression and analyze their potential as cytotoxic targets. We found that knockdown of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors expression, using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), induced significant inhibition of proliferation and clonogenicity of PaCa cells. Also, it significantly suppressed PaCa cells invasion and reduced the activity of uPAR/MMP-2 signaling and Integrin/Src/Fak-mediated signaling, as integral tumor cell pathways associated with invasion, migration, adhesion, and proliferation. Moreover, targeting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors down-regulates zinc finger ZEB1 and Snail proteins, the hallmarks transcription factors regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), concomitantly with up-regulating of claudin-1 and E-Cadherin. In conclusion, our data suggests that 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1D-mediated signaling play an important role in the regulation of the proliferative and invasive phenotype of PaCa. It also highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the treatment of PaCa, and opens a new avenue for biomarkers identification, and valuable new

  12. Evidence that 5-HT1D receptors mediate inhibition of sympathetic ganglionic transmission in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J. F.; Martin, G. R.; Ramage, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    In anaesthetized cats, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (0.3-300 micrograms kg-1,i.v.) inhibited the postganglionic compound action potential evoked by preganglionic electrical stimulation (0.5 Hz) with a similar potency in the stellate and splanchnic ganglia. In the 5-HT experiments transmission thorough the inferior mesenteric ganglia was also recorded. The maximal inhibitory effect of 5-HT was greater on the stellate and splanchnic ganglia (60 +/- 4 and 52 +/- 5%) than on the inferior mesenteric (15 +/- 2%). The effects of 5-HT were unaffected by pretreatment with antagonists (1 mg kg-1;i.v.) for 5-HT2 (BW501C67), 5-HT1A (WAY-100635) and 5-HT3 receptors (ondansetron). However, responses to both 5-HT and 5-CT were attenuated significantly by GR127935 (1 mg kg-1) except the responses to 5-HT at the inferior mesenteric ganglia. These results are consistent with the involvement of 5-HT1D receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic ganglionic transmission in vivo. PMID:8528548

  13. Analysis of the agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, M. I.; Harper, D.; Smith, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptor agonist activity of fenoldopam (SKF 82526) was characterized in the rabbit isolated aorta preparation. 2. Fenoldopam was an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor with lower affinity and efficacy than the naturally occurring agonist 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Fenoldopam had an affinity (pKA) of 5.84 +/- 0.04 and efficacy (tau) of 0.57 +/- 0.04, whereas 5-HT had a pKA of 6.65 +/- 0.12 and tau of 2.66 +/- 0.41. 3. The constrictor effects of fenoldopam and 5-HT were competitively antagonized by the 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin, with pKB values of 8.81 +/- 0.11 and 8.83 +/- 0.10 respectively. 4. Prior incubation with fenoldopam produced a concentration-related rightward shift of a subsequent 5-HT concentration-response curve. This inhibition was specific for 5-HT since constrictor responses to angiotensin II were unaffected. 5. This study indicates that the D1 receptor agonist, fenoldopam, acts as an agonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor, but with an affinity and efficacy less than that of the naturally occurring agonist, 5-HT. PMID:1361397

  14. Organization of the mouse 5-HT3 receptor gene and functional expression of two splice variants.

    PubMed

    Werner, P; Kawashima, E; Reid, J; Hussy, N; Lundström, K; Buell, G; Humbert, Y; Jones, K A

    1994-10-01

    The structure of the mouse 5-HT3 receptor gene, 5-HT3R-A, is most similar to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes, in particular to the gene encoding the neuronal nAChR subunit alpha 7. These genes share among other things the location of three adjacent introns, suggesting that 5-HT3R-A and nAChR genes arose from a common precursor gene. The alternative use of two adjacent splice acceptor sites in intron 8 creates, in addition to the original 5-HT3R-A cDNA (5-HT3R-AL), a shorter isoform (5-HT3R-AS) which lacks six codons in the segment that translates into the major intracellular domain. This splice consensus sequence is not found in human genomic DNA. In mouse, we demonstrate by RNAse protection assay that 5-HT3R-AS mRNA is approximately 5 times more abundant than 5-HT3R-AL mRNA in both neuroblastoma cell lines and neuronal tissues. We used the Semliki Forest virus expression system for electrophysiological characterization of 5-HT3R-AS and 5-HT3R-AL in mammalian cells. No differences in electrophysiological characteristics, such as voltage dependence, desensitization kinetics, or unitary conductance were found between homomeric 5-HT3R-AS and 5-HT3R-AL receptors. Their properties are very similar to those of 5-HT3 receptors in mouse neuroblastoma cell lines. PMID:7854052

  15. 5-HT2A receptors are involved in cognitive but not antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Castañé, Anna; Kargieman, Lucila; Celada, Pau; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2015-08-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in cognitive and affective functions. It contains a rich serotonergic (serotonin, 5-HT) innervation and a high density of 5-HT receptors. Endogenous 5-HT exerts robust actions on the activity of pyramidal neurons in medial PFC (mPFC) via excitatory 5-HT2A and inhibitory 5-HT1A receptors, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT neurotransmission in cortical functions. However, the underlying mechanisms must be elucidated. Here we examine the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the processing of emotional and cognitive signals evoked by increasing the 5-HT tone after acute blockade of the 5-HT transporter. Fluoxetine (5-20mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the immobility time in the tail-suspension test in wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2Aknockout (KO2A) mice, with non-significant differences between genotypes. Fluoxetine (10mg/kg i.p.) significantly impaired mice performance in the novel object recognition test 24h post-administration in WT, but not in KO2A mice. The comparable effect of fluoxetine on extracellular 5-HT in the mPFC of both genotypes suggests that presynaptic differences are not accountable. In contrast, single unit recordings of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons showed that fluoxetine (1.8-7.2mg/kg i.v.) significantly increased neuronal discharge in KO2A but not in WT mice. This effect is possibly mediated by an altered excitatory/inhibitory balance in the PFC in KO2A mice. Overall, the present results suggest that 5-HT2A receptors play a detrimental role in long-term memory deficits mediated by an excess 5-HT in PFC. PMID:25914158

  16. 5-HT potentiation of the GABAA response in the rat sacral dorsal commissural neurones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tian-Le; Pang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Ji-Shuo; Akaike, Norio

    1998-01-01

    The modulatory effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) response was investigated in the neurones freshly dissociated from the rat sacral dorsal commissural nucleus (SDCN) using the nystatin perforated patch recording configuration under the voltage-clamp conditions.5-HT potentiated GABA-induced Cl− current (IGABA) without affecting the reversal potential of IGABA and the apparent affinity of GABA to its receptor.α-Methyl-5-HT mimicked the potentiation effect of 5-HT on IGABA while ketanserine blocked it. 1-Oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol (OAG) potentiated IGABA, and the effect of 5-HT on IGABA was occluded by OAG pretreatment. In the presence of chelerythrine, 5-HT failed to potentiate IGABA, suggesting that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the pathway through which the activation of the 5-HT2 receptor potentiates the IGABA.The facilitatory effect of 5-HT on IGABA remained in the presence of BAPTA-AM. LiCl also had no effect on 5-HT-induced potentiation of IGABA.H-89, genistein, okadaic acid and pervanadate all had no effects on 5-HT potentiation of IGABA. Pertussis toxin treatment for 6–8 h did not block the facilitatory effect of 5-HT on IGABA.The present results show that GABAA receptor in the rat SDCN could be modulated in situ by 5-HT, one of the major transmitters involved in the supraspinal control of nociception, and that the phosphorylation of GABAA receptor by PKC may be sufficient to support such modulation. The results also strongly support the hypothesis that the cotransmission by 5-HT and GABA has an important role in the spinal cord. PMID:9690871

  17. 5-HT1A Autoreceptors in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Convey Vulnerability to Compulsive Cocaine Seeking.

    PubMed

    You, In-Jee; Wright, Sherie R; Garcia-Garcia, Alvaro L; Tapper, Andrew R; Gardner, Paul D; Koob, George F; David Leonardo, E; Bohn, Laura M; Wee, Sunmee

    2016-04-01

    Cocaine addiction and depression are comorbid disorders. Although it is well recognized that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) plays a central role in depression, our understanding of its role in addiction is notably lacking. The 5-HT system in the brain is carefully controlled by a combined process of regulating 5-HT neuron firing through 5-HT autoreceptors, neurotransmitter release, enzymatic degradation, and reuptake by transporters. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors, which would lessen 5-HT neuron firing, contributes to cocaine-seeking behaviors. Using 5-HT neuron-specific reduction of 5-HT1A autoreceptor gene expression in mice, we demonstrate that 5-HT1A autoreceptors are necessary for cocaine conditioned place preference. In addition, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) technology, we found that stimulation of the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) afferents to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) abolishes cocaine reward and promotes antidepressive-like behaviors. Finally, using a rat model of compulsive-like cocaine self-administration, we found that inhibition of dorsal raphe 5-HT1A autoreceptors attenuates cocaine self-administration in rats with 6 h extended access, but not 1 h access to the drug. Therefore, our findings suggest an important role for 5-HT1A autoreceptors, and thus DRNNAc 5-HT neuronal activity, in the etiology and vulnerability to cocaine reward and addiction. Moreover, our findings support a strategy for antagonizing 5-HT1A autoreceptors for treating cocaine addiction. PMID:26324408

  18. Vortioxetine restores reversal learning impaired by 5-HT depletion or chronic intermittent cold stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ashley; Pehrson, Alan L; Sánchez, Connie; Morilak, David A

    2014-10-01

    Current treatments for depression, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are only partially effective, with a high incidence of residual symptoms, relapse, and treatment resistance. Loss of cognitive flexibility, a component of depression, is associated with dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex. Reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility, is impaired by chronic stress, a risk factor for depression, and the stress-induced impairment in reversal learning is sensitive to chronic SSRI treatment, and is mimicked by serotonin (5-HT) depletion. Vortioxetine, a novel, multimodal-acting antidepressant, is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and inhibits the 5-HT transporter. Using adult male rats, we first investigated the direct effects of vortioxetine, acting at post-synaptic 5-HT receptors, on reversal learning that was compromised by 5-HT depletion using 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), effectively eliminating any contribution of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PCPA induced a reversal learning impairment that was alleviated by acute or sub-chronic vortioxetine administration, suggesting that post-synaptic 5-HT receptor activation contributes to the effects of vortioxetine. We then investigated the effects of chronic dietary administration of vortioxetine on reversal learning that had been compromised in intact animals exposed to chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress, to assess vortioxetine's total pharmacological effect. CIC stress impaired reversal learning, and chronic vortioxetine administration prevented the reversal-learning deficit. Together, these results suggest that the direct effect of vortioxetine at 5-HT receptors may contribute to positive effects on cognitive flexibility deficits, and may enhance the effect of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PMID:24852131

  19. Medial hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors regulate neuroendocrine responses to stress and exploratory locomotor activity: application of recombinant adenovirus containing 5-HT1A sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Holmes, Andrew; Ma, Li; Van de Kar, Louis D; Garcia, Francisca; Murphy, Dennis L

    2004-12-01

    Our previous studies found that serotonin transporter (SERT) knock-out mice showed increased sensitivity to minor stress and increased anxiety-like behavior but reduced locomotor activity. These mice also showed decreased density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1A) receptors in the hypothalamus, amygdala, and dorsal raphe. To evaluate the contribution of hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors to these phenotypes of SERT knock-out mice, two studies were conducted. Recombinant adenoviruses containing 5-HT1A sense and antisense sequences (Ad-1AP-sense and Ad-1AP-antisense) were used to manipulate 5-HT1A receptors in the hypothalamus. The expression of the 5-HT1A genes is controlled by the 5-HT1A promoter, so that they are only expressed in 5-HT1A receptor-containing cells. (1) Injection of Ad-1AP-sense into the hypothalamus of SERT knock-out mice restored 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus; this effect was accompanied by elimination of the exaggerated adrenocorticotropin responses to a saline injection (minor stress) and reduced locomotor activity but not by a change in increased exploratory anxiety-like behavior. (2) To further confirm the observation in SERT-/- mice, Ad-1AP-antisense was injected into the hypothalamus of normal mice. The density and the function of 5-HT1A receptors in the medial hypothalamus were significantly reduced in Ad-1AP-antisense-treated mice. Compared with the control group (injected with Ad-track), Ad-1A-antisense-treated mice showed a significant reduction in locomotor activity, but again no changes in exploratory anxiety-like behaviors, tested by elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. Thus, the present results demonstrate that medial hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors regulate stress responses and locomotor activity but may not regulate exploratory anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:15574737

  20. Pharmacological Characterization of a 5-HT1-Type Serotonin Receptor in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Vleugels, Rut; Lenaerts, Cynthia; Baumann, Arnd; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Verlinden, Heleen

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is known for its key role in modulating diverse physiological processes and behaviors by binding various 5-HT receptors. However, a lack of pharmacological knowledge impedes studies on invertebrate 5-HT receptors. Moreover, pharmacological information is urgently needed in order to establish a reliable classification system for invertebrate 5-HT receptors. In this study we report on the molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of a 5-HT1 receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Trica5-HT1). The Trica5-HT1 receptor encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with members of the 5-HT1 receptor class. Real time PCR showed high expression in the brain (without optic lobes) and the optic lobes, consistent with the role of 5-HT as neurotransmitter. Activation of Trica5-HT1 in mammalian cells decreased NKH-477-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in a dose-dependent manner, but did not influence intracellular Ca2+ signaling. We studied the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT1 receptor and demonstrated that α-methylserotonin, 5-methoxytryptamine and 5-carboxamidotryptamine acted as agonists. Prazosin, methiothepin and methysergide were the most potent antagonists and showed competitive inhibition in presence of 5-HT. This study offers important information on a 5-HT1 receptor from T. castaneum facilitating functional research of 5-HT receptors in insects and other invertebrates. The pharmacological profiles may contribute to establish a reliable classification scheme for invertebrate 5-HT receptors. PMID:23741451

  1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced bladder hyperactivity via the 5-HT2A receptor in partial bladder outlet obstruction in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takumi; Kasahara, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Ken-ichi; Ikegaki, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the effects of partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the function and gene expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes in rat bladder. Isometric contractions of the isolated bladders from sham-operated control and BOO rats were examined. The contractile responses to 5-HT were significantly increased in BOO rat bladder strips, while the responses to KCl, carbachol, or phenylephrine were not different from the control. The 5-HT-induced hypercontraction in BOO rat bladder strips was inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist. The contractile responses to 5-HT in bladder strips were not affected by urothelium removal from the intact bladder. The gene expression of 5-HT receptor subtypes in the bladders was analyzed by RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of the 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(4), and 5-HT(7) receptors was detected in both the control and BOO rat bladders. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed there was a significant increase of 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA in the BOO rat bladder compared with the control bladder. On the other hand, the gene expression of the 5-HT(4) receptor was not changed in the BOO rat bladder. These results suggest that the increased contractile responses to 5-HT in BOO rat bladder may be partly caused by 5-HT(2A) receptor upregulation in the detrusor smooth muscles. PMID:23344575

  2. Serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in rat CA1 hippocampal interneurons: functional and molecular characterization

    PubMed Central

    Sudweeks, Sterling N; van Hooft, Johannes A; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2002-01-01

    The molecular makeup of the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor (5-HT3R) channel was investigated in rat hippocampal CA1 interneurons in slices using single-cell RT-PCR and patch-clamp recording techniques. We tested for the expression of the 5-HT3A (both short and long splice variants) and 5-HT3B subunits, as well as the expression of the α4 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), the latter of which has been shown to co-assemble with the 5-HT3A subunit in heterologous expression systems. Both the 5-HT3A-short and α4-nAChR subunits were expressed in these interneurons, but we could not detect any expression of either the 5-HT3B or the 5-HT3A-long subunits. Furthermore, there was a strong tendency for the 5-HT3A-short and α4-nAChR subunits to be co-expressed in individual interneurons. To assess whether there was any functional evidence for co-assembly between the 5-HT3A-short and α4-nAChR subunits, we used the sulphydryl agent 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulphonate (MTSEA), which has previously been shown to modulate expressed 5-HT3Rs that contain the α4-nAChR subunit. In half of the interneurons examined, MTSEA significantly enhanced the amplitude of the 5-HT3R-mediated responses, which is consistent with the notion that the α4-nAChR subunit co-assembles with the 5-HT3A subunit to form a native heteromeric 5-HT3R channel in rat CA1 hippocampal interneurons in vivo. In addition, the single-channel properties of the 5-HT3R were investigated in outside-out patches. No resolvable single-channel currents were observed. Using non-stationary fluctuation analysis, we obtained an estimate of the single-channel conductance of 4 pS, which is well below that expected for channels containing both the 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B subunits. PMID:12411518

  3. Phosphotidylinositol turnover in vascular, uterine, fundal, and tracheal smooth muscle: effect of serotonin (5HT)

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.L.; Wittenauer, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    In brain, platelets, and aorta, 5HT has been reported to increase phosphotidylinositol turnover, an effect linked to 5HT/sub 2/ receptors. The authors examined the effect of 5HT on /sup 3/H-inositol-1-phosphate (/sup 3/H-I-P) in tissues possessing 5HT/sub 2/ receptors that mediate contraction to 5HT (rat jugular vein, aorta, uterus and guinea pig trachea) and in a tissue in which contraction to 5HT is not mediated by 5HT/sub 2/ receptors (rat stomach fundus). Tissues were incubated (37/sup 0/C, 95% O/sub 2/, 5% CO/sub 2/) with /sup 3/H-inositol (90 min), washed, LiCl/sub 2/ (10 mM) and 5HT added for 90 min, extracted, and /sup 3/H-I-P eluted from a Dowex-1 column. Basal /sup 3/H-I-P was 10-fold higher in the uterus than in the other tissues. 5HT (10/sup -6/-10/sup -4/M) increased /sup 3/H-I-P in the jugular vein, aorta, and uterus but not in the trachea or fundus. Maximum increase was greatest in the jugular vein (8-fold) with an ED/sub 50/ of 0.4 ..mu..M 5HT. The selective 5HT/sub 2/ receptor blocker, LY53857 (10/sup -8/M) antagonized the increase in /sup 3/H-I-P by 5HT in the jugular vein, aorta and uterus. Pargyline (10/sup -5/M) added to the trachea and fundus did not unmask an effect of 5HT (10/sup -4/M). These data suggest that (1) the jugular vein produced the most sensitive response to 5HT-induced increases in /sup 3/H-I-P, (2) increases in /sup 3/H-I-P by 5HT in smooth muscle may be linked to 5HT/sub 2/ receptors and (3) activation of 5HT/sub 2/ receptors as occurred in the trachea will not always increase /sup 3/H-I-P.

  4. Graphene nanoribbon blends with P3HT for organic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gemayel, Mirella; Narita, Akimitsu; Dössel, Lukas F.; Sundaram, Ravi S.; Kiersnowski, Adam; Pisula, Wojciech; Hansen, Michael Ryan; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Orgiu, Emanuele; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    In organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) the electrical characteristics of polymeric semiconducting materials suffer from the presence of structural/morphological defects and grain boundaries as well as amorphous domains within the film, hindering an efficient transport of charges. To improve the percolation of charges we blend a regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with newly designed N = 18 armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The latter, prepared by a bottom-up solution synthesis, are expected to form solid aggregates which cannot be easily interfaced with metallic electrodes, limiting charge injection at metal-semiconductor interfaces, and are characterized by a finite size, thus by grain boundaries, which negatively affect the charge transport within the film. Both P3HT and GNRs are soluble/dispersible in organic solvents, enabling the use of a single step co-deposition process. The resulting OFETs show a three-fold increase in the charge carrier mobilities in blend films, when compared to pure P3HT devices. This behavior can be ascribed to GNRs, and aggregates thereof, facilitating the transport of the charges within the conduction channel by connecting the domains of the semiconductor film. The electronic characteristics of the devices such as the Ion/Ioff ratio are not affected by the addition of GNRs at different loads. Studies of the electrical characteristics under illumination for potential use of our blend films as organic phototransistors (OPTs) reveal a tunable photoresponse. Therefore, our strategy offers a new method towards the enhancement of the performance of OFETs, and holds potential for technological applications in (opto)electronics.In organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) the electrical characteristics of polymeric semiconducting materials suffer from the presence of structural/morphological defects and grain boundaries as well as amorphous domains within the film, hindering an efficient transport of charges. To improve the

  5. Recent experiments in the EAST and HT-7 superconducting tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Baonian; International EAST Collaborators; HT-7 Teams

    2009-10-01

    First divertor plasma configuration in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) was obtained in the second campaign after the last IAEA meeting. To achieve long pulse diverted plasma discharges, new capabilities including the fully actively water cooled in-vessel components, current drive and heating systems, diagnostics and real-time plasma control algorithm were developed. Pre-programmed shape and feedback control of plasma position and current (RZIP) produced a variety of shaped plasma configurations, covering most of the configurations foreseen at the design stage of the machine. Control algorithm based on real-time equilibrium reconstruction and iso-flux control for the last closed magnetic flux surface (RTEFIT/ISOFLUX) has also been realized. A number of operational issues, such as plasma initiation and ramp up under constraints of superconducting coils were successfully investigated. First LHCD experiments demonstrated long pulse discharges longer than 20 s and nearly full non-inductive current drive. The physical engineering capability on the superconducting magnetic system was assessed by simulating discharges. Since the last IAEA meeting, experiments in HT-7 have been focusing on long pulse operation to support the EAST experiments on both physics and technical aspects. Long pulse discharges up to 400 s have now been achieved in HT-7. Investigation of sawtooth activities in ohmic and LHCD plasmas supports the turbulence model instead of the fast reconnection of the m = 1 magnetic island. Coexistence of electron mode and ion mode in high density ohmic plasmas has been observed by 2D ECE imaging (ECEI) in HT-7. The spectral characteristics of geodesic acoustic mode at the plasma boundary have been investigated by Langmuir probe arrays.

  6. Aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile: exemple des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville

    PubMed Central

    Souhail, Hassane; Assoumou, Prudence; Birinda, Hilda; Mengome, Emmanuel Mve

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était d’évaluer l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique, qui s'est déroulée à Libreville pendant la période du 4 avril 2012 au 14 juillet 2012 (soit 4 mois et 10 jours). La population d’étude concernait les candidats soumis aux épreuves d'obtention du permis de conduire. Nous avons inclus dans notre travail, les candidats, ayant donné leur consentement par écrit et exclus ceux refusant d'adhérer à l'enquête. Les variables étudiées concernaient l’âge, le sexe, la population d’étude, l'activité professionnelle, l'acuité visuelle de loin et de près, la vision des couleurs, la catégorie du permis de conduire, et l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile. La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été collectées au moyen d'une fiche d'enquête standardisée; après vérification et validation, elles ont été saisies sur le logiciel Excel Windows et analysées sur le logiciel Epi Info version 3.5.1. L’âge moyen des 406 candidats était de 29 ans ± 6,65 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 17 ans à 52 ans. Les hommes représentaient 283 (69,7%) et les femmes 123 (30,3%), soit un ratio de 2,3. Les fonctionnaires étaient retrouvés dans 39,4 % des cas, suivi des élèves-étudiants dans 33,5%. Dans notre population d’étude, 71 sur 406 candidats avaient une baisse de l'acuité visuelle de loin, soit 17,5%. Dans notre série, nous avons retrouvés 34 candidats âgés de 40 ans et plus, et seulement 14 candidats (41,2%) avaient une baisse de l'acuité visuelle de près. La quasi-totalité des patients avaient une vision de couleurs normale (99,5%), cependant 2 candidats avaient une vision de couleurs anormale, soit une prévalence de 0,5%. Dans notre échantillon, 403 (99,3%) sollicitaient un permis de conduire de catégorie léger (perms A, A1, B, F) et 3 (0,7%) sollicitaient un permis de conduire de type

  7. INSIGHTS INTO THE REGULATION OF 5-HT2A RECEPTORS BY SCAFFOLDING PROTEINS AND KINASES

    PubMed Central

    Allen, John A.; Yadav, Prem N.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY 5-HT2A serotonin receptors are essential molecular targets for the actions of LSD-like hallucinogens and atypical antipsychotic drugs. 5-HT2A serotonin receptors also mediate a variety of physiological processes in peripheral and central nervous systems including platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, and the modulation of mood and perception. Scaffolding proteins have emerged as important regulators of 5-HT2A receptors and our recent studies suggest multiple scaffolds exist for 5-HT2A receptors including PSD95, arrestin, and caveolin. In addition, a novel interaction has emerged between p90 ribosomal S6 kinase and 5-HT2A receptors which attenuates receptor signaling. This article reviews our recent studies and emphasizes the role of scaffolding proteins and kinases in the regulation of 5-HT2A trafficking, targeting and signaling. PMID:18640136

  8. 5-HT6 receptor agonism facilitates emotional learning

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marcela; Martynhak, Bruno J.; Andreatini, Roberto; Svenningsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and its receptors play crucial roles in various aspects of mood and cognitive functions. However, the role of specific 5-HT receptors in these processes remains to be better understood. Here, we examined the effects of the selective and potent 5-HT6 agonist (WAY208466) on mood, anxiety and emotional learning in mice. Male C57Bl/6J mice were therefore tested in the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPM), and passive avoidance tests (PA), respectively. In a dose-response experiment, mice were treated intraperitoneally with WAY208466 at 3, 9, or 27 mg/kg and examined in an open field arena open field test (OFT) followed by the FST. 9 mg/kg of WAY208466 reduced immobility in the FST, without impairing the locomotion. Thus, the dose of 9 mg/kg was subsequently used for tests of anxiety and emotional learning. There was no significant effect of WAY208466 in the EPM. In the PA, mice were trained 30 min before the treatment with saline or WAY208466. Two separate sets of animals were used for short term memory (tested 1 h post-training) or long term memory (tested 24 h post-training). WAY208466 improved both short and long term memories, evaluated by the latency to enter the dark compartment, in the PA. The WAY208466-treated animals also showed more grooming and rearing in the light compartment. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and brain regions involved in the facilitation of emotional learning by WAY208466, we studied its effects on signal transduction and immediate early gene expression. WAY208466 increased the levels of phospho-Ser845-GluA1 and phospho-Ser217/221-MEK in the caudate-putamen. Levels of phospho-Thr202/204-Erk1/2 and the ratio mature BDNF/proBDNF were increased in the hippocampus. Moreover, WAY208466 increased c-fos in the hippocampus and Arc expression in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The results indicate antidepressant efficacy and facilitation of emotional learning by 5-HT6 receptor agonism via

  9. Mechanism for the acute effects of organophosphate pesticides on the adult 5-HT system.

    PubMed

    Judge, Sarah J; Savy, Claire Y; Campbell, Matthew; Dodds, Rebecca; Gomes, Larissa Kruger; Laws, Grace; Watson, Anna; Blain, Peter G; Morris, Christopher M; Gartside, Sarah E

    2016-02-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is involved in mood disorder aetiology and it has been reported that (organophosphate) OP exposure affects 5-HT turnover. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying OP effects on the adult 5-HT system. First, acute in vivo administration of the OP diazinon (0, 1.3, 13 or 39 mg/kg i.p.) to male Hooded Lister rats inhibited the activity of the cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase in blood and in the hippocampus, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), striatum and prefrontal cortex. Diazinon-induced cholinesterase inhibition was greatest in the DRN, the brain's major source of 5-HT neurones. Second, acute in vivo diazinon exposure (0 or 39 mg/kg i.p.) increased the basal firing rate of DRN neurones measured ex vivo in brain slices. The excitatory responses of DRN neurones to α1-adrenoceptor or AMPA/kainate receptor activation were not affected by in vivo diazinon exposure but the inhibitory response to 5-HT was attenuated, indicating 5-HT1A autoreceptor down-regulation. Finally, direct application of the diazinon metabolite diazinon oxon to naive rat brain slices increased the firing rate of DRN 5-HT neurones, as did chlorpyrifos-oxon, indicating the effect was not unique to diazinon. The oxon-induced augmentation of firing was blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine and the AMPA/kainate glutamate receptor antagonist DNQX. Together these data indicate that 1) acute OP exposure inhibits DRN cholinesterase, leading to acetylcholine accumulation, 2) the acetylcholine activates nicotinic receptors on 5-HT neurones and also on glutamatergic neurones, thus releasing glutamate and activating 5-HT neuronal AMPA/kainate receptors 3) the increase in 5-HT neuronal activity, and resulting 5-HT release, may lead to 5-HT1A autoreceptor down-regulation. This mechanism may be involved in the reported increase in risk of developing anxiety and depression following occupational OP exposure. PMID

  10. Sulfonyl-containing modulators of serotonin 5-HT6 receptors and their pharmacophore models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivachtchenko, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    Data published in recent years on the synthesis of serotonin 5-HT6 receptor modulators are summarized. Modulators with high affinity for 5-HT6 receptors exhibiting different degrees of selectivity — from highly selective to semiselective and multimodal — are described. Clinical trial results are reported for the most promising serotonin 5-HT6 receptor modulators attracting special attention of medicinal chemists. The bibliography includes 128 references.

  11. Yokukansan Increases 5-HT1A Receptors in the Prefrontal Cortex and Enhances 5-HT1A Receptor Agonist-Induced Behavioral Responses in Socially Isolated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Kazushige; Yamaguchi, Takuji; Nishi, Akinori; Ikarashi, Yasushi; Hattori, Tomohisa; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan has an anxiolytic effect, which occurs after repeated administration. In this study, to investigate the underlying mechanisms, we examined the effects of repeated yokukansan administration on serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor density and affinity and its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of socially isolated mice. Moreover, we examined the effects of yokukansan on a 5-HT1A receptor-mediated behavioral response. Male mice were subjected to social isolation stress for 6 weeks and simultaneously treated with yokukansan. Thereafter, the density and affinity of 5-HT1A receptors were analyzed by a receptor-binding assay. Levels of 5-HT1A receptor protein and mRNA were also measured. Furthermore, (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; a 5-HT1A receptor agonist) was injected intraperitoneally, and rearing behavior was examined. Social isolation stress alone did not affect 5-HT1A receptor density or affinity. However, yokukansan significantly increased receptor density and decreased affinity concomitant with unchanged protein and mRNA levels. Yokukansan also enhanced the 8-OH-DPAT-induced decrease in rearing behavior. These results suggest that yokukansan increases 5-HT1A receptors in the PFC of socially isolated mice and enhances their function, which might underlie its anxiolytic effects. PMID:26681968

  12. Functional selectivity of hallucinogenic phenethylamine and phenylisopropylamine derivatives at human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    PubMed

    Moya, Pablo R; Berg, Kelly A; Gutiérrez-Hernandez, Manuel A; Sáez-Briones, Patricio; Reyes-Parada, Miguel; Cassels, Bruce K; Clarke, William P

    2007-06-01

    2,5-Dimethoxy-4-substituted phenylisopropylamines and phenethylamines are 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)(2A/2C) agonists. The former are partial to full agonists, whereas the latter are partial to weak agonists. However, most data come from studies analyzing phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated responses, although additional effectors [e.g., phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))] are associated with these receptors. We compared two homologous series of phenylisopropylamines and phenethylamines measuring both PLA(2) and PLC responses in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing human 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2C) receptors. In addition, we assayed both groups of compounds as head shake inducers in rats. At the 5-HT(2C) receptor, most compounds were partial agonists for both pathways. Relative efficacy of some phenylisopropylamines was higher for both responses compared with their phenethylamine counterparts, whereas for others, no differences were found. At the 5-HT(2A) receptor, most compounds behaved as partial agonists, but unlike findings at 5-HT(2C) receptors, all phenylisopropylamines were more efficacious than their phenethylamine counterparts. 2,5-Dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine activated only the PLC pathway at both receptor subtypes, 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine was selective for PLC at the 5-HT(2C) receptor, and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-nitrophenethylamine was PLA(2)-specific at the 5-HT(2A) receptor. For both receptors, the rank order of efficacy of compounds differed depending upon which response was measured. The phenylisopropylamines were strong head shake inducers, whereas their phenethylamine congeners were not, in agreement with in vitro results and the involvement of 5-HT(2A) receptors in the head shake response. Our results support the concept of functional selectivity and indicate that subtle changes in ligand structure can result in significant differences in the cellular signaling profile. PMID:17337633

  13. 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade and 5-HT(2C) receptor activation interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos protein expression in the caudate-putamen.

    PubMed

    Pockros, Lara A; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Conway, Sineadh M; Ullman, Teresa E; Zwick, Kimberly R; Neisewander, Janet L

    2012-12-01

    Both the 5-HT(2A) receptor (R) antagonist M100907 and the 5-HT(2C) R agonist MK212 attenuate cocaine-induced dopamine release and hyperlocomotion. This study examined whether these drugs interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We first determined from dose-effect functions a low dose of both M100907 and MK212 that failed to alter cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) hyperlocomotion. Subsequently, we examined whether these subthreshold doses given together would attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion, consistent with a 5-HT(2A)/5-HT(2C) R interaction. Separate groups of rats received two sequential drug injections 5 min apart immediately before a 1-h locomotion test as follows: (1) saline + saline, (2) saline + cocaine, (3) 0.025 mg/kg M100907 + cocaine, (4) 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine, or (5) cocktail combination of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine. Brains were extracted for Fos immunohistochemistry 90 min after the second injection. We next examined the effects of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212, alone and in combination, on spontaneous locomotor activity. While neither drug given alone produced any effects, the M100907/MK212 cocktail attenuated cocaine hyperlocomotion as well as cocaine-induced Fos expression in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen (CPu), but had no effect on spontaneous locomotion. The findings suggest that 5-HT(2A) Rs and 5-HT(2C) Rs interact to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the CPu, and that the CPu is a potential locus of the interactive effects between these 5-HT(2) R subtypes on behavior. Further research investigating combined 5-HT(2A) R antagonism and 5-HT(2C) R agonism as a treatment for cocaine dependence is warranted. PMID:22886755

  14. 5-HT2A receptor blockade and 5-HT2C receptor activation interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos protein expression in the caudate-putamen

    PubMed Central

    Pockros, Lara A.; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Conway, Sineadh M.; Ullman, Teresa E.; Zwick, Kimberly R.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Both the 5-HT2A receptor (R) antagonist M100907 and the 5-HT2CR agonist MK212 attenuate cocaine-induced dopamine release and hyperlocomotion. This study examined whether these drugs interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We first determined from dose-effect functions a low dose of both M100907 and MK212 that failed to alter cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) hyperlocomotion. Subsequently we examined whether these subthreshold doses given together would attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion, consistent with a 5-HT2A/5-HT2CR interaction. Separate groups of rats received two sequential drug injections 5 min apart immediately before a 1-h locomotion test as follows: 1) saline + saline, 2) saline + cocaine, 3) 0.025 mg/kg M100907 + cocaine, 4) 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine, or 5) cocktail combination of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine. Brains were extracted for Fos immunohistochemistry 90 min after the second injection. We next examined the effects of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212, alone and in combination, on spontaneous locomotor activity. While neither drug given alone produced any effects, the M100907/MK212 cocktail attenuated cocaine hyperlocomotion as well as cocaine-induced Fos expression in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen (CPu), but had no effect on spontaneous locomotion. The findings suggest that 5-HT2ARs and 5-HT2CRs interact to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the CPu, and that the CPu is a potential locus of the interactive effects between these 5-HT2R subtypes on behavior. Further research investigating combined 5-HT2AR antagonism and 5-HT2CR agonism as a treatment for cocaine dependence is warranted. PMID:22886755

  15. Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors and forebrain cholinergic system: receptor expression in identified cell populations.

    PubMed

    Peñas-Cazorla, Raúl; Vilaró, M Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors has pro-cognitive effects on memory performance. The proposed underlying neurochemical mechanism is the enhancement of acetylcholine release in frontal cortex and hippocampus elicited by 5-HT4 agonists. Although 5-HT4 receptors are present in brain areas related to cognition, e.g., hippocampus and cortex, the cellular localization of the receptors that might modulate acetylcholine release is unknown at present. We have analyzed, using dual label in situ hybridization, the cellular localization of 5-HT4 receptor mRNA in identified neuronal populations of the rat basal forebrain, which is the source of the cholinergic innervation to cortex and hippocampus. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was visualized with isotopically labeled oligonucleotide probes, whereas cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and parvalbumin-synthesizing neurons were identified with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probes. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was not detected in the basal forebrain cholinergic cell population. In contrast, basal forebrain GABAergic, parvalbumin synthesizing, and glutamatergic cells contained 5-HT4 receptor mRNA. Hippocampal and cortical glutamatergic neurons also express this receptor. These results indicate that 5-HT4 receptors are not synthesized by cholinergic cells, and thus would be absent from cholinergic terminals. In contrast, several non-cholinergic cell populations within the basal forebrain and its target hippocampal and cortical areas express these receptors and are thus likely to mediate the enhancement of acetylcholine release elicited by 5-HT4 agonists. PMID:25183542

  16. Distinct Circuits Underlie the Effects of 5-HT1B Receptors on Aggression and Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Katherine M; Tanaka, Kenji F; Barr, Mary M; Tritschler, Laurent; Le Dantec, Yannick; David, Denis J; Gardier, Alain M; Blanco, Carlos; Hen, René; Ahmari, Susanne E

    2015-05-01

    Impulsive and aggressive behaviors are both modulated by serotonergic signaling, specifically through the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). 5-HT1BR knockout mice show increased aggression and impulsivity, and 5-HT1BR polymorphisms are associated with aggression and drug addiction in humans. To dissect the mechanisms by which the 5-HT1BR affects these phenotypes, we developed a mouse model to spatially and temporally regulate 5-HT1BR expression. Our results demonstrate that forebrain 5-HT1B heteroreceptors expressed during an early postnatal period contribute to the development of the neural systems underlying adult aggression. However, distinct heteroreceptors acting during adulthood are involved in mediating impulsivity. Correlating with the impulsivity, dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is elevated in the absence of 5-HT1BRs and normalized following adult rescue of the receptor. Overall, these data show that while adolescent expression of 5-HT1BRs influences aggressive behavior, a distinct set of 5-HT1B receptors modulates impulsive behavior during adulthood. PMID:25892302

  17. The 5-HT3 receptor is essential for exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Nakamura, Y; Ishida, Y; Shimada, S

    2015-11-01

    Exercise has a variety of beneficial effects on brain structure and function, such as hippocampal neurogenesis, mood and memory. Previous studies have shown that exercise enhances hippocampal neurogenesis, induces antidepressant effects and improves learning behavior. Brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels increase following exercise, and the 5-HT system has been suggested to have an important role in these exercise-induced neuronal effects. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, analysis of the 5-HT type 3A receptor subunit-deficient (htr3a(-/-)) mice revealed that lack of the 5-HT type 3 (5-HT3) receptor resulted in loss of exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects, but not of learning enhancement. Furthermore, stimulation of the 5-HT3 receptor promoted neurogenesis. These findings demonstrate that the 5-HT3 receptor is the critical target of 5-HT action in the brain following exercise, and is indispensable for hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects induced by exercise. This is the first report of a pivotal 5-HT receptor subtype that has a fundamental role in exercise-induced morphological changes and psychological effects. PMID:25403840

  18. Distinct circuits underlie the effects of 5-HT1B receptors on aggression and impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, Katherine M.; Tanaka, Kenji F.; Barr, Mary M.; Tritschler, Laurent; Le Dantec, Yannick; David, Denis J.; Gardier, Alain M.; Blanco, Carlos; Hen, René; Ahmari, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Impulsive and aggressive behaviors are both modulated by serotonergic signaling, specifically through the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). 5-HT1BR knockout mice show increased aggression and impulsivity, and 5-HT1BR polymorphisms are associated with aggression and drug addiction in humans. To dissect the mechanisms by which the 5-HT1BR affects these phenotypes, we developed a mouse model to spatially and temporally regulate 5-HT1BR expression. Our results demonstrate that forebrain 5-HT1B heteroreceptors expressed during an early postnatal period contribute to the development of the neural systems underlying adult aggression. However, distinct heteroreceptors acting during adulthood are involved in mediating impulsivity. Correlating with the impulsivity, dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is elevated in the absence of 5-HT1BRs, and normalized following adult rescue of the receptor. Overall, these data show that while adolescent expression of 5-HT1BRs influences aggressive behavior, a distinct set of 5-HT1B receptors modulate impulsive behavior during adulthood. PMID:25892302

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-nitroindole derivatives as 5-HT2A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Faisal; Viswanath, Ambily Nath Indu; Pae, Ae Nim; Rhim, Hyewhon; Park, Woo-Kyu; Choo, Hea-Young Park

    2015-03-15

    A novel series of 4-nitroindole sulfonamides containing a methyleneamino-N,N-dimethylformamidine were prepared. The binding of these compounds to 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C was evaluated, and most of the compounds showed IC50 values of less than 1μM, and exhibited high selectivity for the 5-HT2C receptor. However, little selectivity was observed in the functional assay for 5-HT6 receptors. The computational modeling studies further validated the biological results and also demonstrated a reasonable correlation between the activity of compounds and the mode of superimposition with specified pharmacophoric features. PMID:25684421

  20. A novel aminotetralin-type serotonin (5-HT) 2C receptor-specific agonist and 5-HT2A competitive antagonist/5-HT2B inverse agonist with preclinical efficacy for psychoses.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Morgan, Drake; Felsing, Daniel; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L; Sakhuja, Rajeev; Booth, Raymond G

    2014-05-01

    Development of 5-HT2C agonists for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychoses, substance abuse, and obesity, has been fraught with difficulties, because the vast majority of reported 5-HT2C selective agonists also activate 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2B receptors, potentially causing hallucinations and/or cardiac valvulopathy. Herein is described a novel, potent, and efficacious human 5-HT2C receptor agonist, (-)-trans-(2S,4R)-4-(3'[meta]-bromophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine (-)-MBP), that is a competitive antagonist and inverse agonist at human 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, respectively. (-)-MBP has efficacy comparable to the prototypical second-generation antipsychotic drug clozapine in three C57Bl/6 mouse models of drug-induced psychoses: the head-twitch response elicited by [2,5]-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine; hyperlocomotion induced by MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (dizocilpine maleate)]; and hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine. (-)-MBP, however, does not alter locomotion when administered alone, distinguishing it from clozapine, which suppresses locomotion. Finally, consumption of highly palatable food by mice was not increased by (-)-MBP at a dose that produced at least 50% maximal efficacy in the psychoses models. Compared with (-)-MBP, the enantiomer (+)-MBP was much less active across in vitro affinity and functional assays using mouse and human receptors and also translated in vivo with comparably lower potency and efficacy. Results indicate a 5-HT2C receptor-specific agonist, such as (-)-MBP, may be pharmacotherapeutic for psychoses, without liability for obesity, hallucinations, heart disease, sedation, or motoric disorders. PMID:24563531

  1. A Novel Aminotetralin-Type Serotonin (5-HT) 2C Receptor-Specific Agonist and 5-HT2A Competitive Antagonist/5-HT2B Inverse Agonist with Preclinical Efficacy for Psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Drake; Felsing, Daniel; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Rowland, Neil E.; Robertson, Kimberly L.; Sakhuja, Rajeev; Booth, Raymond G.

    2014-01-01

    Development of 5-HT2C agonists for treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychoses, substance abuse, and obesity, has been fraught with difficulties, because the vast majority of reported 5-HT2C selective agonists also activate 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT2B receptors, potentially causing hallucinations and/or cardiac valvulopathy. Herein is described a novel, potent, and efficacious human 5-HT2C receptor agonist, (−)-trans-(2S,4R)-4-(3′[meta]-bromophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine (−)-MBP), that is a competitive antagonist and inverse agonist at human 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors, respectively. (−)-MBP has efficacy comparable to the prototypical second-generation antipsychotic drug clozapine in three C57Bl/6 mouse models of drug-induced psychoses: the head-twitch response elicited by [2,5]-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine; hyperlocomotion induced by MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (dizocilpine maleate)]; and hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine. (−)-MBP, however, does not alter locomotion when administered alone, distinguishing it from clozapine, which suppresses locomotion. Finally, consumption of highly palatable food by mice was not increased by (−)-MBP at a dose that produced at least 50% maximal efficacy in the psychoses models. Compared with (−)-MBP, the enantiomer (+)-MBP was much less active across in vitro affinity and functional assays using mouse and human receptors and also translated in vivo with comparably lower potency and efficacy. Results indicate a 5-HT2C receptor-specific agonist, such as (−)-MBP, may be pharmacotherapeutic for psychoses, without liability for obesity, hallucinations, heart disease, sedation, or motoric disorders. PMID:24563531

  2. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reduces total peripheral resistance during chronic infusion: direct arterial mesenteric relaxation is not involved

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) delivered over 1 week results in a sustained fall in blood pressure in the sham and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rat. We hypothesized 5-HT lowers blood pressure through direct receptor-mediated vascular relaxation. In vivo, 5-HT reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), increased heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac index, and reduced total peripheral resistance during a 1 week infusion of 5-HT (25 µg/kg/min) in the normotensive Sprague Dawley rat. The mesenteric vasculature was chosen as an ideal candidate for the site of 5-HT receptor mediated vascular relaxation given the high percentage of cardiac output the site receives. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA transcripts for the 5-HT2B, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT7 receptors are present in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric arteries. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot validated the presence of the 5-HT2B, 5- HT1B and 5-HT7 receptor protein in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric artery. Isometric contractile force was measured in endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery and mesenteric resistance arteries in which the contractile 5- HT2A receptor was antagonized. Maximum concentrations of BW-723C86 (5- HT2B agonist), CP 93129 (5-HT1B agonist) or LP-44 (5-HT7 agonist) did not relax the superior mesenteric artery from DOCA-salt rats vs. vehicle. Additionally, 5-HT (10–9 M to 10–5 M) did not cause relaxation in either contracted mesenteric resistance arteries or superior mesenteric arteries from normotensive Sprague- Dawley rats. Thus, although 5-HT receptors known to mediate vascular relaxation are present in the superior mesenteric artery, they are not functional, and are therefore not likely involved in a 5-HT-induced fall in total peripheral resistance and MAP. PMID:22559843

  3. Involvement of 5-HT3 receptors in the action of vortioxetine in rat brain: Focus on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Riga, Maurizio S; Sánchez, Connie; Celada, Pau; Artigas, Francesc

    2016-09-01

    The antidepressant vortioxetine is a 5-HT3-R, 5-HT7-R and 5-HT1D-R antagonist, 5-HT1B-R partial agonist, 5-HT1A-R agonist, and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibitor. Vortioxetine occupies all targets at high therapeutic doses and only SERT and 5-HT3-R at low doses. Vortioxetine increases extracellular monoamine concentrations in rat forebrain more than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and shows pro-cognitive activity in preclinical models. Given its high affinity for 5-HT3-R (Ki = 3.7 nM), selectively expressed in GABA interneurons, we hypothesized that vortioxetine may disinhibit glutamatergic and monoaminergic neurotransmission following 5-HT3-R blockade. Here we assessed vortioxetine effect on pyramidal neuron activity and extracellular 5-HT concentration using in vivo extracellular recordings of rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons and microdialysis in mPFC and ventral hippocampus (vHPC). Vortioxetine, but not escitalopram, increased pyramidal neuron discharge in mPFC. This effect was prevented by SR57227A (5-HT3-R agonist) and was mimicked by ondansetron (5-HT3-R antagonist) and by escitalopram/ondansetron combinations. In microdialysis experiments, ondansetron augmented the 5-HT-enhancing effect of escitalopram in mPFC and vHPC. Local ondansetron in vHPC augmented escitalopram effect, indicating the participation of intrinsic mechanisms. Since 5-HT neurons express GABAB receptors, we examined their putative involvement in controlling 5-HT release after 5-HT3-R blockade. Co-perfusion of baclofen (but not muscimol) reversed the increased 5-HT levels produced by vortioxetine and escitalopram/ondansetron combinations in vHPC. The present results suggest that vortioxetine increases glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in rat forebrain by blocking 5-HT3 receptors in GABA interneurons. PMID:27106166

  4. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  5. 5-Chloroindole: a potent allosteric modulator of the 5-HT3 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Amy S; Batis, Nikolaos; Grafton, Gillian; Caputo, Francesca; Brady, Catherine A; Lambert, Jeremy J; Peters, John A; Gordon, John; Brain, Keith L; Powell, Andrew D; Barnes, Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel that is modulated allosterically by various compounds including colchicine, alcohols and volatile anaesthetics. However the positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) identified to date have low affinity, which hinders investigation because of non-selective effects at pharmacologically active concentrations. The present study identifies 5-chloroindole (Cl-indole) as a potent PAM of the 5-HT3 receptor. Experimental Approach 5-HT3 receptor function was assessed by the increase in intracellular calcium and single-cell electrophysiological recordings in HEK293 cells stably expressing the h5-HT3A receptor and also the mouse native 5-HT3 receptor that increases neuronal contraction of bladder smooth muscle. Key Results Cl-indole (1–100 μM) potentiated agonist (5-HT) and particularly partial agonist [(S)-zacopride, DDP733, RR210, quipazine, dopamine, 2-methyl-5-HT, SR57227A, meta chlorophenyl biguanide] induced h5-HT3A receptor-mediated responses. This effect of Cl-indole was also apparent at the mouse native 5-HT3 receptor. Radioligand-binding studies identified that Cl-indole induced a small (∼twofold) increase in the apparent affinity of 5-HT for the h5-HT3A receptor, whereas there was no effect upon the affinity of the antagonist, tropisetron. Cl-indole was able to reactivate desensitized 5-HT3 receptors. In contrast to its effect on the 5-HT3 receptor, Cl-indole did not alter human nicotinic α7 receptor responses. Conclusions and Implications The present study identifies Cl-indole as a relatively potent and selective PAM of the 5-HT3 receptor; such compounds will aid investigation of the molecular basis for allosteric modulation of the 5-HT3 receptor and may assist the discovery of novel therapeutic drugs targeting this receptor. Linked Articles Recent reviews on allosteric modulation can be found at: Kenakin, T (2013). New concepts in pharmacological efficacy at 7TM receptors: IUPHAR Review 2

  6. Cholecystokinin release mediated by 5-HT3 receptors in rat cerebral cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed Central

    Paudice, P.; Raiteri, M.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the release of cholexystokinin-like immunoreactivity (CCK-LI) were examined in synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebral cortex and nucleus accumbens and depolarized by superfusion with 15 mM KCl. 2. In both areas 5-HT, tested between 0.1 and 100 nM, increased the calcium-dependent, depolarization-evoked CCK-LI release in a concentration-related manner. The concentration-response curves did not differ significantly between the two brain areas (EC50: 0.4 +/- 0.045 nM and 0.48 +/- 0.053 nM, respectively, in cortical and n. accumbens synaptosomes; maximal effect: about 60% at 10 nM 5-HT). 3. The 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonist methiothepin (300 nM) did not affect the CCK-LI release elicited by 10 nM 5-HT. However, the effects of 10 nM 5-HT were antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (3 alpha-tropanyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid ester (ICS 205-930; 0.1-100 nM; IC50: 3.56 +/- 0.42 nM in the cortex and 3.90 +/- 0.50 nM in the n. accumbens) and ondasetron (IC50: 8.15 +/- 0.73 nM in the cerebral cortex). 5-HT (10 nM) was also strongly antagonized by 100 nM 1 alpha H, 3 alpha 5 alpha H-tropan-3-yl-3,5-dichlorobenzoate (MDL 72222) another blocker of the 5-HT3 receptor. Moreover, the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-phenylbiguanide (tested in the cerebral cortex between 0.1 and 100 nM) enhanced CCK-LI release in a manner almost identical to that of 5-HT (EC50 = 0.64 +/- 0.071 nM). 4. It is concluded that 5-HT can act as a potent releaser of CCK-LI in rat cerebrocortex and nucleus accumbens through the activation of receptors of the 5-HT3 type situated on the CCK-releasing terminals. This interaction may provide a rationale for the clinical development of both 5-HT3 and CCK receptor antagonists as novel anxiolytic drugs. PMID:1933141

  7. Cervical spinal cord injury upregulates ventral spinal 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Fuller, David D; Baker-Herman, Tracy L; Golder, Francis J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Watters, Jyoti J; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2005-02-01

    Following chronic C2 spinal hemisection (C2HS), crossed spinal pathways to phrenic motoneurons exhibit a slow, spontaneous increase in efficacy by a serotonin (5-HT)-dependent mechanism associated with 5-HT2A receptor activation. Further, the spontaneous appearance of cross-phrenic activity following C2HS is accelerated and enhanced by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). We hypothesized that chronic C2HS would increase 5-HT and 5-HT2A receptor expression in ventral cervical spinal segments containing phrenic motoneurons. In addition, we hypothesized that CIH exposure would further increase 5-HT and 5-HT2A receptor density in this region. Control, sham-operated, and C2HS Sprague-Dawley rats were studied following normoxia or CIH (11% O2-air; 5-min intervals; nights 7-14 post-surgery). At 2 weeks post-surgery, ventral spinal gray matter extending from C4 and C5 was isolated ipsilateral and contralateral to C2HS. Neither C2HS nor CIH altered 5-HT concentration measured with an ELISA on either side of the spinal cord. However, 5-HT2A receptor expression assessed with immunoblots increased in ipsilateral gray matter following C2HS, an effect independent of CIH. Immunocytochemistry revealed increased 5-HT2A receptor expression on identified phrenic motoneurons (p<0.05), as well as in the surrounding gray matter. Contralateral to injury, 5-HT2A receptor expression was elevated in CIH, but not normoxic C2HS rats (p<0.05). Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that spontaneous increase in 5-HT2A receptor expression on or near phrenic motoneurons contributes to strengthened crossed-spinal synaptic pathways to phrenic motoneurons following C2HS. PMID:15716627

  8. Role of central vagal 5-HT3 receptors in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N.

    2015-01-01

    Vagal neurocircuits are vitally important in the co-ordination and modulation of GI reflexes and homeostatic functions. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is critically important in the regulation of several of these autonomic gastrointestinal (GI) functions including motility, secretion and visceral sensitivity. While several 5-HT receptors are involved in these physiological responses, the ligand-gated 5-HT3 receptor appears intimately involved in gut-brain signaling, particularly via the afferent (sensory) vagus nerve. 5-HT is released from enterochromaffin cells in response to mechanical or chemical stimulation of the GI tract which leads to activation of 5-HT3 receptors on the terminals of vagal afferents. 5-HT3 receptors are also present on the soma of vagal afferent neurons, including GI vagal afferent neurons, where they can be activated by circulating 5-HT. The central terminals of vagal afferents also exhibit 5-HT3 receptors that function to increase glutamatergic synaptic transmission to second order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius within the brainstem. While activation of central brainstem 5-HT3 receptors modulates visceral functions, it is still unclear whether central vagal neurons, i.e., nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons themselves also display functional 5-HT3 receptors. Thus, activation of 5-HT3 receptors may modulate the excitability and activity of gastrointestinal vagal afferents at multiple sites and may be involved in several physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including distention- and chemical-evoked vagal reflexes, nausea, and vomiting, as well as visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26578870

  9. Distribution of serotonin 5-HT1A-binding sites in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and their roles in 5-HT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors in rock pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Krüger, Jéssica; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Herold, Christina; Zilles, Karl; Poli, Anicleto; Güntürkün, Onur; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-12-15

    Serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1ARs), which are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, participate in cognitive and emotional functions. In birds, 5-HT1ARs are expressed in prosencephalic areas involved in visual and cognitive functions. Diverse evidence supports 5-HT1AR-mediated 5-HT-induced ingestive and sleep behaviors in birds. Here, we describe the distribution of 5-HT1ARs in the hypothalamus and brainstem of birds, analyze their potential roles in sleep and ingestive behaviors, and attempt to determine the involvement of auto-/hetero-5-HT1ARs in these behaviors. In 6 pigeons, the anatomical distribution of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding in the rostral brainstem and hypothalamus was examined. Ingestive/sleep behaviors were recorded (1h) in 16 pigeons pretreated with MM77 (a heterosynaptic 5-HT1AR antagonist; 23 or 69 nmol) for 20 min, followed by intracerebroventricular ICV injection of 5-HT (N:8; 150 nmol), 8-OH-DPAT (DPAT, a 5-HT1A,7R agonist, 30 nmol N:8) or vehicle. 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep and ingestive behaviors, brainstem 5-HT neuronal density and brain 5-HT content were examined in 12 pigeons, pretreated by ICV with the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or vehicle (N:6/group). The distribution of brainstem and diencephalic c-Fos immunoreactivity after ICV injection of 5-HT, DPAT or vehicle (N:5/group) into birds provided with or denied access to water is also described. 5-HT1ARs are concentrated in the brainstem 5-HTergic areas and throughout the periventricular hypothalamus, preoptic nuclei and circumventricular organs. 5-HT and DPAT produced a complex c-Fos expression pattern in the 5-HT1AR-enriched preoptic hypothalamus and the circumventricular organs, which are related to drinking and sleep regulation, but modestly affected c-Fos expression in 5-HTergic neurons. The 5-HT-induced ingestivebehaviors and the 5-HT- and DPAT-induced sleep behaviors were reduced by MM77 pretreatment. 5,7-DHT increased sleep per se, decreased tryptophan

  10. Nature of 5-HT1-like receptors mediating depressor responses in vagosympathectomized rats; close resemblance to the cloned 5-ht7 receptor.

    PubMed

    De Vries, P; Villalón, C M; Heiligers, J P; Saxena, P R

    1997-07-01

    It has been suggested that the late hypotensive response to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in vagosympathectomized rats is mediated by '5-HT1-like' receptors since this effect is mimicked by 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), is not modified by cyproheptadine, ketanserin or MDL 72222, but it is blocked by methysergide. The present study was set out to reanalyze this suggestion in terms of the classification schemes proposed in 1994 and 1996 by the NC-IUPHAR subcommittee on the classification and nomenclature of 5-HT receptors. I.v. bolus injections of 5-CT (0.01-0.3 microg x kg(-1)), 5-HT (1-30 microg x kg(-1)) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-T; 1-30 microg x kg(-1)) produced dose-dependent hypotensive responses with a rank order of agonist potency: 5-CT > 5-HT > 5-methoxytryptamine with sumatriptan (30-1000 microg x kg(-1)) inactive. The depressor responses to 5-HT and 5-CT were not attenuated by i.v. GR127935 (300-3000 microg x kg(-1)) or equivalent volumes of saline. In contrast, lisuride, methiothepin, mesulergine, metergoline and clozapine dose-dependently antagonized the responses to 5-HT and 5-CT; the rank order of apparent pA2 values against 5-HT and 5-CT, respectively, was: lisuride (7.7; 7.8) > methiothepin (6.8; 7.0) > or = mesulergine (6.4; 6.6) > clozapine (5.7; 5.8); metergoline displayed variable potencies (5.6; 6.4). Except for lisuride, which also affected isoprenaline-induced hypotension, the antagonism by the other drugs was selective. Based upon the above rank order of agonist potency, the blockade by a series of drugs showing high affinity for the cloned 5-ht7 receptor and the lack of blockade by GR127935, our results indicate that the 5-HT receptor mediating hypotension in vagosympathectomized rats is operationally similar to other putative 5-ht7 receptors mediating vascular and non-vascular responses (e.g. relaxation of the rabbit femoral vein, canine coronary and external carotid arteries and guinea-pig ileum as well as feline tachycardia

  11. Irradiation Embritlement in Alloy HT-­9

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano De Caro, Magdalena

    2012-08-27

    HT-9 steel is a candidate structural and cladding material for high temperature lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. In typical advanced fast reactor designs fuel elements will be irradiated for an extended period of time, reaching up to 5-7 years. Significant displacement damage accumulation in the steel is expected (> 200 dpa) when exposed to dpa-rates of 20-30 dpa{sub Fe}/y and high fast flux (E > 0.1 MeV) {approx}4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Core temperatures could reach 400-560 C, with coolant temperatures at the inlet as low as 250 C, depending on the reactor design. Mechanical behavior in the presence of an intense fast flux and high dose is a concern. In particular, low temperature operation could be limited by irradiation embrittlement. Creep and corrosion effects in liquid metal coolants could set a limit to the upper operating temperature. In this report, we focus on the low temperature operating window limit and describe HT-9 embrittlement experimental findings reported in the literature that could provide supporting information to facilitate the consideration of a Code Case on irradiation effects for this class of steels in fast reactor environments. HT-9 has an extensive database available on irradiation performance, which makes it the best choice as a possible near-term candidate for clad, and ducts in future fast reactors. Still, as it is shown in this report, embrittlement data for very low irradiation temperatures (< 200 C) and very high radiation exposure (> 150 dpa) is scarce. Experimental findings indicate a saturation of DBTT shifts as a function of dose, which could allow for long lifetime cladding operation. However, a strong increase in DBTT shift with decreasing irradiation temperature could compromise operation at low service temperatures. Development of a deep understanding of the physics involved in the radiation damage mechanisms, together with multiscale computer simulation models of irradiation embrittlement will provide the basis to

  12. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26011730

  13. Highly potent, non-basic 5-HT6 ligands. Site mutagenesis evidence for a second binding mode at 5-HT6 for antagonism.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ralph N; Stabler, Russel S; Repke, David B; Kress, James M; Walker, Keith A; Martin, Renee S; Brothers, Julie M; Ilnicka, Mariola; Lee, Simon W; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2010-06-01

    A series of 5-HT(6) ligands derived from (R)-1-(amino)methyl-6-(phenyl)sulfonyltetralin was prepared that yielded several non-basic analogs having sub-nanomolar affinity. Ligand structure-activity relationships, receptor point mutation studies, and molecular modeling of these novel ligands all combined to reveal a new alternative binding mode to 5-HT(6) for antagonism. PMID:20434910

  14. Probing the aromaticity of the [(HtAc)3(μ2-H)6], [(HtTh)3(μ2-H)6],+, and [(HtPa)3(μ2-H)6] clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo; Alvarado-Soto, Leonor; Arratia-Perez, Ramiro; Bast, Radovan; Alvarez-Thon, Luis

    2011-09-01

    In this study we report about the aromaticity of the prototypical [(HtAc)3(μ2-H)6], [(HtTh)3(μ2-H)6]+, and [(HtPa)3(μ2-H)6] clusters via two magnetic criteria: nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) and the magnetically induced current density. All-electron density functional theory calculations were carried out using the two-component zeroth-order regular approach and the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, including scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects. Four-component current density maps and the integration of induced ring-current susceptibilities clearly show that the clusters [(HtAc)3(μ2-H)6] and [(HtTh)3(μ2-H)6]+ are non-aromatic whereas [(HtPa)3(μ2-H)6] is anti-aromatic. However, for the thorium cluster we find a discrepancy between the current density plots and the classification through the NICS index. Our results also demonstrate the increasing influence of f orbitals, on bonding and magnetic properties, with increasing atomic number in these clusters. We think that the enhanced electron mobility in [(HtPa)3(μ2-H)6] is due the significant 5f character of its valence shell. Also the participation of f orbitals in bonding is the reason why the protactinium cluster has the shortest bond lengths of the three clusters. This study provides another example showing that the magnetically induced current density approach can give more reliable results than the NICS index.

  15. 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA modulation by antidepressant treatment in the chronic mild stress model of depression: sex differences exposed.

    PubMed

    Pitychoutis, P M; Dalla, C; Sideris, A C; Tsonis, P A; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z

    2012-05-17

    It is well established that women experience major depression at roughly twice the rate of men. Interestingly, accumulating clinical and experimental evidence shows that the responsiveness of males and females to antidepressant pharmacotherapy, and particularly to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), is sex-differentiated. Herein, we investigated whether exposure of male and female rats to the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression, as well as treatment with the TCA clomipramine may affect serotonergic receptors' (5-HTRs) mRNA expression in a sex-dependent manner. Male and female rats were subjected to CMS for 4 weeks and during the next 4 weeks they concurrently received clomipramine treatment (10 mg/ml/kg). CMS and clomipramine's effects on 5-HT(1A)R, 5-HT(2A)R, and 5-HT(2C)R mRNA expression were assessed by in situ hybridization histochemistry in selected subfields of the hippocampus and in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), two regions implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. CMS and clomipramine treatment induced sex-differentiated effects on rats' hedonic status and enhanced 5-HT(1A)R mRNA expression in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampal region of male rats. Additionally, CMS attenuated 5-HT(1A)R mRNA expression in the OFC of male rats and clomipramine reversed this effect. Moreover, 5-HT(2A)R mRNA levels in the OFC were enhanced in females but decreased in males, while clomipramine reversed this effect only in females. CMS increased 5-HT2CR mRNA expression in the CA4 region of both sexes and this effect was attenuated by clomipramine. Present data exposed that both CMS and clomipramine treatment may induce sex-differentiated and region-distinctive effects on 5-HTRs mRNA expression and further implicate the serotonergic system in the manifestation of sexually dimorphic neurobehavioral responses to stress. PMID:22441040

  16. Linking the HOMO-LUMO gap to torsional disorder in P3HT/PCBM blends

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, John A.; Pitman, Amy L.; Moewes, Alexander; Kurmaev, Ernst Z.; Finkelstein, Larisa D.; Zhidkov, Ivan S.; Savva, Achilleas

    2015-12-14

    The electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and P3HT/PCBM blends is studied using soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We find that annealing reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap of P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends, whereas annealing has little effect on the HOMO-LUMO gap of PCBM. We propose a model connecting torsional disorder in a P3HT polymer to the HOMO-LUMO gap, which suggests that annealing helps to decrease the torsional disorder in the P3HT polymers. Our model is used to predict the characteristic length scales of the flat P3TH polymer segments in P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends before and after annealing. Our approach may prove useful in characterizing organic photovoltaic devices in situ or even in operando.

  17. Binding of indolylalkylamines at 5-HT2 serotonin receptors: examination of a hydrophobic binding region.

    PubMed

    Glennon, R A; Chaurasia, C; Titeler, M

    1990-10-01

    Taking advantage of a proposed hydrophobic region on 5-HT2 receptors previously identified by radioligand-binding studies utilizing various phenylisopropylamine derivatives, we prepared and evaluated several N1 - and/or C7-alkyl-substituted derivatives of alpha-methyltryptamine in order to improve its affinity and selectivity. It was determined that substitution of an n-propyl or amyl group has similar effect on affinity regardless of location (i.e., N1 or C7). The low affinity of several N1-alkylpyrroleethylamines suggests that the benzene portion of the alpha-methyltryptamines is necessary for significant affinity. Whereas tryptamine derivatives generally display little selectivity for the various populations of 5-HT receptors, N1-n-propyl-5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine (3h) binds with significant affinity (Ki = 12 nM) and selectivity at 5-HT2 receptors relative to 5-HT1A (Ki = 7100 nM), 5-HT1B (Ki = 5000 nM), 5-HT1C (Ki = 120 nM), and 5-HT1D (Ki greater than 10,000 nM) receptors. As a consequence, this is the most 5-HT2-selective indolylalkylamine derivative reported to date. PMID:2213830

  18. Linking the HOMO-LUMO gap to torsional disorder in P3HT/PCBM blends.

    PubMed

    McLeod, John A; Pitman, Amy L; Kurmaev, Ernst Z; Finkelstein, Larisa D; Zhidkov, Ivan S; Savva, Achilleas; Moewes, Alexander

    2015-12-14

    The electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and P3HT/PCBM blends is studied using soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We find that annealing reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap of P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends, whereas annealing has little effect on the HOMO-LUMO gap of PCBM. We propose a model connecting torsional disorder in a P3HT polymer to the HOMO-LUMO gap, which suggests that annealing helps to decrease the torsional disorder in the P3HT polymers. Our model is used to predict the characteristic length scales of the flat P3TH polymer segments in P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends before and after annealing. Our approach may prove useful in characterizing organic photovoltaic devices in situ or even in operando. PMID:26671393

  19. The 5-HT7 receptor triggers cerebellar long-term synaptic depression via PKC-MAPK.

    PubMed

    Lippiello, Pellegrino; Hoxha, Eriola; Speranza, Luisa; Volpicelli, Floriana; Ferraro, Angela; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Tempia, Filippo; Miniaci, Maria Concetta

    2016-02-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) mediates important physiological effects of serotonin, such as memory and emotion, and is emerging as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive disorders and depression. Although previous studies have revealed an expression of 5-HT7R in cerebellum, particularly at Purkinje cells, its functional role and signaling mechanisms have never been described. Using patch-clamp recordings in cerebellar slices of adult mice, we investigated the effects of a selective 5-HT7R agonist, LP-211, on the main plastic site of the cerebellar cortex, the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. Here we show that 5-HT7R activation induces long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse via a postsynaptic mechanism that involves the PKC-MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, a 5-HT7R antagonist abolished the expression of PF-LTD, produced by pairing parallel fiber stimulation with Purkinje cell depolarization; whereas, application of a 5-HT7R agonist impaired LTP induced by 1 Hz parallel fiber stimulation. Our results indicate for the first time that 5-HT7R exerts a fine regulation of cerebellar bidirectional synaptic plasticity that might be involved in cognitive processes and neuropsychiatric disorders involving the cerebellum. PMID:26482421

  20. Varenicline Interactions at the 5-HT3 Receptor Ligand Binding Site are Revealed by 5-HTBP

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cys-loop receptors are the site of action of many therapeutic drugs. One of these is the smoking cessation agent varenicline, which has its major therapeutic effects at nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors but also acts at 5-HT3 receptors. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the 5-HT binding protein (5-HTBP) in complex with varenicline, and test the predicted interactions by probing the potency of varenicline in a range of mutant 5-HT3 receptors expressed in HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The structure reveals a range of interactions between varenicline and 5-HTBP. We identified residues within 5 Å of varenicline and substituted the equivalent residues in the 5-HT3 receptor with Ala or a residue with similar chemical properties. Functional characterization of these mutant 5-HT3 receptors, using a fluorescent membrane potential dye in HEK cells and voltage clamp in oocytes, supports interactions between varenicline and the receptor that are similar to those in 5-HTBP. The structure also revealed C-loop closure that was less than in the 5-HT-bound 5-HTBP, and hydrogen bonding between varenicline and the complementary face of the binding pocket via a water molecule, which are characteristics consistent with partial agonist behavior of varenicline in the 5-HT3 receptor. Together, these data reveal detailed insights into the molecular interaction of varenicline in the 5-HT3 receptor. PMID:25648658

  1. Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Interactions with Dopamine Function: Implications for Therapeutics in Cocaine Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine exhibits prominent abuse liability, and chronic abuse can result in cocaine use disorder with significant morbidity. Major advances have been made in delineating neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine abuse; however, effective medications to treat cocaine use disorder remain to be discovered. The present review will focus on the role of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission in the neuropharmacology of cocaine and related abused stimulants. Extensive research suggests that the primary contribution of 5-HT to cocaine addiction is a consequence of interactions with dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. The literature on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of cocaine is well developed, so the focus of the review will be on cocaine with inferences made about other monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers based on mechanistic considerations. 5-HT receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain, and several different 5-HT receptor subtypes have been implicated in mediating the effects of endogenous 5-HT on DA. However, the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in particular have been implicated as likely candidates for mediating the influence of 5-HT in cocaine abuse as well as to traits (e.g., impulsivity) that contribute to the development of cocaine use disorder and relapse in humans. Lastly, new approaches are proposed to guide targeted development of serotonergic ligands for the treatment of cocaine use disorder. PMID:25505168

  2. Compulsive behavior in the 5-HT2C receptor knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Chou-Green, Jennifer M; Holscher, Todd D; Dallman, Mary F; Akana, Susan F

    2003-04-01

    The efficacy of serotonergic pharmacotherapy indicates that serotonin (5-HT) plays a role in the treatment, if not the etiology, of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). While some clinical evidence implicates 5-HT(2C) receptors in this disorder, a definitive function has yet to be validated. We hypothesized that 5-HT(2C) receptor knockout (KO) mice may display compulsive-like behavior. This paper describes characterization of several distinct, highly organized behaviors in mice lacking functional 5-HT(2C) receptors, which supports a compulsive-like syndrome.Compulsive-like behavior was assessed in male 5-HT(2C) receptor KO and wildtype (WT) mice. Chewing of non-nutritive clay, chewing patterns on plastic-mesh screens, and the frequency of head dipping were measured. 5-HT(2C) receptor KO mice chewed more clay, produced a distinct pattern of "neat" chewing of plastic screens and exhibited reduced habituation of head dipping activity compared to WT mice. We conclude that the 5-HT(2C) receptor null mutant mouse provides a promising model of compulsive behavior and a means to further explore the role of 5-HT in OCD. PMID:12782219

  3. Silencing of CD59 enhanced the sensitivity of HT29 cells to 5-Fluorouracil and Oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haipeng; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Shaoyu; Guo, Qiang; Ren, Xia; Jiang, Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    Complement regulatory proteins (CD55 and CD59) were known to be expressed in many tumors and tumor cell lines including colorectal carcinoma, and were proposed as immunotherapy targets, however whether knocking down of CD55 and CD59 will affect the sensitivity of HT-29 cells to chemotherapy drugs for example, 5-Fluorouracil and Oxaliplatin and their possible mechanisms haven't been studied. To address this question, SiRNAs targeting CD55 and CD59 were chemically synthesized and transfected into HT-29 cells by lipofectamine. HT-29 growth curves of CD55 and CD59 knockdown cells were detected by MTT assay, HT29 inhibition curves to chemotherapy drugs (5-Fu and Oxaliplatin) were also assayed, in addition, chemotherapy sensitivity changes of HT29 affected by CD55 and CD59 knockdown were equally detected. Complement mediated lysis was examined by calcein-AM. We found that silencing CD59 in HT-29 cells could significantly enhance their sensitivity to 5-FU (P < 0.05) and Oxaliplatin (P < 0.05), and significantly reduced their IC50 concentration. On the contrary, knocking down of CD55 could inhibit HT-29 growth (P < 0.05). Mechanisms included increasing apoptosis rate of HT-29 by CD59 knocking down and G1/G0 blocking by silencing CD55. Our results thus shed light on the novel mechanism of chemotherapy resistance and provide an alternative strategy to overcome the resistance problem. PMID:25444672

  4. Sensitizing human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells to cisplatin by cyclopentenylcytosine, in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gharehbaghi, K; Szekeres, T; Yalowitz, J A; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Pommier, Y G; Jayaram, H N

    2000-11-24

    Cyclopentenylcytosine (CPEC) is cytotoxic to HT-29 cells in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with CPEC resulted in sensitizing HT-29 cells to cisplatin (CDDP), as evidenced by synergistic cytotoxicity. CPEC exhibits potent cytotoxicity to HT-29 cells in vitro, 2 and 24 h exposure providing an LC50 of 2.4 and 0.46 microM, respectively. Exposure of HT-29 cells to CDDP for 2 h resulted in an LC50 of 26 microM. Treatment of HT-29 cells with 1.0 or 1.25 microM CPEC and then incubating with CDDP showed synergistic cytotoxicity. Lesser synergy at very high concentrations of CPEC was demonstrated when HT-29 cells were first exposed to CDDP and then incubated with CPEC. Combination index calculations showed synergistic cytotoxicity in HT-29 cells when CPEC was combined with CDDP. Synergistic antitumor activity was demonstrable in vivo in mice transplanted with HT-29 tumor when treated with a combination of CPEC and CDDP without undue toxicity, since no excessive loss in mouse body weight or overt pathology was observed. CPEC had no influence on the total DNA adduct formation and CDDP did not affect the intracellular levels of CPEC or its metabolites, suggesting that enhanced CDDP cytotoxicity resulted from a step subsequent to excision of platinum-cross-linked DNA. These studies support a new approach for augmenting cytotoxic effect of CPEC with CDDP in treating human colon carcinoma. PMID:11132239

  5. Possible differences in modes of agonist and antagonist binding at human 5-HT6 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pullagurla, Manik R; Westkaemper, Richard B; Glennon, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    A graphics model of the human 5-HT6 receptor was constructed and automated docking studies were performed. The model suggests that 5-HT6 antagonist arylsulfonyltryptamines might bind differently than that of the agonist serotonin. Furthermore, the model explains many of the empirical results from our previous structure-affinity studies. PMID:15357994

  6. Analysis of free ACh and 5-HT in milk from four different species and their bioactivity on 5-HT(3) and nACh receptors.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Perez, Jose-Luis; Limon, Agenor; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge M; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Aljohi, Mohammad A; Miledi, Ricardo

    2014-07-25

    Milk is one of the most beneficial aliments and is highly recommended in normal conditions; however, in certain disorders, like irritable bowel syndrome, cow milk and dairy products worsen the gastric symptoms and their use is not recommended. Among the most recognized milk-induced gatrointestinal symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, which are processes controlled by cholinergic and serotonergic transmission. Whether the presence of bioavailable ACh and 5-HT in milk may contribute to normal peristalsis, or to the developing of these symptoms, is not known. In this work we attempt to determine whether the content of free ACh and 5-HT is of physiological significance in milk from four different species: cow (bovine), goat, camel and human. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify free ACh and 5-HT in milk, and activation of the serotonergic and cholinergic ionotropic receptors was investigated using electrophysiological experiments. Our principal hypothesis was that milk from these four species had sufficient free ACh and 5-HT to activate their correspondent receptors expressed in a heterologous system. Our results showed a more complex picture, in which free ACh and 5-HT and their ability to activate cholinergic and serotonergic receptors are not correlated. This work is a first step to elucidate whether 5-HT and ACh, at the concentrations present in the milk, can be associated to a direct function in the GI. PMID:24820623

  7. Human serotonin 1D receptor is encoded by a subfamily of two distinct genes: 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta.

    PubMed Central

    Weinshank, R L; Zgombick, J M; Macchi, M J; Branchek, T A; Hartig, P R

    1992-01-01

    The serotonin 1D (5-HT1D) receptor is a pharmacologically defined binding site and functional receptor site. Observed variations in the properties of 5-HT1D receptors in different tissues have led to the speculation that multiple receptor proteins with slightly different properties may exist. We report here the cloning, deduced amino acid sequences, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling of a pair of human 5-HT1D receptor genes, which we have designated 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta due to their strong similarities in sequence, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling. Both genes are free of introns in their coding regions, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex, and can couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. The pharmacological binding properties of these two human receptors are very similar, and match closely the pharmacological properties of human, bovine, and guinea pig 5-HT1D sites. Both receptors exhibit high-affinity binding of sumatriptan, a new anti-migraine medication, and thus are candidates for the pharmacological site of action of this drug. Images PMID:1565658

  8. Effects of the serotonin 5-HT(2) antagonist, ritanserin, and the serotonin 5-HT(1A) antagonist, WAY 100635, on cocaine-seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Schenk, S

    2000-10-01

    Manipulations of serotonergic systems have been shown to modify many of the behavioral effects of cocaine. It was recently demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) depletions produced by inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase reduced cocaine-seeking in an animal model. The present study was designed to determine whether pretreatment with specific 5-HT antagonists might also decrease cocaine-seeking. The effect of pretreatment with the 5-HT(2) antagonist, ritanserin (0.0, 1.0, or 10.0 mg/kg), or the 5-HT(1A) antagonist, WAY 100635 (0. 0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg), on cocaine (5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 mg/kg)-produced reinstatement of extinguished drug-taking behavior was measured. Although ritanserin was ineffective, WAY 100635 attenuated cocaine-produced reinstatement in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of WAY 100635 appeared to be specific since responding maintained by saccharin self-administration remained high following pretreatment with 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg WAY 100635. These data suggest a role of 5-HT(1A), but not 5-HT(2), receptors in cocaine-seeking. PMID:11124402

  9. Evidence of 5-HT components in human sperm: implications for protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the physiology of motility

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Trejo, Francisco; Tapia-Rodríguez, Miguel; Cerbón, Marco; Kuhn, Donald M; Manjarrez-Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Mendoza-Rodríguez, C Adriana; Picazo, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; C10H12N2O (5-HT)) is produced in the CNS and in some cells of peripheral tissues. In the mammalian male reproductive system, both 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) have been described in Leydig cells of the testis and in principal cells of the caput epididymis. In capacitated hamster sperm, it has been shown that 5-HT promotes the acrosomal reaction. The aim of this work was to explore the existence of components of the serotoninergic system and their relevance in human sperm physiology. We used both immunocytochemistry and western blot to detect serotoninergic markers such as 5-HT, TPH1, MAOA, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3, and 5HTT; HPLC for TPH enzymatic activity; Computer Assisted Semen Analysis assays to measure sperm motility parameters and pharmacological approaches to show the effect of 5-HT in sperm motility and tyrosine phosphorylation was assessed by western blot. We found the presence of serotoninergic markers (5-HT, TPH1, MAOA, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, 5-HTT, and TPH enzymatic activity) in human sperm. In addition, we observed a significant increase in tyrosine phosphorylation and changes in sperm motility after 5-HT treatment. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the existence of components of a serotoninergic system in human sperm and support the notion for a functional role of 5-HT in mammalian sperm physiology, which can be modulated pharmacologically. PMID:23028123

  10. Analysis of the Radiation Shield of HT-7U Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qunying; Chen, Yixue

    2003-06-01

    Analysis of the radiation shield of HT-7U fusion experimental device has been presented in this contribution. An inner shield and an outer shield, is used to reduce the dose rate to the device, workers and publics. Transport calculations and analyses have been done by 3D MCNP/4C models for neutron spectrum, γ spectrum, neutron and γ dose rate levels during operation and selection of detectors. Activation calculation have been done by inventory code FISPACT to estimate the decay γ dose rate level to workers after one pulse operation of the device and the permission time for workers to get into the shield building or device to make some maintenance or replace after discharge.

  11. Culture in cycles: considering H.T. Odum's 'information cycle'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    'Culture' remains a conundrum in anthropology. When recast in the mold of 'information cycles,' culture is transformed. New fault lines appear. Information is splintered into parallel or nested forms. Dynamics becomes cycling. Energy is essential. And culture has function in a directional universe. The 'information cycle' is the crowning component of H.T. Odum's theory of general systems. What follows is an application of the information cycle to the cultural domains of discourse, social media, ritual, education, journalism, technology, academia, and law, which were never attempted by Odum. In information cycles, cultural information is perpetuated - maintained against Second Law depreciation. Conclusions are that culture is in fact a nested hierarchy of cultural forms. Each scale of information production is semi-autonomous, with its own evolutionary dynamics of production and selection in an information cycle. Simultaneously, each information cycle is channeled or entrained by its larger scale of information and ultimately human-ecosystem structuring.

  12. Variational calculations of the HT{sup +} rovibrational energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bekbaev, A. K.; Korobov, V. I.; Dineykhan, M.

    2011-04-15

    In this Brief Report, we use the exponential explicitly correlated variational basis set of the type exp(-{alpha}{sub n}R-{beta}{sub n}r{sub 1}-{gamma}{sub n}r{sub 2}) to calculate systematically the nonrelativistic bound-state energies for the hydrogen molecular ion HT{sup +}. We perform calculations for the states of the total orbital angular momentum L=0 and 1 with the complete set of vibrational quantum numbers v= 0-23, as well as for the states of L= 2-5 and v= 0-5. The E1 dipole transition moments, which are of importance for the planning of spectroscopic laser experiments, have been obtained as well.

  13. Contributions of 5-HT Neurons to Respiratory Control: Neuromodulatory and Trophic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Matthew R.; Richerson, George B.

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter produced by a small number of neurons in the midbrain, pons and medulla. These neurons project widely throughout the neuraxis, where they release 5-HT and co-localized neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Each of these chemicals produce effects largely through G protein-coupled receptors, second messenger systems and subsequent neuromodulatory effects on target neurons. Emerging evidence suggests that 5-HT has additional modes of action during development and in adult mammals, including trophic effects (neurogenesis, cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and maturation) and influences on synaptic plasticity. Here, we discuss some of the neuromodulatory and trophic roles of 5-HT in general and in the context of respiratory control, as well as the regulation of release of modulatory neurotransmitters from 5-HT neurons. Future directions of study are also discussed. PMID:18595785

  14. Characterization of putative 5-HT7 receptors mediating tachycardia in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, Carlos M; Heiligers, Jan P C; Centurión, David; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod R

    1997-01-01

    It has been suggested that the tachycardic response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the spinal-transected cat is mediated by ‘5-HT1-like' receptors since this effect, being mimicked by 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), is not modified by ketanserin or MDL 72222, but it is blocked by methiothepin, methysergide or mesulergine. The present study was set out to reanalyse this suggestion in terms of the IUPHAR 5-HT receptor classification schemes proposed in 1994 and 1996. Intravenous (i.v.) bolus injections of the tryptamine derivatives, 5-CT (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 μg kg−1), 5-HT (3, 10 and 30 μg kg−1) and 5-methoxytryptamine (3, 10 and 30 μg kg−1) as well as the atypical antipsychotic drug, clozapine (1000 and 3000 μg kg−1) resulted in dose-dependent increases in heart rate, with a rank order of agonist potency of 5-CT >> 5-HT > 5-methoxytryptamine >> clozapine. The tachycardic effects of 5-HT and 5-methoxytryptamine were dose-dependently antagonized by i.v. administration of lisuride (30 and 100 μg kg−1), ergotamine (100 and 300 μg kg−1) or mesulergine (100, 300 and 1000 μg kg−1); the highest doses of these antagonists used also blocked the tachycardic effects of 5-CT. Clozapine (1000 and 3000 μg kg−1) did not affect the 5-HT-induced tachycardia, but attenuated, with its highest dose, the responses to 5-methoxytryptamine and 5-CT. However, these doses of clozapine as well as the high doses of ergotamine (300 μg kg−1) and mesulergine (300 and 1000 μg kg−1) also attenuated the tachycardic effects of isoprenaline. In contrast, 5-HT-, 5-methoxytryptamine- and 5-CT-induced tachycardia were not significantly modified after i.v. administration of physiological saline (0.1 and 0.3 ml kg−1), the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR127935 (500 μg kg−1) or the 5-HT3/4 receptor antagonist, tropisetron (3000 μg kg−1). Intravenous injections of the 5-HT1 receptor agonists

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Structure–Activity Relationships of Highly Potent 5-HT3 Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The 5-HT3 receptor, a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC), is an important therapeutic target. During a recent fragment screen, 6-chloro-N-methyl-2-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)quinazolin-4-amine (1) was identified as a 5-HT3R hit fragment. Here we describe the synthesis and structure–activity relationships (SAR) of a series of (iso)quinoline and quinazoline compounds that were synthesized and screened for 5-HT3R affinity using a [3H]granisetron displacement assay. These studies resulted in the discovery of several high affinity ligands of which compound 22 showed the highest affinity (pKi > 10) for the 5-HT3 receptor. The observed SAR is in agreement with established pharmacophore models for 5-HT3 ligands and is used for ligand–receptor binding mode prediction using homology modeling and in silico docking approaches. PMID:23006041

  16. Effects of age of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in cocaine abusers and normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J.

    1995-05-01

    We measured the effect of age on serotonin 5-HT2 receptor availability and compared it with the effects on dopamine D2 receptors on 19 chronic cocaine abusers (35.2{plus_minus}9.8 years, range 18-54 years old) and 19 age matched normal controls using positron emission tomography (PET) and F-18 N-methylspiperone (NMS). 5-HT2 Receptor availability was measure din frontal (FR), occipital (OC), cingulate (CI) and orbitofrontal (OF) cortices using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest to that in the cerebelium (CB) which is a function of Bmax/Kd. D2 receptor availability in the basal ganglia was measured using the {open_quotes}ratio index{close_quotes} (slope of striatum/CB versus time over 180 min of the scan) which is a function of Bmax. 5-HT2 Receptor availability differed among regions and were as follows: CI>OF>OC>FC.5-HT2 Receptor availability decreased significantly with age. This effect was more accentuated for 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR than in OC(df=1, p<0.025). Striatal dopamine D2 receptors were also found to decrease significantly with age (r=0.63, p<0.007). In a given subject, D2 receptor availability was significantly correlated with 5-HT2 receptor availability in FR (r=0.51, p<0.035) but not in OC. The values for 5-HT2 receptor availability were not different in normal subjects and cocaine abusers. These results document a decline in 5-HT2 and D2 receptors with age and document an association between frontal 5-HT2 and striatal D2 receptor availability. These results did not show any changes in 5-HT2 receptor availability in cocaine abusers as compared to control subjects.

  17. Fusion Pore Size Limits 5-HT Release From Single Enterochromaffin Cell Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Raghupathi, Ravinarayan; Jessup, Claire F; Lumsden, Amanda L; Keating, Damien J

    2016-07-01

    Enterochromaffin cells are the major site of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis and secretion providing ∼95% of the body's total 5-HT. 5-HT can act as a neurotransmitter or hormone and has several important endocrine and paracrine roles. We have previously demonstrated that EC cells release small amounts of 5-HT per exocytosis event compared to other endocrine cells. We utilized a recently developed method to purify EC cells to demonstrate the mechanisms underlying 5-HT packaging and release. Using the fluorescent probe FFN511, we demonstrate that EC cells express VMAT and that VMAT plays a functional role in 5-HT loading into vesicles. Carbon fiber amperometry studies illustrate that the amount of 5-HT released per exocytosis event from EC cells is dependent on both VMAT and the H(+)-ATPase pump, as demonstrated with reserpine or bafilomycin, respectively. We also demonstrate that increasing the amount of 5-HT loaded into EC cell vesicles does not result in an increase in quantal release. As this indicates that fusion pore size may be a limiting factor involved, we compared pore diameter in EC and chromaffin cells by assessing the vesicle capture of different-sized fluorescent probes to measure the extent of fusion pore dilation. This identified that EC cells have a reduced fusion pore expansion that does not exceed 9 nm in diameter. These results demonstrate that the small amounts of 5-HT released per fusion event in EC cells can be explained by a smaller fusion pore that limits 5-HT release capacity from individual vesicles. PMID:26574734

  18. Characterization, solubilization and partial purification of serotonin 5-HT1C receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Yagaloff, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    /sup 125/I-Lysergic acid diethylamide (/sup 125/I-LSD) binds with high affinity to a unique serotonergic site on rat choroid plexus. These sites were localized to choroid plexus epithelial cells using a novel high resolution autoradiographic technique. In membrane preparations, the serotonergic site density was 3100 fmol/mg protein, which is 10 fold higher than the density of any other serotonergic site in brain homogenates. The pharmacology of this site, termed the 5-HT1c site, does not match that of 5-Ht1a, 5-HT1b or 5HT2 serotonergic sites. 5-Ht1c sites were solubilized from pig choroid plexus using the zwitterionic detergent, CHAPS. High affinity labelling of the solubilized site was obtained using the serotonergic radioligand, N1-methyl-2-(/sup 125/I)lysergic acid diethylamide (/sup 125/I-MIL). Choroid plexus tumors obtained from transgenic mice were examined for the presence of serotonin 5-HT1c receptors. /sup 125/I-LSD binding to choroid plexus tumors displays a pharmacological profile that matches the properties of 5-HT1c receptors in normal choroid plexus. The tumor exhibits the highest site density of serotonin receptors (6600 fmol/mg protein) found in any tissue. /sup 125/I-LSD autoradiography of brain sections from transgenic mice shows high levels of specific labelling over the tumor. The affinities of various indolealkyl, phenlakyl and beta-carboline derivatives for the serotonin 5-HT1c receptor were measured in pig choroid plexus using /sup 125/I-MIL. Serotonin precursors and metabolites were all very weak inhibitors of specific /sup 125/I-MIL binding. Structure-affinity relationships were determined for a number of indolealkylamine analogues. Only serotonin is present in cerebrospinal fluid at concentrations near its 5-HT1c inhibition constant, suggesting that serotonin is the natural 5-HT1c agonist.

  19. Toxic effects of HT-2 toxin on mouse oocytes and its possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Zhang, Yue; Duan, Xing; Han, Jun; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2016-06-01

    T-2 toxin is one of the type A trichothecene mycotoxins that is considered to be the most toxic of the trichothecenes. T-2 toxin has been shown to exert various toxic effects in farm animals and humans, as it induces lesions in the brain and in lymphoid, hematopoietic, and gastrointestinal tissues. HT-2 toxin is the major metabolite of T-2 toxin. There is little information regarding the effects of HT-2 toxin on the female reproductive system, particularly oocyte maturation. Thus, in this study, we investigated the toxic effects of HT-2 on mouse oocyte maturation and its possible mechanisms of action. HT-2 toxin exposure disrupted oocyte maturation, reduced actin expression in both the oocyte cortex and cytoplasm, and disrupted meiotic spindle morphology by reducing p-MAPK protein level. HT-2 toxin exposure also induced oxidative stress and resulted in oocyte apoptosis, as shown by ROS accumulation, increased SOD mRNA level, and the expression of the early apoptosis marker Annexin V and increased caspase-3 and bax mRNA levels. Additionally, HT-2 toxin exposure increased LC3 and ATG12 protein levels and lc3 and atg14 mRNA levels, which indicated that HT-2 toxin induced autophagy in mouse oocytes. We also examined for possible epigenetic modifications. Fluorescence intensity analysis showed that 5mC level increased after HT-2 toxin exposure, whereas H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 levels decreased after HT-2 toxin exposure, which indicated that DNA and histone methylations were altered. Thus, our results indicated that HT-2 toxin exposure reduced mouse oocyte maturation capability by affecting cytoskeletal dynamics, apoptosis/autophagy, oxidative stress, and epigenetic modifications. PMID:26138683

  20. Effect of Peripheral 5-HT on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Wether Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Saito, Ryo; Nakano, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Keisuke; Sato, Katsuyoshi; Chen, Xiangning; Okada, Natsumi; Iwasaki, Shunsuke; Harjanti, Dian W.; Sekiguchi, Natsumi; Sano, Hiroaki; Kitazawa, Haruki; Rose, Michael T.; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    In mice, peripheral 5-HT induces an increase in the plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and bile acids, and a decrease in plasma triglyceride, NEFA and cholesterol concentrations. However, given the unique characteristics of the metabolism of ruminants relative to monogastric animals, the physiological role of peripheral 5-HT on glucose and lipid metabolism in sheep remains to be established. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of 5-HT on the circulating concentrations of metabolites and insulin using five 5-HT receptor (5HTR) antagonists in sheep. After fasting for 24 h, sheep were intravenously injected with 5-HT, following which-, plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride and NEFA concentrations were significantly elevated. In contrast, 5-HT did not affect the plasma cholesterol concentration, and it induced a decrease in bile acid concentrations. Increases in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations induced by 5-HT were attenuated by pre-treatment with Methysergide, a 5HTR 1, 2 and 7 antagonist. Additionally, decreased plasma bile acid concentrations induced by 5-HT were blocked by pre-treatment with Ketanserin, a 5HTR 2A antagonist. However, none of the 5HTR antagonists inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride and NEFA levels induced by 5-HT. On the other hand, mRNA expressions of 5HTR1D and 1E were observed in the liver, pancreas and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that there are a number of differences in the physiological functions of peripheral 5-HT with respect to lipid metabolism between mice and sheep, though its effect on glucose metabolism appears to be similar between these species. PMID:24505376

  1. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors induce phrenic motor facilitation via EPAC-mTORC1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Fields, D P; Springborn, S R; Mitchell, G S

    2015-09-01

    Spinal serotonin type 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicit complex effects on motor activity. Whereas 5-HT7 receptor activation gives rise to long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), it also constrains 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF via "cross-talk inhibition." We hypothesized that divergent cAMP-dependent signaling pathways give rise to these distinct 5-HT7 receptor actions. Specifically, we hypothesized that protein kinase A (PKA) mediates cross-talk inhibition of 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF whereas 5-HT7 receptor-induced pMF results from exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling. Anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated rats receiving intrathecal (C4) 5-HT7 receptor agonist (AS-19) injections expressed pMF for >90 min, an effect abolished by pretreatment with a selective EPAC inhibitor (ESI-05) but not a selective PKA inhibitor (KT-5720). Furthermore, intrathecal injections of a selective EPAC activator (8-pCPT-2'-Me-cAMP) were sufficient to elicit pMF. Finally, spinal mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) inhibition via intrathecal rapamycin abolished 5-HT7 receptor- and EPAC-induced pMF, demonstrating that spinal 5-HT7 receptors elicit pMF by an EPAC-mTORC1 signaling pathway. Thus 5-HT7 receptors elicit and constrain spinal phrenic motor plasticity via distinct signaling mechanisms that diverge at cAMP (EPAC vs. PKA). Selective manipulation of these molecules may enable refined regulation of serotonin-dependent spinal motor plasticity for therapeutic advantage. PMID:26269554

  2. Monte Carlo modeling of the spatially dispersive carrier transport in P3HT and P3HT:PCBM blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin

    2009-10-01

    The presence of traps, arising from morpohological or chemical defects, can be critical to the performance of organic semiconductor devices. Traps can reduce the charge carrier mobility, disturb the internal electrical field, drive recombination, and reduce the overall device efficiency as well as operational stability. In this work, we investigate the role of traps in determining charge transport properties of organic semiconductors and blends such as P3HT and P3HT:PCBM through Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in conjunction with time-of-flight (TOF) mobility measurements. We employ a Marcus theory description of individual hopping events based on the molecular reorganization energy (lambda) for the MC simulations. Trap states are modeled as diffuse bands that reside at some energy away from the main transport band. This model is used to simulate TOF transients, and the results are compared to experimental data. As is expected from the Marcus theory equation, the mobility is seen to be maximum for an optimal value of lambda. This optimal value is strongly field dependent, but is found to be independent of the trap density. In comparing MC simulations with TOF data, it is found that inclusion of traps results in a much better fit to the data and provides for a mechanism to simulate dispersive transport with a long tail resulting from trapping and detrapping of carriers before they exit the device. We present results for a range of trap densities and statistical distributions and discuss the implications on the operation of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices.

  3. Systemic inflammation alters central 5-HT function as determined by pharmacological MRI.

    PubMed

    Couch, Yvonne; Martin, Chris J; Howarth, Clare; Raley, Josie; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A; Stratford, Michael; Sharp, Trevor; Sibson, Nicola R; Anthony, Daniel C

    2013-07-15

    Considerable evidence indicates a link between systemic inflammation and central 5-HT function. This study used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) to study the effects of systemic inflammatory events on central 5-HT function. Changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast were detected in selected brain regions of anaesthetised rats in response to intravenous administration of the 5-HT-releasing agent, fenfluramine (10 mg/kg). Further groups of rats were pre-treated with the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.5 mg/kg), to induce systemic inflammation, or the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 prior to fenfluramine. The resultant phMRI data were investigated further through measurements of cortical 5-HT release (microdialysis), and vascular responsivity, as well as a more thorough investigation of the role of the 5-HT2A receptor in sickness behaviour. Fenfluramine evoked a positive BOLD response in the motor cortex (+15.9±2%) and a negative BOLD response in the dorsal raphe nucleus (-9.9±4.2%) and nucleus accumbens (-7.7±5.3%). In all regions, BOLD responses to fenfluramine were significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with LPS (p<0.0001), but neurovascular coupling remained intact, and fenfluramine-evoked 5-HT release was not affected. However, increased expression of the 5-HT2A receptor mRNA and decreased 5-HT2A-dependent behaviour (wet-dog shakes) was a feature of the LPS treatment and may underpin the altered phMRI signal. MDL100907 (0.5 mg/kg), 5-HT2A antagonist, significantly reduced the BOLD responses to fenfluramine in all three regions (p<0.0001) in a similar manner to LPS. Together these results suggest that systemic inflammation decreases brain 5-HT activity as assessed by phMRI. However, these effects do not appear to be mediated by changes in 5-HT release, but are associated with changes in 5-HT2A-receptor-mediated downstream signalling pathways. PMID:23473937

  4. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jennifer L; Wills, Lauren P; McOmish, Caitlin E; Demireva, Elena Y; Gingrich, Jay A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-04-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1-10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1-100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP

  5. Systemic inflammation alters central 5-HT function as determined by pharmacological MRI

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Yvonne; Martin, Chris J.; Howarth, Clare; Raley, Josie; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A.; Stratford, Michael; Sharp, Trevor; Sibson, Nicola R.; Anthony, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates a link between systemic inflammation and central 5-HT function. This study used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) to study the effects of systemic inflammatory events on central 5-HT function. Changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast were detected in selected brain regions of anaesthetised rats in response to intravenous administration of the 5-HT-releasing agent, fenfluramine (10 mg/kg). Further groups of rats were pre-treated with the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.5 mg/kg), to induce systemic inflammation, or the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 prior to fenfluramine. The resultant phMRI data were investigated further through measurements of cortical 5-HT release (microdialysis), and vascular responsivity, as well as a more thorough investigation of the role of the 5-HT2A receptor in sickness behaviour. Fenfluramine evoked a positive BOLD response in the motor cortex (+ 15.9 ± 2%) and a negative BOLD response in the dorsal raphe nucleus (− 9.9 ± 4.2%) and nucleus accumbens (− 7.7 ± 5.3%). In all regions, BOLD responses to fenfluramine were significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with LPS (p < 0.0001), but neurovascular coupling remained intact, and fenfluramine-evoked 5-HT release was not affected. However, increased expression of the 5-HT2A receptor mRNA and decreased 5-HT2A-dependent behaviour (wet-dog shakes) was a feature of the LPS treatment and may underpin the altered phMRI signal. MDL100907 (0.5 mg/kg), 5-HT2A antagonist, significantly reduced the BOLD responses to fenfluramine in all three regions (p < 0.0001) in a similar manner to LPS. Together these results suggest that systemic inflammation decreases brain 5-HT activity as assessed by phMRI. However, these effects do not appear to be mediated by changes in 5-HT release, but are associated with changes in 5-HT2A-receptor-mediated downstream signalling pathways. PMID:23473937

  6. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  7. Interaction between 5-HT1B receptors and nitric oxide in zebrafish responses to novelty.

    PubMed

    Maximino, Caio; Lima, Monica Gomes; Batista, Evander de Jesus Oliveira; Oliveira, Karen Renata Herculano Matos; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2015-02-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) and serotonin (5-HT) interact at the molecular and systems levels to control behavioral variables, including agression, fear, and reactions to novelty. In zebrafish, the 5-HT1B receptor has been implicated in anxiety and reactions to novelty, while the 5-HT1A receptor is associated with anxiety-like behavior; this role of the 5-HT1A receptor is mediated by NO. This work investigated whether NO also participates in the mediation of novelty responses by the 5-HT1B receptor. The 5-HT1B receptor inverse agonist SB 224,289 decreased bottom-dwelling and erratic swimming in zebrafish; the effects on bottom-dwelling, but not on erratic swimming, were blocked by pre-treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME. These effects underline a novel mechanism by which 5-HT controls zebrafish reactivity to novel environments, with implications for the study of neotic reactions, exploratory behavior, and anxiety-like states. PMID:25545556

  8. 5-HT1A receptors in mood and anxiety: recent insights into autoreceptor versus heteroreceptor function

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Alvaro; Tancredi, Adrian Newman-; Leonardo, E. David

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is intimately linked to anxiety and depression and a diverse body of evidence supports the involvement of the main inhibitory serotonergic receptor, the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) subtype, in both disorders. Objectives In this review, we examine the function of 5-HT1A receptor sub-populations and re-interpret our understanding of their role in mental illness in light of new data, separating both spatial (autoreceptor vs heteroreceptor) and the temporal (developmental vs adult) roles of the endogenous 5-HT1A receptors, emphasizing their distinct actions in mediating anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Results It is difficult to unambiguously distinguish the effects of different populations of the 5-HT1A receptors with traditional genetic animal models and pharmacological approaches. However, with the advent of novel genetic systems and subpopulation-selective pharmacological agents, direct evidence for distinct roles of these populations in governing emotion related behavior are emerging. Conclusions There is strong and growing evidence for a functional dissociation between auto and heteroreceptor populations in mediating anxiety and depressive-like behaviors respectively. Furthermore, while it is well established that 5-HT1A receptors act developmentally to establish normal anxiety-like behaviors, the developmental role of 5-HT1A heteroreceptors is less clear, and the specific mechanisms underlying the developmental role of each subpopulation are likely to be key elements determining mood control in adult subjects. PMID:24337875

  9. The 5-HT7 receptor in learning and memory. Importance of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Amanda J.; Hedlund, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor is a more recently discovered G-protein-coupled receptor for serotonin. The functions and possible clinical relevance of this receptor are not yet fully understood. The present paper reviews to what extent the use of animal models of learning and memory and other techniques have implicated the 5-HT7 receptor in such processes. The studies have used a combination of pharmacological and genetic tools targeting the receptor to evaluate effects on behavior and cellular mechanisms. In tests such as the Barnes maze, contextual fear conditioning and novel location recognition that involve spatial learning and memory there is a considerable amount of evidence supporting an involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor. Supporting evidence has also been obtained in studies of mRNA expression and cellular signaling as well as in electrophysiological experiments. Especially interesting are the subtle but distinct effects observed in hippocampus-dependent models of place learning where impairments have been described in mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor or after administration of a selective antagonist. While more work is required, it appears that 5-HT7 receptors are particularly important in allocentric representation processes. In instrumental learning tasks both procognitive effects and impairments in memory have been observed using pharmacological tools targeting the 5-HT7 receptor. In conclusion, the use of pharmacological and genetic tools in animal studies of learning and memory suggest a potentially important role for the 5-HT7 receptor in cognitive processes. PMID:21484935

  10. Impact of Lipid Raft Integrity on 5-HT3 Receptor Function and its Modulation by Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Nothdurfter, Caroline; Tanasic, Sascha; Di Benedetto, Barbara; Rammes, Gerhard; Wagner, Eva-Maria; Kirmeier, Thomas; Ganal, Vanessa; Kessler, Julia S; Rein, Theo; Holsboer, Florian; Rupprecht, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Because of the biochemical colocalization of the 5-HT3 receptor and antidepressants within raft-like domains and their antagonistic effects at this ligand-gated ion channel, we investigated the impact of lipid raft integrity for 5-HT3 receptor function and its modulation by antidepressants. Treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrine (MβCD) markedly reduced membrane cholesterol levels and caused a more diffuse membrane distribution of the lipid raft marker protein flotillin-1 indicating lipid raft impairment. Both amplitude and charge of serotonin evoked cation currents were diminished following cholesterol depletion by either MβCD or simvastatin (Sim), whereas the functional antagonistic properties of the antidepressants desipramine (DMI) and fluoxetine (Fluox) at the 5-HT3 receptor were retained. Although both the 5-HT3 receptor and flotillin-1 were predominantly found in raft-like domains in western blots following sucrose density gradient centrifugation, immunocytochemistry revealed only a coincidental degree of colocalization of these two proteins. These findings and the persistence of the antagonistic effects of DMI and Fluox against 5-HT3 receptors after lipid raft impairment indicate that their modulatory effects are likely mediated through non-raft 5-HT3 receptors, which are not sufficiently detected by means of sucrose density gradient centrifugation. In conclusion, lipid raft integrity appears to be important for 5-HT3 receptor function in general, whereas it is not a prerequisite for the antagonistic properties of antidepressants such as DMI and Fluox at this ligand-gated ion channel. PMID:20200506

  11. Two transmembrane Cys residues are involved in 5-HT4 receptor dimerization.

    PubMed

    Berthouze, Magali; Rivail, Lucie; Lucas, Alexandre; Ayoub, Mohammed A; Russo, Olivier; Sicsic, Sames; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Berque-Bestel, Isabelle; Jockers, Ralf; Lezoualc'h, Frank

    2007-05-11

    The 5-HT(4) receptor (5-HT(4)R) belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and is of considerable interest for the development of new drugs to treat gastrointestinal diseases and memory disorders. The 5-HT(4)R exists as a constitutive dimer but its molecular determinants are still unknown. Using co-immunoprecipitation and Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) techniques, we show here that 5-HT(4)R homodimerization but not 5-HT(4)R-beta(2) adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) heterodimerization is largely decreased under reducing conditions suggesting the participation of disulfide bonds in 5-HT(4)R dimerization. Molecular modeling and protein docking experiments identified four cysteine (Cys) residues potentially involved in the dimer interface through intramolecular or intermolecular disulfide bonds. We show that disulfide bridges between Cys112 and Cys145 located within TM3 and TM4, respectively, are of critical importance for 5-HT(4)R dimer formation. Our data suggest that two disulfide bridges between two transmembrane Cys residues are involved in the dimerization interface of a GPCR. PMID:17379184

  12. Mediation of 5-HT-induced external carotid vasodilatation in GR 127935-pretreated vagosympathectomized dogs by the putative 5-HT7 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, Carlos M; Centurión, David; Luján-Estrada, Miguel; Terrón, José A; Sánchez-López, Araceli

    1997-01-01

    The vasodilator effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the external carotid bed of anaesthetized dogs with intact sympathetic tone are mediated by prejunctional sympatho-inhibitory 5-HT1B/1D receptors and postjunctional 5-HT receptors. The prejunctional vasodilator mechanism is abolished after vagosympathectomy which results in the reversal of the vasodilator effect to vasoconstriction. The blockade of this vasoconstrictor effect of 5-HT with the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist, GR 127935, unmasks a dose-dependent vasodilator effect of 5-HT, but not of sumatriptan. Therefore, the present study set out to analyse the pharmacological profile of this postjunctional vasodilator 5-HT receptor in the external carotid bed of vagosympathectomized dogs pretreated with GR 127935 (20 μg kg−1, i.v.).One-minute intracarotid (i.c.) infusions of 5-HT (0.330 μg min−1), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 0.010.3 μg min−1), 5-methoxytryptamine (1100 μg min−1) and lisuride (31000 μg min−1) resulted in dose-dependent increases in external carotid blood flow (without changes in blood pressure or heart rate) with a rank order of agonist potency of 5-CT>>5-HT⩾5-methoxytryptamine>lisuride, whereas cisapride (1001000 μg min−1, i.c.) was practically inactive. Interestingly, lisuride (mean dose of 85±7 μg kg−1, i.c.), but not cisapride (mean dose of 67±7 μg kg−1, i.c.), specifically abolished the responses induced by 5-HT, 5-CT and 5-methoxytryptamine, suggesting that a common site of action may be involved. In contrast, 1 min i.c. infusions of 8-OH-DPAT (33000 μg min−1) produced dose-dependent decreases, not increases, in external carotid blood flow and failed to antagonize (mean dose of 200±33 μg kg−1, i.c.) the agonist-induced vasodilator responses.The external carotid vasodilator responses to 5-HT, 5-CT and 5-methoxytryptamine were not modified by intravenous (i.v.) pretreatment with either saline, (±)-pindolol (4

  13. Effects of physical training on functional activity of 5-HT1B receptors in rat central nervous system: role of 5-HT-moduline.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, M; Grimaldi, B; Fillion, M P; Bonnin, A; Drogou, C; Fillion, G; Guezennec, C Y

    2000-06-01

    The effect of physical exercise was examined on the sensitivity of 5-HT1B receptors and on 5-HT-moduline tissue concentration in the central nervous system of rats. Rats were trained for 7 consecutive weeks to run on a treadmill. Three groups of animals were selected: group 1, sedentary rats (controls); group 2, animals running for 1 h at 18 m/min for 5 days per week (moderate training) and group 3, animals running for 2 h, at 30 m/min on a 7% grade for 5 days per week (intensive training). The animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last running. Rat brains were dissected out to obtain hippocampus and substantia nigra and kept at -80 degrees C until use. 5-HT1B receptor activity was determined by studying [35S]GTPgammaS binding in a substantia nigra membrane preparation from individual animals, after stimulation by a selective 5-HT1B receptor agonist (CP 93,129). 5-HT-moduline tissue content in hippocampus from individual animals was determined by ELISA using a polyclonal anti-5-HT-moduline antibody. In moderately trained animals (n=5), the CP 93,129-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding curve was shifted to the right compared with controls (n=6), whereas the binding was totally suppressed in intensely trained animals (n=5). In parallel, 5-HT-moduline tissue concentration in the hippocampus was slightly increased in moderately trained animals (117.3 +/- 8.9%) (n=5), whereas it was significantly increased in intensely trained animals (182.6 +/- 29.5%) (n=5) compared to controls (100 +/- 6.11%) (n=6). These results show that 5-HT1B receptors are slightly desensitized in moderately trained animals and totally desensitized in intensely trained animals; moreover, they suggest that the observed desensitization is related to an increase of 5-HT-moduline tissue content; this mechanism may play a role in various pathophysiological conditions. PMID:10882034

  14. Unraveling mechanisms underlying partial agonism in 5-HT3A receptors.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Jeremías; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2014-12-10

    Partial agonists have emerged as attractive therapeutic molecules. 2-Me-5HT and tryptamine have been defined as partial agonists of 5-HT3 receptors on the basis of macroscopic measurements. Because several mechanisms may limit maximal responses, we took advantage of the high-conductance form of the mouse serotonin type 3A (5-HT3A) receptor to understand their molecular actions. Individual 5-HT-bound receptors activate in long episodes of high open probability, consisting of groups of openings in quick succession. The activation pattern is similar for 2-Me-5HT only at very low concentrations since profound channel blockade takes place within the activating concentration range. In contrast, activation episodes are significantly briefer in the presence of tryptamine. Generation of a full activation scheme reveals that the fully occupied receptor overcomes transitions to closed preopen states (primed states) before opening. Reduced priming explains the partial agonism of tryptamine. In contrast, 2-Me-5HT is not a genuine partial agonist since priming is not dramatically affected and its low apparent efficacy is mainly due to channel blockade. The analysis also shows that the first priming step is the rate-limiting step and partial agonists require an increased number of priming steps for activation. Molecular docking suggests that interactions are similar for 5-HT and 2-Me-5HT but slightly different for tryptamine. Our study contributes to understanding 5-HT3A receptor activation, extends the novel concept of partial agonism within the Cys-loop family, reveals novel aspects of partial agonism, and unmasks molecular actions of classically defined partial agonists. Unraveling mechanisms underlying partial responses has implications in the design of therapeutic compounds. PMID:25505338

  15. Pet imaging of human pituitary 5-HT2 receptors with F-18 setoperone

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, A.J.; Bonab, A.A.; Babich, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors play an important role in the regulation of pituitary function. In particular, 5HT agonists stimulate ACTH, {beta}-endorphin, prolactin and growth hormone secretion but inhibit TSH release. 5-HT binding sites have been identified by autoradiographic studies of rat and human pituitary. In the present investigation, we used PET with F-18 setoperone to image 5-HT2 receptors in normal humans. Setoperone, a piperidine derivative with potent 5-HT2 receptor blocking properties was labelled with F-18 by nucleophilic substitution on the nitro derivative. After HPLC purification, specific activity was between 10,000 and 15,000 mCi/{mu} mole and radiochemical purity was >98%. Six healthy male volunteers were injected with 5-7 mCi of F-18. Setoperone and serial PET images and arterial blood samples were collected over 2 hrs. Specific binding to 5-HT2 receptors in the frontal cortex (FC), striatum (ST) and pituitary (P) was quantitated using the cerebellum (C) as reference. The tracer showed clear retention in FC, ST and P (known to contain a high density of 5-HT2 receptors) relative to C (known to be devoid of 5-HT2 receptors). In all subjects, FC/C, ST/C and P/C ratios increased during the first hr. and remained stable thereafter. For FC and ST, the ratios reached similar values; 3.92{plus_minus}0.73 and 3.53{plus_minus}0.32. For pituitary, a significantly higher ratio, was measured at all times; 6.53{plus_minus}1.82 (p<0.01). These results indicate that F-18 setoperone is an effective PET radiopharmaceutical for imaging 5-HT2 receptors in the human pituitary. Future applications of this agent could provide important new insights into neuroendocrine function.

  16. Mutational analysis of the promoter and the coding region of the 5-HT1A gene

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, J.; Noethen, M.M.; Shimron-Abarbanell, D.

    1994-09-01

    Disturbances of serotonergic pathways have been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Serotonin (5HT) receptors can be subdivided into at least three major families (5HT1, 5HT2, and 5HT3). Five human 5HT1 receptor subtypes have been cloned, namely 1A, 1D{alpha}, 1D{beta}, 1E, and 1F. Of these, the 5HT1A receptor is the best characterized subtype. In the present study we sought to identify genetic variation in the 5HT1A receptor gene which through alteration of protein function or level of expression might contribute to the genetics of neuropsychiatric diseases. The coding region and the 5{prime} promoter region of the 5HT1A gene from 159 unrelated subjects (45 schizophrenic, 46 bipolar affective, and 43 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 25 controls) were analyzed using SSCA. SSCA revealed the presence of two mutations both located in the coding region of the 5HT1A receptor gene. The first mutation is a rare silent C{r_arrow}T substitution at nucleotide position 549. The second mutation is characterized by a base pair substitution (A{r_arrow}G) at the first position of codon 28 and results in an amino acid exchange (Ile{r_arrow}Val). Since Val28 was found only in a single schizophrenic patient and in none of the other patients or controls, we decided to extend our samples and to use a restriction assay for screening a further 74 schizophrenic, 95 bipolar affective, and 49 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 185 controls, for the presence of the mutation. In total, the mutation was found in 2 schizophrenic patients, in 3 bipolars, in 1 Tourette patient, and in 5 controls. To our knowledge the Ile-28-Val substitution reported here is the first natural occuring molecular variant which has been identified for a serotonin receptor so far.

  17. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT2C Receptor Agonists for Addictive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2015-07-15

    The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) has long been associated with the control of a variety of motivated behaviors, including feeding. Much of the evidence linking 5-HT and feeding behavior was obtained from studies of the effects of the 5-HT releaser (dex)fenfluramine in laboratory animals and humans. Recently, the selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. This review examines evidence to support the use of selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists as treatments for conditions beyond obesity, including substance abuse (particularly nicotine, psychostimulant, and alcohol dependence), obsessive compulsive, and excessive gambling disorder. Following a brief survey of the early literature supporting a role for 5-HT in modulating food and drug reinforcement, we propose that intrinsic differences between SSRI and serotonin releasers may have underestimated the value of serotonin-based pharmacotherapeutics to treat clinical forms of addictive behavior beyond obesity. We then highlight the critical involvement of the 5-HT2C receptor in mediating the effect of (dex)fenfluramine on feeding and body weight gain and the evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists reduce measures of drug reward and impulsivity. A recent report of lorcaserin efficacy in a smoking cessation trial further strengthens the idea that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may have potential as a treatment for addiction. This review was prepared as a contribution to the proceedings of the 11th International Society for Serotonin Research Meeting held in Hermanus, South Africa, July 9-12, 2014. PMID:25870913

  18. Vascular reactivity, 5-HT uptake, and blood pressure in the serotonin transporter knockout rat.

    PubMed

    Linder, A Elizabeth; Diaz, Jessica; Ni, Wei; Szasz, Theo; Burnett, Robert; Watts, Stephanie W

    2008-04-01

    The handling of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] depends on the serotonin transporter (SERT). A SERT knockout (KO) rat is a useful model to test the hypothesis that SERT is the primary mechanism for arterial 5-HT uptake and to investigate the impact of SERT removal on blood pressure. Wild-type (WT) and KO rats were used to measure 5-HT content (plasma, raphe, aorta, carotid, and mesenteric artery), aortic isometric contraction, and blood pressure. HPLC supported the lack of circulating 5-HT in plasma (ng/ml plasma, WT, 310 +/- 96; and KO, 1.0 +/- 0.5; P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses validated the presence of the SERT protein in the WT rats and a lesser expression in the KO rat. The aorta isolated from KO rats had a normal contraction to phenylephrine and norepinephrine and a normal relaxation to the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine compared with the aorta from WT. In contrast, the potency of 5-HT was increased in the aorta from KO rats compared with WT rats [-log EC(50) (M); WT, 5.71 +/- 0.08; and KO, 6.7 +/- 0.18] and maximum contraction was reduced [%phenylephrine (10 muM) contraction, WT, 113 +/- 6%; and KO, 52 +/- 12%]. 5-HT uptake was reduced but not abolished in arteries of the KO compared with the WT rats. Diurnal mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and locomotor activity level of the KO rats were similar to the WT rats. These data suggest that there are other mechanisms of 5-HT uptake in the arteries of the rat and that although the absence of circulating 5-HT and/or SERT function sensitizes arteries to 5-HT, SERT dysfunction does not impair normal blood pressure. PMID:18263707

  19. Familial Risk for Major Depression is Associated with Lower Striatal 5-HT4 Receptor Binding

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Karine; Torstensen, Eva; Holst, Klaus K.; Haahr, Mette E.; Knorr, Ulla; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Iversen, Pernille; Fisher, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 5-HT4 receptor provides a novel potential target for antidepressant treatment. No studies exist to elucidate the 5-HT4 receptor’s in vivo distribution in the depressed state or in populations that may display trait markers for major depression disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to determine whether familial risk for MDD is associated with cerebral 5-HT4 receptor binding as measured with [11C]SB207145 brain PET imaging. Familial risk is the most potent risk factor of MDD. Methods: We studied 57 healthy individuals (mean age 36 yrs, range 20–86; 21 women), 26 of which had first-degree relatives treated for MDD. Results: We found that having a family history of MDD was associated with lower striatal 5-HT4 receptor binding (p = 0.038; in individuals below 40 years, p = 0.013). Further, we found evidence for a “risk-dose effect” on 5-HT4 receptor binding, since the number of first-degree relatives with a history of MDD binding correlated negatively with 5-HT4 receptor binding in both the striatum (p = 0.001) and limbic regions (p = 0.012). Conclusions: Our data suggest that the 5-HT4 receptor is involved in the neurobiological mechanism underlying familial risk for depression, and that lower striatal 5-HT4 receptor binding is associated with increased risk for developing MDD. The finding is intriguing considering that the 5-HT4 receptor has been suggested to be an effective target for antidepressant treatment. PMID:25522384

  20. Extraction of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) properties from dark current voltage characteristics in a P3HT/n-crystalline-silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolasco, J. C.; Cabré, R.; Ferré-Borrull, J.; Marsal, L. F.; Estrada, M.; Pallarès, J.

    2010-02-01

    The dark current-voltage characteristics of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/n-type crystalline silicon solar cells were analyzed using an electrical equivalent circuit. We found that without illumination transport occurs due to hopping between localized states at the P3HT/silicon interface not only at low voltages, through multitunneling capture emission, but also at medium voltages, through tunneling-enhanced recombination. At high voltages the current is limited by series resistance and space-charge limited mechanisms. At low reverse voltages the current is limited by shunt resistance. From the temperature dependence of the equivalent circuit's fitting parameters, we were able to estimate some physical parameters of the P3HT layer, namely the electron affinity, the charge carrier concentration and the characteristic temperature of the exponential trap distribution. The extracted P3HT values are in good agreement with previously reported values obtained using different methods but our approach takes into account that the P3HT layer is in a solar cell.

  1. Neuronal Ablation of p-Akt at Ser473 Leads to Altered 5-HT1A/2A Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Christine; Siuta, Michael; Robertson, Sabrina D.; Davis, Adeola R.; Sauer, Jennifer; Matthies, Heinrich J.G.; Gresch, Paul J.; Airey, David; Lindsley, Craig W.; Schetz, John A.; Niswender, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic system regulates a wide range of behavior, including mood and impulsivity, and its dysregulation has been associated with mood disorders, autism spectrum disorder, and addiction. Diabetes is a risk factor for these conditions. Insulin resistance in the brain is specifically associated with susceptibility to psychostimulant abuse. Here, we examined whether phosphorylation of Akt, a key regulator of the insulin signaling pathway, controls serotonin (5-HT) signaling. To explore how impairment in Akt function regulates 5-HT homeostasis, we used a brain-specific rictor knockout (KO) mouse model of impaired neuronal phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Cortical 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor binding was significantly elevated in rictor KO mice. Concomitant with this elevated receptor expression, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) led to an increased hypothermic response in rictor KO mice. The increased cortical 5-HT1A receptor density was associated with higher 5-HT1A receptor levels on the cortical cell surface. In contrast, rictor KO mice displayed significantly reduced head-twitch response (HTR) to the 5-HT2A/C agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), with evidence of impaired 5-HT2A/C receptor signaling. In vitro, pharmacological inhibition of Akt significantly increased 5-HT1A receptor expression and attenuated DOI-induced 5-HT2A receptor signaling, thereby lending credence to the observed in vivo cross-talk between neuronal Akt signaling and 5-HT receptor regulation. These data reveal that defective central Akt function alters 5-HT signaling as well as 5-HT-associated behaviors, demonstrating a novel role for Akt in maintaining neuronal 5-HT receptor function. PMID:24090638

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Tetrasubstituted Pyridines as Potent 5-HT2C Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of pyrido[3,4-d]azepines that are potent and selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists is disclosed. Compound 7 (PF-04781340) is identified as a suitable lead owing to good 5-HT2C potency, selectivity over 5-HT2B agonism, and in vitro ADME properties commensurate with an orally available and CNS penetrant profile. The synthesis of a novel bicyclic tetrasubstituted pyridine core template is outlined, including rationale to account for the unexpected formation of aminopyridine 13 resulting from an ammonia cascade cyclization. PMID:25815155

  3. Mechanism for the acute effects of organophosphate pesticides on the adult 5-HT system

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Sarah J.; Savy, Claire Y.; Campbell, Matthew; Dodds, Rebecca; Gomes, Larissa Kruger; Laws, Grace; Watson, Anna; Blain, Peter G.; Morris, Christopher M.; Gartside, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is involved in mood disorder aetiology and it has been reported that (organophosphate) OP exposure affects 5-HT turnover. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying OP effects on the adult 5-HT system. First, acute in vivo administration of the OP diazinon (0, 1.3, 13 or 39 mg/kg i.p.) to male Hooded Lister rats inhibited the activity of the cholinergic enzyme acetylcholinesterase in blood and in the hippocampus, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), striatum and prefrontal cortex. Diazinon-induced cholinesterase inhibition was greatest in the DRN, the brain's major source of 5-HT neurones. Second, acute in vivo diazinon exposure (0 or 39 mg/kg i.p.) increased the basal firing rate of DRN neurones measured ex vivo in brain slices. The excitatory responses of DRN neurones to α1-adrenoceptor or AMPA/kainate receptor activation were not affected by in vivo diazinon exposure but the inhibitory response to 5-HT was attenuated, indicating 5-HT1A autoreceptor down-regulation. Finally, direct application of the diazinon metabolite diazinon oxon to naive rat brain slices increased the firing rate of DRN 5-HT neurones, as did chlorpyrifos-oxon, indicating the effect was not unique to diazinon. The oxon-induced augmentation of firing was blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine and the AMPA/kainate glutamate receptor antagonist DNQX. Together these data indicate that 1) acute OP exposure inhibits DRN cholinesterase, leading to acetylcholine accumulation, 2) the acetylcholine activates nicotinic receptors on 5-HT neurones and also on glutamatergic neurones, thus releasing glutamate and activating 5-HT neuronal AMPA/kainate receptors 3) the increase in 5-HT neuronal activity, and resulting 5-HT release, may lead to 5-HT1A autoreceptor down-regulation. This mechanism may be involved in the reported increase in risk of developing anxiety and depression following occupational OP exposure. PMID

  4. Organic solar cells: evaluation of the stability of P3HT using time-delayed degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Chung-How; Poh, Chung-Kiak; Bryant, Glenn; Belcher, Warwick; Dastoor, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that the performance of organic solar cells is generally susceptible to degradation by moisture exposure, there has been suggestion that the photoactive layer (P3HT) is surprisingly resilient. This work attempts to confirm the stability of P3HT as an organic solar cell material by deliberately introducing water into the photoactive layer. A dramatic step drop in device performance during cell characterization is observed approximately one day after the device has been fabricated. The time-delayed step drop in output efficiency strongly suggests that moisture has little effect on the P3HT conducting polymer.

  5. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of multitarget-directed ligands with both serotonergic subtype 4 receptor (5-HT4R) partial agonist and 5-HT6R antagonist activities, as potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yahiaoui, Samir; Hamidouche, Katia; Ballandonne, Céline; Davis, Audrey; de Oliveira Santos, Jana Sopkova; Freret, Thomas; Boulouard, Michel; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) activation and blockade of the 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) are known to enhance the release of numerous neurotransmitters whose depletion is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, 5-HT4R agonists seem to favor production of the neurotrophic soluble amyloid protein precursor alpha (sAPPα). Consequently, combining 5-HT4R agonist/5-HT6R antagonist activities in a single chemical compound would constitute a novel approach able to display both a symptomatic and disease-modifying effect in AD. Seventeen novel derivatives of RS67333 (1) were synthesized and evaluated as potential dual-target compounds. Among them, four agents showed nanomolar and submicromolar affinities toward 5-HT4R and 5-HT6R, respectively; one of them, 7m, was selected on the basis of its in vitro affinity (Ki5-HT4R = 5.3 nM, Ki5-HT6R = 219 nM) for further in vivo experiments, where 7m showed an antiamnesic effect in the mouse at 1 mg/kg ip. PMID:27266998

  6. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  7. Molecular and behavioral pharmacology of two novel orally-active 5HT2 modulators: potential utility as antipsychotic medications

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Drake; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Kuipers, Allison; Sakhuja, Rajeev; Robertson, Kimberly L.; Rowland, Neil E.; Booth, Raymond G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Desired serotonin 5HT2 receptor pharmacology for treatment of psychoses is 5HT2A antagonism and/or 5HT2C agonism. No selective 5HT2A antagonist has been approved for psychosis and the only approved 5HT2C agonist (for obesity) also activates 5HT2A and 5HT2B receptors, which can lead to clinical complications. Studies herein tested the hypothesis that a dual-function 5HT2A antagonist/5HT2C agonist that does not activate 5HT2B receptors would be suitable for development as an antipsychotic drug, without liability for weight gain. Methods The novel compounds (+)- and (−)-trans-4-(4′-chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-2-aminotetralin (p-Cl-PAT) were synthesized, characterized in vitro for affinity and functional activity at human 5HT2 receptors, and administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (gavage) routes to mice in behavioral paradigms that assessed antipsychotic efficacy and effects on feeding behavior. Results (+)- and (−)-p-Cl-PAT activated 5HT2C receptors, with (+)-p-Cl-PAT being 12-times more potent, consistent with its higher affinity across 5HT2 receptors. Neither p-Cl-PAT enantiomer activated 5HT2A or 5HT2B receptors at concentrations up to 300-times greater than their respective affinity (Ki), and (+)-p-Cl-PAT was shown to be a 5HT2A competitive antagonist. When administered i.p. or orally, (+)- and (−)-p-Cl-PAT attenuated the head-twitch response (HTR) in mice elicited by the 5HT2 agonist (−)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) and reduced intake of a highly palatable food in non-food-deprived mice, with (+)-p-Cl-PAT being more potent across behavioral assays. Conclusions The novel in vitro pharmacology of (+)-p-Cl-PAT (5HT2A antagonism/5HT2C agonism without activation of 5HT2B) translated in vivo to an orally-active drug candidate with preclinical efficacy to treat psychoses without liability for weight gain. PMID:23665356

  8. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Louis

    En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations

  9. Phase stability of an HT-9 duct irradiated in FFTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderoglu, O.; Van den Bosch, J.; Hosemann, P.; Stergar, E.; Sencer, B. H.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Dickerson, R.; Dickerson, P.; Hartl, M.; Maloy, S. A.

    2012-11-01

    A fuel test assembly known as the ACO-3 duct made out of a normalized and fully tempered ferritic/martensitic steel (HT-9) was previously irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Reactor Facility (FFTF) up to 155 dpa at a temperature range of 380-504 °C. The microstructures of the samples from five different zones along a face of the duct were analyzed using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based techniques, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and atom probe tomography (APT). A high density of Cr rich α' precipitates together with a moderate density of G-phase precipitates with average sizes of ˜4 and 11 nm respectively were found in the 20 dpa, 380 °C zone. It was found that precipitation of the second phases is more sensitive to the temperature history then to the exposed neutron dose. In general, the density of both precipitates decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. No significant change is observed in average size of α' while the average size of G-phase precipitates increases up to 27 nm at 440 °C. Voids are observed after irradiation at 100 dpa (irradiation temperature of 410 °C) and 155 dpa (irradiation temperature of 440 °C) but no voids were detected after irradiation to 96 dpa (irradiation temperature of 466 °C). In contrast to what is previously reported in the literature, no Laves, M6C or Chi phases were found in any of the zones.

  10. Phase Stability of an HT-9 Duct Irradiated in FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    O. Anderoglu; J. Van den Bosch; B. H. Sencer; E. Stergar; D. Bhattacharya; P. Dickerson; M. Hartl; S.A. Maloy; P. Hosemann

    2012-11-01

    A fuel test assembly known as ACO-3 duct made out of a fully tempered ferritic/martensitic steel (HT-9) was previously irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Reactor Facility (FFTF) up to 155 dpa at a temperature range of 380-504°C. The microstructures of the samples from 5 different zones along the face of the duct were analyzed using a combination of TEM based techniques, SANS and APT. A high density of Cr rich a' precipitates together with moderate density G-phase precipitates with an average sizes of 5 and 11 nm respectively were found at 20 dpa, 380°C zone. It was found that the precipitations of the second phases are more sensitive to temperature then the dose. In general, the density of both precipitates decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. No significant change is observed in average size of a' while the average size of G-phase precipitates increases up to 27 nm at 440°C. Voids are seen at 100 (410°C) and 155 (440°C) dpa zones but none was detected at 96 dpa (466°C) zone. In contrast to what is reported in the literature, no laves or Chi phases were found in any of the zones.

  11. Autoradiographic Evaluation of [(18)F]FECUMI-101, a High Affinity 5-HT1AR Ligand in Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J S Dileep; Underwood, Mark D; Simpson, Norman R; Kassir, Suham A; Prabhakaran, Jaya; Majo, Vattoly J; Bakalian, Mihran J; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John; Arango, Victoria

    2016-05-12

    [(18)F]FECUMI-101 ([(18)F]1) is a 5HT1AR ligand demonstrating specific binding in brain regions corresponding to the distribution of 5-HT1AR in baboons. However, we detected moderate uptake of [(18)F]1 in baboon thalamus, a brain region lacking 5-HT1AR. We sought to investigate the relative binding of [(18)F]1 to 5-HT1AR, α1R, and 5-HT7R in vitro. Using autoradiography in human brain sections, specific binding of [(18)F]1 to 5-HT1AR was confirmed. However, [(18)F]1 also showed 26% binding to α1R in PFC. The hippocampal formation exhibited 51% and 92% binding of [(18)F]1 to α1R and 5-HT1AR, respectively. Thalamus and cerebellum showed very little binding. There is no measurable specific binding of [(18)F]1 to 5-HT7R and no effect of temperature on [(18)F]1 specific binding to 5-HT1AR or α1R. These results indicate that, while [(18)F]FECUMI-101 is not a completely selective 5-HT1AR ligand for receptor quantification, it may be useful for occupancy measurements of drugs acting at 5-HT1AR in vivo. PMID:27190597

  12. Identification of spinal 5-HT sub 3 receptors and their role in the modulation of nociceptive responses in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Glaum, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The project consisted of two related studies: (1) the characterization of serotonin binding sites in crude and purified synaptic membranes prepared from the rat spinal cord, and (2) the association of serotonin binding sites with functional 5-HT receptor responses in the modulation of nociceptive information at the level of the spinal cord. The first series of experiments involved the preparation of membranes from the dorsal and ventral halves of the rat spinal cord and the demonstration of specific ({sup 3}H)serotonin binding to these membranes. High affinity binding sites which conformed to the 5-HT{sub 3} subtype were identified in dorsal, but not ventral spinal cord synaptic membranes. These experiments also confirmed the presence of high affinity ({sup 3}H)5-HT binding sites in dorsal spinal cord synaptic membranes of the 5-HT{sub 1} subtype. The second group of studies demonstrated the ability of selective 5-HT{sub 3} antagonists to inhibit the antinociceptive response to intrathecally administered 5-HT, as measured by a change in tail flick and hot plate latencies. Intrathecal pretreatment with the selective 5-HT{sub 3} antagonists ICS 205-930 or MDL 72222 abolished the antinociceptive effects of 5-HT. Furthermore, the selective 5-HT{sub 3} agonist 2-methyl-5-HT mimicked the antinociceptive effects of 5-HT.

  13. Application of an Integrated GPCR SAR-Modeling Platform To Explain the Activation Selectivity of Human 5-HT2C over 5-HT2B.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Alexander; Storer, R Ian; McMurray, Gordon; James, Tim; Morao, Inaki; Aldeghi, Matteo; Bodkin, Mike J; Biggin, Philip C

    2016-05-20

    Agonism of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor has been associated with the treatment of a number of diseases including obesity, psychiatric disorders, sexual health, and urology. However, the development of effective 5-HT2C agonists has been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining selectivity over the closely related 5-HT2B receptor, agonism of which is associated with irreversible cardiac valvulopathy. Understanding how to design selective agonists requires exploration of the structural features governing the functional uniqueness of the target receptor relative to related off targets. X-ray crystallography, the major experimental source of structural information, is a slow and challenging process for integral membrane proteins, and so is currently not feasible for every GPCR or GPCR-ligand complex. Therefore, the integration of existing ligand SAR data with GPCR modeling can be a practical alternative to provide this essential structural insight. To demonstrate this, we integrated SAR data from 39 azepine series 5-HT2C agonists, comprising both selective and unselective examples, with our hierarchical GPCR modeling protocol (HGMP). Through this work we have been able to demonstrate how relatively small differences in the amino acid sequences of GPCRs can lead to significant differences in secondary structure and function, as supported by experimental data. In particular, this study suggests that conformational differences in the tilt of TM7 between 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C, which result from differences in interhelical interactions, may be the major source of selectivity in G-protein activation between these two receptors. Our approach also demonstrates how the use of GPCR models in conjunction with SAR data can be used to explain activity cliffs. PMID:26900768

  14. Distinct effect of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the medial nucleus of the amygdala on tonic immobility behavior.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Bruna Balbino; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2016-07-15

    The tonic immobility (TI) response is an innate fear behavior associated with intensely dangerous situations, exhibited by many species of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In humans, it is possible that TI predicts the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. This behavioral response is initiated and sustained by the stimulation of various groups of neurons distributed in the telencephalon, diencephalon and brainstem. Previous research has found the highest Fos-IR in the posteroventral part of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MEA) during TI behavior; however, the neurotransmission of this amygdaloid region involved in the modulation of this innate fear behavior still needs to be clarified. Considering that a major drug class used for the treatment of psychopathology is based on serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, we investigated the effects of serotonergic receptor activation in the MEA on the duration of TI. The results indicate that the activation of the 5HT1A receptors or the blocking of the 5HT2 receptors of the MEA can promote a reduction in fear and/or anxiety, consequently decreasing TI duration in guinea pigs. In contrast, blocking the 5HT1A receptors or activating the 5HT2 receptors in this amygdalar region increased the TI duration, suggesting an increase in fear and/or anxiety. These alterations do not appear to be due to a modification of spontaneous motor activity, which might non-specifically affect TI duration. Thus, these results suggest a distinct role of the 5HT receptors in the MEA in innate fear modulation. PMID:27150816

  15. Polarised interleukin 8 secretion by HT 29/19A cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, K M; Jansen, J; Bijlsma, P B; Ceska, M; Tytgat, G N; Laboisse, C L; van Deventer, S J

    1994-01-01

    Interleukin 8 is a neutrophil chemotactic and stimulating cytokine induced by various inflammatory stimuli, including tumour necrosis factor, interleukin 1, and endotoxin. The ability of HT 29/19A enterocytes to synthesise interleukin 8 was studied. The results show that interleukin 1 is an important stimulus for interleukin 8 synthesis and secretion by HT 29/19A cells, being more potent than tumour necrosis factor. The tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1 induced interleukin 8 secretion by HT 29/19A cells was seen to be polarised according to the direction of stimulation. These results support the concept that mucosal cells (enterocytes) may play an important part in initiating mucosal inflammation. Furthermore, it is proposed that HT 29/19A cells constitute a tool to study stimulus directed polarised cytokine secretion. Images Figure 3 PMID:8150343

  16. Functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at the 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B; Wetzel, C H; Pestel, E; Zieglgänsberger, W; Holsboer, F; Rupprecht, R

    1996-08-23

    The atypical neuroleptic clozapine is thought to exert its psychopharmacological actions through a variety of neurotransmitter receptors. It binds preferentially to D4 and 5-HT2 receptors; however, little is known on it's interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor. Using a cell line stably expressing the 5-HT3 receptor, whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis revealed functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at low nanomolar concentrations in view of a binding affinity in the upper nanomolar range. Because the concentration of clozapine required for an interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor can be achieved with therapeutical doses, functional antagonistic properties at this ligand-gated ion channel may contribute to its unique psychopharmacological profile. PMID:8780717

  17. Serotonin 5-ht2c receptor agonists: potential for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Keith J

    2005-10-01

    Obesity continues to be a burgeoning health problem worldwide. Before their removal from the market, fenfluramine and the more active enantiomer dexfenfluramine were considered to be among the most effective of weight loss agents. Much of the weight loss produced by fenfluramine was attributed to the direct activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptors in the central nervous system via the desmethyl-metabolite of fenfluramine, norfenfluramine. Norfenfluramine, however, is non-selective, activating additional serotonin receptors, such as 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B), which likely mediated the heart valve hypertrophy seen in many patients. Development of highly selective 5-HT(2C) agonists may recapitulate the clinical anti-obesity properties observed with fenfluramine while avoiding the significant cardiovascular and pulmonary side effects. PMID:16249524

  18. Regulation of the amyloid precursor protein ectodomain shedding by the 5-HT4 receptor and Epac.

    PubMed

    Robert, Sylvain; Maillet, Marjorie; Morel, Eric; Launay, Jean-Marie; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Mercken, Luc; Lezoualc'h, Frank

    2005-02-14

    The serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT4) receptor is of potential interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease because it increases memory and learning. In this study, we investigated the effect of zinc metalloprotease inhibitors on the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing induced by the serotonin 5-HT4 receptor in vitro. We show that secretion of the non-amyloidogenic form of APP, sAPPalpha induced by the 5-HT4(e) receptor isoform was not due to a general boost of the constitutive secretory pathway but rather to its specific effect on alpha-secretase activity. Although the h5-HT4(e) receptor increased IP3 production, inhibition of PKC did not modify its effect on sAPPalpha secretion. In addition, we found that alpha secretase activity is regulated by the cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Epac and the small GTPase Rac. PMID:15710402

  19. Au-Sn SLID Bonding: A Reliable HT Interconnect and Die Attach Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollefsen, Torleif André; Larsson, Andreas; Taklo, Maaike Margrete Visser; Neels, Antonia; Maeder, Xavier; Høydalsvik, Kristin; Breiby, Dag W.; Aasmundtveit, Knut

    2013-04-01

    Au-Sn solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding is an established reliable high temperature (HT) die attach and interconnect technology. This article presents the life cycle of an optimized HT Au-Sn SLID bond, from fabrication, via thermal treatment, to mechanical rupture. The layered structure of a strong and uniform virgin bond was identified by X-ray diffraction to be Au/ζ (Au0.85Sn0.15)/Au. During HT exposure, it was transformed to Au/β (Au1.8Sn0.2)/Au. After HT exposure, the die shear strength was reduced by 50 pct, from 14 Pa to 70 MPa, which is still remarkably high. Fractographic studies revealed a change in fracture mode; it was changed from a combination of adhesive Au/Ni and cohesive SiC fracture to a cohesive β-phase fracture. Design rules for high quality Au-Sn SLID bonds are given.

  20. Phloroglucinol induces apoptosis via apoptotic signaling pathways in HT-29 colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    KANG, MI-HYE; KIM, IN-HYE; NAM, TAEK-JEO NG

    2014-01-01

    Phloroglucinol is a polyphenolic compound that is used to treat and prevent several human diseases, as it exerts beneficial biological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of phloroglucinol on apoptotic signaling pathways in HT-29 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that phloroglucinol suppressed cell viability and induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Phloroglucinol treatment of HT-29 cells resulted in characteristic apoptosis-related changes: altered Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. This study also showed that proteins involved in apoptosis were stimulated by treatment with phloroglucinol. These findings demonstrated that phloroglucinol exerts anticancer activity in HT-29 colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. PMID:25070748

  1. 5-HT7 receptor modulates GABAergic transmission in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus and controls cortical release of serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Kusek, Magdalena; Sowa, Joanna; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Hess, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the several serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes that are expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Some earlier findings suggested that 5-HT7 receptors in the DRN were localized on GABAergic interneurons modulating the activity of 5-HT projection neurons. The aim of the present study was to find out how the 5-HT7 receptor modulates the GABAergic synaptic input to putative 5-HT DRN neurons, and whether blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor would affect the release of 5-HT in the target structure. Male Wistar rats with microdialysis probes implanted in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) received injections of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (2R)-1-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-[2-(4-methyl-1-piperidinyl)ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride (SB 269970), which induced an increase in the levels of 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the PFC. In another set of experiments whole-cell recordings from presumed projection neurons were carried out using DRN slices. SB 269970 application resulted in depolarization and in an increase in the firing frequency of the cells. In order to activate 5-HT7 receptors, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) was applied in the presence of N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635). Hyperpolarization of cells and a decrease in the firing frequency were observed after activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. Blockade of 5-HT7 receptors caused a decrease in the mean frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs), while its activation induced an increase. The mechanism of these effects appears to involve tonically-active 5-HT7 receptors modulating firing and/or GABA release from inhibitory interneurons which regulate the activity of DRN serotonergic projection neurons. PMID:26347612

  2. Identification of ginsenoside interaction sites in 5-HT3A receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Sang-Mok; Jeong, Sang Min; Yoon, In-Soo; Lee, Joon-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hye; Pyo, Mi Kyung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Byoung-Cheol; Park, Chul-Seung; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2007-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg(3) (Rg(3)), one of the active components of Panax ginseng, non-competitively inhibits 5-HT(3A) receptor channel activity on extracellular side of the cell. Here, we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying Rg(3)-induced 5-HT(3A) receptor regulation. We used the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique to investigate the effect of Rg(3) on 5-HT-mediated ion currents (I(5-HT)) in Xenopus oocytes expressing wild-type or 5-HT(3A) receptors harboring mutations in the gating pore region of transmembrane domain 2 (TM2). In oocytes expressing wild-type 5-HT(3A) receptors, Rg(3) dose-dependently inhibited peak I(5-HT) with an IC(50) of 27.6+/-4.3microM. Mutations V291A, F292A, and I295A in TM2 greatly attenuated or abolished the Rg(3)-induced inhibition of peak I(5-HT). Mutation V291A but not F292A and I295A induced constitutively active ion currents with decrease of current decay rate. Rg(3) accelerated the rate of current decay with dose-dependent manner in the presence of 5-HT. Rg(3) and TMB-8, an open channel blocker, dose-dependently inhibited constitutively active ion currents. The IC(50) values of constitutively active ion currents in V291A mutant receptor were 72.4+/-23.1 and 6.5+/-0.7microM for Rg(3) and TMB-8, respectively. Diltiazem did not prevent Rg(3)-induced inhibition of constitutively active ion currents in occlusion experiments. These results indicate that Rg(3) inhibits 5-HT(3A) receptor channel activity through interactions with residues V291, F292, and I295 in the channel gating region of TM2 and further demonstrate that Rg(3) regulates 5-HT(3A) receptor channel activity in the open state at different site(s) from those of TMB-8 and diltiazem. PMID:17257631

  3. Memory formation, amnesia, improved memory and reversed amnesia: 5-HT role.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, G; Meneses, A

    2008-12-16

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been focused on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and neuroimaging. A complementary alternative has become the use of autoradiography with radioligands, aiming to identify neurobiological markers associated with memory formation, amnesia states and (more recently) recovery from memory deficits. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage of detecting functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools during memory formation, amnesia states and memory recovery. Moreover, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems have become a pharmacological and genetic target in the treatment of memory disorders. Herein evidence from studies involving expression of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(4), and 5-HT(6) receptors in memory formation, amnesia conditions (e.g., pharmacological models or aging) and recovery of memory is reviewed. Thus, specific 5-HT receptors were expressed in trained animals relative to untrained in brain areas such as cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. However, relative to the control group, rats showing amnesia or recovered memory, showed in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, a complex pattern of 5-HT receptor expression. An intermediate expression occurred in amygdala, septum and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. Even in brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such as basal ganglia, animals showing recovered memory displayed an intermediate expression, while amnesic groups, depending on the pharmacological amnesia model, showed up- or down-regulation. In conclusion, evidence indicates that autoradiography, by using specific radioligands, offers excellent opportunities to map dynamic changes in brain areas engaged in these cognitive processes. The 5-HT modulatory role strengthens or suppresses memory is critically depend on the timing of the memory formation. PMID:18221797

  4. The function of 5-HT3 receptors on colonic transit in rats.

    PubMed

    Haga, K; Asano, K; Fukuda, T; Kobayakawa, T

    1995-12-01

    The function of serotonin (5-HT)3 receptors on colonic transit was investigated in unanesthetized rats. The colonic transit was accelerated by 5-HT (10 mg/kg, s.c.), 2-methyl-5-HT (30 mg/kg, s.c.), neostigmine (0.03-0.1 mg/kg, s.c.), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF; 1 microgram intracerebroventricular administration) and restraint stress (for 45 minutes). A potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, azasetron (+/-)-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-6-chloro- 4-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-8-carboxamide monohydrochloride ; 0.01-10 mg/kg, p.o. inhibited the 5-HT-, CRF- and stress-accelerated colonic transit in a dose-dependent manner. Ondansetron (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and granisetron (1 mg/kg, p.o) also inhibited the stress-accelerated colonic transit, but azasetron was more effective than these two drugs. Atropine methylbromide (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) and tetrodotoxin (0.01 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited the accelerated colonic transit under stress conditions, but methysergide (10 mg/kg, s.c.), SDZ205-557 (10 mg/kg, s.c.), domperidone (30 mg/kg, p.o.), trimebutine (300 mg/kg, p.o.), did not. Azasetron (10 micrograms) administered intracerebroventricularly did not inhibit the stress-induced acceleration. These results suggest that endogenous 5-HT which is released through stress accelerates the colonic transit via the 5-HT3 receptors and finally a cholinergic mechanism. It is considered that azasetron inhibits colonic transit particularly under stress conditions through the blockade of the peripheral 5-HT3 receptors. Azasetron may improve bowel function in stress-related colonic dysfunction like irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:8653566

  5. 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonists: Potential Efficacy for the Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Natasja M W J; Kruse, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine6 receptor (5-HT6R) antagonists have shown efficacy in animal models for cognitive impairment in multiple cognitive domains relevant for schizophrenia. Improvements were found with 5-HT6R antagonists in preclinical tests for episodic memory, social cognition, executive function, working memory and several other tests for both learning and memory. In contrast, there is little evidence for efficacy on attention. It will be interesting to further investigate 5-HT6R antagonists in neurodevelopmental animal models which are based on prenatal exposure to specific environmental insults, and are characterized by a high level of face, construct and predictive validity for cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia. It is also important to do more add-on preclinical studies of 5-HT6 antagonists with antipsychotics. Possible mechanisms of action to improve cognition have been described. 5-HT6R antagonists decrease GABA release and GABAergic interneuron excitability, which subsequently disinhibits glutamate and/or acetylcholine release and results in enhancement of synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, cognition could be improved by 5-HT6R antagonists, because these compounds increase the number of NCAM PSA-immunoreactive neurons in the dendate gyrus, inhibit mTOR and Fyn-tyrosine kinase and interact with DARPP-32. Interestingly, there is increasing preclinical evidence that could support additional benefits of 5-HT6R ligandson comorbid conditions in schizophrenia such as drug abuse, depression, anxiety, obesity andantipsychotic-induced EPS. Finally, we briefly give an overview of the 5-HT6R compounds that are currently in clinical development for the treatment of cognitive impairment in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26044973

  6. 5-HT3 receptors as important mediators of nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. The first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been very effective in the control of chemotherapy induced emesis in the first 24 h postchemotherapy (acute emesis), but have not been as effective against delayed emesis (24-120 h postchemotherapy). Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, a different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Despite the control of emesis, nausea has not been well controlled by current agents. Olanzapine, a FDA approved antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters: dopamine at D1, D2, D3, D4 brain receptors, serotonin at 5-HT2a, 5-HT2c, 5-HT3, 5-HT6 receptors, catecholamines at alpha1 adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and histamine at H1 receptors, has emerged in recent trials as an effective preventative agent for chemotherapy-induced emesis and nausea, as well as a very effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough emesis and nausea. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25838122

  7. Anxiolytic effects of prelimbic 5-HT(1A) receptor activation in the hemiparkinsonian rat.

    PubMed

    Hui, Yan Ping; Wang, Tao; Han, Ling Na; Li, Li Bo; Sun, Yi Na; Liu, Jian; Qiao, Hong Fei; Zhang, Qiao Jun

    2015-01-15

    This study sought to assess whether unilateral lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) using 6-hydroxydopamine in rats are able to induce anxiety-like behaviors, the role of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors of the prelimbic (PrL) sub-region of ventral medial prefrontal cortex in the regulation of these behaviors, the density of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and co-localization of 5-HT1A receptor and neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1-immunoreactive (EAAC1-ir) cells in the PrL. Unilaterally lesioning the MFB induced anxiety-like behaviors as measured by the open-field and elevated plus maze tests when compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-PrL injection of 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (50, 100, and 500 ng/rat) decreased the percentage of time spent in the center of the open-field and percentages of open arm entries and open arm time in sham-operated rats, indicating the induction of anxiogenic responses, and administration of 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (60, 120, and 240 ng/rat) showed anxiolytic effects. However, 8-OH-DPAT, at the same doses, increased the percentage of time spent in the center of the open-field and percentages of open arm entries and open arm time in the lesioned rats, indicating the induction of anxiolytic effects, and WAY-100635 produced anxiogenic responses. Unilateral MFB lesion decreased the density of 5-HT neurons in the DRN, and percentage of EAAC1-ir cells expressing 5-HT1A receptors in the PrL. These results suggest that unilateral lesions of the MFB in rats may induce anxiety-like behaviors, and activation of 5-HT1A receptors in the PrL has anxiolytic effects in the rat model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24906197

  8. The 5-HT and alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist effect of four benzylisoquinoline alkaloids on rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Catret, M; Ivorra, M D; D'Ocón, M P; Anselmi, E

    1998-03-01

    The action of four benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (two aporphines-glaucine and apomorphine, a benzylisoquinoline-papaverine and a bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline-antioquine) on 5-HT-induced contraction in rat thoracic aorta has been examined and compared with that of the control drugs: ketanserin, nifedipine, prazosin and phentolamine. The relaxant action on 5-HT-induced contraction was contrasted with that on the contraction induced by noradrenaline and KCl. The results obtained with control drugs show that ketanserin has clear selectivity for 5-HT receptors, whereas prazosin and phentolamine have high selectivity for the alpha1-adrenoceptor and nifedipine seems to have a more potent effect on KCl-induced contraction than on that induced by 5-HT or noradrenaline. The contraction evoked by 5-HT (10 microM) was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by all the alkaloids. The order of potency was: papaverine = glaucine > apomorphine > antioquine. Papaverine had a non-specific relaxant action on 5-HT-, noradrenaline- and KCl-induced contraction, antioquine had a weak relaxant action on the agonist assays, and glaucine and apomorphine inhibited noradrenaline- and 5-HT-induced contraction more potently than they inhibited the K+-depolarized response. These results indicate that the aporphines assayed, S-glaucine and R-aporphine, had selective action against agonist (noradrenaline or 5-HT)-induced contraction rather than against KCl-depolarization of rat aorta. In contrast papaverine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, relaxes all agents used non-selectively as could be expected from the lack of specificity that characterizes this alkaloid. PMID:9600725

  9. High yield and efficient expression and purification of the human 5-HT3A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhong-shan; Cui, Zhi-cheng; Cheng, Hao; Fan, Chen; Melcher, Karsten; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Cheng-hai; Jiang, Hua-liang; Cong, Yao; Liu, Qian; Xu, H Eric

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To establish a method for efficient expression and purification of the human serotonin type 3A receptor (5-HT3A) that is suitable for structural studies. Methods: Codon-optimized cDNA of human 5-HT3A was inserted into a modified BacMam vector, which contained an IgG leader sequence, an 8×His tag linked with two-Maltose Binding Proteins (MBP), and a TEV protease cleavage site. The BacMam construct was used to generate baculoviruses for expression of 5-HT3A in HEK293F cells. The proteins were solubilized from the membrane with the detergent C12E 9, and purified using MBP affinity chromatography. The affinity tag was removed by TEV protease treatment and immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. The receptors were further purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Western blot and SDS-PAGE were used to detect 5-HT3A during purification. The purified receptor was used in crystallization and analyzed with negative stain electron microscopy (EM). Results: The BacMam system yielded 0.5 milligram of the human 5-HT3A receptor per liter of cells. MBP affinity purification resulted in good yields with high purity and homogeneity. SEC profiles indicated that the purified receptors were pentameric. No protein crystals were obtained; however, a reconstructed 3D density map generated from the negative stain EM data fitted well with the mouse 5-HT3A structure. Conclusion: With the BacMam system, robust expression of the human 5-HT3A receptor is obtained, which is monodisperse, therefore enabling 3D reconstruction of an EM map. This method is suitable for high-throughput screening of different constructs, thus facilitating structural and biochemical studies of the 5-HT3A receptor. PMID:26073329

  10. PET imaging of the serotonin transporter and 5HT1A receptor in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diana; Slifstein, Mark; Gil, Roberto; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Huang, Yiyun; Perez, Audrey; Frankle, W. Gordon; Laruelle, Marc; Krystal, John; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2009-01-01

    Background Rodent models as well as studies in humans have suggested alterations in serotonin (5HT) innervation and transmission in early onset genetically determined or type II alcoholism. This study examines two indices of serotonergic transmission, 5HT transporter levels and 5-HT1A availability, in vivo, in type II alcoholism. This is the first report of combined tracers for pre and post-synaptic serotonergic transmission in the same alcoholic subjects and the first study of 5HT1A receptors in alcoholism. Method Fourteen alcohol dependent subjects were scanned (11 with both tracers, 1 with [11C]DASB only and two with [11C]WAY100635 only). Twelve healthy controls (HC) subjects were scanned with [11C]DASB and another 13 were scanned with [11C]WAY100635. Binding Potential (BPp, mL/cm3) and the specific to nonspecific partition coefficient (BPND, unitless) were derived for both tracers using 2 tissue compartment model and compared to HC across different brain regions. Relationships to severity of alcoholism were assessed. Results No significant differences were observed in regional BPp or BPND between patients and controls in any of the regions examined. No significant relationships were observed between regional 5HT transporter availability, 5-HT1A availability, and disease severity with the exception of a significant negative correlation between SERT and years of dependence in amygdala and insula. Conclusion This study did not find alterations in measures of 5-HT1A or 5HT transporter levels in patients with type II alcoholism. PMID:18962444

  11. Function and Distribution of 5-HT2 Receptors in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Thamm, Markus; Rolke, Daniel; Jordan, Nadine; Balfanz, Sabine; Schiffer, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating and modulating physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), serotonin has been implicated in division of labor, visual processing, and learning processes. Here, we present the cloning, heterologous expression, and detailed functional and pharmacological characterization of two honeybee 5-HT2 receptors. Methods Honeybee 5-HT2 receptor cDNAs were amplified from brain cDNA. Recombinant cell lines were established constitutively expressing receptor variants. Pharmacological properties of the receptors were investigated by Ca2+ imaging experiments. Quantitative PCR was applied to explore the expression patterns of receptor mRNAs. Results The honeybee 5-HT2 receptor class consists of two subtypes, Am5-HT2α and Am5-HT2β. Each receptor gene also gives rise to alternatively spliced mRNAs that possibly code for truncated receptors. Only activation of the full-length receptors with serotonin caused an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The effect was mimicked by the agonists 5-methoxytryptamine and 8-OH-DPAT at low micromolar concentrations. Receptor activities were blocked by established 5-HT receptor antagonists such as clozapine, methiothepin, or mianserin. High transcript numbers were detected in exocrine glands suggesting that 5-HT2 receptors participate in secretory processes in the honeybee. Conclusions This study marks the first molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the same insect species. The results presented should facilitate further attempts to unravel central and peripheral effects of serotonin mediated by these receptors. PMID:24324783

  12. Selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists: Design and synthesis of pyridazine-fused azepines.

    PubMed

    Green, Martin P; McMurray, Gordon; Storer, R Ian

    2016-08-15

    Heterocycle-fused azepines are discussed as potent 5-HT2C receptor agonists with excellent selectivity over 5-HT2B agonism. Synthesis and structure activity relationships are outlined for a series of bicyclic pyridazino[3,4-d]azepines. By comparison with earlier published work, in vitro assays predict a high probability for achieving CNS penetration for a potent and selective compound 15a, a pre-requisite to achieve in vivo efficacy. PMID:27381086

  13. Impaired Social Behavior in 5-HT3A Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smit-Rigter, Laura A.; Wadman, Wytse J.; van Hooft, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed on interneurons throughout the brain. So far, analysis of the 5-HT3A knockout mouse revealed changes in nociceptive processing and a reduction in anxiety related behavior. Recently, it was shown that the 5-HT3 receptor is also expressed on Cajal-Retzius cells which play a key role in cortical development and that knockout mice lacking this receptor showed aberrant growth of the dendritic tree of cortical layer II/III pyramidal neurons. Other mouse models in which serotonergic signaling was disrupted during development showed similar morphological changes in the cortex, and in addition, also deficits in social behavior. Here, we subjected male and female 5-HT3A knockout mice and their non-transgenic littermates to several tests of social behavior. We found that 5-HT3A knockout mice display impaired social communication in the social transmission of food preference task. Interestingly, we showed that in the social interaction test only female 5-HT3A knockout mice spent less time in reciprocal social interaction starting after 5 min of testing. Moreover, we observed differences in preference for social novelty for male and female 5-HT3A knockout mice during the social approach test. However, no changes in olfaction, exploratory activity and anxiety were detected. These results indicate that the 5-HT3A knockout mouse displays impaired social behavior with specific changes in males and females, reminiscent to other mouse models in which serotonergic signaling is disturbed in the developing brain. PMID:21103015

  14. The Havemann-Taylor Fast Radiative Transfer Code (HT-FRTC) and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Jean-Claude; Havemann, Stephan; Lewis, Warren

    2015-09-01

    The Havemann-Taylor Fast Radiative Transfer Code (HT-FRTC) is a component of the Met Office NEON Tactical Decision Aid (TDA). Within NEON, the HT-FRTC has for a number of years been used to predict the IR apparent thermal contrasts between different surface types as observed by an airborne sensor. To achieve this, the HT-FRTC is supplied with the inherent temperatures and spectral properties of these surfaces (i.e. ground target(s) and background). A key strength of the HT-FRTC is its ability to take into account the detailed properties of the atmosphere, which in the context of NEON tend to be provided by a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecast model. While water vapour and ozone are generally the most important gases, additional trace gases are now being incorporated into the HT-FRTC. The HT-FRTC also includes an exact treatment of atmospheric scattering based on spherical harmonics. This allows the treatment of several different aerosol species and of liquid and ice clouds. Recent developments can even account for rain and falling snow. The HT-FRTC works in Principal Component (PC) space and is trained on a wide variety of atmospheric and surface conditions, which significantly reduces the computational requirements regarding memory and time. One clear-sky simulation takes approximately one millisecond. Recent developments allow the training to be completely general and sensor independent. This is significant as the user of the code can add new sensors and new surfaces/targets by simply supplying extra files which contain their (possibly classified) spectral properties. The HT-FRTC has been extended to cover the spectral range of Photopic and NVG sensors. One aim here is to give guidance on the expected, directionally resolved sky brightness, especially at night, again taking the actual or forecast atmospheric conditions into account. Recent developments include light level predictions during the period of twilight.

  15. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors as targets for agents to treat psychiatric disorders: rationale and current status of research.

    PubMed

    Celada, Pau; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2013-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders represent a large economic burden in modern societies. However, pharmacological treatments are still far from optimal. Drugs used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (selective serotonin [5-HT] reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) are pharmacological refinements of first-generation tricyclic drugs, discovered by serendipity, and show low efficacy and slowness of onset. Moreover, antipsychotic drugs are partly effective in positive symptoms of schizophrenia, yet they poorly treat negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The present article reviews the neurobiological basis of 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) function and the role of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs in the treatment of MDD, anxiety and psychotic disorders. The activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs in corticolimbic areas appears beneficial for the therapeutic action of antidepressant drugs. However, presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs play a detrimental role in MDD, since individuals with high density or function of presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs are more susceptible to mood disorders and suicide, and respond poorly to antidepressant drugs. Moreover, the indirect activation of presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs by SSRIs/SNRIs reduces 5-HT neuron activity and terminal 5-HT release, thus opposing the elevation of extracellular 5-HT produced by blockade of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the forebrain. Chronic antidepressant treatment desensitizes presynaptic 5-HT1A-Rs, thus reducing the effectiveness of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated negative feedback. The prevention of this process by the non-selective partial agonist pindolol accelerates clinical antidepressant effects. Two new antidepressant drugs, vilazodone (marketed in the USA) and vortioxetine (in development) incorporate partial 5-HT1A-R agonist properties with SERT blockade. Several studies with transgenic mice have also established the respective role of pre- and

  16. Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-01-01

    The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies. PMID:17553555

  17. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Wiebke; Schymura, Yves; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Luitel, Himal; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Weissmann, Norbert; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg bid) or SB204741 (5 mg/kg day). Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Results. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF. PMID:25667920

  18. The 5-HT2A serotonin receptor in executive function: Implications for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Susana; Hervig, Mona El-Sayed

    2016-05-01

    Executive function entails the interplay of a group of cognitive processes enabling the individual to anticipate consequences, attain self-control, and undertake appropriate goal-directed behaviour. Serotonin signalling at serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT2AR) has important effects on these behavioural and cognitive pathways, with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as the central actor. Indeed, the 5-HT2ARs are highly expressed in PFC, where they modulate cortical activity and local network oscillations (brain waves). Numerous psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases result in disrupted executive function. Animal and human studies have linked these disorders with alterations in the 5-HT2AR system, making this an important pharmacological target for the treatment of disorders with impaired cognitive function. This review aims to describe the current state of knowledge on the role of 5-HT2AR signalling in components of executive function, and how 5-HT2AR systems may relate to executive dysfunctions occurring in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. We hope thereby to provide insight into how pharmacotherapy targeting the 5-HT2AR may ameliorate (or exacerbate) aspects of these disorders. PMID:26891819

  19. 5-HT1A autoreceptor levels determine vulnerability to stress and response to antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Richardson-Jones, Jesse W; Craige, Caryne P; Guiard, Bruno P; Stephen, Alisson; Metzger, Kayla L; Kung, Hank F; Gardier, Alain M; Dranovsky, Alex; David, Denis J; Beck, Sheryl G; Hen, René; Leonardo, E David

    2010-01-01

    Summary Most depressed patients don't respond to their first drug treatment, and the reasons for this treatment resistance remain enigmatic. Human studies implicate a polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor gene in increased susceptibility to depression and decreased treatment response. Here we develop a new strategy to manipulate 5-HT1A autoreceptors in raphe nuclei without affecting 5-HT1A heteroreceptors, generating mice with higher (1A-High) or lower (1A-Low) autoreceptor levels. We show that this robustly affects raphe firing rates, but has no effect on either basal forebrain serotonin levels or conflict-anxiety measures. However, compared to 1A-Low mice, 1A-High mice show a blunted physiological response to acute stress, increased behavioral despair, and no behavioral response to antidepressant, modeling patients with the 5-HT1A risk allele. Furthermore, reducing 5-HT1A autoreceptor levels prior to antidepressant treatment is sufficient to convert non-responders into responders. These results establish a causal relationship between 5-HT1A autoreceptor levels, resilience under stress, and response to antidepressants. PMID:20152112

  20. Optimising PET approaches to measuring 5-HT release in human brain.

    PubMed

    Tyacke, Robin J; Nutt, David J

    2015-10-01

    A major goal in neuroscience is the measurement of neurotransmitters in living human brain. To date this has only been done reliably with dopamine using certain PET and SPECT radiotracers. The use of this technique has greatly advanced our understanding of dopamine and the dopaminergic system in normal and abnormal brain function. Transferring this technology to other neurotransmitter systems has proved less fruitful. The serotonergic system (5-HT) is one such system. 5-HT has been implicated in a wide range of brain functions and their disorders. The ability to measure 5-HT using this technique would be invaluable. In this article, we explore the key pharmacological features of current radiotracers for 5-HT receptors that might be sensitive to endogenous 5-HT. We also estimate the likely brain concentrations of the current available tranche of agents that might be used to enhance synaptic 5-HT concentration, so taking into account the potential for these to interact with the receptors directly and produce a spurious displacement signal. PMID:26089243

  1. Radiometric calibration of G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer using GLAMR for satellite sensor intercalibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; McCorkel, Joel; Cook, Bruce; Corp, Lawrence A.; Thome, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal Imager (G-LiHT) facilitates simultaneous measurements beneficial to variety of applications. Of the suite of "off-the shelf" instruments of G-LiHT, the Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) Imaging Spectrometer acquires high resolution spectral measurements (1.5 nm resolution) from 0.4 to 1 μm. Goddard Space Flight Center's Laser for Absolute Measurement of Response (GLAMR) was used to measure the absolute spectral response (ASR) of the G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer. Continuously tunable lasers coupled to an integrating sphere allow a radiance-based calibration for the detectors at reflective solar wavelengths. GLAMR measurements, covering a wavelength range from 0.58 to 0.99 μm were acquired between July 30 to August 2, 2013. In order to account for the large field-of-view (50°), G-LiHT was rotated in 2 degree increments so that the same area of the sphere is viewed by all detectors. Using this data along with the coincident Silicon trap radiometer measurements, the ASR was computed. The derived calibration parameters for G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer are to be transferred to near-simultaneous measurements of Landsat sensors. Calibration uncertainty of G-LiHT is 1-3% depending spectral region and transferring this traceability to coincident satellite sensors has 3-5% depending on spectral region.

  2. Morphology Evolution of Molecular Weight Dependent P3HT: PCBM Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Dian; Briseno, Alejandro; Russell, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Effective strategies to maximize the performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic devices have to be developed and understood to realize their full potential. In BHJ solar cells, the morphology of the active layer is a critical issue to improve device efficiency. In this work, we choose poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) system to study the morphology evolution. Different molecular weight P3HTs were synthesized by using Grignard Metathesis (GRIM)~method. In device optimization, polymer with a molecular weight between 20k-30k shows the highest efficiency. It was observed that the as-spun P3HT: PCBM (1:1) blends do not have high order by GISAXS. Within a few seconds of thermal annealing at 150& circ; the crystallinity of P3HT increaased substantially and the polymer chains adopted an edge-on orientation. An-bicontinous morphology was also developed within this short thermal treatment. The in situ GISAXS experiment showed that P3HT of high molecular weight was more easily crystallized from a slowly evaporated chlorobenzene solution and their edge-on orientation is much more obvious than for the lower molecular weight P3HTs. DSC was used to study the thermal properties of P3HTs and P3HT: PCBM blend. The χ of P3HT-PCBM was also calculated by using melting point depression method.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of P3HT-Azide-PCBM Microgel.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guangmin; Li, Xinxin; Jia, Di; Cheng, He

    2016-06-01

    Spherical Poly(3-hexylthiophene)-azide-[6,61-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT-azide-PCBM) microgel was synthesized by introducing an azide cross-linkable group into the conjugated polymer. Its UV-vis spectrum shifts blue as a result of the systematic disruption of planarity along the P3HT backbone and a reduction in long range conjugation. And the corresponding fluorescence spectrum also indicates that a strong intra-molecular photo-induced electron transfer is originated from the covalent linkage of PCBM moiety to the P3HT backbone via the hexyl bridge upon photoexcitation. Combined Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), dynamic and static light scattering (DLS and SLS) measurements prove that the resultant P3HT-azide-PCBM copolymer is a uniform spherical microgel with a hydrodynamic radius of 130 nm at room temperature. The spherical P3HT-azide-PCBM microgel can be used as electron donor or compatibilizer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices, but its introduction reduces the photovoltaic performance compared with the blend of P3HT/PCBM, because the hole mobility in the crosslinked polythiophene backbones is largely decreased. PMID:27427609

  4. Enhanced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from vascular adrenergic nerves in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, H.; Urabe, M.; Takasaki, K.

    1986-03-01

    The release of 5-HT from vascular adrenergic nerves was compared between normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR. The mesenteric vascular bed isolated from WKY and SHR was perfused with Krebs solution at a constant flow rate of 5 ml/min. Periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) was delivered at 4 to 16 Hz for 30 sec. In the SHR preparation, the pressor response to PNS, previously decreased by prazonsin (50 nM), was greatly potentiated after treatment with 5-HT(1 ..mu..M) for 15 min and a frequency-dependent pressor response to PNS reappeared, whereas the 5-HT treatment did not alter the pressor response to exogenous norepinephrine (1 nmol) previously reduced by prazonsin. The potentiation of pressor response to PNS after 5-HT treatment was small in the WKY preparation. This potentiation in both WKY and SHR did not occur in the presence of ketanserin (10 nM). In the preparation labeled with (/sup 3/H)-5-HT, PNS (4-16 Hz) evoked a frequency-dependent increase of (/sup 3/H)-efflux, which was abolished by treatment with tetrodotoxin (100 nM) or 6-hydroxydopamine (50 mg/kg i.p. x 2) and in calcium-free Krebs solution. The PNS evoked-(/sup 3/H)-efflux was much greater in SHR than WKY. These results suggest that the release of 5-HT from vascular adrenergic nerves by PNS is enhanced in the SHR preparation.

  5. Elastic constants of Si from HtN Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Henry; Karimi, M.; Matolyak, J.; Kaplan, T.; Mostoller, M.

    1997-03-01

    A simple and efficient way of calculating the elastic constants (C_ij) of silicon as a function of temperature is still lacking. A method that has proven to be useful in the calculation of C_ij is EhN molecular dynamics (MD). EhN MD was successfully applied by Ray et al.(J. Ray, Comput. Phys. Rep. 8, 109 (1988).) to the Stillinger-Weber (SW) Si potential at three temperatures. However, the calculation of C_ij using EhN MD requires a knowledge of the second derivatives of the potential, which can be difficult to evaluate for some potential models. Another technique is HtN MD, where H is the enthalpy, t is the tension, and N is the number of particles, which has been applied with less success to Si by Ray et al.. The appeal of the HtN ensemble is that the strain fluctuations are related to the C_ij through a very simple relationship and that the second derivatives are not needed. A recent study of C_ij for a Lennard-Jones potential using HtN MC and HtN MD indicated a much faster covergence rate for HtN MC over its MD counterpart. We calculate C_ij for the SW Si potential using HtN MC with the same conditions as those used by Ray et al. in doing EhN MD and compare the convergence of the two methods.

  6. Heart rate within male crayfish: social interactions and effects of 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Listerman, L R; Deskins, J; Bradacs, H; Cooper, R L

    2000-02-01

    Behaviors, such as those that establish dominant and subordinate social status, are thought to be driven by various neuromodulators and hormones. In crustaceans, the level of serotonin (5-HT) in the hemolymph is correlated with degree of aggressiveness. The crustacean heart is neurogenic and is modulated by neural secretion of 5-HT in the hemolymph, which bathes the cardiac tissue. We discuss and present the results of measuring heart rate (HR) of crayfish during interactions, as an indication of their state of excitability. HR is the result of multiple influences: a cocktail of hormones and modulators. HR was monitored during the periods in which crayfish established aggressive and submissive social status, during sham injections, and following injections of various doses of 5-HT. Crayfish, during an interaction to establish social status, can increase HR. Both the aggressive and submissive crayfish can dampen their HR within seconds during a pause in the interaction, while still posturing in an aggressive or submissive state. Injections of 5-HT to obtain systemic levels of approximately 100 nM-10 microM increase HR substantially for hours. This suggests that aggressive interactions and the establishment of a dominant posture may not be related to large increases in the free concentrations of 5-HT within the circulating hemolymph, since a sustained HR is not observed in aggressive animals. Instead, the results may demonstrate that inhibitory cardiac regulation is present in the aggressors during interactions and that a regulator is possibly 5-HT. PMID:10825697

  7. Sensitivity of transformed (phasic to tonic) motor neurons to the neuromodulator 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Griffis, B; Bonner, P; Cooper, R L

    2000-12-01

    Long-term adaptation resulting in a 'tonic-like' state can be induced in phasic motor neurons of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, by daily low-frequency stimulation [Lnenicka, G.A., Atwood, H.L., 1985b. Long-term facilitation and long-term adaptation at synapses of a crayfish phasic motoneuron. J. Neurobiol. 16, 97-110]. To test the hypothesis that motor neurons undergoing adaptation show increased responses to the neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT), phasic motor neurons innervating the deep abdominal extensor muscles of crayfish were stimulated at 2.5 Hz, 2 h/day, for 7 days. One day after cessation of conditioning, contralateral control and conditioned motor neurons of the same segment were stimulated at 1 Hz and the induced excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded from DEL(1) muscle fibers innervated by each motor neuron type. Recordings were made in saline without and with 100 nM 5-HT. EPSP amplitudes were increased by 5-HT exposure in all cases. Conditioned muscles exposed to 5-HT showed a 2-fold higher percentage of increase in EPSP amplitude than did control muscles. Thus, the conditioned motor neurons behaved like intrinsically tonic motoneurons in their response to 5-HT. While these results show that long-term adaptation (LTA) extends to 5-HT neuromodulation, no phenotype switch could be detected in the postsynaptic muscle. Protein isoform profiles, including the myosin heavy chains, do not change after 1 week of conditioning their innervating motor neurons. PMID:11154946

  8. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  9. Effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine on the subcellular localization of 5-HT1A receptors and SERT

    PubMed Central

    Descarries, Laurent; Riad, Mustaph

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT1A autoreceptors (5-HT1AautoR) and the plasmalemmal 5-HT transporter (SERT) are key elements in the regulation of central 5-HT function and its responsiveness to antidepressant drugs. Previous immuno-electron microscopic studies in rats have demonstrated an internalization of 5-HT1AautoR upon acute administration of the selective agonist 8-OH-DPAT or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant fluoxetine. Interestingly, it was subsequently shown in cats as well as in humans that this internalization is detectable by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the 5-HT1A radioligand [18F]MPPF. Further immunocytochemical studies also revealed that, after chronic fluoxetine treatment, the 5-HT1AautoR, although present in normal density on the plasma membrane of 5-HT cell bodies and dendrites, do not internalize when challenged with 8-OH-DPAT. Resensitization requires several weeks after discontinuation of the chronic fluoxetine treatment. In contrast, the SERT internalizes in both the cell bodies and axon terminals of 5-HT neurons after chronic but not acute fluoxetine treatment. Moreover, the total amount of SERT immunoreactivity is then reduced, suggesting that SERT is not only internalized, but also degraded in the course of the treatment. Ongoing and future investigations prompted by these finding are briefly outlined by way of conclusion. PMID:22826342

  10. Photoinduced charge dissociation and transport at P3HT/ITO interfaces: studied by modulated surface spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujisamphan, Nopporn; Supasai, Thidarat; Dittrich, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Results of a temperature dependence study of photoinduced charge separation across P3HT nanocrystals at P3HT/ITO interfaces have been investigated by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy in a fixed capacitor arrangement. The SPV measurements were correlated with the crystalline sizes of P3HT nanocrystals determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The crystalline sizes of P3HT nanocrystals were varied systematically by progressive heating/cooling cycles identical for SPV and GIXRD measurements. Photovoltage signals, indication of photoinduced charge dissociation in space, at the P3HT/ITO interface were collected, and electrons were separated across the first monolayer of P3HT nanocrystals at the P3HT/ITO interface due to band bending. The activation energies for quenching of the in-phase and phase-shifted by 90° SPV signals were 0.7 and 0.6 eV, respectively. Thermal activation of the formation of P3HT nanocrystals was of the same order as the enthalpy of fusion of ideal crystals from regioregular P3HT. A schematic drawing of photoinduced charge separation at the P3HT/ITO is proposed.

  11. Target size analysis of serotonin 5-HT/sub 1/ and 5-HT/sub 2/ receptors in bovine brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, N.; Tanaka, C.

    1985-09-23

    Freeze-dried crude synaptic membranes prepared from bovine cerebral cortex and striatum were exposed to high energy gamma ray from the source of /sup 60/Co. The size of serotonin 5-HT/sub 1/ receptors labeled by (/sup 3/H)serotonin and that of 5-HT/sub 2/ receptors labeled by (/sup 3/H)spiperone or (/sup 3/H)ketanserin was determined by target size analyses. The values were 57,000 daltons, 145,000 daltons and 152,000 daltons for the cerebral cortex and 56,000 daltons, 141,000 daltons and 150,000 daltons for the striatum, respectively. The estimated sizes were deduced by reference to enzyme standards with known molecular masses and which were irradiated in parallel. These results demonstrate that the molecular entities in situ for 5-HT/sub 1/ receptors are distinct from those for 5-HT/sub 2/ receptors, thus supporting data on the existence of two distinct populations of serotonin receptors, hitherto evidenced physiopharmacologically.

  12. Expression of hippocampal serotonin receptors 5-HT2C and 5-HT5A in a rat model of diet-induced obesity supplemented with tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Esparza, Sarahi; Berumen, Laura C; Padilla, Karla; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2015-05-01

    Food intake regulation is a complex mechanism that involves endogenous substances and central nervous system structures like hypothalamus or even hippocampus. The neurotransmitter serotonin is distinguished as food intake mediator; within its multiples receptors, the 5-HT2C type is characterized by its inhibitory appetite action but there is no information about 5-HT5A receptors involvement in obesity disease. It is also unknown if there are any changes in the receptors expression in rats hippocampus with induced obesity during development through a high energy diet (HED) supplemented with tryptophan (W). To appreciate the receptors expression pattern in the hippocampus, obesity was induced to young Sprague Dawley rats through a HED and supplemented with W. Immunocytochemical and western blot techniques were used to study the receptor distribution and quantify the protein expression. The rats with HED diet developed obesity until week 13 of treatment. The 5-HT2C receptor expression decreased in CA1, CA2, CA3 and DG of HED group; and also in CA2, CA3 and DG for HEDW group. The 5-HT5A receptor expression only decreased in DG for HED group. Variations of the two serotonin receptors subtypes support their potential role in obesity. PMID:25720309

  13. Serotonin homeostasis and serotonin receptors as actors of cortical construction: special attention to the 5-HT3A and 5-HT6 receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Vitalis, Tania; Ansorge, Mark S.; Dayer, Alexandre G.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical circuits control higher-order cognitive processes and their function is highly dependent on their structure that emerges during development. The construction of cortical circuits involves the coordinated interplay between different types of cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neural and glial cell subtypes. Among the multiple factors that regulate the assembly of cortical circuits, 5-HT is an important developmental signal that impacts on a broad diversity of cellular processes. 5-HT is detected at the onset of embryonic telencephalic formation and a variety of serotonergic receptors are dynamically expressed in the embryonic developing cortex in a region and cell-type specific manner. Among these receptors, the ionotropic 5-HT3A receptor and the metabotropic 5-HT6 receptor have recently been identified as novel serotonergic targets regulating different aspects of cortical construction including neuronal migration and dendritic differentiation. In this review, we focus on the developmental impact of serotonergic systems on the construction of cortical circuits and discuss their potential role in programming risk for human psychiatric disorders. PMID:23801939

  14. Individual Differences in Impulsive Action Reflect Variation in the Cortical Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Latham HL; Anastasio, Noelle C; Fox, Robert G; Rice, Kenner C; Moeller, F Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, and individual variation in the degree of inherent impulsivity could play a role in the generation or exacerbation of problematic behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) actions at the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) promote and 5-HT2AR antagonists suppress impulsive action (the inability to withhold premature responses; motor impulsivity) upon systemic administration or microinfusion directly into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a node in the corticostriatal circuit that is thought to play a role in the regulation of impulsive action. We hypothesized that the functional capacity of the 5-HT2AR, which is governed by its expression, localization, and protein/protein interactions (eg, postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95)), may drive the predisposition to inherent impulsive action. Stable high-impulsive (HI) and low-impulsive (LI) phenotypes were identified from an outbred rodent population with the 1-choice serial reaction time (1-CSRT) task. HI rats exhibited a greater head-twitch response following administration of the preferential 5-HT2AR agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) and were more sensitive to the effects of the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907 to suppress impulsive action relative to LI rats. A positive correlation was observed between levels of premature responses and 5-HT2AR binding density in frontal cortex ([3H]-ketanserin radioligand binding). Elevated mPFC 5-HT2AR protein expression concomitant with augmented association of the 5-HT2AR with PSD95 differentiated HI from LI rats. The observed differential sensitivity of HI and LI rats to 5-HT2AR ligands and associated distinct 5-HT2AR protein profiles provide evidence that spontaneously occurring individual differences in impulsive action reflect variation in the cortical 5-HT2AR system. PMID:25666313

  15. Side effect profile of 5-HT treatments for Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lindenbach, D; Palumbo, N; Ostock, C Y; Vilceus, N; Conti, M M; Bishop, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) with L-DOPA eventually causes abnormal involuntary movements known as dyskinesias in most patients. Dyskinesia can be reduced using compounds that act as direct or indirect agonists of the 5-HT1A receptor, but these drugs have been reported to worsen PD features and are known to produce ‘5-HT syndrome’, symptoms of which include tremor, myoclonus, rigidity and hyper-reflexia. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Sprague-Dawley rats were given unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine lesions with 6-hydroxydopamine. Each of the following three purportedly anti-dyskinetic 5-HT compounds were administered 15 min before L-DOPA: the full 5-HT1A agonist ±-8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin (±8-OH-DPAT), the partial 5-HT1A agonist buspirone or the 5-HT transporter inhibitor citalopram. After these injections, animals were monitored for dyskinesia, 5-HT syndrome, motor activity and PD akinesia. KEY RESULTS Each 5-HT drug dose-dependently reduced dyskinesia by relatively equal amounts (±8-OH-DPAT ≥ citalopram ≥ buspirone), but 5-HT syndrome was higher with ±8-OH-DPAT, lower with buspirone and not present with citalopram. Importantly, with or without L-DOPA, all three compounds provided an additional improvement of PD akinesia. All drugs tempered the locomotor response to L-DOPA suggesting dyskinesia reduction, but vertical rearing was reduced with 5-HT drugs, potentially reflecting features of 5-HT syndrome. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The results suggest that compounds that indirectly facilitate 5-HT1A receptor activation, such as citalopram, may be more effective therapeutics than direct 5-HT1A receptor agonists because they exhibit similar anti-dyskinesia efficacy, while possessing a reduced side effect profile. PMID:25175895

  16. Individual Differences in Impulsive Action Reflect Variation in the Cortical Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor System.

    PubMed

    Fink, Latham H L; Anastasio, Noelle C; Fox, Robert G; Rice, Kenner C; Moeller, F Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-07-01

    Impulsivity is an important feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, and individual variation in the degree of inherent impulsivity could play a role in the generation or exacerbation of problematic behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) actions at the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) promote and 5-HT2AR antagonists suppress impulsive action (the inability to withhold premature responses; motor impulsivity) upon systemic administration or microinfusion directly into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a node in the corticostriatal circuit that is thought to play a role in the regulation of impulsive action. We hypothesized that the functional capacity of the 5-HT2AR, which is governed by its expression, localization, and protein/protein interactions (eg, postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95)), may drive the predisposition to inherent impulsive action. Stable high-impulsive (HI) and low-impulsive (LI) phenotypes were identified from an outbred rodent population with the 1-choice serial reaction time (1-CSRT) task. HI rats exhibited a greater head-twitch response following administration of the preferential 5-HT2AR agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) and were more sensitive to the effects of the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907 to suppress impulsive action relative to LI rats. A positive correlation was observed between levels of premature responses and 5-HT2AR binding density in frontal cortex ([(3)H]-ketanserin radioligand binding). Elevated mPFC 5-HT2AR protein expression concomitant with augmented association of the 5-HT2AR with PSD95 differentiated HI from LI rats. The observed differential sensitivity of HI and LI rats to 5-HT2AR ligands and associated distinct 5-HT2AR protein profiles provide evidence that spontaneously occurring individual differences in impulsive action reflect variation in the cortical 5-HT2AR system. PMID:25666313

  17. Mechanistic model for the acute effect of fluvoxamine on 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in rat frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Geldof, Marian; Freijer, Jan I; Peletier, Lambertus A; van Beijsterveldt, Ludy; Danhof, Meindert

    2008-03-01

    A mechanistic model is proposed to predict the time course of the concentrations of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in rat frontal cortex following acute administration of SSRIs. In the model, SSRIs increase synaptic 5-HT concentrations by reversible blockade of the SERT in a direct concentration-dependent manner, while the 5-HT response is attenuated by negative feedback via 5-HT autoreceptors. In principle, the model allows for the description of oscillatory patterns in the time course of 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in brain extracellular fluid. The model was applied in a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) investigation on the time course of the microdialysate 5-HT and 5-HIAA response in rat frontal cortex following a 30-min intravenous infusion of 3.7 and 7.3mg/kg fluvoxamine. Directly after administration of fluvoxamine, concentrations of 5-HT were increased to approximately 450-600% of baseline values while 5-HIAA concentrations were decreased. Thereafter 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations gradually returned to baseline values in 6-10h, respectively. The PK/PD analysis revealed that inhibition of 5-HT reuptake was directly related to the fluvoxamine concentration in plasma, with 50% inhibition of 5-HT reuptake occurring at a plasma concentration of 1.1ng/ml (EC50). The levels of 5-HT at which 50% of the inhibition of the 5-HT response was reached (IC50) amounted to 272% of baseline. The model was unable to capture the oscillatory patterns in the individual concentration time curves, which appeared to occur randomly. The proposed mechanistic model is the first step in modeling of complex neurotransmission processes. The model constitutes a useful basis for prediction of the time course of median 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in the frontal cortex in behavioral pharmacology studies in vivo. PMID:18207708

  18. Gaddum and LSD: the birth and growth of experimental and clinical neuropharmacology research on 5-HT in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Green, A R

    2008-01-01

    The vasoconstrictor substance named serotonin was identified as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) by Maurice Rapport in 1949. In 1951, Rapport gave Gaddum samples of 5-HT substance allowing him to develop a bioassay to both detect and measure the amine. Gaddum and colleagues rapidly identified 5-HT in brain and showed that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) antagonized its action in peripheral tissues. Gaddum accordingly postulated that 5-HT might have a role in mood regulation. This review examines the role of UK scientists in the first 20 years following these major discoveries, discussing their role in developing assays for 5-HT in the CNS, identifying the enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of 5-HT and investigating the effect of drugs on brain 5-HT. It reviews studies on the effects of LSD in humans, including Gaddum's self-administration experiments. It outlines investigations on the role of 5-HT in psychiatric disorders, including studies on the effect of antidepressant drugs on the 5-HT concentration in rodent and human brain, and the attempts to examine 5-HT biochemistry in the brains of patients with depressive illness. It is clear that a rather small group of both preclinical scientists and psychiatrists in the UK made major advances in our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the brain, paving the way for much of the knowledge now taken for granted when discussing ways that 5-HT might be involved in the control of mood and the idea that therapeutic drugs used to alleviate psychiatric illness might alter the function of cerebral 5-HT. PMID:18516072

  19. Presynaptic modulation of 5-HT release in the rat septal region.

    PubMed

    Rutz, S; Riegert, C; Rothmaier, A K; Jackisch, R

    2007-05-11

    5-HT released from serotonergic axon terminals in the septal nuclei modulates the activity of septal output neurons (e.g. septohippocampal cholinergic neurons) bearing somatodendritic 5-HT receptors. Therefore, we studied the mechanisms involved in the presynaptic modulation of 5-HT release in the lateral (LS) and medial septum (MS), and the diagonal band of Broca (DB). HPLC analysis showed that tissue concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-HT were highest in DB (DB>MS>LS). Slices prepared from LS, MS and DB regions were preincubated with [(3)H]5-HT, superfused in the presence of 6-nitro-2-(1-piperazinyl)-quinoline (6-nitroquipazine) and electrically stimulated up to three times (first electrical stimulation period (S(1)), S(2), S(3); 360 pulses, 3 Hz, 2 ms, 26-28 mA). In all septal regions the Ca(2+)-dependent and tetrodotoxin-sensitive electrically-evoked overflow of [(3)H] was inhibited by the 5-HT(1B) agonist CP-93,129 and the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline tartrate (UK-14,304). Also the mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists (d-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), glycinol(5))-enkephalin (DAMGO) and [trans-(1S,2S(-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl) cyclohexyl]-benzenacetamide hydro-chloride] (U-50,488H), respectively, acted inhibitory (although less potently), whereas the delta-opioid receptor agonist (d-Pen(2), d-Pen(5))-enkephalin (DPDPE), the dopamine D(2) receptor agonist quinpirole and the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine were all ineffective; the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen had weak effects. All inhibitory effects of the agonists were antagonized by the corresponding antagonists (3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-4-hydroxy-N-[4-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]benzamide dihydrochloride (GR-55,562), idazoxan, naloxone, nor-binaltorphimine), which also significantly enhanced the evoked release of 5-HT at S(1). It is concluded that 5-HT release in septal nuclei of the rat is modulated by

  20. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity. PMID:25446678

  1. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity. PMID:25446678

  2. Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: role of 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Linge, Raquel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Campa, Leticia; Pilar-Cuéllar, Fuencisla; Vidal, Rebeca; Pazos, Angel; Adell, Albert; Díaz, Álvaro

    2016-04-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotomimetic component of marihuana, exhibits anxiolytic-like properties in many behavioural tests, although its potential for treating major depression has been poorly explored. Moreover, the mechanism of action of CBD remains unclear. Herein, we have evaluated the effects of CBD following acute and chronic administration in the olfactory bulbectomy mouse model of depression (OBX), and investigated the underlying mechanism. For this purpose, we conducted behavioural (open field and sucrose preference tests) and neurochemical (microdialysis and autoradiography of 5-HT1A receptor functionality) studies following treatment with CBD. We also assayed the pharmacological antagonism of the effects of CBD to dissect out the mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that CBD exerts fast and maintained antidepressant-like effects as evidenced by the reversal of the OBX-induced hyperactivity and anhedonia. In vivo microdialysis revealed that the administration of CBD significantly enhanced serotonin and glutamate levels in vmPFCx in a different manner depending on the emotional state and the duration of the treatment. The potentiating effect upon neurotransmitters levels occurring immediately after the first injection of CBD might underlie the fast antidepressant-like actions in OBX mice. Both antidepressant-like effect and enhanced cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission induced by CBD were prevented by 5-HT1A receptor blockade. Moreover, adaptive changes in pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptor functionality were also found after chronic CBD. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CBD could represent a novel fast antidepressant drug, via enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signalling through a 5-HT1A receptor-dependent mechanism. PMID:26711860

  3. Memory consolidation and amnesia modify 5-HT6 receptors expression in rat brain: an autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Manuel-Apolinar, L; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2007-03-12

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been centered on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and, neuroimaging. A complementary alternative might be the use of autoradiography with radioligands. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage to detect functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools and memory formation. Hence, herein the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and the amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine were used to manipulate memory consolidation and 5-HT(6) receptors expression was determined by using [(3)H]-SB-258585. Thus, memory consolidation was impaired in scopolamine and dizocilpine treated groups relative to control vehicle but improved it in SB-399885-treated animals. SB-399885 improved memory consolidation seems to be associated with decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in 15 out 17 brain areas. Scopolamine or dizocilpine decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in nine different brain areas and increased it in CA3 hippocampus or other eight areas, respectively. In brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such basal ganglia (i.e., nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and fundus striate) data showed that relative to control animals amnesic groups showed diminished (scopolamine) or augmented (dizocilpine) 5-HT(6) receptor expression. SB-399885 showing improved memory displayed an intermediate expression in these same brain regions. A similar intermediate expression occurs with regard to amygdala, septum, and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. However, relative to control group amnesic and SB-399885 rats in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, showed a complex 5-HT(6) receptors expression. In conclusion, these results indicate neural circuits underlying the effects of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists in autoshaping task and offer some general clues about cognitive processes in general. PMID:17267053

  4. Pathways and Barriers for Ion Translocation through the 5-HT3A Receptor Channel

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Danilo; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ionotropic receptors that mediate fast intercellular communications at synaptic level and include either cation selective (e.g., nAChR and 5-HT3) or anion selective (e.g., GlyR, GABAA and GluCl) membrane channels. Among others, 5-HT3 is one of the most studied members, since its first cloning back in 1991, and a large number of studies have successfully pinpointed protein residues critical for its activation and channel gating. In addition, 5-HT3 is also the target of a few pharmacological treatments due to the demonstrated benefits of its modulation in clinical trials. Nonetheless, a detailed molecular analysis of important protein features, such as the origin of its ion selectivity and the rather low conductance as compared to other channel homologues, has been unfeasible until the recent crystallization of the mouse 5-HT3A receptor. Here, we present extended molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of the whole 5-HT3A protein with the aim of better understanding its ion transport properties, such as the pathways for ion permeation into the receptor body and the complex nature of the selectivity filter. Our investigation unravels previously unpredicted structural features of the 5-HT3A receptor, such as the existence of alternative intersubunit pathways for ion translocation at the interface between the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, in addition to the one along the channel main axis. Moreover, our study offers a molecular interpretation of the role played by an arginine triplet located in the intracellular domain on determining the characteristic low conductance of the 5-HT3A receptor, as evidenced in previous experiments. In view of these results, possible implications on other members of the superfamily are suggested. PMID:26465896

  5. Effects of white spirits on rat brain 5-HT receptor functions and synaptic remodeling.

    PubMed

    Lam, H R; Plenge, P; Jørgensen, O S

    2001-01-01

    Previously, inhalation exposure to different types of white spirit (i.e. complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic, alkyl aromatic, and naphthenic hydrocarbons) has been shown to induce neurochemical effects in rat brains. Especially, the serotonergic system was involved at the global, regional, and subcellular levels. This study investigates the effects of two types of white spirit on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporters (5-HTT), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(4) receptor expression in forebrain, and on neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and 25-kDa synaptosomal associated protein (SNAP-25) concentrations when applied as indices for synaptic remodeling in forebrain, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 400, or 800 ppm of aromatic (20 vol.% aromatic hydrocarbons) or dearomatized white spirit (catalytically hydrogenated white spirit) in the inhaled air for 6 h/day, 7 days/week for 3 weeks. The 5-HTT B(max) and K(d) were not affected. Both types of white spirit at 800 ppm decreased B(max) for the 5-HT(2A) receptor. The aromatic type decreased the K(d) of the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(4) receptors at 800 ppm. Aromatic white spirit did not affect NCAM or SNAP-25 concentrations or NCAM/SNAP-25 ratio in forebrain, whereas NCAM increased in hippocampus and the NCAM/SNAP-25 ratio decreased in entorhinal cortex. Dearomatized white spirit did not affect NCAM, SNAP-25, or NCAM/SNAP-25 ratio in any brain region. The affected 5-HT receptor expression and synaptic plasticity marker proteins indicate that inhalation exposure to high concentrations of white spirit may be neurotoxic to rats, especially the aromatic white spirit type. PMID:11792528

  6. 5-HT obesity medication efficacy via POMC activation is maintained during aging.

    PubMed

    Burke, Luke K; Doslikova, Barbora; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Garfield, Alastair S; Farooq, Gala; Burdakov, Denis; Low, Malcolm J; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Evans, Mark L; Billups, Brian; Heisler, Lora K

    2014-10-01

    The phenomenon commonly described as the middle-age spread is the result of elevated adiposity accumulation throughout adulthood until late middle-age. It is a clinical imperative to gain a greater understanding of the underpinnings of age-dependent obesity and, in turn, how these mechanisms may impact the efficacy of obesity treatments. In particular, both obesity and aging are associated with rewiring of a principal brain pathway modulating energy homeostasis, promoting reduced activity of satiety pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). Using a selective ARC-deficient POMC mouse line, here we report that former obesity medications augmenting endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity d-fenfluramine and sibutramine require ARC POMC neurons to elicit therapeutic appetite-suppressive effects. We next investigated whether age-related diminished ARC POMC activity therefore impacts the potency of 5-HT obesity pharmacotherapies, lorcaserin, d-fenfluramine, and sibutramine and report that all compounds reduced food intake to a comparable extent in both chow-fed young lean (3-5 months old) and middle-aged obese (12-14 months old) male and female mice. We provide a mechanism through which 5-HT anorectic potency is maintained with age, via preserved 5-HT-POMC appetitive anatomical machinery. Specifically, the abundance and signaling of the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite via POMC activation, the 5-HT2CR, is not perturbed with age. These data reveal that although 5-HT obesity medications require ARC POMC neurons to achieve appetitive effects, the anorectic efficacy is maintained with aging, findings of clinical significance to the global aging obese population. PMID:25051442

  7. Fabrication of organic solar cells with design blend P3HT: PCBM variation of mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyanto, Agus; Mustaqim, Amrina; Agustin, Maya; Ramelan, Ari H.; Suyitno; Septa Rosa, Erlyta; Yofentina; Nurosyid, Fahru

    2016-02-01

    Organic solar cells of FTO/PEDOT: PSS/P3HT: PCBM/Al has been fabricated, and its performance has been tested in dark and under various illumination of light intensity 1000 W/m2. The active materials used in this study are poly (3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). P3HT is the donor while PCBM acts as an acceptor. Variation of PCBM and P3HT are 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. P3HT: PCBM was mixed by chlorobenzene solvents. The mixing was done by using the ultrasonic cleaner. The absorbance characterization using by UV-Visible Spectrometer Lambda 25 instrument and I-V characterization has been tested using a set of 2602A Keithley instrument. Absorbance characterization shows that two peaks are formed. The first peak in the range of 300 to 350 nm which is a range of PCBM and the second peak range from 450 to 600 nm which is a range of P3HT. As the mass ratio increases, the second peak of P3HT increases while the first peak does not change. The gap energy estimated by the Tauc method is 2.0 eV. I-V characterization of the efficiency was obtained. The efficiency of sample 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are 5.80x10-2%; 6.46x10-2%; 7.72x10-2%; 8.25x10-2% and 9.81x10-2%, respectively. The highest value of efficiency was obtained at mass ratio 1:5.

  8. Impact of intracellular domain flexibility upon properties of activated human 5-HT3 receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kozuska, J L; Paulsen, I M; Belfield, W J; Martin, I L; Cole, D J; Holt, A; Dunn, S M J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been proposed that arginine residues lining the intracellular portals of the homomeric 5-HT3A receptor cause electrostatic repulsion of cation flow, accounting for a single-channel conductance substantially lower than that of the 5-HT3AB heteromer. However, comparison of receptor homology models for wild-type pentamers suggests that salt bridges in the intracellular domain of the homomer may impart structural rigidity, and we hypothesized that this rigidity could account for the low conductance. Experimental Approach Mutations were introduced into the portal region of the human 5-HT3A homopentamer, such that putative salt bridges were broken by neutralizing anionic partners. Single-channel and whole cell currents were measured in transfected tsA201 cells and in Xenopus oocytes respectively. Computational simulations of protein flexibility facilitated comparison of wild-type and mutant receptors. Key Results Single-channel conductance was increased substantially, often to wild-type heteromeric receptor values, in most 5-HT3A mutants. Conversely, introduction of arginine residues to the portal region of the heteromer, conjecturally creating salt bridges, decreased conductance. Gating kinetics varied significantly between different mutant receptors. EC50 values for whole-cell responses to 5-HT remained largely unchanged, but Hill coefficients for responses to 5-HT were usually significantly smaller in mutants. Computational simulations suggested increased flexibility throughout the protein structure as a consequence of mutations in the intracellular domain. Conclusions and Implications These data support a role for intracellular salt bridges in maintaining the quaternary structure of the 5-HT3 receptor and suggest a role for the intracellular domain in allosteric modulation of cooperativity and agonist efficacy. Linked Article This article is commented on by Vardy and Kenakin, pp. 1614–1616 of volume 171 issue 7. To view this commentary

  9. Pathways and Barriers for Ion Translocation through the 5-HT3A Receptor Channel.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Danilo; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs) are ionotropic receptors that mediate fast intercellular communications at synaptic level and include either cation selective (e.g., nAChR and 5-HT3) or anion selective (e.g., GlyR, GABAA and GluCl) membrane channels. Among others, 5-HT3 is one of the most studied members, since its first cloning back in 1991, and a large number of studies have successfully pinpointed protein residues critical for its activation and channel gating. In addition, 5-HT3 is also the target of a few pharmacological treatments due to the demonstrated benefits of its modulation in clinical trials. Nonetheless, a detailed molecular analysis of important protein features, such as the origin of its ion selectivity and the rather low conductance as compared to other channel homologues, has been unfeasible until the recent crystallization of the mouse 5-HT3A receptor. Here, we present extended molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of the whole 5-HT3A protein with the aim of better understanding its ion transport properties, such as the pathways for ion permeation into the receptor body and the complex nature of the selectivity filter. Our investigation unravels previously unpredicted structural features of the 5-HT3A receptor, such as the existence of alternative intersubunit pathways for ion translocation at the interface between the extracellular and the transmembrane domains, in addition to the one along the channel main axis. Moreover, our study offers a molecular interpretation of the role played by an arginine triplet located in the intracellular domain on determining the characteristic low conductance of the 5-HT3A receptor, as evidenced in previous experiments. In view of these results, possible implications on other members of the superfamily are suggested. PMID:26465896

  10. Striatal 5-HT6 Receptors Regulate Cocaine Reinforcement in a Pathway-Selective Manner.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Matthew; Gibson, Alec W; Smirnov, Denis; Nair, Sunila G; Neumaier, John F

    2016-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the ventral striatum integrates many neurochemical inputs including dopamine and serotonin projections from midbrain nuclei to modulate drug reward. Although D1 and D2 dopamine receptors are differentially expressed in the direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs and iMSNs, respectively), 5-HT6 receptors are expressed in both pathways, more strongly than anywhere else in the brain, and are an intriguing target for neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we used viral vectors utilizing dynorphin or enkephalin promoters to drive expression of 5-HT6 receptors or green fluorescent protein (GFP) selectively in the dMSNs or iMSNs of the NAc shell. Rats were then trained to self-administer cocaine. Increased 5-HT6 receptor expression in dMSNs did not change any parameter of cocaine self-administration measured. However, increasing 5-HT6 receptors in iMSNs reduced the amount of cocaine self-administered under fixed-ratio schedules, especially at low doses, increased the time to the first response and the length of the inter-infusion interval, but did not alter motivation as measured by progressive ratio 'break point' analysis. Modeling of cocaine pharmacokinetics in NAc showed that increased 5-HT6 receptors in iMSNs reduced the rat's preferred tissue cocaine concentration at each dose. Finally, increased 5-HT6 receptors in iMSNs facilitated conditioned place preference for a low dose of cocaine. We conclude that 5-HT6 receptors in iMSNs of NAcSh increase the sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of cocaine, particularly at low doses, suggesting that these receptors may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:27032690

  11. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects. PMID:27108935

  12. 5-HT2C Receptor Desensitization Moderates Anxiety in 5-HTT Deficient Mice: From Behavioral to Cellular Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Cédric BP; Martin, Vincent S.; Trigo, José M.; Chevarin, Caroline; Maldonado, Rafael; Fink, Latham H.; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Hamon, Michel; Lanfumey, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Background: Desensitization and blockade of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CR) have long been thought to be central in the therapeutic action of antidepressant drugs. However, besides behavioral pharmacology studies, there is little in vivo data documenting antidepressant-induced 5-HT2CR desensitization in specific brain areas. Methods: Mice lacking the 5-HT reuptake carrier (5-HTT-/-) were used to model the consequences of chronic 5-HT reuptake inhibition with antidepressant drugs. The effect of this mutation on 5-HT2CR was evaluated at the behavioral (social interaction, novelty-suppressed feeding, and 5-HT2CR–induced hypolocomotion tests), the neurochemical, and the cellular (RT-qPCR, mRNA editing, and c-fos–induced expression) levels. Results: Although 5-HTT-/- mice had an anxiogenic profile in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, they displayed less 5-HT2CR–mediated anxiety in response to the agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine in the social interaction test. In addition, 5-HT2CR–mediated inhibition of a stress-induced increase in 5-HT turnover, measured in various brain areas, was markedly reduced in 5-HTT-/- mutants. These indices of tolerance to 5-HT2CR stimulation were associated neither with altered levels of 5-HT2CR protein and mRNA nor with changes in pre-mRNA editing in the frontal cortex. However, basal c-fos mRNA production in cells expressing 5-HT2CR was higher in 5-HTT-/- mutants, suggesting an altered basal activity of these cells following sustained 5-HT reuptake carrier inactivation. Furthermore, the increased c-fos mRNA expression in 5-HT2CR–like immune-positive cortical cells observed in wild-type mice treated acutely with the 5-HT2CR agonist RO-60,0175 was absent in 5-HTT-/- mutants. Conclusions: Such blunted responsiveness of the 5-HT2CR system, observed at the cell signaling level, probably contributes to the moderation of the anxiety phenotype in 5-HTT-/- mice. PMID:25522398

  13. Inhibition of native 5-HT3 receptor-evoked contractions in guinea pig and mouse ileum by antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Stephen P; Walsh, Jacqueline; Kelly, Mark C; Muhdar, Simerjyot; Adel-Aziz, Mohammed; Barrett, Iain D; Wildman, Scott S

    2014-09-01

    Quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine are commonly used to treat malaria, however, with associated gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects. These drugs act as antagonists at recombinant 5-HT3 receptors and modulate gut peristalsis. These gastrointestinal side effects may be the result of antagonism at intestinal 5-HT3 receptors. Ileum from male C57BL/6 mice and guinea pigs was mounted longitudinally in organ baths. The concentration-response curves for 5-HT and the selective 5-HT3 agonist 2-Me-5-HT were obtained with 5-HT (pEC50 = 7.57 ± 0.33, 12) more potent (P = 0.004) than 2-Me-5-HT (pEC50 = 5.45 ± 0.58, n = 5) in mouse ileum. There was no difference in potency of 5-HT (pEC50 = 5.42 ± 0.15, n = 8) and 2-Me-5-HT (pIC50 = 5.01 ± 0.55, n = 11) in guinea pig ileum (P > 0.05). Quinine, chloroquine or mefloquine was applied for 10 min and inhibitions prior to submaximal agonist application. In mouse ileum, quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine antagonised 5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 4.9 ± 0.17, n = 7; 4.76 ± 0.14, n = 5; 6.21 ± 0.2, n = 4, correspondingly) with mefloquine most potent (P < 0.05). Quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine antagonised 2-me-5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 6.35 ± 0.11, n = 8; 4.64 ± 0.2, n = 7; 5.11 ± 0.22, n = 6, correspondingly) with quinine most potent (P < 0.05). In guinea-pig ileum, quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine antagonised 5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 5.02 ± 0.15, n = 6; 4.54 ± 0.1, n = 7; 5.32 ± 0.13, n = 5) and 2-me-5-HT-induced contractions (pIC50 = 4.62 ± 0.25, n = 5; 4.56 ± 0.14, n = 6; 5.67 ± 0.12, n = 4) with chloroquine least potent against 5-HT and mefloquine most potent against 2-me-5-HT (P < 0.05). These results support previous studies identifying anti-malarial drugs as antagonists at recombinant 5-HT3 receptors and may also demonstrate the ability of these drugs to influence native 5-HT3 receptor-evoked contractile responses which may account for their associated GI side-effects. PMID:24886883

  14. Regulatory role of a neurotransmitter (5-HT) on glial Na+/K(+)-ATPase in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Mercado, R; Hernández, J

    1992-07-01

    In the present work we studied the effect of serotonin (5-HT) on the kinetics of Na+/K(+)-ATPase in subcellular preparations of the cerebral cortex from male Wistar rats using various concentrations of ATP and K+ with and without added 5-HT. Also we studied the effect of 5-HT on the enzyme in glial or neuronal preparations. The results indicated that there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) of the Vmax in the presence of 5-HT in the whole tissue preparation (homogenate) but not in the subcellular fractions, suggesting that the interaction could be preferentially with the glial pump. Further results supported that this was the case since activation by 5-HT was mainly in the glial preparations. Kinetic data and the binding of [3H]ouabain supported that the enzyme is activated by 5-HT through the exposure of more enzymatic active sites. PMID:1303137

  15. Influences of thermal annealing on P3HT/PCBM interfacial properties and charge dynamics in polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cheng-En; Dinelli, Franco; Yu, Chen-Te; Shih, Hwa-Wei; Pei, Zingway; Chang, Chen-Shiung; Shih-Sen Chien, Forest

    2015-12-01

    The effects of thermal annealing on the interfacial properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and on the charge dynamics in P3HT:PCBM polymer solar cells (PSCs) are investigated. This study determines that an effective phase separation of the P3HT and PCBM caused by thermal annealing achieves a larger interfacial area for efficient exciton dissociation and a well-defined pn junction with few defect levels at the P3HT/PCBM interface. Additionally, thermal annealing creates a compositional gradient across the P3HT:PCBM films, which enhances the charge transit ability significantly. These improved interfacial properties and efficiency in charge transit ability account for the better power conversion efficiency of P3HT:PCBM PSCs treated with thermal annealing.

  16. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  17. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  18. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  19. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  20. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  1. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  2. Functional expression of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Takao; Kaneshige, Kota; Kurosaki, Teruko; Nishio, Hiroaki

    2010-05-28

    In the previous study, we reported the gene expression for proteins related to the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and elucidated the expression patterns of 5-HT{sub 2} receptor subtypes in mouse osteoblasts. In the present study, we evaluated the possible involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes and its inactivation system in MC3T3-E1 cells, an osteoblast cell line. DOI, a 5-HT{sub 2A} and 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor selective agonist, as well as 5-HT concentration-dependently increased proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in their premature period. This effect of 5-HT on cell proliferation were inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor specific antagonist. Moreover, both DOI-induced cell proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1 and 2 proteins were inhibited by PD98059 and U0126, selective inhibitors of MEK in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with fluoxetine, a 5-HT specific re-uptake inhibitor which inactivate the function of extracellular 5-HT, significantly increased the proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data indicate that 5-HT fill the role for proliferation of osteoblast cells in their premature period. Notably, 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor may be functionally expressed to regulate mechanisms underlying osteoblast cell proliferation, at least in part, through activation of ERK/MAPK pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  3. Drug-induced defaecation in rats: role of central 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Croci, T.; Landi, M.; Bianchetti, A.; Manara, L.

    1995-01-01

    1. We investigated the acute effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonists, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), buspirone and SR 57746A, on rat faecal pellet output and water content. 2. 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone and SR 57746A, a new selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, displaced [3H]-8-OH-DPAT from specific binding sites in rat hippocampus membranes (Ki, nM; 1.8, 1.2, 15, 3.1 respectively) and stimulated rat defaecation dose-dependently. SR 57746A and buspirone induced 1 g dry weight of faeces at 1.3 and 6.1 mg kg-1, p.o. (AD1) respectively. 8-OH-DPAT and 5-HT stimulated defaecation after s.c. injection (AD1, 0.07 and 7.5 mg kg-1, respectively). All these agents increased faecal water content. 3. The putative 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, pindolol, injected s.c. or i.c.v., significantly reduced the defaecation induced by systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone or SR 57746A, but not 5-HT. 4. Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (i.p.) or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (i.c.v.), according to protocols designed to cause either generalized or CNS-limited 5-HT depletion respectively, also reduced the defaecation induced by buspirone or SR 57746A. 5. No specific 5-HT1A binding sites could be labelled by incubating rat colon membranes with [3H]-8-OH-DPAT, and in vitro preparations of rat colon segments showed no response to 8-OH-DPAT or SR 57746A up to 5 microM. 6. After eight days' repeated daily treatment, complete tolerance developed to the stimulant effects of SR 57746A and buspirone on faecal water content, but not on faecal pellet output.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7647978

  4. SB 242084, a selective and brain penetrant 5-HT2C receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kennett, G A; Wood, M D; Bright, F; Trail, B; Riley, G; Holland, V; Avenell, K Y; Stean, T; Upton, N; Bromidge, S; Forbes, I T; Brown, A M; Middlemiss, D N; Blackburn, T P

    1997-01-01

    SB 242084 has a high affinity (pKi 9.0) for the cloned human 5-HT2C receptor and 100- and 158-fold selectivity over the closely related cloned human 5-HT2B and 5-HT2A subtypes respectively. SB 242084 had over 100-fold selectivity over a range of other 5-HT, dopamine and adrenergic receptors. In studies of 5-HT-stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis using SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing the cloned human 5-HT2C receptor, SB 242084 acted as an antagonist with a pKb of 9.3, which closely resembled its corresponding receptor binding affinity. SB 242084 potently inhibited m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP, 7 mgkg i.p. 20 min pre-test)-induced hypolocomotion in rats, a model of in vivo central 5-HT2C receptor function, with an ID50 of 0.11 mg/kg i.p., and 2.0 mg/kg p.o. SB 242084 (0.1-1 mg/kg i.p.) exhibited an anxiolytic-like profile in the rat social interaction test, increasing time spent in social interaction, but having no effect on locomotion. SB 242084 (0.1-1 mg/kg i.p.) also markedly increased punished responding in a rat Geller-Seifter conflict test of anxiety, but had no consistent effect on unpunished responding. A large acute dose of SB 242084 (30 mg/kg p.o.) had no effect on seizure susceptibility in the rat maximal electroshock seizure threshold test. Also, while SB 242084 (2 and 6 mg/kg p.o. 1 hr pre-test) antagonized the hypophagic response to mCPP, neither acute nor subchronic administration of the drug, for 5 days at 2 or 6 mg/kg p.o. twice daily, affected food intake or weight gain. The results suggest that SB 242084 is the first reported selective potent and brain penetrant 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and has anxiolytic-like activity, but does not possess either proconvulsant or hyperphagic properties which are characteristic of mutant mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. PMID:9225286

  5. Enhanced head-twitch response to 5-HT-related agonists in thiamine-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagawasai, O; Murata, A; Arai, Y; Ohba, A; Wakui, K; Mitazaki, S; Niijima, F; Tan-No, K; Tadano, T

    2007-01-01

    While many studies suggest an involvement of brain serotonergic systems in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, their role in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) remains unclear. Since dietary thiamine deficiency (TD) in mice is considered as a putative model of WKS, it was used in the present study to investigate the function of serotonergic neurons in this disorder. After 20 days of TD feeding, the intensity of tryptophan hydroxylase immunofluorescence was found to be significantly decreased in the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei. In addition, the head-twitch response (HTR) elicited by the intracerebroventricular administration of the 5-HT(2A) agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) was significantly increased in TD versus control mice, whereas the injection of ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, prevented this enhancement. A single injection of thiamine HCl on the 19th day of TD feeding did not reduce the enhanced DOI-induced HTR. On the other hand, the administration of d-fenfluramine, a 5-HT releaser, did not enhance the HTR in TD mice. Together, our results indicate that TD causes a super-sensitivity of 5-HT(2A) receptors by reducing presynaptic 5-HT synthesis derived from degenerating neurons projecting from the raphe nucleus. PMID:17372673

  6. Metabolism of the Fusarium Mycotoxins T-2 Toxin and HT-2 Toxin in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Nathanail, Alexis V; Varga, Elisabeth; Meng-Reiterer, Jacqueline; Bueschl, Christoph; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachova, Alexandra; Fruhmann, Philipp; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Kimmo; Adam, Gerhard; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the metabolic fate of HT-2 toxin (HT2) and T-2 toxin (T2) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an untargeted metabolomics study utilizing stable isotopic labeling and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was performed. In total, 11 HT2 and 12 T2 derived in planta biotransformation products were annotated putatively. In addition to previously reported mono- and diglucosylated forms of HT2, evidence for the formation of HT2-malonyl-glucoside and feruloyl-T2, as well as acetylation and deacetylation products in wheat was obtained for the first time. To monitor the kinetics of metabolite formation, a time course experiment was conducted involving the Fusarium head blight susceptible variety Remus and the resistant cultivar CM-82036. Biotransformation reactions were observed already at the earliest tested time point (6 h after treatment), and formed metabolites showed different kinetic profiles. After ripening, less than 15% of the toxins added to the plants were determined to be unmetabolized. PMID:26278508

  7. Novel N-acyl-carbazole derivatives as 5-HT7R antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjae; Yeom, Miyoung; Tae, Jinsung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Hyunah

    2016-03-01

    To discover a novel 5-HT7R antagonist for treatment of depression, we designed N-acyl-carbazole derivatives which were synthesized and biologically evaluated against 5-HT7R. Among total 30 compounds synthesized, four compounds 27-30 showed good binding affinities with Ki values of <100 nM. The compound 28, 1-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-6-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexan-1-one, showed good selectivity over other serotonin receptor subtypes and turned out to be a novel selective 5-HT7R antagonist following functional assays. The compound 28 showed moderate activity on hERG channel and good stability in microsomal stability test. The compound 28 exhibited a good pharmacokinetic profile with 67.8% oral bioavailability and good penetration to the brain. The compound 28 was also tested in in vivo depression animal model and showed antidepressant effect in the forced swimming test. Therefore, the selective 5-HT7R antagonist 28 can be considered as a good lead for discovery of novel 5-HT7R antagonists as antidepressants. PMID:26852005

  8. Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley

    PubMed Central

    Morcia, Caterina; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Badeck, Franz W.; Lattanzio, Veronica M.T.; Pascale, Michelangelo; Terzi, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011–2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg. The percentage of samples with a T-2 and HT-2 content above the EU indicative levels for barley of 200 μg/kg ranges from 2% to 19.6% in the 2011–2014 period. The fungal species responsible for the production of these toxins in 100% of positive samples has been identified as Fusarium langsethiae, a well-known producer of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A positive correlation between the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and of the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins was found. This is the first report on the occurrence of F. langsethiae—and of its toxic metabolites T-2 and HT-2—in malting barley grown in Italy. PMID:27556490

  9. Exposure assessment of T2 and HT2 toxins in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Cano-Sancho, G; Marín, S; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2012-03-01

    HT-2 toxin (HT2) and T-2 toxin (T2) are mycotoxins produced in several cereals by species of Fusarium. The aim of the present study was to assess the exposure of Catalonian population to the combined mycotoxins T2 and HT2. Three different approaches were considered to handle the left censored data: (1) a substitution method, (2) a parametric method using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and (3) a non-parametric method using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimator. Raw contamination data was provided by a large survey conducted in this region, in addition to the raw consumption data from a nutritional study specifically designed to assess the dietary intake of the main foodstuffs related to T2 and HT2 contamination for all population age groups. Contamination and consumption data were combined by simulation using a stochastic method. Accuracy and reliability of the statistic estimates were assessed building the related confidence intervals using a pseudo-parametric bootstrap method. Considering the results from the present study, the most exposed group population to the toxin T2 and HT2 should be expected to be the children. PMID:22261462

  10. Reappraisal of the serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptor gene in alcoholism: of mice and men.

    PubMed

    Gorwood, Philip; Aissi, Franck; Batel, Philippe; Adès, Jean; Cohen-Salmon, Charles; Hamon, Michel; Boni, Claudette; Lanfumey, Laurence

    2002-01-01

    Because pharmacological and genetic data supported the idea that serotonin receptors of the 5-HT(1B) type can play a modulatory role in alcohol consumption in both human and rodents, the 5-HT(1B) receptor gene is considered as a candidate gene for alcohol dependence. However, contradictory results have been reported as a positive association between alcohol dependence, and either the 861C or the 861G allele of the G861C polymorphism of the 5-HT(1B) receptor gene can be found in the literature. Further investigations in a population of 136 male alcoholics compared with 72 male control subjects demonstrated that none of these alleles was actually associated with alcohol dependence. In addition, in contrast with previous results of the literature, ethanol intake under free choice conditions (i.e., ethanol solution vs. water) was found to be similar in 5-HT(1B)-/- knock mice and paired wild-type controls. The 5-HT(1B) receptor gene may thus not be a key component in the genetic background underlying alcohol dependence in human and alcohol preference in rodents, although these results should be considered as preliminary according to the small size of our sample. PMID:11827742

  11. Effect of HT042, herbal formula, on longitudinal bone growth in spontaneous dwarf rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Park, Sang Woug; Park, Juyeon; Park, Seungjoon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol

    2013-01-01

    HT042 is a new herbal prescription consisting of Astragalus membranaceus, Phlomis umbrosa and Eleutherococcus senticosus, which are used in Korean medicine to stimulate growth in children. We investigated the effects of HT042 on the body weight, longitudinal bone growth, and bone length in spontaneous dwarf rats (SDR). Male and female SDRs were divided into three groups: the control group (DW, 10 mL/kg/day), the recombinant human GH group (rhGH; 500 µg/kg/day), and the HT042 (100 mg/kg/day) group. Each group received the respective treatments for 10 days. Body weight was measured on day 10 of treatment. On day 8, tetracycline (20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into all individuals to form a fluorescent band on the newly synthesized bone. On day 10, femur and tibia lengths were measured using PIXImus. Body weight, longitudinal bone growth, and bone length were not affected in the HT042 group. In contrast, the rhGH group showed significantly increased body weight, longitudinal bone growth, and bone length. In conclusion, HT042 does not act through a GH-like effect to promote longitudinal bone growth. PMID:24169467

  12. The Role of Hippocampal 5HT3 Receptors in Harmaline-Induced Memory Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Nasehi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The plethora of studies indicated that there is a cross talk relationship between harmaline and serotonergic (5-HT) system on cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of hippocampal 5-HT4 receptor on memory acquisition deficit induced by harmaline. Methods: Harmaline was injected peritoneally, while 5-HT4 receptor agonist (RS67333) and antagonist (RS23597-190) were injected intra-hippocampal. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance, open field and tail flick tasks were used for measurement of memory, locomotor activity and pain responses, respectively. Results: The data revealed that pre-training injection of higher dose of harmaline (1 mg/kg), RS67333 (0.5 ng/mouse) and RS23597-190 (0.5 ng/mouse) decreased memory acquisition process in the adult mice. Moreover, concurrent pre-training administration of subthreshold dose of RS67333 (0.005 ng/mouse) or RS23597-190 (0.005 ng/mouse) with subthreshold dose of harmaline (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) intensify impairment of memory acquisition. All above interventions did not change locomotion and tail flick behaviors. Discussion: The results demonstrated that the synergistic effect between both hippocampal 5-HT4 receptor agonist and antagonist with impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmaline, indicating a modulatory effect for hippocampal 5HT4 receptor on Harmaline induced amnesia. PMID:26904173

  13. Metabolism of the Fusarium Mycotoxins T-2 Toxin and HT-2 Toxin in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the metabolic fate of HT-2 toxin (HT2) and T-2 toxin (T2) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an untargeted metabolomics study utilizing stable isotopic labeling and liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry was performed. In total, 11 HT2 and 12 T2 derived in planta biotransformation products were annotated putatively. In addition to previously reported mono- and diglucosylated forms of HT2, evidence for the formation of HT2-malonyl-glucoside and feruloyl-T2, as well as acetylation and deacetylation products in wheat was obtained for the first time. To monitor the kinetics of metabolite formation, a time course experiment was conducted involving the Fusarium head blight susceptible variety Remus and the resistant cultivar CM-82036. Biotransformation reactions were observed already at the earliest tested time point (6 h after treatment), and formed metabolites showed different kinetic profiles. After ripening, less than 15% of the toxins added to the plants were determined to be unmetabolized. PMID:26278508

  14. Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley.

    PubMed

    Morcia, Caterina; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Badeck, Franz W; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Pascale, Michelangelo; Terzi, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011-2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg. The percentage of samples with a T-2 and HT-2 content above the EU indicative levels for barley of 200 μg/kg ranges from 2% to 19.6% in the 2011-2014 period. The fungal species responsible for the production of these toxins in 100% of positive samples has been identified as Fusarium langsethiae, a well-known producer of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A positive correlation between the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and of the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins was found. This is the first report on the occurrence of F. langsethiae-and of its toxic metabolites T-2 and HT-2-in malting barley grown in Italy. PMID:27556490

  15. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun; Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog; Jin, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE2 induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE2 effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE2 itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE2-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type 4 (EP4) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type 1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE2 effects. PGE2 induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE2 potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors by selectively targeting EP4 receptor/PKA pathway without interrupt prostaglandin synthesis. PMID:25446121

  16. Life Beyond Kinases: Structure-based Discovery of Sorafenib as Nanomolar Antagonist of 5-HT Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xingyu; Huang, Xi-Ping; Chen, Gang; Whaley, Ryan; Peng, Shiming; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Guoliang; Wang, Simon X.; Wang, Shaohui; Roth, Bryan L.; Huang, Niu

    2012-01-01

    Of great interest in recent years has been computationally predicting the novel polypharmacology of drug molecules. Here, we applied an “induced-fit” protocol to improve the homology models of 5-HT2A receptor, and we assessed the quality of these models in retrospective virtual screening. Subsequently, we computationally screened the FDA approved drug molecules against the best induced-fit 5-HT2A models, and chose six top scoring hits for experimental assays. Surprisingly, one well-known kinase inhibitor, sorafenib has shown unexpected promiscuous 5-HTRs binding affinities, Ki = 1959, 56 and 417 nM against 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C, respectively. Our preliminary SAR exploration supports the predicted binding mode, and further suggests sorafenib to be a novel lead compound for 5HTR ligand discovery. Although it has been well known that sorafenib produces anticancer effects through targeting multiple kinases, carefully designed experimental studies are desirable to fully understand whether its “off-target” 5-HTR binding activities contribute to its therapeutic efficacy or otherwise undesirable side effects. PMID:22694093

  17. A comparative analysis of transcription factor binding models learned from PBM, HT-SELEX and ChIP data.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, Yaron; Shamir, Ron

    2014-04-01

    Understanding gene regulation is a key challenge in today's biology. The new technologies of protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) and high-throughput SELEX (HT-SELEX) allow measurement of the binding intensities of one transcription factor (TF) to numerous synthetic double-stranded DNA sequences in a single experiment. Recently, Jolma et al. reported the results of 547 HT-SELEX experiments covering human and mouse TFs. Because 162 of these TFs were also covered by PBM technology, for the first time, a large-scale comparison between implementations of these two in vitro technologies is possible. Here we assessed the similarities and differences between binding models, represented as position weight matrices, inferred from PBM and HT-SELEX, and also measured how well these models predict in vivo binding. Our results show that HT-SELEX- and PBM-derived models agree for most TFs. For some TFs, the HT-SELEX-derived models are longer versions of the PBM-derived models, whereas for other TFs, the HT-SELEX models match the secondary PBM-derived models. Remarkably, PBM-based 8-mer ranking is more accurate than that of HT-SELEX, but models derived from HT-SELEX predict in vivo binding better. In addition, we reveal several biases in HT-SELEX data including nucleotide frequency bias, enrichment of C-rich k-mers and oligos and underrepresentation of palindromes. PMID:24500199

  18. Altered responsiveness to 5-HT at the crayfish neuromuscular junction due to chronic p-CPA and m-CPP treatment.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R L; Chase, R J; Tabor, J

    2001-10-19

    Serotonin (5-HT) levels in the hemolymph of crustaceans has been implied to alter aggressiveness which influences social interactions. The activation of IP3 as a second messenger cascade within crayfish motor neurons in response to application of 5-HT, suggests that the 5-HT receptor subtypes on the motor neurons are analogous to the vertebrate 5-HT2A receptors. Based on evidence in other systems, it would be expected that chronically sustained 5-HT levels in aggressive individuals would result in a compensatory negative feed-back regulation and/or that target tissues would diminish their sensitivity to high levels of circulating, free 5-HT. We addressed the issue of up- and down-regulation in the sensitivity of the responsiveness to exogenously applied 5-HT at the NMJs of crayfish in which the animals have altered endogenous 5-HT levels. Injections of the 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 vertebrate receptor agonist, 1-(3-Chlorophenyl) piperazine dihydrochloride (m-CPP), for 1 week resulted in a decreased responsiveness to application of 5-HT. The compound p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) blocks the enzymatic synthesis of 5-HT and following 7 days of p-CPA injections, a super-sensitivity to exogenous application of 5-HT for both tonic and phasic neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) was observed. However, acute applications of p-CPA and m-CPP, followed by extensive saline washing, did not reveal any altered receptivity to 5-HT application. PMID:11597601

  19. Photovoltaic performance improvement in planar P3HT/CdS solar cells induced by structural, optical and electrical property modification in thermal annealed P3HT thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina-Marrero, Hugo Jorge; Martínez-Alonso, Claudia; Hechavarría-Difur, Liliana; Hu, Hailin

    2013-07-01

    Bilayer hybrid solar cells were prepared by solution deposition of CdS thin films on conductive glass substrates (ITO), followed by spin-coating or drop-casting poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solution on a CdS surface. After a slow drying process, the P3HT films of different thicknesses (from 100 to 725 nm) were annealed at temperatures (T1) from 110 to 190 °C, called pre-metal contact annealing. Then carbon paint was collocated on top of P3HT and gold was evaporated. The whole structure was annealed for the second time, called post-metal contact annealing, at temperature (T2) between 110 and 190 °C. The continuous increase of the (1 0 0) crystalline plane and the optical absorption coefficient of P3HT films with annealing temperatures indicates the improvement of molecular order inside the polymer films induced by the thermal annealing process. The better ordered P3HT films lead to lower series resistance and higher fill factor in the corresponding solar cells, suggesting the enlargement of charge carrier mobility in annealed P3HT films. On the other hand, the photovoltaic performance is also affected by T2 temperature; a low T2 improves the ohmic contact between P3HT and the metal contact to benefit the charge carrier extraction, whereas a high T2 may deteriorate that union. The same observation was obtained in CdS/P3HT solar cells with P3HT films of different thicknesses. The best energy conversion efficiency of 0.44% was obtained in CdS/P3HT cells with 305 nm thick P3HT annealed at T1 = 190 °C and T2 = 110 °C for 10 min each.

  20. Modulatory effect of the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and the mixed non-hallucinogenic 5-HT1A/2A agonist ergotamine on psilocybin-induced psychedelic experience.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Thomas; Preller, Katrin H; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-04-01

    The mixed serotonin (5-HT) 1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptor agonist psilocybin dose-dependently induces an altered state of consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by changes in sensory perception, mood, thought, and the sense of self. The psychological effects of psilocybin are primarily mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. However, accumulating evidence suggests that 5-HT1A or an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors may contribute to the overall effects of psilocybin. Therefore, we used a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subject design to investigate the modulatory effects of the partial 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (20mg p.o.) and the non-hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/1A agonist ergotamine (3mg p.o.) on psilocybin-induced (170 µg/kg p.o.) psychological effects in two groups (n=19, n=17) of healthy human subjects. Psychological effects were assessed using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC) rating scale. Buspirone significantly reduced the 5D-ASC main scale score for Visionary Restructuralization (VR) (p<0.001), which was mostly driven by a reduction of the VR item cluster scores for elementary and complex visual hallucinations. Further, buspirone also reduced the main scale score for Oceanic Boundlessness (OB) including derealisation and depersonalisation phenomena at a trend level (p=0.062), whereas ergotamine did not show any effects on the psilocybin-induced 5D-ASC main scale scores. The present finding demonstrates that buspirone exerts inhibitory effects on psilocybin-induced effects, presumably via 5-HT1A receptor activation, an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, or both. The data suggest that the modulation of 5-HT1A receptor activity may be a useful target in the treatment of visual hallucinations in different psychiatric and neurological diseases. PMID:26875114

  1. GABA, 5-HT and amino acids in the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Brachionus rotundiformis.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, W G; Hagiwara, A; Hara, K; Soyano, K; Snell, T W

    2000-11-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have been shown to increase the reproduction of the Brachionus plicatilis (NH3L strain). In the present study, the endogenous presence of GABA and 5-HT in the rotifers B. plicatilis (NH3L and Kamiura strains) and Brachionus rotundiformis (Langkawi strain) were confirmed by dot blot immunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC showed that GABA and 5-HT concentrations in the three rotifer strains range from 71 to 188 pmol/mg and from 12 to 64 pmol/mg, respectively. A total of 33 amino acids were also detected in B. plicatilis and B. rotundiformis, with glutamic acid, serine, glycine, taurine, threonine, alanine, arginine, proline, valine and isoleucine in high concentrations relative to other amino acids. PMID:11118940

  2. A-to-I editing of the 5HT2C receptor and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Katheleen; Du, Yunzhi

    2006-03-01

    Site-specific deamination of five adenosine residues in the pre-mRNA of the serotonin 2C receptor, 5HT2CR, alters the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein. Such RNA editing can produce 32 mRNA variants, encoding 24 protein isoforms that vary in biochemical and pharmacological properties. Because serotonin functions in the regulation of mood and behaviour, modulation of serotonin signalling by RNA editing may be relevant to such psychiatric disorders as anxiety and depression. Several recent human studies have reported changes in 5HT2CR editing in schizophrenia, major depression or suicide, but results are variable and not conclusive. Rodent studies have begun to examine effects of drug treatments and stress. Understanding the importance of 5HT2CR editing in mood and behaviour will be assisted by experiments designed to analyse multiple strains of mice, in different behavioural tests, with optimal evaluation of the time course of molecular changes. PMID:16769676

  3. Nanoaggregation of p3ht in chloroform-anisole solution: relationship between morphology and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielecka, U.; Janus, K.; Bartkowiak, W.

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies of poly(3-hexylthiophene) solutions demonstrate that "sample history" (solution preparation, storage conditions) affects the aggregation process(es) and, consequently, electrical properties. In this paper, we demonstrate the evolution of UV-Vis spectra and the formation of additional red-shifted peaks which visualize the aggregation of p3ht chains. We report comparative study of p3ht based organic field effect transistors fabricated by spin coating using fresh and aged (for 6 months) chloroform solutions with anisole addition. Three order of magnitude improvement in the oFET charge carrier mobility is exhibited. These results provide new insight into p3ht crystallization process(es) and nanofiber-based oFETs.

  4. A QTAIM topological analysis of the P3HT-PCBM dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Juan I.; Matta, Chérif F.; Uribe, Emilbus A.; Götz, Andreas W.; Castillo-Alvarado, F. L.; Molina-Brito, Bertha

    2016-01-01

    In order to cast some light onto the nature of the chemical bonding between a 8-unit oligomer of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in the two stables isomers reported recently [I. Gutiérrez-González, B. Molina-Brito, A.W. Götz, F.L. Castillo-Alvarado, J.I. Rodríguez, Chem. Phys. Lett. 612, 234 (2014)], we have performed a Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis. According to QTAIM, no covalent bonds are formed between P3HT and PCBM, and hydrogen and stacking interactions account for about 90% and 10% of the total number of bonds between P3HT and PCBM, respectively.

  5. 3D Pharmacophore, hierarchical methods, and 5-HT4 receptor binding data.

    PubMed

    Varin, Thibault; Saettel, Nicolas; Villain, Jonathan; Lesnard, Aurelien; Dauphin, François; Bureau, Ronan; Rault, Sylvain

    2008-10-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine subtype-4 (5-HT(4)) receptors have stimulated considerable interest amongst scientists and clinicians owing to their importance in neurophysiology and potential as therapeutic targets. A comparative analysis of hierarchical methods applied to data from one thousand 5-HT(4) receptor-ligand binding interactions was carried out. The chemical structures were described as chemical and pharmacophore fingerprints. The definitions of indices, related to the quality of the hierarchies in being able to distinguish between active and inactive compounds, revealed two interesting hierarchies with the Unity (1 active cluster) and pharmacophore fingerprints (4 active clusters). The results of this study also showed the importance of correct choice of metrics as well as the effectiveness of a new alternative of the Ward clustering algorithm named Energy (Minimum E-Distance method). In parallel, the relationship between these classifications and a previously defined 3D 5-HT(4) antagonist pharmacophore was established. PMID:18821249

  6. Delineation of the functional properties and the mechanism of action of TMPPAA, an allosteric agonist and positive allosteric modulator of 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Gasiorek, Agnes; Trattnig, Sarah M; Ahring, Philip K; Kristiansen, Uffe; Frølund, Bente; Frederiksen, Kristen; Jensen, Anders A

    2016-06-15

    We have previously identified a novel class of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor (5-HT3R) agonists sharing little structural similarity with orthosteric 5-HT3R ligands (Jørgensen et al., 2011). In the present study we have elucidated the functional characteristics and the mechanism of action of one of these compounds, trans-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(pentan-3-yl)acrylamide (TMPPAA). In electrophysiological recordings TMPPAA was found to be a highly-efficacious partial agonist equipotent with 5-HT at the 5-HT3A receptor (5-HT3AR) expressed in COS-7 cells and somewhat less potent at the receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The desensitization kinetics of TMPPAA-evoked currents were very different from those mediated by 5-HT. Moreover, repeated TMPPAA applications resulted in progressive current run-down and persistent non-responsiveness of the receptor to TMPPAA, but not to 5-HT. In addition to its direct activation, TMPPAA potentiated 5-HT-mediated 5-HT3AR signalling, and the allosteric link between the two binding sites was corroborated by the analogous ability of 5-HT to potentiate TMPPAA-evoked responses. The agonism and potentiation exerted by TMPPAA at a chimeric α7-nACh/5-HT3A receptor suggested that the ligand acts through the transmembrane domain of 5-HT3AR, a notion further substantiated by its functional properties at chimeric and mutant human/murine 5-HT3ARs. A residue in the transmembrane helix 4 of 5-HT3A was identified as an important molecular determinant for the different agonist potencies exhibited by TMPPAA at human and murine 5-HT3ARs. In conclusion, TMPPAA is a novel allosteric agonist and positive allosteric modulator of 5-HT3Rs, and its aberrant signalling characteristics compared to 5-HT at the 5-HT3AR underline the potential in Cys-loop receptor modulation and activation through allosteric sites. PMID:27086281

  7. Dominant and recessive mutations in the Raf-like kinase HT1 gene completely disrupt stomatal responses to CO2 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Monda, Keina; Higaki, Takumi; Isogai, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Toshiaki; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Iba, Koh

    2016-01-01

    HT1 (HIGH LEAF TEMPERATURE 1) is the first component associated with changes in stomatal aperture in response to CO2 to be isolated by forward genetic screening. The HT1 gene encodes a protein kinase expressed mainly in guard cells. The loss-of-function ht1-1 and ht1-2 mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana have CO2-hypersensitive stomatal closure with concomitant reductions in their kinase activities in vitro. In addition to these mutants, in this study we isolate or obtaine five new ht1 alleles (ht1-3, ht1-4, ht1-5, ht1-6, and ht1-7). Among the mutants, only ht1-3 has a dominant mutant phenotype and has widely opened stomata due to CO2 insensitivity. The ht1-3 mutant has a missense mutation affecting a non-conserved residue (R102K), whereas the other six recessive mutants have mutations in highly conserved residues in the catalytic domains required for kinase activity. We found that the dominant mutation does not affect the expression of HT1 or the ability to phosphorylate casein, a universal kinase substrate, but it does affect autophosphorylation activity in vitro. A 3D structural model of HT1 also shows that the R102 residue protrudes from the surface of the kinase, implying a role for the formation of oligomers and/or interaction with its targets. We demonstrate that both the loss-of-function and gain-of-function ht1 mutants have completely disrupted CO2 responses, although they have normal responses to ABA. Furthermore, light-induced stomatal opening is smaller in ht1-3 and much smaller in ht1-2. Taken together, these results indicate that HT1 is a critical regulator for CO2 signaling and is partially involved in the light-induced stomatal opening pathway. PMID:27034327

  8. Dominant and recessive mutations in the Raf-like kinase HT1 gene completely disrupt stomatal responses to CO2 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Monda, Keina; Higaki, Takumi; Isogai, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Toshiaki; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Iba, Koh

    2016-05-01

    HT1 (HIGH LEAF TEMPERATURE 1) is the first component associated with changes in stomatal aperture in response to CO2 to be isolated by forward genetic screening. The HT1 gene encodes a protein kinase expressed mainly in guard cells. The loss-of-function ht1-1 and ht1-2 mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana have CO2-hypersensitive stomatal closure with concomitant reductions in their kinase activities in vitro In addition to these mutants, in this study we isolate or obtaine five new ht1 alleles (ht1-3, ht1-4, ht1-5, ht1-6, and ht1-7). Among the mutants, only ht1-3 has a dominant mutant phenotype and has widely opened stomata due to CO2 insensitivity. The ht1-3 mutant has a missense mutation affecting a non-conserved residue (R102K), whereas the other six recessive mutants have mutations in highly conserved residues in the catalytic domains required for kinase activity. We found that the dominant mutation does not affect the expression of HT1 or the ability to phosphorylate casein, a universal kinase substrate, but it does affect autophosphorylation activity in vitro A 3D structural model of HT1 also shows that the R102 residue protrudes from the surface of the kinase, implying a role for the formation of oligomers and/or interaction with its targets. We demonstrate that both the loss-of-function and gain-of-function ht1 mutants have completely disrupted CO2 responses, although they have normal responses to ABA. Furthermore, light-induced stomatal opening is smaller in ht1-3 and much smaller in ht1-2 Taken together, these results indicate that HT1 is a critical regulator for CO2 signaling and is partially involved in the light-induced stomatal opening pathway. PMID:27034327

  9. Chemoproteomic Approach to Explore the Target Profile of GPCR ligands: Application to 5-HT1A and 5-HT6 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Ana M; González-Vera, Juan A; Rueda-Zubiaurre, Ainoa; Alonso, Dulce; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Martín-Couce, Lidia; Palomares, Óscar; López, Juan A; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Benhamú, Bellinda; López-Rodríguez, María L; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Silvia

    2016-01-22

    Determination of the targets of a compound remains an essential aspect in drug discovery. A complete understanding of all binding interactions is critical to recognize in advance both therapeutic effects and undesired consequences. However, the complete polypharmacology of many drugs currently in clinical development is still unknown, especially in the case of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands. In this work we have developed a chemoproteomic platform based on the use of chemical probes to explore the target profile of a compound in biological systems. As proof of concept, this methodology has been applied to selected ligands of the therapeutically relevant serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT6 receptors, and we have identified and validated some of their off-targets. This approach could be extended to other drugs of interest to study the targeted proteome in disease-relevant systems. PMID:26560738

  10. Differential expression of 5-HT-related genes in symptomatic pulmonary embolism patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yun; Wang, Lemin; Duan, Qianglin; Gong, Zhu; Yang, Fan; Song, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Whole human genome oligo microarrays were employed to systematically investigate the mRNA expression profile of 5-HT synthetase, transporter, receptor, and factors in 5-HT signaling pathway in peripheral blood karyocytes from pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. Methods: A total of 20 PE patients and 20 healthy subjects matched in gender and age were recruited. The human genome microarrays were performed to detect the mRNA expression profile of 5-HT synthetase, transporter, receptor, and factors in 5-HT signal pathway of two groups. The random variance model corrected t-test was used for analysis. Results: Our results showed (1) tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1)-related gene expression was markedly down-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.01); (2) monoamine oxidases (MAO)-related gene (MAOB) expression was significantly up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.01); (3) the expression of 17 genes of 7 5-HT receptors showed a down-regulated tendency in PE patients, and significant difference was observed in the expression of HTR1E, HTR3B, HTR4 and HTR5A between them (P < 0.05); (4) the expression of DalDAG-GEF I, Tubby, PKA and EPAC in 5-HT signal pathways was dramatically up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05); the expression of SPA1, RIAM, RAPL, Talin, PKC, PLC and Pyk2 was remarkably up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05); (5) the expression of integrin genes ITGA2B, ITGB1 and ITGB3 was significantly up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In PE patients, the expression of TPH1 and HTR4 was down-regulated as a negative feedback; the MAOB expression was up-regulated. Consistent with the expression of 5-HTR1E and 5-HTR4 and the abnormally activated Tubby, the expression of integrins in platelets was activated. PMID:25785024

  11. Antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs colocalize with 5-HT3 receptors in raft-like domains.

    PubMed

    Eisensamer, Brigitte; Uhr, Manfred; Meyr, Sabrina; Gimpl, Gerald; Deiml, Tobias; Rammes, Gerhard; Lambert, Jeremy J; Zieglgänsberger, Walter; Holsboer, Florian; Rupprecht, Rainer

    2005-11-01

    Despite different chemical structure and pharmacodynamic signaling pathways, a variety of antidepressants and antipsychotics inhibit ion fluxes through 5-HT3 receptors in a noncompetitive manner with the exception of the known competitive antagonists mirtazapine and clozapine. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying the noncompetitive inhibition of the serotonin-evoked cation current, we quantified the concentrations of different types of antidepressants and antipsychotics in fractions of sucrose flotation gradients isolated from HEK293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cells stably transfected with the 5-HT3A receptor and of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells in relation to the localization of the 5-HT3 receptor protein within the cell membrane. Western blots revealed a localization of the 5-HT3 receptor protein exclusively in the low buoyant density (LBD) fractions compatible with a localization within raft-like domains. Also, the antidepressants desipramine, fluoxetine, and reboxetine and the antipsychotics fluphenazine, haloperidol, and clozapine were markedly enriched in LBD fractions, whereas no accumulation occurs for mirtazapine, carbamazepine, moclobemide, and risperidone. The concentrations of psychopharmacological drugs within LBD fractions was strongly associated with their inhibitory potency against serotonin-induced cation currents. The noncompetitive antagonism of antidepressants at the 5-HT3 receptor was not conferred by an enhancement of receptor internalization as shown by immunofluorescence studies, assessment of receptor density in clathrin-coated vesicles, and electrophysiological recordings after coexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of dynamin I, which inhibits receptor internalization. In conclusion, enrichment of antidepressants and antipsychotics in raft-like domains within the cell membrane appears to be crucial for their antagonistic effects at ligand-gated ion channels such as 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:16267227

  12. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  13. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  14. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  15. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) for antihypertensive activity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghelani, Hardik S.; Patel, Bipin M.; Gokani, Rina H.; Rachchh, Manish A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03). Materials and Methods: The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models. Results: SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na+ and increase in serum K+ level in DOCA model. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect. PMID:26195912

  16. 5-HT Obesity Medication Efficacy via POMC Activation is Maintained During Aging

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Luke K.; Doslikova, Barbora; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Garfield, Alastair S.; Farooq, Gala; Burdakov, Denis; Low, Malcolm J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Evans, Mark L.; Billups, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon commonly described as the middle-age spread is the result of elevated adiposity accumulation throughout adulthood until late middle-age. It is a clinical imperative to gain a greater understanding of the underpinnings of age-dependent obesity and, in turn, how these mechanisms may impact the efficacy of obesity treatments. In particular, both obesity and aging are associated with rewiring of a principal brain pathway modulating energy homeostasis, promoting reduced activity of satiety pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). Using a selective ARC-deficient POMC mouse line, here we report that former obesity medications augmenting endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity d-fenfluramine and sibutramine require ARC POMC neurons to elicit therapeutic appetite-suppressive effects. We next investigated whether age-related diminished ARC POMC activity therefore impacts the potency of 5-HT obesity pharmacotherapies, lorcaserin, d-fenfluramine, and sibutramine and report that all compounds reduced food intake to a comparable extent in both chow-fed young lean (3–5 months old) and middle-aged obese (12–14 months old) male and female mice. We provide a mechanism through which 5-HT anorectic potency is maintained with age, via preserved 5-HT–POMC appetitive anatomical machinery. Specifically, the abundance and signaling of the primary 5-HT receptor influencing appetite via POMC activation, the 5-HT2CR, is not perturbed with age. These data reveal that although 5-HT obesity medications require ARC POMC neurons to achieve appetitive effects, the anorectic efficacy is maintained with aging, findings of clinical significance to the global aging obese population. PMID:25051442

  17. Role of 5-HT(1A) receptors in fluoxetine-induced lordosis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Guptarak, Jutatip; Sarkar, Jhimly; Hiegel, Cindy; Uphouse, Lynda

    2010-07-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine (Prozac(R)), is an effective antidepressant that is also prescribed for other disorders (e.g. anorexia, bulimia, and premenstrual dysphoria) that are prevalent in females. However, fluoxetine also produces sexual side effects that may lead patients to discontinue treatment. The current studies were designed to evaluate several predictions arising from the hypothesis that serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors contribute to fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. In rodent models, 5-HT(1A) receptors are potent negative modulators of female rat sexual behavior. Three distinct experiments were designed to evaluate the contribution of 5-HT(1A) receptors to the effects of fluoxetine. In the first experiment, the ability of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635), to prevent fluoxetine-induced lordosis inhibition was examined. In the second experiment, the effects of prior treatment with fluoxetine on the lordosis inhibitory effect of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), were studied. In the third experiment, the ability of progesterone to reduce the acute response to fluoxetine was evaluated. WAY100635 attenuated the effect of fluoxetine; prior treatment with fluoxetine decreased 8-OH-DPAT's potency in reducing lordosis behavior; and progesterone shifted fluoxetine's dose-response curve to the right. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that 5-HT(1A) receptors contribute to fluoxetine-induced sexual side effects. PMID:20223238

  18. Antidepressant- and Anxiolytic-Like Effects of New Dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 Antagonists in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Pytka, Karolina; Partyka, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Mordyl, Barbara; Kazek, Grzegorz; Rapacz, Anna; Olczyk, Adrian; Gałuszka, Adam; Błachuta, Marian; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Marona, Henryk; Sapa, Jacek; Filipek, Barbara; Wesołowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further characterize pharmacological properties of two phenylpiperazine derivatives: 1-{2-[2-(2,6-dimethlphenoxy)ethoxy]ethyl}-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazynine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 2-[2-(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxy]ethyl-4-(2- methoxyphenyl)piperazynine dihydrochloride (HBK-15) in radioligand binding and functional in vitro assays as well as in vivo models. Antidepressant-like properties were investigated in the forced swim test (FST) in mice and rats. Anxiolytic-like activity was evaluated in the four-plate test in mice and elevated plus maze test (EPM) in rats. Imipramine and escitalopram were used as reference drugs in the FST, and diazepam was used as a standard anxiolytic drug in animal models of anxiety. Our results indicate that HBK-14 and HBK-15 possess high or moderate affinity for serotonergic 5-HT2, adrenergic α1, and dopaminergic D2 receptors as well as being full 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor antagonists. We also present their potent antidepressant-like activity (HBK-14—FST mice: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; FST rats: 5 mg/kg) and (HBK-15—FST mice: 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; FST rats: 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg). We show that HBK-14 (four-plate test: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; EPM: 2.5 mg/kg) and HBK-15 (four-plate test: 2.5 and 5 mg/kg; EPM: 5 mg/kg) possess anxiolytic-like properties. Among the two, HBK-15 has stronger antidepressant-like properties, and HBK-14 displays greater anxiolytic-like activity. Lastly, we demonstrate the involvement of serotonergic system, particularly 5-HT1A receptor, in the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions of investigated compounds. PMID:26554929

  19. (+)Lysergic acid diethylamide, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a potent serotonin 5HT1C receptor agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, K.D.; Breeding, M.; Sanders-Bush, E. )

    1991-09-01

    Activation of central serotonin 5HT2 receptors is believed to be the primary mechanism whereby lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other hallucinogens induce psychoactive effects. This hypothesis is based on extensive radioligand binding and electrophysiological and behavioral studies in laboratory animals. However, the pharmacological profiles of 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptors are similar, making it difficult to distinguish between effects due to activation of one or the other receptor. For this reason, it was of interest to investigate the interaction of LSD with 5HT1C receptors. Agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat choroid plexus was used as a direct measure of 5HT1C receptor activation. (+)LSD potently stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in intact choroid plexus and in cultures of choroid plexus epithelial cells, with EC50 values of 9 and 26 nM, respectively. The effect of (+)LSD in both systems was blocked by 5HT receptor antagonists with an order of activity consistent with interaction at 5HT1C receptors. Neither (+)-2-bromo-LSD nor lisuride, two nonhallucinogenic congeners of LSD, were able to stimulate 5HT1C receptors in cultured cells or intact choroid plexus. In contrast, lisuride, like (+)LSD, is a partial agonist at 5HT2 receptors in cerebral cortex slices and in NIH 3T3 cells transfected with 5HT2 receptor cDNA. The present finding that (+)LSD, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a 5HT1C receptor agonist suggests a possible role for these receptors in mediating the psychoactive effects of LSD.

  20. Structures of deepoxytrichothecene metabolites from 3'-hydroxy HT-2 toxin and T-2 tetraol in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, T; Sakamoto, T; Kuwamura, K

    1985-01-01

    3'-Hydroxy HT-2 toxin and T-2 tetraol, in vivo metabolites of T-2 toxin, were orally administered to Wistar rats, and four metabolites having a trichothec-9,12-diene nucleus, which were termed deepoxytrichothecenes, were newly found in the excreta. Their structures were confirmed as 3'-hydroxy-deepoxy HT-2, 3'-hydroxy-deepoxy T-2 triol, 15-acetyl-deepoxy T-2 tetraol, and deepoxy T-2 tetraol on the basis of mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Resolution of T-2 metabolites and corresponding deepoxytrichothecenes by gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatography was also described. PMID:4073895

  1. A Hybrid Heating Method for the HT-7U Coils during Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yi-min; Wu, Song-tao; Pan, Wan-jiang; Weng, Pei-de; Wan, Yuan-xi

    2001-04-01

    The HT-7U superconducting tokamak is a full-superconducting magnetically confined fusion device, The toroidal magnet system of HT-7U is a very important part of the device. In VPI (Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation) process the magnet coils must be heated and degassed before impregnating and must be heated to the gel temperature and then the curing temperature, and keep the two kinds of temperatures for a long period of time after impregnating. Thus the heating method of VPI is critical. In this paper, a hybrid method of combining the internal and external heating for the coils is analyzed, especially the possibility of the internal heating method is proved.

  2. [Design, synthesis and 5-HT/NE dual reuptake inhibitory activity of aromatic heterocyclic arylamidine derivatives].

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jian-jun; Wang, Ya-fang; Ji, Cheng-xue; Yang, Guang-zhong

    2009-03-01

    Based on the pharmacophore information and the analysis of structure-activity relationship of SSRIs and SNRIs, a series of substituted aromatic heterocyclic arylamidine derivatives were designed and synthesized in order to search for lead compounds with dual activity. All of them were new compounds, and their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR and HRMS. Preliminary in vitro pharmacological tests showed that all target compounds exhibited 5-HT reuptake inhibitory activity and some compounds exhibited NE reuptake inhibitory activity. These aromatic heterocyclic arylamidine designed can be further optimized for finding more potent 5-HT/NE dual reuptake inhibitors and antidepressant candidates as well. PMID:19449528

  3. Inhibitory effect of delphinidin from Solanum melongena on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 invasiveness in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagase, H; Sasaki, K; Kito, H; Haga, A; Sato, T

    1998-04-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effect of eggplant (Solanum melongena var. marunasu) extract on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cell invasion of reconstituted basement membrane [Matrigel (MG)]. We found that the effective component of the plant extract was delphinidin, a flavonoid pigment contained in the peel. The extract and delphinidin did not affect tumor cell adhesion to MG or haptotactic migration to MG. HT-1080 secretes matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which degrade extracellular matrix as part of the invasive process. Delphinidin slightly inhibited the activity of MMPs, which may have been responsible, in part, for the inhibition of tumor cell invasiveness. PMID:9581517

  4. Compositions and methods related to serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    DOEpatents

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Saigal, Neil

    2010-06-08

    Contemplated substituted arylpiperazinyl compounds, and most preferably 18F-Mefway, exhibit desirable in vitro and in vivo binding characteristics to the 5-HT1A receptor. Among other advantageous parameters, contemplated compounds retain high binding affinity, display optimal lipophilicity, and are radiolabeled efficiently with 18F-fluorine in a single step. Still further, contemplated compounds exhibit high target to non-target ratios in receptor-rich regions both in vitro and in vivo, and selected compounds can be effectively and sensitively displaced by serotonin, thus providing a quantitative tool for measuring 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin concentration changes in the living brain.

  5. Compositions and methods related to serotonin 5-HT1A receptors

    DOEpatents

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Saigal, Neil; Saigal, legal representative, Harsh

    2012-09-25

    Contemplated substituted arylpiperazinyl compounds, and most preferably 18F-Mefway, exhibit desirable in vitro and in vivo binding characteristics to the 5-HT1A receptor. Among other advantageous parameters, contemplated compounds retain high binding affinity, display optimal lipophilicity, and are radiolabeled efficiently with 18F-fluorine in a single step. Still further, contemplated compounds exhibit high target to non-target ratios in receptor-rich regions both in vitro and in vivo, and selected compounds can be effectively and sensitively displaced by serotonin, thus providing a quantitative tool for measuring 5-HT1A receptors and serotonin concentration changes in the living brain.

  6. SN 2011ht: A weak explosion in a massive extended envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugai, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of explaining the light curve and the low expansion velocity of SN 2011ht, which belongs to a group of three objects showing signatures of both type IIn and type IIP supernovae, is explored. The radiated energy and expansion velocity of the ejecta of SN 2011ht are shown to be consistent with a low-energy supernova explosion (≈6 × 1049 erg) and ≤2 {M_ ⊙} ejecta expanding within a circumstellar envelope of radius 2 × 1014 cm and mass 6-8 {M_ ⊙} An observational test for this scenario is proposed.

  7. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun; Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog; Jin, Young-Ho

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) effect was tested on visceral afferent neurons. • PGE{sub 2} did not evoke response but potentiated serotonin (5-HT) currents up to 167%. • PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation was blocked by E-prostanoid type 4 receptors antagonist. • PGE{sub 2} effect on 5-HT response was also blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720. • Thus, PGE{sub 2} modulate visceral afferent neurons via synergistic signaling with 5-HT. - Abstract: Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE{sub 2} induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE{sub 2} effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE{sub 2} itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type4 (EP{sub 4}) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE{sub 2} effects. PGE{sub 2} induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE{sub 2} potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin

  8. Improved charge transport in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction PV cell under ambient environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, July T.; Mola, Genene T.

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced current density has been observed from P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell after a well sonicated solution was diluted with fresh chloroform solvent. The preparation of the devices was carried out in a simple laboratory environment without glove box and clean room. As the result of such current surge in the devices the efficiency has risen more than double compared to those devices without dilution of the P3HT:PCBM solution. We have recorded an average power conversion efficiency of 4.02(5)% under this condition. This is an encouraging development toward achieving low cost organic photovoltaic devices.

  9. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of stainless steels D9 and HT9

    SciTech Connect

    Leibowitz, L.; Blomquist, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Renewed interest in the use of metallic fuels in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors has prompted study of the thermodynamic and transport properties of its materials. Two stainless steels are of particular interest because of their good performance under irradiation. These are D9, an austenitic steel, and HT9, a ferritic steel. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion data for these alloys are of particular interest in assessing in-reactor behavior. Because literature data were inadequate, measurements of these two properties for the two steels were performed and are reported to 1200 K. Of particular interest is the influence on these properties of a phase transition in HT9.

  10. Thickness and concentration effect of P3HT in P3HT:graphene nanocomposites based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Nur Shakina Mohd; Saad, Puteri Sarah Mohamad; Affendi, Irma Hidayanti Halim; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Shariffudin, Shafinaz Sobihana

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest towards organic solar cells after the discovery of conjugated polymer and bulk-heterojunction concept. Eventhough organic solar cells are less expensive than inorganic solar cells but the power conversion energy is still considered low. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of the P3HT's thickness and concentration towards the efficiency of the P3HT:Graphene solar cells. A simulation software that is specialize for photovoltaic called SCAPS is used in this research to simulate the effect on the solar cells. The solar cell's structure will be drawn inside the simulation and the parameters for each layers is inserted. The result such as the open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η) will be calculated by the software and all the results will be put into one graph. P3HT's thickness of 100 nm and concentration of 1×1016 cm-3 has the best overall results with an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 4.55 V, short circuit current density (Jsc) of 16.76 mA/cm2, fill factor (FF) of 19.70 % and efficiency (η) about 15.03 %. The conclusions from the results is that the thicker the active layer and the more higher the concentration, the higher the efficiency of the solar cells.

  11. Differential effects of a short-term high-fat diet in an animal model of depression in rats treated with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, the 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, and the SSRI, fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Sumaya, Isabel C; Bailey, Dee; Catlett, Susan L

    2016-05-01

    Investigation into the effects of a high-fat diet on depression in the context of 5-HT3 receptor function is important given 5-HT3 antagonism may represent a novel candidate for drug discovery. To more fully understand the relationship between the 5-HT3 receptor system, depression, and high-fat intake, our main interest was to study the short-term effects of a high-fat diet on the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, and the 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, as well as the SSRI, fluoxetine, in an animal model of depression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a standard diet (11% fat) or a high-fat diet (32.5% fat) for seven days then treated with either fluoxetine (10mg/kg, ip), ondansetron (1mg/kg, ip), 2-methyl-5-HT (3mg/kg, ip), fluoxetine+ondansetron or, 2-methyl-5-HT+ondansetron prior to the Forced Swim Test. In the standard diet group, treatment with the 5HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, served to significantly decrease time of immobility as compared to controls thus showing anti-depressive-like effects. Treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, served to enhance the anti-depressive like effects of the SSRI, fluoxetine, as treatment with both the SSRI and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist dramatically decreased immobility. Importantly, in the high-fat diet groups, a week of high-fat intake served to: 1) counteract the anti-depressive-like effect of the SSRI, fluoxetine, 2) reverse the anti-depressive-like effect of the 5HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT and 3) provide protection against the depressive-like effects induced by the Forced Swim Test as rats fed a high-fat diet displayed the lowest amounts of immobility. In the aggregate, these data suggest that both SSRIs and the 5HT3 receptor system are affected by short-term high-fat intake and that a short-term high-fat diet protects against depressive-like effects in an animal model of depression. PMID:26979154

  12. Targeting the Serotonin 5-HT7 Receptor in the Search for Treatments for CNS Disorders: Rationale and Progress to Date.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka

    2015-04-01

    The 5-HT7 (5-hydroxytryptamine 7, serotonin 7) receptor is one of the most recently identified members of the serotonin receptor family. Pharmacological tools, including selective antagonists and, more recently, agonists, along with 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) knock-out mice have revealed the involvement of this receptor in central nervous system processes. Its well-established role in controlling body temperature and regulating sleep and circadian rhythms has implicated this receptor in mood disorders. Thus, the 5-HT7R has gained much attention as a possible target for the treatment of depression. Although preclinical data support the antidepressant-like actions of 5-HT7R antagonists, their clinical efficacy has not been yet established. Other evidence has implicated the 5-HT7R in learning and memory. Preclinical findings suggest that blockade of this receptor may be beneficial against schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits. Other possible indications include nociception, epilepsy, migraine, autism spectrum disorders, and Rett Syndrome. However, the question is whether the beneficial effects may be achieved by activation or blockade of 5-HT7Rs. Hence, this review briefly summarises the recent findings on the role of 5-HT7Rs and their ligands in CNS disorders. PMID:25721336

  13. Am5-HT7: molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first serotonin receptor of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schlenstedt, Jana; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-09-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in the regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioural processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. These functions are mediated through the binding of serotonin to its receptors, of which 13 subtypes have been characterized in vertebrates. We have isolated a cDNA from the honeybee Apis mellifera (Am5-ht7) sharing high similarity to members of the 5-HT(7) receptor family. Expression of the Am5-HT(7) receptor in HEK293 cells results in an increase in basal cAMP levels, suggesting that Am5-HT(7) is expressed as a constitutively active receptor. Serotonin application to Am5-ht7-transfected cells elevates cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) levels in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 1.1-1.8 nm). The Am5-HT(7) receptor is also activated by 5-carboxamidotryptamine, whereas methiothepin acts as an inverse agonist. Receptor expression has been investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and western blotting experiments. Receptor mRNA is expressed in the perikarya of various brain neuropils, including intrinsic mushroom body neurons, and in peripheral organs. This study marks the first comprehensive characterization of a serotonin receptor in the honeybee and should facilitate further analysis of the role(s) of the receptor in mediating the various central and peripheral effects of 5-HT. PMID:16945110

  14. Different responses of Fe transporters in Caco2/HT29-MTX cocultures than in independent Caco-2 cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human intestinal epithelium is composed of several cell types; mainly enterocytes and globet (mucin-secreting) cells. This study compares the cellular response for Fe transporters in Caco-2, HT29-MTX, and Caco-2/HT29-MTX coculture models for Fe bioavailability studies. Under culture, Caco-2 cell...

  15. Role of "Aplysia" Cell Adhesion Molecules during 5-HT-Induced Long-Term Functional and Structural Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jin-Hee; Lim, Chae-Seok; Lee, Yong-Seok; Kandel, Eric R.; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2004-01-01

    We previously reported that five repeated pulses of 5-HT lead to down-regulation of the TM-apCAM isoform at the surface of "Aplysia" sensory neurons (SNs). We here examined whether apCAM down-regulation is required for 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation. We also analyzed the role of the cytoplasmic and extracellular domains by overexpressing…

  16. Rational design in search for 5-phenylhydantoin selective 5-HT7R antagonists. Molecular modeling, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kucwaj-Brysz, Katarzyna; Warszycki, Dawid; Podlewska, Sabina; Witek, Jagna; Witek, Karolina; González Izquierdo, Andrea; Satała, Grzegorz; Loza, María I; Lubelska, Annamaria; Latacz, Gniewomir; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Castro, Marián; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Handzlik, Jadwiga

    2016-04-13

    A series of novel arylpiperazine 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-methylhydantoins with 2-hydroxypropyl linker (2-15) was synthesized and evaluated on their affinity towards serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) in comparison to other closely related GPCRs: serotonin 5-HT1A, and dopamine D2 receptors. The functional activity studied through the measurement of 5-HT7R-mediated cyclic AMP production in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK293) stably expressing human 5-HT7 proved their antagonistic properties. The lead structure was also examined in the preliminary metabolic stability study using human liver microsomes (HMLs). The process of selection of candidates for synthesis was supported by a special molecular modeling workflow including combinatorial library generation, docking, and machine learning-based assessment. Additionally, in silico predictions of selectivity over 5-HT1AR and D2R, as well as functional activity were carried out. The newly synthesized compounds were proved to possess a potent affinity for 5-HT7R, similar to that of the lead structure of 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)-5-methylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (1). For several derivatives, significant selectivity both over 5-HT1AR and D2R was found. PMID:26900658

  17. The 5-HT1A agonists 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone and ipsapirone attenuate stress-induced anorexia in rats.

    PubMed

    Dourish, C T; Kennett, G A; Curzon, G

    1987-01-01

    The effects of 5-HT agonists and antagonists, benzodiazepine anxiolytics and tricyclic antidepressants on restraint stress-induced anorexia in rats were examined. The selective 5-HT(1A) agonists 8-hydroxy-2-(di- n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), buspirone and ipsapirone, when injected 2 h after the termination of stress, attenuated stress-induced anor exia and body weight loss. The effects of 8-OH-DPAT on stress-induced anorexia were blocked by the 5-HT(1A) antagonist spiperone but not by the 5-HT(2) antagonist ketanserin. The preferential 5-HT(1B) agonists RU-24969 and quipazine induced anorexia in unstressed rats and tended to supplement the anorectic effects of stress. The benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide and diazepam and the 5-HT antagonist cyproheptadine had no effect on stress-induced anorexia, when given (like the 5-HT(1A) agonists) 2 h after the stress. Similarly, daily injection for 2 weeks of the tricyclic antidepressants desipramine and sertraline had no beneficial effect. The data suggest that 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone and ipsapirone attenuate stress-induced anorexia in rodents by a hyperphagic action on 5-HT(1A) receptors. PMID:22158750

  18. Functional evidence for the rapid desensitization of 5-HT(3) receptors on vagal afferents mediating the Bezold-Jarisch reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors on cardiopulmonary afferents mediating the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR) desensitize upon repeated exposure to selective agonists. BJR-mediated falls in heart rate, diastolic arterial blood pressure and cardiac output elicited by the 5-HT(3)-receptor agonists, phenylbiguanide (100 microg/kg, i.v.) or 2-methyl-5-HT (100 microg/kg, i.v.), progressively diminished upon repeated injection in conscious rats. The BJR responses elicited by 5-HT (40 microg/kg, i.v.) were markedly reduced in rats which had received the above injections of phenylbiguanide or 2-methyl-5-HT whereas the BJR responses elicited by L-S-nitrosocysteine (10 micromol/kg, i.v.) were similar before and after the injections of the 5-HT(3) receptor agonists. These findings suggest that tachyphylaxis to 5-HT(3) receptor agonists may be due to the desensitization of 5-HT(3) receptors on cardiopulmonary afferents rather than the impairment of the central or peripheral processing of the BJR.

  19. Effects of PbO on the oxide films of incoloy 800HT in simulated primary circuit of PWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu; Yang, Junhan; Wang, Wanwan; Shi, Rongxue; Liang, Kexin; Zhang, Shenghan

    2016-05-01

    Effects of trace PbO on oxide films of Incoloy 800HT were investigated in simulated primary circuit water chemistry of PWR, also with proper Co addition. The trace PbO addition in high temperature water blocked the protective spinel oxides formation of the oxide films of Incoloy 800HT. XPS results indicated that the lead, added as PbO into the high temperature water, shows not only +2 valance but also +4 and 0 valances in the oxide film of 800HT co-operated with Fe, Cr and Ni to form oxides films. Potentiodynamic polarization results indicated that as PbO concentration increased, the current densities of the less protective oxide films of Incoloy 800HT decreased in a buffer solution tested at room temperature. The capacitance results indicated that the donor densities of oxidation film of Incoloy 800HT decreased as trace PbO addition into the high temperature water.

  20. Raman calibration of the HT-7 yttrium aluminum garnet Thomson scattering for electron density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zang Qing; Zhao Junyu; Gao Xiang; Shi Lingwei; Zhang Tao; Xi Xiaoqi; Yang Li; Hu Qingsheng; Sajjad, S.

    2007-11-15

    A multipulse neodym doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser Thomson scattering system calibrated by the anti-Stokes rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen gas had been developed in the HT-7 superconducting Tokmak. By virtue of this system, measured electron density results of the plasma were obtained. The results showed good repeatability and its total uncertainty was estimated to be {+-}18%.

  1. Thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in HT9 steel after irradiation to high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Anderoglu, Osman; Maloy, Stuart A.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2014-06-01

    The HT9 ferritic/martensitic steel with a nominal chemistry of Fe(bal.)12%Cr1%MoVW has been used as a primary core material for fast fission reactors such as FFTF because of its high resistance to radiation-induced swelling and embrittlement. Both static and dynamic fracture test results have shown that the HT9 steel can become brittle when it is exposed to high dose irradiation at a relatively low temperature (<430 °C). This article aims at a comprehensive discussion on the thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in the HT9 steel after irradiation up to 3148 dpa at 378504 °C. A specimen reuse technique has been established and applied to this study: the fracture specimens were tested Charpy specimens or broken halves of Charpy bars (13 × 3 × 4 mm). The post-anneal fracture test results indicated that much of the radiation-induced damage can be recovered by a simple thermal annealing schedule: the fracture toughness was incompletely recovered by 550 °C annealing, while nearly complete or complete recovery occurred after 650 °C annealing. This indicates that thermal annealing is a feasible damage mitigation technique for the reactor components made of HT9 steel. The partial recovery is probably due to the non-removable microstructural damages such as void or gas bubble formation, elemental segregation and precipitation.

  2. Ternary hybrid systems of P3HT-CdSe-WS₂ nanotubes for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Bruno, A; Borriello, C; Haque, S A; Minarini, C; Di Luccio, T

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid heterojunctions of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanomaterials are a promising combination for obtaining high performance solar cells (SC). In this work we have explored new possible uses of the WS2 nanotubes (NTs) both as the only acceptor material blended with a polymer and in ternary systems mixed with a polymer and quantum dots (QDs). In particular we have spectroscopically investigated binary blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and WS2 NTs, P3HT and CdSe QDs, and ternary blends of P3HT, CdSe QDs and WS2 NTs. We report fluorescence quenching effects of the QD signal in the P3HT-CdSe-WS2 system with the increase of NT concentration. Static and time-resolved fluorescence studies reveal efficient resonant energy transfer from the QDs to the NTs upon photoexcitation. The evidence of energetic interaction between WS2 NTs and QDs opens new fields of application of WS2 NTs and holds very promising potential for improving charge transfer phenomena in the active layer of hybrid solar cells. PMID:25050744

  3. Physicochemical study on interactions between T-2 and HT-2 toxin derivatives and cyclodextrins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physicochemical interactions occurring between fluorescent anthracene derivatives of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and different cyclodextrins (CDs) were investigated in aqueous solutions by means of UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence emission, and Dynamic Light Scattering. Binding constant values and physicoche...

  4. [Monitoring programme of T-2 and HT-2 toxins level in cereal products].

    PubMed

    Postupolski, Jacek; Rybińska, Krystyna; Ledzion, Ewa; Kurpińska-Jaworska, Jolanta; Szczesna, Małgorzata; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    In framework of the national monitoring program in Poland HPLC method for determination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal products was developed, validated and accredited. Simply, one-step extraction and HPLC MS/MS ESI+ method was used for determination both toxins. Performance of method (recovery, precision and uncertainty of results) is in line with Commission Regulation No 401/2006. Limit of detection for T-2 and HT-2 toxins is 3 ad 4 microg/kg, respectively. Samples were taken by sanitary inspection from all region of country. 107 samples cereal products (mainly from oats) were tested. T-2 and HT-2 toxins were detected in 43% samples, mean level in oats products was 22.5 microg/kg (maximum level 109 microg/kg in oat flakes), in other samples (wheat and barley flakes, grouts, flours) - 7.0 microg/kg. Intake of T-2/HT-2 toxin by the consumer in Poland is much lower than the TDI. PMID:19227254

  5. The Beam Profile Calculation for Diagnostic Neutral Beam on HT-7 Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lizhen; Hu, Chundong

    2013-10-01

    A new calculation method is introduced for convergence beam intensity. The program based on this method is prepared for beam intensity distribution and beam power calculation. Taking the HT-7 DNB as a reference, the beam profile calculated by program is similar with that of Gaussian fit of experimental data.

  6. Thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in HT9 steel after irradation to high doses

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Anderoglu, Osman; Maloy, Stuart A.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2013-08-03

    The HT9 ferritic/martensitic steel with a nominal chemistry of Fe(bal.)–12%Cr–1%MoVW has been used as a primary core material for fast fission reactors such as FFTF because of its high resistance to radiationinduced swelling and embrittlement. Both static and dynamic fracture test results have shown that the HT9 steel can become brittle when it is exposed to high dose irradiation at a relatively low temperature 430 °C). This article aims at a comprehensive discussion on the thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in the HT9 steel after irradiation up to 3–148 dpa at 378–504 °C. A specimen reuse technique has been established and applied to this study: the fracture specimens were tested Charpy specimens or broken halves of Charpy bars (13 3 4 mm). The post-anneal fracture test results indicated that much of the radiation-induced damage can be recovered by a simple thermal annealing schedule: the fracture toughness was incompletely recovered by 550 °C annealing, while nearly complete or complete recovery occurred after 650 °C annealing. This indicates that thermal annealing is a feasible damage mitigation technique for the reactor components made of HT9 steel. The partial recovery is probably due to the non-removable microstructural damages such as void or gas bubble formation, elemental segregation and precipitation.

  7. Impairement of HT29 Cancer Cells Cohesion by the Soluble Form of Neurotensin Receptor-3

    PubMed Central

    Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Coppola, Thierry; Mazella, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The neurotensin (NT) receptor-3 (NTSR3), also called sortilin is a multifunctional protein localized at the intracellular and plasma membrane level. The extracellular domain of NTSR3 (sNTSR3) is released by shedding from several cell lines including colonic cancer cells. This soluble protein acts as an active ligand through its ability to bind, to be internalized in the human adenocarcinoma epithelial HT29 cells and to stimulate the PI3 kinase pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate cellular responses induced by sNTSR3 in HT29 cells. The cellular functions of sNTSR3 were monitored by immunofluocytochemistry, electron microscopy and quantitative PCR in order to characterize the cell shape and the expression of adhesion proteins. We evidenced that sNTSR3 significantly regulates the cellular morphology as well as the cell-cell and the cell-matrix adherens properties by decreasing the expession of several integrins and by modifying the structure of desmosomes. Altogether, these properties lead to an increase of cell detachment upon sNTSR3 treatment on HT29, HCT116 and SW620 cancer cells. Our results indicate that sNTSR3 may induce the first phase of a process which weaken HT29 epithelial properties including desmosome architecture, cell spreading, and initiation of cell separation, all events which could be responsible for cancer metastasis. PMID:25221642

  8. Discovery and pharmacological profile of new hydrophilic 5-HT(4) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Brudeli, Bjarne; Navaratnarajah, Mirusha; Andressen, Kjetil Wessel; Manfra, Ornella; Moltzau, Lise Román; Nilsen, Nils Olav; Levy, Finn Olav; Klaveness, Jo

    2014-09-15

    The synthesis and pharmacological data of some new and potent hydrophilic 5-HT4 receptor antagonists are described. Propanediol derivative 25 was identified as a potent antagonist with low affinity for the hERG potassium channel and promising pharmacokinetics. PMID:25149506

  9. Insights into the complex influence of 5-HT signaling on thalamocortical axonal system development.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Esmee S B; Gaspar, Patricia; Bonnin, Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    The topographic organization of the thalamocortical axons (TCAs) in the barrel field (BF) in the rodent primary somatosensory cortex results from a succession of temporally and spatially precise developmental events. Prenatally, growth and guidance mechanisms enable TCAs to navigate through the forebrain and reach the cortex. Postnatally, TCAs grow into the cortex, and the refinement of their terminal arborization pattern in layer IV creates barrel-like structures. The combined results of studies performed over the past 20 years clearly show that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signaling modulates these pre- and early postnatal developmental processes. In this context, 5-HT signaling can purposely be described as 'modulating' rather than 'controlling' because developmental alterations of 5-HT synthesis, uptake or degradation either have a dramatic, moderate or no effect at all on TCA pathway and BF formation. In this review we summarize and compare the outcomes of diverse pharmacological and genetic manipulations of 5-HT signaling on TCA pathway and BF formation, in an attempt to understand these discrepancies. PMID:22607002

  10. Gamma Tocopherol and Lovastatin Additively Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HT29)

    PubMed Central

    Zeidooni, Leila; Rezaei, Mohsen; Hashemi Tabar, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Background Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a physiological process needed to remove unwanted or damaged cells. It has been hypothesized that any failure of programmed cell death leads to the development of neoplasm. Identifying new agents which induce apoptosis in tumor cells is of great significance in treatment of neoplasms. Numerous studies suggest that exposure of tumor cells to statins and gamma tocopherol can lead to cell death. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the cell death induced by gamma tocopherol and lovastatin in human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HT29) using flow cytometry. Material and Methods HT29 cells were grown in DMEM medium, exposed to different concentrations of lovastatin (10,20,40,100μM ) and gamma tocopherol (25,50,100,200μM) for 48 and 72 hours, individually and in combination (100μM both, 48 h). Phenotype of apoptosis was determined by means of flow cytometry. Results All Concentrations of lovastatin (10, 20, 40, 100 μM) and gamma tocopherol (25, 50, 100, 200 μM) induced an apoptotic response in HT29 cells. In combination, a significant increase in apoptosis phenotype was also demonstrated (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study showed that lovastatin when combined with gamma tocopherol, could induce apoptosis in HT29 cells more potently than each agent alone, which uncovers the significance of targeting the proliferative signaling in different points of the pathway. PMID:24624174

  11. Curcumin induces apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in HT-29 cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-bo; Qi, Li-li; Zheng, Shui-di; Wu, Tian-xing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of curcumin on release of cytochrome c and expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, Bad, Bcl-xL, caspase-3, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and survivin of HT-29 cells. Methods: HT-29 cells were treated with curcumin (0~80 μmol/L) for 24 h. The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and the apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad, caspase-3, PARP, and survivin were determined by Western blot analysis and their mRNA expressions by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Curcumin significantly induced the growth inhibition and apoptosis of HT-29 cells. A decrease in expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin was observed after exposure to 10~80 μmol/L curcumin, while the levels of Bax and Bad increased in the curcumin-treated cells. Curcumin also induced the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-3, and the cleavage of PARP in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These data suggest that curcumin induced the HT-29 cell apoptosis possibly via the mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:19235267

  12. Accelerated Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing Gallium using Raman Spectroscopy and XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, Charles F.; Henager, Charles H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    2009-12-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the evolution of composition of oxide films in the presence of zirconia coatings on miniature HT-9 alloy specimens subjected to elevated temperature in air. The experiments expanded on previous efforts to develop a quick-screening technique for candidate alloys for cladding materials (HT-9) and actinide-based mixed oxide fuel mixtures (represented by the zirconia coating) by investigating the effect of both coating composition and alloy pretreatment conditions on the high temperature reactions. In particular, the presence of the element Ga (a potential impurity in mixed oxide fuel) in the initial zirconia coating was found to accelerate the rate of oxide growth relative to that of yttria-stabilized zirconia studied previously. In addition, HT-9 samples that were subjected to different thermal pretreatments gave different results. The results suggest that the presence of Ga in a mixed oxide fuel will enhance the corrosion of HT-9 cladding under the conditions of this study, although the extent of enhancement is influenced by thermal pretreatment of the cladding material. The results also demonstrate the need to combine Raman spectroscopy with other techniques, particularly photoelectron spectroscopy, for optimizing composition and/or fabrication conditions of both cladding and oxide fuels for advanced nuclear reactors.

  13. Large scale analysis of the mutational landscape in HT-SELEX improves aptamer discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hoinka, Jan; Berezhnoy, Alexey; Dao, Phuong; Sauna, Zuben E.; Gilboa, Eli; Przytycka, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    High-Throughput (HT) SELEX combines SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment), a method for aptamer discovery, with massively parallel sequencing technologies. This emerging technology provides data for a global analysis of the selection process and for simultaneous discovery of a large number of candidates but currently lacks dedicated computational approaches for their analysis. To close this gap, we developed novel in-silico methods to analyze HT-SELEX data and utilized them to study the emergence of polymerase errors during HT-SELEX. Rather than considering these errors as a nuisance, we demonstrated their utility for guiding aptamer discovery. Our approach builds on two main advancements in aptamer analysis: AptaMut—a novel technique allowing for the identification of polymerase errors conferring an improved binding affinity relative to the ‘parent’ sequence and AptaCluster—an aptamer clustering algorithm which is to our best knowledge, the only currently available tool capable of efficiently clustering entire aptamer pools. We applied these methods to an HT-SELEX experiment developing aptamers against Interleukin 10 receptor alpha chain (IL-10RA) and experimentally confirmed our predictions thus validating our computational methods. PMID:25870409

  14. Mechanisms Underlying Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Cho, Han Jin; Yu, Rina; Lee, Ki Won; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2014-01-01

    We previously noted that kaempferol, a flavonol present in vegetables and fruits, reduced cell cycle progression of HT-29 cells. To examine whether kaempferol induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, cells were treated with various concentrations (0–60 μmol/L) of kaempferol and analyzed by Hoechst staining, Annexin V staining, JC-1 labeling of the mitochondria, immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assays, Western blot analyses, and caspase-8 assays. Kaempferol increased chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and the number of early apoptotic cells in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, kaempferol increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 as well as those of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, it increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytosolic cytochrome c concentrations. Further, kaempferol decreased the levels of Bcl-xL proteins, but increased those of Bik. It also induced a reduction in Akt activation and Akt activity and an increase in mitochondrial Bad. Additionally, kaempferol increased the levels of membrane-bound FAS ligand, decreased those of uncleaved caspase-8 and intact Bid and increased caspase-8 activity. These results indicate that kaempferol induces the apoptosis of HT-29 cells via events associated with the activation of cell surface death receptors and the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24549175

  15. T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereals and cereal-based products in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyun Ee; Kang, Young-Woon; Kim, Meehye; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2013-01-01

    A total of 214 samples, consisting of brown rice, barley, mixed grains, corn, wheat and wheat flour were analysed for T-2 and HT-2 toxins using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Recovery and repeatability were 79.9%-107.5% and 4.9%-14.5% for T-2, and 74.0%-106.1% and 5.0%-17.9% for HT-2, respectively. T-2 toxin was detected in 11 (5.1%) of all samples. The highest incidence was found in corn (21.7%) followed by mixed grains and brown rice. Mean of all samples was 1.5-4.1 µg kg⁻¹, the maximum level being 41.5 µg kg⁻¹ in corn. HT-2 toxin was detected in 126 (58.9%) of all samples, and the mean values were 26.4-59.2 µg kg⁻¹. The estimated daily intakes for the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins were 2.56, 3.22, 2.53, 0.03, 0.01 and 2.45 ng (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹ in brown rice, barley, mixed grains, corn, wheat and wheat flour, respectively. PMID:24779874

  16. Genetic depletion of brain 5HT reveals a common molecular pathway mediating compulsivity and impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kane, Michael J.; Briggs, Denise I.; Sykes, Catherine E.; Shah, Mrudang M.; Francescutti, Dina M.; Rosenberg, David R.; Thomas, David M.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by behavioral disinhibition, including disorders of compulsivity (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder; OCD) and impulse-control (e.g., impulsive aggression), are severe, highly prevalent and chronically disabling. Treatment options for these diseases are extremely limited. The pathophysiological bases of disorders of behavioral disinhibition are poorly understood but it has been suggested that serotonin dysfunction may play a role. Mice lacking the gene encoding brain tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2−/−), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin, were tested in numerous behavioral assays that are well known for their utility in modeling human neuropsychiatric diseases. Mice lacking Tph2 (and brain 5HT) show intense compulsive and impulsive behaviors to include extreme aggression. The impulsivity is motor in form and not cognitive because Tph2−/− mice show normal acquisition and reversal learning on a spatial learning task. Restoration of 5HT levels by treatment of Tph2−/− mice with its immediate precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan attenuated compulsive and impulsive-aggressive behaviors. Surprisingly, in Tph2−/− mice, the lack of 5HT was not associated with anxiety-like behaviors. The results indicate that 5HT mediates behavioral disinhibition in the mammalian brain independent of anxiogenesis. PMID:22443164

  17. Serotomide and Safflomide Modulate Forskolin-Stimulated cAMP Formation via 5-HT1 Receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotomide (N-caffeoylserotonin) and safflomide (N-caffeoyltryptamine) are serotonin-derived phenylpropenoid amides found in plants. In this paper, safflomide and serotomide were investigated to determine their effects on serotonin receptor 5-HT1 in the renal epithelial (OK) cells, due to their stru...

  18. Spatial memory deficit across aging: current insights of the role of 5-HT7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet, Gregory; Bouet, Valentine; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Dauphin, François; Paizanis, Eleni; Boulouard, Michel; Freret, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Elderly persons often face biological, psychological or social changes over time that may cause discomfort or morbidity. While some cognitive domains remain stable over time, others undergo a decline. Spatial navigation is a complex cognitive function essential for independence, safety and quality of life. While egocentric (body-centered) navigation is quite preserved during aging, allocentric (externally-centered) navigation—based on a cognitive map using distant landmarks—declines with age. Recent preclinical studies showed that serotonergic 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain regions associated with allocentric spatial navigation processing. Behavioral assessments with pharmacological or genetic tools have confirmed the role of 5-HT7 receptors in allocentric navigation. Moreover, few data suggested a selective age-related decrease in the expression of 5-HT7 receptors in pivotal brain structures implicated in allocentric navigation such as the hippocampal CA3 region. We aim to provide a short overview of the potential role of 5-HT7 receptors in spatial navigation, and to argue for their interests as therapeutic targets against age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25642173

  19. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  20. Anorexia induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors is mediated by increases in CART in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Alexandra; Conductier, Grégory; Manrique, Christine; Bouras, Constantin; Berta, Philippe; Hen, René; Charnay, Yves; Bockaert, Joël; Compan, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a growing concern in mental health, often inducing death. The potential neuronal deficits that may underlie abnormal inhibitions of food intake, however, remain largely unexplored. We hypothesized that anorexia may involve altered signaling events within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain structure involved in reward. We show here that direct stimulation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 4 receptors (5-HT4R) in the NAc reduces the physiological drive to eat and increases CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) mRNA levels in fed and food-deprived mice. It further shows that injecting 5-HT4R antagonist or siRNA-mediated 5-HT4R knockdown into the NAc induced hyperphagia only in fed mice. This hyperphagia was not associated with changes in CART mRNA expression in the NAc in fed and food-deprived mice. Results include that 5-HT4R control CART mRNA expression into the NAc via a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Considering that CART may interfere with food- and drug-related rewards, we tested whether the appetite suppressant properties of 3,4-N-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) involve the 5-HT4R. Using 5-HT4R knockout mice, we demonstrate that 5-HT4R are required for the anorectic effect of MDMA as well as for the MDMA-induced enhancement of CART mRNA expression in the NAc. Directly injecting CART peptide or CART siRNA into the NAc reduces or increases food consumption, respectively. Finally, stimulating 5-HT4R- and MDMA-induced anorexia were both reduced by injecting CART siRNA into the NAc. Collectively, these results demonstrate that 5-HT4R-mediated up-regulation of CART in the NAc triggers the appetite-suppressant effects of ecstasy. PMID:17913892

  1. Differential involvement of 5-HT projections within the amygdala in prepulse inhibition but not in psychotomimetic drug-induced hyperlocomotion.

    PubMed

    Kusljic, Snezana; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2006-03-15

    While there is abundant evidence for a role of 5-HT and the amygdala in anxiety and depression, the role of 5-HT in this brain region in schizophrenia is less well understood. We therefore examined the effects of local 5-HT depletion in the amygdala on psychotomimetic drug-induced locomotor hyperactivity and prepulse inhibition, two animal model of aspects of schizophrenia. Pentobarbital-anaesthetized (60 mg/kg, i.p.) male Sprague-Dawley rats were stereotaxically micro-injected with 0.5 microl of a 5 microg/mul solution of the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) into either the basolateral (BLA) or central nucleus of amygdala (CeN). Two weeks after the surgery, rats with BLA lesions did not show changes in either psychotomimetic drug-induced locomotor hyperactivity or prepulse inhibition. In contrast, rats with CeN lesions showed significant disruption of prepulse inhibition, but no changes in psychotomimetic drug-induced locomotor hyperactivity. Neurochemical analysis and autoradiographic labelling of 5-HT transporter sites showed that a good degree of anatomical selectivity was obtained. Following administration of 5,7-DHT into the amygdala, the concentration of 5-HT was significantly reduced. Similarly, 5-HT transporter autoradiographs showed differential and selective lesions of 5-HT innervation in targeted subregions of the amygdala. These results provide evidence for differential involvement of 5-HT projections within the amygdala in prepulse inhibition but not locomotor hyperactivity. Thus, the present study supports the view that 5-HT in the amygdala may be involved in aspects of schizophrenia and a target for antipsychotic drug action. PMID:16303186

  2. Theoretical evaluation of antiemetic effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for prevention of vomiting induced by cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hironori; Yokoyama, Haruko; Takayanagi, Risa; Yoshimoto, Koichi; Nakajima, Akihiro; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Iwase, Osamu; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2015-03-01

    5-HT(3) receptor antagonists are widely used as antiemetic agents in clinical setting, of which palonosetron, with a long elimination half life (t(1/2)), has recently become available. It is important to evaluate the concentration of serotonin when investigating the antiemetic effects of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, as those effects are not based solely on the t(1/2) value. We theoretically evaluated the antiemetic effects of three 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists (granisetron, azasetron, palonosetron) on cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting by estimating the time course of the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin. We estimated the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin in the small intestine, based on the time course of plasma concentration of each 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist and the time course of concentration of serotonin near the 5-HT(3) receptor in the small intestine after administration of cisplatin. The antiemetic effect of each 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist was evaluated based on the normal level of 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin. Our results suggest that an adequate antiemetic effect will be provided when a dose of 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin is given to patients along with any single administration of granisetron, azasetron, or palonosetron at a usual dose. On the other hand, the 5-HT(3) receptor occupancy of serotonin was found to be significantly lower than normal for several days after administration of palonosetron, as compared to granisetron and azasetron, indicating that constipation may be induced. Our results show that granisetron, azasetron, and palonosetron each have an adequate antiemetic effect after administration of 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin. PMID:24470169

  3. Time-course of 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression during memory consolidation and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Rivas, A; Pérez-García, G; González-Espinosa, C; Meneses, A

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor(6) (5-HT(6)) improve memory and reverse amnesia although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, in this paper RT-PCR was used to evaluate changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in trained and untrained rats treated with the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine. Changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor were investigated at different times in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Data indicated that memory in the Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping task was a progressive process associated to reduced mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in the three structures examined. SB-399885 improved long-term memory at 48h, while the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine or the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine impaired it at 24h. Autoshaping training and treatment with SB-399885 increased 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in (maximum increase) prefrontal cortex and striatum, 24 or 48h. The scopolamine-induced amnesia suppressed 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression while the dizocilpine-induced amnesia did not modify 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. SB-399885 and scopolamine or dizocilpine were able to reestablish memory and 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. These data confirmed previous memory evidence and of more interest is the observation that training, SB-399885 and amnesic drugs modulated 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Further investigation in different memory tasks, times and amnesia models together with more complex control groups might provide further clues. PMID:19733250

  4. Sequential onset of three 5-HT receptors during the 5-hydroxytryptaminergic differentiation of the murine 1C11 cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Kellermann, O.; Loric, S.; Maroteaux, L.; Launay, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The murine 1C11 clone, which derives from a multipotential embryonal carcinoma cell line, has the features of a neuroectodermal precursor. When cultured in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, the 1C11 cells extend bipolar extensions and express neurone-associated markers. After 4 days, the resulting cells have acquired the ability to synthesize, take up, store and catabolize 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). We have thus investigated the presence of 5-HT receptors during the 5-hydroxytryptaminergic differentiation of this inducible 1C11 cell line. 2. As shown by the binding of [125I]-GTI and the CGS 12066-dependent inhibition of the forskolin-induced cyclic AMP production, functional 5-HT1B/1D receptors become expressed on day 2 of 1C11 cell differentiation. The density of these receptors remained unchanged until day 4. 3. The same holds true for the 5-HT2B receptor, also identified by its pharmacological profile and its positive coupling to the phosphoinositide cascade. 4. On day 4 of 1C11 cell differentiation, a third 5-HT receptor, pharmacologically and functionally similar to 5-HT2A, had become induced. 5. Strikingly, the amounts of each transcript encoding 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor did not very significantly during the time course of the 1C11 5-hydroxytryptaminergic differentiation. 6. The clone 1C11 may thus provide a useful in vitro model for studying regulation(s) between multiple G-linked receptors as well as the possible role of 5-HT upon the expression of a complete 5-hydroxytryptamine phenotype. Images Figure 5 PMID:8818339

  5. Decreased Incentive Motivation Following Knockout or Acute Blockade of the Serotonin Transporter: Role of the 5-HT2C Receptor.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caleb J; Fletcher, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    Acute pharmacological elevation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) activity decreases operant responding for primary reinforcers, suggesting that 5-HT reduces incentive motivation. The mechanism by which 5-HT alters incentive motivation is unknown, but parallel evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists also reduce responding for primary reinforcers implicates this receptor as a potential candidate. These experiments examined whether chronic and acute disruptions of serotonin transporter (SERT) activity altered incentive motivation, and whether the 5-HT2C receptor mediated the effects of elevated 5-HT on behavior. To assess incentive motivation, we measured responding for three different reinforcers: a primary reinforcer (saccharin), a conditioned reinforcer (CRf), and an unconditioned sensory reinforcer (USRf). In the chronic condition, responding was compared between SERT knockout (SERT-KO) mice and their wild-type littermates. In the acute condition, responding was examined in wild-type mice following treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg citalopram, or its vehicle. The ability of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242084 to prevent the effects of SERT-KO and citalopram on responding was subsequently examined. Both SERT-KO and citalopram reduced responding for saccharin, a CRf, and a USRf. Treatment with SB 242084 enhanced responding for a CRf and a USRf in SERT-KO mice and blocked the effects of citalopram on CRf and USRf responding. However, SB 242084 was unable to prevent the effects of SERT-KO or citalopram on responding for saccharin. These results support a powerful inhibitory function for 5-HT in the control of incentive motivation, and indicate that the 5-HT2C receptor mediates these effects of 5-HT in a reinforcer-dependent manner. PMID:27125304

  6. FARADAY ROTATION IN THE TAIL OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA DeHt 5

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, R. R.; Kothes, R.; Wolleben, M.; Landecker, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    We present 1420 MHz polarization images of a 5{sup 0} x 5{sup 0} region around the planetary nebula (PN) DeHt 5. The images reveal narrow Faraday-rotation structures on the visible disk of DeHt 5, as well as two wider, tail-like, structures 'behind' DeHt 5. Though DeHt 5 is an old PN known to be interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM), a tail has not previously been identified for this object. The innermost tail is {approx}3 pc long and runs away from the northeast edge of DeHt 5 in a direction roughly opposite that of the sky-projected space velocity of the white dwarf central star, WD 2218+706. We believe this tail to be the signature of ionized material ram-pressure stripped and deposited downstream during a >74,000 yr interaction between DeHt 5 and the ISM. We estimate the rotation measure (RM) through the inner tail to be -15 {+-} 5 rad m{sup -2}, and, using a realistic estimate for the line-of-sight component of the ISM magnetic field around DeHt 5, derive an electron density in the inner tail of n{sub e} = 3.6 {+-} 1.8 cm{sup -3}. Assuming the material is fully ionized, we estimate a total mass in the inner tail of 0.68 {+-} 0.33 M{sub sun} and predict that 0.49 {+-} 0.33 M{sub sun} was added during the PN-ISM interaction. The outermost tail consists of a series of three roughly circular components, which have a collective length of {approx}11.0 pc. This tail is less conspicuous than the inner tail and may be the signature of the earlier interaction between the WD 2218+706 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitor and the ISM. The results for the inner and outer tails are consistent with hydrodynamic simulations and may have implications for the PN missing-mass problem as well as for models which describe the impact of the deaths of intermediate-mass stars on the ISM.

  7. Glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum L. kills HT-29 cells through apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kye-Taek

    2005-01-01

    Solanum nigrum L. (SNL) has been used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity. We previously isolated glycoprotein from SNL and observed that it decreased viable HT-29 cell numbers at a low concentration (60 microg/mL). This study investigated the apoptotic signal pathway triggered by glycoprotein isolated from SNL in HT-29 cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with SNL glycoprotein (60 microg/mL) for 4 hours resulted in a cytotoxic effect of more than 60%, compared with the control. To explain the apoptotic effects of SNL glycoprotein, we investigated its effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) alpha activity and DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor (NF) kappaB in HT-29 cells, using western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Results from these experiments showed that SNL glycoprotein has remarkable inhibitory effects on the activities of TPA (100 nM)-stimulated PKCalpha and NF-kappaB in HT-29 cells. They also substantiated that PKCalpha is a part of the TPA-activated upstream signal pathway of NF-kappaB, since NF-kappaB activity was inhibited by staurosporine (a PKC inhibitor) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an NF-kappaB inhibitor) in a western blot analysis. Furthermore, to verify the triggering of apoptosis by the SNL glycoprotein, we performed DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining, and protein expression assays of apoptotic-related proteins. The amount of DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell numbers increased in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with SNL glycoprotein. Apoptosis-related protein assays demonstrated that SNL glycoprotein-induced apoptosis is associated with the regulation of bcl-2 and Bax expression. Taken together, the results of this study showed that the activation of PKCalpha, NF-kappaB, and Bax expression by SNL glycoprotein is possibly involved in the apoptotic process. Consequently, these results indicate that SNL glycoprotein causes HT-29 cell death through

  8. Involvement of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in the anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in the forced swimming test and mouse strain differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yumi; Furutani, Sachiko; Kajiwara, Yoshinobu; Hirano, Kazufumi; Yamada, Shizuo; Tagawa, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yoshiharu; Hotta, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Jun

    2010-03-10

    We previously demonstrated the presence of strain differences in baseline immobility time and sensitivity to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine in five strains of mice (ICR, ddY, C57BL, DBA/2 and BALB/c mice). Furthermore, variations in serotonin (5-HT) transporter binding in the brain were strongly related to strain differences in baseline immobility and sensitivity to fluvoxamine. In the present study, we examined the involvement of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in anti-immobility effects in DBA/2 mice, which show high sensitivity to fluvoxamine. The anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in DBA/2 mice were inhibited by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY 100635). However, the 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist 3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-4-hydroxy-N-[4-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]benzamide (GR55562), the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist 6-methyl-1-(methylethyl)-ergoline-8beta-carboxylic acid 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl ester (LY 53857), the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron and the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy-benzoic acid 2-(diethylamino)ethyl ester (SDZ 205,557) did not influence the anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in DBA/2 mice. These results suggest that fluvoxamine-induced antidepressant-like effects in DBA/2 mice are mediated by the 5-HT(1A) receptor. We analyzed 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in the brains of five strains of mice. Strain differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding were observed. 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in brain was not correlated with baseline immobility time in the five strains of mice examined. These results suggest that, although the anti-immobility effects of fluvoxamine in DBA/2 mice are mediated by the 5-HT(1A) receptor, strain differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding are not related to variation in immobility time and responses to fluvoxamine. PMID:19958758

  9. G-LiHT: Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal Airborne Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce; Corp, Lawrence; Nelson, Ross; Morton, Douglas; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Masek, Jeffrey; Middleton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have developed an ultra-portable, low-cost, multi-sensor remote sensing system for studying the form and function of terrestrial ecosystems. G-LiHT integrates two LIDARs, a 905 nanometer single beam profiler and 1550 nm scanner, with a narrowband (1.5 nanometers) VNIR imaging spectrometer and a broadband (8-14 micrometers) thermal imager. The small footprint (approximately 12 centimeters) LIDAR data and approximately 1 meter ground resolution imagery are advantageous for high resolution applications such as the delineation of canopy crowns, characterization of canopy gaps, and the identification of sparse, low-stature vegetation, which is difficult to detect from space-based instruments and large-footprint LiDAR. The hyperspectral and thermal imagery can be used to characterize species composition, variations in biophysical variables (e.g., photosynthetic pigments), surface temperature, and responses to environmental stressors (e.g., heat, moisture loss). Additionally, the combination of LIDAR optical, and thermal data from G-LiHT is being used to assess forest health by sensing differences in foliage density, photosynthetic pigments, and transpiration. Low operating costs (approximately $1 ha) have allowed us to evaluate seasonal differences in LiDAR, passive optical and thermal data, which provides insight into year-round observations from space. Canopy characteristics and tree allometry (e.g., crown height:width, canopy:ground reflectance) derived from G-LiHT data are being used to generate realistic scenes for radiative transfer models, which in turn are being used to improve instrument design and ensure continuity between LiDAR instruments. G-LiHT has been installed and tested in aircraft with fuselage viewports and in a custom wing-mounted pod that allows G-LiHT to be flown on any Cessna 206, a common aircraft in use throughout the world. G-LiHT is currently being used for forest biomass and growth estimation

  10. Blockade of dorsolateral pontine 5HT1A receptors destabilizes the respiratory rhythm in C57BL6/J wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, R R; Dutschmann, M; Dick, T E

    2016-06-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT) acting via 5HT1a receptors (5HT1aR) is a potent determinant of respiratory rhythm variability. Here, we address the 5HT1aR-dependent control of respiratory rhythm variability in C57BL6/J mice. Using the in situ perfused preparation, we compared the effects of systemic versus focal blockade of 5HT1aRs. Blocking 5HT1aRs in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFn) increased the occurrence of spontaneous apneas and accounted for the systemic effects of 5HT1aR antagonists. Further, 5HT1aRs of the KFn stabilized the respiratory rhythm's response to arterial chemoreflex perturbations; reducing the recovering time, e.g., the latency to return to the baseline pattern. Together, these results suggest that the KFn regulates both intrinsic and sensory determinants of respiratory rhythm variability. PMID:26840837

  11. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HT1DR) promotes colorectal cancer metastasis by regulating Axin1/β-catenin/MMP-7 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Qing; Liu, Xuan; Zhou, Lihong; Song, Haiyan; Zhou, Xiqiu; Xu, Yangxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Cai, Jianfeng; Ji, Guang; Li, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in human cancer contributes to tumor metastasis, but the role of 5-HT receptor family in cancer has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we report overexpression of 5-HT1D receptor (5-HT1DR) was associated with Wnt signaling pathway and advanced tumor stage. The underlying mechanism of 5-HT1DR-promoted tumor invasion was through its activation on the Axin1/β-catenin/MMP-7 pathway. In an orthotopic colorectal cancer mouse model, we demonstrated that a 5-HT1DR antagonist (GR127935) effectively inhibited tumor metastasis through targeting Axin1. Furthermore, in intestinal epithelium cells, we observed that 5-HT1DR played an important role in cell invasion via Axin1/β-catenin/MMP-7 pathway. Together, our findings reveal an essential role of the physiologic level of 5-HT1DR in pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. PMID:26214021

  12. Modulation of cannabinoid signaling by hippocampal 5-HT4 serotonergic system in fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Farrahizadeh, Maryam; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral studies have suggested a key role for the cannabinoid system in the modulation of conditioned fear memory. Likewise, much of the literature has revealed that the serotonergic system affects Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. A high level of functional overlap between the serotonin and cannabinoid systems has also been reported. To clarify the interaction between the hippocampal serotonin (5-HT4) receptor and the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the acquisition of fear memory, the effects of 5-HT4 agents, arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA; CB1 receptor agonist), and the combined use of these drugs on fear learning were studied in a fear conditioning task in adult male NMRI mice. Pre-training intraperitoneal administration of ACPA (0.1 mg/kg) decreased the percentage of freezing time in both context- and tone-dependent fear conditions, suggesting impairment of the acquisition of fear memory. Pre-training, intra-hippocampal (CA1) microinjection of RS67333, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 or 0.2 µg/mouse impaired contextual and tone fear memory, respectively. A subthreshold dose of RS67333 (0.005 µg/mouse) did not alter the ACPA response in either condition. Moreover, intra-CA1 microinjection of RS23597 as a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist did not alter context-dependent fear memory acquisition, but it did impair tone-dependent fear memory acquisition. However, a subthreshold dose of the RS23597 (0.01 µg/mouse) potentiated ACPA-induced fear memory impairment in both conditions. Therefore, we suggest that the blockade of hippocampal 5-HT4 serotonergic system modulates cannabinoid signaling induced by the activation of CB1 receptors in conditioned fear. PMID:27296273

  13. NASA Goddards LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) Airborne Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Ross F.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Morton, Douglas C.; McCorkel, Joel T.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Ly, Vuong; Montesano, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of LiDAR and optical remotely sensed data provides unique information about ecosystem structure and function. Here, we describe the development, validation and application of a new airborne system that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR hyperspectral and thermal components in a compact, lightweight and portable system. Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) airborne imager is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation structure, foliar spectra and surface temperatures at very high spatial resolution (approximately 1 m) on a wide range of airborne platforms. The complementary nature of LiDAR, optical and thermal data provide an analytical framework for the development of new algorithms to map plant species composition, plant functional types, biodiversity, biomass and carbon stocks, and plant growth. In addition, G-LiHT data enhance our ability to validate data from existing satellite missions and support NASA Earth Science research. G-LiHT's data processing and distribution system is designed to give scientists open access to both low- and high-level data products (http://gliht.gsfc.nasa.gov), which will stimulate the community development of synergistic data fusion algorithms. G-LiHT has been used to collect more than 6,500 km2 of data for NASA-sponsored studies across a broad range of ecoregions in the USA and Mexico. In this paper, we document G-LiHT design considerations, physical specifications, instrument performance and calibration and acquisition parameters. In addition, we describe the data processing system and higher-level data products that are freely distributed under NASA's Data and Information policy.

  14. Activation of 5-HT3 receptors leads to altered responses 6 months after MDMA treatment.

    PubMed

    Gyongyosi, Norbert; Balogh, Brigitta; Katai, Zita; Molnar, Eszter; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Kornelia; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-03-01

    The recreational drug "Ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] has a well-characterised neurotoxic effect on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in animals. Despite intensive studies, the long-term functional consequencies of the 5-HT neurodegeneration remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any alteration of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor functions on the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and quantitative EEG could be detected 6 months after a single dose of 15 mg/kg of MDMA. The selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle was administered to freely moving rats pre-treated with MDMA (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 6 months earlier. Polysomnographic and motor activity recordings were performed. Active wake (AW), passive wake (PW), light slow wave sleep (SWS-1), deep slow wave sleep (SWS-2), and paradoxical sleep were classified. In addition, EEG power spectra were calculated for the second hour after mCPBG treatment for each stage. AW increased and SWS-1 decreased in the second hour after mCPBG treatment in control animals. mCPBG caused significant changes in the EEG power in states with cortical activation (AW, PW, paradoxical sleep). In addition, mCPBG had a biphasic effect on hippocampal theta power in AW with a decrease in 7 Hz and a stage-selective increase in the upper range (8-9 Hz). Effects of mCPBG on the time spent in AW and SWS-1 were eliminated or reduced in MDMA-treated animals. In addition, mCPBG did not increase the upper theta power of AW in rats pre-treated with MDMA. These data suggest long-term changes in 5-HT(3) receptor function after MDMA. PMID:20052506

  15. Role of maternal 5-HT1A receptor in programming offspring emotional and physical development

    PubMed Central

    van Velzen, Annelies; Toth, Miklos

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin1A receptor (5-HT1AR) deficiency has been associated with anxiety and depression and mice with genetic receptor inactivation exhibit heightened anxiety. We have reported that 5-HT1AR is not only a genetic but also a maternal “environmental” factor in the development of anxiety in Swiss-Webster mice. Here we tested if the emergence of maternal genotype dependent adult anxiety is preceded by early behavioral abnormalities or if it is manifested following a normal emotional development. Pups born to null or heterozygote mothers had significantly reduced ultrasonic vocalization between postnatal day (P) 4 and 12 indicating an influence of the maternal genotype. The offspring’s own genotype had an effect limited to P4. Furthermore, we observed reduced weight gain in the null offspring of null but not heterozygote mothers indicating that a complete maternal receptor deficiency compromises offspring physical development. Except a short perinatal deficit during the dark period, heterozygote females displayed normal maternal behavior which, with the early appearance of ultrasonic vocalization deficit, suggests a role for 5-HT1AR during pre/perinatal development. Consistent with this notion, adult anxiety in the offspring is determined during the pre/perinatal period. In contrast to heterozygote females, null mothers exhibited impaired pup retrieval and nest building that may explain the reduced weight gain of their offspring. Taken together, our data indicate an important role for the maternal 5-HT1AR in regulating offspring emotional and physical development. Since reduced receptor binding has been reported in depression, including postpartum depression, reduced 5-HT1AR function in mothers may influence the emotional development of their offspring. PMID:20633050

  16. Characterization and distribution of putative 5-ht7 receptors in guinea-pig brain.

    PubMed Central

    To, Z. P.; Bonhaus, D. W.; Eglen, R. M.; Jakeman, L. B.

    1995-01-01

    1. In the presence of (-)-cyanopindolol (1.0 microM) and sumatriptan (1.0 microM), 0.5 nM [3H]-carboxamidotrytamine ([3H]-5-CT) labelled a single population of receptors in guinea-pig cerebral cortex membranes. 2. 5-HT-displaceable binding was rapid, saturable and reversible. A high affinity binding site was characterized both by equilibrium saturation (Kd = 0.76 +/- 0.28 nM; Bmax = 68.1 +/- 26.7 fmol mg-1 protein) and kinetic (Kd = 0.18 +/- 0.05 nM) analysis. The pharmacological profile of this site was similar to the profile obtained in transfected CHO-K1 cells expressing guinea-pig 5-ht7 receptors. 3. Autoradiographic analysis revealed a discrete localization of binding sites in guinea-pig brain, with the highest density of sites in the medial thalamic nuclei and related limbic and cortical regions. Moderate levels of binding were detected in sensory relay nuclei, substantia nigra, hypothalamus, central grey and dorsal raphe nuclei. This distribution corresponded to that observed using in situ hybridization with [35S]-UTP labelled riboprobes complementary to mRNA encoding the guinea-pig 5-ht7 receptor. 4. In conclusion, under appropriate conditions, [3H]-5-CT labelled a single population of saturable binding sites that corresponded to an endogenous 5-ht7 receptor in guinea-pig brain. The distribution of 5-ht7 receptors in thalamocortical and limbic brain regions suggests a role for these receptors in sensory and affective behaviours. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7647964

  17. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  18. Interface and charge transport studies in organic solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujisamphan, Nopporn

    Interfaces and charge transport in organic solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunctions (BHJ) were studied. State-of-the-art TEM sample preparation techniques, including in-situ lift-out, were used with a dual focused ion beam (FIB) system on a typical device (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al). Through bright field (BF) TEM micrographs a mixed layer between the Al electrode and the organic active layer (P3HT:PCBM) was clearly observed in both as-fabricated and annealed devices. The effect of Al contact resistance before and after annealing was studied using the vertical transmission line model (TLM). It was found that by annealing after Al evaporation, the contact resistivity decreased by 38%. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) clearly revealed a nanoscopic phase separation. From the EFTEM images, the average length and the diameter of P3HT fibrils were found to be approximately 70 nm and 15 nm, respectively. Combining the EFTEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, the number and spacing of the ordered polymer chains in P3HT fibrils were calculated. There were about 18 repeating units of P3HT perpendicular to the fibril, about 184 layers of pi-pi* stacking along the fibril and about 9 layers of interchain stacking within the fibril. Accompanied by cross-section samples prepared by the FIB technique, the vertical morphology of each phase was analyzed. By collecting 30 eV energy loss images, the phase separation in the blend of P3HT:PCBM was distinguishable. A higher P3HT concentration was observed at the top of the cell. The temperature dependent charge separation and charge transport were studied using modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPV) on layers of P3HT, PCBM, and the blend. The unchanged character of the SPV spectra on the P3HT provides evidence that the mechanisms of charge separation, recombination and charge transport does not change qualitatively after cooling. It was

  19. Frequency of the Ht1 Gene in Populations of Sweet Corn Selected for Resistance to Exserohilum turcicum Race 1.

    PubMed

    Campaña, Andrea; Pataky, J K

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The possibility that the Ht1 gene or genes tightly linked to Ht1 convey general resistance to races of Exserohilum turcicum that are virulent against Ht1 (i.e., residual resistance) could be useful in sweet corn where the Ht1 gene is present in many commercial hybrids and breeding populations. The objective of this study was to determine if the frequency of the Ht1 gene changed in populations of sweet corn selected for general resistance to E. turcicum race 1, thus conveying residual resistance. Four populations were developed with theoretical initial frequencies of the Ht1 gene of 0, 0.25, 0.25, and 0.5. The populations were advanced by recurrent mass selection with parental control through four or five cycles of selection following inoculation with an Ht-virulent race of E. turcicum (i.e., race 1). Plants from each cycle of each population were evaluated for severity of northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) and chlorotic lesion reactions following inoculation in field and greenhouse trials with either race 0 or 1 of E. turcicum. Recurrent mass selection for general resistance to E. turcicum race 1 reduced the severity of NCLB in all four populations of sweet corn, although the change in the most susceptible population was minimal. Percent gain per cycle was 14.5, 12.3, 14, and 3.7% for populations I, II, III, and IV, respectively. The Ht1 gene did not convey levels of general resistance to E. turcicum race 1 that were substantial enough to be selected for in this population improvement program. There was no apparent selection advantage for resistance to E. turcicum race 1 in the populations that contained the Ht1 gene. The frequency of the Ht1 gene did not differ among cycles of selection within any of the populations in response to improved levels of general resistance to NCLB. The lack of change in frequency of Ht1 in these populations and the similarity in gain per cycle among populations with and without Ht1 lead us to conclude that the Ht1 gene itself

  20. The modulation by 5-HT of glutamatergic inputs from the raphe pallidus to rat hypoglossal motoneurones, in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bouryi, Vitali A; Lewis, David I

    2003-01-01

    Decreases in the activity of 5-HT-containing caudal raphe neurones during sleep are thought to be partially responsible for the resultant disfacilitation of hypoglossal motoneurones. Whilst 5-HT has a direct excitatory action on hypoglossal motoneurones as a result of activation of 5-HT2 receptors, microinjection of 5-HT2 antagonists into the hypoglossal nucleus reduces motor activity to a much lesser extent compared to the suppression observed during sleep suggesting other transmitters co-localised in caudal raphe neurones may also be involved. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterise raphe pallidus inputs to hypoglossal motoneurones. Whole cell recordings were made from hypoglossal motoneurones in vitro. 5-HT evoked a direct membrane depolarisation (8.45 ± 3.8 mV, P < 0.001) and increase in cell input resistance (53 ± 40 %, P < 0.001) which was blocked by the 5-HT2 antagonist, ritanserin (2.40 ± 2.7 vs. 7.04 ± 4.6 mV). Stimulation within the raphe pallidus evoked a monosynaptic EPSC that was significantly reduced by the AMPA/kainateantagonist, NBQX (22.8 ± 16 % of control, P < 0.001). In contrast, the 5-HT2 antagonist, ritanserin, had no effect on the amplitude of these EPSCs (106 ± 31 % of control, P = n.s.). 5-HT reduced these EPSCs to 50.0 ± 13 % of control (P < 0.001), as did the 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (52.5 ± 17 %, P < 0.001) and the 5-HT1B agonist, CP 93129 (40.6 ± 29 %, P < 0.01). 8-OH-DPAT and CP 93129 increased the paired pulse ratio (1.38 ± 0.27 to 1.91 ± 0.54, P < 0.05 & 1.27 ± 0.08 to 1.44 ± 0.13, P < 0.01 respectively) but had no effect on the postsynaptic glutamate response (99 ± 4.4 % and 100 ± 2.5 %, P = n.s.). They also increased the frequency (P < 0.001), but not the amplitude, of miniature glutamatergic EPSCs in hypoglossal motoneurones. These data demonstrate that raphe pallidus inputs to hypoglossal motoneurones are predominantly glutamatergic in nature, with 5-HT decreasing the release of glutamate from

  1. HT-2 toxin 4-glucuronide as new T-2 toxin metabolite: enzymatic synthesis, analysis, and species specific formation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides by rat, mouse, pig, and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Tanja; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-10-10

    Glucuronides of the mycotoxin T-2 toxin and its phase I metabolite HT-2 toxin are important phase II metabolites under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Since standard substances are essential for the direct quantitation of these glucuronides, a method for the enzymatic synthesis of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides employing liver microsomes was optimized. Structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry revealed that besides T-2 toxin glucuronide and HT-2 toxin 3-glucuronide also the newly identified isomer HT-2 toxin 4-glucuronide was formed. Glucuronidation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in liver microsomes of rat, mouse, pig, and human was compared and metabolites were analyzed directly by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A distinct, species specific pattern of glucuronidation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin was observed with interesting interindividual differences. Until recently, glucuronides have frequently been analyzed indirectly by quantitation of the aglycone after enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides by β-glucuronidase. Therefore, the hydrolysis efficiencies of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides using β-glucuronidases from Helix pomatia, bovine liver, and Escherichia coli were compared. PMID:22967261

  2. The Role of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and mGlu2 Receptors in the Behavioral Effects of Tryptamine Hallucinogens N,N-Dimethyltryptamine and N,N-Diisopropyltryptamine in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carbonaro, Theresa M.; Eshleman, Amy J.; Forster, Michael J.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.; Gatch, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors are thought to be the primary pharmacological mechanisms for serotonin-mediated hallucinogenic drugs, but recently there has been interest in metabotropic glutamate (mGluR2) receptors as contributors to the mechanism of hallucinogens. Objective: The present study assesses the role of these 5-HT and glutamate receptors as molecular targets for two tryptamine hallucinogens, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DiPT). Methods: Drug discrimination, head twitch and radioligand binding assays were used. A 5-HT2AR inverse agonist (MDL100907), 5-HT2CR antagonist (SB242084) and mGluR2/3 agonist (LY379268) were tested for their ability to attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT and DiPT; an mGluR2/3 antagonist (LY341495) was tested for potentiation. MDL100907 was used to attenuate head twitches induced by DMT and DiPT. Radioligand binding studies and inosital-1-phosphate (IP-1) accumulation were performed at the 5-HT2CR for DiPT. Results: MDL100907 fully blocked the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT, but only partially blocked DiPT. SB242084 partially attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of DiPT, but produced minimal attenuation of DMT’s effects. LY379268 produced potent, but only partial blockade of the discriminative stimulus effects of DMT. LY341495 facilitated DMT- and DiPT-like effects. Both compounds elicited head twitches (DiPT>DMT) which were blocked by MDL1000907. DiPT was a low potency full agonist at 5-HT2CR in vitro. Conclusions: The 5-HT2AR likely plays a major role in mediating the effects of both compounds. 5-HT2C and mGluR2 receptors likely modulate the discriminative stimulus effects of both compounds to some degree. PMID:24985890

  3. Antidepressant-like activity of Tagetes lucida Cav. is mediated by 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Guadarrama-Cruz, G; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Limón-Morales, O; Vazquez-Palacios, G

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Tagetes lucida Cav. shows an antidepressant-like effect on the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. The aim of this study was to analyze the participation of the serotoninergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of the aqueous extract of T. lucida. Different doses of the extract of T. lucida were administered at 72, 48, 24, 18 and 1 h before FST. The animals were pretreated with a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.5 mg/kg), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (ketanserin, 5 mg/kg), a β-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol, 200 mg/kg), and with a α2-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine, 1 mg/kg) alone or combined with the extract and pretreated with a serotonin synthesis inhibitor (PCPA) before treatment with 8-OH-DPAT + the extract of T. lucida. In addition, suboptimal doses of the 5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT) + non-effective dose of extract was analyzed in the FST. To determine the presence of flavonoids, the aqueous extract of T. lucida (20 µl, 4 mg/ml) was injected in HPLC; however, a quercetin concentration of 7.72 mg/g of extract weight was detected. A suboptimal dose of 8-OH-DPAT + extract of T. lucida decreased immobility and increased swimming and climbing. An antidepressant-like effect with the aqueous extract of T. lucida at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg was observed on the FST with decreased immobility behavior and increased swimming; however, this effect was blocked by WAY-100635, ketanserin and PCPA but not by yohimbine and propranolol, suggesting that the extract of T. lucida could be modulating the release/reuptake of serotonin. PMID:26062718

  4. Penetration of ( sup 3 H)T-2 mycotoxin through abraded and intact skin and methods to decontaminate ( sup 3 H)T-2 mycotoxin from abrasions

    SciTech Connect

    Solberg, V.B.; Broski, F.H.; Dinterman, R.E.; George, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    T-2 mycotoxin is a toxic metabolite of various fungi of the Fusarium species. T-2 is found naturally in moldy grain and concentrations as high as 2 ppm have been found in moldy corn. T-2 purportedly has been used as a biological warfare agent in Southeast Asia and Iran, causing human deaths and has been implicated in dermal diseases in grain handling workers. Radiolabeled T-2 has been shown to penetrate excised animal and human skin in liquid vehicles and while adsorbed onto corn dust. In experimental animals studies, (3H)T-2 penetration through skin caused symptoms ranging from erythema and skin lesions to death.

  5. Fiches pratiques: Le circuit de l'herbe; Journal a plusieurs mains; Comment aborder l'economie d'une facon economique; Des articles d'autrefois aux determinants d'aujourd'hui (Practical Ideas: The Path of Grass; Group Diary; Approaching Economics in an Economical Way; From Yesterday's Articles to Today's Determiners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a comprehension game based on the cow's digestive system, a group journal exercise using current events, an economics vocabulary development activity, and a grammar exercise focusing on the use of determiners in news articles. (MSE)

  6. Fiches pratiques: A la decouverte de l'imparfait; La ville au fil des mots; La parole de l'animateur; Deux canevas de simulation fonctionnelle (Practical Ideas: Discovering the Imperfect Tense; The City through Words; The Speech of the Moderator; Two Uses of Functional Simulation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francais dans le Monde, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Four French language classroom activities are described: an exercise juxtaposing the imperfect and present perfect tenses; exploration of ways of perceiving and describing one's environment; study of the language use and style of a radio program moderator; and two proposed contexts (an international conference and a business) for classroom…

  7. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of N-Benzyl Phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    N-Benzyl substitution of 5-HT2A receptor agonists of the phenethylamine structural class of psychedelics (such as 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, often referred to as 2C-B) confer a significant increase in binding affinity as well as functional activity of the receptor. We have prepared a series of 48 compounds with structural variations in both the phenethylamine and N-benzyl part of the molecule to determine the effects on receptor binding affinity and functional activity at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. The compounds generally had high affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor with 8b having the highest affinity at 0.29 nM but with several other compounds also exhibiting subnanomolar binding affinities. The functional activity of the compounds was distributed over a wider range with 1b being the most potent at 0.074 nM. Most of the compounds exhibited low to moderate selectivity (1- to 40-fold) for the 5-HT2A receptor in the binding assays, although one compound 6b showed an impressive 100-fold selectivity for the 5-HT2A receptor. In the functional assay, selectivity was generally higher with 1b being more than 400-fold selective for the 5-HT2A receptor. PMID:24397362

  8. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Wang, Michael M.; Deng, Jie; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic signaling at night. In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night; (b) stimulation of cAMP signaling elevates 5-HT output in vivo; (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night. Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability. These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night. PMID:18705647

  9. Isolation of a haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) from the Indian venomous butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, S; Muhuri, D C; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

    2004-05-01

    A haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) was isolated and purified from the spine extract of the Indian venomous butterfish, S. argus Linn, by two step ion exchange chromatography. The toxin was homogeneous in native and SDS-PAGE gel. SDS-molecular weight of the toxin was found to be 18.1 +/- 0.09 kDa. SA-HT produced severe haemorrhage on stomach wall but devoid of cutaneous haemorrhage. UV, EDTA, trypsin, protease, cyproheptadine, indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid and BW755C treatment significantly antagonized the haemorrhagic activity of SA-HT. The toxin produced dose and time dependent oedema on mice hind paw, which was significantly encountered by cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW755C. SA-HT increased capillary permeability on guinea pig dorsal flank. On isolated guineapig ileum, rat fundus and uterus, SA-HT produced slow contraction which was completely antagonised by prostaglandin blocker SC19220. On isolated rat duodenum, SA-HT produced slow relaxation. SA-HT significantly increased plasma plasmin, serum MDA level and decreased serum SOD level indicating the possible involvement of cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. PMID:15233468

  10. An in vitro investigation of the cardiovascular effects of the 5-HT(4) receptor selective agonists, velusetrag and TD-8954.

    PubMed

    Beattie, D T; Higgins, D L; Ero, M P; Amagasu, S M; Vickery, R G; Kersey, K; Hopkins, A; Smith, J A M

    2013-01-01

    The 5-HT(4) receptor agonists, and gastrointestinal (GI) prokinetic agents, cisapride and tegaserod, lack selectivity for the 5-HT(4) receptor. Cisapride is a potent human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel inhibitor while cisapride and tegaserod have significant affinity for 5-HT(1) and 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes. Marketing of both compounds was discontinued due to cardiovascular concerns (cardiac arrhythmias with cisapride and ischemic events with tegaserod). The reported association of tegaserod with ischemia has been postulated to involve coronary artery constriction or augmentation of platelet aggregation. This in vitro study investigated the effects of two of the new generation of highly selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonists, velusetrag and TD-8954, on canine, porcine and human coronary artery tone, human platelet aggregation and hERG potassium channel conductance. No significant off-target actions of velusetrag or TD-8954 were identified in these, and prior, studies. While cisapride inhibited potently the hERG channel currents, tegaserod failed to affect platelet aggregation, and had only a small contractile effect on the canine coronary artery at high concentrations. Tegaserod inhibited the 5-HT-induced contractile response in the porcine coronary artery. New generation 5-HT(4) receptor agonists hold promise for the treatment of patients suffering from GI motility disorders with a reduced cardiovascular risk. PMID:23201772

  11. Serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor activation induces 2-arachidonoylglycerol release through a phospholipase c-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Jason C; Nichols, David E

    2006-11-01

    To date, several studies have demonstrated that phospholipase C-coupled receptors stimulate the production of endocannabinoids, particularly 2-arachidonoylglycerol. There is now evidence that endocannabinoids are involved in phospholipase C-coupled serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated behavioral effects in both rats and mice. The main objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the 5-HT(2A) receptor leads to the production and release of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. NIH3T3 cells stably expressing the rat 5-HT(2A) receptor were first incubated with [(3)H]-arachidonic acid for 24 h. Following stimulation with 10 mum serotonin, lipids were extracted from the assay medium, separated by thin layer chromatography, and analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Our results indicate that 5-HT(2A) receptor activation stimulates the formation and release of 2-arachidonoylglycerol. The 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent release of 2-arachidonoylglycerol was partially dependent on phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activation. Diacylglycerol produced downstream of 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated phospholipase D or phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C activation did not appear to contribute to 2-arachidonoylglycerol formation in NIH3T3-5HT(2A) cells. In conclusion, our results support a functional model where neuromodulatory neurotransmitters such as serotonin may act as regulators of endocannabinoid tone at excitatory synapses through the activation of phospholipase C-coupled G-protein coupled receptors. PMID:17010161

  12. Binding of serotonin and N1-benzenesulfonyltryptamine-related analogs at human 5-HT6 serotonin receptors: receptor modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Dukat, Małgorzata; Mosier, Philip D; Kolanos, Renata; Roth, Bryan L; Glennon, Richard A

    2008-02-14

    A population of 100 graphics models of the human 5-HT6 serotonin receptor was constructed based on the structure of bovine rhodopsin. The endogenous tryptamine-based agonist serotonin (5-HT; 1) and the benzenesulfonyl-containing tryptamine-derived 5-HT6 receptor antagonist MS-245 (4a) were automatically docked with each of the 100 receptor models using a genetic algorithm approach. Similar studies were conducted with the more selective 5-HT6 receptor agonist EMDT (5) and optical isomers of EMDT-related analog 8, as well as with optical isomers of MS-245 (4a)-related and benzenesulfonyl-containing pyrrolidine 6 and aminotetralin 7. Although associated with the same general aromatic/hydrophobic binding cluster, 5-HT (1) and MS-245 (4a) were found to preferentially bind with distinct receptor conformations, and did so with different binding orientations (i.e., poses). A 5-HT pose/model was found to be common to EMDT (5) and its analogs, whereas that identified for MS-245 (4a) was found common to benzenesulfonyl-containing compounds. Specific amino acid residues were identified that can participate in binding, and evaluation of a sulfenamide analog of MS-245 indicates for the first time that the presence of the sulfonyl oxygen atoms enhances receptor affinity. The results indicate that the presence or absence of an N1-benzenesulfonyl group is a major determinant of the manner in which tryptamine-related agents bind at 5-HT6 serotonin receptors. PMID:18201064

  13. Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor agents: structure-activity relationships and potential therapeutic applications in central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Berardi, Francesco; Perrone, Roberto; Hedlund, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery in the 1940s in serum, the mammalian intestinal mucosa, and in the central nervous system, serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in virtually all cognitive and behavioral human functions, and alterations in its neurochemistry have been implicated in the etiology of a plethora of neuropsychiatric disorders. The cloning of 5-HT receptor subtypes has been of importance in enabling them to be classified as specific protein molecules encoded by specific genes. The 5-HT7 receptor is the most recently classified member of the serotonin receptor family. Since its identification, it has been the subject of intense research efforts driven by its presence in functionally relevant regions of the brain. The availability of some selective antagonists and agonists, in combination with genetically modified mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor, has allowed for a better understanding of the pathophysiological role of this receptor. This paper reviews data on localization and pharmacological properties of the 5-HT7 receptor, and summarizes the results of structure-activity relationship studies aimed at the discovery of selective 5-HT7 receptor ligands. Additionally, an overview of the potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists in central nervous system disorders is presented. PMID:20923682

  14. Role of Central Serotonin in Anticipation of Rewarding and Punishing Outcomes: Effects of Selective Amygdala or Orbitofrontal 5-HT Depletion.

    PubMed

    Rygula, Rafal; Clarke, Hannah F; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Cockcroft, Gemma J; Xia, Jing; Dalley, Jeff W; Robbins, Trevor W; Roberts, Angela C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the role of serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in aversive processing has been hampered by the contradictory findings, across studies, of increased sensitivity to punishment in terms of subsequent response choice but decreased sensitivity to punishment-induced response suppression following gross depletion of central 5-HT. To address this apparent discrepancy, the present study determined whether both effects could be found in the same animals by performing localized 5-HT depletions in the amygdala or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of a New World monkey, the common marmoset. 5-HT depletion in the amygdala impaired response choice on a probabilistic visual discrimination task by increasing the effectiveness of misleading, or false, punishment and reward, and decreased response suppression in a variable interval test of punishment sensitivity that employed the same reward and punisher. 5-HT depletion in the OFC also disrupted probabilistic discrimination learning and decreased response suppression. Computational modeling of behavior on the discrimination task showed that the lesions reduced reinforcement sensitivity. A novel, unitary account of the findings in terms of the causal role of 5-HT in the anticipation of both negative and positive motivational outcomes is proposed and discussed in relation to current theories of 5-HT function and our understanding of mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24879752

  15. Pharmacological analysis of G-protein activation mediated by guinea-pig recombinant 5-HT1B receptors in C6-glial cells: similarities with the human 5-HT1B receptor.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, P J; Wurch, T; Palmier, C; Colpaert, F C

    1998-01-01

    1. The guinea-pig recombinant 5-hydroxytryptamine1B (gp 5-HT1B) receptor stably transfected in rat C6-glial cells was characterized by monitoring G-protein activation in a membrane preparation with agonist-stimulated [35S]-GTPgammaS binding. The intrinsic activity of 5-HT receptor ligands was compared with that determined previously at the human recombinant 5-HT1B (h 5-HT1B) receptor under similar experimental conditions. 2. Membrane preparations of C6-glial/gp 5-HT1B cells exhibited [3H]-5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) and [3H]-N-[4-methoxy-3,4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) phenyl]-3-methyl-4-(4-pyridinyl)benzamide (GR 125743) binding sites with a pKd of 9.62 to 9.85 and a Bmax between 2.1 to 6.4 fmol mg(-1) protein. The binding affinities of a series of 5-HT receptor ligands determined with [3H]-5-CT and [3H]-GR 125743 were similar. Ligand affinities were comparable to and correlated (r2: 0.74, P<0.001) with those determined at the recombinant h 5-HT1B receptor. 3. [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to membrane preparations of C6-glial/gp 5-HT1B cells was stimulated by the 5-HT receptor agonists that were being investigated. The maximal responses of naratriptan, zolmitriptan, sumatriptan, N-methyl-3-[pyrrolidin-2(R)-ylmethyl]-1H-indol-5-ylmethyl sulphonamide (CP 122638), rizatriptan and dihydroergotamine were between 0.76 and 0.85 compared to 5-HT. The potency of these agonists showed a positive correlation (r2: 0.72, P=0.015) with their potency at the recombinant h 5-HT1B receptor. 1-naphthylpiperazine, (+/-)-cyanopindolol and (2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl[1,2,4] oxadiazole-3-yl)biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid [4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]amide (GR 127935) elicited an even smaller response (Emax: 0.32 to 0.63). 4. The ligands 1'-methyl-5-(2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-yl) biphenyl-4-carbonyl)-2,3,6,7tetrahydrospiro [furo[2,3-f]indole-3-spiro-4'-piperidine] (SB224289), methiothepin and ritanserin displayed inhibition of basal [35S]-GTPgammaS binding at concentrations

  16. Subtypes of the 5-HT receptor mediating the behavioural responses to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tricklebank, M D; Forler, C; Middlemiss, D N; Fozard, J R

    1985-10-29

    The 5-HT receptor subtypes involved in the mediation of reciprocal forepaw treading and the flat body posture induced by the central 5-HT receptor agonist, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT), were examined in intact rats and in rats depleted of monoamines with reserpine. Forepaw treading in non-reserpinised rats was antagonised by the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin, only at doses in excess of those required for occupation of a large proportion of 5-HT2 receptors in brain, and at which there was significant inhibition of stereotyped sniffing induced by the dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine. Since forepaw treading induced by 5-MeODMT was also blocked in intact rats by haloperidol, blockade of the behaviour by ketanserin may more accurately reflect antagonism at dopamine receptors than at 5-HT2 receptors. In reserpinised rats, i.e. with minimised contributions from other monoamine systems, neither forepaw treading nor the flat body posture were significantly altered by ketanserin, haloperidol or the beta 1- and beta 2-selective adrenoceptor antagonists, betaxolol and ICI 118.551, making a key role for 5-HT2 receptors, dopamine receptors and beta-adrenoceptors unlikely. In contrast, forepaw treading in both reserpinised and non-reserpinised rats was antagonised stereoselectively by pindolol and by spiperone, which interact with 5-HT1 and 5-HT1A recognition sites. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that forepaw treading induced by 5-MeODMT arises by activation of the putative 5-HT1A receptor. Antagonism of the flat body posture by pindolol could be demonstrated only in non-reserpinised rats and the mechanism of induction of this behaviour remains to be established. PMID:2935408

  17. Gi-protein-coupled 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist sumatriptan induces type I hyperalgesic priming.

    PubMed

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2016-08-01

    We have recently described a novel form of hyperalgesic priming (type II) induced by agonists at two clinically important Gi-protein-coupled receptors (Gi-GPCRs), mu-opioid and A1-adenosine. Like mu-opioids, the antimigraine triptans, which act at 5-HT1B/D Gi-GPCRs, have been implicated in pain chronification. We determined whether sumatriptan, a prototypical 5-HT1B/D agonist, produces type II priming. Characteristic of hyperalgesic priming, intradermal injection of sumatriptan (10 ng) induced a change in nociceptor function such that a subsequent injection of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) induces prolonged mechanical hyperalgesia. However, onset to priming was delayed 3 days, characteristic of type I priming. Also characteristic of type I priming, a protein kinase Cε, but not a protein kinase A inhibitor attenuated the prolongation phase of PGE2 hyperalgesia. The prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia was also permanently reversed by intradermal injection of cordycepin, a protein translation inhibitor. Also, hyperalgesic priming did not occur in animals pretreated with pertussis toxin or isolectin B4-positive nociceptor toxin, IB4-saporin. Finally, as observed for other agonists that induce type I priming, sumatriptan did not induce priming in female rats. The prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia induced by sumatriptan was partially prevented by coinjection of antagonists for the 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D, but not 5-HT7, serotonin receptors and completely prevented by coadministration of a combination of the 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D antagonists. Moreover, the injection of selective agonists, for 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors, also induced hyperalgesic priming. Our results suggest that sumatriptan, which signals through Gi-GPCRs, induces type I hyperalgesic priming, unlike agonists at other Gi-GPCRs, which induce type II priming. PMID:27075428

  18. The phytocannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, can act through 5-HT1A receptors to produce antipsychotic effects

    PubMed Central

    Cascio, Maria Grazia; Zamberletti, Erica; Marini, Pietro; Parolaro, Daniela; Pertwee, Roger G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study aimed to address the questions of whether Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) can (i) enhance activation of 5-HT1A receptors in vitro and (ii) induce any apparent 5-HT1A receptor-mediated antipsychotic effects in vivo. Experimental Approach In vitro studies investigated the effect of THCV on targeting by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) of 5-HT1A receptors in membranes obtained from rat brainstem or human 5-HT1A CHO cells, using [35S]-GTPγS and 8-[3H]-OH-DPAT binding assays. In vivo studies investigated whether THCV induces signs of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated antipsychotic effects in rats. Key Results THCV (i) potently, albeit partially, displaced 8-[3H]-OH-DPAT from specific binding sites in rat brainstem membranes; (ii) at 100 nM, significantly enhanced 8-OH-DPAT-induced activation of receptors in these membranes; (iii) produced concentration-related increases in 8-[3H]-OH-DPAT binding to specific sites in membranes of human 5-HT1A receptor-transfected CHO cells; and (iv) at 100 nM, significantly enhanced 8-OH-DPAT-induced activation of these human 5-HT1A receptors. In phencyclidine-treated rats, THCV, like clozapine (i) reduced stereotyped behaviour; (ii) decreased time spent immobile in the forced swim test; and (iii) normalized hyperlocomotor activity, social behaviour and cognitive performance. Some of these effects were counteracted by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635, or could be reproduced by the CB1 antagonist, AM251. Conclusions and Implications Our findings suggest that THCV can enhance 5-HT1A receptor activation, and that some of its apparent antipsychotic effects may depend on this enhancement. We conclude that THCV has therapeutic potential for ameliorating some of the negative, cognitive and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25363799

  19. Involvement of 5-HT1B receptors in triptan-induced contractile responses in guinea-pig isolated iliac artery.

    PubMed

    Jähnichen, S; Radtke, O A; Pertz, H H

    2004-07-01

    Using a series of triptans we characterized in vitro the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor that mediates the contraction in guinea-pig iliac arteries moderately precontracted by prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). Additionally, we investigated by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) which triptan-sensitive receptor is present in this tissue. Frovatriptan, zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, naratriptan, sumatriptan, and almotriptan contracted guinea-pig iliac arteries with pD2 values of 7.52+/-0.04, 6.72+/-0.03, 6.38+/-0.06, 6.22+/-0.05, 5.86+/-0.05 and 5.26+/-0.04 respectively. For comparison, the pD2 values for 5-HT and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) were 7.52+/-0.02 and 7.55+/-0.03 respectively. In contrast to all other triptans tested, the concentration-response curve for eletriptan was biphasic (first phase: 0.01-3 microM, pD2 approximately 6.6; second phase: > or = 10 microM). Contractions to 5-HT, 5-CT, frovatriptan, zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, naratriptan, sumatriptan, almotriptan, and eletriptan (first phase) were antagonized by the 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist GR127935 (10 nM) and the 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB216641 (10 nM). RT-PCR studies in guinea-pig iliac arteries showed a strong signal for the 5-HT1B receptor while expression of 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F receptors was not detected in any sample. The present results demonstrate that triptan-induced contraction in guinea-pig iliac arteries is mediated by the 5-HT1B receptor. The guinea-pig iliac artery may be used as a convenient in vitro model to study the (cardio)vascular side-effect potential of anti-migraine drugs of the triptan family. PMID:15185063

  20. Synergistic effect of 5-HT1A and σ1 receptor activation on prefrontal dopaminergic transmission under circulating steroid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Naoki; Ago, Yukio; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nishimura, Akira; Mori, Kazuya; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2013-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)1A and σ1 receptors have been implicated in psychiatric disorders. We previously found that combined 5-HT reuptake inhibition and σ1 receptor activation has a synergistic effect on prefrontal dopaminergic transmission in adrenalectomized/castrated mice lacking circulating steroid hormones. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying this neurochemical synergism. Systemic administration of fluvoxamine, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor with agonistic activity towards the σ1 receptor, increased prefrontal dopamine (DA) levels, and adrenalectomy/castration potentiated this fluvoxamine-induced increase in DA. This enhancement of DA release was blocked by WAY100635 (a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist), but not by ritanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist), azasetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or SB269970 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist). Individually, osemozotan (a 5-HT1A receptor agonist) and (+)-SKF-10,047 (a σ1 receptor agonist) did not alter prefrontal monoamine levels in adrenalectomized/castrated and sham-operated mice differentially. In contrast, co-administration of these drugs increased prefrontal DA levels to a greater extent in adrenalectomized/castrated mice than in sham-operated animals. Furthermore, co-administration of osemozotan and (+)-SKF-10,047 increased expression of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos in the ventral tegmental area of adrenalectomized/castrated mice, but not in sham-operated animals. These findings suggest that combined activation of 5-HT1A and σ1 receptors has a synergistic effect on prefrontal dopaminergic transmission under circulating steroid deficiency, and that this interaction may play an important role in the regulation of the prefrontal DA system. PMID:23851260

  1. Decreased frontal serotonin 5-HT 2a receptor binding index in deliberate self-harm patients.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, K; Van Laere, K; Dumont, F; Slegers, G; Mertens, J; van Heeringen, C; Dierckx, R A

    2001-02-01

    Studies of serotonin metabolites in body fluids in attempted suicide patients and of post-mortem brain tissue of suicide victims have demonstrated the involvement of the serotonergic neurotransmission system in the pathogenesis of suicidal behaviour. Recently developed neuroimaging techniques offer the unique possibility of investigating in vivo the functional characteristics of this system. In this study the 5-HT2a receptor population of patients who had recently attempted suicide was studied by means of the highly specific radio-iodinated 5-HT2a receptor antagonist 4-amino-N-[1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy) propyl]-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl]-5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide or 123I-5-I-R91150. Nine patients who had recently (1-7 days) attempted suicide and 12 age-matched healthy controls received an intravenous injection of 185 MBq 123I-5-I-R91150 and were scanned with high-resolution brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Stereotactic realigned images were analysed semi-quantitatively using predefined volumes of interest. Serotonin binding capacity was expressed as the ratio of specific to non-specific activity. The cerebellum was used as a measure of non-specific activity. An age-dependent 5-HT2a binding index was found, in agreement with previous literature. Deliberate self-harm patients had a significantly reduced mean frontal binding index after correction for age (P=0.002) when compared with controls. The reduction was more pronounced among deliberate self-injury patients (DSI) (P<0.001) than among deliberate self-poisoning patients (DSP). Frontal binding index was significantly lower in DSI patients than in DSP suicide attempters (P<0.001). It is concluded that brain SPET of the 5-HT2a serotonin receptor system in attempted suicide patients who are free of drugs influencing the serotonergic system shows in vivo evidence of a decreased frontal binding index of the 5-HT2a receptor, indicating a decrease in the number and/or in the binding affinity of 5-HT2a receptors

  2. Neurochemical evaluation of the novel 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist/serotonin reuptake inhibitor, vilazodone.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Zoë A; Starr, Kathryn R; Langmead, Christopher J; Hill, Matthew; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Hagan, James J; Middlemiss, Derek N; Dawson, Lee A

    2005-03-01

    Vilazodone has been reported to be an inhibitor of 5-hydoxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake and a partial agonist at 5-HT1A receptors. Using [35S]GTPgammaS binding in rat hippocampal tissue, vilazodone was demonstrated to have an intrinsic activity comparable to the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). Vilazodone (1-10 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently displaced in vivo [3H]DASB (N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)benzylamine) binding from rat cortex and hippocampus, indicating that vilazodone occupies 5-HT transporters in vivo. Using in vivo microdialysis, vilazodone (10 mg/kg p.o.) was demonstrated to cause a 2-fold increase in extracellular 5-HT but no change in noradrenaline or dopamine levels in frontal cortex of freely moving rats. In contrast, administration of 8-OH-DPAT (0.3 mg/kg s.c.), either alone or in combination with a serotonin specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; paroxetine, 3 mg/kg p.o.), produced no increase in cortical 5-HT whilst increasing noradrenaline and dopamine 2 and 4 fold, respectively. A 2-fold increase in extracellular 5-HT levels (but no change in noradrenaline or dopamine levels) was observed after combination of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide) (WAY-100635; 0.3 mg/kg s.c.) and paroxetine (3 mg/kg p.o.). In summary, vilazodone behaved as a high efficacy partial agonist at the rat hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in vitro and occupied 5-HT transporters in vivo. In vivo vilazodone induced a selective increase in extracellular levels of 5-HT in the rat frontal cortex. This profile was similar to that seen with a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist plus an SSRI but in contrast to 8-OH-DPAT either alone or in combination with paroxetine. PMID:15740724

  3. The extracellular entrance provides selectivity to serotonin 5-HT7 receptor antagonists with antidepressant-like behavior in vivo.

    PubMed

    Medina, Rocío A; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Gómez-Tamayo, José C; Benhamú, Bellinda; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; de la Fuente, Tania; Caltabiano, Gianluigi; Hedlund, Peter B; Pardo, Leonardo; López-Rodríguez, María L

    2014-08-14

    The finding that ergotamine binds serotonin receptors in a less conserved extended binding pocket close to the extracellular entrance, in addition to the orthosteric site, allowed us to obtain 5-HT7R antagonist 6 endowed with high affinity (Ki=0.7 nM) and significant 5-HT1AR selectivity (ratio>1428). Compound 6 exhibits in vivo antidepressant-like effect (1 mg/kg, ip) mediated by the 5-HT7R, which reveals its interest as a putative research tool or pharmaceutical in depression disorders. PMID:25073094

  4. Morphological origin for the stratification of P3HT:PCBM blend film studied by neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Keum, Jong Kahk; Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 ; Browning, James F.; Halbert, Candice E.; Xiao, Kai; Shao, Ming; Hong, Kunlun

    2013-11-25

    Understanding the origin for the film stratification of electron donor/acceptor blend is crucial for high efficiency organic photovoltaic cell. In this study, P3HT:PCBM blend is deposited onto hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrate to examine the film stratifications. The neutron reflectivity results show that, on the different surfaces, PCBM diffuses toward the two interfacial regions in an identical fashion during thermal annealing. This evidences that the film stratification is not affected by the substrates. Instead, since P3HT remains more amorphous in the interfacial regions and PCBM is miscible with amorphous P3HT, PCBM preferentially diffuses to the interfacial regions, resulting in the stratification.

  5. An Algorithm to Identify Target-Selective Ligands – A Case Study of 5-HT7/5-HT1A Receptor Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kurczab, Rafał; Canale, Vittorio; Zajdel, Paweł; Bojarski, Andrzej J.

    2016-01-01

    A computational procedure to search for selective ligands for structurally related protein targets was developed and verified for serotonergic 5-HT7/5-HT1A receptor ligands. Starting from a set of compounds with annotated activity at both targets (grouped into four classes according to their activity: selective toward each target, not-selective and not-selective but active) and with an additional set of decoys (prepared using DUD methodology), the SVM (Support Vector Machines) models were constructed using a selective subset as positive examples and four remaining classes as negative training examples. Based on these four component models, the consensus classifier was then constructed using a data fusion approach. The combination of two approaches of data representation (molecular fingerprints vs. structural interaction fingerprints), different training set sizes and selection of the best SVM component models for consensus model generation, were evaluated to determine the optimal settings for the developed algorithm. The results showed that consensus models with molecular fingerprints, a larger training set and the selection of component models based on MCC maximization provided the best predictive performance. PMID:27271158

  6. Evidence for 5-HT1A receptor control of pineal melatonin concentrations in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nathan, P J; Burrows, G D; Norman, T R

    1998-08-01

    The effect of some serotonin agonists on day and night-time melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated in male rats. Dose dependent increases in nocturnal melatonin concentrations were observed for all serotonin agonists investigated. Statistically significant increases were observed only for D-fenfluramine (20 mg/kg) and the full 5-HT1A agonists S(+)-20499 (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg) and flesinoxan (20 mg/kg). Both paroxetine and D-fenfluramine dose dependently increased day-time pineal melatonin, but only for D-fenfluramine (20 mg/kg) was there a statistically significant increase. The data suggest that acute increases in synaptic serotonin concentrations can be used to manipulate day- or night-time melatonin. Data suggests an influence of the 5-HT1A receptor subtype in mediating nocturnal melatonin concentrations, perhaps through a functional coupling to beta1-adrenoceptors on the pineal gland. PMID:9716310

  7. Neurochemical effects of buspirone in rat hippocampus: evidence for selective activation of 5HT neurons.

    PubMed

    Mennini, T; Gobbi, M; Ponzio, F; Garattini, S

    1986-01-01

    The effect of buspirone on neurotransmitter systems in rat hippocampus has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro buspirone does not affect the specific binding of 3H-flunitrazepam, 3H-GABA, 3H-dexetimide, but displaces 3H-5HT binding with nanomolar affinity. Oral administration of buspirone does not modify the hippocampal concentrations of GABA, acetylcholine, choline and of 3H-flunitrazepam specifically bound in vivo, but results in a dose-dependent reduction of 5HIAA and noradrenaline concentrations. While the effect on noradrenaline is also obtained in striatum of buspirone-treated animals, the effect on 5HIAA shows a regional specificity. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that buspirone specifically activates 5HT neurons in hippocampus, and are compared with those obtained with diazepam. PMID:2421657

  8. Chronic 5-HT transporter blockade reduces DA signaling to elicit basal ganglia dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Emanuela; Moore, Holly; Rebello, Tahilia J; Gray, Neil; Steele, Kelly; Esposito, Ennio; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S

    2011-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely administered for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, but response rates are low, and side effects often lead to discontinuation. Side effect profiles suggest that SSRIs inhibit dopaminergic activity, but mechanistic insight remains scarce. Here we show that in mice, chronic 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade during adulthood but not during development impairs basal ganglia-dependent behaviors in a dose-dependent and reversible fashion. Furthermore, chronic 5-HTT blockade reduces striatal dopamine (DA) content and metabolism. A causal relationship between reduced DA signaling and impaired basal ganglia-dependent behavior is indicated by the reversal of behavioral deficits through L-DOPA administration. Our data suggest that augmentation of DA signaling would reduce side effects and increase efficacies of SSRI-based therapy. PMID:22049417

  9. HT-Paxos: High Throughput State-Machine Replication Protocol for Large Clustered Data Centers

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Paxos is a prominent theory of state-machine replication. Recent data intensive systems that implement state-machine replication generally require high throughput. Earlier versions of Paxos as few of them are classical Paxos, fast Paxos, and generalized Paxos have a major focus on fault tolerance and latency but lacking in terms of throughput and scalability. A major reason for this is the heavyweight leader. Through offloading the leader, we can further increase throughput of the system. Ring Paxos, Multiring Paxos, and S-Paxos are few prominent attempts in this direction for clustered data centers. In this paper, we are proposing HT-Paxos, a variant of Paxos that is the best suitable for any large clustered data center. HT-Paxos further offloads the leader very significantly and hence increases the throughput and scalability of the system, while at the same time, among high throughput state-machine replication protocols, it provides reasonably low latency and response time. PMID:25821856

  10. Effects of high Z probe on plasma behavior in HT-6M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Gong, X.; Luo, L.; Yin, F. X.; Noda, N.; Wan, B.; Xu, W.; Gao, X.; Yin, F.; Jiang, J. G.; Wu, Z.; Zhao, J. Y.; Wu, M.; Liu, S.; Han, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten probes have been tested in HT-6M tokamak under various discharge conditions aiming to find out the conditions in which high Z PFC can be used without serious degradation of core plasma performance. In normal OH discharges, the degradation of core plasma performance was found only when the probe was inserted beyond 3.0 cm inside the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The plasma performance did not change with positive biasing to the probe, whereas central Te degraded during negative biasing of -100 V. The insertion of the Mo probe to 1.5 cm inside the LCFS made a change in the threshold power of the L-H transition in EOH discharges. These results suggest a certain operation range of the H-mode in the EOH discharge with the Mo probe in HT-6M.

  11. HT-Paxos: high throughput state-machine replication protocol for large clustered data centers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinit; Agarwal, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Paxos is a prominent theory of state-machine replication. Recent data intensive systems that implement state-machine replication generally require high throughput. Earlier versions of Paxos as few of them are classical Paxos, fast Paxos, and generalized Paxos have a major focus on fault tolerance and latency but lacking in terms of throughput and scalability. A major reason for this is the heavyweight leader. Through offloading the leader, we can further increase throughput of the system. Ring Paxos, Multiring Paxos, and S-Paxos are few prominent attempts in this direction for clustered data centers. In this paper, we are proposing HT-Paxos, a variant of Paxos that is the best suitable for any large clustered data center. HT-Paxos further offloads the leader very significantly and hence increases the throughput and scalability of the system, while at the same time, among high throughput state-machine replication protocols, it provides reasonably low latency and response time. PMID:25821856

  12. Overview of the 1994 chronic HT release experiment at Chalk River

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Workman, W.J.G.; Amiro, B.D.; Spencer, F.S.; Noguchi, H.; Amano, H.; Ichimasa, Y.; Ichimasa, M.

    1995-10-01

    Trace amounts of tritiated hydrogen (HT) were released continuously to the atmosphere at Chalk River Laboratories over the 12-day period 1994 July 27 to August 8. Scientists from eight institutions in four countries took extensive air, soil and vegetation samples to study the dynamics of tritiated water (HTO) and organically-bound tritium (OBT) formation, and the environmental concentrations of these compounds at steady-state. The short-term HT air concentrations varied strongly in time and space over the test area, but the variation decreased rapidly as the averaging time increased. HTO concentrations in soil, vegetation and air built up gradually over time but they fluctuated substantially with ambient meteorological conditions, particularly rainfall. OBT concentrations in plants increased throughout the period. HTO concentrations were at or near steady-state at the end of the release, but OBT levels were continuing to rise. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Kinematic interpretation of shearband boudins: New parameters and ratios useful in HT simple shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamplona, Jorge; Rodrigues, Benedito C.

    2011-01-01

    Shearband boudins (asymmetric boudins showing slip along the inter-boudin surface, which is synthetic with respect to the bulk shear sense) are ubiquitous and well exposed in HT simple shear zones. The present work aims to extend the methodology of analysis of shearband boudins developed by Goscombe and Passchier (2003). Such shearband boudins represent complex objects that require an adequate methodology for unambiguous kinematic interpretation. We propose new geometric parameters (Bbs, B-t, c', D', d, ψ') in order to describe and identify, with confidence, the kinematics of boudinage in this particular geological framework. The key-observation for kinematic interpretation in simple shear regimes is the boudin axis (Lb) that is commonly present, excluding the necessity to identify the regional stretching lineation (Lx) in the metasedimentary matrix. In monoclinic HT simple shear zones, this approach involves the use of a local displacement plane (Sx), which is always normal to the boudin axis (Lb).

  14. Characterization of SB-269970-A, a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Jim J; Price, Gary W; Jeffrey, Phillip; Deeks, Nigel J; Stean, Tania; Piper, David; Smith, Martin I; Upton, Neil; Medhurst, Andrew D; Middlemiss, Derek N; Riley, Graham J; Lovell, Peter J; Bromidge, Steven M; Thomas, David R

    2000-01-01

    The novel 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-269970-A, potently displaced [3H]-5-CT from human 5-HT7(a) (pKi 8.9±0.1) and 5-HT7 receptors in guinea-pig cortex (pKi 8.3±0.2).5-CT stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in 5-HT7(a)/HEK293 membranes (pEC50 7.5±0.1) and SB-269970-A (0.03–1 μM) inhibited the 5-CT concentration-response with no significant alteration in the maximal response. The pA2 (8.5±0.2) for SB-269970-A agreed well with the pKi determined from [3H]-5-CT binding studies.5-CT-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in guinea-pig hippocampal membranes (pEC50 of 8.4±0.2) was inhibited by SB-269970-A (0.3 μM) with a pKB (8.3±0.1) in good agreement with its antagonist potency at the human cloned 5-HT7(a) receptor and its binding affinity at guinea-pig cortical membranes.5-HT7 receptor mRNA was highly expressed in human hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus and testis.SB-269970-A was CNS penetrant (steady-state brain : blood ratio of ca. 0.83 : 1 in rats) but was rapidly cleared from the blood (CLb=ca. 140 ml min−1 kg−1). Following a single dose (3 mg kg−1) SB-269970 was detectable in rat brain at 30 (87 nM) and 60 min (58 nM). In guinea-pigs, brain levels averaged 31 and 51 nM respectively at 30 and 60 min after dosing, although the compound was undetectable in one of the three animals tested.5-CT (0.3 mg kg−1 i.p.) induced hypothermia in guinea-pigs was blocked by SB-269970-A (ED50 2.96 mg kg−1 i.p.) and the non-selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist metergoline (0.3–3 mg kg−1 s.c.), suggesting a role for 5-HT7 receptor stimulation in 5-CT induced hypothermia in guinea-pigs.SB-269970-A (30 mg kg−1) administered at the start of the sleep period, significantly reduced time spent in Paradoxical Sleep (PS) during the first 3  h of EEG recording in conscious rats. PMID:10821781

  15. Optical absorption and emission characterization of P3HT: graphene composite for its prospective photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Joginder; Prasad, Neetu; Nirwal, Varun Singh; Gautam, Khyati; Peta, Koteswara Rao; Bhatnagar, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, regioregular P3HT (Poly (3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl) was blended with graphene nanopowder and the optical spectroscopic characterization of the composite has been performed. It was observed that at low concentration of graphene (up to 0.1 wt %) there is no significant variation in absorption intensity or wavelength range. But at higher concentration (> 0.1 wt %) the absorption intensity starts reducing. Whereas, the photoluminescence of the composite solution quenches as we increase the concentration of graphene. It reveals that charge recombination decreases with increase in concentration (0.05 to 0.5 wt %) of graphene. Therefore 0.1 wt % seems to be the optimized concentration of graphene in the composite for which appropriate quenching of PL was observed without any significant reduction in absorption of photons. Thus maximum efficiency in P3HT: graphene composite photovoltaic cell is expected for 0.1 wt % of graphene concentration in our typical case.

  16. 5-HT2A/2C receptor and 5-HT transporter densities in mice prone or resistant to chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity: a quantitative autoradiography study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu-Feng; Huang, Xin; Han, Mei; Chen, Feng; Storlien, Len; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2004-08-27

    The present study examined the density of 5-HT2A/2C receptors and 5-HT transporters in the brains of chronic high-fat diet-induced obese (cDIO) and obese-resistant (cDR) mice. Thirty-five male mice were used in this study. Twenty-eight mice were fed with a high-fat diet (40% of calories from fat) for 6 weeks and then classified as the cDIO (n=8) or cDR (n=8) mice according to the highest and lowest body weight gainers. Seven mice were placed on a low-f