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Sample records for des personnes victimes

  1. Soins primaires des personnes victimes d’une lésion médullaire

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; McColl, Alexander; Sakakibara, Brodie; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Effectuer une étude de la portée des données empiriques, entre 1980 et 2009, concernant les soins primaires aux adultes victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LME). Sources des données Une recension dans des revues révisées par des pairs de1980 à 2009 à l’aide de CINAHL, PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Abstracts et Social Work Abstracts. Sélection des études La recherche électronique au moyen de mots-clés a permis de cerner 42 articles sur les soins primaires et les LME. Des critères d’inclusion ont servi à réduire la liste à un ensemble de 21 articles publiés en anglais qui portaient sur un échantillon de plus de 3 et présentaient une analyse empirique. Synthèse Environ 90 % des personnes atteintes d’une LME ont identifié leur médecin de famille comme étant leur docteur habituel; 63 % avaient un spécialiste des LME. Les personnes vivant à long terme avec une LME développent des rubriques complexes pour naviguer dans leurs systèmes de soins de santé personnels. Les données scientifiques ne sont pas unanimes quant à l’efficacité des programmes d’intervention directe pour le maintien de la santé et la prévention des complications à la suite d’une LME. Les données appuient cependant le suivi périodique par une équipe spécialisée et un bilan de santé annuel complet. La recherche fait valoir un fort degré d’uniformité dans l’identification des problèmes les plus courants soulevés par les personnes atteintes d’une LME en soins primaires, dont la plupart concernent l’incapacité, plus précisément les complications secondaires, comme la dysfonction intestinale ou vésicale et la douleur. Il existe aussi de bonnes données probantes à l’effet que de nombreux problèmes de santé généraux exigent de l’attention dans une telle population, comme les problèmes de la densité osseuse, la dépression et les questions entourant la santé sexuelle et la reproduction. Il y a

  2. Trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso, au Burkina Faso: une enquête transversale

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Konaté, Blahima; Drabo, Maxime koiné; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Désiré; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Introduction En Afrique, il y n'a pas encore une maitrise du trajet de soins des personnes âgées pour construire des modèles de soins adaptés afin d'améliorer leur prise en charge. L'objectif de cette étude était de décrire le trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale à prédominance qualitative avec des personnes âgées vivant dans les ménages dans la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso de septembre à novembre 2012. Nous avons sélectionné 30 personnes âgées de manière raisonnée dans 22 secteurs. Des entretiens qualitatifs ont été réalisés. Le recours aux soins formels, informels et mixtes a été analysé. Résultats Le trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso était à prédominance mixte: elles utilisaient à la fois pour le même épisode de maladie les services publics et privés l'automédication à domicile, la médecine traditionnelle, l'utilisation des médicaments du marche informel de la rue. Les premiers recours aux soins étaient à l'initiative des personnes âgées elles-mêmes. Les recours aux soins formels étaient largement utilisés par les personnes âgées qui avaient un revenu de pension. Conclusion Devant la complexité de la prise en charge des personnes âgées présentant plusieurs pathologies et ayant différents recours des soins il y a une nécessité d'orienter le système d'offre de soins vers une coordination dite « collective ». PMID:26097632

  3. Approche pour les comportements sexuels inappropriés chez des personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Joller, Petra; Gupta, Neeraj; Seitz, Dallas P.; Frank, Christopher; Gibson, Michelle; Gill, Sudeep S.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille une mise à jour sur l’approche au diagnostic et à la prise en charge des comportements sexuels inappropriés (CSI) chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Sources des données On a fait une recherche dans MEDLINE et EMBASE pour cerner des articles pertinents publiés avant juin 2012. On n’a trouvé aucune étude de niveau I; la plupart des articles fournissaient des données probantes de niveau III. Message principal Les comportements sexuels inappropriés sont fréquents chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Divers facteurs (p. ex., culturels, religieux, perspectives sociétales de la sexualité gériatrique, questions médicolégales) pourraient compliquer l’évaluation de tels comportements et doivent être pris en compte pour permettre une prise en charge appropriée à chaque patient. Il existe des outils pour documenter les CSI. Des interventions créatives non pharmacologiques pour les CSI pourraient être efficaces quand elles sont adaptées à chaque patient. Certaines pharmacothérapies (p. ex., antidépresseurs, antiandrogènes, antipsychotiques et anticonvulsifs) ont été proposées pour les symptômes qui ne répondent pas aux interventions non pharmacologiques. Par ailleurs, les données probantes à l’appui des traitements à l’aide de médicaments sont limitées, les effets secondaires demeurent un aspect important à considérer et il est incertain s’ils devraient être utilisés comme traitement de première ou de deuxième intention. Conclusion Quoiqu’il n’y ait pas d’algorithme de traitements empiriquement établi pour les CSI reliés à la démence, les ouvrages actuels offrent certaines données probantes concernant diverses thérapies pharmacologiques et non pharmacologiques. Des recherches de grande qualité plus approfondies sont nécessaires de toute urgence pour guider les médecins de famille qui prennent en charge des patients qui ont des CSI reliés à la

  4. L’évaluation systématique des instruments pour mesurer la douleur chez les personnes âgées ayant des capacités réduites à communiquer*

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Michèle; Giguère, Anik; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Verreault, René

    2007-01-01

    La douleur chronique est souvent sous-détectée et insuffisamment traitée dans les milieux de soins de longue durée. Les outils d’autorapport (ou autoévaluation) de la douleur, comme l’échelle visuelle analogique, n’ont été validés que partiellement chez les populations âgées, en raison de la prévalence élevée de déficits visuels, auditifs, moteurs et cognitifs que l’on y trouve. Des outils d’observation des patients ont été développés pour pallier ces difficultés d’utilisation des échelles d’autorapport de la douleur. Le présent projet vise l’identification de ces échelles et leur évaluation sur la base de la validité de contenu (12 questions), de la validité de construit (12 questions), de la fiabilité (13 questions) et de l’utilité clinique (10 questions). Parmi les 24 instruments recensés, plusieurs apparaissent prometteurs pour évaluer la douleur chez les personnes âgées atteintes de démence sévère. Des efforts additionnels de validation sont cependant requis avant leur intégration à la pratique régulière en soins de longue durée. PMID:17717611

  5. Profil clinique de la dépression post- accident vasculaire cérébral étude transversale descriptive menée au centre de réhabilitation des personnes handicapées de Kinshasa (RD Congo)

    PubMed Central

    Mpembi, Magloire Nkosi; Ma Miezi, Samuel Mampunza; Nzuzi, Thierry Matonda Ma; Massamba, Victoria Kubuta; Henrard, Sévérine; Partz, Marie-Pierre De; Peeters, André; Macq, Jean; Dubois, Vincent; Constant, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif général poursuivi dans cette étude est de décrire le tableau clinique de la dépression post-accident vasculaire cérébral (DPAVC) à Kinshasa. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale descriptive portant sur 56 patients suivis pour hémiplégie post-accident vasculaire cérébral au Centre de réhabilitation pour personnes handicapées de Kinshasa (CRPHK) du 1er au 31 août 2011. Résultats Au Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), 21. 40 % des patients présentaient une dépression modérée à sévère. A l’échelle de Rankin, 63. 8% des patients étaient capables de marcher sans aide. L'apathie modérée à sévère était présente chez 44. 64%; à l’échelle de sévérité de la fatigue, le score de 12. 7 % des sujets était compatible avec un état dépressif. La dépression était associée à la sévérité des troubles neurologiques, à l'incapacité évaluée avec l’échelle de Rankin, à l'apathie et à une appréciation mauvaise de son propre état de santé par le patient. Conclusion La DPAVC est fréquente à Kinshasa parmi les patients en réhabilitation. La fréquence observée est comparable à celles retrouvées dans des travaux antérieurs dans le monde et aux rares travaux publiés en Afrique. La DPAVC est associée de manière significative à la sévérité des troubles neurologiques, au degré d'handicap, à la fatigue, à l'apathie et à la mauvaise perception de son état de santé. PMID:25018844

  6. Ressources pour les personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Feldman, Sid; Schulz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les services offerts par la Société Alzheimer et discuter des autres sources de soutien et d’information à la disposition des personnes atteintes de démence. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans Ovid MEDLINE à l’aide des expressions dementia, Alzheimer disease, community health services utilization et caregiver stress. Message principal Il a été démontré qu’il est bénéfique aux patients et aux aidants si le diagnostic de la démence est posé tôt dans la maladie. Une consultation auprès de la Société Alzheimer peut aider dans la prise en charge non pharmacologique de la démence au moment du diagnostic et en tout temps durant l’évolution de la maladie. Parmi les services offerts, on peut mentionner des renseignements au sujet de la démence, le soutien aux aidants, la coordination des services communautaires et une grande diversité de ressources écrites à l’intention des patients et des aidants. Là où il est offert, le programme Premier lien peut aider avec l’orientation vers des services en minimisant la nécessité pour les patients ou les aidants de communiquer eux-mêmes avec les filiales locales de la Société. On discute aussi d’autres ressources, y compris les soins de répit et les approches technologiques pour prendre en charge l’errance. Conclusion La Société Alzheimer joue un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la démence et les médecins de famille devraient toujours envisager d’y référer leurs patients au moment du diagnostic, quelle que soit la gravité de l’état. Premier lien, quand il est accessible, peut faciliter le contact avec les services. Des ressources comme les soins de répit et les programmes de jour devraient toujours être considérés lorsqu’ils sont disponibles.

  7. La teneur en iode du sel de cuisine consommé à Lubumbashi et le statut iode des personnes vulnérables: cas de femmes enceintes de milieux défavorisés

    PubMed Central

    Banza, Bienvenue Ilunga; Lumbu, Jean Baptiste Simbi; Donnen, Philippe; Twite, Eugène Kabange; Kwete, Daniel Mikobi; Kazadi, Costa Mwadianvita; Ozoza, Jean Okolonken; Habimana, Laurence; Kalenga, Prosper Muenze Kayamba; Robert, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La consommation du sel faiblement iodé peut engendrer des troubles divers liés à la carence iodée Ce travail a pour objectif d’évaluer la teneur en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi et de déterminer le statut iodé des femmes enceintes, cible privilégiée de la carence iodée. Méthodes Une étude transversale descriptive a été consacrée à une analyse iodométrique d'iode dans 739 échantillons de sel collectés dans les ménages et marchés de Lubumbashi en 2014. Précédemment, l'iode urinaire a été déterminé par la technique de minéralisation au persulfate d'ammonium chez 225 femmes enceintes reçues en consultation du 15 mars 2009 au 25 avril 2011. Résultats Notre enquête a révélé 47,5% des échantillons de sels de cuisine adéquatement iodés (15 à 40 ppm), 36,9% d’échantillons faiblement iodés, 7,4% d’échantillons trop riches en iode et 8,1% des échantillons non iodés. La disponibilité en iode du sel de cuisine analysé était globalement de 54,9%, se trouvant nettement en dessous des normes OMS (90%). En mesurant l'iode urinaire chez la femme enceinte, la carence iodée (iode urinaire <150 µg/l) a été observée dans une proportion de 52%. Conclusion La faible disponibilité en iode du sel consommé à Lubumbashi pourrait être responsable d'une grande proportion de la carence iodée observée chez la femme enceinte, ce qui expose celle-ci aux risques majeurs des troubles dus à la carence en iode. PMID:27279956

  8. Profil comparatif et évolutif des personnes infectées par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine traitées aux antirétroviraux à Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Koy, Tshingani; Mukumbi, Henri; Malandala, Ghislain Lubangi Muteba; Donnen, Philippe; Wilmet–Dramaix, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A trithérapie (ARV) introduite en R.D.Congo en 1996, a permis l′amélioration substantielle de la qualité de vie des PVVIH et a réduit la morbimortalité liée au sida en R.D. Congo. L'objectif de cette étude est de présenter le profil épidémiologique comparatif, clinique, ainsi que l’évolution anthropométrique des PVVIH sous ARV à Kinshasa. Méthodes Etude de cohorte sur 438 PVVIH, de 18 ans et plus, suivies entre mai 2010 à 2011 à Amo Congo à Kinshasa. Une comparaison a été faite entre les patients suivis pendant un an et ceux perdus de vue. Le Chi carré de Mc Nemar et l'analyse de variance pour mesures répétées ont été appliqués pour étudier l’évolution. Résultats Près 12 mois de suivi, 11,4% de patients ont été perdus de vue. Parmi eux, on observait des proportions significativement plus élevées de personnes de niveau socioéconomique bas, d'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) bas, présentant de l'anorexie, des affections opportunistes. Les proportions de patients aux stades OMS 3 & 4 et naïfs étaient également significativement plus élevées et la durée sous ARV plus courte. Les gains moyens des paramètres anthropométriques au 12ème mois, étaient importants: de 3,6 [3,2 - 4,0] kg pour le poids, 1,8 (1,4 - 2,3) cm pour le périmètre abdominal, 0,9 (0,8 - 1,2) cm pour le périmètre brachial, 1,4 (1,2 - 1,5) kg/m2 pour l'IMC. La proportion de patients avec un IMC <18,5 kg/m2 a significativement plus baissé entre l'admission et le 12ème mois parmi les patients sans stomatite que parmi ceux avec stomatite. L'IMC moyen évoluait significativement différemment entre l'admission et le 12ème mois selon l’âge et la taille de ménage. Conclusion Les facteurs fragilisant la rétention des patients sous antirétroviraux et une évolution progressive de l’état nutritionnel ont été observés. PMID:25995784

  9. LE MAINTIEN DU POUVOIR CHEZ LA PERSONNE ÂGÉE HÉBERGÉE SOUFFRANT DE DÉFICITS COGNITIFS

    PubMed Central

    Vézina, Aline; Pelletier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cet article théorique interpelle à la fois la recherche et l’intervention, à l’égard du mieux-être des personnes âgées hébergées présentant des troubles cognitifs associés à des démences dégénératives. Appuyé par la perspective de l’interactionnisme symbolique, il met l’accent sur les interactions entre le personnel soignant (infirmière, infirmière auxiliaire, préposée, ergothérapeute, personnel de réadaptation et des loisirs, travailleuse sociale, etc.) et les proches aidants, dans un objectif de maintien du pouvoir pour et par la personne âgée. Sous l’angle de l’approche centrée sur la personne, qui affirme l’importance de dépasser l’âgisme et l’impuissance quant à la démence, il aborde deux approches : l’approche prothétique élargie et l’approche biographique qui permettent de soutenir l’identité et l’affirmation de soi de la personne âgée hébergée souffrant de déficits cognitifs. PMID:24795486

  10. Etude des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques en matière de réintégration sociale des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale: région de l'Extrême-nord, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sanou Sobze; Adogaye, Sali Ben Béchir; Rodrigue, Mabvouna Biguioh; Maurice, Douryang; Vivaldi, Teikeu Tessa Vladimir; Amede, Saah Fopa Michael; Marie, Ovaga Eyenga Landry; Meriam, Ausseil Sandra; Colizzi, Vittorio; Gianluca, Russo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La fistule obstétricale est un orifice entre le vagin et la vessie ou le rectum, voire les deux. Ses impacts sont des conséquences anatomo-fonctionnelles et sociales. On estime à plus de 19 000 le nombre de femmes qui souffrent de fistule obstétricale au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive conduite dans trois districts de santé de la région de l'Extrême-nord. Vingt-huit femmes victimes de fistules obstétricales, quarante-deux membres de leur entourage et vingt-quatre agents de santé ont été interviewés entre Novembre et Décembre 2013. Trois types de questionnaires ont été utilisés. Les données ont été analysées dans Epi Info version 7.1.4.0. Les moyennes et les fréquences ont été calculées avec un intervalle de confiance à 95%. Résultats 46,4% des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricales interviewées avaient subi une intervention chirurgicale réparatrice parmi lesquelles, 61,5% bénéficiaient de la réintégration. Le fonds de commerce (62,5%) était l'aide la plus reçue. Vingt-deux membres de l'entourage savaient pourquoi on fait la réintégration. Selon eux, les considérations socioculturelles (68,2%), sont la principale barrière de la réintégration. D'après les agents de santé, le suivi psychosocial (58,3%) est la principale activité de la réintégration dans les centres de prise en charge de la fistule. Conclusion La prise en charge des fistules obstétricales au Cameroun souffre de manque de réintégration sociale. Ceci expliquerait en partie la persistance de cette pathologie. Un accent devrait être mis sur l'appui matériel, financier et sur le suivi psychosocial des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale. PMID:26113915

  11. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  12. Naming the Rape Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Nolan

    Since state laws prohibiting identification of rape victims were struck down in a 1975 United States Supreme Court ruling, the media have been reconsidering their traditional policy of preserving victims' anonymity. Explaining their decision to begin naming victims in rape trials, several newspapers cite the press's responsibility to provide the…

  13. Victimization of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-08-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and teasing as a result of being overweight or obese. The victimization may be overt or relational. Obese adolescents are at risk of victimization, because their peers view them as different and undesirable. Although peer victimization occurs commonly among adolescents, obese adolescents are more susceptible than their average-weight peers. Because school nurses are often the first line of defense for obese adolescents, they are in an excellent position to identify forms of peer victimization and be prepared to intervene with the victims. School nurses can potentially preserve the psychosocial integrity of obese adolescents by promoting healthy peer interactions and experiences. PMID:16856773

  14. Prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes infectées par le VIH à Parakou au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Dovonou, Comlan Albert; Amidou, Salimanou Ariyoh; Kpangon, Amadohoué Arsène; Traoré, Yacoubou Adam; Godjedo, Togbemabou Primous Martial; Satondji, Assongba Joseph; Wachinou, Ablo Prudence; Issa-Djibril, Fatioulaye Mahamadi; Fourn, Léonard; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Gandaho, Prosper

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La co-infection avec l'hépatite B est l'un des défis majeurs de la prise en charge du VIH depuis l'amélioration de l'accès aux antirétroviraux en Afrique. La présente étude visait à estimer la prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH à Parakou et décrire les facteurs associés. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale menée de Mai 2011 à Juin 2012 dans le service de Médecine du CHU de Parakou. Ont été inclus tous les adultes séropositifs au VIH vus en consultation ou hospitalisés. Les données ont été collectées par interviews et dépouillement de dossiers médicaux. L'antigène HBs a été recherché par un test rapide et l'ALAT a été dosé. L'analyse des données a été faite avec le logiciel EpiInfo 3.5.1. Les proportions ont été comparées grâce au test de Chi-deux ou au test de Fisher au seuil de significativité de 5%. Un modèle de régression logistique multivariable a permis d'expliquer la prévalence de l'hépatite B. Résultats Sur les 744 sujets inclus on a dénombré 555 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35,5 + 10,1 ans. La prévalence de l'hépatite B a été estimée à 16,9% (IC95: 14,3%-19,9%). Cette prévalence était plus élevée chez les sujets originaires du Borgou/Alibori et ceux au stade 4 de l'OMS. Conclusion La prévalence de la co-infection VIH/VHB au CHU Parakou est élevée. Le dispositif national de prise en charge et de prévention de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH doit être renforcé. PMID:26097629

  15. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  16. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  17. Counseling Victims of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra L.

    This book provides counselors with a look at the effects of violence and offers strategies for assisting victims and survivors of that violence to cope, recover, and grow. Chapter 1 tells the story of a victim of sexual abuse. Chapter 2 examines the psychodynamics of trauma, including posttraumatic stress. Chapter 3 discusses effective therapies…

  18. Victims of Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner William; And Others

    A scientific, multidisciplinary examination of the social and psychological effects of rape upon female victims is presented, which is then correlated with: (1) the circumstances that surrounded the rape; (2) the victim's personality and social adaptation before she was raped; and (3) the support available from organizations and people who were…

  19. Peer Victimization at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slee, Phillip T.; Rigby, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Considers Australian and overseas research that highlights the extent of child-on-child violence and the effect of peer group victimization on both the perpetrator and victim. Examines how such personalized aggression is reflected in the child's psychological well-being and peer relations. Also considers the nature of school intervention programs…

  20. Victim/Witness Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Robert H.; Blew, Carol Holliday

    This monograph highlights the elements of four victim-assistance programs which demonstrate the range of services currently being offered. It provides a preliminary look at the impact of such programs and points out where more information is needed. Major topics include victim and witness services and monitoring thereof. The two goals of…

  1. Seeking Justice for the Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrias, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the recent legislative, judicial, and executive efforts to advance the interests of the crime victim in the criminal process. These include victim impact statements, remuneration from felons, and victims' service agencies. National efforts include a proposed amendment to the Constitution supporting victims' rights. (MJP)

  2. Victim assistance - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Rape - resources; Resources - rape ... The following organizations are good resources for information on domestic violence and rape : Administration for Children and Families -- www.acf.hhs.gov National Center for Victims of ...

  3. Victim assistance - resources

    MedlinePlus

    The following organizations are good resources for information on domestic violence and rape : Administration for Children and Families -- www.acf.hhs.gov National Center for Victims of Crime -- www.ncvc.org National ...

  4. Victim-perpetrator reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Barcus, R A; Bernstein, B G

    1997-10-01

    This document presents a case study describing how therapists collaborated to achieve a victim-perpetrator reconciliation between an uncle who sexually molested his niece more than 30 years earlier when they were 12 and 5 years old, respectively. After an introduction, the document presents the case history, including what occurred between the children, how the female victim eventually sought therapy and sent her uncle an angry letter, and how the uncle immediately responded with contrition. Next, the victim's therapist describes therapeutic issues such as enlisting the help of the victim's support system, uncovering the intergenerational incest present in her family, and helping the victim understand the potential ramifications of her demands for compensation. The perpetrators' therapist then explains his decision to eschew further condemnation of the perpetrator's actions and to support his efforts to achieve healing and reconciliation. Each therapist also discusses how they turned to their own support groups to deal with transference issues and to seek advice. Next, the paper reviews how each therapist helped the clients deal with relevant legal issues arising from the victim's desire for monetary compensation for damages. After consultation with lawyers, the clients were able to arrive at a satisfactory settlement that aided the process of reconciliation. PMID:12322017

  5. Secondary victims of rape.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Dorte; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107 secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels of traumatization, and it was estimated that approximately one quarter of the respondents suffered from posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). Degree of traumatization was associated with a more recent assault, higher efforts to support the PV, recurrent thoughts about having been able to prevent the assault, a lack of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim. PMID:22594219

  6. The Culpable Victim in Mendelsohn's Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.

    This paper provides a review of Benjamin Mendelsohn's delineation of a typology of criminal victims. The typology consists of six categories: (1) completely innocent victims; (2) victims with minor guilt; (3) voluntary victims; (4) victims more guilty than the offender; (5) victims who alone are guilty; and (6) the imaginary victims. It is noted…

  7. Norms regarding secondary victimization of bullying victims: do they differ according to the victim's categorization?

    PubMed

    Correia, Isabel; Alves, Hélder; de Almeida, Ana Tomás; Garcia, D'Jamila

    2010-04-01

    Two studies with a 2 valence of the image (positive, negative) x 2 victim's category (ingroup; outgroup) between-subjects design, investigated the existence of prescriptive norms regarding secondary victimization of bullying victims as well as the influence of the categorization of the victim on those same prescriptive norms among 7th graders. Study 1 addressed a scenario of physical bullying. Study 2 addressed a scenario of verbal bullying combined with social exclusion. Results showed that norms prescribe that the ingroup victim of physical bullying should be the least secondarily victimized. Furthermore it was found that for both types of bullying a positive image can be conveyed by secondarily victimizing more an outgroup victim than an ingroup victim. PMID:19497030

  8. Poly-Victimization: A Neglected Component in Child Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology. Method: In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms. Results: Children experiencing…

  9. Care of the victim.

    PubMed

    Vognar, Lidia; Gibbs, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    The number of elder abuse cases is expected to rise as the number of persons older than age 65 doubles over the next 20 years. Patients affected by elder abuse present in all care settings, including inpatient and outpatient clinical care, emergency rooms, long-term care facilities, and home care. Victims have significant medical consequences, physical and psychological, and often need additional resources, including legal guidance. Health care professionals need additional training to be effective advocates for survivors of elder abuse. Care of the victim must also be recognized as an equally important topic for research and education. PMID:25439647

  10. [Sexual victimization in old age].

    PubMed

    Görgen, T; Nägele, B

    2006-10-01

    A study on the underresearched topic of elderly sexual victimization combined multiple data sources: German police crime statistics, 122 public prosecutor files on sexual victimization of people above age 60, survey data from 76 institutions assisting victims of sexual violence/domestic violence, in-depth interviews with 22 practitioners who had worked with sexually victimized elderly. The study shows that few cases of sexual victimization in old age are known to law enforcement agencies or victim services. Offences dealt with by the criminal justice system differ significantly from those known to battered women's shelters and victim services. The majority of incidents prosecuted by the criminal justice system are hands-off offences; hands-on offences are typically single incidents committed by strangers or loose acquaintances of the victim. Battered women's shelters and institutions of victim assistance are confronted with severe forms of sexual violence in intimate relationships, the prototypical case being an older woman who is repeatedly victimized by her husband over a considerable period of time and within a relationship characterized by a comprehensive system of violence, humiliation, and control (corresponding to Johnson's concept of intimate terrorism). The study demonstrates how small numbers of recorded cases of sexual violence in old age may reflect age-specific detection rates. It provides evidence on older victims' help-seeking behavior and on ways to improve victim services. PMID:17039295

  11. Childhood Victimization and Lifetime Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the fundamental hypothesis that childhood victimization leads to increased vulnerability for subsequent (re)victimization in adolescence and adulthood and, if so, whether there are differences in rates of experiencing traumas and victimizations by gender, race/ethnicity, and type of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Methods:…

  12. Counseling Torture Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Shaun R.

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the psychological effects of torture (including solitary confinement) and the implications of torture for counseling and the counseling psychology profession. Discusses counseling issues related to diagnosis of torture victims, treatment, special considerations for counselors, use of testimony as counseling technique, and prognosis.…

  13. Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Haque, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Testing of victim detection radars has traditionally used human subjects who volunteer to be buried in, or climb into a space within, a rubble pile. This is not only uncomfortable, but can be hazardous or impractical when typical disaster scenarios are considered, including fire, mud, or liquid waste. Human subjects are also inconsistent from day to day (i.e., they do not have the same radar properties), so quantitative performance testing is difficult. Finally, testing a multiple-victim scenario is difficult and expensive because of the need for multiple human subjects who must all be coordinated. The solution is an anthropomorphic dummy with dielectric properties that replicate those of a human, and that has motions comparable to human motions for breathing and heartbeat. Two airfilled bladders filled and drained by solenoid valves provide the underlying motion for vinyl bags filled with a dielectric gel with realistic properties. The entire assembly is contained within a neoprene wetsuit serving as a "skin." The solenoids are controlled by a microcontroller, which can generate a variety of heart and breathing patterns, as well as being reprogrammable for more complex activities. Previous electromagnetic simulators or RF phantoms have been oriented towards assessing RF safety, e.g., the measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) from a cell phone signal, or to provide a calibration target for diagnostic techniques (e.g., MRI). They are optimized for precise dielectric performance, and are typically rigid and immovable. This device is movable and "positionable," and has motion that replicates the small-scale motion of humans. It is soft (much as human tissue is) and has programmable motions.

  14. Emotional disclosure and victim blaming.

    PubMed

    Harber, Kent D; Podolski, Peter; Williams, Christian H

    2015-10-01

    Victim blaming occurs when people are unfairly held responsible for their misfortunes. According to just world theory, witnessing another's victimization threatens just world beliefs, which arouses distress. Victim blaming redeems just world beliefs, thereby reducing distress. However, negative emotions can also be resolved through emotional disclosure, suggesting that disclosure can prevent victim blaming. Two experiments confirmed this prediction. In Study 1 participants viewed a woman being victimized or a woman in a nonvictimizing conflict. Participants then disclosed or suppressed the emotions aroused by these scenes and 1 week later evaluated the woman they had viewed. Disclosure reduced blaming of the victim but did not affect blaming of the nonvictim. Further, the more distress participants disclosed, the less they blamed the victim. Study 2 replicated the primary results of Study 1 and also showed that (a) disclosure exclusively reduces blaming of victims; it does not moderate judgments of victimizers, and (b) the effects of disclosure on blaming applies across genders. These 2 studies confirm that victim blaming is a form of emotion management (per just world theory), and that emotional disclosure prevents blaming by supplying an alternative mode of emotion management. This research also suggests that emotional disclosure moderates social perception, in general. PMID:25799160

  15. [Identifying victims of a disaster].

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status. PMID:25467027

  16. Spine Immobilizer for Accident Victims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; Lampson, K.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed conformal bladder filled with tiny spheres called "microballoons," enables spine of accident victim to be rapidly immobilized and restrained and permit victim to be safely removed from accident scene in extremely short time after help arrives. Microballoons expand to form rigid mass when pressure within bladder is less than ambient. Bladder strapped to victim is also strapped to rescue chair. Void between bladder and chair is filled with cloth wedges.

  17. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

  18. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  19. Pathways to poly-victimization.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather; Holt, Melissa

    2009-11-01

    Some children, whom we have labeled poly-victims, experience very high levels of victimizations of different types. This article finds support for a conceptual model suggesting that there may be four distinct pathways to becoming such a poly-victim: (a) residing in a dangerous community, (b) living in a dangerous family, (c) having a chaotic, multiproblem family environment, or (d) having emotional problems that increase risk behavior, engender antagonism, and compromise the capacity to protect oneself. It uses three waves of the Developmental Victimization Survey, a nationally representative sample of children aged 2-17 years. All four hypothesized pathways showed significant independent association with poly-victim onset. For the younger children, the symptom score representing emotional problems was the only significant predictor. For the older children, the other three pathway variables were significant predictors--dangerous communities, dangerous families, and problem families--but not symptom score. Poly-victimization onset was also disproportionately likely to occur in the year prior to children's 7th and 15th birthday, corresponding roughly to the entry into elementary school and high school. The identification of such pathways and the ages of high onset should help practitioners design programs for preventing vulnerable children from becoming poly-victims. PMID:19837972

  20. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    PubMed

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. PMID:26490506

  1. Victims and Their Defenders: A Dyadic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, Rene; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social status. Analyses on victim-defender dyads showed…

  2. 12 CFR 1075.103 - Eligible victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible victims. 1075.103 Section 1075.103... § 1075.103 Eligible victims. A victim is eligible for payment from the Civil Penalty Fund if a final... the victim....

  3. The Developmental Epidemiology of Childhood Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines developmental trends in the rates of different kinds of victimization across the span of childhood. The Developmental Victimization Survey was a national telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 2,030 children from ages 2 to 17. The overall mean number of victimizations during a single year increased with age, as…

  4. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  5. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    PubMed

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals. PMID:12733420

  6. Psychotherapy ethics with violence victims.

    PubMed

    Popov, Hristo

    2005-03-01

    There are many special issues that therapists will face while providing psychotherapy services for victims of violence. The primary goal of such intervention must be to reempower the victim so that she perceives herself as the survivor she must become. To do this, she has to deal with the trauma, integrate it into her past, and then, get on with her life. Various problems could occur during custody evaluations, forensic consultations and media exposure. Monitoring confidentiality issues when working with this kind of victims may be crucial to prevent placing them in any further danger. Given the special vulnerability of violence victims, it is essential for the therapist to act in an ethical manner at all times. PMID:15887615

  7. Victimization experiences and the stabilization of victim sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Süssenbach, Philipp; Hannuschke, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    People reliably differ in the extent to which they are sensitive to being victimized by others. Importantly, “victim sensitivity” predicts how people behave in social dilemma situations: Victim-sensitive individuals are less likely to trust others and more likely to behave uncooperatively—especially in socially uncertain situations. This pattern can be explained with the sensitivity to mean intentions (SeMI) model, according to which victim sensitivity entails a specific and asymmetric sensitivity to contextual cues that are associated with untrustworthiness. Recent research is largely in line with the model’s prediction, but some issues have remained conceptually unresolved so far. For instance, it is unclear why and how victim sensitivity becomes a stable trait and which developmental and cognitive processes are involved in such stabilization. In the present article, we will discuss the psychological processes that contribute to a stabilization of victim sensitivity within persons, both across the life span (“ontogenetic stabilization”) and across social situations (“actual-genetic stabilization”). Our theoretical framework starts from the assumption that experiences of being exploited threaten a basic need, the need to trust. This need is so fundamental that experiences that threaten it receive a considerable amount of attention and trigger strong affective reactions. Associative learning processes can then explain (a) how certain contextual cues (e.g., facial expressions) become conditioned stimuli that elicit equally strong responses, (b) why these contextual untrustworthiness cues receive much more attention than, for instance, trustworthiness cues, and (c) how these cues shape spontaneous social expectations (regarding other people’s intentions). Finally, avoidance learning can explain why these cognitive processes gradually stabilize and become a trait: the trait which is referred to as victim sensitivity. PMID:25926806

  8. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  9. Measuring victimization inside prisons: questioning the questions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Jing Shi; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-10-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the prison victimization literature to elicit information on victimization from inmates, compared to questions used in the general victimization literature. The questions used in the National Violence Against Women and Men Surveys are used to estimate sexual and physical victimization rates for an entire prison system. Rates of victimization were found to vary significantly by specificity of the question, definition of perpetrator, and clustering of behaviors. Facts about victimization inside prison will become more certain when the methodology becomes more standardized and consistent with definitions of victimization. PMID:18309042

  10. Écologie des soins de santé au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter un profil populationnel pancanadien des besoins en soins de santé et de leur utilisation, facile d’accès et permettant des comparaisons entre les provinces et avec d’autres instances internationales. Conception Une comparaison des taux d’utilisation des soins de santé entre les provinces en utilisant des données d’enquêtes et des renseignements administratifs sur la santé. Contexte Les provinces du Canada. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Les taux canadiens et provinciaux de personnes en mauvaise santé (présence de problèmes chroniques) et d’utilisation des soins de santé (contacts avec des médecins de famille, avec d’autres médecins spécialistes, avec des infirmières et hospitalisations) sous forme de proportions mensuelles par 1000 habitants normalisées en fonction de l’âge et du genre. Résultats La proportion mensuelle par 1000 habitants de personnes souffrant d’au moins 1 problème chronique variait de 524 au Québec à 638 en Nouvelle-Écosse; les contacts avec un médecin de famille se situaient entre 158 au Québec et 295 en Colombie-Britannique; les contacts avec d’autres médecins spécialistes variaient entre 53 en Saskatchewan et 79 en Ontario; et le nombre de contacts avec des infirmières se situait entre 23 en Colombie-Britannique et 41 au Québec. Le nombre de séjours à l’hôpital variait entre 8 et 11 par 1000 habitants et les proportions étaient semblables d’une province à l’autre. Conclusion Il est essentiel de reconnaître les distinctions entre les provinces pour éclairer les politiques sur la santé dans l’ensemble du pays. Les différences persistaient lorsque les taux étaient normalisés en fonction de la composition démographique variable selon l’âge et le genre dans les provinces. Cet article présente une méthodologie simple à l’aide de données publiquement accessibles qui peut servir dans chaque province à examiner, à l’avenir, l

  11. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  12. [Sexual dysfunction in torture victims].

    PubMed

    Theilade, Lotte D Arlø

    2002-10-01

    Sexual dysfunction is seen in up to 51% of torture victims. The torture victim seldom reports anything about having been tortured but often consults the health care system because of a somatic problem which may seem unrelated to torture. Therefore, it is important that doctors are aware of the possible correlation. Symptoms and findings may be both physical and psychical. The torture may be both sexual and non-sexual as well as physical and non-physical. Social, cultural and individual factors also influence the development of sexual dysfunction in a torture victim. The factors that cause sexual dysfunction and the identification of any direct causal relations are discussed. There are indications that sexual torture has a greater impact on the development of sexual dysfunction than other types of torture and it seems that sexual dysfunction is a result of many factors. PMID:12407879

  13. The developmental epidemiology of childhood victimization.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K; Turner, Heather A

    2009-05-01

    This article examines developmental trends in the rates of different kinds of victimization across the span of childhood. The Developmental Victimization Survey was a national telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 2,030 children from ages 2 to 17. The overall mean number of victimizations during a single year increased with age, as did the percentage of children with polyvictimizations (4 or more different kinds of victimization). However, some specific types of victimization, physical bullying and sibling assaults, were highest prior to adolescence and then declined. Other types had different developmental patterns by gender. Peer assaults increased in adolescence for boys but not for girls. Child maltreatment and sexual victimization increased in adolescence for girls but not for boys. The complex and diverse patterns of developmental vulnerability to different kinds of victimization at different ages need more exploration and explanation in order to better target prevention and intervention policies. PMID:18467689

  14. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasjleti, Maria

    1980-01-01

    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  15. Racial Gaps in Homicide Victim Rates Changing

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158081.html Racial Gaps in Homicide Victim Rates Changing Biggest declines seen for Hispanics ... 2016 THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Overall homicide victim rates in the United States fell between ...

  16. Promoting "Fair Play": Interventions for Children as Victims and Victimizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.; And Others

    Because of escalating violence in our nation's schools and neighborhoods, childhood aggression is receiving intense public scrutiny. This article offers a systemic perspective for understanding the pervasive problem of bullying and victimization by clarifying adult attitudes toward childhood aggression; by reviewing the familial, educational, and…

  17. Perceived Social Support among Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Melissa K.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that social support plays a protective role among adolescents, but little research has explicitly evaluated its function among youth involved in bullying. Accordingly, this study examined relations among social support, bully/victim status, and psychological distress in a sample of 784 ethnically diverse youth. We assessed…

  18. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  19. Age, Marital Status, and Risk of Sexual Victimization: Similarities and Differences Across Victim-Offender Relationships.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    By now, age and marital status are well-established correlates of criminal victimization, including adult women's sexual victimization. National crime statistics, as well as a large body of scholarly literature, have specified that younger women and unmarried women are at comparatively higher risk of sexual victimization than older women and married women. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across diverse situational contexts of sexual victimization. The current study used data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine whether the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of sexual victimization varied across victimization experiences involving three victim-offender relationships: stranger, acquaintance, and intimate partner. Results indicate both similarities and differences in the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across these three situational contexts of victimization. As expected, age was a significant predictor of victimization in all models; however, younger women's increased risk of victimization was far more pronounced for acquaintance and intimate partner victimization experiences as compared with stranger experiences. Also, consistent with prior research, unmarried women were at higher risk of victimization in all models; however, within unmarried status categories, separated women were at highest risk of both intimate partner and acquaintance victimization experiences as compared with never married or divorced women. PMID:25846759

  20. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Victims, Bullies and Bully-Victims in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Harriet A.; Arseneault, Louise; Taylor, Alan; Maughan, Barbara; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Three groups of children are involved in bullying: victims, bullies and bully-victims who are both bullies and victims of bullying. Understanding the origins of these groups is important since they have elevated emotional and behavioural problems, especially the bully-victims. No research has examined the genetic and environmental…

  1. Responding to Children Victimized by Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.

    2006-01-01

    Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…

  2. Victim/Witness Assistance: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Anthony A., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography highlights the literature available on two important aspects of assistance to victims and witnesses of crime. The first section, victim and witness services, covers the need, function and implementation of services to assist victims, elements of effective programs and evaluation of specific programs. The second section,…

  3. Victimization within Mutually Antipathetic Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2007-01-01

    Children's victimization experiences within relationships characterized by mutual animosity were examined among 210 6th- and 7th-grade boys and girls. Participants reported that a greater proportion of mutual antipathies, relative to other peers, victimized them. Moreover, the receipt of victimization within antipathetic relationships was greater…

  4. College Students' Perception of AIDS Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Roger C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated college students' (N=60) perceptions of victims of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) based on how the victim contracted the disease. Found in nondeterioration condition victims contracting AIDS via sexual encounters or illicit drug injection were perceived as less trustworthy, less moral, and less desirable as a prospective…

  5. Social Network Predictors of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouttapa, Michele; Valente, Tom; Gallaher, Peggy; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether bullies, victims, and aggressive victims (those who are both bullies and victims) differed on classroom social network variables, gender, and ethnicity. Survey data were collected from a primarily Latino and Asian sample of 1,368 Southern California 6th graders (mean age = 11.3 years). Logistic regression analyses were…

  6. Systemic Patterns in Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, John H. F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a new non-anonymous questionnaire and a nomination method by which victims were asked to name their aggressors, Chan (2002) collated the responses from individual victims to produce name-clusters that were studied for systemic patterns of bullying and victimization within the whole-school community. Three such patterns emerged: serial…

  7. Emotional Problems in Traditional and Cyber Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…

  8. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  9. When and Why We See Victims as Responsible: The Impact of Ideology on Attitudes Toward Victims.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Laura; Young, Liane

    2016-09-01

    Why do victims sometimes receive sympathy for their suffering and at other times scorn and blame? Here we show a powerful role for moral values in attitudes toward victims. We measured moral values associated with unconditionally prohibiting harm ("individualizing values") versus moral values associated with prohibiting behavior that destabilizes groups and relationships ("binding values": loyalty, obedience to authority, and purity). Increased endorsement of binding values predicted increased ratings of victims as contaminated (Studies 1-4); increased blame and responsibility attributed to victims, increased perceptions of victims' (versus perpetrators') behaviors as contributing to the outcome, and decreased focus on perpetrators (Studies 2-3). Patterns persisted controlling for politics, just world beliefs, and right-wing authoritarianism. Experimentally manipulating linguistic focus off of victims and onto perpetrators reduced victim blame. Both binding values and focus modulated victim blame through victim responsibility attributions. Findings indicate the important role of ideology in attitudes toward victims via effects on responsibility attribution. PMID:27340155

  10. Bullying Victimization and Extracurricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between bullying victimization and students' extracurricular activity and misbehavior. This research examined whether students' engagement in particular school activities increased or decreased the likelihood of being bullied while at school. Data for this research were drawn from the Educational…

  11. AIDS Victims and Heterosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Knud S.; And Others

    This study reports on the development of a Likert scale measuring attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) victims (ATAV) in five phases. Participants included a total of 215 male and 268 female undergraduates at Oregon State University. The results for phase 1 yielded a scale with high part-whole correlations, corrected…

  12. Victimization of children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hershkowitz, Irit; Lamb, Michael E; Horowitz, Dvora

    2007-10-01

    Children with disabilities (CWDs) are more likely to be victims of child abuse but may have more difficulty than their typically developing (TD) peers reporting their experiences. In this study, the authors examined the characteristics of abuse reported by CWDs based on forensic statements made by 40430 alleged abuse victims, 11% categorized as children with minor disabilities, and 1.2% categorized as children with severe disabilities. Proportionally more of the CWDs than of the TD children were allegedly victims of sexual rather than physical abuse. CWDs failed to disclose abuse and delayed disclosure more often than TD suspected victims. CWDs were more likely than TD children to be abused by parent figures and to experience physical abuse resulting in body injury or serious sexual offenses, including those involving penetration, repeated abuse, use of force, and threats. Higher levels of disability were associated with increased risk of sexual abuse. Both the heightened incidence of severe abuse among and the failure to disclose abuse by CWDs should be sources of considerable concern to social welfare and criminal justice agencies. PMID:18194043

  13. Les conditions d’hébergement favorables au rétablissement : perspective des usagers et usagères

    PubMed Central

    Piat, Myra; Boyer, Richard; Cloutier, Simon; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Lesage, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Cette recherche vise à mieux comprendre le rôle de l’hébergement dans le rétablissement des personnes vivant avec une maladie mentale grave. Quarante résidents et résidentes de différents types d’hébergement communautaire structuré ont été interrogés sur les conditions d’hébergement qui favorisent leur rétablissement. Les résultats indiquent qu’aux yeux des résidents et résidentes, les conditions matérielles d’existence ont une influence déterminante sur le rétablissement. Leurs préoccupations s’articulent autour des besoins de base tels que l’alimentation, le coût, les commodités et la qualité de leur hébergement. Les relations sociales avec leur entourage immédiat ont également une grande influence sur le rétablissement des personnes, lesquelles souhaitent d’abord conserver leurs modestes acquis, tant matériels que sociaux. Cette stabilité est prérequise à leur rétablissement. PMID:27099410

  14. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16-20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  15. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  16. Does the study of victimization revictimize the victims?

    PubMed

    Walker, E A; Newman, E; Koss, M; Bernstein, D

    1997-11-01

    Although the number of questionnaire surveys examining the sequelae of prior sexual and physical victimization has increased over the last decade, little attention has been given to understanding the impact of such studies on participants. As part of a larger study of long-term effects of prior sexual and physical victimization, 500 randomly selected women in an HMO received a comprehensive questionnaire including multiple symptomatic distress measures and several items inquiring into previous history of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and neglect. They also completed a short rating scale asking about their reactions to completing the questionnaire. Despite the sensitive content, the women who participated generally found the experience to be a positive one. Only a small number of women were more upset than they had anticipated, but the vast majority felt they would have completed the survey even if they had known in advance how they would feel. The subset of women who did express distress was significantly different from the group that did not, with respect to other measures of symptomatic distress and trauma exposure. These data suggest that surveys that inquire into prior episodes of childhood victimization are generally well tolerated by women who participate, and that, although a small number may be disturbed by these investigations, in general, adverse reactions may be less common than previously anticipated. PMID:9438184

  17. Management of the rape victim.

    PubMed

    Enos, W F; Beyer, J C

    1978-09-01

    If a rape crisis center and specialized personnel are not available, the family physician can adequately examine and treat the rape victim as well as collect and properly handle all the required medical evidence. The detailed history has several facets. Laboratory confirmation can be obtained for prior consensual intercourse, sodomy and other special aspects. Treatment is indicated for the prevention of venereal disease and pregnancy. Psychologic support is essential. The physician's examination and testimony can play an important legal role. PMID:685803

  18. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  19. Factors which predict violence victimization in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Lincoln

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Violence is a major public health issue, globally and on the African continent. This paper looks at Uganda and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the study results for violence prevention programs. Methods The study includes the responses of 2 399 Ugandans collected in 2011 by the Fifth Round of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 259 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the last year. Results Logistical regression analysis identified six factors that predict physical violence in Uganda. In order, these included being the victim of a property crime, age, gender, fear of crime in the home, poverty, and residential crowding. The surprising findings relate to what may be called target hardening, especially for those likely to be re-victimized. Respondents did tend to be re-victimized, with about 61 percent of violence victims also property crime victims. Fear of crime in home was another predictor of violence victimization, and many of these respondents had been crime victims. Conclusion These findings imply that target hardening should be the basis to begin to implement violence prevention programs in Uganda. The suggestion is crime prevention personnel/ law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimization and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:25918575

  20. Health Problems of Partner Violence Victims

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    Background National population-based studies show that 40%–50% of physical partner violence victims in a 1-year time period are men. However, studies assessing the health concerns related to partner violence victimization tend to focus on women, and none have assessed the health of male physical partner violence victims who sought help for their victimization. Purpose To understand men’s mental and physical health concerns that may be related to partner violence victimization. Methods In 2012–2013, two samples of men—611 physical partner violence victims who sought help and 1,601 men from a population-based sample – completed online questionnaires on their demographics, various types of partner violence victimization, physical health, mental health, and other risks. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, log binomial models, and robust Poisson models in 2013. Results In comparison to the population-based sample of men, male partner violence victims who sought help had significantly poorer health, particularly with regard to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, high blood pressure, sexually transmitted diseases, and asthma. These differences remained after controlling for sample differences in demographics, substance use, previous traumatic exposure, and social support. Conclusions Practitioners should assess for health problems among partner violence victims and for partner violence victimization among men presenting with health problems. PMID:25442232

  1. Mean ages of homicide victims and victims of homicide-suicide.

    PubMed

    Bridges, F Stephen; Tankersley, William B

    2010-02-01

    Using Riedel and Zahn's 1994 reformatted version of an FBI database, the mean age of homicide victims in 2,175 homicide-suicides (4,350 deaths) was compared with that of all other victims of homicides reported for the USA from 1968 to 1975. The overall mean age of homicide victims in homicide-suicides was 1 yr. greater than for victims of homicides not followed by suicides, whereas the mean age for both male and female homicide-suicide victims was, respectively, 3 yr. less and greater than the other homicide victims. The mean age of Black homicide victims of homicide-suicides was 2.4 yr. less than that for Black victims of other homicides, whereas the means for Black and White male homicide victims in homicide-suicides were, respectively, about 4 and 5 yr. less than for victims of other homicides. Also, the mean age of White female homicide victims in homicide-suicides was more than two years greater than for female victims of homicides not followed by suicides. When both sex and race were considered, the mean age for those killed in homicide-suicides relative to those killed in homicides not followed by suicides may represent subpopulations with different mean ages of victims. PMID:20402440

  2. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  3. Variables influencing victim selection in genocide.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    While victims of racially motivated violence may be identified through observation of morphological features, those targeted because of their ethnic, religious, or national identity are not easily recognized. This study examines how perpetrators of genocide recognize their victims. Court documents, including indictments, witness statements, and testimony from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia (FY) detail the interactions between victim and assailant. A total of 6012 decedents were included in the study; only 20.8% had been positively identified. Variables influencing victim selection in Rwanda included location, segregation, incitement, and prior relationship, while significant factors in FY were segregation, location, age/gender, and social data. Additional contributing factors in both countries included self-identification, victim behavior, linguistic or clothing evidence, and morphological features. Understanding the system of recognition used by perpetrators aids investigators tasked with establishing victim identity in such prosecutions. PMID:18005010

  4. Supporting Young Crime Victims: Discursive Environments and Formula Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstrand, Cecilia Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Within the crime victim movement and discourse on victimization, a novel victim category has been introduced: the young crime victim. This article analyses the professional discourse formed around the new notion, focusing on the needs of the young crime victim along with the practices, tools, and techniques used to deal with resistance at a…

  5. The influence of victim gender and sexual orientation on judgments of the victim in a depicted stranger rape.

    PubMed

    Davies, M; Pollard, P; Archer, J

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of respondent gender, victim gender, and victim sexual orientation on judgments toward the victim of a depicted stranger rape. Respondents were required to read a scenario in which victim gender and sexual orientation varied between subjects, and to complete measures of behavioral blame, responsibility, and severity of the attack. Results revealed that male respondents made more anti-victim judgments than female respondents did. Male respondents judged gay male victims more negatively than they did other victims. Female respondents' judgments were pro-victim regardless of victim gender and victim sexual orientation. Results are discussed in relation to the feminist analysis of victim blame, and blame toward male rape victims. Implications for support services, particularly of male victims, are also considered. PMID:11863061

  6. Criminal Victimization in Urban Schools. Applications of the National Crime Survey Victimization and Attitude Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, M. Joan

    Victimization data from 26 American cities surveyed in 1974 and 1975 are used in this study to examine personal victimizations--rapes, robberies, assaults, and larcenies--that occurred in urban schools. Findings of the study include the following: (1) 270,000 personal victimizations were reported to have occurred inside schools over the course of…

  7. Reactions to Rape Victims: Effects of Rape Circumstances, Victim's Emotional Response, and Sex of Helper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krulewitz, Judith E.

    1982-01-01

    Female and male undergraduates judged impact of the rape experience on victims' psychological adjustment and indicated their likely counseling goals. Results are discussed in terms of popular assumptions about rape victims and sex differences in identification with and empathy for female rape victims. Implications for training are noted. (Author)

  8. Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…

  9. Victim's Response Cycle: A Model for Understanding the Incestuous Victim-Offender Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Roper, Liza

    1996-01-01

    The victim-response cycle model focuses on specific aspects of the relationship that victims have with their offenders which contribute to the degree of trauma that victims experience. This model addresses attachment and learned coping responses to assist clinicians in treating symptomatic behavior. A case example demonstrating the model is…

  10. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  11. Peer Relations of Bullies, Bully-Victims, and Victims: The Two Social Worlds of Bullying in Second-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Petrin, Robert A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Fraser, Mark W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Day, Steven H.; Dadisman, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the social relations of bullies, victims, and bully-victims in second-grade classrooms. Bully-victims are identified as both bullies and victims. The sample consisted of 537 ethnically diverse second-grade students (247 boys, 290 girls) from 37 classrooms across 11 participating schools. Bullies, bully-victims, and victims…

  12. Homicide victims among Australian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, E V

    1994-09-01

    The homicide rates for various immigrant groups in Australia were calculated, and the influence of the rate in countries of origin on immigrant rates and the relationship between the birthplace of the accused and victim were examined. Age-sex standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for homicide were calculated for the immigrant groups, based on 1984-1988 mortality data and 1986 census data. The Australian-born homicide rates were used as the standard. Standardised mortality ratios for countries of origin were derived from WHO data. A cross-tabulation of the birthplaces of the accused and the victim was compiled from 1989-1992 police records. Male SMRs ranged from 0.13 (P < 0.01) for immigrants from Africa and the Americas to 5.83 (P < 0.05) for Koreans. Several female groups had lower SMRs than the Australian-born, although none of these differences were significant. Indonesian females had the highest SMR (5.32, P < 0.01). There was a positive Spearman correlation between the ranking of homicide rates for the origin populations and the immigrants (males 0.64, P < 0.05; females 0.62, P < 0.05). Overall, 51.3 per cent of immigrants were killed by their compatriots. This ranged from zero for New Zealanders to 100 per cent for immigrants from the Middle East. In order to further identify factors contributing to the large differences in rates it is imperative to have information on the victim, the perpetrator and the circumstances surrounding the murder. PMID:7841261

  13. Technology-based interpersonal victimization: predictors of patterns of victimization over time.

    PubMed

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that could predict youth's future technology-based interpersonal victimization and the pattern of that future victimization over time. Data from Growing up With Media, a national, longitudinal, online study were analyzed. At baseline, participants (N = 1,018) were 10- to 15-year-old English speakers who had used the Internet at least once in the last 6 months. Twenty-nine percent reported repeat technology-based interpersonal victimization over a 2-year period (re-victimized group); 10% were victims during only Year 1 (desisted victimized group); and 17% reported victimization during only Year 2 (later victimized group). Of the individual risk factors examined, prior technology-based interpersonal victimization and current amount of Internet use had the strongest overall associations with pattern of technology-based interpersonal victimization over the subsequent 2-year period. There was substantial overlap among the individual risk factors. Thus, they could be thought of more simply in terms of four latent risk and three individual risk factors. On average, across these seven risk factors, repeat victims had the greatest average risk score (0.21) and the not victimized group had the lowest (-0.16). Repeat victims were more likely to be female and older and had more prior experience with problem behaviors, substance use, and negative parent-child relationships as compared with the other three groups. Being female, prior experience with problem behavior, prior substance use, and prior negative parent-child relationships were also associated with frequency of technology-based interpersonal victimization in the near (Year 1) and more distant (Year 2) future. Many of these risk factors related to technology-based victimization over time are malleable, suggesting opportunities for effective targeting of future prevention efforts. PMID:24269990

  14. Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I.; Berg, Mark T.; Casteel, Carri

    2016-01-01

    Background Law enforcement depends on cooperation from the public and crime victims to protect citizens and maintain public safety; however, many crimes are not reported to police because of fear of repercussions or because the crime is considered trivial. It is unclear how police reporting affects the incidence of future victimization. Objective To evaluate the association between reporting victimization to police and incident future victimization. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using National Crime Victimization Survey 2008–2012 data. Participants were 12+ years old household members who may or may not be victimized, were followed biannually for 3 years, and who completed at least one follow-up survey after their first reported victimization between 2008 and 2012. Crude and adjusted generalized linear mixed regression for survey data with Poisson link were used to compare rates of future victimization. Results Out of 18,657 eligible participants, 41% participants reported to their initial victimization to police and had a future victimization rate of 42.8/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI: 40.7, 44.8). The future victimization rate of those who did not report to the police (59%) was 55.0/100 PY (95% CI: 53.0, 57.0). The adjusted rate ratio comparing police reporting to not reporting was 0.78 (95%CI: 0.72, 0.84) for all future victimizations, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for interpersonal violence, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.78) for thefts, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07) for burglaries. Conclusions Reporting victimization to police is associated with fewer future victimization, underscoring the importance of police reporting in crime prevention. This association may be attributed to police action and victim services provisions resulting from reporting. PMID:27466811

  15. Bullying and victimization in elementary schools: a comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, René; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; De Winter, Andrea F; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan

    2005-07-01

    Research on bullying and victimization largely rests on univariate analyses and on reports from a single informant. Researchers may thus know too little about the simultaneous effects of various independent and dependent variables, and their research may be biased by shared method variance. The database for this Dutch study was large (N = 1,065) and rich enough to allow multivariate analysis and multi-source information. In addition, the effect of familial vulnerability for internalizing and externalizing disorders was studied. Gender, aggressiveness, isolation, and dislikability were most strongly related to bullying and victimization. Among the many findings that deviated from or enhanced the univariate knowledge base were that not only victims and bully/victims but bullies as well were disliked and that parenting was unrelated to bullying and victimization once other factors were controlled. PMID:16060813

  16. Victim and victimizer: the role of traumatic experiences as risk factors for sexually abusive behavior.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A

    2012-01-01

    The Victim to Victimizer paradigm purports to explain the connection between being a victim of sexual abuse and becoming a perpetrator, attributing sexually abusive behavior to a predictable cycle of cognitive distortions and self-destructive and/or abusive behaviors. Integration of two ecological models, Trauma Outcome Process Assessment and Family Lovemap provides a more comprehensive explanation of salient contributors to sexually abusive behavior in youth (i.e., trauma). A case example illustrates the parallel Trauma Outcome Process in a victim, and the victim's perpetrator, identifying protective factors beneficial for trauma recovery. PMID:23585464

  17. Associations between Peer Victimization and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature on the links between peer victimization and academic performance and engagement among children and adolescents. Although most of the research on this association is based on cross-sectional investigations, research using longitudinal designs is starting to point to the fact that peer victimization does…

  18. Deviant Lifestyles and Violent Victimization at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and…

  19. Peer Victimization, Depression, and Suicidiality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…

  20. Victimization and Suicidality among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Carroll, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive role of victimization in suicidality among college women. Participants: Female respondents to the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II (N = 258). Methods: Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between victimization and suicidality. Results:…

  1. Sleep Loss and Partner Violence Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male…

  2. Disasters, Victimization, and Children's Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David

    2010-01-01

    In a representative sample of 2,030 U.S. children aged 2-17, 13.9% report lifetime exposure to disaster, and 4.1% report experiencing a disaster in the past year. Disaster exposure was associated with some forms of victimization and adversity. Victimization was associated with depression among 2- to 9-year-old disaster survivors, and with…

  3. Enhancing Victim Empathy for Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carich, Mark S.; Metzger, Carole K.; Baig, Mirza S. A.; Harper, Joseph J.

    2003-01-01

    Victim empathy is a widely used component of sex offender treatment throughout North America and Great Britain. Yet, it has been controversial over the past few years. One of the complications involves giving empathy a solid definition. Empathy was defined as the capacity to express compassion for victims. A multi-level system was developed to…

  4. Incest Victims: Inadequate Help by Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenken, Jos; Van Stolk, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Interviews with 130 Dutch professionals helping incest victims and 50 adult women who were incest victims as children found that assistance was hampered by institutional distrust, inability of professionals to stop ongoing incest, frequent breaking off of contact by the young girls, professionals' shortcomings in knowledge and skills, and…

  5. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  6. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  7. Juvenile Delinquency and Victimization: A Theoretical Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A.; Ormrod, Richard K.

    2007-01-01

    It is a widely voiced notion that juvenile delinquency and victimization co-occur extensively in the youth population, in particular because delinquent youth engage in risky activities. But theory from the bullying and traumatic stress literatures suggests that there may be additional pathways by which delinquency and victimization are connected.…

  8. Attributions and Coping Styles in Reducing Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Danielle; Craig, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the role of attributions and coping on children's victimization over time, 220 children completed questionnaires twice over a 6-month period. Direct and mediational models were tested using regressions, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Characterological self-blame was positively related to victimization within and across time for…

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Sibling Victimization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne M.; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to document the prevalence and correlates of any past year sibling victimization, including physical, property, and psychological victimization, by a co-residing juvenile sibling across the spectrum of childhood from one month to 17 years of age. Methods: The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence…

  10. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  11. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  12. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  13. Childhood and adolescent violent victimization and the risk of young adult intimate partner violence victimization.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of participants, this study investigates childhood victimization in the home and adolescent violent victimization in the community on the risk of being a victim of intimate partner violence (IPV), general violence, or both during early adulthood. The study findings indicate being left home alone and being physically abused during childhood, and adolescent violent victimization in the community had strong independent effects on an individual's likelihood of becoming a victim of IPV, general violence, or both in early adulthood. The study findings suggest a consistent pattern of victimization across the life course, and intervention programs need to be developed that address the specific needs of children and adolescents at high risk for home and community violent victimization. PMID:22145539

  14. Stalking Victimization, Labeling, and Reporting: Findings From the NCVS Stalking Victimization Supplement.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Kim S; Cox, Amanda K

    2016-05-01

    Using the National Crime Victimization Survey 2006 Stalking Victimization Supplement (NCVS-SVS) and guided by Greenberg and Ruback's social influence model, this study examines the effects of individual (e.g., severity, sex, victim-offender relationship) and contextual (e.g., location) factors on stalking victimization risk, victim labeling and help seeking, and victim and third-party police contacts. Logistic regression results suggest individual and contextual characteristics matter. Consistent with prior research and the theoretical model, the positive effects of severity and sex (female) were significant across all dependent variables, whereas the interaction effect of victim-offender relationship and location held only for third-party police contacts. PMID:26472665

  15. Définir les choix à risque: l'éthique et les effets des décisions organisationnelles.

    PubMed

    Warren, Marika

    2016-07-01

    Les choix de vivre « à risque » sont complexes et difficiles. Ils peuvent être structurés par les politiques organisationnelles. Certaines personnes veulent vraiment vivre dans des situations à haut risque ou perçues comme telles parce qu'elles en tirent un avantage important. Cependant, il est probable que ces choix dépendent en grande partie du contexte et qu'ils ne se soient pas posés dans une autre situation. L'article plaide pour la responsabilité d'être attentif aux effets des décisions organisationnelles sur les choix de vivre à risque et sur la répartition globale du risque. PMID:27365384

  16. Youth victimization: school climate or deviant lifestyles?

    PubMed

    Zaykowski, Heather; Gunter, Whitney

    2012-02-01

    Despite much focus on school violence, there has been little research that explores the relationship between offending and victimization in various school climates. School climate theory suggests that the school's social system, culture, milieu, and ecological structure affect student outcomes including academic performance, delinquency, and more recently, victimization. Hierarchical analysis of data from 5,037 11th-grade students in 33 schools found that offending behavior was the strongest predictor for both minor and more serious forms of victimization. School climate, specifically the social cohesion of schools, reduced serious violent victimization risk. However, school climate did not affect the relationship between offending and victimization, and was not substantially modified when characteristics of the school environment were considered. PMID:21987507

  17. Contrôler la douleur et réduire l’usage abusif d’opioïdes

    PubMed Central

    Kotalik, Jaro

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Aider les médecins de famille à faire un juste équilibre sur le plan de l’éthique dans leurs pratiques de prescription d’opioïdes. Source des données Une recension des articles en anglais publiés entre 1985 et 2011 a été effectuée dans MEDLINE. La majorité des données probantes étaient de niveau III. Message principal Il est essentiel de suivre les guides de pratique clinique quand on prescrit des opioïdes, sauf s’il est démontré qu’une autre option est justifiée. De plus, quand on réfléchit à la pertinence de prescrire des opioïdes et aux nombreuses implications sur le plan de l’éthique, il est utile de fonder sa décision sur l’application des principes éthiques de la bienfaisance, de la non-malfaisance, du respect de l’autonomie et de la justice. En outre, il est essentiel de se tenir au fait des changements dans les lois et la règlementation, ainsi qu’à propos des registres électroniques provinciaux des ordonnances d’opioïdes. Conclusion Les médecins doivent s’assurer que la douleur de leurs patients est bien évaluée et prise en charge. Le contrôle optimal de la douleur peut exiger la prescription d’opioïdes. Cependant, l’obligation de soulager la douleur doit être exercée en juste équilibre avec l’acquittement de la responsabilité tout aussi importante de ne pas exposer les patients au risque de dépendance et de ne pas créer de possibilités de détournement de drogues, de trafic et de dépendance chez d’autres personnes. Les principes éthiques fondamentaux offrent un cadre de réflexion qui peut aider les médecins à prendre des décisions appropriées sur le plan de l’éthique au sujet de la prescription d’opioïdes.

  18. Le domaine des co-infections et des maladies concomitantes du Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des IRSC : lignes directrices canadiennes pour la prise en charge et le traitement de la co-infection par le VIH et l’hépatite C chez les adultes

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Mark; Giguère, Pierre; Klein, Marina; Shafran, Stephen; Tseng, Alice; Côté, Pierre; Poliquin, Marc; Cooper, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : De 20 % à 30 % des Canadiens qui vivent avec le VIH sont co-infectés par le virus de l’hépatite C (VHC), lequel est responsable d’une morbidité et d’une mortalité importantes. La prise en charge du VIH et du VHC est plus complexe en raison de l’évolution accélérée de la maladie hépatique, du choix et des critères d’initiation de la thérapie antirétrovirale et du traitement anti-VHC, de la prise en charge de la santé mentale et des toxicomanies, des obstacles socioéconomiques et des interactions entre les nouvelles thérapies antivirales à action directe du VHC et les antirétroviraux OBJECTIF : Élaborer des normes nationales de prise en charge des adultes co-infectés par le VHC et le VIH dans le contexte canadien. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Le Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada a réuni un groupe d’experts possédant des compétences cliniques en co-infection par le VIH et le VHC pour réviser les publications à jour ainsi que les lignes directrices et les protocoles en place. Après une vaste sollicitation afin d’obtenir des points de vue, le groupe de travail a approuvé des recommandations consensuelles, qu’il a caractérisées au moyen d’une échelle de qualité des preuves fondée sur la classe (bienfaits par rapport aux préjudices) et sur la catégorie (degré de certitude). RÉSULTATS : Toutes les personnes co-infectées par le VIH et le VHC devraient subir une évaluation en vue de recevoir un traitement du VHC. Les personnes qui ne sont pas en mesure d’entreprendre un traitement du VHC devraient être soignées pour le VIH afin de ralentir l’évolution de la maladie hépatique. La norme de traitement du VHC de génotype 1 est un régime comprenant de l’interféron pégylé et de la ribavirine dosée en fonction du poids, associés à un inhibiteur de la protéase du VHC. Pour les génotypes 2 ou 3, une bithérapie classique est recommandée pendant 24 semaines s

  19. RELIGION AND DISASTER VICTIM IDENTIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Jay; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-12-01

    Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) is a triangle, the components of which are secular law, religious law and custom and professional methods. In cases of single non-criminal deaths, identification often rests with a hospital or a medical authority. When dealing with criminal or mass death incidents, the law, in many jurisdictions, assigns identification to the coroner/medical examiner, who typically uses professional methods and only answers the religious requirements of the deceased's next-of-kin according to his personal judgment. This article discusses religious considerations regarding scientific methods and their limitations, as well as the ethical issues involved in the government coroner/medical examiner's becoming involved in clarifying and answering the next-of-kin's religious requirements. PMID:27351047

  20. Moral reasoning and emotion attributions of adolescent bullies, victims, and bully-victims.

    PubMed

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents aged 12-18 (57% females) reported the frequency of involvement in bullying and victimization. Participants were categorized as bullies (14.3%), bully-victims (3.9%), and victims (9.7%). Moral judgment, moral justifications, and emotion attributions to a hypothetical perpetrator of a moral transgression (relational aggression) were assessed. Bullies showed more morally disengaged reasoning than non-involved students. Bully-victims more frequently indicated that violating moral rules is right. Victims produced more victim-oriented justifications (i.e., more empathy) but fewer moral rules. Among victims, the frequency of morally responsible justifications decreased and the frequency of deviant rules increased with age. The findings are discussed from an integrative moral developmental perspective. PMID:23039330

  1. Family dynamics and young children's sibling victimization.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    This research examines how family dynamics like interparental conflict, family violence, and quality of parenting are associated with young children's experiences of sibling victimization. We use nationally representative data from interviews with caregivers of 1,726 children aged 2 to 9 years of age. We hypothesized different family dynamics predictors for a composite of common types of sibling victimization (property, psychological, and mild physical aggression) in comparison to severe physical sibling victimization (victimization that includes physical aggression with a weapon and/or injury). Multinomial regression results showed that sibling victimization in general was associated with negative family dynamics but that children in the severe group had even less parental warmth, poor parental supervision, and greater exposure to interparental conflict and family violence than children in the common types victimization group. Different aspects of family dynamics contribute to sibling victimization, but possibly in different ways and with different consequences. The findings underscore the importance of a family systems theory approach to clinical and intervention work. PMID:25111955

  2. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization.

    PubMed

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. PMID:24492619

  3. Enhancing victim empathy for sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Carich, Mark S; Metzger, Carole K; Baig, Mirza S A; Harper, Joseph J

    2003-01-01

    Victim empathy is a widely used component of sex offender treatment throughout North America and Great Britain. Yet, it has been controversial over the past few years. One of the complications involves giving empathy a solid definition. Empathy was defined as the capacity to express compassion for victims. A multi-level system was developed to help specify the definition. The second issue concerns which methods to use in enhancing victim empathy. A variety of techniques are provided as specific ways in which clinicians can help enhance an offender's empathy level. PMID:15308454

  4. Clergy Perceptions of Sexual Assault Victimization.

    PubMed

    Yuvarajan, Elil; Stanford, Matthew S

    2016-04-01

    Although congregants often turn to clergy for help in dealing with personal difficulties, including marital problems, substance abuse issues, and mental illness, survivors of sexual assault do not commonly turn to clergy for support or guidance. This study utilized a mixed-methods approach, online survey, and semi-structured interviews to determine how clergy perceive sexual assault victimization. The results of this study showed that more blame was assigned to the victim as the relationship with the perpetrator became closer, with the exception of marital rape. This study also found that hostile sexism was a predictor of negative attitudes toward rape victims. PMID:26416842

  5. Secondary victimization of rape victims: insights from mental health professionals who treat survivors of violence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R; Raja, S

    1999-01-01

    Rape victims may turn to the legal, medical, and mental health systems for assistance, but there is a growing body of literature indicating that many survivors are denied help by these agencies. What help victims do receive often leaves them feeling revictimized. These negative experiences have been termed "the second rape" or "secondary victimization." If indeed secondary victimization occurs, then these issues may be raised in rape survivors' mental health treatment. In the current study, probability sampling was used to survey a representative sample of licensed mental health professionals about the extent to which they believe rape victims are "re-raped" in their interactions with social system personnel. Most therapists believed that some community professionals engage in harmful behaviors that are detrimental to rape survivors' psychological well-being. Implications for future research on secondary victimization are discussed. PMID:10606433

  6. Differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers: developmental antecedents and behavioral comparisons.

    PubMed

    Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148

  7. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…

  8. Mental health in violent crime victims: Does sexual orientation matter?

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims. PMID:22471413

  9. Multiple Victimization of Spanish Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lila, Marisol; Herrero, Juan; Gracia, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Multiple victimization in adolescence is an issue that has received little research attention. Furthermore, adolescents are particularly vulnerable to victimization in different contexts. The aim of this study is to analyze correlates of multiple victimization in three contexts (home, school, and street). The following forms of victimization were…

  10. Bullies and Victims at School: Are They the Same Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Mona E.; Olweus, Dan; Endresen, Inger M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of bully-victims and aggressive/provocative victims varies quite considerably in previous research, and only a few studies have reported prevalence rates across grades. There is also a lack of detailed analyses of the extent to which victims are also bullies, and bullies are also victims. Aims: To study the…

  11. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  12. Get Smarty Pants: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the victim precipitation model, this study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between cognitive ability and victimization at work. We propose that people high in cognitive ability are more prone to victimization. In this study, we also examine the direct and moderating effects of victims' personality traits,…

  13. Delinquent Behavior, Violent Victimization, and Coping Strategies among Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.; Barber, Asha; Joseph, Ebone'; Dudley, Jocelyn; Howell, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    This study examines differences in reported problems such as peer victimization, indirect victimization, direct victimization, internal symptoms, and external symptoms among Latino youth exposed to violence. Findings suggest that female adolescents display higher levels of indirect victimization (i.e., witnessing violence) and internal symptoms…

  14. Self Concept of Adolescent Sexual Abuse Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.

    1985-01-01

    To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)

  15. Male rape victim and perpetrator blaming.

    PubMed

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-06-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming was predicted by male rape myth acceptance. Perpetrator blaming was predicted by male rape myth acceptance and sex-role egalitarianism. Differences were found in victim and perpetrator blaming in terms of stranger and acquaintance rape and also in relation to manipulating the level of rape myths. Findings are discussed in relation to the previous literature on rape victim and perpetrator blaming. PMID:19738198

  16. Treatment of Child Victims of Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Bonny; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reviews three treatment methods (individual, group, and family therapy) used over a five-year period for child incest victims. Presents common themes, issues, and pitfalls that arose during therapy. Stresses potential benefits of psychotherapy to this population. (Author)

  17. Drawings by Child Victims of Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Alayne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Child victims of incest were judged to have more poorly developed impulse controls, a defensive structure which emphasizes repression, and were significantly more variable in the degree to which they expressed sexual features in the drawings. (Author/CL)

  18. Coping Behavior of Elderly Flood Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Faye; Horton, Robert

    1978-01-01

    A study of the effects of the Teton Dam Disaster in 1976 suggests that elderly persons cope quite well with disaster situations and tend to report fewer adverse emotional effects and feelings of relative deprivation than younger victims. (Author)

  19. [Avalanche accidents and treatment of avalanche victims].

    PubMed

    Skaiaa, Sven Christjar; Thomassen, Øyvind

    2016-03-15

    Avalanches may be provoked spontaneously or as a result of human activity, and they trigger the need for considerable rescue resources. Avalanche search and rescue operations are complex and characterised by physical and mental stress. The guidelines for resuscitation of avalanche victims may be perceived as complex and abstruse, which can lead to suboptimal treatment and an increased strain on rescue teams. The purpose of this article is to summarise the principles for medical treatment of avalanche victims. PMID:26983147

  20. The violent female perpetrator and her victim.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Viemerö, Vappu; Eronen, Markku

    2003-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between violent female offenders and their victims as well as the putative differences in the motives and specific psychological factors among three groups of female offenders: women who have victimised someone closely related to them, those who have victimised an acquaintance and lastly women who have victimised a stranger. More than half (N=61) of all violent female offenders hospitalised or incarcerated in Finland during the year of study were interviewed and assessed by Structured Clinical Interview II for DSM-IV (SCID-II) and Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). In 34% of the cases the victims were persons close to the offender, in 41% the victims were acquaintances and in 25% strangers. The victims in homicide offences were more often both male and closer to the perpetrator than in assault offences. Although motives were related to interpersonal problems, self-defence and long-term physical or psychological abuse were reported by only a few women, even for the small proportion of women whose victims were intimate partners. The most frequent reason for offences stemmed from confrontational situations in connection with alcohol use. Women who victimised acquaintances and strangers were also more likely to have a history of criminality and substance abuse than women who victimised those in close personal relationships. The latter were also more likely to have an antisocial personality disorder (PD) and psychopathic characteristics. There were, however, no significant differences found between those who had experienced physical or psychological abuse in childhood or adulthood and those who had no adverse experiences. These findings suggest that the violent behaviour by females leads more often to the death of the victim, when the victim is closely related to the perpetrator. The commonly-held view that violent female offending occurs primarily as a consequence of precipitation by the victim was

  1. Sleep loss and partner violence victimization.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T K

    2011-07-01

    Intimate partner violence victimization has been associated with serious health problems among women, including many disorders that involve sleep disturbances. However, there has been only limited examination of sleep duration among women with victimization experiences. A total of 756 women with a domestic violence order (DVO) against a male intimate partner were interviewed about their health, mental health, substance use, and partner violence victimization. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from February 2001 to November 2003 for data collection in three rural and one urban county representing different jurisdictional settings. Because the current analyses focused on understanding intimate partner victimization in the past year and associations with sleep disturbance, 147 participants were excluded for reporting a relationship with the DVO partner for less than 6 months in the past year. The final sample for this article was 609. The women reported an average of a little above 5.5 hours of sleep per night. For women in the current study, significant predictors of sleep disturbance included race, number of children, number of other symptoms of depression in the past 2 weeks excluding sleep criteria, number of other symptoms of PTSD in the past 2 weeks excluding sleep criteria, number of chronic physical health problems, and severity of physical violence by the DVO partner in the past year. Addressing short sleep duration among partner victims in health care settings might enhance safety planning and prevent the development of health/mental health problems that can arise from victimization. PMID:20587469

  2. Quand la réadaptation blesse? Éducateurs victimes de violence

    PubMed Central

    Geoffrion, Steve; Ouellet, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Cette étude vise à comprendre le phénomène de la violence physique vécue par les éducateurs œuvrant dans dix Centres Jeunesse (CJ) du Québec. Pour ce faire, un sondage de victimisation a été administré à 586 éducateurs en internat. En premier lieu, la prévalence de cette problématique sera établie. Par la suite, les facteurs individuels et environnementaux prédisposant aux agressions physiques seront identifiés. Des édu-cateurs sondés, 53,9 % rapportent avoir été victimes de violence physique au cours de la dernière année. Sur le plan individuel, être affecté par les manifestations agressives des clients et la fréquence des violences psychologiques subies augmentent les risques de victimisation physique. Quant au contexte, l’âge de la clientèle et le motif de l’interven-tion (basé sur la loi justifiant le placement) auprès de l’enfant ou de l’adolescent influencent l’occurrence des actes violents dirigés contre les éducateurs. Nos analyses montrent également que les violences physiques dont sont victimes les éducateurs affectent autant l’individu que l’institution. L’identification de facteurs permettant de prédire les risques de victimisation pourrait notamment servir à orienter les programmes de prévention de la violence dans les CJ, mais aussi à cibler les éducateurs les plus à risque afin de leur fournir un soutien adapté. PMID:24976673

  3. Rapport d’évaluation des besoins de formation de l’Association canadienne de gastro-entérologie 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rostom, Alaa; Daniels, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    C’est en avril 2009 que l’Association canadienne de gastroentérologie a mené son plus récent sondage annuel en ligne auprès de ses membres afin de connaître leurs besoins en matière de formation. En tout, 261 personnes ont répondu au sondage. Comme lors des années précédentes, les sujets entourant les maladies inflammatoires de l’intestin (MII) et plus particulièrement, les traitements pour la maladie de Crohn et la colite ulcéreuse (CU), de même que les cas de MII rebelles, ont été les plus en demande pour les activités de formation à venir. Parmi les autres thèmes populaires, mention-nons les techniques et les traitements endoscopiques, la maladie cœliaque, la prise en charge des infections gastro-intestinales (IGI) et l’endoscopie en direct. Les deux types d’activités de formation les plus attrayantes ont été les conférences et les présentations en Webdiffusion et le portail didactique de l’ACG offrant des liens vers des présentations en ligne, des tests d’auto-évaluation et le suivi des crédits de maintien du certificat (MainCert).

  4. Victimization: a newly recognized outcome of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Line; Tessier, Réjean; Lefebvre, Francine; Robaey, Philippe

    2004-08-01

    Victimization by peers affects 10 to 20% of school children under the age of 12 years. Physical, verbal, and psychological victimization (being pushed, hit, called names, teased, being the target of rumours, theft, extortion) is associated with short- and long-term adjustment problems, such as peer rejection, social withdrawal, low self-esteem, anxiety, loneliness, and depression, as well as academic problems and school drop-out. Research on populations of school children (primary and secondary) has associated victimization with personal risk factors (the victim's characteristics and behaviour) and interpersonal risk factors (social relationships between peers). Studies on the social adjustment of preterm children at school age show that, even in the absence of a major motor or cognitive disability, this population has several personal risk factors associated with victimization. The objective of this study was to compare the level of victimization experienced by a group of 96 seven-year-old children born extremely preterm (EP, < 29 weeks of gestation; 49 females) against that experienced by a group of 63 term children (34 females) matched for age and sex, maternal level of education, and family socioeconomic status. The children born EP had a mean gestational age of 27.3 weeks (SD 1.2) and a mean birthweight of 1001.1g (SD 223) and normal birthweight children had a mean gestational age of 39.5 weeks (SD 1.5) and a mean birthweight of 3468.7g (SD 431). Physical and verbal victimization were assessed in a school setting by peers with individual sociometric interviews (Modified Peer Nomination Inventory). After controlling for physical growth (height and weight) at the age of 7 years, the data indicate two independent effects: males were more victimized than females, and children born preterm experienced more verbal victimization by their peers than their term classmates, even when participants with a visible motor, intellectual, or sensory disability were excluded

  5. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  6. Effects of Offender Motivation, Victim Gender, and Participant Gender on Perceptions of Rape Victims and Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D. J.; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171…

  7. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  8. Victim Blaming in Rape: Effects of Victim and Perpetrator Race, Type of Rape, and Participant Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, William H.; Martinez, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    Stereotypes about Black sexuality fostered hypotheses that racial factors and racism influence rape victim blaming. Predominantly White and Asian college students (170 men, 162 women) completed the Modern Racism Scale and evaluated a rape vignette varying victim race, perpetrator race, and rape type. As predicted, racial factors determined victim…

  9. Bullies, Victims and Bully-Victims: Psychosocial Profiles and Attribution Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the differences between bullies, victims, bully-victims and students that are non involved in peer violence in terms of their temperament, their degree of deviation from the typical in appearance or behaviour and the degree of their peer acceptance. Furthermore, the study compared the attributions used by the members…

  10. Social Behavior and Peer Relationships of Victims, Bully-Victims, and Bullies in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although the prevalence of bully/victim problems in school-age children and adolescents has been investigated in many countries, only a few studies have been carried out among younger children. This study examines social behaviors and peer relationships of children involved in bully/victim problems in kindergarten. Methods: Three…

  11. Victimizing the Children of Immigrants: Latino and Asian American Student Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent demographic changes have supported the emerging research on one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population: the children of immigrants. Because victimization adversely affects youth development, understanding the victimization of the children of immigrants are of special interest because they are part of this country's…

  12. Keeping Victims Informed: Service Providers' and Victims' Experiences Using Automated Notification Systems.

    PubMed

    Irazola, Seri P; Williamson, Erin J; Niedzwiecki, Emily; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Sun, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Automated victim notification is often touted as an effective and efficient means for providing victims timely and accurate information of their offenders' court events and status changes at reduced burden to the criminal justice system. Today, 47 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have some form of automated notification system. Researchers surveyed 1,246 service providers and 723 victims to examine their awareness and use of, satisfaction with, and experiences using automated notification systems. Findings indicate that service providers are aware of and use automated notification; however, less than one-quarter of victim respondents were registered for automated notification services. Service providers and victims who use automated notification services report high overall satisfaction; however, they also report challenges in using these systems. Service providers offer several recommendations for improving automated notification systems. PMID:26118271

  13. Criminal consequences of childhood sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Widom, C P; Ames, M A

    1994-04-01

    Using a prospective cohorts design, we assess the long-term criminal consequences of childhood sexual abuse through an examination of official criminal histories for a large sample of validated cases of childhood sexual abuse, compared to cases of physical abuse and neglect and a control group matched for age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic status. Compared to other types of abuse and neglect, early childhood sexual abuse does not uniquely increase an individual's risk for later delinquent and adult criminal behavior. Childhood sexual abuse victims were at increased risk of arrest as a juvenile for being a runaway. As adults, child sexual abuse victims were at higher risk of arrest for sex crimes than controls, as were victims of physical abuse and neglect. Childhood sexual abuse victims were more likely to be arrested for prostitution as adults than other abuse and neglect victims and controls, regardless of gender. However, there was no support for a direct relationship among child sexual abuse, arrests for running away in adolescence, and adult arrests for prostitution. The findings also suggest an association for males between physical abuse and arrests for violent sex crimes (rape and/or sodomy). Caution is needed in interpreting these findings because of exclusive reliance on official record data and the possible impact of agency intervention. PMID:8187016

  14. Mental health correlates of victimization classes among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin; Thompson, Sanna; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    Literature reports high rates of street victimization among homeless youth and recognizes psychiatric symptoms associated with such victimization. Few studies have investigated the existence of victimization classes that differ in type and frequency of victimization and how youth in such classes differ in psychiatric profiles. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine whether classes of homeless youth, based on both type and frequency of victimization experiences, differ in rates of meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive episodes and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of homeless youth (N=601) from three regions of the United States. Results suggest youth who experience high levels of direct and indirect victimization (high-victimization class) share similarly high rates of depressive episodes and PTSD as youth who experience primarily indirect victimization only (witness class). Rates of meeting criteria for depressive episodes and PTSD were nearly two and three times greater, respectively, among the high victimization and witness classes compared to youth who never or rarely experienced victimization. Findings suggest the need for screening and intervention for homeless youth who report direct and indirect victimization and youth who report indirect victimization only, while prevention efforts may be more relevant for youth who report limited victimization experience. PMID:24725619

  15. Comparison of patients who were violent, victimized and violent-victimized during the first year after discharge from emergency psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Roaldset, John Olav; Bjørkly, Stål

    2015-12-30

    This prospective observational study included 345 (70%) of 489 patients discharged from an emergency psychiatric hospital during one year. Episodes of offending and victimization were recorded during first year after discharge. Forty-eight persons (14%) committed violent offenses only, 27 persons (8%) were violence victims only, and 42 persons (12%) were both offenders and victims. Significant differences in demographic and clinical variables were found between the three groups. The results pointed to two distinct groups of victims: one group with a robust offender-victim overlap and another group without offender-victim overlap. The latter group was difficult to distinguish from other discharged patients. PMID:26616305

  16. Brief report: Identifying defenders of peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Meter, Diana J; Card, Noel A

    2016-06-01

    Betweenness centrality quantifies the amount of network flow that a network member controls as hypothetical traffic passes between network members. Those with high betweenness centrality within the peer social network based on nominations of liking may be especially important connectors between individuals who do not like each other. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals' betweenness centrality would predict their defending of victimized peers. After controlling for popularity, perception of being liked, and defenders' victimization, betweenness centrality predicted defending. Those found to be connectors within the peer group were more likely to be those who defend peer victims. This investigation showed that analysis of betweenness centrality is a viable way to identify potential defenders in research and also those who could potentially act as mediators. PMID:27017503

  17. Adolescent attitudes toward victim precipitation of rape.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, L M

    1998-01-01

    Adolescents have high rates of rape victimization and offending compared to other age groups, yet few studies have examined predictors of rape-supportive attitudes among adolescents. Drawing from Burt's (1980) study of rape myth acceptance among adults, this study tests a path analytic model of adolescent attitudes about victim precipitation of rape, using a sample of 1393 cases from the National Youth Survey (NYS) (Elliott, Ageton, Huizinga, Knowles, & Cantor, 1983). LISREL (Jöreskeg & Sörbom, 1988) estimation procedures are applied. Results show direct effects of sociocultural influences on an individual's level of rape myth acceptance, but demonstrate some interesting gender differences. Findings also reveal indirect effects of age, race, and socioeconomic status on attitudes toward rape, which operate through traditional gender role stereo-typing. Educating young adolescents about the nature of rape and the rights and roles of women are logical points of intervention to decrease acceptance of rape myths that target the victim. PMID:9836415

  18. [The treatment of torture and war victims].

    PubMed

    Frey, C; Valach, L

    1997-05-21

    Torture is a means of repression in non democratic societies. Although banned, it is widely practised. About 30% of the refugees recognized 1987 in Switzerland were tortured. Torture and war lead to severe bio-psycho-social sequels which are described as "post traumatic stress disorder" (PTSD). This can be treated. Several centres for treatment of torture victims were recently established in many countries since health workers and health care providers felt helpless facing the consequences of torture and asked for professional support. The foundation of the Swiss Red Cross Therapy Centre for victims of torture was the response to their demand in Switzerland. The centre offers a wide range of therapies for victims of torture and training for health personnel. It further aims to facilitate the establishment of more institutions of this kind. PMID:9244976

  19. Targeted Victimization: Exploring Linear and Curvilinear Associations Between Social Network Prestige and Victimization.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Naomi C Z; Hanish, Laura D; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Santos, Carlos E

    2016-09-01

    Are early adolescent victims of peer-directed aggression youth who hold prominent positions in the social hierarchy or those who are socially marginalized? The present study tackles this question by testing for linear and curvilinear relationships between social network prestige and physical and relational forms of peer victimization for boys and girls. Participants were 952 middle schoolers (age range = 10-14 years; 49.9 % girls; 44 % Latino). Participants nominated victims and friends; friendship nominations were used to calculate social network prestige. Both hypotheses received support, with variation by gender. Girls high in social network prestige were highly victimized. For boys, those both high and low in social network prestige were highly victimized, whereas those at mid-levels of social network prestige were low in victimization. The findings are discussed in relation to a social dominance model of peer-directed aggression, and the practical implications are discussed in relation to protecting youth who are frequent targets of peer victimization. PMID:26920566

  20. Identification of victims in extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, Yu.; Polukhina, O.

    2009-04-01

    Catastrophic natural disasters including tsunami events are increased the frequency in last years. One of very important problems here is the identification of personality of the victims. Due to difficult identification of the dead bodies lied into water for a long time the analysis of tooth-jaw system is proposed to apply because teeth are extremely stable to the destructive actions of environment. The method of identification of the age, sex and race of victims based on the mathematic model of pattern recognition and collected database is described. Some examples from extreme sea wave events are analyzed.

  1. A longitudinal assessment of the victim-offender overlap.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Higgins, George E; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R; Piquero, Alex R

    2010-12-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims.This study uses longitudinal data from a large sample of adolescents to examine these issues and does so using a novel methodological approach, the trajectory methodology, which allows for the examination of covariation between offending and victimization. Results indicate that there is a considerable degree of overlap between victims of physical violence and offenders over time and that certain covariates including school commitment, parental monitoring, low self-control, and sex significantly discriminate victim and offender groups. Furthermore, low self-control appears to be the most salient risk factor for distinguishing both victimization and delinquency trajectories.Theoretical and policy implications and directions for future research are identified. PMID:20068116

  2. Guns and blood alcohol levels among homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Abel, E L

    1986-11-01

    A retrospective study of homicide victims in Erie County, NY was conducted for 1973-1984 to determine the association of blood alcohol levels among homicide victims slain by guns and other weapons. Most victims of gunshot or beating had negative blood alcohol levels (BALs) at time of death whereas most stabbing victims had positive BALs, especially black victims. Gunshot victims were more likely to be killed in a private home compared to a street or building. Location of homicide did not relate significantly to BAL. Younger victims were less likely to be shot to death compared to middle-aged victims. These results do not support previous contentions that alcohol is a major contributor to gun-related homicides. PMID:3803196

  3. A Latent Class Analysis of Bullies, Victims and Aggressive Victims in Chinese Adolescence: Relations with Social and School Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Aihui; Liang, Lichan; Yuan, Chunyong; Bian, Yufang

    2014-01-01

    This study used the latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1) Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2) There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3) Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionaires. (4) As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children. PMID:24740096

  4. Relationship between particular areas of victimization and mental health in the context of multiple victimizations in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soler, Laia; Forns, Maria; Kirchner, Teresa; Segura, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the relationship between different areas of victimization (e.g., sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms taking into account the full range of victimizations adolescents suffer. The final aim is to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that those studies which focus on just one area of victimization may be introducing into our psychological knowledge. A total of 923 adolescents (62.4% girls) between 14 and 18 years old were recruited from seven secondary schools in Catalonia, Spain. The Youth Self-report and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire were employed to assess psychological problems (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) and victimization, respectively. The large majority of adolescents reported having experienced more than one area of victimization. However, Conventional Crime area was the one that was more reported in isolation. Overall, the explicative power of a particular area of victimization was greatly reduced or even lost its significance when the other areas were taken into account. However, some areas remained significant and were different by gender. Clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of victimizations adolescents suffer when intending to understand the psychological aftermaths of victimization. Some areas of victimization appear to be more important at explaining particular psychological symptoms, those being Peer and Sibling Victimization in the case of boys, and both Conventional Crime and Internet Victimization in the case of girls. PMID:25084978

  5. Bullying and Victimization in Elementary Schools: A Comparison of Bullies, Victims, Bully/Victims, and Uninvolved Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Research on bullying and victimization largely rests on univariate analyses and on reports from a single informant. Researchers may thus know too little about the simultaneous effects of various independent and dependent variables, and their research may be biased by shared method variance. The database for this Dutch study was large (N=1,065) and…

  6. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  7. Students' Perceptions of Their Own Victimization: A Youth Voice Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corby, Emma-Kate; Campbell, Marilyn; Spears, Barbara; Slee, Phillip; Butler, Des; Kift, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the perceptions of 156 students who were victims of both traditional and cyberbullying (117 female, 45 male), ages 10 to 17 years, as to which form of bullying was more hurtful. Overall, students perceived traditional victimization to be more hurtful than cyber victimization. Reasons identified in the data to explain the…

  8. Routine Activities and Victimization at School: The Significance of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine activities theory has not fully considered the role of gender in shaping victimization and yet, the research literature clearly demonstrates that gender is associated with an individual's risk of victimization. In addition to the pervasive effect of gender on victimization, gender shapes an individual's daily routines and thus may create a…

  9. Intergenerational Transmission of Sexual Victimization Vulnerability as Mediated via Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research suggests that women's early sexual victimization experiences may influence their parenting behaviors and increase the vulnerability of their children to being sexually victimized. The current study considered whether mother's sexual victimization experiences, in childhood and after age 14, were associated with the…

  10. Inmate-on-Inmate Victimization Among Older Male Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbs, John J.; Jolley, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the safety and victimization of older prisoners has been limited. This study examines quantitative and qualitative victimization data gathered from face-to-face interviews with 65 male prisoners (ages 50 and above) confined in a state-level prison system. Both victimization rates and narrative descriptions of psychological, property,…

  11. Weighing the Risks: A Child's Decision to Disclose Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishna, Faye; Alaggia, Ramona

    2005-01-01

    It is disturbingly common for victims of peer victimization, also referred to as bullying, to withhold disclosure of their experience. This is so despite the implementation of numerous programs to increase the ability and willingness of victims to disclose and to improve the capacity of others to intervene. Disclosure is a complex matter that may…

  12. Interpersonal Correlates of Peer Victimization among Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Pricilla K.; Byrd, Caroline P.

    2003-01-01

    Examined empathy, prosocial behavior, number of friends, self-reported popularity, and forms of interpersonal forgiveness as predictors of peer victimization among 52 seventh and eighth graders. High popularity was associated with low victimization, and interpersonal forgiveness scores were the strongest predictors of self-reported victimization,…

  13. The Sexual Victimization of College Women. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bonnie S.; Cullen, Francis T.; Turner, Michael G.

    The National College Women Sexual Victimization (NCVS) study attempted to build on and surmount the limitations of existing research on the sexual victimization of college students. In addition to the study of sexual victimization, the study investigated how rape estimates that use the two-stage process of behaviorally specific questions and…

  14. Occurrence of Stalking Victimization among Female and Male Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Rachel K.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Forke, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the occurrence of stalking victimization among female and male undergraduate students attending three urban colleges. Specifically, we explored the proportion of students who experienced only stalking victimization and the relationship to the perpetrator identified by victims of stalking. Our findings suggest that stalking…

  15. Factors associated with college women's labeling of sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Untied, Amy S; Gidycz, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Despite high rates of sexual assault among college women, most victims do not label the experience as sexual assault or rape. Prior research examining labeling of sexual victimization has focused on women's characterization of rape experiences as either not victimization or victimization. This study extends prior research by exploring factors associated with labeling various forms of sexual victimization as "not victimization," a "serious miscommunication," or a "sexual assault, date rape, rape, or crime." A sample of 1,060 college women reported on their experiences of sexual victimization since the age of 14 years. Women who reported experiences of prior sexual victimization (n = 371) indicated their level of acquaintance with the assailant, assault disclosure, substance use at time of assault, attributions of self- and perpetrator-blame for the assault, and labeling of the experience. Most women who reported experiences of sexual victimization did not self-identify as victims, and 38% labeled sexual victimization as a serious miscommunication. Greater acquaintance with the perpetrator, higher behavioral self-blame, and victim substance use at the time of the assault were associated with labeling sexual assault experiences as a serious miscommunication. Implications are discussed. PMID:24547673

  16. Relations among School Connectedness, Hope, Life Satisfaction, and Bully Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael J.; Felix, Erika; Sharkey, Jill D.; Tanigawa, Diane; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the role of school connectedness in mediating the relation between students' sense of hope and life satisfaction for three groups: Bullied Victims, Peer Victims, and Nonvictims. Students in grades 5 to 12 (N = 866) completed the California Bully/Victim Scale, School Connectedness Scale, Children's Hope Scale, and Students'…

  17. History of Peer Victimization and Children's Response to School Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elledge, L. Christian; Cavell, Timothy A.; Ogle, Nick T.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Newgent, Rebecca A.; Faith, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the degree to which children with and without a history of stable peer victimization differentially endorse strategies for dealing with school bullies. Participants were 323 children, 58 of whom met criteria for chronic peer victimization. Children with a history of stable peer victimization differed from comparison children in how…

  18. Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…

  19. Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    van Reemst, Lisa; Fischer, Tamar F C; Zwirs, Barbara W C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations. PMID:25389278

  20. Stealing from a "Lost" Letter. Effects of Victim Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrington, David P.; Knight, Barry J.

    1980-01-01

    People (N=160) picked up a "lost" letter containing money and a note indicating the characteristics of the person who had "lost" it, to suggest the nature of potential victims. Stealing from unseen victims appeared to be dependent partly on the "finder" and partly on situational factors, rather than on victim characteristics. (RC)

  1. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  2. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  3. 28 CFR 9.8 - Remission procedures for victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Remission procedures for victims. 9.8... MITIGATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE, CIVIL, AND CRIMINAL FORFEITURES § 9.8 Remission procedures for victims. This section applies to victims of an offense underlying the forfeiture of property, or of a related...

  4. 31 CFR 208.11 - Accounts for disaster victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accounts for disaster victims. 208.11... DISBURSEMENTS § 208.11 Accounts for disaster victims. Treasury may establish and administer accounts at any financial institution designated as a financial agent for disaster victims in order to allow for...

  5. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  6. 12 CFR 1075.104 - Payments to victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payments to victims. 1075.104 Section 1075.104... § 1075.104 Payments to victims. (a) In general. The Bureau will use funds in the Civil Penalty Fund for payments to compensate eligible victims' uncompensated harm, as described in to paragraph (b) of...

  7. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  8. 28 CFR 9.8 - Provisions applicable to victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Provisions applicable to victims. 9.8... MITIGATION OF CIVIL AND CRIMINAL FORFEITURES § 9.8 Provisions applicable to victims. The provisions of this section apply to victims of an offense underlying the forfeiture of property, or of a related offense,...

  9. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  10. 28 CFR 9.8 - Provisions applicable to victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provisions applicable to victims. 9.8... MITIGATION OF CIVIL AND CRIMINAL FORFEITURES § 9.8 Provisions applicable to victims. The provisions of this section apply to victims of an offense underlying the forfeiture of property, or of a related offense,...

  11. 31 CFR 208.11 - Accounts for disaster victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accounts for disaster victims. 208.11... DISBURSEMENTS § 208.11 Accounts for disaster victims. Treasury may establish and administer accounts at any financial institution designated as a financial agent for disaster victims in order to allow for...

  12. 31 CFR 208.11 - Accounts for disaster victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accounts for disaster victims. 208.11... DISBURSEMENTS § 208.11 Accounts for disaster victims. Treasury may establish and administer accounts at any financial institution designated as a financial agent for disaster victims in order to allow for...

  13. 28 CFR 9.8 - Provisions applicable to victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Provisions applicable to victims. 9.8... MITIGATION OF CIVIL AND CRIMINAL FORFEITURES § 9.8 Provisions applicable to victims. The provisions of this section apply to victims of an offense underlying the forfeiture of property, or of a related offense,...

  14. 31 CFR 208.11 - Accounts for disaster victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accounts for disaster victims. 208.11... DISBURSEMENTS § 208.11 Accounts for disaster victims. Treasury may establish and administer accounts at any financial institution designated as a financial agent for disaster victims in order to allow for...

  15. 12 CFR 1075.108 - Distributing payments to victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distributing payments to victims. 1075.108... PENALTY FUND RULE § 1075.108 Distributing payments to victims. (a) Designation of a payments administrator. Upon allocating Civil Penalty Fund funds to a class of victims pursuant to § 1075.106, the...

  16. 28 CFR 9.8 - Remission procedures for victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Remission procedures for victims. 9.8... MITIGATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE, CIVIL, AND CRIMINAL FORFEITURES § 9.8 Remission procedures for victims. This section applies to victims of an offense underlying the forfeiture of property, or of a related...

  17. 28 CFR 0.91 - Office for Victims of Crime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office for Victims of Crime. 0.91 Section...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.91 Office for Victims of Crime. The Office for Victims of Crime is headed by a Director appointed by the Assistant Attorney General, Office of...

  18. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  19. Relationship between Perceptions of Control and Victimization of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bi; Lei, Li

    2006-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of control in victims of school bullying, by surveying 108 adolescents with questionnaires. The result shows that there are significant gender differences in external control in general, internal control of sociality, and victimization of physical bullying. Physical victimization decreases as subjects grow older,…

  20. Blame toward male rape victims in a hypothetical sexual assault as a function of victim sexuality and degree of resistance.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michelle; Rogers, Paul; Bates, Jo-Anne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of victim sexual orientation, the degree of victim physical resistance, and respondent gender on attributions of blame and assault severity in a hypothetical case of stranger-perpetrated male rape. One hundred eighty-three participants read a scenario depicting a rape in which the victim's sexuality and degree of resistance were both varied between-subjects before completing 12 blame attribution items. Overall, findings suggest that male respondents were less pro-victim than were females. While women generally attributed little victim blame and considered the assault very severe regardless of condition, men were influenced by both factors. Specifically, although men considered the assault severe, they blamed a gay victim more when he fought back against his attacker but, conversely, blamed a heterosexual victim when he did not fight back. Results are discussed in relation to homophobia and judgments about victim resistance during rape. Implications for treatment services are also considered. PMID:19042285

  1. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    PubMed

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean

    2005-03-01

    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms. PMID:15733206

  2. Finding a Voice for the Victimized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Examines writers' growing awareness of the voices if the victims, exploring the representation of characters who resist subjugating colonial powers and tracing how various past and present authors have represented colonized peoples. By refocusing postmodern readers' consciousness on the violation of rights, authors reeducate and sensitize them to…

  3. Pubertal Development and Physical Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Dana L.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2006-01-01

    Although much research has established a link between pubertal development and adolescent involvement in offending, drug use, and other adverse outcomes, no research has examined whether puberty is associated with experiences of violent physical victimization. This is an unfortunate oversight because researchers are only beginning to understand…

  4. Teenagers as Victims in the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Gunvor; Lundstrom, Tommy

    2007-01-01

    Research into press reporting on young people has tended to concentrate on young people as offenders. In contrast, this article focuses on press coverage of teenagers as victims. Reports in two Swedish newspapers (a morning broadsheet and an evening tabloid) were studied over a period of four months and subjected to a qualitative analysis of…

  5. Adolescent Victims of Abuse: A Treatment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Merchant, Darlene

    This paper presents a theory and model for treating adolescent victims of physical and sexual abuse and neglect. The theory examines issues related to abuse or neglect and the effect that an abusive history has on adolescent development. Specific issues noted are depression, anger, low self-esteem, self-shame, lack of trust, a sense of…

  6. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  7. A Fresh Approach to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, John

    2013-01-01

    Bullying often persists in spite of formal programs targeting this problem. Supportive school and classroom communities enlist brave peers in consoling, encouraging, and befriending victims, which removes the status that fuels bullies. For the past 18 years, this author has worked in multiple children's agencies and schools, studying bullying…

  8. EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND RESCUE, INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORANDO, ROCCO V.; STOVER, WILBUR F.

    DEVELOPED AT THE STATE LEVEL BY SQUADMEN AND TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL PERSONNEL, THIS MANUAL IS FOR USE BY A QUALIFIED SQUADMAN IN TEACHING FULL-TIME AND VOLUNTEER EMERGENCY AND RESCUE WORKERS IN AN EMERGENCY SQUAD STATION OR TRAINING CENTER. TEACHING GUIDES ARE PROVIDED FOR A 30-HOUR COURSE ON EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND A 20-HOUR COURSE ON VICTIM…

  9. Youth Victimization: School Climate or Deviant Lifestyles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaykowski, Heather; Gunter, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Despite much focus on school violence, there has been little research that explores the relationship between offending and victimization in various school climates. School climate theory suggests that the school's social system, culture, milieu, and ecological structure affect student outcomes including academic performance, delinquency, and more…

  10. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    PubMed

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency. PMID:26769575

  11. Addressing Youth Victimization. Action Plan Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.

    The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention published an action plan in 1996 that established eight objectives as the foundation for innovative and effective action by federal, state, and local governments, in partnership with private sector organizations, to reduce juvenile violence and victimization. This bulletin…

  12. Bullying Victims: The Effects Last into College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frank D.; Lawrence, Gloria J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether those bullied in schools continued to show the effects of being bullied after they enrolled in an institution of higher education. There were 269 undergraduate students participating in the study. Previous studies (2006; 2008) conducted by the authors suggested the effects of bullying upon both the victim and bully are…

  13. Connections to Rescue Our Victims of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the Washington, D.C. school system and Antonio, a child victim of violence, to discuss the background problems that affect the school performance of children from troubled neighborhoods. People who work in schools know that children--even kindergarten and preschool children--don't come to them as blank slates…

  14. Delayed reporting of the rape victim.

    PubMed

    Burgess, A W; Fehder, W P; Hartman, C R

    1995-09-01

    1. Delayed reporting of rape may be due to impaired cognitive processing, altered states of consciousness, or cognitive dissonance. 2. DNA may speak for the victim who does not remember a rape due to being unconscious. 3. Women with psychosis may incorporate a rape into their delusional system. PMID:7500301

  15. Student and Staff Victimization. NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Sacramento, CA.

    Schools today face serious, daily threats to the safety of students and staff. Students and school employees become victims when experiencing a crime against themselves or when threatened by the perpetration of a crime. On school grounds, these crimes are most often assaults, robberies, and extortion. Recent studies have highlighted the…

  16. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and on the juvenile justice system. This report brings together the latest available statistics from a variety of sources and includes numerous tables, graphs, and maps, accompanied by analyses in clear, nontechnical language. The report offers Congress,…

  17. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    This report offers the Congress, state legislators, and other state and local policymakers, professors and teachers, juvenile justice professionals, and concerned citizens solid answers to the most frequently asked questions about the nature of juvenile crime and victimization and about the justice system's response. Citing FBI and other data…

  18. School Bullying and Victimization. NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbaum, Stuart, Ed.

    Schoolyard bullying, a pervasive and significant problem, tends to lead to anti-social behavior in the adult/parental years as well, perpetuating the pattern of violence in a new generation of students. Bullies, and often their victims, tend to operate at a unilateral, or one-way, attitudinal level instead of a reciprocal or collaborative level.…

  19. Interviewing Child Victims of Sexual Exploitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, William

    The interviewing of the child victim of sexual exploitation is one of the first and most important steps in solving and prosecuting a case of child exploitation and is the topic of this document. The first chapter discusses the interviewer's role, focusing on improving communication, dealing with emotion, the interviewer's response, male or female…

  20. The Perception of Cyberbullying in Adolescent Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcikova, Anna; Smahel, David; Otavova, Mlada

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore how victims of cyberbullying perceive online aggressive attacks and when they see them as harmful. Interviews were carried out with 16 cybervictimised participants aged 15-17 years. The findings showed differences in the perception of online victimisation when perpetrated by an anonymous Internet user versus…

  1. Sexual Coercion among Adolescents: Victims and Perpetrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…

  2. Victims of Peer Abuse: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of recent research concerning children who are habitually abused by peers. Reviews three sets of influences on victimization: (1) family factors, such as family relations that impede a child's autonomy; (2) behavioral attributes of the child, such as submissiveness; and (3) social risk factors, such as the absence of…

  3. Bullying and Victimization among Students with Exceptionalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Joanne G.; Pepler, Debra J.; Mishna, Fay; Craig, Wendy M.

    2006-01-01

    Children and youth with exceptionalities are at increased risk to be marginalized in their peer group because of their exceptionalities; they are hence more vulnerable to victimization by peers who have higher status and more social power. Research also suggests that children and youth with exceptionalities may be more likely to bully others.…

  4. Achieving Empathy for Victims of Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, John W.; Sakata, Carol-Lyn

    1979-01-01

    Outlines a lesson guide to enhance the empathy of students toward South Asians who are victims of discrimination. It is most useful as part of a unit on World War II. Activities include short readings with reaction statements which students respond to, and examples of acts of bravery by the East Indian Army during World War II. (KC)

  5. Mental Health Problems of Disaster Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.; And Others

    The mental health needs of disaster victims remains a largely neglected area, possibly due to other pressing demands placed on available resources and to the difficulties in correctly detecting psychiatric cases by the general health worker. This study attempted to use a questionnaire suitable to primary care settings for the detection of probable…

  6. The Social Contexts of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Davis, Heather A.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the amount of middle school students' bullying and nonbullying behaviors observed in three less-structured school venues: the monthly school dance, the cafeteria, and the locker/hall area. Two questions guided our analysis: (a) How do students' bullying and victimization behaviors and nonbullying social behaviors vary by…

  7. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  8. Children's Peer Victimization, Empathy, and Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Perren, Sonja; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relations among children's peer victimization, empathy, and emotional symptoms. The sample consisted of 175 children (85 girls, mean age = 6.1 years) recruited from kindergartens in Switzerland and followed for 1 year (Time 2). Parents and teachers reported on the children's emotional…

  9. The Adolescent Victim of Crime and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, R. Barri

    Child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency have both been widely studied. While statistics on the number of cases of abuse or delinquency are quite high, they are considered conservative, and estimates of actual as opposed to reported cases are much higher. There are striking parallels between adolescent victimization and adolescent antisocial…

  10. Comprendre le processus d'adaptation des demarches d'enseignement en classe de sciences et technologies a l'ecole secondaire: Analyse des besoins percus par les personnes enseignantes en milieu defavorise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, Sylvie

    Since the implementation of the latest reform in the education programs of Quebec, the adaptation of teaching has taken on an important place in the concerns of all actors in education. However, this adjustment towards the adoption of teaching practices that require more participation on the part of the pupil is not accomplished so easily, particularly in the field of science and technology (ST). In order to gain a better understanding of these processes of adaptation, it is opportune to question ourselves on the factors and dynamics of interest at stake, especially in disadvantaged environments. Such environments are faced with situations where other difficulties coexist: integration of pupils, lack of interest, problems in classroom management, multi-ethnicity, etc. As a result, such difficulties give rise to particular limitations, expressed in the form of needs, by pupils and teachers, likely to have a restrictive effect on the adaptation of teaching practices. Accordingly, our research focuses on the needs perceived by teachers in high school ST classrooms in disadvantaged school environments, since they present a privileged means to better understand the processes involved in the adaptation of practices. The adoption of an ecosystemic perspective, centered on these needs and their contribution towards the dynamics of decision-making, enabled us to better apprehend the complexity of these processes in ST classrooms. We were able to identify the needs perceived by teachers by following the methodology of conceptanalysis of needs, and by combining focus groups with the DRAP software. The results account for the large variety of needs to be considered in the equation of adaptation of teaching practices. These needs generally belong to the classroom system (microsystem). For pupils, they are mainly cognitive needs, but for teachers, they pertain to organization and structure. The influence of these needs on the adaptation processes depends on the interpretation by teachers of teaching situations, so much so that a same need can at times be assumed as negative pressure, generating obstacles, or at other times as a positive impulse, facilitating adaptation. Keywords: teaching practices; science and technology education; high school education; adaptation processes; needs assessment; disadvantaged environments.

  11. Expérience de fréquentation des lieux publics par des personnes âgées ayant subi un TCC en présence d'un accompagnateur-citoyen: projet pilote.

    PubMed

    Levert, Marie-Josée; Lefebvre, Hélène; Gélinas, Isabelle; McKerall, Michelle; Roy, Odette; Proulx, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    This pilot project aims to test and see the relevance of the direct observation method to collect data on the barriers and facilitators to attending public places by seniors with TBI. The study is based on the conceptual framework VADA WHO which focuses on the development of friendly built and technological environments for seniors. Three elderly people participated in the study, recruited from an ongoing project, The Citizen Intervention in Community Living (APIC), in the presence of their personalized attendant. The study shows the feasibility of the method in terms of its acceptability and resources mobilized. It shows its relevance to access additional data that would have been difficult to obtain using others methods (e.g., semi-structured interview), such as the identification of the strategies used by the participants to address the obstacles encountered (avoidance, travel planning, use of physical and preventative support of the personalized attendant). PMID:27223579

  12. Post-traumatic stress problems among poly-victimized Spanish youth: time effect of past vs. recent interpersonal victimizations.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria; Soler, Laia; Planellas, Irina

    2014-08-01

    The cumulative effect of lifetime interpersonal victimization experiences (e.g., child maltreatment, sexual victimizations, conventional crime, witnessing indirect victimization, peer and sibling victimizations) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms is an important topic in the scientific literature. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to analyze the relationship between lifetime interpersonal victimizations and PTS symptoms, (b) to determine the most prevalent specific PTS symptoms among poly-victimized adolescents, and (c) to establish the time-based effect of interpersonal victimization experiences that occurred in the last year versus those that occurred years before on current level of PTS symptoms. Gender differences were taken into account for each of these objectives. Participants were 823 Spanish adolescents (63% girls and 37% boys) between 14 and 18 years of age recruited from May 2010 to November 2011 from schools in Barcelona, Spain. The majority (87.6%) was of Spanish nationality. The results highlighted the cumulative effect of interpersonal victimizations on PTS symptoms. Among poly-victims adolescents, the most prevalent PTS symptom was intrusive thoughts, but some differences were observed according to gender. The time-based effect of interpersonal victimizations showed a different pattern for girls and boys. For girls, the victimizing events occurring in past years had more explanatory power of the current PTS symptoms than those that occurred more recently. In boys, the interpersonal victimizing events occurring in the last year had the greater explanatory power. These results may have clinical and therapeutic value. PMID:24655836

  13. Victims' Influence on Intimate Partner Violence Revictimization: An Empirical Test of Dynamic Victim-Related Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuijpers, Karlijn F.; Van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Winkel, Frans Willem

    2012-01-01

    Research has reported that not only characteristics of the perpetrator but also characteristics of the victim influence risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). This would suggest that prevention of repeat abuse could benefit from a focus on both perpetrator and victim characteristics. Knowledge on factors that are within victims' sphere of…

  14. Examining Variation in Attitudes toward Aggressive Retaliation and Perceptions of Safety among Bullies, Victims, and Bully/Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Sawyer, Anne L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the link between involvement in bullying, as either a bully, victim, or bully/victim, and attitudes toward violence and perceptions of safety among 16,012 middle and high school students. Analyses indicated that 37.6% were frequently involved in bullying. Bully/victims were the most likely to report feeling unsafe and…

  15. Trafficking in persons and victim health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schloenhardt, Andreas; Klug, Benjamin

    2011-12-01

    This article explores the health problems experienced by victims of trafficking in persons in Australia and analyses the domestic support schemes established to assist these victims. It focuses specifically on the health of adult, female victims who constitute the majority of identified victims, and who are the principal recipients of government support services. Domestic experiences and support schemes are reviewed in the light of international law and best practice guidelines. Recommendations are made to improve the health services available to victims of trafficking in persons in Australia. PMID:22320010

  16. Child victims and poly-victims in China: are they more at-risk of family violence?

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2014-11-01

    Multiple forms of violence may co-occur on a child. These may include various forms of child victimization and different types of family violence. However, evidence that child victims are more likely to witness other types of family violence has been lacking in China. Using data of a large and diverse sample of children recruited from 6 regions in China during 2009 and 2010 (N=18,341; 47% girls; mean age=15.9 years), the associations between child victimization and family violence witnessed were examined. Descriptive statistics and the associations between child victimization, demographic characteristics, and family violence witnessed were analyzed. Lifetime and preceding-year rates were 71.7% and 60.0% for any form of child victimization and 14.0% and 9.2% for poly-victimization (having four or more types of victimization), respectively. Family disadvantages (i.e., lower socio-economic status, single parents, and having more than one child in the family) were associated with child victimization and poly-victimization. Witnessing of parental intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and in-law conflict also increased the likelihood of child victimization and poly-victimization, even after the adjustment of demographic factors. Possible mechanisms for the links between family violence and child victimization are discussed. The current findings indicated the need for focusing on the whole family rather than the victim only. For example, screening for different types of family violence when child victims are identified may help early detection of other victims within the family. PMID:24933708

  17. Victimization among African-American adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Gotham, Heather J; Cho, Dong

    2008-03-01

    Victimization is regarded as a significant public health issue, especially among adolescents in urban areas. Although victimization is linked to substance use, the research on victimization among adolescents in treatment is underdeveloped. Given the high rate of victimization among African-American adolescents, further research on the prevalence and correlates of victimization for this population is needed. This knowledge can guide the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. This study contributed to the research by examining the rate and different types of victimization among a sample of African-American adolescents in an urban substance abuse treatment program, testing whether victimization is associated with increased levels of psychopathology and high-risk behaviors; and comparing the rates and associations with existing studies of adolescent victimization. It reports on a sample of 259 African-American adolescents receiving substance abuse treatment in an inner-city program. Fifty-four percent of the subjects reported lifetime victimization. Severity of victimization was associated with depression, generalized anxiety disorder, traumatic stress disorder, and conduct disorder, although the effect sizes were relatively small. Lifetime victimization exhibited a relationship of small to moderate strength with high-risk behaviors (i.e., illegal activity, gang membership, multiple sex partners and unprotected sex). Service implications and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:18472666

  18. Suspect aggression and victim resistance in multiple perpetrator rapes.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2013-11-01

    Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships. PMID:23740469

  19. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Sæteren, Berit

    2016-04-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19 schoolchildren, aged 12-13 years, 3 of whom were victimized. Six individual interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted. Findings show that support groups contribute to the cessation of bullying and improvements remain 3 months later. The support groups experience feeling important and helping others. It is important for the school nurse and teachers to follow up with victimized children, in collaboration with their parents, to help the victim to no longer be a victim and to take control. PMID:26072469

  20. Trajectories of Peer Victimization: The Role of Multiple Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Reavis, Rachael D.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined early elementary school children’s trajectories of peer victimization with a sample of 218 boys and girls. Peer victimization was assessed (via peer report) in kindergarten, 1st, 2nd, and 5th grades. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine multiple types of relationships (mother-child, student-teacher, friendship) as predictors of kindergarten levels of peer victimization and changes in peer victimization across time. Results indicated that the mother-child relationship predicted kindergarten levels of peer victimization, and that the student-teacher relationship did not provide additional information, once the mother-child relationship was accounted for in the analyses. Friendship predicted changes in peer victimization during the elementary school years. Results are discussed in a developmental psychopathology framework with special emphasis on the implication for understanding the etiology of peer victimization. PMID:20938488

  1. Reducing the Harm of Criminal Victimization: The Role of Restitution.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins; Cares, Alison C; Ruback, R Barry

    2015-01-01

    Restitution is a court-ordered payment by offenders to their victims to cover the victims' economic losses resulting from the crime. These losses can be substantial and can harm victims and victims' families both directly and indirectly. But most victims do not receive reparation for their injuries, both because judges do not always impose restitution and because of problems with collecting restitution payments, even if there is a court order to do so. In this article, we review the literature on restitution and suggest that this compensatory mechanism is necessary to restore victims to where they were before the crime occurred. But monetary restitution alone is not sufficient. Making victims whole requires not only financial compensation from the offender but also procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice from the criminal justice system. PMID:26118266

  2. Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y

    2012-01-01

    College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research. PMID:23393954

  3. La stigmatisation des PVVIH en Afrique: analyse de ses formes et manifestations au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla; Msellati, Philippe; Somé, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Introduction l’impact négatif de la stigmatisation sur la prévention du VIH et la prise en charge a été documenté. La stigmatisation a été analysée au plan qualitatif au Burkina Faso, où la prévalence VIH est faible (1 %). Des mesures quantitatives sont encore nécessaires pour identifier les formes et manifestations majeures de la stigmatisation. Méthodologie dans le cadre de l’étude MATCH (Multi-country African Study on Testing and Counselling for HIV), une étude transversale a été conduite auprès de personnes ayant déjà fait le test VIH. Les personnes séropositives ont été interrogées sur les conséquences du résultat VIH+. Leur vécu de la stigmatisation a été évalué à travers 20 indicateurs de manifestations de la stigmatisation, regroupés en trois formes de stigmatisation/discrimination. Résultats au total 219 PVVIH ont été recrutées. L’autostigmatisation est la forme majeure de stigmatisation. Elle est estimée dans cette étude à 46 % comparativement à la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles évaluée à 40 % et la stigmatisation dans les services de santé qui est de 11 %. L’expérience de la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles est davantage rapportée par les PVVIH qui ont partagé leur résultat, celles qui ont un faible niveau de scolarisation, les veufs/veuves ou séparés, et les membres d’association. La stigmatisation dans les services de santé est rapportée plus souvent par les membres d’associations. Conclusion les programmes de prise en charge doivent, parallèlement à l’extension des antirétroviraux, intégrer un volet psychologique plus adapté aux besoins. Les activités d’appui psychosocial ciblant davantage l’individu doivent être développées, surtout au sein des associations. PMID:25291886

  4. Perceptions of submissiveness: implications for victimization.

    PubMed

    Richards, L; Rollerson, B; Phillips, J

    1991-07-01

    Some researchers have suggested that a precondition of affective submissiveness may increase the likelihood of female victimization in sexual assault, whereas others have suggested that criminal offenders use perceptions of vulnerability when selecting a victim. In this study, based on American college students, men (decoders) rated videotaped women (encoders) dominant versus submissive using a semantic differential instrument. Cue evaluators analyzed the body language and appearance of the videotaped women using a Likert instrument. The results suggest that (a) men form differentiated perceptions of dominant versus submissive women, (b) such perceptions substantially rely on nonverbal cues, (c) dominant and submissive women display visually different behaviors and appearances, and (d) men tend to select submissive females for exploitation. PMID:1757895

  5. Authoritarianism and attitudes toward AIDS victims.

    PubMed

    Larsen, K S; Elder, R; Bader, M; Dougard, C

    1990-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship of authoritarianism and attitudes toward AIDS victims in three samples. One hundred fifty-eight students at Oregon State University participated, including 101 students from the United States, 25 from Japan, and 32 from other Asian societies. The survey instrument included the 20-item Attitudes Toward AIDS Victims (ATAV) Scale, the 18-item F Scale, the Form A, and 14-item Formal Content of Dogmatism Scale. Results showed slight but significant correlations between the ATAV and F (r = .17, p less than .044) and Formal Content of Dogmatism (r = .20, p less than .023) Scales for the United States sample. Highly significant differences were found in the predicted direction among the three samples on authoritarianism, F = 43.94, p less than .001. PMID:2325403

  6. Compensation of victims exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, R D; Simonds, M

    1986-01-01

    The sponsors of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), also known as "Superfund," agreed that more information was needed regarding legal remedies for injuries to persons from exposures to hazardous wastes. There has been a rush in Congress and some states to introduce "victims' compensation" bills to facilitate recovery for personal injury from exposure to hazardous waste sites. Such approaches are overly simplistic and totally disregard the reach and shortfall of scientific data. PMID:2943236

  7. Approche à l’endroit des blessures traumatiques à la main en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue la prise en charge initiale des blessures traumatiques communes à la main que voient les médecins de soins primaires. Sources des données Nous avons examiné les données cliniques probantes et les ouvrages spécialisés récents cernés par des recherches dans la base de données électronique MEDLINE. Nous avons utilisé l’opinion d’experts pour compléter les recommandations dans les domaines où les données scientifiques étaient rares. Message principal Les médecins de soins primaires sont couramment appelés à prendre en charge des patients victimes de blessures traumatiques à la main. Dans le contexte d’un cas clinique, nous examinons l’évaluation, le diagnostic et la prise en charge initiale des traumatismes communs à la main. La présentation et la prise en charge des blessures au lit de l’ongle, des amputations de l’extrémité du doigt, des doigts en maillet, des fractures à la main, des lacérations de tendons, des morsures et de la ténosynovite infectieuse seront aussi discutées. Les principes de la prise en charge des blessures traumatiques à la main comportent la réduction et l’immobilisation des fractures, la prescription d’imagerie radiographique post-réduction, l’obtention d’un recouvrement par les tissus mous, la prévention et le traitement des infections et l’assurance d’une prophylaxie antitétanique. Conclusion Il est essentiel d’assurer une évaluation et une prise en charge appropriées des blessures traumatiques à la main pour prévenir une morbidité considérable à long terme dans une population autrement en santé. La reconnaissance sans délai des blessures qui nécessitent une demande de consultation urgente ou rapide auprès d’un chirurgien spécialiste de la main est également critique.

  8. The cycle of victimization: The relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Benedini, Kristen M; Fagan, Abigail A; Gibson, Chris L

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment has been demonstrated to have many short- and long-term harmful consequences for victims, but whether or not child abuse is associated with an increased risk of peer victimization during adolescence is unclear. This study analyzed prospective data from 831 children and parents participating in the Longitudinal Studies on Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to investigate the relationships between child physical and sexual abuse and adolescent victimization by peers, as well as the potential for gender to moderate these relationships. Results from ordinal logit regression models indicated that children who were physically abused prior to age 12, based on official reports, parent reports, and child reports, had a greater risk of experiencing more intimidation and physical assault by peers at age 16. Having a history of sexual abuse predicted more physical assault but not intimidation. There was no evidence that gender moderated these relationships; in all cases, the relationship between abuse and revictimization was similar for boys and girls. The findings emphasize the need to provide victims of abuse with assistance to help prevent a cycle of victimization. PMID:27568065

  9. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. PMID:25012953

  10. [Young victims in Oslo--a problem of immigration?].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, W; Pape, H

    1999-06-20

    There has been considerable concern over victimization from violence in Norway over the last couple of years. This study investigated risk groups for victimization with special emphasis on the importance of immigrant background. All students enrolled in the secondary school system in Oslo (ages 13-18, N = 10,812) filled in a questionnaire at school. 79% had a background from Norway, the rest had a background from other countries. 32% had experienced mild victimization, 12% had experienced moderately serious victimization, while 6% had experienced serious victimization--defined as being hurt so hard as to need medical treatment. Serious victimization was related to working-class background, having parents who were economically inactive, living in the eastern part of Oslo, and to immigrant background. However, immigrant adolescents also had low rates of mild and moderate victimization, and thus high rates of non-victimization. These associations to immigrant background persisted, also when we controlled for other variables. Overall, immigrant background is associated with reduced risk for victimization. However, a sub-segment of immigrants are at increased risk of serious violent victimization, also when we control for other risk factors. PMID:10414194

  11. Network Exposure and Homicide Victimization in an African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association of an individual’s exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Methods. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Results. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood’s population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one’s odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Conclusions. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities. PMID:24228655

  12. Genetic Heterogeneity in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms in Response to Victimization.

    PubMed

    Gottfredson, Nisha C; Foshee, Vangie A; Ennett, Susan T; Haberstick, Brett; Smolen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study had two objectives: first, to determine the degree to which experiences of victimization by peers during adolescence led to a subsequent rise in depressive symptoms, and second, to identify genetic markers that predict depressive reactivity to victimization. We used a cohort sequential design to obtain a longitudinal sample of 1,475 adolescents (3,263 observations) in Grades 8 to 12 (56% female; 47% Black, 46% White). Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess whether victimization predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later, beyond baseline trajectories for depressive symptoms. We modeled the interactive effects of peer victimization with three genetic polymorphisms (on 5-HTTLPR, DRD2 TaqIA, and BDNF Val66Met) on depressive symptoms. Although victimization predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, there was substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect of victimization. Val alleles, associated with higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) functioning, predicted more sensitivity to victimization. Neither DRD2 TaqIA, a marker associated with dopaminergic functioning, nor 5-HTTLPR, a marker associated with serotonin activity, was associated with sensitivity to victimization. The social stress of peer victimization triggers depressive symptoms most strongly in individuals who are homozygous for the Val allele on the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism. This polymorphism has been linked with sensitivity to social defeat in animal models. Future research should explore behavioral, cognitive, and emotional explanations of the effects of BDNF Val/Met on responsivity to victimization. PMID:24819687

  13. ASD and PTSD in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A( 2) and F criteria was best identified by classifying victims according to a full ASD diagnosis. Regardless of whether cases were classified according to full PTSD status or according to meeting the criteria for the three PTSD core symptom clusters, the classification was correct only in approximately two thirds of the cases. A regression analysis based on ASD severity and sexual problems following the rape accounted for only 28% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, the ASD diagnosis is not an optimal method for identifying those most at risk for PTSD. It remains to be seen whether a better way can be found. PMID:20068117

  14. A TODAY VICTIM OF SECOND WORLD WAR.

    PubMed

    Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient. PMID:26204649

  15. Sexual Violence Inside Prisons: Rates of Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Blitz, Cynthia L.; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet; Siegel, Jane A.

    2006-01-01

    People in prison are exposed to and experience sexual violence inside prisons, further exposing them to communicable diseases and trauma. The consequences of sexual violence follow the individual into the community upon release. This paper estimates the prevalence of sexual victimization within a state prison system. A total of 6,964 men and 564 women participated in a survey administered using audio-CASI. Weighted estimates of prevalence were constructed by gender and facility size. Rates of sexual victimization varied significantly by gender, age, perpetrator, question wording, and facility. Rates of inmate-on-inmate sexual victimization in the previous 6 months were highest for female inmates (212 per 1,000), more than four times higher than male rates (43 per 1,000). Abusive sexual conduct was more likely between inmates and between staff and inmates than nonconsensual sexual acts. Sexual violence inside prison is an urgent public health issue needing targeted interventions to prevent and ameliorate its health and social consequences, which spatially concentrate in poor inner-city areas where these individuals ultimately return. PMID:16937087

  16. Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace

    2011-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions. PMID:21653264

  17. Perceptions of Blame and Credibility toward Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Differences across Victim Age, Victim-Perpetrator Relationship, and Respondent Gender in a Depicted Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michelle; Rogers, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated victim culpability, credibility, and assault severity in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. A 2 (respondent gender) x 3 (victim age) x 3 (perpetrator type) between-subjects design was employed. Members (391) of the U.K. general public read the depiction of a female child assaulted by an adult male perpetrator. Respondents…

  18. Peer victimization in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Jamie L; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the correlation of peer victimization to psychosocial adjustment in a sample of children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 303 files of youth who received a psycho-educational assessment were reviewed; of these, 116 had an ADHD diagnosis. The data collected included the Child Behavior Checklist (which includes items assessing peer victimization), Conner's Parent Rating Scale, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale and Children's Depression Inventory. Peer victimization was positively correlated with parent reports of anxiety, depression, social problems, delinquent behavior and aggressive behavior. Children with a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis with ADHD reported higher rates of peer victimization than those without a comorbid diagnosis. Children diagnosed with ADHD along with a comorbid externalizing psychiatric diagnosis experienced higher rates of peer victimization than those with a comorbid internalizing psychiatric diagnosis. The implications of this study concerning peer victimization and psychosocial adjustment in children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:17709359

  19. Bullies, Victims, and Antipathy: The Feeling is Mutual

    PubMed Central

    Hafen, Christopher A.; Laursen, Brett; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    In this study we consider whether bullies and victims are disliked by most of their classmates, or whether antipathy is concentrated among the occupants of these roles. Antipathy nominations were collected from a community sample of 699 Finnish adolescents (14 to 17 years of age), who described their own bullying and victimization, as well as problem behaviors and school engagement. Victimization was associated with antipathy, but the strength of the association differed according to characteristics of the nominator. Victimization was related to antipathy when the nominator was high on bullying but not low. Similarly, bullying was related to antipathy when the nominator was high on victimization, but not low. The findings indicate that although bullies and victims have elevated mean levels of rejection, they are not disliked by most peers but rather by those who report themselves to be high on these attributes. PMID:23344703

  20. The relation between bullying, victimization, and adolescents' level of hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-08-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g. teasing) bullying more than girls. While the level of hopelessness among victims of physical and verbal bullying was higher than non-victims, no difference was found between the victims of indirect bullying and non-victims. Students who never talked to their teachers and parents about bullying reported higher levels of hopelessness than others. The implications of the study for intervention and prevention programs are discussed. PMID:22460238

  1. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    PubMed Central

    WORMINGTON, STEPHANIE V.; ANDERSON, KRISTEN G.; SCHNEIDER, ASHLEY; TOMLINSON, KRISTIN L.; BROWN, SANDRA A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students’ adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents’ academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence. PMID:27087793

  2. Violent crime and victim compensation: implications for social justice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hayden P

    2006-06-01

    Restorative justice offers several innovative methods designed to heal the injury that the offender may have caused to the victim. One of these innovative methods is victim compensation, a form of income redistribution designed to redistribute wealth from offenders to victims of crime. Restitution, particularly through the Victim of Crime Act (VOCA), is a needs-based form of justice designed to assist the most needy victims of violent crime. Recent studies suggest that while state-level compensation programs may target poor, young, African American men, compensation at the national level tends to be received more by older, White women who experienced domestic violence. The author suggests that this disparity between state and local resource distribution in the allocation of victim compensation is a reflection of the ideological differences between the established theoretical frameworks of liberalism and radical feminism. PMID:16761856

  3. Contributors to Assessments of Risk in Intimate Partner Violence: How Victims and Professionals Differ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett

    2007-01-01

    This article explores what factors contribute to victims' vs. victim advocates' assessments of risk of repeat intimate partner violence. A sample of 169 court-involved victims and the advocates who conducted intake with them were asked to rate victims' risk of repeat abuse. Significant contributors to victim assessments were her level of…

  4. A Latent Class Analysis of Victimization among Middle and High School Students in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Ruth; De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Gilreath, Tamika D.

    2015-01-01

    School victimization is associated with negative social-emotional outcomes and risky behaviors. Most studies have provided definitions and measures of victimization, depicting a limited characterization of victimization in schools. More nuanced analyses of school victimization are needed to assess the heterogeneous pattern of victimization in…

  5. Repeat Victimization in a High-Risk Neighborhood Sample of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott; Huizinga, David

    2001-01-01

    Used longitudinal Denver Youth Survey data to examine repeat victimization and concentration of victimization among a relatively few high-frequency victims and intermittency of victimization in a sample of adolescents in a high-risk neighborhood. Chronic, multiple, intermittent victimization was the usual pattern among respondents. Men had higher…

  6. Effect of Childhood Victimization on Occupational Prestige and Income Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Cristina A.; Christ, Sharon L.; LeBlanc, William G.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Dietz, Noella A.; McCollister, Kathyrn E.; Fleming, Lora E.; Muntaner, Carles; Muennig, Peter; Lee, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence toward children (childhood victimization) is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent’s educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood. Methods A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18–28 surveyed between 1999–2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY) were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999–2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models. Results Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1) childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2) mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims. Conclusions Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the

  7. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  8. Routine activities and victimization at school: the significance of gender.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A

    2011-08-01

    Routine activities theory has not fully considered the role of gender in shaping victimization and yet, the research literature clearly demonstrates that gender is associated with an individual's risk of victimization. In addition to the pervasive effect of gender on victimization, gender shapes an individual's daily routines and thus may create a gender-specific relationship with victimization. This article explores the importance of gender in understanding the relationship between student's participation in extracurricular routine activities (e.g., student government, clubs, sports, and etc.) and the risk of victimization. From the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a sample of 10th-grade students was drawn for analyses. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling was employed to explore the role of gender in the relationship between extracurricular routine activities and victimization at school. The results reveal that students' gender indeed interacts with several of the extracurricular routine activities creating gender-specific risks of victimization. This article highlights the importance of gender in explaining victimization and suggests researchers should consider how gender may interact with other routine activities and victimization. PMID:20956442

  9. Muslim women and foreign prostitutes: victim discourse, subjectivity, and governance.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Christine M; Stenvoll, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we juxtapose the ways “Muslim women” and “foreign prostitutes” are commonly constituted as victims in media and politics. We analyze the functions of these two prototypical female victims in terms of the role they play in epitomizing “the problems of globalization” and in reinforcing the existing social and political structures. Victim discourse, when tied to the transnational proliferation of the sex industry and of (radical) Islam, has depoliticizing effects because it places nonindividual causes of victimization outside of “our” polity and society and casts the state as protector and neutral arbiter of national and global inequalities, marginalization, and social conflict. PMID:20821898

  10. The Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianisms.

    PubMed

    Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism and the first research conducted under this project. On September 28th 2012, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin and the Institute of National Remembrance-Commission for Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation agreed to support the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism (PBGOT, www.pbgot.pl). The purpose was to employ state-of-the-art methods of forensic genetics to identify the remains of unidentified victims of Communist and Nazi totalitarian regimes. The database was designed to serve as a central repository of genetic information of the victim's DNA and that of the victim's nearest living relatives, with the goal of making a positive identification of the victim. Along the way, PGBOT encountered several challenges. First, extracting useable DNA samples from the remains of individuals who had been buried for over half a century required forensic geneticists to create special procedures and protocols. Second, obtaining genetic reference material and historical information from the victim's closest relatives was both problematic and urgent. The victim's nearest living relatives were part of a dying generation, and the opportunity to obtain the best genetic and historical information about the victims would soon die with them. For this undertaking, PGBOT assembled a team of historians, archaeologists, forensic anthropologists, and forensic geneticists from several European research institutions. The field work was divided into five broad categories: (1) exhumation of victim remains and storing their biological material for later genetic testing; (2) researching archives and historical data for a more complete profile of those killed or missing and the families that lost them; (3) locating the victim's nearest relatives to obtain genetic reference samples (swabs), (4) entering the genetic data from both victims and family

  11. Helping the employee victim of violence in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Engel, F; Marsh, S

    1986-02-01

    Violent behavior of patients is an occupational health hazard of health care professionals that the authors believe has not been fully recognized. Hospitals have developed a wide variety of techniques to manage patients who assault staff but have consistently ignored the plight of the victimized employee. Although professional staff who have been assaulted resist seeing themselves as victims, the authors believe they experience the feelings and reactions typical of other victims and therefore may need help in dealing with emotional trauma. The authors describe a victims' assistance program adopted by Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal and discuss problems associated with implementing programs like it. PMID:3943805

  12. Physician-patient relationship and medical accident victim compensation: some insights into the French regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Ancelot, Lydie; Oros, Cornel

    2015-06-01

    Given the growing amount of medical litigation heard by courts, the 2002 Kouchner law in France has created the Office National d'Indemnisation des Accidents Médicaux (ONIAM), whose main aim is to encourage out-of-court settlements when a conflict between a physician and the victim of a medical accident occurs. More than 10 years after the implementation of this law, the statistics analysing its effectiveness are contradictory, which raises the question of the potential negative effects of the ONIAM on the compensation system. In order to address this question, the article analyses the impact of the ONIAM on the nature of settlement negotiations between the physician and the victim. Using a dynamic game within incomplete information, we develop a comparative analysis of two types of compensation systems in case of medical accidents: socialised financing granted by the ONIAM and private financing provided by the physician. We show that the ONIAM could encourage out-of-court settlements provided that the hypothesis of judicial error is relevant. On the contrary, in the case of a low probability of judicial errors, the ONIAM could be effective only for severe medical accidents. PMID:24839180

  13. There are no "innocent victims": the influence of just world beliefs and prior victimization on rape myth acceptance.

    PubMed

    Vonderhaar, Rebecca L; Carmody, Dianne Cyr

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing data from an online survey of 979 university students, this study explores the relationship between prior sexual assault victimization experiences, belief in a just world, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that men, younger respondents, and those with less education were more likely to support rape myths. Support for just world beliefs and rape myths were also positively associated, while rape victims exhibited less support for rape myths than non-victims. Implications for future studies are discussed. PMID:25236676

  14. Victimization History and Victim-Assailant Relationship as Factors in Recovery from Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Susan; And Others

    There is evidence that many women experience sexual assault, and that sexual assault can cause psychological and interpersonal problems. This study examined the psychological aftermath of sexual assault in a probability sample of female university students and employees (N=542), focusing on how various aspects of a victim's lifetime sexual assault…

  15. Effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Programme on Bully-Victims, Bullies and Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, An; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a widespread problem in schools. Although several effective school-based bullying intervention programmes have been developed to reduce bullying and victimisation, it has rarely been investigated whether intervention programmes are also effective in helping bully-victims. Purpose: This study investigates the effectiveness…

  16. An adolescent victimization immigrant paradox? School-based routines, lifestyles, and victimization across immigration generations.

    PubMed

    Peguero, Anthony A

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing body of research that suggests parallels between assimilation and increased adolescent violence, which is often referred to as the "immigrant paradox" in the United States. Few studies explore how theories, such as routine activity and lifestyle, could explain the relationship between assimilation and increased violence. This study explores whether and how the adolescent associations between routines, lifestyles, and adolescent school-based victimization vary across immigration generations. Data are drawn from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, which is a nationally representative sample of tenth graders. This study focuses on a subsample consisting of 9,870 first (N = 1,170, 12%), second (N = 1,540, 16%), and third-plus (N = 1,117, 73%) generation public school students (N = 5,050; 51% female) in 580 public schools for this analysis of routine activity, lifestyle, and school-based victimization across immigration generations. Findings do indicate important nuances related to immigration in the conceptual links between routine activity, lifestyle, and adolescent victimization. For instance, engagement in school-based sport activities is a potential risk factor for first and second generation adolescents but is found to be a potential insulating factor against violent victimization for third-plus generation adolescents. The implications of the relationships between routines, lifestyles, and violence across immigration generations are discussed more generally. PMID:23315188

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Impairment in Victims: Results of an Online Study Initiated by Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…

  18. The Joint Development of Traditional Bullying and Victimization with Cyber Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Kljakovic, Moja; Scheib, Emma; Notter, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11-16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school,…

  19. Gay men as victims of nonconsensual sex.

    PubMed

    Hickson, F C; Davies, P M; Hunt, A J; Weatherburn, P; McManus, T J; Coxon, A P

    1994-06-01

    Incidents of nonconsensual sexual activity among 930 homosexually active men living in England and Wales are analyzed. Of these men, 27.6% said they had been sexually assaulted or had sex against their will at some point in their lives; one third had been forced into sexual activity (usually anal intercourse) by men with whom they had previously had, or were currently having, consensual sexual activity. The contention that male rape is usually committed by heterosexually identified men, primarily as an expression of power and control, is not supported. Recognition that gay men rape other gay men is needed, both by the gay community and support services for victims. PMID:8024441

  20. Victimization and Violent Offending: An Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Native American Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778

  1. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  2. Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results from the 2009 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. NCES 2012-314

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jill Fleury; Bauer, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This report provides estimates of student criminal victimization as defined by the 2009 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the 2009 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The NCVS is the nation's primary source of information on criminal victimization and the victims of crime in the United States. The SCS is a supplement to the NCVS that was…

  3. Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results from the 2005 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. NCES 2009-306

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lynn; Guerino, Paul; Nolle, Kacey Lee; Tang, Sze-Wei

    2008-01-01

    This report provides estimates of student victimization as defined by the 2005 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the 2005 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). the nation's primary source of information on crime victimization and the victims of crime in the United States. SCS is a supplement to NCVS that was created to collect information…

  4. An anesthesiological approach to nerve agent victims.

    PubMed

    Cosar, Ahmet; Kenar, Levent

    2006-01-01

    The potential use of weapons of mass destruction has recently become a real threat even in the areas of ongoing armed conflicts. Mass casualty victims can suffer from psychological and physical trauma. The exposure of physically injured patients to a toxic substance, in a scenario of mass injury, has recently gained major attention among planners of future protocols for emergency medical services. Because rapid deterioration and multiorgan involvement are to be expected after physical injuries, proper organization and complex but efficient acute medical care systems must be organized and deployed to ensure a maximal number of saved lives. These victims will inevitably require urgent surgical intervention and prolonged perioperative care. Understanding the interdependence between the toxic and traumatic occurrences and the drugs used to prevent or treat nerve agent intoxication (pyridostigmine bromide, a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase; atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist that is one of the on-site, first aid, pharmacological resuscitation drugs; and oxime-like pralidoxime chloride or obidoxime chloride, acetylcholinesterase reactivators) is vital. In addition, the administration of anesthesia and emergency surgery pose further unpredictable threats to the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and respiratory function, all of which may be compromised after chemical intoxication and physical trauma. It is noteworthy that information concerning the effects of nerve agent intoxication among human subjects is derived largely from reports of incidents of intentional terrorist attacks or of accidental exposure to organophosphate pesticides, compounds that are chemically related to nerve agents. PMID:16532866

  5. Social Distance and Immediate Informal Responses to Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Scott; Rennison, Callie Marie

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of ways that victims of violence informally handle attacks as they unfold. Their responses range in severity from physical resistance, to talking it out with the offender, to running away, to cooperating. Why do victims respond in a more or less severe manner? Cooney (2009) suggests that social distance is part of the answer:…

  6. Prevalence of Dating Violence and Victimization: Regional and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquart, Beverly S.; Nannini, Dawn K.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Stanley, Linda R.; Wayman, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines (1) the prevalence of dating violence victimization from a national sample of rural adolescents and (2) patterns by gender and region. Analyses are based on 20,274 adolescents who reported violence victimization using the Community Drug and Alcohol Survey. The relationship of dating violence with gender and region was assessed…

  7. Responding to Terrorism Victims: Oklahoma City and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Janet

    This report identifies the special measures needed to protect the rights and meet the needs of victims of a large-scale terrorist attack involving mass casualties. In particular, it demonstrates efforts required to ensure an effective response to victims' rights and their short- and long-term emotional and psychological needs as an integral part…

  8. Relations between Students' Perceptions of School Connectedness and Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relations between student's perceptions of school connectedness and their self-reported rates of victimization (physical, verbal, and relational), as well as perceived reasons for peer victimization (ethnicity, sexuality). Data come from 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students who completed the California Healthy Kids Survey…

  9. Student-, classroom-, and school-level risk factors for victimization.

    PubMed

    Saarento, Silja; Kärnä, Antti; Hodges, Ernest V E; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously investigate student-, classroom-, and school-level risk factors for victimization. Both peer nominations and students' self-reports of victimization were utilized. The sample consisted of 6731 Finnish elementary school students (3386 girls and 3345 boys) nested in 358 classrooms in 74 schools. The participants were from Grades 3, 4, and 5 (mean age 11years). The results of multilevel analyses indicated that there was considerable variability in, and distinctive risk factors associated with, both peer- and self-reported victimization at all the three levels investigated. Social anxiety and peer rejection synergistically predicted victimization at the student level. At the classroom level, negative social outcome expectations of defending the victim were associated with an increased risk of a student being bullied. Victimization was also common in classrooms and schools where students perceived their teachers to have less disapproving attitudes toward bullying. Furthermore, the effects of the student-level predictors were found to vary across classrooms, and classroom size moderated the effects of social anxiety and peer rejection on victimization. By identifying the risk factors at the multiple levels, and looking into cross-level interactions among these factors, research can help to target interventions at the key ecological factors contributing to victimization, making it possible to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:23816233

  10. Perceptions and Correlates of Peer-Victimization and Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Simon C.; Boyle, James M. E.; Warden, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: The experiences of peer-victimization and bullying are often treated empirically as though they are conceptually indistinct. Both involve repeated aggression, but definitions of bullying additionally emphasize the importance of aggressor intent and imbalance of power between the aggressor and the victim (Olweus, 1978; Whitney & Smith,…

  11. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects…

  12. The Early Socialization of Aggressive Victims of Bullying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Studied early family experiences of boys who later emerged as both aggressive and bullied during middle childhood. Found that aggressive victims had experienced more punitive, hostile, and abusive family treatment than others. Nonvictimized aggressors had greater exposure to adult aggression, but not victimization, than the normative group,…

  13. Social-Cognitive Correlates of Aggression and Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Elizabeth; Perry, David G.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the social-cognitive functioning of aggressive and victimized elementary school children. A total of 149 fourth- through seventh-graders responded to a peer nomination inventory designed to assess children's tendencies toward aggression and victimization. Self-report questionnaires were then administered…

  14. The Role of Cognitive Coping in Female Victims of Stalking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraaij, Vivian; Arensman, Ella; Garnefski, Nadia; Kremers, Ismay

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the role of cognitive coping in a sample of 47 female victims of stalking. Stalking victims who blamed themselves more for the stalking report significantly higher symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Respondents who ruminated more about the stalking experience, or…

  15. How School Counselors Can Help Prevent Online Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Call, Megan E.; Zheng, Robert; Drew, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Internet is a beneficial tool, some youth are at risk for being victimized by Internet predators. School counselors are in a unique position to assist in efforts to prevent online victimizations because of their continual interaction with students, parents, and other school faculty. This article provides school counselors with…

  16. Psychosocial Sequelae of Violent Victimization in a National Youth Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boney-McCoy, Sue; Finkelhor, David

    1995-01-01

    In a national telephone survey of youths 10-16 years (n=2,000), over one-third reported having been the victims of assault. Victimized respondents displayed significantly more psychological and behavioral symptomology than nonvictims, even after controlling for other possible sources of distress. Findings suggest substantial mental health…

  17. Models of Rape Judgment: Attributions Concerning Event, Perpetrator, and Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Travis; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews models developed to identify cognitive mediators of rape judgments. Recent models examine perceptions of perpetrator's violent behavior and of victim's desire for intercourse as mediators of effects of violence levels and victim's behavior upon rape judgments. Sex differences in models suggest that female evaluators may be more likely to…

  18. Characteristics of Victims Coarrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Reddy, Sudha; Parramore, Constance

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the frequency of coarrest in female victims who utilized 911 for intimate partner violence (IPV) and any patterns or circumstances that increased the likelihood of coarrest. All cases of police-documented IPV where a female IPV victim was arrested in conjunction with the perpetrator were included. Each incident report was…

  19. Labeling of Abuse Experiences and Rates of Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Charity B.; Calhoun, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    Research has consistently found that a history of previous sexual victimization increases risk for future sexual assault, which might be due to women with a history of sexual victimization having difficulty identifying risky cues and not perceiving their own vulnerability for future assaults. This study investigated how acknowledgment of previous…

  20. Patterns of Violent Behavior and Victimization among African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews types of reported problems among African American youth exposed to violence and victimization. A substantial number of African American youth reported being exposed to direct victimization while in transit to and from school. Discusses the impact of violence on mental health status, in that subjects exposed to violence exhibited…

  1. Identifying Predictors of Negative Psychological Reactions to Stalking Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Kercher, Glen A.

    2009-01-01

    Victims of stalking often experience a number of negative psychological problems including such things as fear, symptoms of depression, and anger. However, research on factors that lead to these outcomes is limited. The goal of this study was to first identify distinct subgroups of stalking victims based on measures of psychological problems…

  2. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  3. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  4. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  5. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  6. 22 CFR 41.84 - Victims of trafficking in persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Victims of trafficking in persons. 41.84 Section 41.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Fiance(e)s and Other Nonimmigrants § 41.84 Victims of...

  7. Victim Confidentiality on Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…

  8. Peer victimization and peer rejection during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Kamper, Kimberly E.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Hart, Emily J.; Blakely-McClure, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The development and course of the subtypes of peer victimization is a relatively understudied topic despite the association of victimization with important developmental and clinical outcomes. Moreover, understanding potential predictors, such as peer rejection and emotion regulation, in early childhood may be especially important to elucidate possible bi-directional pathways between relational and physical victimization and rejection. The current study (N = 97) was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the peer victimization and peer rejection literature. In particular, the prospective associations between relational and physical victimization and peer rejection over the course of 3.5 months during early childhood (i.e., 3- to 5- years-old) were investigated in an integrated model. Method The study consisted of 97 (42 girls) preschool children recruited from four early childhood schools in the northeast of the US. Using observations, research assistant report and teacher report, relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, peer rejection, and emotion regulation were measured in a short-term longitudinal study. Path analyses were conducted to test the overall hypothesized model. Results Peer rejection was found to predict increases in relational victimization. In addition, emotion regulation was found to predict decreases in peer rejection and physical victimization. Conclusions Implications for research and practice are discussed, including teaching coping strategies for peer rejection and emotional distress. PMID:25133659

  9. A Men's Support Group for Significant Others of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Lawrence I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the trauma experienced by women rape victims and focuses on a men's support group for male-significant-others of women who have been raped. Describes the developmental phases through which the male significant others of rape victims achieve resolution and the impact of the male's response upon the relationship. (Author)

  10. The Relation between Bullying, Victimization, and Adolescents' Level of Hopelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyahhan, Sinem; Aricak, O. Tolga; Cayirdag-Acar, Nur

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 419 Turkish middle school students (203 girls, 216 boys) were surveyed on their exposure to and engagement in bullying, and their level of hopelessness. Our findings suggest that girls were victims of indirect (e.g. gossiping) bullying more than boys. Boys reported being victims of physical (e.g. damaging property) and verbal (e.g.…

  11. The Social Context of Young Children's Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanish, Laura D.; Ryan, Patti; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate differences in the social context of peer victimization for preschoolers and kindergarteners. Data were collected from 168 children. For preschoolers, neither social acceptance nor friendships were significantly related to peer victimization. Instead, playing with peers and exposure to aggressive peers…

  12. Acquaintance Rape on Campus: The Problem, the Victims, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Laurie

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that, although providing educational programs and materials on acquaintance rape and prevention strategies is important, attention must also be given to victims. Discusses recognition of stress response pattern of victims suffering from Rape Trauma Syndrome and provision of appropriate referral and support services. Includes selected list…

  13. Siblings of Oedipus: Brothers and Sisters of Incest Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Young, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Investigates the roles and problems of siblings of incest victims, describes the dynamics of the incestuous family, and identifies some behavior problems of children whose siblings were incest victims. Data from two siblings' lives are presented to illustrate points. (Author/DB)

  14. The interrelation between victimization and bullying inside young offender institutions.

    PubMed

    Häufle, Jenny; Wolter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimization are serious problems within prisons. Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), in particular, suffer from high rates of inmate-on-inmate violence. More recent theories about the development of bullying in closed custody institutions imply a relationship between the experience of victimization and the usage of bullying. In our study, we test this linkage using longitudinal survey data taken at two time-points from 473 inmates (aged 15-24) inside three YOIs in Germany. We first analyze the extent of bullying and victimization, and then used a longitudinal structural equation model to predict inmate bullying behavior at time 2 based on victimization that occurred at time 1. Age is used as a predictor variable to account for differences in the amount of victimization and bullying. Results suggest that bullying and victimization are high in the YOIs, which were subject to research. Most inmates reported being a bully and a victim at the same time. Younger inmates use more direct physical bullying but not psychological bullying. An increase in psychological bullying over time can significantly be explained by victimization at an earlier measurement time point. Our study therefore supports recent theoretical assumptions about the development of bullying behavior. Possible implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24975724

  15. Children as Victims. 1999 National Report Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Howard N.; Sickmund, Melissa

    As part of a series that provides quick and focused access to findings from "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report" of the Office of Justice and Delinquency Prevention, this bulletin documents the impact of crime on society's most vulnerable victims, children. Homicide remains a leading cause of death for young people. In 1997, an…

  16. The Reasons behind Early Adolescents' Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…

  17. Abused Elders: Victims of Villains or of Circumstances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Mary C.; And Others

    Theorists have suggested that domestic abuse may be a result of psychopathology in the abuser or the result of severe stress. To determine whether the families of aged victims exhibit an inordinate number of stressful situations, 20 elderly abuse victims were interviewed about family relationships and problems, and completed a modified version of…

  18. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  19. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Victims According to Perpetrator Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudin, Margaret M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 87 child abuse victims of lone female perpetrators with 93 victims of lone male perpetrators found that female perpetrators abused children 3.3 years younger than male perpetrators. Both female and male perpetrators abused more girls than boys and did not differ in severity of abuse. (Author/DB)

  20. Violent online games exposure and cyberbullying/victimization among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lawrence T; Cheng, Zaohuo; Liu, Xinmin

    2013-03-01

    This population-based cross-sectional survey examined the association between exposure to violent online games and cyberbullying and victimization in adolescents recruited from two large cities utilizing a stratified two-stage random cluster sampling technique. Cyberbullying and victimization were assessed by the E-victimization and E-bullying scales validated in a previous study. Exposure to violent online games was measured by self-nomination of the degree of violent content in the games played. Results indicated that the majority (74.3 percent) of respondents did not experience any cyberbullying or victimization in the last 7 days before the survey, 14.4 percent reported to be victimized via cyberspace, 2.9 percent admitted that they had bullied others, and 8.4 percent reported to be both perpetrators- and- victims. One hundred and eighty seven (15.3 percent) considered games they were playing were of moderate to severe violence. Students who had been involved in cyberbullying as well as being victimized were two times as likely to have been exposed to violent online games, and nearly four times as likely for those involved in bullying others. Exposure to violent online games was associated with being a perpetrator as well as a perpetrator-and-victim of cyberbullying. Parents and clinicians need to be aware of the potential harm of these exposures. The policy implications of results were also discussed. PMID:23253205

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…

  2. Peer Victimization and School Safety: The Role of Coping Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Christopher R.; Parris, Leandra N.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Peer victimization is a documented antecedent of poor mental health outcomes for children and adolescents. This article explored the role of coping effectiveness in the association between victimization and perceived school safety. A sample of urban middle school students (N = 509) in the southeastern United States were surveyed regarding…

  3. Bullying and Victimization at School: The Role of Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, Stelios N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Social learning literature is used in order to describe the contextual parameters of peer aggression, and specifically bullying and victimization. Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal characteristics on their child's victimization or bullying experience at school. Sample: The participants were 252…

  4. 31 CFR 208.11 - Accounts for disaster victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and 31 CFR 210.5. For purposes of this section, “disaster victim” means an individual or entity... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts for disaster victims. 208.11... DISBURSEMENTS § 208.11 Accounts for disaster victims. Treasury may establish and administer accounts at...

  5. Victimization of Women: Trying to Link Community and Coursework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowney, Kathleen S.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the establishment of a course on the victimization of women in order to facilitate dialogue on the subject and to lay the groundwork for a sexual assault center. Describes course composition, expectations, format, syllabus, group projects, and reading lists. Emphasizes feminist sociological theories of female victimization. Includes a…

  6. A Model for Police Assistance to Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Jerrold J.

    Noting that an increasing number of rape victims who seek alternatives to police procedures do so because of the insensitive behavior of the investigating police officer, this paper provides a model of interpersonal communication skills that will enable police officers to better relate to and support the victims of rape. The areas covered in the…

  7. Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and Uninvolved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiv, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…

  8. Hurt People Hurt People: Female Bully-Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Lynne; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Common in the research literature on bullying is the dichotomy of bullying and victim behavior. The present definition of a bully is a person who has engaged in repeated acts of aggression or harm to persons over whom he or she has power. The literature on bullies examines gender differences at length. However, the bully-victim literature has yet…

  9. Substance Abuse as a Precipitant of Family Violence Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Glenda Kaufman; Straus, Murray A.

    This study examined assaults on wives by their husbands in an attempt to provide information on the intoxication-victimization theory, a theory that posits intoxication as a condition which increases the probability of victimization. Data were obtained by telephone interviews in 1985 with a national probability sample of 6,002 households. The wife…

  10. Survivor-Victim Status, Attachment, and Sudden Death Bereavement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mark D.; Greenwald, Jason Y.

    1991-01-01

    Examined significance of survivor-victim relationship in understanding grief following sudden death bereavement by suicide or accident. Results showed that survivor-victim attachment was more important than survivor status (parent versus sibling/child) in explaining grief reactions. Compared to accident survivors, suicide survivors experienced…

  11. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1997 Update on Violence. Statistics Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickmund, Melissa; Snyder, Howard N.; Poe-Yamagata, Eileen

    This report is the second update to "Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report" published in 1995. Drawing on new analysis of statistical series developed by various Federal agencies, it provides answers to the questions most often asked about trends in youth violence and victimization. This report provides information that the wave of…

  12. The Friendship Quality of Overtly and Relationally Victimized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Schmidt, Michelle E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines links between overt and relational victimization and the quality of children's best friendships. Third-grade through fifth-grade children completed measures in the fall (n = 675) and spring (n = 620). There were strong concurrent associations between both types of victimization and friendship quality. Controlling for…

  13. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders. PMID:3557809

  14. Temperamental Differences in Children's Reactions to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimura, Niwako; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that temperament and sex moderate the contribution of peer victimization to children's subsequent adjustment (aggression and depressive symptoms). Children (125 boys, 158 girls; M age = 7.95 years, SD = 0.32; 77.7% White, 22.3% minority) and teachers reported on overt and relational victimization. Parents…

  15. What Actually Makes Bullying Stop? Reports from Former Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Hasselblad, Tove; Holmqvist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    School bullying is a serious, worldwide problem which is not easily counteracted. The present study focuses on the perspective of former victims, asking them what it was that made the bullying stop in their case. Participants were 273 18-year-old former victims in Sweden, a country in which schools are doing extensive work against bullying and the…

  16. 77 FR 25345 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-10401 Filed 4-26-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... April 27, 2012 Part V The President Proclamation 8804--National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 #0; #0... Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...

  17. Who Bullies Whom? Social Status Asymmetries by Victim Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Berger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This study asks whether bullies have higher social status than their victims. Social status was measured by social preference, popularity, and physical competence as perceived by children and teachers. A survey instrument was introduced to enable identification of specific victims associated with specific bullies. The sample was 508 fourth and…

  18. A Latent Class Approach to Examining Forms of Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in gender differences in the experience of various forms of peer victimization; however, much of the work to date has used traditional variable-centered approaches by focusing on scales or individual forms of victimization in isolation. The current study explored whether there were discrete groups of adolescents who…

  19. Sexual Assault Victims' Acknowledgment Status and Revictimization Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2009-01-01

    How a victim of rape characterizes her assault has potential implications for her postassault experiences and revictimization risk. Prior research has identified several potential benefits to not conceptualizing one's experience as a form of victimization. The current study sought to identify whether there are costs to not acknowledging rape as…

  20. Peer Victimization in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Mak, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior…

  1. National trends in school victimization among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cooc, North; Gee, Kevin A

    2014-08-01

    The "model minority" perception of Asian American students often ignores the academic and social challenges that many face in schools. One area that has received less attention is the school victimization experiences of Asian American adolescents. While some qualitative researchers have explored factors contributing to school victimization in recent years, missing in the literature is the scope of these incidents among Asian Americans. This paper contributes to this literature by (1) examining national trends in the victimization of Asian American adolescents in schools over the last decade and (2) investigating how victimization varies according to their gender, socioeconomic status, and achievement levels. The results show that although Asian American adolescents are consistently less likely to be bullied relative to other students, they are more likely to report experiences of racial discrimination. Victimization incidents for Asian Americans also differ by gender and academic achievement levels. PMID:25086460

  2. The difficulty in measuring suitable targets when modeling victimization.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie

    2012-01-01

    Target suitability is a critical theoretical concept for opportunity theory. Previous research has primarily measured this concept using demographic characteristics of the study participant, which is problematic. This study corrects the measurement problem by employing bullying variables as alternative measures of target suitability because they are arguably better at capturing the social and psychological vulnerability of the individual that is attracting motivated offenders. Using three waves (1999, 2001, & 2003) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) School Crime Supplement (SCS), this research explores the impact of the bullying measures along with demographic characteristics and lifestyle measures on the likelihood that a student will experience victimization in school. The findings suggest that the bullying measures are better predictors of victimization over the demographic characteristics and lifestyle measures for all three waves. The findings highlight the need for better measures of target suitability, which capture the social and psychological vulnerability of victims to explain victimization. PMID:23155721

  3. Wrongful Convictions: Understanding the Experiences of the Original Crime Victims.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Erin J; Stricker, Julie M; Irazola, Seri P; Niedzwiecki, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 3 decades, significant strides have been made to identify and assist wrongfully convicted individuals in gaining their freedom and transitioning to life after exoneration. However, little is known about the experiences of the original crime victims during this process. The impact of wrongful convictions on victims has not been empirically researched; most of what is known has been provided anecdotally by stakeholders working with victims, and in a few instances, by victims themselves (e.g., Jenkins, 2009; Levey, 2004; Thompson-Cannino, Cotton, & Torneo, 2009). In an effort to begin to fill this gap in knowledge, ICF International conducted in-depth studies of 11 cases to identify the shared experiences and service needs of victims across cases of wrongful conviction. PMID:26645195

  4. Explaining the link between violence perpetration, victimization and drug use.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Michelle D; Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping; Dent, Clyde

    2005-07-01

    This study examined relationships between illegal and legal drug use and violence perpetration and victimization as well as possible mediators of these relationships. Subjects were continuation high school students followed prospectively over 5 years. Results indicated that illegal drug use predicted violence and victimization 5 years later and that earlier victimization was also associated with later illegal drug use. A measure intending to tap a psychopharmacological effects system, consistent with its definition in [Goldstein, P. J. (1985). The drugs/violence nexus: A tripartite conceptual framework. Journal of Drug Issues, 15(4), 493-506] tripartite model, was found to mediate the relationships between illegal drug use and victimization and violence. Results suggest that violence and victimization prevention efforts may benefit by addressing the psychopharmacological effects of adolescent illegal drug use. PMID:15925136

  5. Examining the Coping Response to Peer Relational Aggression Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Melissa M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Relational aggression, rumor spreading, backstabbing, and social isolation, is psychologically damaging for adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to provide an explanation of victimization response after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization. Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization was generated. Girls voiced feelings of hurt and anger after the experience and expressed the following ways of coping as a result: distancing from others, retaliation against the aggressor, discussing their feelings with friends and family, writing their feelings down, and/or confronting the aggressor. Clinical Implications. Nurses should be aware of the phenomenon and asses, for incidences of relational aggression victimization so that they may provide strategies to assist the adolescent and her family with positive coping mechanisms in order to prevent maladaptive responses. PMID:21994828

  6. The Victim-Offender Overlap and Fear of In-School Victimization: A Longitudinal Examination of Risk Assessment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melde, Chris; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2009-01-01

    Reports of serious violence in schools have raised general awareness and concern about safety in America's schools. In this article, the authors examine the extent to which in-school victimization is associated with students' perceived risk and fear of victimization. By expanding on Ferraro's risk assessment framework, the current study explores…

  7. The bidirectional relationships between online victimization and psychosocial problems in adolescents: a comparison with real-life victimization.

    PubMed

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-05-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online versus real-life victimization. More specifically, the bidirectional relationship between online and real-life victimization on the one hand and psychosocial problems (i.e., loneliness and social anxiety) on the other was examined. In addition, the moderating role of online aggression in the relationship between online victimization and subsequent psychosocial problems was studied. This prospective study, consisting of three annual measurements, was conducted among a sample of 831 adolescents (50.3 % girls) aged 11-15, of which most (80.2 %) had a Dutch ethnic background. The results indicate a unidirectional relationship whereby loneliness and social anxiety predict an increase in latter online victimization rather than the reverse. A bidirectional relationship was found for real-life victimization: loneliness (but not social anxiety) predicted an increase in latter real-life victimization, which in turn predicted an increase in subsequent social anxiety (but not loneliness). No moderating effects of online aggression were found. The findings of the present study suggest that negative online and in real life peer interactions have a differential meaning for, and impact on adolescents' well-being. PMID:23979296

  8. The Cycle of Violence Revisited: Distinguishing Intimate Partner Violence Offenders Only, Victims Only, and Victim-Offenders.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela R; Jennings, Wesley G

    2016-01-01

    Using a cycle of violence framework, we investigated experiences with physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, perpetration, and both IPV victimization and perpetration (IPV overlap). Data included the U.S. subsample of college students in the International Dating Violence Study (n = 4,162). Findings indicated that 40% of participants reported lifetime IPV, with 28% reporting membership in the overlap group. Cycle of violence variables including child sexual abuse, witnessing violence inside the home during childhood, and witnessing violence outside the home during childhood were uniquely related to membership in the overlap group. No relationship between cycle of violence variables and IPV victimization only or IPV perpetration only was identified. Results suggested the cycle of violence might predominantly operate among individuals who are both IPV victims and offenders, rather than among individuals experiencing IPV victimization or perpetrate IPV exclusively. PMID:27302305

  9. Using latent class analysis to identify aggressors and victims of peer harassment.

    PubMed

    Giang, Michael T; Graham, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This study used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify individuals into aggressor and victim latent classes. Participants were over 2,000 sixth grade students who completed peer nomination procedures that identified students who had reputations as perpetrators and/or victims of physical, verbal, or relational harassment. Results showed five latent classes. Consistent with previous research, LCA identified latent classes of victims, aggressors, and socially adjusted students. However, rather than a single aggressive-victim subgroup, LCA identified latent classes of highly-victimized aggressive-victims and highly-aggressive aggressive-victims. Comparisons showed differences in mean profiles and classification criteria between LCA and traditional dichotomization approaches. Adjustment outcomes showed that highly-victimized aggressive-victims generally experienced greater negative psychological and social adjustment outcomes than highly-aggressive aggressive-victims. Implications of these findings for better assessment of victim and aggressor subgroups were discussed. PMID:17828767

  10. Psychiatric diagnosis as a risk marker for victimization in a national sample of children.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Carlos A; Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather

    2009-04-01

    Research examining childhood abuse has shown an association between victimization and psychiatric diagnoses (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). Historically, psychiatric diagnoses have been emphasized as a consequence of victimization, with less research examining if it also functions as a risk factor for further victimization, perhaps making diagnoses a general victimization risk marker. In addition, much of this research has emphasized particular types of victimization such as childhood physical or sexual abuse. Researchers have given less attention to other forms of victimization (e.g., peer victimization, witnessed violence) or a diverse victimization history. Using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) we surveyed parents and children between the ages of 2 and 17 using a random digit dial (RDD) methodology. We examined the relationship between a number of different forms of victimization (termed poly-victimization ) in the preceding year and parent-reported lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. Results show that children with a psychiatric diagnosis have significantly higher rates of victimization than children without a psychiatric diagnosis. In addition, using logistic regression models, we find that psychiatric diagnosis was associated with increased risk for poly-victimization, conventional crime victimization, maltreatment, peer or sibling victimization, and witnessing violence, but not sexual abuse. The results highlight the need to consider psychiatric diagnoses as a risk marker for past and possible future victimization. In addition, the importance of obtaining a comprehensive and more diverse victimization history when working with children is highlighted. PMID:18445831

  11. The many victims of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Tara

    2007-09-01

    Substance abuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substance abuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substance abuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substance abusing patients as well as patients' surrounding environments and support systems. In this article, we present a clinical case of opioid dependence and discuss various treatment options and modalities. We will discuss different variables that may maximize positive treatment outcomes. Also a review of the current literature regarding substance abuse treatment, psychotherapy with the drug abuser, and grief therapy should the substance abusing patient die for the surviving family members will be presented. PMID:20532120

  12. Corruption: Engineers are Victims, Perpetrators or Both?

    PubMed

    Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims. PMID:24935245

  13. Women in conflict zones first victims.

    PubMed

    Prakash, S

    1996-06-12

    In areas of the world plagued by armed conflict, women are often forced to engage in sexual intercourse to obtain food and shelter. The magnitude of the problem can be seen by the fact that in 1995, 30 major civil conflicts created 15 million refugees and 26.5 million internally displaced citizens. Emergency food supplies are so vulnerable to diversion by military groups that aid agencies now reserve a portion of the supplies for diversion. In certain part of Africa, only 12% of food aid reached its intended beneficiaries, and scores of feeding centers were attacked. In Bosnia, 20,000-50,000 women have been the victims of mass rape. In Uganda, the exchange of sex for security has contributed to the high rate of HIV infection. With women stripped of their traditional protective mechanisms, refugee camps must be carefully designed to avoid creating further opportunities for sexual or physical aggression. PMID:12158133

  14. The odontology victim identification skill assessment system.

    PubMed

    Zohn, Harry K; Dashkow, Sheila; Aschheim, Kenneth W; Dobrin, Lawrence A; Glazer, Howard S; Kirschbaum, Mitchell; Levitt, Daniel; Feldman, Cecile A

    2010-05-01

    Mass fatality identification efforts involving forensic odontology can involve hundreds of dental volunteers. A literature review was conducted and forensic odontologists and dental educators consulted to identify lessons learned from past mass fatality identification efforts. As a result, the authors propose a skill assessment system, the Odontology Victim Identification Skill Assessment System (OVID-SAS), which details qualifications required to participate on the Antemortem, Postmortem, Ante/Postmortem Comparison, Field, and Shift Leader/Initial Response Teams. For each qualification, specific skills have been identified along with suggested educational pedagogy and skill assessment methods. Courses and assessments can be developed by dental schools, professional associations, or forensic organizations to teach and test for the skills required for dental volunteers to participate on each team. By implementing a system, such as OVID-SAS, forensic odontologists responsible for organizing and managing a forensic odontology mass fatality identification effort will be able to optimally utilize individuals presenting with proven skills. PMID:20345802

  15. Longitudinal outcomes for victims of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, E Taylor; Daniolos, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Childhood abuse and neglect (child maltreatment) represent a common and significant public health burden. The consequences of maltreatment can be seen immediately, in the short term and in the long term. Determination of the exact prevalence of childhood maltreatment is difficult, as many cases go unreported; however in reported cases there is an estimated $124 billion annual burden on the US health-care system. The evaluation of potential maltreatment is difficult as many of the initial symptoms are subtle and can be explained with alternative illnesses or injuries. Potential immediate and short-term effects include brain injury, shaken baby syndrome and behavioral regression. The potential long-term sequelae of child maltreatment are explored in detail here and include increased risks of the development of mental health disorders, substance use disorders and chronic physical complaints during development and adulthood. Lastly, the review provides an overview of current treatment approaches for victims of childhood maltreatment. PMID:23307564

  16. Brain Resuscitation in the Drowning Victim

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Branche, Christine M.; Clark, Robert S.; Friberg, Hans; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W. E.; Holzer, Michael; Katz, Laurence M.; Knape, Johannes T. A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Nadkarni, Vinay; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.

    2013-01-01

    Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. Survivors may sustain severe neurologic morbidity. There is negligible research specific to brain injury in drowning making current clinical management non-specific to this disorder. This review represents an evidence-based consensus effort to provide recommendations for management and investigation of the drowning victim. Epidemiology, brain-oriented prehospital and intensive care, therapeutic hypothermia, neuroimaging/monitoring, biomarkers, and neuroresuscitative pharmacology are addressed. When cardiac arrest is present, chest compressions with rescue breathing are recommended due to the asphyxial insult. In the comatose patient with restoration of spontaneous circulation, hypoxemia and hyperoxemia should be avoided, hyperthermia treated, and induced hypothermia (32–34 °C) considered. Arterial hypotension/hypertension should be recognized and treated. Prevent hypoglycemia and treat hyperglycemia. Treat clinical seizures and consider treating non-convulsive status epilepticus. Serial neurologic examinations should be provided. Brain imaging and serial biomarker measurement may aid prognostication. Continuous electroencephalography and N20 somatosensory evoked potential monitoring may be considered. Serial biomarker measurement (e.g., neuron specific enolase) may aid prognostication. There is insufficient evidence to recommend use of any specific brain-oriented neuroresuscitative pharmacologic therapy other than that required to restore and maintain normal physiology. Following initial stabilization, victims should be transferred to centers with expertise in age-specific post-resuscitation neurocritical care. Care should be documented, reviewed, and quality improvement assessment performed. Preclinical research should focus on models of asphyxial cardiac arrest. Clinical research should focus on improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation, re-oxygenation/reperfusion strategies, therapeutic hypothermia

  17. Victim blame in a hate crime motivated by sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Plumm, Karyn M; Terrance, Cheryl A; Henderson, Vanessa R; Ellingson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants' attitudes toward minority sexual orientation. As extra-legal factors likely contribute to victim blame in these cases, the second study explored such factors as location and "provocation." Jurors in the second study read a transcript depicting an attack on a gay man by a man in either a local bar (i.e., not a gay bar) or a gay bar. Within location conditions, jurors were presented with either "provocation" by the victim (i.e., asking the perpetrator to dance and putting his arm around him) or alternatively no provocation was presented. Results revealed significant differences of victim blame depending on condition. Participants in both the local bar and provocation present conditions were more likely to blame the victim for the attack than those in the gay bar or provocation-absent conditions. Implications for hate crime law and attribution theory within the courtroom are discussed. PMID:20390993

  18. Why Definitions Matter: Stalking Victimization in the United States.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jennifer Gatewood

    2016-07-01

    Although there is a growing understanding of stalking victimization, it remains difficult to define, and characterizations of the phenomenon vary within the literature. As such, research is needed to understand how variations in the definition of stalking may change who is defined as a victim and thereby limit the generalizability of findings across previous studies. The focus of this study is the inclusion or exclusion of subjective and reasonable measures of fear for 1,430 victims identified by the 2006 Supplemental Victimization Survey. Results suggest that the definition of stalking is important, and prior research has potentially excluded stalking victims due to restrictive operationalizations. Victims who report different types of fear appear to be similar to each other in some respects but differ in others, particularly with regard for gender representation, suggesting some definitions of stalking may be gendered and under-represent male stalking victims. Finally, using complex stratified survey weights, the impact of these varying operationalizations is examined. Using the same data but different definitions resulted in estimates of just over 1 to 5.3 million persons who are stalked in the United States each year. PMID:25731929

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates from earthquake victims in Wenchuan.

    PubMed

    Kang, M; Xie, Y; Mintao, C; Chen, Z; Chen, H; Fan, H; Chen, W; Guo, X

    2009-01-01

    On 12 May 2008, an earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan County, Sichuan, China. Between 12 May and 11 June, 1823 victims were hospitalized in West China Hospital. These patients were severely injured, and most of their wounds were contaminated. Here, the results of bacteriological identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 725 non-duplicate isolates from earthquake victims are presented. Gram-negative bacilli were most frequently isolated (71.3%). Only 18.9% of isolates were Gram-positive bacteria; Candida spp. accounted for 9.7%, and Gram-negative cocci for 0.1%. After anaerobic culture, four Clostridium sordellii strains and one Clostridium bifermentans strain were isolated from deep wounds. Specimen culture from earthquake victims revealed a spectrum of pathogens and antibiotic susceptibilities that was different from that usually encountered in West China Hospital, especially concerning methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli. The pathophysiology of the injuries in earthquake victims was different from that in the patients who were not earthquake victims. A combination of environmental bacteria with a high proportion of Gram-negative bacteria was often observed in the earthquake victims. Approximately 26% of all earthquake victims were shown to be carriers of MDR microorganisms. Therefore, appropriate microbiological assessment upon admission, and identification of patients to be put in quarantine, is of paramount importance. PMID:19220339

  20. Sibling and peer victimization in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    This study examined how victimizations by either a sibling or peer are linked to each other and to mental health in childhood and adolescence. The data were from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence which includes a sample of children aged 3-9 (N=1,536) and adolescents aged 10-17 (N=1,523) gathered through telephone interviews. An adult caregiver (usually a parent) provided the information for children while self-reports were employed for adolescents. Fifteen percent of each age group reported victimization by both a sibling and peer. Victimization by a sibling alone was more common in childhood than adolescence. Victimization by a sibling was predictive of peer victimization. Children and adolescents victimized by both a sibling and peer reported the greatest mental distress. This work establishes that for some children and adolescents, victimization at the hands of other juveniles happens both at home and school. Programs should consider the role of siblings and target parents and siblings to encourage the development and maintenance of constructive sibling interactions. PMID:24889729

  1. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations. PMID:26200371

  2. Alcohol use and interpersonal violence: alcohol detected in homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R A; Mercy, J A; Loya, F; Rosenberg, M L; Smith, J C; Allen, N H; Vargas, L; Kolts, R

    1986-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between alcohol use and homicide victimization, we used data from the Los Angeles City Police Department and the Los Angeles Medical Examiner's Office to study 4,950 victims of criminal homicides in Los Angeles in the period 1970-79. Alcohol was detected in the blood of 1,883 (46 per cent) of the 4,092 victims who were tested. In 30 per cent of those tested, the blood alcohol level was greater than or equal to 100 mg/100 ml, the level of legal intoxication in most states. Blood alcohol was present most commonly in victims who were male, young, and Latino, categories where rates have been increasing at an alarming pace. Alcohol was also detected most commonly in victims killed during weekends, when homicides occurred in bars or restaurants, when homicides resulted from physical fights or verbal arguments, when victims were friends or acquaintances of offenders, and when homicides resulted from stabbings. The evidence for alcohol use by homicide victims focuses attention on the need for controlled epidemiologic studies of the role played by alcohol as a risk factor in homicide and on the importance of considering situational variables in developing approaches to homicide prevention. PMID:3946695

  3. Bullying and victimization among black and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Tortolero, Susan R; Markham, Christine M

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of bullying and victimization by gender, grade level, and race/ethnicity was examined among a sample of low socioeconomic, Black and Hispanic 6th- to 12th-graders in a large urban school district in Texas. Bullying and victimization were measured using specific behaviors. Students were classified as bullies (7%), victims (12%), bully-victims (5%), or neither (76%), depending on the number and frequency of reported experiences. For specific types of bullying (e.g., spreading rumors, excluding others), 4.5%-9.4% of students reported participation. Specific types of victimization (e.g., being hit or pushed, picked on) ranged from 6%-12%. Gender differences were not observed for general bullying and victimization, but physical and some verbal types were more prevalent among males. Blacks were more likely to participate in bullying and victimization, and these experiences seemed to peak in the 9th grade. This study adds to the literature as few U.S. studies on both general and specific types of bullying have been conducted among low socioeconomic, racial/ethnic minority students in middle and high school. PMID:17225662

  4. The Impact of Crime Victimization on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Rochelle F.; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Begle, Angela M.; Hubel, Grace S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the extant literature examining the functional impact of crime victimization on indices of quality of life. They present findings within a conceptual framework comprised of role functioning, life satisfaction, and well-being, and social–material conditions, including crime-related medical, mental health, and employer costs, and health care utilization. The review indicates that crime victimization impacts multiple domains, including parenting skills, impaired occupational functioning, higher rates of unemployment, and problematic intimate relationships. However, data on relationships between crime victimization and overall life satisfaction were mixed, suggesting the need for further investigation. The authors conclude with a brief discussion of directions for future research. PMID:20419728

  5. Family structure variations in patterns and predictors of child victimization.

    PubMed

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard

    2007-04-01

    In a national probability sample of 1,000 children aged 10-17, youth from single parent and stepfamilies experienced higher rates of several different kinds of victimization compared with youth living with two biological parents. Youth in stepfamilies had the highest overall rates of victimization and the greatest risk from family perpetrators, including biological parents, siblings, and stepparents. Elevated risk in stepfamilies was fully explained by their higher levels of family problems. Victimization risk in single parent families was more affected by their lower socioeconomic status and residence in more violence neighborhoods and schools. PMID:17535126

  6. La campagne s'urbanise: résultats d'un dépistage du diabète et des dysglycémies dans une zone rurale de la région de Marrakech

    PubMed Central

    Ennazk, Laila; El M'ghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le diabète constitue un problème de santé publique au Maroc. L'augmentation de sa prévalence se fait en parallèle avec l'augmentation des chiffres de l'obésité et de l'hypertension artérielle (HTA). Les facteurs environnementaux dont l'urbanisation influencent avec force cet état des lieux. En milieu rural, la tendance tend à s'inverser du fait du changement des habitudes de vie. Notre travail avait comme but de dépister la dysglycémie dans une commune rurale de la région de Marrakech. Méthodes Ce travail de dépistage fait sur une journée a concerné une population tout-venant de 200 personnes. La glycémie capillaire à jeun, la tension artérielle, le poids, la taille, l'indice de masse corporelle et le tour de taille ont été mesurés pour toutes les personnes qui se sont présentées. Résultats Deux cent sujets ont été examinés. 31% des sujets examinés étaient diabétiques. Chez les non diabétiques, 57,9% avaient une glycémie capillaire à jeun au-delà de 1,1g/l, 51,2% entre 1,1 g/l et 1,26 g/l et 48,7% au-delà de 1,26 g/l. Sur le plan tensionnel, 95% des patients examinés n'étaient pas connus hypertendus. L'obésité androïde touche 63,7% des patients examinés. Conclusion Les chiffres retrouvés lors de cette caravane médicale sont supérieurs à nos attentes. L'urbanisation du milieu rural a un impact sur le profil métabolique et tensionnel de cette population; ce qui devrait impliquer une démarche préventive de santé publique. PMID:25667693

  7. Effects of Victim Gaze Behavior and Prior Relationship on Rape Culpability Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Cynthia E.; Wrightsman, Lawrence S.

    1995-01-01

    Rape victims' gaze behavior when identifying a defendant and the prior relationship between victim and defendant were examined for effects on rape culpability attributions. In comparison with victims who used gaze maintenance or natural gaze behavior, rape victims' gaze avoidance was perceived as indicative of less truthfulness rather than…

  8. The prevalence of childhood victimization experienced outside of the family: Findings from an English prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Vicki; Browne, Kevin; Joseph, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There has been little research carried out in the United Kingdom (UK) aimed at providing a holistic exploration of the victim experiences of young people within the school and community environments (extrafamilial victimization). This study therefore examined the prevalence of 24 different types of extrafamilial victimization experienced by a sample of 730 young people, aged 13-16 years (mean 13.8 years), from one county in the UK. The findings show that the vast majority of young people experienced some form of extrafamilial victimization over their lifetime (84.1%) and past year (67.2%). Looking at individual categories of victimization experienced over the lifetime, 7 out of 10 young people witnessed or experienced indirect victimization, 1 in 3 experienced property victimization, more than 1 in 4 physical victimization, almost 1 in 2 experienced bullying, 1 in 28 dating violence and 1 in 7 experienced sexual victimization. The findings also suggest that victimization is not an isolated event; participants experienced an average 2.8 different types of victimization across their lifetime. These research findings are compared to those from national victimization surveys in the USA and UK to compile a picture of the victimization prevalence rates across studies. The findings highlight the importance of adopting a holistic approach to the exploration of extrafamilial victimization in future research, assessment of victim experiences, and prevention of extrafamilial victimization. PMID:26318779

  9. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart A - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (ITVERP); Chart of Expense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International Terrorism Victim Expense... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Pt. 94, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A—International Terrorism Victim...

  10. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart A - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (ITVERP); Chart of Expense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International Terrorism Victim Expense... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Pt. 94, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A—International Terrorism Victim...

  11. 25 CFR 42.9 - What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary... RIGHTS § 42.9 What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings? In formal disciplinary proceedings, each school must consider victims' rights when appropriate. (a) The victim's rights may include...

  12. 25 CFR 42.9 - What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary... RIGHTS § 42.9 What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings? In formal disciplinary proceedings, each school must consider victims' rights when appropriate. (a) The victim's rights may include...

  13. 25 CFR 42.9 - What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary... RIGHTS § 42.9 What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings? In formal disciplinary proceedings, each school must consider victims' rights when appropriate. (a) The victim's rights may include...

  14. 25 CFR 42.9 - What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary... RIGHTS § 42.9 What are victims' rights in formal disciplinary proceedings? In formal disciplinary proceedings, each school must consider victims' rights when appropriate. (a) The victim's rights may include...

  15. Repeat Offending and Repeat Victimization: Assessing Similarities and Differences in Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Mazerolle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The overlap between victims and offenders is increasingly being recognized, with mounting evidence that victims and offenders have similar demographic characteristics, that victimization increases the likelihood of offending, and that offenders are at high risk for becoming victims of crime. Despite this evidence, there is limited research…

  16. Disability in Relation to Different Peer-Victimization Groups and Psychosomatic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Linda; Stenbeck, Magnus; Hagquist, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between disability, victims, perpetrators, and so-called "bully-victims" (someone reporting being both a victim and a perpetrator) of traditional, cyber, or combined victimization or perpetration and psychosomatic health among adolescents. Authors analyzed cross-sectional data…

  17. Victimisation and Suicide Ideation in the TRAILS Study: Specific Vulnerabilities of Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herba, Catherine M.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Stijnen, Theo; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Scientific studies have provided some support for a link between being a victim of bullying and suicide ideation. We examine whether (1) parental psychopathology and (2) feelings of rejection (at home and at school) exacerbate vulnerability to suicide ideation in victims of bullying (pure victims and bully-victims). Method: Data were…

  18. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart A - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (ITVERP); Chart of Expense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Terrorism Victim Expense... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Pt. 94, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A—International Terrorism Victim...

  19. Dating Violence & Sexual Harassment across the Bully-Victim Continuum among Middle and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Holt, Melissa K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations among bullying, peer victimization, sexual harassment, and dating violence were examined among 684 middle and high school students. Cluster analysis of self-report measures revealed four distinct bully-victim subtypes: uninvolved, victims, bully-victims, and bullies. African-American students comprised the bully cluster more than…

  20. La dermoscopie pour la détection des mélanomes en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Herschorn, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Évaluer l’exactitude diagnostique et l’utilité clinique de la dermoscopie pour la détection de mélanomes en pratique familiale. Sources des données Nous avons fait une recension dans les bases de données Ovid MEDLINE (de 1946 à juin 2011), EMBASE, PubMed et Cochrane à l’aide des expressions suivantes en anglais: dermoscopy, dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy, family practice, general practice, primary health care, melanoma, skin neoplasms et pigmented nevus. Pour être prises en considération, les études devaient être des articles de recherche primaire ayant pour sujets des médecins de famille, ainsi que la formation en dermoscopie et son utilisation en tant qu’intervention. La recherche a produit 4 articles qui répondaient aux critères d’inclusion et présentaient des données probantes de niveau I selon la définition du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Dans le milieu de la pratique familiale, la dermoscopie a une sensibilité plus élevée que l’examen à l’œil nu pour la détection des mélanomes sans avoir, généralement, une spécificité moins grande. La dermoscopie aide aussi à accroître le degré de confiance des médecins de famille dans leur diagnostic préliminaire des lésions. L’utilisation de la dermoscopie plutôt que l’examen à l’œil nu augmente la probabilité qu’une lésion jugée cancéreuse le soit de fait et qu’une lésion jugée bénigne le soit en réalité. Conclusion Il est démontré que la dermoscopie est un outil utile et relativement peu coûteux pour la détection des mélanomes en pratique familiale. Cette technique rend les médecins de famille plus confiants dans l’exactitude de leurs demandes de consultations auprès de dermatologues et contribue à diminuer les biopsies inutiles. La dermoscopie peut se révéler plus particulièrement utile dans l’examen des patients à risque élevé de mélanomes, étant donn

  1. Perpetrator and victim gender patterns for 21 forms of youth victimization in the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Most interest in violence and gender has focused on certain types of victimization such as sex offenses and relational aggression. This study examined gender patterns across numerous forms of youth victimization. The data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative U.S. sample of 4,549 children ages 1 month to 17 years obtained through a telephone survey of caregivers and youth. For 18 of 21 victimization types, male perpetration was significantly more common than female perpetration. Perpetrator-victim patterns revealed that most forms of physical assault and bullying showed a predominantly male-on-male pattern. All forms of sexual assault, plus kidnapping, showed a predominantly male-on-female pattern. Nonphysical maltreatment showed a mixed pattern, with fairly similar rates across all four gender configurations. Many violence types were more severe when perpetrated by males versus females as indicated by higher injury rates and greater victim fear. Higher order analyses by victimization type indicated, among other findings, that victimization types with more stranger perpetrators had more male perpetrators, victimizations with higher percentages of male-on-female and female-on-male incidents were more likely to be sexual offenses, and higher percentages of female-on-female incidents were associated with verbal victimizations. Results also suggest that males are more likely to aggress in more impersonal contexts compared to females. Gender socialization, physical power, and social power appear to intersect in ways that create gendered patterns of violence. These factors, versus a focus on skills deficits, need more attention in prevention and intervention. PMID:24547672

  2. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  3. Substance use predictors of victimization profiles among homeless youth: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna; Ferguson, Kristin; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Although a substantial body of literature demonstrates high prevalence of street victimization among homeless youth, few studies have investigated the existence of victimization classes that differ on the type and frequency of victimization experienced. Nor do we know how substance use patterns relate to victimization classes. Using latent class analysis (LCA), we examined the existence of victimization classes of homeless youth and investigated substance use predictors of class membership utilizing a large purposive sample (N=601) recruited from homeless youth-serving host agencies in three disparate regions of the U.S. Results of the LCA suggest the presence of three distinct victimization profiles - youth fit into a low-victimization class, a witness class, or a high-victimization class. These three victimization classes demonstrated differences in their substance use, including rates of substance abuse/dependence on alcohol and/or drugs. The presence of distinct victimization profiles suggests the need for screening and referral for differential services. PMID:24439621

  4. Neighborhood firearm victimization rates and social capital over time.

    PubMed

    Medina, Justin C

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of firearm victimization is not equal within cities. Victimization can persistently concentrate in a small number of neighborhoods, while others experience very little violence. Theorists have pointed to one possible explanation as the ability of groups to control violence using social capital. Researchers have shown this association at the U.S. county, state, and national levels. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between neighborhood social capital and violence over time. This study uses longitudinal data to ask whether neighborhood social capital both predicts and is influenced by firearm victimization over 3 years in Philadelphia. The results of several regression analyses suggest that trusting others and firearm victimization are inversely related over time. Implications for neighborhood policy planning and social capital as a theoretical framework are discussed. PMID:25774416

  5. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  6. 5-HTTLPR, victimization and ecological executive function of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liu, JiaJia; Cao, Fenglin; Li, Ping; Lou, Fenglan; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2016-03-30

    Executive function (EF) plays an important role in guiding peer relationship, school performance and behavior control. Children exposed to traumatic environments have been reported to perform poorer in EF tasks. We explored if the relationship between victimization and EF was dependent on the functional variation 5-HTTLPR in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Data on demographics, victimization and daily life EF were collected from school students (Han Chinese, n=2125). All those reporting executive dysfunction (n=169), and classmate controls (n=208), were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR. It was shown that the number of victimizations associated positively with executive dysfunction (ED). This association was particularly strong in those homozygous for the short allele of 5-HTTLPR, whilst a statistical 5-HTTLPR×victimization interaction on ED was found. Our findings suggest that adolescents with a genotype conferring a low 5-HTT activity are more vulnerable to a childhood adversity-associated ED in their daily life. PMID:26921052

  7. Reporting to the police by Hispanic victims of violence.

    PubMed

    Rennison, Callie Marie

    2007-01-01

    Though reporting violence to the police has been extensively investigated, the nature of Hispanic reporting of victimization has not. This is surprising because Hispanics are the fastest growing and largest ethnic group in the United States. Using over a decade of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey, this article investigates Hispanic reporting of victimization relative to non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, American Indians, and Asians. Findings show that Hispanics are significantly less likely to report the most serious of violence compared to non-Hispanic Whites, but are more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to report simple assaults. Few reporting differences between Hispanics and other victim groups were observed. In addition, analyses indicate a positive relationship between educational attainment and reporting by Hispanics-a predictor not shared by any other group. PMID:18225387

  8. Assessing surge capacity for radiation victims with marrow toxicity.

    PubMed

    Davids, Matthew S; Case, Cullen; Hornung, Raymond; Chao, Nelson J; Chute, John P; Coleman, C Norman; Weisdorf, Daniel; Confer, Dennis L; Weinstock, David M

    2010-10-01

    Hematologists/oncologists would provide essential care for victims of a catastrophic radiation incident, such as the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND). The US Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN) is a voluntary consortium of 37 academic medical centers, 8 blood donor centers, and 7 umbilical cord banks focused on preparedness for radiation incidents. The RITN conducted 2 tabletop exercises to evaluate response capability after a hypothetical IND detonation in a U.S. city. In the 2008 exercise, medical centers voluntarily accepted 1757 victims at their institutions, a small fraction of the number in need. In the 2009 exercise, each center was required to accept 300 victims. In response, the centers outlined multiple strategies to increase bed availability, extend staff and resources, and support family and friends accompanying transferred victims. The exercises highlighted shortcomings in current planning and future steps for improving surge capacity that are applicable to various mass casualty scenarios. PMID:20399880

  9. Recognizing victims of human trafficking in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Becker, Heather J; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2015-02-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that is rapidly expanding in the United States and throughout the world. It is a crime under both the United States and international law. The child and adult victims of human trafficking are denied their basic human rights and subjected to unspeakable physical and emotional harm. Traffickers exert complete control over their victims and are proficient at hiding their condition from authorities. Healthcare practitioners may be the only professionals who come into contact with victims if they present for medical care. This article will describe human trafficking and its potential victims, as well as guide medical management and access to services that will ensure their safety and restore their freedom. PMID:25651385

  10. Black Heart Attack Victims More Likely to Have Ambulance Diverted

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157879.html Black Heart Attack Victims More Likely to Have Ambulance Diverted Study ... 2016 MONDAY, March 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Black heart attack patients are more likely than whites to have ...

  11. Clerics who commit sexual offenses: offender, offense, and victim characteristics.

    PubMed

    Firestone, Philip; Moulden, Heather M; Wexler, Audrey F

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to undertake an exploratory analysis of clerics who sexually offend and the circumstances related to these offenses. Thirty-three adult male religious leaders who had been charged with a sexual offense against a child or adolescent were included in the study. This study examined descriptive information about offenders, their victims, as well as characteristics of the crimes. Notable trends included the following: religious leaders tended to offend against boys living with both parents, the offense often took place at the clergy's residence, and the offense involved fondling the victim. The study also compared offenders with single versus multiple victims on crime variables and differences were noted with respect to victim access. PMID:19842539

  12. Guidelines for Group Therapy with Eating Disorder Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Genie O.; Sanders, Claud D.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a rationale for group psychotherapy with eating disorder victims and discusses therapists' characteristics and style, and group climate and strategies. Suggests specific interventions for each complex counseling issue. (LLL)

  13. Victims of violence: an Asian scenario.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2000-12-01

    The term 'violence' is difficult to define. Aggressive behaviour with actual use of physical force may result in some form of physical and emotional trauma to an individual and this could be considered as violence against the person. The trauma may range from minimal physical injury to death. It is also relevant to note that in some jurisdictions if members of the law enforcement agencies with appropriate authority resort to certain acts of 'violence' for lawful purposes, then such acts of violence may be excluded from this category. However, if the law enforcement personnel exceed their limits of authority, or resort to various unacceptable and unauthorized methods of violence, then certainly such acts will become violence against the person. In today's context the word violence has expanded to encompass many issues, besides the usual physical violence such as assault. Rape, child sexual abuse, other forms of sexual abuse, non-accidental injury to children, battered wife, assault in custody, torture, victims of war, civil unrest and ethnic violence are all considered under 'violence'. While general violence is almost endemic in many countries, assault in custody, torture, political and ethnic violence are serious problems in some of the developing world. In these countries, particularly, the law enforcement agencies and other unlawful groups who are backed by politicians may inflict politically motivated violence against its citizens. In such cases attempts are often made to cover up such crimes. Forensic physicians and forensic pathologists who examine these cases may be placed in difficult positions at times owing to various 'pressures' being brought upon them to issue 'favourable' reports. On the other hand there is also a general dearth of suitably trained forensic physicians and forensic pathologists in many of these countries. Medical officers without any training in forensic medicine often undertake the examination of victims of violence, both living and

  14. Bully/victims: a longitudinal, population-based cohort study of their mental health.

    PubMed

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that those who both bully and are victims of bullying (bully/victims) are at the highest risk of adverse mental health outcomes. However, unknown is whether most bully/victims were bullies or victims first and whether being a bully/victim is more detrimental to mental health than being a victim. A total of 4101 children were prospectively studied from birth, and structured interviews and questionnaires were used to assess bullying involvement at 10 years (elementary school) and 13 years of age (secondary school). Mental health (anxiety, depression, psychotic experiences) was assessed at 18 years. Most bully/victims at age 13 (n = 233) had already been victims at primary school (pure victims: n = 97, 41.6 % or bully/victims: n = 47, 20.2 %). Very few of the bully/victims at 13 years had been pure bullies previously (n = 7, 3 %). After adjusting for a wide range of confounders, both bully/victims and pure victims, whether stable or not from primary to secondary school, were at increased risk of mental health problems at 18 years of age. In conclusion, children who are bully/victims at secondary school were most likely to have been already bully/victims or victims at primary school. Children who are involved in bullying behaviour as either bully/victims or victims at either primary or secondary school are at increased risk of mental health problems in late adolescence regardless of the stability of victimization. Clinicians should consider any victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:25825225

  15. Coping with peer victimization: the role of children's attributions.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Sechler, Casey M; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2013-06-01

    A social-cognitive framework was used to generate and test hypotheses regarding the role of children's causal attributions for peer victimization in predicting how they cope with such experiences. It was hypothesized that attributions would be differentially associated with coping as a function of the direction (i.e., upward, horizontal, or downward) of the social comparison reflected in children's perceived cause for their peer victimization. Self- and peer-reports were collected on 224 (97 boys, 127 girls) fourth- and sixth-grade ethnically diverse students (M age = 10.6 years, SD = 1.08 years). Only children who had been targeted for peer aggression within the preceding two months were included to ensure they had a basis for answering questions regarding the cause of their victimization and how they coped. Data were gathered in the fall and spring of the academic school year and included reports of causal attributions, victimization, aggression, peer acceptance, and coping with victimization. Multiple regression analyses provided preliminary evidence that children's attributions were differentially predictive of changes in coping responses. For example, attributing victimization to one's race predicted decreases in seeking friend support and increases in nonchalance, whereas attributing it to not being as "cool" as others was associated with increases in seeking teacher and friend support, but decreases in nonchalance. Results suggest that children's attributions may reflect the resources they have available to them to cope with victimization. Such resources may be due to social status, or they may be due to the extent to which children blame themselves for the victimization (e.g., the degree to which they expect sympathy and help). Implications of these differential patterns of attributions and coping strategies for children's adjustment are discussed. PMID:23506020

  16. [Psychiatric disorders among victims of disasters in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Lima, B R; Chávez, H; Samaniego, N; Pai, S

    1992-07-01

    Previous studies in developing countries have demonstrated post-disaster stress disorders in a substantial share of the people living through a natural calamity, but questions have remained as to the severity of these mental health problems. This article reports information derived from a 1987 study of Ecuadorian earthquake victims that shows many of the victims had diagnosable psychiatric disorders and provides insight into the nature of those disorders. PMID:1642782

  17. Interparental Conflict, Parenting Behavior, and Children's Friendship Quality as Correlates of Peer Aggression and Peer Victimization Among Aggressor/Victim Subgroups in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hee; Hong, Jun Sung; Yoon, Jina; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this study was to examine whether interparental conflict, maternal parenting behaviors, and children's friendship quality varied as a function of peer aggression/victim subgroups among a sample of 227 elementary school children and their mothers in South Korea. Both self-report and peer-report data indicated that the majority of the students were uninvolved in peer aggression situations, and the number of participants in the subgroups (aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims) varied depending on the source of report. According to the self-report data, victims and aggressor-victims reported a higher level of maternal rejection than uninvolved youth. Aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims reported higher maternal neglect than uninvolved youth. The highest level of interparental conflict was reported by victims, followed by aggressors. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in positive functioning of friendship quality among the subgroups, although results indicated a significant difference among groups in negative friendship quality. PMID:24368677

  18. Childhood victimization and pain in adulthood: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Raphael, K G; Widom, C S; Lange, G

    2001-05-01

    Evidence of the relationship between childhood abuse and pain problems in adulthood has been based on cross-sectional studies using retrospective self-reports of childhood victimization. The objective of the current study was to determine whether childhood victimization increases risk for adult pain complaints, using prospective information from documented cases of child abuse and neglect. Using a prospective cohort design, cases of early childhood abuse or neglect documented between 1967 and 1971 (n = 676) and demographically matched controls (n = 520) were followed into young adulthood. The number of medically explained and unexplained pain complaints reported at follow-up (1989-1995) was examined. Assessed prospectively, physically and sexually abused and neglected individuals were not at risk for increased pain symptoms. The odds of reporting one or more unexplained pain symptoms was not associated with any childhood victimization or specific types (i.e. sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect). In contrast, the odds of one or more unexplained pain symptoms was significantly associated with retrospective self-reports of all specific types of childhood victimization. These findings indicate that the relationship between childhood victimization and pain symptoms in adulthood is more complex than previously thought. The common assumption that medically unexplained pain is of psychological origin should be questioned. Additional research conducting comprehensive physical examinations with victims of childhood abuse and neglect is recommended. PMID:11323150

  19. [Maxillo facial injuries in victims of violence at school environment].

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of injuries in the maxillofacial complex in children and adolescents victims of physical violence in school environment. Forty-two proofs involved children and adolescents victims of physical violence in school in the years of 2003 and 2006 were analyzed. The data had been registered in specific form collecting the following variables: gender, age, perpetrator agent, localization of the injuries in the distinct regions of the body, type and number of injuries, existence of injuries in oral cavity and tissue involvement. It was observed that 61.9% of the victims were male (61.9%), age-group 13 to 17 years the most reached. In most of the cases (92.9%), the perpetrators were friends from school while teachers represented 7.1% of the cases. Injuries around the head and face were present in 69.1% of the sample, with 23.8% of the victims presenting injuries in the buccal cavity, all of the injuries were situated in soft tissues, mainly in the lips. It was evidenced to be high the existence of injuries in the buccal cavity of the victims of aggression in the school environment, confirming the importance of dentistry in the diagnosis of injuries around the head and face of the victims of physical abuse. PMID:19851596

  20. Patterns of multiple victimization among maltreated children in Navy families.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Saunders, Benjamin E; Williams, Linda M; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel W; Fitzgerald, Monica M

    2013-10-01

    The current study examined the cumulative risk associated with children's exposure to multiple types of parent-inflicted victimization. The sample was comprised of 195 children who were 7 to 17 years old (64.1% female and 48.2% non-White) at the time of referral to the United States Navy's Family Advocacy Program due to allegations of sexual abuse, physical abuse, or parental intimate partner violence. We conducted an exploratory latent class analysis to identify distinct subgroups of children based on lifetime victimization. We hypothesized that at least 2 classes or subgroups would be identified, with 1 characterized by greater victimization and poorer outcomes. Results indicated that 3 classes of children best fit the data: (a) high victimization across all 3 categories, (b) high rates of physical abuse and witnessing intimate partner violence, and (c) high rates of physical abuse only. Findings indicated that the high victimization class was at greatest risk for alcohol and substance use, delinquent behavior, and meeting criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression 1 year later (odds ratio = 4.53). These findings highlight the serious mental health needs of a small but significantly high-risk portion of multiply victimized children entering the child welfare system. PMID:24114860

  1. The reasons behind early adolescents' responses to peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily

    2013-02-01

    Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55 % girls) from two urban middle schools and 254 students (50 % girls) from one suburban middle school completed structured open-ended questions about a recent peer victimization experience. In both school settings, the results supported both previously- and newly-identified coping responses that fit within the approach-avoidance coping framework, reasoning that maps on to social information processing models, and systematic associations between reasoning and the coping responses adopted by the adolescents. In both school settings, approach responses were associated with having the goal of defending oneself against the victimization whereas avoidance responses were associated with wanting to prevent the escalation of the peer victimization event. The discussion argues that knowledge about the link between reasoning and coping responses can be informative to understanding what coping responses are effective for victims. PMID:23014851

  2. Antipersonnel mines: who are the victims?

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, S J

    1996-01-01

    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has surgically treated 49 946 war wounded from all sides of the Afghan conflict. Two hospitals were established in Peshawar (1981) and Quetta (1983) on the Afghan border of Pakistan and inside Afghanistan in Kabul (1988). One quarter of all war wounded were injured as a result of antipersonnel mines. In 1980 a UN weapons convention adopted specific rules on the use of land mines, yet despite this, mines are still present and causing casualties long after the ceasefire. In the ICRC hospital Peshawar, 48% of all war wounded in the last year were injured as a result of mines. Non-combatants accounted for 34%, with the majority being children < 16 years old (25%); 78% of all mine injured people claimed to be returning refugees, of whom 37% had returned within three months. A significant increase in injuries occurred in children, from 14% in 1990 to 25% in 1992. For a country recovering from war, the presence of mines causes a serious environmental, social, and economic burden, and for the victims, continued tragedy not only for their families but also the whole country for many years to come. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8894863

  3. Bullying in Jerusalem schools: victims and perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Gofin, R; Palti, H; Gordon, L

    2002-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of bullying among adolescents studying in Jerusalem schools and to identify the characteristics of its victims and perpetrators. Pupils in the 8th and 10th grade (ages 14-16 y) in 11 schools in Jerusalem (n=1182) anonymously completed the World Health Organization questionnaire from the 'Health Behavior in School Children' study. Bullying others or being bullied at least once in the last term was reported. The independent variables studied were socio-demographic characteristics, and personal and school-related factors. Bullying was reported by 57.1% of boys and 27.0% of girls, and being bullied by 50.3% of boys and 39.5% of girls. The factors associated with bullying others were lack of support from teachers for both genders and poor mental health among boys. Variables related to social exclusion among girls and social isolation among boys were associated with being bullied. Health professionals should be active in all levels of prevention to deal with this problem that affects the health and well-being of so many children and adolescents. PMID:12082600

  4. Victims from volcanic eruptions: a revised database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, J.-C.; Ribière, C.; Scarth, A.; Tjetjep, W. S.

    The number of victims from volcanism and the primary cause(s) of death reported in the literature show considerable uncertainty. We present the results of investigations carried out either in contemporary accounts or in specific studies of eruptions that occurred since A.D. 1783. More than 220 000 people died because of volcanic activity during this period, which includes approximately 90% of the recorded deaths throughout history. Most of the fatalities resulted from post-eruption famine and epidemic disease (30.3%), nuées ardentes or pyroclastic flows and surges (26.8%), mudflows or lahars (17.1%), and volcanogenic tsunamis (16.9%). At present, however, international relief efforts might reduce the effects of post-eruption crop failure and disease, and at least some of the lahars could be anticipated in time by adequate scientific and social response. Thus, mitigation of hazards from pyroclastic flows and tsunamis will become of paramount importance to volcanologists and civil authorities.

  5. Relations among Multiple Types of Peer Victimization, Reactivity to Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement in Fifth-Grade Goys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Michael T.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Swift, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relations between multiple types of peer victimization, affective reactivity to victimization, and academic achievement. Participants (179 fifth-grade boys and girls) completed repeated daily measures of peer victimization and negative affect; a standardized measure of achievement was collected concurrently. The daily…

  6. Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…

  7. Frequency of Victimization Experiences and Well-Being Among Online, Offline, and Combined Victims on Social Online Network Sites of German Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,890 German children and adolescents (grades 5-10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1) with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS). Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without), somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others). In total, 1,362 (72.1%) children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one SNS, and 377 students (28.8%) reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%), whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined) was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone. PMID:26734598

  8. Frequency of Victimization Experiences and Well-Being Among Online, Offline, and Combined Victims on Social Online Network Sites of German Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,890 German children and adolescents (grades 5–10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1) with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS). Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without), somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others). In total, 1,362 (72.1%) children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one SNS, and 377 students (28.8%) reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%), whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined) was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone. PMID:26734598

  9. Victims and bully-victims but not bullies are groups associated with anxiety symptomatology among Brazilian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Isolan, Luciano; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Osowski, Andrea Tochetto; Zottis, Graziela Hartmann; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2013-10-01

    School bullying is frequent and is associated with a broad spectrum of psychiatric problems. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of bullying behaviors in a large sample of Brazilian children and adolescents and to investigate the association between bullying behaviors and DSM-IV anxiety symptomatology. This cross-sectional study involved completion of a questionnaire about bullying behaviors and their frequency and the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) that is a self-report screening tool for childhood anxiety disorders by 2,355 students. A total of 22.9 % of the sample reported frequent involvement in bullying, as a bully (7.6 %), as a victim (5.7 %), or as a bully-victim (9.6 %). In general, our findings showed that students involved in bullying behaviors, as victims or bully-victims, were more likely to have higher scores in SCARED total and its subscales than bullies and than uninvolved students. The prevalence of bullying behaviors among Brazilian youth is about average when compared with previous samples described in the literature. Victims and bully-victims, but no bullies, are groups associated with higher anxiety symptomatology. PMID:23553573

  10. The Development of a Taxonomy of the Life Skills Required to Become a Balanced Self-Determined Person = Essaie de Classification des Competences Necessaires pour Devenir une Personne Autonome et Bien Equilibree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul

    Intended for use by life skills coaches and students, program evaluators, and individuals developing lesson plans and other training materials, this taxonomy includes all of the terminal performance behaviors and corresponding sub-skills required to become and function as a balanced, self-determined person who manages the problems of everyday life…

  11. What Works to Reduce Victimization? Synthesizing What We Know and Where to Go From Here.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kathleen A; Shjarback, John A

    2016-01-01

    While some attention has been paid to "what works" to reduce crime, little is known about the effectiveness of programs designed to reduce victimization. This study systematically reviews 83 program evaluations to identify what works to (a) reduce victimization, (b) enhance beliefs/attitudes about victims, and (c) improve knowledge/awareness of victimization issues. Evidence-based findings are organized around 4 major forms of victimization, including bullying, intimate partner violence, sexual abuse, and other general forms of victimization. Determining whether certain types of programs can reduce the risk of victimization has important implications for improving people's quality of life. Based on our findings, we offer several promising directions for the next generation of research on evaluating victimization programs. The goal of this study is to improve the strength of future program evaluations, replications, and other systematic reviews as researchers and practitioners continue to learn what works to reduce victimization. PMID:26831647

  12. Rape against Brazilian Women: Characteristics of Victims and Sex Offenders

    PubMed Central

    SOUTO, Rafaella Q.; ARAÚJO, Francisco K. C. D.; XAVIER, Alidianne F. C.; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is a serious social problem and affects mainly young women. This study aimed to evaluate sexual violence against women in Campina Grande, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study with analysis of 886 forensic medical reports of sexual violence from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Campina Grande, Brazil, was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed. Significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of rape (32.8%) were confirmed, the majority of victims aged between 0 and 19 years (89.9%), were single (98.8%) and had low educational level (86.9%), with association with marital status (P = 0.02). The sex offender was known to the victim in 84.2% of cases and in 93.8% of cases, he acted alone. There was an association between rape and the relationship with the offenders (P = 0.01) and the age of the offenders (P = 0.03). The rape occurred in most cases at the home of victims (49.3%), with the use of violence in 72.3% of cases, but only 5.7% of the victims exhibited physical injuries. There was an association between rape and variables date of occurrence (P = 0.001), previous virginity (P = 0.001) and violence during practice (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Over one third of women were victims of rape, predominantly adolescents, unmarried and with low educational level. The offenders were known to the victims, and acted alone in most situations, making use of physical violence. PMID:26811812

  13. Poly-victimization and executive functions in junior college students.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Dong, Fanghong; Cao, Fenglin; Cui, Naixue; Li, Jie; Long, Zhouting

    2013-12-01

    This study sought to characterize executive dysfunctions in poly-victimized students without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the relationship between neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EFs). Based on self-report data of exposure to victimization and PTSD symptoms, 259 junior college students aged 18-21 years were classified into four groups: poly-victimization with PTSD symptoms (PVP), poly-victimization without PTSD symptoms (PVnP), non-poly-victimization (nPV), and non-victimization (nV). Respondents also completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Of the 259 participants, 131 were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB). The PVP group and the PVnP group performed worse than the nV group on most BRIEF-A scales. When compared with the nPV group, the PVP group demonstrated poorer performance on the scales of Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, and Working Memory, while the PVnP group performed more poorly on the Working Memory scale and the Task Monitor scale. For all BRIEF-A scales, no significant differences were detected between the PVP group and the PVnP group. This study showed no between-group differences for most of the neuropsychological tests except for the Stop Signal Task (SST), and no correlations between these two measures of EFs. Overall, we found evidence of an association between deficits in EFs and poly-victimization. Although our study raises questions about the relationship between these two measures of EFs, it suggests that the use of the BRIEF-A in conjunction with the CANTAB provides a more complete assessment of the executive dysfunctions. PMID:24580571

  14. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  15. Do targets of workplace bullying portray a general victim personality profile?

    PubMed

    Glasø, Lars; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Einarsen, Ståle

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine differences in personality between a group of bullied victims and a non-bullied group. The 144 participants, comprising of 72 victims and a matched contrast group of 72 respondents, completed Goldberg's (1999) International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). Significant differences emerged between victims and non-victims on four out of five personality dimensions. Victims tended to be more neurotic and less agreeable, conscientious and extravert than non-victims. However, a cluster analysis revealed that the victim sample can be divided into two personality groups. One cluster, which comprised 64% of the victim sample, do not differ from non-victims as far as personality is concerned. Hence, the results indicate that there is no such thing as a general victim personality profile. However, a small cluster of victims tended to be less extrovert, less agreeable, less conscientious, and less open to experience but more emotional unstable than victims in the major cluster and the control group. Further, both clusters of victims scored higher than non-victims on emotional instability, indicating that personality should not be neglected as being a factor in understanding the bullying phenomenon. PMID:17669221

  16. Blaming the victim: the effects of extraversion and information disclosure on guilt attributions in cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mathias; Ziegele, Marc; Schnauber, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying victims' success in coping with bullying largely depends on schoolmates and other bystanders' social support. However, factors influencing the degree of social support have as yet not been investigated. In this article, the concept of victim blaming is applied to cyberbullying incidents. It is assumed that a cyberbullying victim receives less social support when the victim's behavior is perceived as very overt. It is further assumed that this effect's underlying process is the partial attribution of responsibility for the incident to the victim and not to the bully. The hypotheses are tested with a 2×2 online experiment. In this experiment, varying online self-presentations of a fictitious female cyberbullying victim were presented to 586 Germans aged 16-22. The victim's public Facebook profile was manipulated in terms of the victim's extraversion and the amount of personal information disclosed. The results support the hypotheses. Participants attributed more responsibility for the bullying incident to the victim when the victim was presented as extraverted and very open in revealing personal information. This diminished social support for the victim. The effect was partially mediated by the victim's perceived attractiveness. The study implies that concepts from victimization research can enhance our understanding of cyberbullying incidents. Among other factors, the victim's specific personal characteristics deserve more consideration--not only with regard to the incident itself but also regarding subsequent social dynamics and coping mechanisms. PMID:23441684

  17. The dynamics of friendships and victimization in adolescence: a longitudinal social network perspective.

    PubMed

    Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Salmivalli, Christina; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects) and whether victimization of friends contributed to changes in victimization (influence effects). This was done for peer-reported relational and physical victimization separately in two middle schools (total N = 480; N = 220, 47% girls, in School 1; N = 260, 52% girls, in School 2) across three time points (Grades 6 through 8; M ages 11.5-13.5). Gender, ethnicity, and baseline aggression were controlled as individual predictors of victimization. Similarity in physical victimization predicted friendship formation, whereas physical victimization was not influenced by friends' victimization but rather by adolescents' own physical aggression. Peer influence effects existed for relational victimization, in that adolescents with victimized friends were more likely to increase in victimization over time as well, over and above the effect of adolescents' own relational aggression. These selection and influence effects were not further qualified by gender. The results suggested that both selection and influence processes as well as individual characteristics play a role in the co-evolution of friendships and victimization, but that these processes are specific for different types of victimization. PMID:23446945

  18. La santé des pasteurs mobiles au Sahel - Bilan de 15 années de recherches et développement.

    PubMed

    Montavon, A; Jean-Richard, V; Bechir, M; Daugla, D M; Abdoulaye, M; Bongo Naré, R N; Diguimbaye-Djaibé, C; Alfaroukh, I O; Schelling, E; Wyss, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2013-07-13

    Dans le Sahel, entre la Mauritanie et la Somalie incluant le Nord Kenya, environ 20 à 30 millions de personnes vivent en transhumance. Le rythme de leur migration suit l'évolution saisonnière du climat et la disponibilité des ressources, telle que l'eau, le pâturage et le sel. Malgré une exposition élevée à certaines maladies comme les zoonoses et les problèmes conditionnés liés au climat, les pasteurs mobiles sont parmi les populations quasiment exclues du système de santé, car la mise à disposition des services sociaux adaptés à un mode de vie mobile est difficile. Suivant l'objectif de recherche d'un meilleur accès aux soins des pasteurs mobiles, l'Institut Tropical et de Santé Publique Suisse, en partenariat avec plusieurs institutions dans la région, est actif au Sahel depuis 15 ans, aussi bien dans le domaine de la recherche, que celui des actions de développement. Basées sur une approche orientée vers les besoins des pasteurs mobiles pour leur développement, des recherches interdisciplinaires ont contribué à mieux comprendre la situation et les problèmes des éleveurs. En relation de la proximité entre l'homme et son bétail, une approche unissant la santé humaine et animale s'est avérée bonne et la valeur ajoutée d'une meilleure collaboration entre médecine humaine, animale et l'environnement a été démontrée. Ces approches utiles devraient être poursuivies et consolidées dans les recherches et le développement des actions futurs. PMID:23848258

  19. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  20. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. PMID:26446194

  1. Forgiveness as a moderator of the association between victimization and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Dali; Zhou, Lihua; Su, Linyan

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the relationships between victimization, suicidal ideation and forgiveness. 962 Chinese middle school students were evaluated using the Chinese versions of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ), the Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation scale (PANSI) and the Forgiveness Questionnaire (FQ). High victimization and low forgiveness were found to predict increased suicidal ideation. Victimized students with high level of forgiveness reported less suicidal ideation than students with low level of forgiveness. Forgiveness was found to moderate the association between victimization and suicidal ideation and could be a protective factor against suicidal ideation in victimized students. PMID:23502659

  2. Observing Social Exclusion Leads to Dehumanizing the Victim

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeong O.; Park, Sang H.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that observing social exclusion would influence observers’ judgments of the humanness of its victims and perpetrators. Specifically, we speculated that people would attribute victims and perpetrators to lower and higher mental capacities, respectively. Participants observed a simulated computer-based ball tossing game in which one of the players was either ostracized or not. They then rated the game players on traits associated with two dimensions of humanness, namely Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU). Overall, participants who witnessed an exclusion game judged the victim as less human on both domains compared to one of the perpetrators as well as to a player in the control condition. The perpetrator was attributed higher HN, but not significantly higher HU, compared to the control player. In addition, the less HN attributes a target was assigned, the more she was expected to be vulnerable to exploitation. On most of the other measures of target impression, however, the victim was rated more favorably than the perpetrator. The findings imply that social exclusion victims are often subtly derogated compared to the perpetrators, even while they are also more positively evaluated otherwise. PMID:26635705

  3. [Victimization by peers as a developmental risk factor].

    PubMed

    Klicpera, B G; Klicpera, C

    2001-05-01

    The phenomenon of victimization in the peer group has received considerable attention in recent years. This review examines the current state of research in this area. About 10% of all students are affected by peer victimization and are repeatedly verbally or physically attacked by one or more of their fellow students. The causes are to be sought in the social context as well as in individual deficits in social skills, but also in the social-cognitive attributional patterns of the children. The parent-child relationship is another important risk factor. The stability of victimization is relatively high. Its short-term consequences consist of a negative mood and low self-esteem. In the long-term children feel lonely, helpless and sad. Recent research underscores a connection between victimization and the development of depressive disorders. Protective factors are composure in conflict situations, and especially the availability of at least one good friend. Therapeutic interventions are to be considered at the individual level as well as at the level of the classroom unit. Training in certain areas of social competence would be helpful for the children, but consultation for their parents and teachers is important in order to interrupt certain group dynamic processes in the classroom. Future research should address the topic of peer victimization in clinical samples. PMID:11393055

  4. Social bonds and the role of school-based victimization.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A

    2012-11-01

    This study explores the impact of school-based victimization on the adolescent's social bond. Previous research has provided empirical support for Hirschi's social control theory that the strength of the adolescent's social bond is associated with the probability that he or she will engage in criminal offending. However, research identifying what factors influence the strength of the adolescent's social bond is limited. In addition, research has established that school-based victimization is associated with numerous negative outcomes, including diminished educational outcomes and criminal offending. Therefore, it is plausible that school-based victimization undermines the adolescent's social bonds to school. Using a sample of 10th-grade students from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, HLM models were developed to explore the relationship between school-based victimization and the adolescent's social bond to school. The results suggest that school-based victimization has a negative association with three elements of the adolescent's social bond to school: attachment, commitment, and belief. This study demonstrates the need for further research to identify the determinants of the strength of the adolescent's social bond to school. PMID:22610828

  5. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.

  6. Mothers' violence victimization and child behavior problems: examining the link.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the link between parents' experience of violence victimization and child outcomes, in 197 mother-child dyads recruited from low-income urban neighborhoods. At recruitment (when children were between 6 and 18 months old), demographic factors, child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, mothers' psychosocial functioning, and mothers' history of violence victimization were assessed. Child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, and mothers' psychosocial functioning were assessed again at age 4. Mothers' history of victimization as children (but not as adults) uniquely predicted child behavior problems at age 4. Three classes of possible mediators were examined: demographics, maternal psychosocial functioning, and mother-child interactions. Of these, only mother psychological aggression toward child met preliminary criteria for mediation; it partially mediated the link between mother childhood victimization and child behavioral outcomes. Maternal depressive symptoms and young age at child's birth independently predicted child behavior problems, but did not act as mediators. Mothers' early experiences with violence victimization appear to exert an important influence on child behavioral outcomes; this influence appears to be mediated, in part, by mothers' psychological aggression toward their children. PMID:17535128

  7. Targeting Lynch Victims: Social Marginality or Status Transgressions?*

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Amy Kate; Tolnay, Stewart E.; Beck, E.M.; Laird, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first evidence yielded by a newly-compiled database of known lynch victims. Using information from the original census enumerators’ manuscripts, we identify the individual- and household-level characteristics of more than 900 black males lynched in ten southern states between 1882 and 1930. First, we use the information gathered for successfully linked cases to present a profile of individual-level and household-level characteristics of a large sample of lynch victims. Second, we compare these characteristics to a randomly-generated sample of black men living in the counties where lynchings occurred. We use our findings from this comparative analysis to assess the empirical support for alternative theoretical perspectives on the selection of individuals as victims of southern mob violence. Third, we consider whether the individual-level risk factors for being targeted as a lynch victim varied substantially over time or across space. Our results demonstrate that victims were generally less embedded within the social and economic fabric of their communities than were other black men, suggesting that social marginality increased the likelihood of being targeted for lynching. These findings were generally consistent across decades, and within different socio-demographic contexts. PMID:25067845

  8. Prosocial behavior as a protective factor for children's peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Griese, Emily R; Buhs, Eric S

    2014-07-01

    A majority of peer victimization research focuses on its associations with negative outcomes, yet efforts to understand possible protective factors that may mitigate these negative outcomes also require attention. The present study was an investigation of the potential moderating effect of prosocial behaviors on loneliness for youth who are peer victimized. Participants were fourth and fifth grade students (511 total; 49 % boys) who were primarily European American (43.4 %) and Hispanic (48.2 %). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the interaction of prosocial behavior and peer victimization (relational and overt forms) on loneliness 1 year later. The results indicated that prosocial behavior significantly moderated the relationship between peer victimization (for the relational form only) and loneliness while controlling for levels of perceived peer support. A multi-group comparison by gender further indicated the moderation was significant for boys only. Potential implications for intervention/prevention efforts focused on developing children's prosocial skills as a possible protective factor for relationally victimized youth are discussed. PMID:24150542

  9. Observing Social Exclusion Leads to Dehumanizing the Victim.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeong O; Park, Sang H

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that observing social exclusion would influence observers' judgments of the humanness of its victims and perpetrators. Specifically, we speculated that people would attribute victims and perpetrators to lower and higher mental capacities, respectively. Participants observed a simulated computer-based ball tossing game in which one of the players was either ostracized or not. They then rated the game players on traits associated with two dimensions of humanness, namely Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU). Overall, participants who witnessed an exclusion game judged the victim as less human on both domains compared to one of the perpetrators as well as to a player in the control condition. The perpetrator was attributed higher HN, but not significantly higher HU, compared to the control player. In addition, the less HN attributes a target was assigned, the more she was expected to be vulnerable to exploitation. On most of the other measures of target impression, however, the victim was rated more favorably than the perpetrator. The findings imply that social exclusion victims are often subtly derogated compared to the perpetrators, even while they are also more positively evaluated otherwise. PMID:26635705

  10. Investigating the Victim Pseudomaturity Effect: How a Victim's Chronological Age and Dress Style Influences Attributions in a Depicted Case of Child Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered. PMID:26854588

  11. Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846

  12. The effects of victim of bullying reputation on adolescents' choice of friends: mediation by fear of becoming a victim of bullying, moderation by victim status, and implications for befriending interventions.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that victims of bullying fare less well on measures of peer affiliation than nonvictims, but less is known about the direction of effects and the mechanisms involved. Three linked studies addressed the latter two issues using an experimental paradigm with hypothetical vignettes (N=360). In Experiment 1, among both boys and girls and pupils in Years 7, 8, and 9 (n=120), participants were significantly less likely to (a) agree to act as a formal befriender to, (ii) believe that they would attempt to form a friendship with, and (iii) think that their peers would form friendships with a pupil new to their school if the description of the new pupil signaled that he or she had (vs. had not) been the victim of bullying in previous schools. Experiment 2 confirmed this "victim reputation" effect with a different sample (n=120) and found support for the hypothesis that it was mediated by the belief that associating with victims leads to an increased risk of becoming a victim (the "associating with victims is risky" effect). Experiment 3 (n=120) further replicated the original victim reputation effect and showed that the associating with victims is risky mediation effect was itself moderated by participants' current victim status; the effect was stronger among participants that were high (vs. low) in current victimization. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:22703707

  13. Lead Toxicity Risks in Gunshot Victims

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Mourão, Natália Teixeira; Pinheiro, Igor Natário; Xavier, Analúcia Rampazzo; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott

    2015-01-01

    Background Gunshot wounds require surgeons to decide whether to remove or leave bullet fragments in the body. Surgeons also decide how to follow up with patients who have lead fragments retained in their body. Current literature recommends to remove only intra-articular fragments without the need for a follow-up for patients with the metal retained. Therefore, this study investigates chronic lead toxicity for gunshot wounds. Methods The study was performed in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, between 2013 and 2015. It was a case-control study that included 45 victims of gunshot lesions with metallic fragments retained for more than 6 months. The 45 controls were matched for gender, age, and race. We compared the lead blood levels and frequency of symptoms. Results The control group had average blood lead levels of 2.17 μg/dL (95% Confidence Interval [CI]; 1.71–2.63) and median 2.1 μg/dL. The case group had average values of 9.01 μg/dL (CI; 6.07–11.96) and median values of 6.5 μg/dL with p-values < = 0.001. The case group reported the following more frequently: irritancy, bad mood, headache, memory losses, daylight drowsiness, myalgia, weakness, abdominal pain, joint pain, trembling, tingling limbs. There was statistical significance for the differences of symptoms frequencies and for odds ratio between groups. Conclusions Although the mean lead levels found were lower than the current laboratory references, low levels have been associated with both rising morbidity and mortality. The WHO stated: “There is no known level of lead exposure that is considered safe”. In conclusion, this work showed that bullets retained in the body are not innocuous. There are impacts in the blood lead levels and symptoms related to it, even with few fragments, extra-articular located or existing with low blood lead levels. PMID:26509498

  14. Measuring adolescents' exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C Y; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization, we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severity of victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, Internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was revictimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  15. Victims' Responses to Stalking: An Examination of Fear Levels and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Podaná, Zuzana; Imríšková, Romana

    2016-03-01

    Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition. PMID:25392391

  16. Effects of peer victimization on psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal design study consists of 7th and 8th graders (n = 670, 50% male) from an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse middle school. Victimization was measured using 10 items that assessed frequency of verbal, physical, and relational victimization experiences, and outcomes were assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.) and school records. There was support for gender differences in frequency of peer victimization experiences based on type of victimization. More specifically, boys reported higher levels of physical and verbal victimization, and girls reported higher levels of relational victimization. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between boys and girls on the relation between victimization and anxiety, attendance, and grades, with girls experiencing more maladjustment than boys in response to peer victimization. Finally, results demonstrated no gender differences in indirect effects of psychological adjustment on the relation between peer victimization and academic outcomes, whether victimization was physical, verbal, and relational. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social-emotional functioning as well as peer victimization in the schools for both boys and girls, as both affect students' academic functioning. PMID:24015982

  17. Emotional distress in disaster victims. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lima, B R; Pai, S; Toledo, V; Caris, L; Haro, J M; Lozano, J; Santacruz, H

    1993-06-01

    One hundred thirteen adult victims of a major Latin American disaster were screened for emotional distress 1 and 5 years after the catastrophe. We used the Self-Reporting Questionnaire to identify emotionally distressed victims. Results indicate that the prevalence of emotional distress decreased from 65% in 1986 to 31% in 1990. However, a comparison of the symptomatology on these two assessments indicates a similarity in the frequency and profiles of symptoms among the distressed. Also, the most frequent symptoms and the strongest predictors of emotional distress were essentially the same. These findings provide empirical support to the clinically observed course of emotional symptomatology of disaster victims and to the focused training of health workers on selected emotional problems that are consistently present over time. PMID:8501461

  18. Verbal victimization and changes in hopelessness among elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Andrea J; Gibb, Brandon E

    2011-01-01

    Hopelessness is a known risk factor for a number of negative outcomes including suicide attempts and deaths. However, little is known about how hopelessness may develop. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of verbal victimization on changes in children's levels of hopelessness. Participants were 448 fourth- and fifth-grade children who were assessed twice, 6 months apart. As hypothesized, reports of verbal victimization occurring during the follow-up period predicted residual change in children's levels of hopelessness. This relation was maintained even after statistically controlling for children's depressive symptoms. Together, these findings suggest that verbal victimization is associated with a greater risk for developing hopelessness in elementary school children, an effect that appears at least partially independent of concurrent depressive symptoms. PMID:21916695

  19. Identifying risk factors for victimization among male prisoners in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Huang, Yung-Shun

    2014-02-01

    This study identified risk factors for prison victimization in Taiwan with an application of Western literature and assessed the extent of its applicability in an Eastern context. The sample was drawn from four male prisons located in Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan; a total of 1,181 valid surveys were collected. The results generally support the major findings of the extant Western studies. Crowding, however, was not significantly associated with the risk of victimization in any of the statistical models, which might be related to the different experiences and living conditions in the free community between Taiwanese and American inmates. This study generated clear policy implications, which may reduce prison victimization and engender a greater sense of well-being in the prison environment. PMID:23174821

  20. Epidemiological profile of extremity fractures in victims of motorcycle accidents

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Flamarion dos Santos; Silveira, Leandro Oliveira; Castillo, Jesús José André Quintana; de Pontes, Jady Elen; Villalobos, Luz Delícia Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Show the epidemiological profile of limb fractures in victim of motorcycle accident seen at the Emergency Department of Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba (HUEC), Curitiba, PR, Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2013, as well as to compare the results with data from the literature. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, observational study. The information was obtained from the analysis of all the medical records from January 2007 to December 2013 belonging to the hospital archives. Only extremity fractures cases from motorcycle accident victims were analyzed, according to the medical records and radiological reports. The ICD-10 was used as classification criterion, and the fractures were grouped depending on the topography of the injury. The following variables were considered: number of victims, gender, age and fracture site, in order to create a database to contrast with the literature. Results: During seven years, 3,528 motorcycle accident victims have been identified, 88.29% being male, whereas 11.71% being female. The average age of the victims was 29.7 years old, observing a strong inverse correlation between the number of victims and their ages. There has been 4,365 fractures, being 59.66% in lower limbs and 40.34% in upper limbs. From that total, 18.14% were leg fractures, 11.57% were hand fractures and 10.65% were wrist fractures. Conclusion: This study has met its objectives and the results were similar to the national literature. Level of Evidence II, Retropective Study. PMID:26327795

  1. Revue systématique sur la contribution des femmes distributeurs communautaires dans la lutte contre l'onchocercose en Afrique sub-saharienne

    PubMed Central

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem; Evina, Christine Danielle; Nsangou, Moustapha; Bonono, Cécile-Renée; Yondo, David

    2014-01-01

    Le Programme Africain de lutte contre l'Onchocercose (APOC) fut lancé en 1995, comme complément au brillant programme de lutte contre l'onchocercose en Afrique de l'Ouest. En 2011, plus de 80 millions de personnes ont bénéficié de cette intervention grâce à la contribution de 268 718 Distributeurs Communautaires (DC). Ses résultats significatifs occultent le rôle des femmes DC dans cette lutte cette maladie. L'objectif de cette analyse est de déterminer la contribution des femmes DC dans le traitement de l'onchocercose sous directive communautaire en Afrique sub-saharienne, et d’évaluer leur acceptation dans ledit programme. Comme stratégie de recherche, nous avons identifié toutes les études pertinentes de Janvier 1995 à Décembre 2012. Des recherches ont été effectuées dans les bases de données suivantes: Medline, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), LILAS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences). Nous avons également consulté les sites d'APOC et de l'OMS AFRO. Deux auteurs ont indépendamment évalué la pertinence des articles potentiels à l'aide des critères d'inclusion et d'exclusion bien définis. Six (6) des 25 études ont rempli les critères d'inclusion. Une étude a montré que 81% des populations où il y avait des femmes DC ont reçu l'Ivermectine par rapport à 78% des villages où n'exerçaient pas de femmes DC. Une autre étude a montré qu'il y a eu une prise de conscience croissante dans les IDC en faveur de l'acceptation de la participation des femmes à la distribution communautaire de l'Ivermectine. De plus, 70% des membres de la communauté interrogés dans certaines zones endémiques, ont déclaré que les femmes étaient plus engagées, persuasives et plus patientes que les hommes dans la distribution de l'Ivermectine. Au terme de cette étude, les évaluations qui ont été effectuées donnent à penser que les femmes peuvent jouer

  2. Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole

    PubMed Central

    Golder, Seana; Hall, Martin T.; Logan, TK; Higgins, George; Dishon, Amanda; Renn, Tanya; Winham, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Victimized women within the criminal justice system are an important group and understanding their substance use is critical. Substance use was examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. Ninety-three percent reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, while 58% and 45% reported use of at least one illicit substance in the past two years and 12 months, respectively. Among probationers, having been in a controlled environment was associated with a higher prevalence of illicit substance use as compared to parolees. Implications for practice, policy and future research are discussed. PMID:24138096

  3. Bullying victimization among college students: Negative consequences for alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Burke, Larisa A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of bullying victimization at school and work among college freshmen, and the relationships between victimization and changes in alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Web survey data at two points in time from a sample of 2118 freshmen from eight colleges and universities in the Midwestern United States indicated that 43% of students experienced bullying at school, and 33% of students experienced bullying at work. Bullying, particularly at school, consistently predicted alcohol consumption and problematic drinking, controlling for baseline drinking and other school and work stressors. PMID:24325767

  4. Current research knowledge about adolescent victimization via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David

    2007-08-01

    We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted. PMID:18605649

  5. [Cyberbullying: adolescent victimization through mobile phone and internet].

    PubMed

    Buelga, Sofía; Cava, María Jesús; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of victimization through mobile phone and internet. The differences of gender and academic year in the type of electronic aggression were also examined. The sample comprised 2001 adolescents of both genders and ages between 11 and 17 years. Results indicated that 24.6% of the adolescents had been bullied by mobile phone during the last year, and 29% through internet. In most of the electronic aggressions, girls were more bullied than boys. It was also observed that students attending the first two years of secondary education tended to be more victimized. PMID:21044514

  6. [Victims of sexual assault: a routine protocol for better management].

    PubMed

    Linet, T; Nizard, J

    2004-04-01

    Caring for victims of sexual assault is a difficult situation where the physician has to simultaneously evaluate the psychological impact and conduct a complete and precise physical examination. To make sure every step of the examination is completed and all samplings are done in the correct order by all physicians, it is useful to have a written routine protocol. We describe step-by-step management procedures for victims of sexual assault, taking into consideration the psychological aspect, the physical examination, the different samplings, and the different emergency treatments. Free download of the entire protocol, with the booklet containing examples of prescriptions, is available at http://www.agof.net/constatviol/. PMID:15052175

  7. The Sexual Victimization of Older Women Living in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Teaster, Pamela B; Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly; Abner, Erin L; Kim, Sujee

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 64 cases of sexual victimization of women ages 65+ (mean = 81) living in facilities that were investigated by APS and regulatory agencies in five states over a six-month period. Typically, abuse involved molestation (53%) and unwelcome sexual interest in the body (20%). Abilities and needs of women in substantiated and unsubstantiated cases were comparable. Resident perpetrators were more likely to be substantiated than staff or any other perpetrator (p = 0.008). Our results underscore the need to evaluate differences associated with gender, age, and residence, and to train on reporting and intervention by disciplines serving victims. PMID:26331674

  8. Relational caring: the use of the victim impact statement by sexually assaulted women.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen-Lee

    2014-01-01

    The victim impact statement (VIS) is a written account of harms experienced as a result of crime. This study investigates VIS use by sexually assaulted women through interviews with Canadian victims, victim services workers, and feminist advocates (N = 35). Findings suggest that victims use the VIS to express relational caring. Relational caring is an ethic of care that prioritizes others through privileging the harms experienced by others because of witnessing the sexual assault or coping with the victim's postassault sequelae, protecting future or hypothetical victims, and promoting the interests of intimate partner offenders. Relational caring challenges traditional conceptions of victim agency and VIS use for instrumental purposes, as well as the targets and temporalities of sexual assault harms that are detailed in the statement. Relational caring has unique implications for victims who are mothers, especially those abused as minors, and for intimate partners. Legal, therapeutic, and social service consequences are discussed. PMID:25905129

  9. Identification of early child and family risk factors for aggressive victim status in first grade.

    PubMed

    Burk, Linnea R; Park, Jong-hyo; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Goldsmith, H Hill; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Essex, Marilyn J

    2008-05-01

    This prospective investigation sought to discriminate children who were both aggressive towards and victimized by peers in the first grade, from those who were only aggressive, only victimized, or neither (i.e., socially adjusted), using early child and family risk factors. Two hundred thirty-eight children, their mothers, and teachers participated in a longitudinal study since birth. All three aggressor/victim subgroups showed greater temperamental dysregulation than the socially adjusted children, but only aggressive victims had significantly poorer social perception skills. Aggressive victims were distinguished from aggressors by greater exposure to maternal depression and from victims by lower levels of early inhibition, but they shared the experiences of negative family emotional expressiveness with aggressors and greater mother-child negativity with victims. The identification of early risk factors is crucial to prevention and early intervention efforts that have the potential to attenuate the long term emotional, social, and academic problems associated with aggressive victim status. PMID:18092191

  10. Mock Juror Perceptions of Rape Victims: Impact of Case Characteristics and Individual Differences.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Shannon; Reynolds, Joshua J; Kehn, Andre

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine mock juror perceptions of rape victims based on the sex of the offender and victim (male offender/female victim vs. female offender/male victim), relationship to the offender (stranger vs. acquaintance vs. intimate partner), revictimization (no revictimization vs. revictimization), and individual differences in rape myth acceptance (RMA) and life history strategy (LHS). Participants (N = 332) read a vignette describing a forcible rape scenario and completed victim and perpetrator blame scales, the Mini-K, and a gender-neutral Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. Results indicated increased victim blame in revictimization conditions, as well as female offender/male victim conditions. A significant mediation effect of LHS on victim blame through the indirect effect of RMA was found, which is predicted from life history theory. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25900913

  11. The effect of victims' responses to overt bullying on same-sex peer bystander reactions.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Nicole; Bussey, Kay; Rapee, Ronald M

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of victims' responses to overt bullying on peer bystanders' attitudes and reactions. Fifth- and seventh-grade students (N = 206; M(age) = 11.13 and 13.18 years, respectively) completed online questionnaires about gender-consistent videotaped hypothetical bullying scenarios in which the victims' responses (angry, sad, confident, ignoring) were experimentally manipulated. Victims' responses significantly influenced bystanders' attitudes towards the victim, perceptions of the victimization, emotional reactions, and behavioral intentions. In general, angry victims elicited more negative reactions, sad victims elicited greater intentions to act, while incidents involving confident victims were perceived as less serious. Several variations depending on the bullying type and students' grade, gender, and personal experiences with bullying were evident. Implications for individual-level and peer-level anti-bullying interventions are discussed. PMID:26407835

  12. Prevalence of sexual assault victimization among heterosexual and gay/lesbian university students.

    PubMed

    Duncan, D F

    1990-02-01

    The prevalence of being a victim of forced sex was examined in a sample of 412 university students. Sexual victimization was significantly more common among female than male and among gay and lesbian than heterosexual students. PMID:2326430

  13. 28 CFR 45.10 - Procedures to promote compliance with crime victims' rights obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appointed as suitable by the court, may assume the crime victim's rights, but in no event shall the... days of the victim's knowledge of a violation, but not more than one year after the actual...

  14. Victim empathy intervention with sexual offenders: rehabilitation, punishment, or correctional quackery?

    PubMed

    Mann, Ruth E; Barnett, Georgia D

    2013-06-01

    A sexual offender is thought to have victim empathy when he has a cognitive and emotional understanding of the experience of the victim of his sexual offense. Most sex offender treatment programs devote significant time to developing victim empathy. The authors examine three meta-analytic studies and some individual studies that suggest victim empathy work is unnecessary, or even harmful. Service user studies, however, report positive reactions to victim empathy work. The authors conclude that the enthusiasm for victim empathy work as a rehabilitative endeavor is disproportionate given the weak evidence base and the lack of a coherent theoretical model of change. However, because the research is inconclusive, it is not possible to conclude that victim empathy work is "correctional quackery." We suggest a research program to clarify whether or not victim empathy intervention for sexual offenders has value. PMID:22915205

  15. 75 FR 22401 - Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... AGENCY Petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental... petition from Pesticide Poisoning Victims United, a division of the Pitchfork Rebellion. The petitioners... the Agency Taking? EPA is announcing availability of a petition from Pesticide Poisoning...

  16. A Spatial Analysis of Heterogeneity in the Link Between Alcohol Outlets and Assault Victimization: Differences Across Victim Subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Goldstick, Jason E; Brenner, Allison B; Lipton, Robert I; Mistry, Ritesh; Aiyer, Sophie M; Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    The positive association between alcohol outlet density and assault rates is well established, but little is known about how this association differs across victim subpopulations. We use spatial point process models on police data from Flint, Michigan, to test how the link between alcohol outlet density and assault rates changes as a function of three victim characteristics: age, gender, and race. We found that, although both on-premises and package outlet densities consistently emerge as risk factors for victimization, their relative effects are markedly larger in Whites than in African Americans. No analogous age- or gender-based differences were found. These results suggest the racial effects arise more from relative differences in the atmosphere in and around alcohol outlets than differences in drinking behavior alone. PMID:26159914

  17. Of virtual victims and victimized virtues: differential effects of experienced aggression in video games on social cooperation.

    PubMed

    Rothmund, Tobias; Gollwitzer, Mario; Klimmt, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Two experimental studies were used to investigate how interacting with aggressive virtual characters in video games affects trust and cooperation of players. Study 1 demonstrates that experiencing virtual aggression from a victim's perspective can impair players' investments in a subsequent common goods dilemma situation. This effect is mediated by reduced expectations of trust in the cooperativeness of interaction partners. In Study 2 the same effect was replicated by using a different cooperation task and by investigating the moderating role of justice sensitivity from a victim's perspective as a dispositional factor. Participants transferred less money to an unknown partner in a trust game after exposure to aggressive nonplayer characters in a video game. This effect was stronger for people high in victim sensitivity. Results of both studies can be interpreted in line with the sensitivity to mean intentions model and add to the body of research on violent media effects. PMID:21177877

  18. A Spatial Analysis of Heterogeneity in the Link Between Alcohol Outlets and Assault Victimization: Differences Across Victim Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Goldstick, Jason E.; Brenner, Allison B.; Lipton, Robert I.; Mistry, Ritesh; Aiyer, Sophie M.; Reischl, Thomas M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    The positive association between alcohol outlet density and assault rates is well established, but little is known about how this association differs across victim subpopulations. We use spatial point process models on police data from Flint, Michigan, to test how the link between alcohol outlet density and assault rates changes as a function of three victim characteristics: age, gender, and race. We found that, although both on-premises and package outlet densities consistently emerge as risk factors for victimization, their relative effects are markedly larger in Whites than in African Americans. No analogous age- or gender-based differences were found. These results suggest the racial effects arise more from relative differences in the atmosphere in and around alcohol outlets than differences in drinking behavior alone. PMID:26159914

  19. Psychopathological characteristics of child pornographers and their victims: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Prat, Sebastien; Jonas, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Child pornography is a form of child sexual exploitation which has been modified by the use of the Internet. The use of child pornography does not necessarily lead to actual child abuse. Victims of child pornography can be classified as direct victims, who have been sexually abused, and indirect victims, who receive images to groom them for actual abuse in the future. Based on a review of the literature, we present the psychopathological characteristics of child pornographers and their victims. PMID:22962006

  20. Lifetime Prevalence and Characteristics of Child Sexual Victimization in a Community Sample of Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual victimization and associations between sexual victimization and sociodemographic characteristics and victimological profiles in community adolescents in Spain. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) was applied to a sample of 1,105 community adolescents (M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.76). Experience of sexual victimization (with or without physical contact) was reported by 8.8% of the sample, at a mean age of 13 years old. Sexual victimization was more prevalent in girls (14.2%) and in older adolescents (10.6%). Offenders were mainly male (87.6%) and were mostly friends, neighbors, or schoolmates (52.6%). No injuries resulted from victimization (4.3%), although the percentage of penetration or attempted penetration was very high (30.6%). Only 9.3% of victims reported the incident to the police or the justice system. In regard to victimological profiles, sexual victims also experienced other forms of victimization (M = 7.16; SD = 3.39): boys reported more conventional crimes, peer and sibling victimization, and witnessing community violence than other victims, whereas sexually victimized girls reported more caregiver victimization and property crimes. Sexually victimized youth present a distinctive sociodemographic and victimological profile. Professionals need to be aware of these characteristics in order to conduct adequate prevention programs. We also need to assess a wide range of victimization experiences when treating sexual abuse victims in order to make adolescents less vulnerable to violence. PMID:26849005

  1. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    SciTech Connect

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord or

  2. Older People in Disaster: A Comparison of Black and White Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Robert; Klenow, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    Examined differential vulnerability to environmental stressors among White and Black elderly and nonelderly disaster victims by interviewing 431 families who were victims of a tornado. Presents path model of determinants of psychosocial recovery and makes observations regarding intervention strategies for older disaster victims. (Author/nB)

  3. A longitudinal analysis of drinking and victimization in college women: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Taggart, Caroline; Bradizza, Clara M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between drinking and severe physical and sexual victimization in a sample of 989 college women over five years. Participants completed a web-based survey each fall semester, beginning as first time incoming freshman, and continuing each year for five years. The survey was comprehensive in assessing drinking, victimization, and relevant covariates. Women were followed whether they remained at university or not. Prior year same type of severe victimization predicted current year victimization, both severe physical and sexual. However, prior year drinking did not predict current year severe victimization. Prior year severe sexual victimization predicted current year drinking. Our findings of a longitudinal relationship between severe sexual victimization and subsequent increases in drinking suggests that college women may be drinking to cope with negative sequelae that they experience as a result of the victimization. We did not find the same longitudinal relationship between drinking and severe physical or sexual victimization, suggesting that a reciprocal relationship does not exist between drinking and victimization among college women. We did find that severe sexual victimization decreased across college, suggesting that the year prior to and the first year of college may be a critical period for intervening to reduce risk for severe victimization. PMID:25134028

  4. Impact of Physical and Relational Peer Victimization on Depressive Cognitions in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Keneisha R.; Cole, David A.; Dukewich, Tammy; Felton, Julia; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Maxwell, Melissa A.; Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Jacky, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find longitudinal evidence of the effect of targeted peer victimization (TPV) on depressive cognitions as a function of victimization type and gender. Prospective relations of physical and relational peer victimization to positive and negative self-cognitions were examined in a 1-year, 2-wave longitudinal study.…

  5. Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Patterns of Aggression and Peer Victimization during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettencourt, Amie F.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2013-01-01

    Peer victimization is a common problem among adolescents that has been linked to a variety of adjustment problems. Youth involved in peer victimization represent a heterogeneous group who may differ not only in their levels of victimization and perpetration, but also in the factors that influence their behavior. The current study used latent class…

  6. 12 CFR 1075.106 - Allocating funds to classes of victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the most recently concluded six-month period, of all victims in that class to whom it is practicable... classes of victims as follows: (1) Priority to classes of victims from the most recent six-month period... concluded six-month period, as determined under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. If funds remain...

  7. Teachers' Experiences with Multiple Victimization: Identifying Demographic, Cognitive, and Contextual Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Andrew; McMahon, Susan D.; Espelage, Dorothy; Anderman, Eric M.; Reddy, Linda A.; Sanchez, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Extant scholarship has primarily examined demographic predictors of teacher victimization. Teacher multiple victimization, or the extent to which teachers experience multiple types of violence, has not been examined. Using social-ecological theory, we examine correlates of violence among 2,324 teachers who reported having been victimized at least…

  8. The Power of Friendship: Protection against an Escalating Cycle of Peer Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.

    1999-01-01

    Examined role of friendship aspects in moderating behavioral antecedents and outcomes of peer victimization among fourth and fifth graders. Teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors predicted increases in peer-reported victimization; relation of internalizing behaviors to increases in victimization was attenuated for children with…

  9. Peer Victimization, Aggression, and Their Co-Occurrence in Middle School: Pathways to Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Bellmore, Amy D.; Mize, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of 6th-grade students completed peer nomination procedures that were used to create subgroups of students with reputations as victims, aggressors, aggressive victims, and socially adjusted (neither aggressive nor victimized). Self-report data on psychological adjustment, attributions for peer harassment, and perceived…

  10. Social-Cognitive and Behavioral Attributes of Aggressive Victims of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toblin, R.L.; Schwartz, D.; Hopmeyer Gorman, A.; Abou-ezzeddine, T.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the social-cognitive and behavioral attributes of children who are concurrently aggressive and victimized by their peers. The characteristics of these ''aggressive victims'' were examined in comparison to bullies, passive victims, and normative comparison children. The sample included 240 urban Los Angeles elementary school…

  11. Bullying and Victimization Rates among Gifted and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Megan Parker; Bain, Sherry K.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying and victimization rates among 90 gifted and nongifted, high-achieving (HA) high school students were assessed by using the Reynolds Bully Victimization Scale (BVS; W. M. Reynolds, 2003). The mean scores indicate that gifted and HA high school students bully others and are victimized by others generally at unelevated rates based on BVS…

  12. Attitudes Toward Victims of Rape: Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…

  13. Beyond Rape Myths: A More Complex View of Perceptions of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddie, Amy M.; Miller, Arthur G.

    2001-01-01

    Examined personal beliefs and perceptions of cultural stereotypes surrounding rape victims. Primarily white college students listed their beliefs and perceptions and rated a specific rape victim accordingly. Students' personal beliefs tended to focus more on perceptions of victim reactions to the rape rather than rape myths. However, their…

  14. Cultural Barriers to Help-Seeking among Taiwanese Female Victims of Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative analysis regarding the help-seeking behaviors of female dating-violence victims from a cultural perspective. A semistructured, in-depth interview was used to collect data from 10 female victims (aged 20-28). Findings indicate that Taiwanese dating-violence victims tend to seek informal help rather than formal…

  15. Gender Differences and Social Support: Mediators or Moderators between Peer Victimization and Depressive Feelings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouwelse, Mieneke; Bolman, Catherine; Lodewijkx, Hein; Spaa, Marguerite

    2011-01-01

    Using self-report questionnaires, a survey among 606 Dutch primary school children aged 10 to 12 years examined relationships among social support, gender, victimization, and depressive feelings. Hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that victims and bully/victims would report more depressive feelings than uninvolved children. There was no…

  16. Joint Development of Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence: Relations to Delinquency and Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Arseneault, Louise; Brendgen, Mara; Fontaine, Nathalie; Maughan, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The study measures the development of bullying and victimization in early to mid-adolescence, the relations between the developmental trajectories, and their associations with delinquency and self-harm. Evidence suggests youths victimized by peers are at increased risk of victimizing others.

  17. Victims' Voices in the Correctional Setting: Cognitive Gains in an Offender Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Lynn Hunt; Monahan, James J.; Gaboury, Mario T.; Niesyn, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    A 40-hour education program covering the impact of crime on victims and their families was offered to sentenced offenders in a statewide prison system. Questionnaire responses from 339 males, ranging in age from 21-45 years, were examined. Results indicated that the program increased knowledge of victim rights, facts of victimization, and…

  18. The Effects of Victim-Related Contextual Factors on the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous reforms designed to integrate the needs and concerns of crime victims into the criminal justice system, which include expanding programs for compensation and restitution, providing counseling and other services to victims, and increasing victims' involvement in the criminal justice process, critics have argued that these reforms…

  19. The Context of Ethnicity: Peer Victimization and Adjustment Problems in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Hosan, Naheed E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study bridges research on peer relational and physical victimization with research on ethnic victimization and situates this research in the context of ethnic diversity. Specifically, the authors investigate how ethnic, relational, and physical victimization relate to concurrent levels of depression/anxiety and physical aggression and…

  20. 78 FR 41972 - Determination Under Section 107(a) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Determination Under Section 107(a) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act... Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-457) and Delegation of Waiver Authority Pursuant to... Section 110(b)(3)(D) of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended (Pub. L. 106-386),...

  1. 5-HTTLPR Moderates the Effect of Relational Peer Victimization on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Thompson, Renee J.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Relational peer victimization is associated with internalizing symptoms. Compared to boys, girls are more likely to be both relationally victimized by peers and distressed by the victimization. While previous studies have reported that a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR)…

  2. Let's Talk about It: Peer Victimization Experiences as Reported by Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marisa H.; Taylor, Julie Lounds

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder experience high rates of peer victimization; yet, their personal experiences and perceptions of such victimization are not well understood. In this qualitative investigation, responses to questions about bullying and teasing were examined to gain insight into the perception of peer victimization as…

  3. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in Special Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Chad A.; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and victimization have become pervasive problems in American schools. Recent research suggests a causal association between prolonged periods of victimization and overt acts of school violence. These findings are germane to students with disabilities in light of evidence suggesting these students are victimized more often…

  4. Factors Influencing Sexual Victimization and Revictimization in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes an existing longitudinal survey of adolescent mothers (N=315). Data from Time 1 were used to predict victimization reported in the year between Time 1 and Time 2. Explores factors that increased the likelihood of reported sexual victimization at Time 2 and factors that reduce the risk of victimization. Investigates risk factors for…

  5. Bullying victimization among underweight and overweight U.S. youth: differential associations for boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J; Luk, Jeremy W

    2010-07-01

    To examine the associations between body weight and physical, verbal, relational, and cyber victimization among U.S. boys and girls in grade 6 through 10. Underweight boys and girls were more likely to be physical and relational victims, respectively. Overweight boys and obese girls were more likely to be verbal victims. PMID:20547298

  6. Overlooked Victims: Working with Non-Offending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Deborah Dillon

    2006-01-01

    The national statistics for child sexual abuse are staggering. In 2004, there were 209,880 victims of rape, attempted rape or sexual assaults according to the National Crime Victimization Survey. While effective treatment alternatives for victims are being provided, non-offending caregivers can be easily overlooked. Mason and Erooga (1990) have…

  7. Violent Victimization in the Community and Children's Subsequent Peer Rejection: The Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Brynn M.; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a short-term longitudinal study of the relation between violent victimization in the community and peer rejection among 199 children (mean age = 9.02 years) attending two urban Los Angeles area elementary schools. We used a multi-informant approach to assess victimization by community violence, peer group victimization, peer…

  8. Victims of Bullying: Whom They Seek Help from and Why--An Australian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Mitchell J.; Carey, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    It is critically important to understand why victims of bullying decide to seek help when they do, particularly from adults, because this reduces the probability of being victimized in the future. This study sought to understand more clearly the patterns of help-seeking by students who reported being victims of bullying. Participants were students…

  9. Victims of Domestic Violence and Front-Line Workers: A Helping Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott W.; Trepal, Heather C.; de Vries, Sabina M.; Day, Sally W.; Leeth, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Victims of domestic violence present a challenge to law enforcement and emergency room personnel. The authors propose a helping approach to assist these professionals. This paradigm is composed of: active and empathetic listening, acceptance without judgment, identifying victims' strengths, honoring victims as experts, and the process of leaving…

  10. The Relationship between Staff Maltreatment of Students and Bully-Victim Group Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The current study presents the prevalence of students' reports of physical and emotional maltreatment by school staff and examines the differences between these reports according to the students' category of involvement in school bullying (only bullies, only victims, bully-victims, and neither bullies nor victims). Method: This study…

  11. The Significance of Reciprocal and Unilateral Friendships for Peer Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan; ten Brink, Giovanni; Rommes, Els; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Goossens, Luc; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent the number of friends and their social and personal characteristics were related to peer victimization in adolescence. Participants were 2,180 adolescents (1,143 girls), aged 11-18 (M = 14.2), who were classified as victims, bully-victims, or non-involved (i.e., adolescents who neither bullied others nor…

  12. Explaining Victim Self-Protective Behavior Effects on Crime Incident Outcomes: A Test of Opportunity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerette, Rob T.; Santana, Shannon A.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research on victim self-protective behavior (VSPB) has largely been void of a theoretical basis. Accordingly, it remains unclear why it would be expected that victim actions might mitigate crime incident outcomes or under which circumstances such actions might be most successful. Using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey for…

  13. Assessing the Anomalous Research on Hispanic Victimization: A Methodological Critique of a Victimological Enigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview and critique of the research on Hispanic victimization. Analyses of data gathered prior to the mid- to late 1990s consistently show Hispanics were victimized at disproportionately high rates, but numerous recent studies indicate Hispanics were not victimized at disproportionately high rates. Given that research…

  14. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence: The Impact of Screener and Screening Environment on Victim Comfort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackeray, Jonathan; Stelzner, Sarah; Downs, Stephen M.; Miller, Carleen

    2007-01-01

    The barriers that professionals face when screening victims for intimate partner violence (IPV) are well studied. The specific barriers that victims face however when being screened are not. The authors sought to identify characteristics of the screener and screening environment that make a victim feel more or less comfortable when disclosing a…

  15. Health and Occupational Consequences of Spouse Abuse Victimization among Male U.S. Army Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nicole S.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about health and occupational outcomes of male spouse abuse victims. In all, 11,294 male spouse abuse victims with a history of spouse abuse perpetration, 3,277 victims without prior spouse abuse perpetration, and 72,855 nonvictims and nonperpetrators were followed for 12 years to assess army attrition and hospitalization risk. In…

  16. 22 CFR 102.13 - Protective services with respect to deceased victims of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... victims of accidents. 102.13 Section 102.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER... to deceased victims of accidents. (a) Interim disposition of remains. Generally, local authorities will assume custody of the remains of deceased victims of the accident and consign them to a...

  17. 76 FR 79219 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Crime Victim...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...: Crime Victim Compensation State Certification Form Request ACTION: 60-Day notice of information... Victims of Crime (OVC) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of...-3612, Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 810...

  18. 76 FR 39150 - Determination Under Section 107(a) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Determination Under Section 107(a) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act... Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-457) and Delegation of Waiver Authority Pursuant to... Section 110(b)(3)(D) of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended (Pub. L. 106-386),...

  19. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, Subtitle D of the National Defense... 21, 2010 Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act... 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, subtitle D) to make the...

  20. 12 CFR 1075.109 - When payments to victims are impracticable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When payments to victims are impracticable... CIVIL PENALTY FUND RULE § 1075.109 When payments to victims are impracticable. (a) Individual payments. Making a payment to an individual victim will be deemed impracticable if: (1) The payment to the...