Science.gov

Sample records for des protocoles experimentaux

  1. Contributions a l'etude des lidars a champs visuels multiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Gilles

    On presente un modele, base sur la diffraction et l'optique geometrique, liant les signaux lidar a champs multiples a la densite de distribution de la taille des particules. On ecrit la relation sous forme matricielle ce qui permet d'obtenir la densite de distribution apparente de la taille des particules par inversion matricielle avec contrainte. On interprete la perturbation causee par la contribution de l'optique geometrique au signal lidar comme de la diffraction causee par une particule de diametre d'environ un micron. La densite de distribution apparente est corrigee a posteriori en calculant la contribution relative des differents ordres de diffusion a l'elargissement de la fonction de phase des particules. La validite du modele est supportee par des simulations Monte Carlo et par des resultats experimentaux obtenus sous des conditions controlees. Finalement, on applique avec succes, la technique d'inversion aux mesures lidar multichamps obtenues sur des nuages.

  2. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  3. Caracterisation du coefficient de retrodiffusion radar des surfaces d'hydrocarbure: Modelisation et interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Francois

    La surveillance maritime est un domaine d'applications ou l'interet politique et scientifique croit constamment au Canada. Un des outils privilegies pour la surveillance maritime est l'acquisition de donnees radars, par des systemes aeroportes ou spatio-portes (ERS-2, RADARSAT et Envisat). Par leur grande couverture spatiale, ainsi que leur sensibilite a la geometrie de surface, les donnees radars permettent, en autres, la detection de cibles ponctuelles (bateaux), estimation des vents, detection des glaces de mer, ainsi que la detection de deversement d'hydrocarbure. Les limites et les avantages de la detection d'hydrocarbure par acquisitions de donnees radars sont bien connus, mais il reste encore des lacunes au niveau de l'extraction des parametres physiques d'une surface d'hydrocarbure. Ce projet a pour objectif de caracteriser le coefficient de retrodiffusion radar associe a une surface d'hydrocarbure en milieu oceanique, par l'introduction d'un modele thermodynamique d'attenuation de la surface, au modele theorique radar IEM. Le modele global permet de simuler le comportement de sigma° en fonction des proprietes visco-elastiques, ainsi que de l'epaisseur de la couche d'hydrocarbure et en fonction des parametres d'acquisition radar. Le modele developpe fut valide a partir des donnees SIR-C acquises lors d'experimentations controlees. A partir des informations environnementales et du type d'hydrocarbure, notre modele a permis d'estime le contraste d'intensite avec une precision de 1 a 1,5 dB, a la bande C. Alors qu'a la bande L, l'erreur sur le contraste est d'environ 1,5 a 2 dB sur l'ensemble des mesures. Ce qui est excellant considerant l'heterogeneite des surfaces analysees. Egalement, nous effectuons des analyses multi-polarisees et polarimetriques avec les donnees SIR-C acquises au-dessus de sites experimentaux. II en ressort que le ratio de polarisation VV/HH, ainsi que le facteur d'anisotropie sont des pistes de recherche prometteuses qu'il faudra

  4. Etude experimentale des excitations topologiques de l'effet Hall quantique a nu = 1 dans les heterostructures semiconductrices a double puits quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlebois, Serge

    De nombreux travaux theoriques et experimentaux ont ete publies sur les excitations topologiques de gaz electroniques bidimensionnels (GE2D), appellees skyrmions, dans le regime de l'effet Hall quantique a remplissage unitaire. On attend des excitations semblables appellees bimerons dans les systemes formes de deux GE2D couples. Contrairement au cas des GE2D simples, aucune experience n'a, a notre connaissance, presente la mesure d'une propriete specifique aux bimerons. Nous presentons dans cette these des travaux experimentaux ayant pour objectif l'etude d'excitations topologiques dans les heterostructures a double puits quantique. Une manifestation attendue (les bimerons est la presence d'une anisotropie dans la conductivite a travers une constriction. Nous avons concu un dispositif original a point de contact a trois grilles non-coplanaires. Ce dispositif a trois grilles a la particularite de permettre la creation d'une constriction etroite dans le double GE2D tout en permettant l'equilibrage de la densite electronique entre les deux puits dans l'etroit canal de conduction. Nous avons fabrique ce dispositif de taille submicronique par electrolithographie sur des heterostructures a double puits. Les dispositifs ainsi fabriques ont ete etudies a basse temperature (0.3K) et ont montre un fonctionnement conforme aux attentes. Les travaux n'ont pas permis de mettre en evidence une anisotropie de transport revelatrice de l'existence de bimerons. Cette these est a notre connaissance la premiere etude experimentale visant la realisation de l'experience d'anisotropie de transport et est ainsi une contribution significative a l'avancement des connaissances dans ce domaine. Les travaux theoriques que nous presentons ont permis de montrer l'effet des excitations topologiques sur la capacite grille-GE2D du systeme. Ces travaux ouvrent la voie de la detection des bimerons par l'intermediaire de la mesure de la capacite grille-GE2D ou encore de la susceptibilite electrique du

  5. Etude et simulation du protocole TTEthernet sur un sous-systeme de gestion de vols et adaptation de la planification des tâches a des fins de simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidi, Dhafer

    TTEthernet is a deterministic network technology that makes enhancements to Layer 2 Quality-of-Service (QoS) for Ethernet. The components that implement its services enrich the Ethernet functionality with distributed fault-tolerant synchronization, robust temporal partitioning bandwidth and synchronous communication with fixed latency and low jitter. TTEthernet services can facilitate the design of scalable, robust, less complex distributed systems and architectures tolerant to faults. Simulation is nowadays an essential step in critical systems design process and represents a valuable support for validation and performance evaluation. CoRE4INET is a project bringing together all TTEthernet simulation models currently available. It is based on the extension of models of OMNeT ++ INET framework. Our objective is to study and simulate the TTEthernet protocol on a flight management subsystem (FMS). The idea is to use CoRE4INET to design the simulation model of the target system. The problem is that CoRE4INET does not offer a task scheduling tool for TTEthernet network. To overcome this problem we propose an adaptation for simulation purposes of a task scheduling approach based on formal specification of network constraints. The use of Yices solver allowed the translation of the formal specification into an executable program to generate the desired transmission plan. A case study allowed us at the end to assess the impact of the arrangement of Time-Triggered frames offsets on the performance of each type of the system traffic.

  6. Analyse de L'ancrage des Vortex Intergrains pour le Yttrium BARYUM(2) CUIVRE(3) OXYGENE(7) Polycristallin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Patrick

    Le Modele de l'Etat Critique Generalise (MECG) est utilise pour decrire les proprietes magnetiques et de transport du YBa_2Cu_3O _7 polycristallin. Ce modele empirique permet de relier la densite de courant critique a la densite de lignes de flux penetrant dans la region intergrain. Deux techniques de mesures sont utilisees pour caracteriser nos materiaux. La premiere consiste a mesurer le champ au centre d'un cylindre creux en fonction du champ magnetique applique pour des temperatures comprises entre 20 et 85K. En variant l'epaisseur de la paroi du cylindre creux, il est possible de suivre l'evolution des cycles d'hysteresis et de determiner des champs caracteristiques qui varient en fonction de cette dimension. En utilisant un lissage des resultats experimentaux, nous determinons J _{co}, H_ {o} et n, les parametres du MECG. La forme des cylindres, avec une longueur comparable au diametre externe, entrai ne la presence d'un champ demagnetisant qui peut etre inclus dans le modele theorique. Ceci nous permet d'evaluer la fraction du volume ecrante, f _{g}, ainsi que le facteur demagnetisant N. Nous trouvons que J_{ co}, H_{o} et f_{g} dependent de la temperature, tandis que n et N (pour une epaisseur de paroi fixe) n'en dependent pas. La deuxieme technique consiste a mesurer le courant critique de lames minces en fonction du champ applique pour differentes temperatures. Nous utilisons un montage que nous avons developpe permettant d'effectuer ces mesures en contact direct avec le liquide refrigerant, i.e. dans l'azote liquide. Nous varions la temperature du liquide en variant la pression du gaz au-dessus du bain d'azote. Cette methode nous permet de balayer des temperatures entre 65K et la temperature critique du materiau ({~ }92K). Nous effectuons le lissage des courbes de courant critique en fonction du champ applique encore a l'aide du MECG, pour a nouveau obtenir ses parametres. Pour trois echantillons avec des traitements thermiques differents, les parametres

  7. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  8. Etude de l'influence de la temperature et de l'humidite sur les proprietes mecaniques en traction des fibres de chanvre et de coco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho Thi, Thu Nga

    L'objectif de cette etude fut d'etablir l'effet de l'humidite et de la temperature sur la resistance en traction et le module elastique des fibres de chanvre et de coco. Deux etudes ont ete realisees afin d'atteindre cet objectif. La premiere vise l'absorption de l'humidite dans ces fibres en exposition dans l'air (de 0%RH a 80%RH) ainsi que l'absorption de l'eau dans ces fibres immergees dans l'eau aux differentes temperatures. La deuxieme consiste a mesurer la resistance en traction et le module elastique de ces fibres sous differentes conditions d'humidite et de temperature. En basant sur les resultats experimentaux obtenus, les methodes semi empiriques et de reseaux de neurones ont ete utilisees pour but de predire les proprietes en traction (resistance et module d'elasticite) des fibres de chanvre et de coco sous l'influence de l'humidite et de la temperature.

  9. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T → 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  10. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  11. Rational Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachin, Christian

    Security research continues to provide a plethora of new protocols and mechanisms; these solutions patch either existing vulnerabilities found in practical systems or solve hypothetical security problems in the sense that the problem is often conceived at the same time when the first solution is proposed. Yet only a very small fraction of this research is relevant to ordinary users in the sense that they are willing to actually deploy the technology.

  12. Delta Coherence Protocols: The Home Update Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Reynolds, P.F.; de Supinoki, B.

    2000-07-21

    We describe a new class of directory coherence protocols called delta coherence protocols that use network guarantees to support a new and highly concurrent approach to maintain a consistent shared memory. Delta coherence protocols are more concurrent than other coherence protocols in that they allow processes to pipeline memory accesses without violating sequential consistency; support multiple concurrent readers and writers to the same cache block; and allow processes to access multiple shared variables atomically without invalidating the copies held by other processes or otherwise obtaining exclusive access to the referenced variables. Delta protocols include both update and invalidate protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest, most basic delta protocol, an update protocol called the home update protocol. Delta protocols are based on isotach network guarantees. An isotach network maintains a logical time system that allows each process to predict and control the logical time at which its messages are received. Processes use isotach guarantees to control the logical time at which their requests on shared memory appear to be executed. We prove the home update protocol is correct using logical time to reason about the order in which requests are executed.

  13. Alternative parallel ring protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Kale, V.

    1990-01-01

    Communication protocols are know to influence the utilization and performance of communication network. The effect of two token ring protocols on a gigabit network with multiple ring structure is investigated. In the first protocol, a mode sends at most one message on receiving a token. In the second protocol, a mode sends all the waiting messages when a token is received. The behavior of these protocols is shown to be highly dependent on the number of rings as well as the load in the network.

  14. Mesure de la Polarisation des Lambda Produits dans les Collisions Positron-Electron AU Lep a L'aide du Detecteur Opal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenplas, Denis

    Le Modele Standard est le cadre theorique general qui, jusqu'a present, a permis l'interpretation de tous les resultats experimentaux en physique des hautes energies. Cette theorie decrit, entre autres, la production d'une paire de particules elementaires, formee d'un quark et d'un antiquark, a partir de la desintegration de l'un des bosons mediateurs de l'interaction faible, le Z^0. Cependant, dans ce cas precis, la transformation subsequente des quarks primaires en particules reelles, un processus appele hadronisation, n'est decrite qu'a l'aide de modeles phenomenologiques. Afin de sonder les mecanismes de l'hadronisation, cette these presente la mesure du transfert du spin d'un quark etrange primaire a une particule appelee Lambda lors des desintegrations hadroniques du Z^0. L'etude a ete realisee dans le cadre de la collaboration OPAL, une des quatre experiences menees au collisionneur LEP, la ou des electrons et des positrons sont acceleres jusqu'a une energie commune, sqrt{s} = {rm E_ {cm}}, voisine de l'energie de production du rm Z^0, M_{Z ^0} egale a 91.3 GeV. La theorie electrofaible precise la direction du spin, c'est-a-dire la polarisation, d'un quark etrange primaire provenant de la desintegration d'un Z ^0. Quant a lui, le modele des quarks etablit que l'orientation du spin d'un Lambda est directement reliee a la polarisation du quark etrange dont il provient. La question est de determiner dans quelle mesure la polarisation du quark primaire est transmise au Lambda a la suite du processus de l'hadronisation, decrit dans le cadre de la ChromoDynamique Quantique. Une estimation, qui tient compte de tous ces differents aspects theoriques, evalue a 30% la polarisation des Lambda dont l'impulsion est superieure a 15 GeV/c. La mesure experimentale de la polarisation repose sur l'identification des Lambda a partir de la reconstitution de la desintegration Lambdato ppi^-. Ce processus, qui se deroule par le biais de l'interaction faible, viole la parite car

  15. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  16. National Sample Assessment Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

  17. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  18. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  19. Montreal protocol: Business opportunites

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 24 countries in 1987, establishing measures for controlling the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This publication begins with some background information on ozone depletion and the history of the Protocol. It then describes aspects of the Protocol`s Multilateral Fund, created to assist developing countries to meet Protocol deadlines: Its administration, structure, and how projects are initiated. Names, addresses, and phone/fax numbers of Fund contacts are provided. Canadian projects under the Fund are then reviewed and opportunities for Canadian environmental companies are noted. Finally, information sheets are presented which summarize Fund-related Canadian bilateral projects undertaken to date.

  20. Reliable multicast protocol specifications protocol operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix contains the complete state tables for Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) Normal Operation, Multi-RPC Extensions, Membership Change Extensions, and Reformation Extensions. First the event types are presented. Afterwards, each RMP operation state, normal and extended, is presented individually and its events shown. Events in the RMP specification are one of several things: (1) arriving packets, (2) expired alarms, (3) user events, (4) exceptional conditions.

  1. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  2. Extraction and anonymity protocol of medical file.

    PubMed Central

    Bouzelat, H.; Quantin, C.; Dusserre, L.

    1996-01-01

    To carry out the epidemiological study of patients suffering from a given cancer, the Department of Medical Informatics (DIM) has to link information coming from different hospitals and medical laboratories in the Burgundy region. Demands from the French department for computerized information security (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés: CNIL), in regard to abiding by the law of January 6, 1978, completed by the law of July 1st, 1994 on nominal data processing in the framework of medical research have to be taken into account. Notably, the CNIL advised to render anonymous patient identities before the extraction of each establishment file. This paper describes a recently implemented protocol, registered with the French department for computerized information security (Service Central de la Sécurité des Systèmes d'information : SCSSI) whose purpose is to render anonymous medical files in view of their extraction. Once rendered anonymous, these files will be exportable so as to be merged with other files and used in a framework of epidemiological studies. Therefore, this protocol uses the Standard Hash Algorithm (SHA) which allows the replacement of identities by their imprints while ensuring a minimal collision rate in order to allow a correct linkage of the different information concerning the same patient. A first evaluation of the extraction and anonymity software with regard to the purpose of an epidemiological survey is described here. In this paper, we also show how it would be possible to implement this system by means of the Internet communication network. PMID:8947681

  3. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  4. Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2010-10-15

    Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

  5. InterGroup Protocols

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-04-02

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not in general scale well to a large number of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces an unusual approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays andmore » a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable timestamp ordered.« less

  6. Traitements didactiques preventifs d'un type de conceptions erronees en sciences physiques chez des eleves du secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondin, Andre

    hypotheses avec la cohorte suivante d'eleves chez qui se repetaient les memes conditions d'apprentissage. Nous avons utilise le design de recherche "posttest only" de Campbell et Stanley. En mai, apres le moment prevu dans la planification du programme pour donner le probleme aux eleves, nous avons suggere deux facons differentes de reviser la solution de ce probleme. Les eleves du premier groupe experimental ont revise sans que soit activee la connaissance anterieure apprehendee de la rotation de la Terre. Les eleves du deuxieme groupe experimental ont ete confrontes, par des questions et une simulation, au fait que la rotation de la Terre n'est pas une connaissance pertinente pour resoudre le probleme. Les groupes temoins et les groupes experimentaux ont ete choisis au hasard dans le bassin des ecoles secondaires de la commission scolaire. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  7. WOODSTOVE DURABILITY TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of an accelerated laboratory test to simulate in-home woodstove aging and degradation. nown as a stress test, the protocol determines the long-term durability of woodstove models in a 1- to 2-week time frame. wo avenues of research have been t...

  8. Generalized teleportation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Goren; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2006-04-15

    A generalized teleportation protocol (GTP) for N qubits is presented, where the teleportation channels are nonmaximally entangled and all the free parameters of the protocol are considered: Alice's measurement basis, her sets of acceptable results, and Bob's unitary operations. The full range of fidelity (F) of the teleported state and the probability of success (P{sub suc}) to obtain a given fidelity are achieved by changing these free parameters. A channel efficiency bound is found, where one can determine how to divide it between F and P{sub suc}. A one-qubit formulation is presented and then expanded to N qubits. A proposed experimental setup that implements the GTP is given using linear optics.

  9. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  10. Robust Optimization of Biological Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Patrick; Davis, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    When conducting high-throughput biological experiments, it is often necessary to develop a protocol that is both inexpensive and robust. Standard approaches are either not cost-effective or arrive at an optimized protocol that is sensitive to experimental variations. We show here a novel approach that directly minimizes the cost of the protocol while ensuring the protocol is robust to experimental variation. Our approach uses a risk-averse conditional value-at-risk criterion in a robust parameter design framework. We demonstrate this approach on a polymerase chain reaction protocol and show that our improved protocol is less expensive than the standard protocol and more robust than a protocol optimized without consideration of experimental variation. PMID:26417115

  11. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  12. Mars Communication Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazz, G. J.; Greenberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    Over the next decade, international plans and commitments are underway to develop an infrastructure at Mars to support future exploration of the red planet. The purpose of this infrastructure is to provide reliable global communication and navigation coverage for on-approach, landed, roving, and in-flight assets at Mars. The claim is that this infrastructure will: 1) eliminate the need of these assets to carry Direct to Earth (DTE) communications equipment, 2) significantly increase data return and connectivity, 3) enable small mission exploration of Mars without DTE equipment, 4) provide precision navigation i.e., 10 to 100m position resolution, 5) supply timing reference accurate to 10ms. This paper in particular focuses on two CCSDS recommendations for that infrastructure: CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol and CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). A key aspect of Mars exploration will be the ability of future missions to interoperate. These protocols establish a framework for interoperability by providing standard communication, navigation, and timing services. In addition, these services include strategies to recover gracefully from communication interruptions and interference while ensuring backward compatibility with previous missions from previous phases of exploration.

  13. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  14. Validation of survivability validation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Issues associated with the validation of survivability protocols are discussed. Both empirical and analytical approaches to protocol validation are included. The use of hybrid simulations (hardware-in-the-loop, scene generators, software generators, man-in-the-loop, etc.) for the validation of survivability protocols is discussed.

  15. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  16. An adaptive synchronization protocol for parallel discrete event simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.

    1998-12-01

    Simulation, especially discrete event simulation (DES), is used in a variety of disciplines where numerical methods are difficult or impossible to apply. One problem with this method is that a sufficiently detailed simulation may take hours or days to execute, and multiple runs may be needed in order to generate the desired results. Parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) has been explored for many years as a method to decrease the time taken to execute a simulation. Many protocols have been developed which work well for particular types of simulations, but perform poorly when used for other types of simulations. Often it is difficult to know a priori whether a particular protocol is appropriate for a given problem. In this work, an adaptive synchronization method (ASM) is developed which works well on an entire spectrum of problems. The ASM determines, using an artificial neural network (ANN), the likelihood that a particular event is safe to process.

  17. Communication complexity protocols for qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, Boaz

    2007-03-15

    Consider a function where its entries are distributed among many parties. Suppose each party is allowed to send only a limited amount of information to a referee. The referee can use a classical protocol to compute the value of the global function. Is there a quantum protocol improving the results of all classical protocols? In a recent work Brukner et al. showed the deep connection between such problems and the theory of Bell inequalities. Here we generalize the theory to trits. There, the best classical protocol fails whereas the quantum protocol yields the correct answer.

  18. Security and SCADA protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  19. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  20. Protocol Architecture Model Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to examine protocols and architectures for an In-Space Internet Node. CNS has developed a methodology for network reference models to support NASA's four mission areas: Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS), Aerospace Technology. This report applies the methodology to three space Internet-based communications scenarios for future missions. CNS has conceptualized, designed, and developed space Internet-based communications protocols and architectures for each of the independent scenarios. The scenarios are: Scenario 1: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft inspace Internet node and a ground terminal Internet node via a Tracking and Data Rela Satellite (TDRS) transfer; Scenario 2: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) International Space Station and a ground terminal Internet node via a TDRS transfer; Scenario 3: Multicast Communications (or "Multicasting"), 1 Spacecraft to N Ground Receivers, N Ground Transmitters to 1 Ground Receiver via a Spacecraft.

  1. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  2. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  3. Indoor air quality investigation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.E.; Williams, P.L.

    1996-10-01

    Over the past 10 to 15 years, an increasing number of complaints about discomfort and health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) have been reported. The increase in complaints has been accompanied by an increase in requests for IAQ investigations. This study presents an overview of the many IAQ investigation protocols published since 1984. For analysis, the protocols are divided into four categories: solution-oriented, building diagnostics, industrial hygiene, and epidemiology. In general, the protocols begin with general observations, proceed to collect more specific data as indicated, and end with conclusions and recommendations. A generic IAQ protocol is presented that incorporates the common aspects of the various protocols. All of the current protocols place heavy emphasis on the ventilation system during the investigation. A major problem affecting all of the current protocols is the lack of generally accepted IAQ standards. IN addition, the use of questionnaires, occupant interviews, and personal diaries (as well as the point in the investigation at which they are administered) differs among the protocols. Medical evaluations and verification procedures also differ among the protocols.

  4. Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M. L.

    1998-11-12

    The protocol is designed to assist with the placement of wind power developments, and to document bird behavior and fatalities resulting from existing wind power developments. A standardized protocol will assist with comparing data among potential and existing development locations. Furthermore, this protocol is based on standard methods being used in other studies of bird behavior. The data collected will only be useful if observers follow each method carefully. In addition, the data collected using this protocol will likely be used by a permitting or other regulatory agency in evaluating the avian impacts at the site.

  5. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  6. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Louis

    En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations

  7. Publishing protocols for partnered research.

    PubMed

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Woodard, LeChauncy; Garvin, Jennifer H; Murawsky, Jeffrey; Petersen, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Published scientific protocols are advocated as a means of controlling bias in research reporting. Indeed, many journals require a study protocol with manuscript submission. However, publishing protocols of partnered research (PPR) can be challenging in light of the research model's dynamic nature, especially as no current reporting standards exist. Nevertheless, as these protocols become more prevalent, a priori documentation of methods in partnered research studies becomes increasingly important. Using as illustration a suite of studies aimed at improving coordination and communication in the primary care setting, we sought to identify challenges in publishing PPR relative to traditional designs, present alternative solutions to PPR publication, and propose an initial checklist of content to be included in protocols of partnered research. Challenges to publishing PPR include reporting details of research components intended to be co-created with operational partners, changes to sampling and entry strategy, and alignment of scientific and operational goals. Proposed solutions include emulating reporting standards of qualitative research, participatory action research, and adaptive trial designs, as well as embracing technological tools that facilitate publishing adaptive protocols, with version histories that are able to be updated as major protocol changes occur. Finally, we present a proposed checklist of reporting elements for partnered research protocols. PMID:25355092

  8. Protocols for Publishing PMRT Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of these protocols is to assist in providing guidance to PMRT members and Sub-groups in relation to seeking approval for the publication of documents of the Performance Measurement and Reporting Taskforce (PMRT) or of its predecessor the National Education Performance Monitoring Taskforce (NEPMT). These protocols complement the…

  9. Common Protocols for Shared Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Although it is becoming easier to share materials via the Internet, the process is still not transparent, especially when cross-platform transfers are involved. This article reviews common protocols and discusses several utilities and strategies for exchanging information online. Includes a table listing transfer and compression protocols, common…

  10. Distributed simulation of network protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterra, Frank; Overstreet, C. Michael; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of high speed network protocols are very CPU intensive operations requiring very long run times. Very high speed network protocols (Gigabit/sec rates) require longer simulation runs in order to reach a steady state, while at the same time requiring additional CPU processing for each unit of time because of the data rates for the traffic being simulated. As protocol development proceeds and simulations provide insights into any problems associated with the protocol, the simulation model often must be changed to generate additional or finer statistical performance information. Iterating on this process is very time consuming due to the required run times for the simulation models. The results of the efforts to distribute a high speed ring network protocol, Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN), are presented.

  11. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  12. Outcome of and prognostic factors for relapse in children and adolescents with mature B-cell lymphoma and leukemia treated in three consecutive prospective "Lymphomes Malins B" protocols. A Société Française des Cancers de l'Enfant study.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Anne; Auperin, Anne; Minard-Colin, Véronique; Aladjidi, Nathalie; Zsiros, Josef; Coze, Carole; Gandemer, Virginie; Bertrand, Yves; Leverger, Guy; Bergeron, Christophe; Michon, Jean; Patte, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    To describe relapsed B-cell lymphoma or leukemia in children/adolescents treated with a "Lymphomes Malins B" regimen and their outcome and to identify prognostic factors for survival, we studied relapses in the LMB89, 96 and 2001 studies of the Société Française d'Oncologie Pédiatrique (Société Française des Cancers de l'Enfant). Therapeutic guidelines at relapse were to obtain a second complete remission and to consolidate the remission with high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation. Between July 1989 and March 2007, 67 patients of 1322 (5%) relapsed: 57 had Burkitt lymphoma and 10 had large-cell histology. Three patients were initially treated in risk group A, 41 in group B and 23 in group C. Thirty-three patients had a relapse in one site (15 in the central nervous system) and 34 at multiple sites. Sixty-five patients received salvage chemotherapy and 33 achieved complete remission. Forty-one patients also received high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous (n=33) or allogeneic (n=8) transplantation. With a median follow-up of 6.4 years, the 5-year survival rate was 29.9%. Nineteen patients were still alive, all but one (group A) received consolidation treatment. Multivariate analysis showed the following factors to be significantly associated with better survival: relapse at one site (P=0.0006), large-cell histology (P=0.012), initial prognostic group A or B with lactate dehydrogenase level below twice the normal value (P=0.005), and time to relapse more than 6 months (P=0.04). PMID:25724577

  13. Outcome of and prognostic factors for relapse in children and adolescents with mature B-cell lymphoma and leukemia treated in three consecutive prospective “Lymphomes Malins B” protocols. A Société Française des Cancers de l’Enfant study

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, Anne; Auperin, Anne; Minard-Colin, Véronique; Aladjidi, Nathalie; Zsiros, Josef; Coze, Carole; Gandemer, Virginie; Bertrand, Yves; Leverger, Guy; Bergeron, Christophe; Michon, Jean; Patte, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To describe relapsed B-cell lymphoma or leukemia in children/adolescents treated with a “Lymphomes Malins B” regimen and their outcome and to identify prognostic factors for survival, we studied relapses in the LMB89, 96 and 2001 studies of the Société Française d’Oncologie Pédiatrique (Société Française des Cancers de l’Enfant). Therapeutic guidelines at relapse were to obtain a second complete remission and to consolidate the remission with high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation. Between July 1989 and March 2007, 67 patients of 1322 (5%) relapsed: 57 had Burkitt lymphoma and 10 had large-cell histology. Three patients were initially treated in risk group A, 41 in group B and 23 in group C. Thirty-three patients had a relapse in one site (15 in the central nervous system) and 34 at multiple sites. Sixty-five patients received salvage chemotherapy and 33 achieved complete remission. Forty-one patients also received high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous (n=33) or allogeneic (n=8) transplantation. With a median follow-up of 6.4 years, the 5-year survival rate was 29.9%. Nineteen patients were still alive, all but one (group A) received consolidation treatment. Multivariate analysis showed the following factors to be significantly associated with better survival: relapse at one site (P=0.0006), large-cell histology (P=0.012), initial prognostic group A or B with lactate dehydrogenase level below twice the normal value (P=0.005), and time to relapse more than 6 months (P=0.04). PMID:25724577

  14. Robust multipartite multilevel quantum protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Nihira, Hideomi; Stroud, C.R. Jr.

    2005-08-15

    We present a quantum protocol utilizing a tripartite three-level state. The state used in this scheme contains entanglement even after one system is traced out and as a result can be used for both a secret-sharing protocol among the three parties and a quantum-key-distribution protocol between any two parties. We show how to utilize this residual entanglement for quantum-key-distribution purposes, and explore a possible realization of the scheme using entanglement of orbital-angular-momentum states of photons.

  15. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  16. The Channel Acquisition Slot Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milian, Arturo Valencia; Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper discusses the Channel Acquisition Slot Protocol (CASP), a new protocol for the Media Access Control (MAC) of wireless networks. The CASP is intended to provide a more efficient use of communication channels; this is achieved by mechanisms for eliminating contentions among network stations and by an implicit handling of acknowledge messages. To avoid collisions of messages, the protocol divides the time into short slots, each of which is assigned to a single station, and any station must wait its own slot to start its transmission. However once a transmission is started the slot can be extended and no other station can make use of the channel. The use of an implicit acknowledge mechanism removes the necessity of an acknowledge message exchange for every transmission. In various simulated scenarios the CASP shows a 25% better throughput efficiency compared with the one of the IEEE802.11 protocol.

  17. [Diagnostic protocol and special tests].

    PubMed

    Bellia, M; Pennarola, R

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic protocol and special tests to ionizing radiations have a preventive function in the medical surveillance of the exposed worker. This protocol must be provided with laboratory and special test assessing fitness for working at the risk of ionizing radiations. The health of workers must be compatible with working conditions and radiation risk. This healthiness of workers is evalued in the time to give an assessment fitness for working at ionizing radiations. For this purpose the basic diagnostic protocol must guarantee minimum information about state of organs and apparatus in addition to the normality of the metabolisms. The diagnostic protocol of the exposed worker to ionizing radiations must be adapted to the specific clinical situation so as to finally make a costs-benefits balance sheet. PMID:19288808

  18. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  19. QUALITY CONTROL - VARIABILITY IN PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory’s Quality Assurance Office, which published the popular pocket guide Preparing Perfect Project Plans, is now introducing another quality assurance reference aid. The document Variability in Protocols (VIP) was initially designed as a ...

  20. EPA Protocol Gas Verification Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate compressed gas calibration standards are needed to calibrate continuous emission monitors (CEMs) and ambient air quality monitors that are being used for regulatory purposes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established its traceability protocol to ensure that co...

  1. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  2. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  3. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  4. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  5. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  6. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  7. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  8. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  9. Superselection rules and quantum protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Kitaev, Alexei; Preskill, John; Mayers, Dominic

    2004-05-01

    We show that superselection rules do not enhance the information-theoretic security of quantum cryptographic protocols. Our analysis employs two quite different methods. The first method uses the concept of a reference system--in a world subject to a superselection rule, unrestricted operations can be simulated by parties who share access to a reference system with suitable properties. By this method, we prove that if an n-party protocol is secure in a world subject to a superselection rule, then the security is maintained even if the superselection rule is relaxed. However, the proof applies only to a limited class of superselection rules, those in which the superselection sectors are labeled by unitary irreducible representations of a compact symmetry group. The second method uses the concept of the format of a message sent between parties--by verifying the format, the recipient of a message can check whether the message could have been sent by a party who performed charge-conserving operations. By this method, we prove that protocols subject to general superselection rules (including those pertaining to non-Abelian anyons in two dimensions) are no more secure than protocols in the unrestricted world. However, the proof applies only to two-party protocols. Our results show in particular that, if no assumptions are made about the computational power of the cheater, then secure quantum bit commitment and strong quantum coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias are impossible in a world subject to superselection rules.

  10. 40 CFR 160.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an... study. The protocol shall contain but shall not necessarily be limited to the following information: (1... maintained. (14) The date of approval of the protocol by the sponsor and the dated signature of the...

  11. 40 CFR 160.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an... study. The protocol shall contain but shall not necessarily be limited to the following information: (1... maintained. (14) The date of approval of the protocol by the sponsor and the dated signature of the...

  12. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  13. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    This document describes a simple XML-based protocol that can be used for producers of events to communicate with consumers of events. The protocol described here is not meant to be the most efficient protocol, the most logical protocol, or the best protocol in any way. This protocol was defined quickly and it's intent is to give us a reasonable protocol that we can implement relatively easily and then use to gain experience in distributed event services. This experience will help us evaluate proposals for event representations, XML-based encoding of information, and communication protocols. The next section of this document describes how we represent events in this protocol and then defines the two events that we choose to use for our initial experiments. These definitions are made by example so that they are informal and easy to understand. The following section then proceeds to define the producer-consumer protocol we have agreed upon for our initial experiments.

  14. Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.

    Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.

  15. FTP Extensions for Variable Protocol Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Ostermann, Shawn

    2000-01-01

    The specification for the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) assumes that the underlying network protocols use a 32-bit network address and a 16-bit transport address (specifically IP version 4 and TCP). With the deployment of version 6 of the Internet Protocol, network addresses will no longer be 32-bits. This paper species extensions to FTP that will allow the protocol to work over a variety of network and transport protocols.

  16. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  17. FIELD SAMPLING PROTOCOLS AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I have been asked to speak again to the environmental science class regarding actual research scenarios related to my work at Kerr Lab. I plan to discuss sampling protocols along with various field analyses performed during sampling activities. Many of the students have never see...

  18. Changing Teacher Performance with Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Gary R.

    This study examined whether selected protocol materials in classroom management, used in inservice courses, would bring about long-term significant changes in teachers' classroom performance. Fifteen teachers participated in the study by taking an inservice course on classroom management and discipline. Two modules of classroom management…

  19. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  20. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  1. The Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol: a valid linguistic approach to awake brain surgery.

    PubMed

    De Witte, E; Satoer, D; Robert, E; Colle, H; Verheyen, S; Visch-Brink, E; Mariën, P

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES) is increasingly used in patients operated on for tumours in eloquent areas. Although a positive impact of DES on postoperative linguistic outcome is generally advocated, information about the neurolinguistic methods applied in awake surgery is scarce. We developed for the first time a standardised Dutch linguistic test battery (measuring phonology, semantics, syntax) to reliably identify the critical language zones in detail. A normative study was carried out in a control group of 250 native Dutch-speaking healthy adults. In addition, the clinical application of the Dutch Linguistic Intraoperative Protocol (DuLIP) was demonstrated by means of anatomo-functional models and five case studies. A set of DuLIP tests was selected for each patient depending on the tumour location and degree of linguistic impairment. DuLIP is a valid test battery for pre-, intraoperative and postoperative language testing and facilitates intraoperative mapping of eloquent language regions that are variably located. PMID:25526520

  2. How to write a protocol: part 2.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kathy; Farrell, Mary Beth

    2015-03-01

    Clinical protocols play an important role in the provision of high-quality care in nuclear medicine. Properly written protocols help to ensure that nuclear medicine procedures are performed in a standardized, reproducible manner so that patients receive high-quality care. The following article is the second in a 2-part series on how to write a protocol. A framework for composing protocols and the components of clinical imaging protocols were detailed in the first article. This article details the framework and components of protocols for cardiac stress testing, therapy, and quality control. PMID:25655345

  3. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  4. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol*

    PubMed Central

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E.

    2014-01-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  5. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  6. Neonatal euthanasia: The Groningen Protocol.

    PubMed

    Vizcarrondo, Felipe E

    2014-11-01

    For the past thirty years, voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide of adult patients have been common practice in the Netherlands. Neonatal euthanasia was recently legalized in the Netherlands and the Groningen Protocol (GP) was developed to regulate the practice. Supporters claim compliance with the GP criteria makes neonatal euthanasia ethically permissible. An examination of the criteria used by the Protocol to justify the euthanasia of seriously ill neonates reveals the criteria are not based on firm moral principles. The taking of the life of a seriously ill person is not the solution to the pain and suffering of the dying process. It is the role of the medical professional to care for the ailing patient with love and compassion, always preserving the person's dignity. Neonatal euthanasia is not ethically permissible. PMID:25473136

  7. A Wiki Based CT Protocol Management System.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Rubert, Nicholas; Belden, Daryn; Ciano, Amanda; Duplissis, Andrew; Hermanns, Ashley; Monette, Stephen; Saldivar, Elliott Janssen

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin Madison Department of Radiology, CT protocol management requires maintenance of thousands of parameters for each scanner. Managing CT protocols is further complicated by the unique configurability of each scanner. Due to recent Joint Commission requirements, now all CT protocol changes must be documented and reviewed by a site's CT protocol optimization team. The difficulty of managing the CT protocols was not in assembling the protocols, but in managing and implementing changes. This is why a wiki based solution for protocol management was implemented. A wiki inherently keeps track of all changes, logging who made the changes and when, allowing for editing and viewing permissions to be controlled, as well as allowing protocol changes to be instantly relayed to all scanner locations. PMID:26710573

  8. Integrating protocol schedules with patients' personal calendars.

    PubMed

    Civan, Andrea; Gennari, John H; Pratt, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach for integrating protocol care schedules into patients' personal calendars. This approach could provide patients with greater control over their current and future scheduling demands as they seek and receive protocol-based care. PMID:17238511

  9. The reliable multicast protocol application programming interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery , Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface for the Berkeley/WVU implementation of the Reliable Multicast Protocol is described. This transport layer protocol is implemented as a user library that applications and software buses link against.

  10. How to write a protocol: part 1.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kathy; Farrell, Mary Beth

    2015-03-01

    Clinical imaging protocols play an important role in the provision of high-quality care in nuclear medicine. It is imperative that all nuclear medicine facilities have protocols for every procedure performed. However, creating protocols that are detailed, unambiguous, and consistent is often easier said than done. Properly written protocols help to ensure that nuclear medicine procedures are performed in a standardized, reproducible manner so that patients receive high-quality care. This 2-part article provides technologists with a framework for composing comprehensive protocols. Part 1 discusses the secrets to successfully composing protocols ensuring they are detailed and step-by-step along with the importance of basing protocols on evidence from published guidelines and peer-reviewed literature. The components and important aspects of clinical imaging protocols are detailed. PMID:25613336

  11. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  12. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  13. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew S.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2000-09-19

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  14. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  15. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii) Any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protocol amendments. 312.30 Section 312.30 Food... Protocol amendments. Once an IND is in effect, a sponsor shall amend it as needed to ensure that...

  16. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... security provisions (as proscribed in paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for a research protocol) to,...

  17. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... security provisions (as proscribed in paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for a research protocol) to,...

  18. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii) Any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protocol amendments. 312.30 Section 312.30 Food... Protocol amendments. Once an IND is in effect, a sponsor shall amend it as needed to ensure that...

  19. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii) Any... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protocol amendments. 312.30 Section 312.30 Food... Protocol amendments. Once an IND is in effect, a sponsor shall amend it as needed to ensure that...

  20. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol... security provisions (as proscribed in paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for a research protocol) to,...

  1. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... separate IND for such investigation. (a) New protocol. Whenever a sponsor intends to conduct a study that... amendment containing the protocol for the study. Such study may begin provided two conditions are met: (1... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii)...

  2. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... separate IND for such investigation. (a) New protocol. Whenever a sponsor intends to conduct a study that... amendment containing the protocol for the study. Such study may begin provided two conditions are met: (1... the current protocol, or any significant increase in the number of subjects under study. (ii)...

  3. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS protocol. 11.31 Section 11.31....31 EAS protocol. (a) The EAS uses a four part message for an emergency activation of the EAS. The... protocol, including any codes, must not be amended, extended or abridged without FCC authorization. The...

  4. 40 CFR 792.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protocol. 792.120 Section 792.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of A Study § 792.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an approved...

  5. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  6. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  7. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  8. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  9. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  10. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  11. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  12. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  13. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  14. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  15. Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Editor); Bagby, John (Editor); Race, Margaret (Editor); Rummel, John (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol (QP) Workshop was convened to deal with three specific aspects of the initial handling of a returned Mars sample: 1) biocontainment, to prevent uncontrolled release of sample material into the terrestrial environment; 2) life detection, to examine the sample for evidence of live organisms; and 3) biohazard testing, to determine if the sample poses any threat to terrestrial life forms and the Earth's biosphere. During the first part of the Workshop, several tutorials were presented on topics related to the workshop in order to give all participants a common basis in the technical areas necessary to achieve the objectives of the Workshop.

  16. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  17. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  18. Protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar.

    PubMed

    Foote, Kenneth G; Chu, Dezhang; Hammar, Terence R; Baldwin, Kenneth C; Mayer, Larry A; Hufnagle, Lawrence C; Jech, J Michael

    2005-04-01

    Development of protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar by means of the standard-target method is documented. Particular systems used in the development work included three that provide the water-column signals, namely the SIMRAD SM2000/90- and 200-kHz sonars and RESON SeaBat 8101 sonar, with operating frequency of 240 kHz. Two facilities were instrumented specifically for the work: a sea well at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and a large, indoor freshwater tank at the University of New Hampshire. Methods for measuring the transfer characteristics of each sonar, with transducers attached, are described and illustrated with measurement results. The principal results, however, are the protocols themselves. These are elaborated for positioning the target, choosing the receiver gain function, quantifying the system stability, mapping the directionality in the plane of the receiving array and in the plane normal to the central axis, measuring the directionality of individual beams, and measuring the nearfield response. General preparations for calibrating multibeam sonars and a method for measuring the receiver response electronically are outlined. Advantages of multibeam sonar calibration and outstanding problems, such as that of validation of the performance of multibeam sonars as configured for use, are mentioned. PMID:15898644

  19. Flexible protocol for quantum private query based on B92 protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Sun, Si-Jia; Xu, Peng; Tian, Ju

    2013-12-01

    Jakobi et al. for the first time proposed a novel and practical quantum private query (QPQ) protocol based on SARG04 (Scarani et al. in Phys Rev Lett 92:057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol (Jakobi et al. in Phys Rev A 83:022301, 2011). Gao et al. generalized Jakobi et al's protocol and proposed a flexible QPQ protocol (Gao et al. in Opt Exp 20(16):17411-17420, 2012). When θ <π /4, Gao et al's protocol exhibits better database security than Jakobi et al's protocol, but has a higher probability with which Bob can correctly guess the address of Alice's query. In this paper, we propose a flexible B92-based QPQ protocol. Although SARG04 protocol is a modification of B92 protocol and can be seen as a generalization of B92 protocol, our protocol shows different advantages from Gao et al's protocol. It can simultaneously obtain better database security and a lower probability with which Bob can correctly guess the address of Alice's query when θ <π /4. By introducing entanglement, the proposed QPQ protocol is robust against channel-loss attack, which also implies lower classical communication complexity. Similar to Gao et al's protocol, it is flexible, practical, and robust against quantum memory attack.

  20. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP)

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al., 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC- counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al., 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  1. A Unified Fault-Tolerance Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul; Gedser, Alfons; Pike, Lee; Maddalon, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Davies and Wakerly show that Byzantine fault tolerance can be achieved by a cascade of broadcasts and middle value select functions. We present an extension of the Davies and Wakerly protocol, the unified protocol, and its proof of correctness. We prove that it satisfies validity and agreement properties for communication of exact values. We then introduce bounded communication error into the model. Inexact communication is inherent for clock synchronization protocols. We prove that validity and agreement properties hold for inexact communication, and that exact communication is a special case. As a running example, we illustrate the unified protocol using the SPIDER family of fault-tolerant architectures. In particular we demonstrate that the SPIDER interactive consistency, distributed diagnosis, and clock synchronization protocols are instances of the unified protocol.

  2. Universal protocol for alopecia areata clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-12-01

    Within the area of alopecia areata research, there is an obvious need for well-designed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) has created an initiative for the development of a unified protocol with guidelines for clinical studies. The NAAF universal protocol represents a joint effort of clinicians and investigators with experience in treating alopecia areata. This protocol will serve as a tremendous resource to facilitate future clinical studies. PMID:24326554

  3. Layered protocols in voice interaction with computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. M.

    1987-02-01

    The Layered Protocol model for human computer interfaces is described, with special reference to the problems of voice input and output. In a layered protocol, each level passes virtual messages back and forth between human and computer. These virtual messages are realized in the form of interchanges at the level below. The protocol at a level is analogous to the syntax of a sentence, in that it is the method by which the content of a message can be given an agreed interpretation. Each protocol can be designed or evaluated independently of all the others in an interface. The stability of a protocol is determined by its response delays and by the channel capacity of the lower level protocols that support its messages. Sometimes an unstable protocol can be stabilized and speeded by reducing the message rate of the supporting protocols. Users have been observed to do this intuitively. Voice input provides special problems because of the relatively high error probability inherent in the recognizer: errors in other modalities are likely to be due to operator fault. This tends to lead to unwarranted distrust of voice input, and to demands for types of feedback that are probably inappropriate to the level of protocol to which the recognizer is suited. Voice output can be used by the computer to initiate protocols, or to provide a response channel for protocols under conditions where the user's eyes are otherwise occupied. Consideration of protocol demands helps to clarify the requirements for precision in recognition, and for the characteristics of computer responses to voice input; it helps also in judging appropriate conditions for the use of voice output.

  4. [The research protocol. Part I].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    One of the principal aims in research is the publication of the study in scientific journals. This implies two challenges: the first one, the election of an adequate research design, and the second one, the concrete and simple wording of the results for the study to be accepted in the most appropriate journal according to the scope. Despite numerous supporting documents are available for both issues, the publication process is long, tiresome, and can discourage the most enthusiastic researcher. This is the first of a series of articles with the objective to describe the steps from the research question to the publication of the study. First of all, the importance of the research design will be addressed. The structure of the protocol is essential to achieve the objectives, and provides a way to organize the investigation in a logic, comprehensible and efficient manner. PMID:26556666

  5. Canine adenovirus downstream processing protocol.

    PubMed

    Puig, Meritxell; Piedra, Jose; Miravet, Susana; Segura, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are efficient gene delivery tools. A major caveat with vectors derived from common human adenovirus serotypes is that most adults are likely to have been exposed to the wild-type virus and exhibit active immunity against the vectors. This preexisting immunity limits their clinical success. Strategies to circumvent this problem include the use of nonhuman adenovirus vectors. Vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) are among the best-studied representatives. CAV-2 vectors are particularly attractive for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, CAV-2 vectors have shown great promise as oncolytic agents in virotherapy approaches and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. The rising interest in CAV-2 vectors calls for the development of scalable GMP compliant production and purification strategies. A detailed protocol describing a complete scalable downstream processing strategy for CAV-2 vectors is reported here. Clarification of CAV-2 particles is achieved by microfiltration. CAV-2 particles are subsequently concentrated and partially purified by ultrafiltration-diafiltration. A Benzonase(®) digestion step is carried out between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations to eliminate contaminating nucleic acids. Chromatography purification is accomplished in two consecutive steps. CAV-2 particles are first captured and concentrated on a propyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography column followed by a polishing step using DEAE anion exchange monoliths. Using this protocol, high-quality CAV-2 vector preparations containing low levels of contamination with empty viral capsids and other inactive vector forms are typically obtained. The complete process yield was estimated to be 38-45 %. PMID:24132487

  6. Quantum three-pass cryptography protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Wu, Ling-An; Liu, Songhao

    2002-09-01

    We present a new kind of quantum cryptography protocol based on Shamir's three-pass protocol of classical cryptography, which allows the transmission of qubits directly and secretly via the aid of an unjammable classical channel. In this protocol we implement the encryption and decryption transformations via rotations on the Poincare sphere of the photons polarization parameters. The key technique is that Bob's encryption rotation must be commutative with Alice s decryption rotation; this means that the axes of these two rotations must be parallel. We also present a security analysis of the protocol under a man-in-the-middle attack.

  7. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  8. A simple, efficient and environmentally benign synthetic protocol for the synthesis of spirooxindoles using choline chloride-oxalic acid eutectic mixture as catalyst/solvent system.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Sarita; Rajawat, Anshu; Tailor, Yogesh Kumar; Kumar, Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and environmentally benign domino protocol has been presented for the synthesis of structurally diverse spirooxindoles spiroannulated with pyranopyridopyrimidines, indenopyridopyrimidines, and chromenopyridopyrimidines involving three-component reaction of aminouracils, isatins and cyclic carbonyl compounds in deep eutectic solvent (choline chloride-oxalic acid: 1:1) which acts as efficient catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium. The present protocol offers several advantages such as operational simplicity with easy workup, shorter reaction times excellent yields with superior atom economy and environmentally benign reaction conditions with the use of cost-effective, recyclable, non-toxic and bio-degradable DES as catalyst/solvent. PMID:25329839

  9. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  10. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  11. Copernic: la piste des influences arabes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari, A.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Copernic a-t-il connu le travail des astronomes du Moyen-Orient ? S'en est-il inspiré pour élaborer sa théorie de l'héliocentrisme ? C'est l'hypothèse avancée par certains historiens des sciences pour comprendre le génie de celui qui, le premier, a placé le Soleil au centre du monde. Enquête.

  12. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. Methods We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2) protocols. Results The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. Conclusions The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically

  13. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des

  14. Effect of PCB and DES on rat monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, testosterone, and estradiol ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, D.R.; Bradshaw, W.S.; Booth, G.M.; Seegmiller, R.E.; Allen, S.D.

    1992-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been documented as potentially hazardous environmental agents. In utero exposure to DES produces human vaginal adenocarcinoma, male reproductive tract lesions in mice, and has been correlated with personality changes in human males. PCB (Kanechlor) was found to be the major toxin in the {open_quotes}Yusho{close_quotes} rice oil poisoning in Japan in 1968. Other investigators have shown in rats that PCB (Arochlor) causes liver adenofibrosis, thyroid dysfunction, atypical mitochondria, and dilation of both smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Matthews et al. (1978) also reported that 4, 4{prime} chlorinated biphenyl was the most potent inducer of monooxygenases, irrespective of chlorination at other sites. Although these compounds have been studied extensively in mammals, there is a paucity of data examining their effects when non-fetotoxic amounts are administered chronically and orally during gestation. The present study is part of a larger effort designed to establish a protocol for testing the developmental effects of xenobiotics such as DES and PCB. Levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured as an indicator of the integrity of nerve transmission in the central nervous system. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a marker for the outer mitochondrial membrane and is an important amine metabolizing enzyme. Testosterone and estradiol are important sex steroids in mammals, and effects upon levels of the two hormones may signal anomalies in development of sex characteristics. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. PROTOCOL FOR BIOASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioassessment protocol is one of several tools, including chemical analysis and field study, that can be used to characterize the potential environmental risk associated with hazardous waste sites. The protocol can be applied to priority ranking for deciding the need for clea...

  16. An improved quantum key distribution protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting-wan; Wu, Guo-hua

    2008-08-01

    This paper presented an improved quantum key distribution protocol of the quantum cryptology. Using the same measure polarizer as BB84 protocol, the improved protocol we designed with not any classical channel, but a new looped quantum channel instead, so the job of sending and receiving can be finished only by one same person. It brings several good points: the utilization ratio of photons 100% in perfect condition, at least twice over other protocols, or even higher; the public channel easy to be attacked is avoided. Further, the improved protocol authenticates the legal communicators with pre-share information, so that no attacker can jump over the progress of authentication. Be alien from the protocol of BB84, the improved protocol uses message summary to detect whether messages intercepted by attacker. Because the message summary is encrypted by one-time-pad method using pre-share information, attacker could not alter the message summary and that not to be discovered. Moreover, some theoretical analysis to the improved protocol given with information theory: we used the measure channel concept for quantum detection, and calculated the information quantity obtained by attacker in the quantum secrecy communication. The analysis results provide the theory criterion for the legal communicators and the attackers.

  17. Open commit protocols tolerating commission failures

    SciTech Connect

    Rothermel, K.; Pappe, S. )

    1993-06-01

    To ensure atomicity of transactions in disturbed systems so-called 2-phase commit (2PC) protocols have been proposed. The basic assumption of these protocols is that the processing nodes involved in transactions are [open quotes]sane,[close quotes] i.e., they only fail with omission failures, and nodes eventually recover from failures. Unfortunately, this assumption is not realistic for so-called Open Distributed Systems (ODSs), in which nodes may have totally different reliability characteristics. In ODSs, nodes can be classified into trusted nodes (e.g., a banking server) and nontrusted nodes (e.g., a home PC requesting a remote banking service). While trusted nodes are assumed to be sane, nontrusted nodes may fail permanently and even cause commission failures to occur. In this paper, we propose a family of 2PC protocols that tolerate any number of omission failures at trusted nodes and any number of commission and omission failures at nontrusted nodes. The proposed protocols ensure that (at least) the trusted nodes participating in a transaction eventually terminate the transaction in a consistent manner. Unlike Byzantine commit protocols, our protocols do not incorporate mechanisms for achieving Byzantine agreement, which has advantages in terms of complexity: Our protocols have the same or only a slightly higher message complexity than traditional 2PC protocols. 31 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. MTP: An atomic multicast transport protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freier, Alan O.; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Multicast transport protocol (MTP); a reliable transport protocol that utilizes the multicast strategy of applicable lower layer network architectures is described. In addition to transporting data reliably and efficiently, MTP provides the client synchronization necessary for agreement on the receipt of data and the joining of the group of communicants.

  19. Delay Tolerant Networking - Bundle Protocol Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SeGui, John; Jenning, Esther

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the addition of MACHETE models needed to support DTN, namely: the Bundle Protocol (BP) model. To illustrate the useof MACHETE with the additional DTN model, we provide an example simulation to benchmark its performance. We demonstrate the use of the DTN protocol and discuss statistics gathered concerning the total time needed to simulate numerous bundle transmissions.

  20. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EAS protocol. 11.31 Section 11.31 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.31 EAS protocol. (a) The EAS uses a four part message for an emergency activation of the EAS. The four parts are: Preamble and EAS Header...

  1. An Argument Approach to Observation Protocol Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Courtney A.; Gitomer, Drew H.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.; Qi, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a validity argument approach for use on observation protocols currently used to assess teacher quality for high-stakes personnel and professional development decisions. After defining the teaching quality domain, we articulate an interpretive argument for observation protocols. To illustrate the types of evidence that might…

  2. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate protocol may be used provided that it meets the purpose of the test standards specified in the... ingredient, mixture, or product. Accordingly, failure to follow a suggested protocol will not invalidate a... data generated by the study will satisfy the requirements of this part. (c) Procedures for...

  3. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate protocol may be used provided that it meets the purpose of the test standards specified in the... ingredient, mixture, or product. Accordingly, failure to follow a suggested protocol will not invalidate a... data generated by the study will satisfy the requirements of this part. (c) Procedures for...

  4. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Research protocols. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A...

  5. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to 21 U.S.C. 355(i) and 21 CFR 130.3, I, (Name and Address of IND Sponsor) submitted a Notice of... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research protocols. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A...

  6. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test protocol. 1210.4 Section 1210.4... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test panel. (1) The test to determine if a lighter is resistant to successful operation by children uses...

  7. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test protocol. 1212.4 Section 1212.4... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test panel. (1) The test to determine if a multi-purpose lighter is resistant to successful...

  8. National Protocols for Higher Education Approval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The National Protocols for Higher Education Approval Processes (the "National Protocols") are a key element of the national quality assurance framework for Australian higher education. They protect the standing of Australian higher education nationally and internationally by assuring students and the community that higher education institutions in…

  9. STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual, in support of the Florida Radon Research Program, contains standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the program. t contains two sections. he first section, soil measurements, contains field sampling protocols for soil gas permeability and...

  10. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70 Section 161.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.70 Acceptable protocols....

  11. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70 Section 161.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.70 Acceptable protocols....

  12. Massive transfusion and massive transfusion protocol

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijaya; Shetmahajan, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Rapid transfusion of large volumes of blood products is required in patients with haemorrhagic shock which may lead to a unique set of complications. Recently, protocol based management of these patients using massive transfusion protocol have shown improved outcomes. This section discusses in detail both management and complications of massive blood transfusion. PMID:25535421

  13. Accuracy of NHANES periodontal examination protocols.

    PubMed

    Eke, P I; Thornton-Evans, G O; Wei, L; Borgnakke, W S; Dye, B A

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the accuracy of periodontitis prevalence determined by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) partial-mouth periodontal examination protocols. True periodontitis prevalence was determined in a new convenience sample of 454 adults ≥ 35 years old, by a full-mouth "gold standard" periodontal examination. This actual prevalence was compared with prevalence resulting from analysis of the data according to the protocols of NHANES III and NHANES 2001-2004, respectively. Both NHANES protocols substantially underestimated the prevalence of periodontitis by 50% or more, depending on the periodontitis case definition used, and thus performed below threshold levels for moderate-to-high levels of validity for surveillance. Adding measurements from lingual or interproximal sites to the NHANES 2001-2004 protocol did not improve the accuracy sufficiently to reach acceptable sensitivity thresholds. These findings suggest that NHANES protocols produce high levels of misclassification of periodontitis cases and thus have low validity for surveillance and research. PMID:20858782

  14. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Fei; Qin Sujuan; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan

    2011-08-15

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  15. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-08-01

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  16. Security Weaknesses in Arbitrated Quantum Signature Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Kejia; Cao, Tianqing

    2014-01-01

    Arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) is a cryptographic scenario in which the sender (signer), Alice, generates the signature of a message and then a receiver (verifier), Bob, can verify the signature with the help of a trusted arbitrator, Trent. In this paper, we point out there exist some security weaknesses in two AQS protocols. Our analysis shows Alice can successfully disavow any of her signatures by a simple attack in the first protocol. Furthermore, we study the security weaknesses of the second protocol from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. Some potential improvements of this kind of protocols are given. We also design a new method to authenticate a signature or a message, which makes AQS protocols immune to Alice's disavowal attack and Bob's forgery attack effectively.

  17. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of

  18. STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, D. L.; Stevens, J. L.; Gerdeman, F. W.

    2002-02-25

    Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions.

  19. Performance evaluation of TCP over ABT protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki; Miyahara, Hideo

    1998-10-01

    ABT is promising for effectively transferring a highly bursty data traffic in ATM networks. Most of past studies focused on the data transfer capability of ABT within the ATM layer. In actual, however, we need to consider the upper layer transport protocol since the transport layer protocol also supports a network congestion control mechanism. One such example is TCP, which is now widely used in the Internet. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of TCP over ABT protocols. Simulation results show that the retransmission mechanism of ABT can effectively overlay the TCP congestion control mechanism so that TCP operates in a stable fashion and works well only as an error recovery mechanism.

  20. The first/last access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karol, M. J.; Schwartz, S. C.

    When a random access protocol is used to share a communications channel, conflicts arising from simultaneous transmissions must be resolved. Listening to feedback on a broadcast channel, and using knowledge of round trip propagation delays, the First/Last Access Protocol (FLAP) reserves time for retransmissions of the 'first' and 'last' packets involved in a channel collision. Time slots of duration greater than a packet transmission time exploit the advantages of both slotted access protocols. The maximum achievable system throughput is 0.673 as the input rate increases. Extensions of FLAP yield system throughputs greater than 0.80.

  1. Re-examining generalized teleportation protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Song, He-Shan

    2007-11-01

    We present an explicit generalized protocol for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit GHZ entangled state via only one non-maximally two-qubit entangled state. Without entanglement concentration, using standard Bell-state measurement and classical communication one cannot teleport the state with unit fidelity and unit probability. We show that by properly choosing the measurement basis it is possible to achieve unity fidelity transfer of the state. Compared with Gordon et al's protocol [G. Gordon, G. Rigolin, Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042309], this protocol has the advantage of transmitting much less qubits and classical information for teleporting an arbitrary N-qubit GHZ state.

  2. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Melliar-Smith, P. Michael; Moser, Louise E.

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  3. Quantum key distribution protocol using random bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meslouhi, A.; Amellal, H.; Hassouni, Y.; El Baz, M.; El Allati, A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to enhance the quantum key distribution (QKD) security, a new protocol, “QKDPRB” based on random bases is proposed. It consists of using standard encoding bases moving circularly with a variable rotational angle α which depends on angular velocity ω(t); thus, the traditional bases turn into relative ones. To prove the security and the efficiency of the protocol, we present a universal demonstration which proves a high level security of the proposed protocol, even in the presence of the intercept and resend attack. Finally, the QKDPRB may improve the security of QKD.

  4. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques et memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    Cette these s'attaque a deux problemes majeurs de l'information quantique: - Comment caracteriser efficacement un systeme quantique? - Comment stocker de l'information quantique? Elle se divise done en deux parties distinctes reliees par des elements techniques communs. Chacune est toutefois d'un interet propre et se suffit a elle-meme. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques. Le calcul quantique exige un tres grand controle des systemes quantiques composes de plusieurs particules, par exemple des atomes confines dans un piege electromagnetique ou des electrons dans un dispositif semi-conducteur. Caracteriser un tel systeme quantique consiste a obtenir de l'information sur l'etat grace a des mesures experimentales. Or, chaque mesure sur le systeme quantique le perturbe et doit done etre effectuee apres avoir reprepare le systeme de facon identique. L'information recherchee est ensuite reconstruite numeriquement a partir de l'ensemble des donnees experimentales. Les experiences effectuees jusqu'a present visaient a reconstruire l'etat quantique complet du systeme, en particulier pour demontrer la capacite de preparer des etats intriques, dans lesquels les particules presentent des correlations non-locales. Or, la procedure de tomographie utilisee actuellement n'est envisageable que pour des systemes composes d'un petit nombre de particules. Il est donc urgent de trouver des methodes de caracterisation pour les systemes de grande taille. Dans cette these, nous proposons deux approches theoriques plus ciblees afin de caracteriser un systeme quantique en n'utilisant qu'un effort experimental et numerique raisonnable. - La premiere consiste a estimer la distance entre l'etat realise en laboratoire et l'etat cible que l'experimentateur voulait preparer. Nous presentons un protocole, dit de certification, demandant moins de ressources que la tomographie et tres efficace pour plusieurs classes d'etats importantes pour l'informatique quantique. - La seconde

  5. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  6. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  7. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  8. Plant proteomics methods and protocols.

    PubMed

    Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

    2014-01-01

    In this first, introductory chapter, it is intended to summarize from a methodological point of view the state of the art in plant proteomics, focusing on mass spectrometry-based strategies. Thus, this chapter is mainly directed at beginners or at those trying to get into the field, rather than at those with real experience or a long trajectory in plant proteomics research. The different alternative workflows, methods, techniques, and protocols from the experimental design to the data analysis will be briefly commented, with cross references to previous monographs and reviews, as well as to the rest of the book chapters. The difficulty of working with proteins, together with the power, limitations, and challenges of the approach will also be briefly discussed.Proteins, as molecular entities, and the cell proteome, as a whole, are much more complex than what we thought in the past and can be studied in a single experiment. Because of that, fractionation and complementary strategies are required for its study. The MS analysis of complex samples may result in up to 100,000-peptide spectra that cannot be easily analyzed with standard procedures. Therefore, proteomics, more than other -omics, needs a dry lab, time, and an effort in data mining.As main conclusion, it can be stated that proteomics is in its beginnings. It is starting to make important contributions to a proper gene annotation, identification, and characterization of gene products or protein species and to the knowledge of living organisms, having also an enormous application potential to translational research. However, and despite its great potential, and as in any other experimental approach, it is far from being a Pandora's Box. In the case of plant research, the full potential of proteomics is quite far from being totally exploited, and second-, third-, and fourth-generation proteomics techniques are still of very limited use. Most of the plant proteomics papers so far published belong to the

  9. NREL Test-to-Failure Protocol (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.

    2012-03-01

    The presentation describes the test-to-failure protocol that was developed and piloted at NREL, stressing PV modules with multiple applications of damp heat (with bias) and thermal cycling until they fail.

  10. A Look Back at the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer. This video takes a look back at how scientists, industry leaders, and policy makers came together to regulate C...

  11. Evolution of Natural Attenuation Evaluation Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally the evaluation of the efficacy of natural attenuation was based on changes in contaminant concentrations and mass reduction. Statistical tools and models such as Bioscreen provided evaluation protocols which now are being approached via other vehicles including m...

  12. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols. PMID:27005624

  13. Putting the Human Back in the Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, Bruce

    Hello, everyone, and welcome to the 14th International Security Protocols Workshop. I’m going to start with a quotation from someone who, at least in principle, is in charge of a very different security community than ours:

  14. Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño; Abbas, Cláudia Jacy Barenco

    2009-01-01

    The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22291515

  15. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-09-15

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z{sub D}{sup n} associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z{sub D}{sup n} into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  16. A practical quantum bit commitment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.

  17. Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Yoshito; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Gregory, Don A.; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2009-01-01

    When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  18. Protocol dependence of the jamming transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Thibault; Behringer, Robert P.; Chakraborty, Bulbul; O'Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical framework for predicting the protocol dependence of the jamming transition for frictionless spherical particles that interact via repulsive contact forces. We study isostatic jammed disk packings obtained via two protocols: isotropic compression and simple shear. We show that for frictionless systems, all jammed packings can be obtained via either protocol. However, the probability to obtain a particular jammed packing depends on the packing-generation protocol. We predict the average shear strain required to jam initially unjammed isotropically compressed packings from the density of jammed packings, shape of their basins of attraction, and path traversed in configuration space. We compare our predictions to simulations of shear strain-induced jamming and find quantitative agreement. We also show that the packing fraction range, over which shear strain-induced jamming occurs, tends to zero in the large system limit for frictionless packings with overdamped dynamics.

  19. A Demand Access Protocol for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Jay L.; Leang, Dee

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a demand access protocol for space communications, which is a messaging procedure that facilitates the exchange of resource requests and grants between users and service providers. A minimal set of operational and environmental needs and constraints are assumed since the intent is to keep the protocol flexible and efficient for a wide-range of envisioned NASA robotic and human exploration missions. The protocol described in this document defines the message format and procedures used to ensure proper and correct functioning of a demand access communications system, which must operate under customized resource management policies applied by the users and service providers. This protocol also assumes a minimal set of capabilities from the underlying communications system so that no unique requirements are imposed on the communications sub-systems.

  20. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, C. E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  1. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  2. A verification system of RMAP protocol controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanov, V. Kh; Shakhmatov, A. V.; Chekmarev, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The functional verification problem of IP blocks of RMAP protocol controller is considered. The application of the verification method using fully- functional models of the processor and the internal bus of a system-on-chip is justified. Principles of construction of a verification system based on the given approach are proposed. The practical results of creating a system of verification of IP block of RMAP protocol controller is presented.

  3. Protocol for communications in potentially noisy environments

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gerlad M.; Farrow, Jeffrey

    2016-02-09

    A communications protocol that is designed for transmission of data in networks that are subjected to harsh conditions is described herein. A network includes a plurality of devices, where the devices comprise respective nodes. The nodes are in communication with one another by way of a central network hub. The protocol causes the nodes to transmit data over a network bus at different data rates depending upon whether the nodes are operating normally or an arbitration procedure has been invoked.

  4. Protocol Development | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. Letter of Intent (LOI) Process The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. DCP will solicit Letters of Intent from investigators who want to conduct clinical trials with specific agents. |

  5. The Variable Rate Intravenous Insulin Infusion Protocol.

    PubMed

    Collard, Benjamin; Sturgeon, Jonathan; Patel, Natasha; Asharia, Shabbar

    2014-01-01

    Insulin use among inpatients is high and associated with severe and regular medication errors. An initial baseline audit showed a wide variation in the prescription of intravenous insulin within the trust. These included variation in the choice of fluid prescribed, electrolyte levels not consistently checked, handwritten illegible prescriptions, and varying parameters set for adjustment of the prescription. A Variable Rate Intravenous Insulin Infusion protocol (VRIII)) was introduced to standardize intravenous insulin prescription throughout the trust by all members of the clinical team. We looked at and measured uptake and effects of the VRIII protocol in improving standardization of insulin prescription for inpatients on insulin at St George's NHS trust. The protocol was uploaded to the intranet to allow access 24 hours a day and the staff educated about it. The VRIII protocol was routinely used successfully throughout the trust. Any initial problems were addressed through education of clinical staff. The protocol has shown decreased prescribing and administrative errors, whilst demonstrating good glucose and electrolyte control. Use of a standardized protocol helps reduce medication errors and demonstrates good glycaemic control. Regular and continued education of clinical staff is necessary to maintain its efficacy. PMID:26734228

  6. The GBT-SerDes ASIC prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, P.; Baron, S.; Bonacini, S.; Cobanoglu, O.; Faccio, F.; Feger, S.; Francisco, R.; Gui, P.; Li, J.; Marchioro, A.; Paillard, C.; Porret, D.; Wyllie, K.

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the GigaBit Transceiver project (GBT), a prototype, the GBT-SerDes ASIC, was developed, fabricated and tested. To sustain high radiation doses while operating at 4.8Gb/s, the ASIC was fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology employing radiation tolerant techniques and circuits. The transceiver serializes-deserializes the data, Reed-Solomon encodes and decodes the data and scrambles and descrambles the data for transmission over optical fibre links. This paper describes the GBT-SerDes architecture, and presents the test results.

  7. Le domaine des co-infections et des maladies concomitantes du Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des IRSC : lignes directrices canadiennes pour la prise en charge et le traitement de la co-infection par le VIH et l’hépatite C chez les adultes

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Mark; Giguère, Pierre; Klein, Marina; Shafran, Stephen; Tseng, Alice; Côté, Pierre; Poliquin, Marc; Cooper, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : De 20 % à 30 % des Canadiens qui vivent avec le VIH sont co-infectés par le virus de l’hépatite C (VHC), lequel est responsable d’une morbidité et d’une mortalité importantes. La prise en charge du VIH et du VHC est plus complexe en raison de l’évolution accélérée de la maladie hépatique, du choix et des critères d’initiation de la thérapie antirétrovirale et du traitement anti-VHC, de la prise en charge de la santé mentale et des toxicomanies, des obstacles socioéconomiques et des interactions entre les nouvelles thérapies antivirales à action directe du VHC et les antirétroviraux OBJECTIF : Élaborer des normes nationales de prise en charge des adultes co-infectés par le VHC et le VIH dans le contexte canadien. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Le Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada a réuni un groupe d’experts possédant des compétences cliniques en co-infection par le VIH et le VHC pour réviser les publications à jour ainsi que les lignes directrices et les protocoles en place. Après une vaste sollicitation afin d’obtenir des points de vue, le groupe de travail a approuvé des recommandations consensuelles, qu’il a caractérisées au moyen d’une échelle de qualité des preuves fondée sur la classe (bienfaits par rapport aux préjudices) et sur la catégorie (degré de certitude). RÉSULTATS : Toutes les personnes co-infectées par le VIH et le VHC devraient subir une évaluation en vue de recevoir un traitement du VHC. Les personnes qui ne sont pas en mesure d’entreprendre un traitement du VHC devraient être soignées pour le VIH afin de ralentir l’évolution de la maladie hépatique. La norme de traitement du VHC de génotype 1 est un régime comprenant de l’interféron pégylé et de la ribavirine dosée en fonction du poids, associés à un inhibiteur de la protéase du VHC. Pour les génotypes 2 ou 3, une bithérapie classique est recommandée pendant 24 semaines s

  8. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  9. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  10. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  11. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  12. The "Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The overall mission of the Conservatoire national des arts et metiers--(CNAM) [National Conservatory of Industrial Arts and Trades] is outlined. One of its centers, the "Centre national de l'entrepreneuriat"--(CNE) [National Center for Entrepreneurship] is described in greater detail. In particular, this center offers various services, notably…

  13. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  14. WDM Network and Multicasting Protocol Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zaim, Abdul Halim

    2014-01-01

    Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS) and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET) and Just In Time (JIT) reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes. PMID:24744683

  15. The Space Communications Protocol Standards Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Alan; Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-11-01

    In the fall of 1992 NASA and the Department of Defense chartered a technical team to explore the possibility of developing a common set of space data communications standards for potential dual-use across the U.S. national space mission support infrastructure. The team focused on the data communications needs of those activities associated with on-lined control of civil and military aircraft. A two-pronged approach was adopted: a top-down survey of representative civil and military space data communications requirements was conducted; and a bottom-up analysis of available standard data communications protocols was performed. A striking intersection of civil and military space mission requirements emerged, and an equally striking consensus on the approach towards joint civil and military space protocol development was reached. The team concluded that wide segments of the U.S. civil and military space communities have common needs for: (1) an efficient file transfer protocol; (2) various flavors of underlying data transport service; (3) an optional data protection mechanism to assure end-to-end security of message exchange; and (4) an efficient internetworking protocol. These recommendations led to initiating a program to develop a suite of protocols based on these findings. This paper describes the current status of this program.

  16. Network protocols for mobile robot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1998-01-01

    Communications and communications protocols will play an important role in mobile robot systems able to address real world applications. A poorly integrated 'stack' of communications protocols, or protocols which are poorly matched to the functional and performance characteristics of the underlying physical communications links, can greatly reduce the effectiveness of an otherwise well implemented robotic or networked sensors system. The proliferation of Internet-like networks in military as well as civilian domains has motivated research to address some of the performance limitations TCP suffers when using RF and other media with long bandwidth-delay, dynamic connectivity, and error-prone links. Beyond these performance issues, however, TCP is poorly matched to the requirements of mobile robot and other quasi-autonomous systems: it is oriented to providing a continuous data stream, rather than discrete messages, and the canonical 'socket' interface conceals short losses of communications connectivity, but simply gives up and forces the application layer software to deal with longer losses. For the multipurpose security and surveillance mission platform project, a software applique is being developed that will run on top of user datagram protocol to provide a reliable message-based transport service. In addition, a session layer protocol is planned to support the effective transfer of control of multiple platforms among multiple stations.

  17. STATISTICAL PRINCIPLES FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDY PROTOCOLS:

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to quantify relationships in data. Despite an increased focus on statistical content and complexity of biomedical research these topics remain difficult for most researchers. Statistical methods enable researchers to condense large spreadsheets with data into means, proportions, and difference between means, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models ‐ meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are “statistically significant” or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings. PMID:23091782

  18. The Space Communications Protocol Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, Alan; Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-01-01

    In the fall of 1992 NASA and the Department of Defense chartered a technical team to explore the possibility of developing a common set of space data communications standards for potential dual-use across the U.S. national space mission support infrastructure. The team focused on the data communications needs of those activities associated with on-lined control of civil and military aircraft. A two-pronged approach was adopted: a top-down survey of representative civil and military space data communications requirements was conducted; and a bottom-up analysis of available standard data communications protocols was performed. A striking intersection of civil and military space mission requirements emerged, and an equally striking consensus on the approach towards joint civil and military space protocol development was reached. The team concluded that wide segments of the U.S. civil and military space communities have common needs for: (1) an efficient file transfer protocol; (2) various flavors of underlying data transport service; (3) an optional data protection mechanism to assure end-to-end security of message exchange; and (4) an efficient internetworking protocol. These recommendations led to initiating a program to develop a suite of protocols based on these findings. This paper describes the current status of this program.

  19. The Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Clare, Loren P.

    2008-01-01

    A document describes the Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator (IONAC) an electronic apparatus, now under development, for relaying data at high rates in spacecraft and interplanetary radio-communication systems utilizing a delay-tolerant networking protocol. The protocol includes provisions for transmission and reception of data in bundles (essentially, messages), transfer of custody of a bundle to a recipient relay station at each step of a relay, and return receipts. Because of limitations on energy resources available for such relays, data rates attainable in a conventional software implementation of the protocol are lower than those needed, at any given reasonable energy-consumption rate. Therefore, a main goal in developing the IONAC is to reduce the energy consumption by an order of magnitude and the data-throughput capability by two orders of magnitude. The IONAC prototype is a field-programmable gate array that serves as a reconfigurable hybrid (hardware/ firmware) system for implementation of the protocol. The prototype can decode 108,000 bundles per second and encode 100,000 bundles per second. It includes a bundle-cache static randomaccess memory that enables maintenance of a throughput of 2.7Gb/s, and an Ethernet convergence layer that supports a duplex throughput of 1Gb/s.

  20. WDM network and multicasting protocol strategies.

    PubMed

    Kirci, Pinar; Zaim, Abdul Halim

    2014-01-01

    Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS) and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET) and Just In Time (JIT) reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes. PMID:24744683

  1. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  2. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  3. An Integrated Hierarchical Dynamic Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sandeep; Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban; Srikanth, R.; Venugopalan, Anu

    2015-09-01

    Generalizing the notion of dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS), a simplified protocol for hierarchical dynamic quantum secret sharing (HDQSS) is proposed and it is shown that the protocol can be implemented using any existing protocol of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement or secure direct quantum communication. The security of this proposed protocol against eavesdropping and collusion attacks is discussed with specific attention towards the issues related to the composability of the subprotocols that constitute the proposed protocol. The security and qubit efficiency of the proposed protocol is also compared with that of other existing protocols of DQSS. Further, it is shown that it is possible to design a semi-quantum protocol of HDQSS and in principle, the protocols of HDQSS can be implemented using any quantum state. It is also noted that the completely orthogonal-state-based realization of HDQSS protocol is possible and that HDQSS can be experimentally realized using a large number of alternative approaches.

  4. A class-chest for deriving transport protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, W.T.

    1996-10-01

    Development of new transport protocols or protocol algorithms suffers from the complexity of the environment in which they are intended to run. Modeling techniques attempt to avoid this by simulating the environment. Another approach to promoting rapid prototyping of protocols and protocol algorithms is to provide a pre-built infrastructure that is common to transport protocols, so that the focus is placed on the protocol-specific aspects. The Meta-Transport Library is a library of C++ base classes that implement or abstract out the mundane functions of a protocol, new protocol implementations are derived from base classes. The result is a fully viable user- level transport protocol implementation, with emphasis on modularity. The collection of base classes form a ``class-chest`` of tools .from which protocols can be developed and studied with as little change to a normal UNIX environment as possible.

  5. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  6. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-03-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  7. Network protocols for real-time applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1987-01-01

    The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the SAE AE-9B High Speed Ring Bus (HSRB) are emerging standards for high-performance token ring local area networks. FDDI was designed to be a general-purpose high-performance network. HSRB was designed specifically for military real-time applications. A workshop was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in January, 1987 to compare and contrast these protocols with respect to their ability to support real-time applications. This report summarizes workshop presentations and includes an independent comparison of the two protocols. A conclusion reached at the workshop was that current protocols for the upper layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model are inadequate for real-time applications.

  8. Chapter 15: Commercial New Construction Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Keates, S.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol is intended to describe the recommended method when evaluating the whole-building performance of new construction projects in the commercial sector. The protocol focuses on energy conservation measures (ECMs) measures (or packages of measures) where evaluators can best analyze impacts using building simulation. These ECMs typically require the use of calibrated building simulations under Option D of the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. Examples of such measures include Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design building certification, novel and/or efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system designs, and extensive building controls systems. In general, it is best to evaluate any ECM (or set of measures) expected to significantly interact with other systems within the building and with savings sensitive to seasonal variations in weather.

  9. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-07-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  10. Optimizing the Protocol for Pulmonary Cryoablation: A Comparison of a Dual- and Triple-Freeze Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Hinshaw, J. Louis; Littrup, Peter J.; Durick, Nathan; Leung, Winnie; Lee, Fred T.; Sampson, Lisa; Brace, Christopher L.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare a double freeze-thaw protocol to a triple freeze-thaw protocol for pulmonary cryoablation utilizing an in vivo porcine lung model. A total of 18 cryoablations were performed in normal porcine lung utilizing percutaneous technique with 9 each in a double- (10-5-10) and triple-freeze (3-3-7-7-5) protocol. Serial noncontrast CT images were obtained during the ablation. CT imaging findings and pathology were reviewed. No imaging changes were identified during the initial freeze cycle with either protocol. However, during the first thaw cycle, a region of ground glass opacity developed around the probe with both protocols. Because the initial freeze was shorter with the triple freeze-thaw protocol, the imaging findings were apparent sooner with this protocol (6 vs. 13 min). Also, despite a shorter total freeze time (15 vs. 20 min), the ablation zone identified with the triple freeze-thaw protocol was not significantly different from the double freeze-thaw protocol (mean diameter: 1.67 {+-} 0.41 cm vs. 1.66 {+-} 0.21 cm, P = 0.77; area: 2.1 {+-} 0.48 cm{sup 2} vs. 1.99 {+-} 0.62 cm{sup 2}, P = 0.7; and circularity: 0.95 {+-} 0.04 vs. 0.96 {+-} 0.03, P = 0.62, respectively). This study suggests that there may be several advantages of a triple freeze-thaw protocol for pulmonary cryoablation, including earlier identification of the imaging findings associated with the ablation, the promise of a shorter procedure time or larger zones of ablation, and theoretically, more effective cytotoxicity related to the additional freeze-thaw cycle.

  11. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Fabien

    2008-01-01

    Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC), organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation). The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches). Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT Evaluation or variants of these

  12. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank

    2005-06-15

    We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  13. Building multiservice Internet protocol virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, William

    1999-11-01

    Multiservice Internet Protocol-based Virtual Private Networks (MIP- VPNs) with Quality of Service (QoS) are becoming a reality due to the availability of new standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This paper describes how components including security models, IP tunneling protocols, and service differentiation schemes fit together in order to construct such a VPN. First, the concept and rationale of VPN is presented, followed by a discussion of its supporting components. A comparison is made among the various VPN technologies.

  14. The Parasol Protocol for computational mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Aronica, P G A; Verma, C; Popovic, B; Leatherbarrow, R J; Gould, I R

    2016-07-01

    To aid in the discovery and development of peptides and proteins as therapeutic agents, a virtual screen can be used to predict trends and direct workflow. We have developed the Parasol Protocol, a dynamic method implemented using the AMBER MD package, for computational site-directed mutagenesis. This tool can mutate between any pair of amino acids in a computationally expedient, automated manner. To demonstrate the potential of this methodology, we have employed the protocol to investigate a test case involving stapled peptides, and have demonstrated good agreement with experiment. PMID:27255759

  15. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies. PMID:25431448

  16. Social Protocols for Agile Virtual Teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Willy

    Despite many works on collaborative networked organizations (CNOs), CSCW, groupware, workflow systems and social networks, computer support for virtual teams is still insufficient, especially support for agility, i.e. the capability of virtual team members to rapidly and cost efficiently adapt the way they interact to changes. In this paper, requirements for computer support for agile virtual teams are presented. Next, an extension of the concept of social protocol is proposed as a novel model supporting agile interactions within virtual teams. The extended concept of social protocol consists of an extended social network and a workflow model.

  17. Optimal protocols for slowly driven quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Zulkowski, Patrick R; DeWeese, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    The design of efficient quantum information processing will rely on optimal nonequilibrium transitions of driven quantum systems. Building on a recently developed geometric framework for computing optimal protocols for classical systems driven in finite time, we construct a general framework for optimizing the average information entropy for driven quantum systems. Geodesics on the parameter manifold endowed with a positive semidefinite metric correspond to protocols that minimize the average information entropy production in finite time. We use this framework to explicitly compute the optimal entropy production for a simple two-state quantum system coupled to a heat bath of bosonic oscillators, which has applications to quantum annealing. PMID:26465432

  18. Catalytic Environmentally Friendly Protocol for Achmatowicz Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhilong; Tong, Rongbiao

    2016-06-01

    The increasing interest in Achmatowicz rearrangement in organic synthesis calls for a more environmentally friendly protocol since the most popular oxidants m-CPBA and NBS produced stoichiometric organic side product (m-chlorobenzoic acid or succinimide). Mechanism-guided analysis enables us to develop a new catalytic method (Oxone/KBr) for AchR in excellent yield with K2SO4 as the only side product, which greatly facilitates the purification. This protocol was integrated with other transformations, leading to a rapid access to the highly functionalized dihydropyranones. PMID:27167167

  19. Physician Recommendation of Diabetes Clinical Protocols.

    PubMed

    McMaughan, Darcy K; Huber, John C; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Vuong, Ann M; Helduser, Janet; Ory, Marcia G; Bolin, Jane N

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the responses of 63 primary care physicians to diabetes clinical protocols (DCPs) for the management of type II diabetes (T2DM). We measured physician demographics, current diabetes patient loads, and responses to DCPs (physician attitudes, physician familiarity, and physician recommendation of DCPs) using a 20-question electronic survey. Results of the survey indicate that primary care physicians may be unfamiliar with the benefits of diabetes clinical protocols for the self-management of T2DM. Given the importance of diabetes self-management education in controlling T2DM, those interested in implementing DCPs should address the beliefs and attitudes of primary care physicians. PMID:26980203

  20. Applying QCVV protocols to real physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magesan, Easwar

    As experimental systems move closer to realizing small-scale quantum computers with high fidelity operations, errors become harder to detect and diagnose. Verification and validation protocols are becoming increasingly important for detecting and understanding the precise nature of these errors. I will outline various methods and protocols currently used to deal with errors in experimental systems. I will also discuss recent advances in implementing high fidelity operations which will help to understand some of the tools that are still needed on the road to realizing larger scale quantum systems. Work partially supported by ARO under Contract W911NF-14-1-0124.

  1. Point-to-Point Multicast Communications Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Nakano, Russell; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a protocol to support point-to-point interprocessor communications with multicast. Dynamic, cut-through routing with local flow control is used to provide a high-throughput, low-latency communications path between processors. In addition multicast transmissions are available, in which copies of a packet are sent to multiple destinations using common resources as much as possible. Special packet terminators and selective buffering are introduced to avoid a deadlock during multicasts. A simulated implementation of the protocol is also described.

  2. The Kyoto Protocol: A business perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, C.B.

    1998-01-19

    Governments have made a tentative start in responding to climate change. In marathon negotiating sessions that extended into an extra day Dec. 1--11 in Kyoto, Japan, representatives from more than 160 governments hammered out the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The protocol calls for developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on averaged by 5.2% below 1990 levels by the years 2008--2012. Developing countries have no new obligations. The paper discusses the agreement, ratification, future questions, business role, and the challenge.

  3. Cryptanalysis of the Quantum Group Signature Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke-Jia; Sun, Ying; Song, Ting-Ting; Zuo, Hui-Juan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the researches of quantum group signature (QGS) have attracted a lot of attentions and some typical protocols have been designed for e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. In this paper, we analyze the security of the quantum group signature with the example of two novel protocols. It can be seen that both of them cannot be implemented securely since the arbitrator cannot solve the disputes fairly. In order to show that, some possible attack strategies, which can be used by the malicious participants, are proposed. Moreover, the further discussions of QGS are presented finally, including some insecurity factors and improved ideas.

  4. Profil epidemiologique des brulures d'enfants admis au Centre National des Brules, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, A.; Atannaz, J.; Alaoui, M.; Rafik, A.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Chlihi, A.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ce travail rétrospectif analyse les particularités épidémiologiques de 543 cas de brûlures d'enfants, représentant 45,7% des admissions de notre centre, en vue de déterminer les éléments pouvant contribuer à renforcer la prévention, qui reste le traitement de choix de cette pathologie. La moyenne d'âge est de 4,25 ans avec une prédilection pour la tranche d'âge d'un à cinq ans, avec 42,5% des cas. Une atteinte masculine est retrouvée dans 63,5% des cas. La brûlure survient à domicile dans 85,1% et accidentellement dans 95% des cas. Les brûlures thermiques représentent 96,5% des causes dominées par les liquides dans 69,3% des cas. La surface cutanée brûlée est ≥ 20% dans 52,3%. La brûlure intéresse essentiellement les membres supérieurs (79,1%). 56,8% des enfants sont transférés par d'autres hôpitaux et le délai de prise en charge hospitalière est supérieur à 6 heures dans 65,5%. Le taux de mortalité a été de 13,2%. PMID:22639559

  5. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  6. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  7. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report. Fort Des Moines, Des Moines, Iowa. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.; Rausch, K.; Kang, J.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by The Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) at the Fort Des Moines, a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA Federal agencies are required to identify real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. Fort Des Moines is a 53.28-acre site located in Polk County, Iowa, within the city limits of Des Moines. The installation's primary mission is to provide support and shelter for the U.S. Army Reserve. Activities associated with the property that have environmental significance are photographic processing, vehicle maintenance, printing, and fuel storage. TETC reviewed existing investigation documents; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), State, and county regulatory records; environmental data bases; and title documents pertaining to Fort Des Moines during this investigation. In addition, TETC conducted interviews and visual inspections of Fort Des Moines as well as visual inspections and data base searches for the surrounding properties. Information in this CERFA Report was current as of April 1994.

  8. Student Performances in Various Learning Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorius, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    A comparison was made between students' overall performance, as measured by overall grade, in different teaching and learning protocols: (1) traditional textbook and lecture along with standard examinations; (2) lectures with online augmentation and PowerPoint lecture notes along with standard examinations; (3) similar to "(2)" but with modified…

  9. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live within the United States. (4) The age and sex distribution of each 100-child panel shall be: (i... recorded for each child in the 100-child test panel: (1) Sex (male or female). (2) Date of birth (month... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child...

  10. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live within the United States. (4) The age and sex distribution of each 100-child panel shall be: (i... recorded for each child in the 100-child test panel: (1) Sex (male or female). (2) Date of birth (month... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child...

  11. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring information about any data access protocol to the same monitoring infrastructure that is used to monitor the Xrootd deployments. Our goal is to evaluate under which circumstances the HTTP-based protocols can be good enough for batch or interactive data access. In this contribution we show and discuss the results that our test systems have collected under the circumstances that include ROOT analyses using TTreeCache and stress tests on the metadata performance.

  12. A Bayesian approach to optimizing cryopreservation protocols

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is beset with the challenge of protocol alignment across a wide range of cell types and process variables. By taking a cross-sectional assessment of previously published cryopreservation data (sample means and standard errors) as preliminary meta-data, a decision tree learning analysis (DTLA) was performed to develop an understanding of target survival using optimized pruning methods based on different approaches. Briefly, a clear direction on the decision process for selection of methods was developed with key choices being the cooling rate, plunge temperature on the one hand and biomaterial choice, use of composites (sugars and proteins as additional constituents), loading procedure and cell location in 3D scaffolding on the other. Secondly, using machine learning and generalized approaches via the Naïve Bayes Classification (NBC) method, these metadata were used to develop posterior probabilities for combinatorial approaches that were implicitly recorded in the metadata. These latter results showed that newer protocol choices developed using probability elicitation techniques can unearth improved protocols consistent with multiple unidimensionally-optimized physical protocols. In conclusion, this article proposes the use of DTLA models and subsequently NBC for the improvement of modern cryopreservation techniques through an integrative approach. PMID:26131379

  13. IMPROVED SAMPLE RECOVERY IN THERMOCYCLE SEQUENCING PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA sequencing protocols which utilize multiple cycles of DNA synthesis by Taq DNA polymerase require recovery of small sample volumes from beneath a layer of mineral oil. owever, the small volume of aqueous phase and the high surface tension between the two phases makes complete...

  14. Reliable multicasting in the Xpress Transport Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, J.W.; Catrina, O.; Fenton, J.; Strayer, W.T.

    1996-12-01

    The Xpress Transport Protocol (XTP) is designed to meet the needs of distributed, real-time, and multimedia systems. This paper describes the genesis of recent improvements to XTP that provide mechanisms for reliable management of multicast groups, and gives details of the mechanisms used.

  15. Service discovery with routing protocols for MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Shuo

    2005-11-01

    Service discovery is becoming an important topic as its use throughout the Internet becomes more widespread. In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), the routing protocol is very important because it is special network. To find a path for data, and destination nodes, nodes send packets to each node, creating substantial overhead traffic and consuming much time. Even though a variety of routing protocols have been developed for use in MANETs, they are insufficient for reducing overhead traffic and time. In this paper, we propose SDRP: a new service discovery protocol combined with routing policies in MANETs. The protocol is performed upon a distributed network. We describe a service by a unique ID number and use a group-cast routing policy in advertisement and request. The group-cast routing policy decreases the traffic in networks, and it is efficient to find destination node. In addition, the nodes included in the reply path also cache the advertisement information, and it means when each node finds a node next time, they can know where it is as soon as possible, so they minimize the time. Finally, we compare SDRP with both Flood and MAODV in terms of overload, and average delay. Simulation results show SDRP can spend less response time and accommodate even high mobility network environments.

  16. A study of MAC protocols for WBANs.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

  17. Teledermatology protocol for screening of Skin Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Maria Fernanda; Amorim, Bruna Dücker Bastos; Wagner, Harley Miguel; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Telemedicine refers to the use of technology as improvement of healthcare delivery to places where distance becomes an obstacle. Its use represents a great potential for dermatology, a specialty whose visual analysis phase is essential in diagnosis. OBJECTIVES To analyze the compatibility index of skin cancer diagnoses between primary care and teledermatology, and to validate a protocol for standardization of digital imaging to obtain the reports in teledermatology. METHODS An observational cross-sectional study developed through the census of 333 examination requests, received between January/2012 and July/2012, in the Center for Telemedicine and Telehealth of SES-SC. We used a protocol for photographic lesion standardization, consisting of three steps (panoramic photo, close-up with ruler and dermoscopy). After collection, the data were sent to a virtual site on the Internet, and recorded with the use of an electronic health record containing the images, the skin phototype and demographic characteristics. RESULTS The level of compatibility between the diagnosis of skin cancer in Santa Catarina's primary care and the diagnosis proposed by teledermatology was 19.02%. Proportionally, it was 21.21% for BCC, 44.44% for SCC and 6.98% for MM. The protocol was statistically significant (p <0.05), with an OR of 38.77. CONCLUSION The rate of diagnostic compatibility of skin cancer was low and the use of the protocol optimized the chance of validating requests for examination. PMID:25830990

  18. Leaf tissue sampling and DNA extraction protocols.

    PubMed

    Semagn, Kassa

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomists must be familiar with a number of issues in collecting and transporting samples using freezing methods (liquid nitrogen and dry ice), desiccants (silica gel and blotter paper), and preservatives (CTAB, ethanol, and isopropanol), with each method having its own merits and limitations. For most molecular studies, a reasonably good quality and quantity of DNA is required, which can only be obtained using standard DNA extraction protocols. There are many DNA extraction protocols that vary from simple and quick ones that yield low-quality DNA but good enough for routine analyses to the laborious and time-consuming standard methods that usually produce high quality and quantities of DNA. The protocol to be chosen will depend on the quality and quantity of DNA needed, the nature of samples, and the presence of natural substances that may interfere with the extraction and subsequent analysis. The protocol described in this chapter has been tested for extracting DNA from eight species and provided very good quality and quantity of DNA for different applications, including those genotyping methods that use restriction enzymes. PMID:24415469

  19. Reengineering Archival Access through the OAI Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prom, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Protocol for Metadata Harvesting program presents a method by which metadata regarding archives and manuscripts can be shared and made more interoperable with metadata from other sources. Outlines a method for exposing hierarchical metadata from encoded archival description (EAD) files and assesses some…

  20. A Generic Archive Protocol and an Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, J. M.; Jennings, D. G.; McGlynn, T. A.; Ruggiero, N. G.; Serlemitsos, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    Archiving vast amounts of data has become a major part of every scientific space mission today. GRASP, the Generic Retrieval/Ar\\-chive Services Protocol, addresses the question of how to archive the data collected in an environment where the underlying hardware archives and computer hosts may be rapidly changing.

  1. Measurement Protocols for Optimized Fuel Assembly Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

    2008-11-01

    This report describes the measurement protocols for optimized tags that can be applied to standard fuel assemblies used in light water reactors. This report describes work performed by the authors at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for NA-22 as part of research to identify specific signatures that can be developed to support counter-proliferation technologies.

  2. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test... than 15 (e.g. 16, 17), add 1 month. If the difference in days is less than -15 (e.g., -16, -17) subtract 1 month. 50 months - 1 month = 49 months. If the difference in days is between -15 and 15...

  3. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test... than 15 (e.g. 16, 17), add 1 month. If the difference in days is less than -15 (e.g., -16, -17) subtract 1 month. 50 months - 1 month = 49 months. If the difference in days is between -15 and 15...

  4. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test protocol. 1212.4 Section 1212.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY... become accustomed to the new environment before starting the test. The area in which the testing...

  5. Evaluating Computer-Tutors: A Protocol Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James

    A protocol study investigated whether computer tutors (programs that interactively guide writers while they freewrite with a word processing program) promote or hinder a richer understanding of the composing process. The analysis focused on writers' attitudes toward computer tutors in the invention process. Data were collected by tape recording a…

  6. Etude des phenomenes de penetration des especes chimiques dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisson, Pierre-Yves

    Cette these decrit l'etude effectuee sur les phenomenes d'insertion du sodium et de penetration du bain electrolytique dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium. L'etude fut effectuee a l'aide d'un montage permettant d'effectuer l'electrolyse en laboratoire. Trois types de revetement cathodiques furent etudies : des blocs semi-graphitique, des blocs graphitiques et des blocs graphitises. L'insertion du sodium dans les trois differents types de blocs fut etudiee a l'aide de la spectrometrie des photoelectrons X (XPS). L'analyse a permis de mettre en evidence deux formes de sodium dans l'anthracite et la phase liante des materiaux semi-graphitiques et graphitiques, indiquant qu'une fraction du sodium se retrouve sous forme adsorbee dans les micropores des materiaux alors que l'autre fraction est inseree dans la structure cristalline du carbone. Dans les phases graphitiques (materiaux graphitises et graphitiques), seuls les micropores sont occupes par le sodium Ce resultat explique la tendance observee selon laquelle l'ajout de graphite dans les blocs permet d'abaisser le gonflement sodique. Les mecanismes de penetration du bain dans le reseau poreux des materiaux furent etudies en microscopie electronique et en diffraction des rayons X sur des echantillons apres differents temps d'electrolyses et en variant l'atmosphere (soit sous argon ou sous azote). Ces analyses ont permis d'identifier le mecanisme conduisant a la mouillabilite du bain sur le carbone en fonction de l'atmosphere entourant l'electrolyse. Ainsi, sous azote, la formation de NaCN dans les pores des materiaux par reactions entre le sodium et l'azote permet une mouillabilite accrue du bain alors qu'en absence d'azote (sous argon), le carbure d'aluminium, formes a la surface des pores, joue un role similaire. Dans ce dernier cas, la penetration du bain est moins rapide etant donnee la necessite de toujours amener des especes contenant de l'aluminium en tete du front de

  7. Temporal knowledge representation for scheduling tasks in clinical trial protocols.

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua; Kahn, Michael; Gennari, John

    2002-01-01

    Clinical trial protocols include detailed temporal constraints on treatment and associated tasks. Unlike health-care guidelines, protocols are highly prescriptive. Therefore, informatics applications that enforce such temporal constraints are more directly useful with protocols than with guidelines. Although there are some temporal knowledge representation efforts for health-care guidelines, we find these to be insufficiently expressive for clinical trial protocols. In this paper, we focus on temporal knowledge representation for clinical trial protocols and the task of patient-specific scheduling in protocols. We define a temporal ontology, use it to encode clinical trial protocols, and describe a prototype tool to carry out patient-specific scheduling for the tasks in protocols. We predict that an expressive temporal knowledge representation can support a number of scheduling and management tasks for protocol-based care. PMID:12463951

  8. The braided single-stage protocol for quantum secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darunkar, Bhagyashri; Verma, Pramode K.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the concept and implementation of a Braided Single-stage Protocol for quantum secure communication. The braided single-stage protocol is a multi-photon tolerant secure protocol. This multi-photon tolerant protocol has been implemented in the laboratory using free-space optics technology. The proposed protocol capitalizes on strengths of the three-stage protocol and extends it with a new concept of braiding. This protocol overcomes the limitations associated with the three-stage protocol in the following ways: It uses the transmission channel only once as opposed to three times in the three-stage protocol, and it is invulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. This paper also presents the error analysis resulting from the misalignment of the devices in the implementation. The experimental results validate the efficient use of transmission resources and improvement in the data transfer rate.

  9. Joining the yellow hub: Uses of the Simple Application Messaging Protocol in Space Physics analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génot, V.; André, N.; Cecconi, B.; Bouchemit, M.; Budnik, E.; Bourrel, N.; Gangloff, M.; Dufourg, N.; Hess, S.; Modolo, R.; Renard, B.; Lormant, N.; Beigbeder, L.; Popescu, D.; Toniutti, J.-P.

    2014-11-01

    The interest for data communication between analysis tools in planetary sciences and space physics is illustrated in this paper via several examples of the uses of SAMP. The Simple Application Messaging Protocol is developed in the frame of the IVOA from an earlier protocol called PLASTIC. SAMP enables easy communication and interoperability between astronomy software, stand-alone and web-based; it is now increasingly adopted by the planetary sciences and space physics community. Its attractiveness is based, on one hand, on the use of common file formats for exchange and, on the other hand, on established messaging models. Examples of uses at the CDPP and elsewhere are presented. The CDPP (Centre de Données de la Physique des Plasmas, http://cdpp.eu/), the French data center for plasma physics, is engaged for more than a decade in the archiving and dissemination of data products from space missions and ground observatories. Besides these activities, the CDPP developed services like AMDA (Automated Multi Dataset Analysis, http://amda.cdpp.eu/) which enables in depth analysis of large amount of data through dedicated functionalities such as: visualization, conditional search and cataloging. Besides AMDA, the 3DView (http://3dview.cdpp.eu/) tool provides immersive visualizations and is further developed to include simulation and observational data. These tools and their interactions with each other, notably via SAMP, are presented via science cases of interest to planetary sciences and space physics communities.

  10. TRANSPLANTATION EN MASSE DES ORGANES ABDOMINAUX

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, T.

    2010-01-01

    Les transplantations multi-organes, comprenant les blocs foie-duodénum-pancréas, foie-estomac-duodénum-pancréas, et foie-intestin sont réalisées avec un succés croissant Ces techniques et leurs combinaisons variées de transplantation monobloc ne sont pas de pratique courante. Les techniques de prélévement, de conservation et de soins post-opératoires sont décrites pour la transplantation multi-organes compléte ainsi que pour les variantes incomplétes. Le probléme particulier à ce type de transplantation est celui de la transplantation intestinale, c’est-à-dire la transplantation d’un organe à composante lymphoréticulaire complexe ce qui peut provoquer un syndrome greffon contre hôte. Par erreur de conception, et un peu par esprit de systéme, les efforts par le passé étaient dirigés sur la modification et la destruction des systémes lymphoréticulaires grâce au traitement préalable du donneur ou des organes transplantés, par médicaments, radiation ou autres moyens. Actuellement, I’idée directrice est de garder intacte les systémes lymphoréticulaires qui deviennent alors le site d’une circulation à double sens aprés transplantation. Avec la puissante immunodépression que fournit le FK 506, les cellules lymphoréticulaires du donneur peuvent circuler chez le receveur sans créer de syndrome du greffon contre hôte clinique et les cellules de la greffe s’assimilent à celles du receveur (chimérisme local) sans provoquer de rejet. Même si I’on évite le rejet ou le syndrome greffon contre hôte, il existe, à côté de ces entités, des relations métaboliques entre les organes greffés ainsi qu’entre les organes greffés et les viscéres du receveur laissés en place, qui peuvent influencer I’avenir soit des organes greffés, soit des organes laissés en place. Parmi les échanges métaboliques les mieux connus actuellement, il y a les facteurs splanchniques hépatotrophes endogénes, dont I’insuline est la mieux

  11. Montreal Protocol benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, T.; Rozanov, E.; Gröbner, J.; Hauser, M.; Schmutz, W.

    2012-07-01

    Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS), the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments (MPA) on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM) SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS) prescribed according to the restrictions of the Montreal Protocol and all its Amendments. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasize certain features which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery). For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  12. Interoperability Between Geoscience And Geospatial Catalog Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, C.; di, L.; Yang, W.; Lynnes, C.; Domenico, B.; Rutledge, G. K.; Enloe, Y.

    2007-12-01

    In the past several years, interoperability gaps have made cross-protocol and cross-community data access a challenge within the Earth science community. One such gap is between two protocol families developed within the geospatial and Earth science communities. The Earth science community has developed a family of related geoscience protocols that includes OPeNDAP for data access and the Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) catalog capability. The corresponding protocols in the geospatial community are the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) protocols Web Coverage Service for geospatial data access and Catalog Services for Web (CSW) for data search. We have developed a catalog gateway to mediate client/server interactions between OGC catalog clients and THREDDS servers. In essence, the gateway is an OGC Catalog server that enables OGC clients to search for data registered in THREDDS catalogs. The gateway comprises two parts: the CSW server and a THREDDS-to-CSW ingestion tool. There are two key challenges in constructing such gateway, the first is to define the mapping relationship between the catalog metadata schema of CSW and that of the THREDDS, and the second one is to ingest the THREDDS catalog content into the CSW server. Since our CSW server is based on the ISO19115/ISO19119 Application Profile, a key challenge is to semantically map the ISO 19115 metadata attributes in ISO Application Profile to the THREDDS metadata attributes in the THREDDS Dataset Inventory Catalog Specification Version 1.0. With the mapping established, tools that translate the THREDDS catalog information model into the CSW/ISO Profile information model were developed. These dynamically poll THREDDS catalog servers and ingest the THREDDS catalog information into the CSW server's database, maintaining the hierarchical relationships inherent in the THREDDS catalogs. A prototype system has been implemented to demonstrate the concept and approach.

  13. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  14. A Magellanic origin of the DES dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-09-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves, and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of sub-haloes in Λ cold dark matter, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95) per cent confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Marginalizing over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011 M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  15. Early Results from the DES SN Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolnic, Daniel; Dark Energy Survey

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES SN) has already discovered over 1000 Type Ia supernovae with well-sampled multi-color light curves in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.2. I will present an overview of the survey and show recent advances in our detection, photometry, calibration and spectroscopic follow-up pipelines. I will go over initial results from photometric classification of our sample and discuss methods used to reach measurements of cosmological parameters.

  16. A Magellanic Origin of the DES Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-06-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of subhaloes in ΛCDM, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95)% confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the LMC. Marginalising over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  17. Sonderverfahren des Spritzgießens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaeli, Walther; Lettowsky, Christoph

    Das Spritzgießen ist neben der Extrusion das wichtigste Verarbeitungsverfahren für Kunststoffe [1]. Das Verfahren hat sich seit seinen Ursprüngen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts bis heute stetig weiterentwickelt [2]. In neuerer Zeit steigt die Anzahl komplexer Anwendungen, die die gezielte Kombination verschiedener Funktionalitäten in einem Formteil erfordern. Das Standard-Spritzgießen kann diese Anforderungen immer weniger befriedigen. Daher gewinnen die Sonderverfahren des Spritzgießens zunehmend an Bedeutung [3]. Ihre Anzahl beträgt inzwischen über 100. Die Aufgabe des Anwenders ist es, aus der Vielzahl der möglichen Verfahren, ein anforderungsgerechtes auszuwählen, das sowohl unter technischen wie wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten die optimale Lösung darstellt. Dies setzt die ständige Auseinandersetzung mit Entwicklungstendenzen im Bereich der Spritzgießtechnologie voraus. Daher soll im folgenden Abschnitt ein Überblick über die wichtigsten Spritzgieß-Sonderverfahren gegeben werden.

  18. Profil anthropometrique des enfants scolarises tananariviens

    PubMed Central

    Razafimanantsoa, Fetralinjiva; Razafindramaro, Notahiana; Raherimandimby, Hasina; Robinson, Annick; RakotoAlson, Olivat; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

    2013-01-01

    Les enfants tananariviens sont en état de malnutrition chronique. Notre objectif est d’évaluer l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) pour estimer les enfants apparemment "sains". Une enquête et une mesure de la taille et du poids des enfants scolarisés tananariviens de 6 à 11 ans ont été réalisées. Après leur accord, la taille et l'indice de masse corporelle des 442 enfants tirés au hasard ont été ainsi obtenus. L'analyse de la moyenne de la taille a révélé une différence significative à 8 ans, une différence non évidente sur l'indice de masse corporelle. La comparaison avec les valeurs de référence (OMS 2006) a montré un retard statural de 34% avec une tendance globale à la hausse et un déficit pondéral égal à 5,5% selon le z score. Ainsi, au sein d'une population malnutrie, l'indice de masse corporelle pourrait être utilisé comme un des paramètres à considérer dans l’évaluation de l’état de santé pour classer ces enfants en bonne santé apparente. PMID:24711862

  19. Dermatomyosite et panniculite: place des immunoglobulines

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafidh, Nadia Ben; Toujeni, Sana; Kefi, Asma; Bousetta, Najeh; Sayhi, Sameh; Gharsallah, Imen; Othmani, Salah

    2016-01-01

    La panniculite est une maladie inflammatoire du tissu adipeux sous-cutané rarement associée à la dermatomyosite. Elle peut survenir avant, après ou en même temps que l'atteinte musculaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l’évolution de la panniculite et des autres atteintes de la dermatomyosite est favorable sous traitement corticoïde et/ou immunosuppresseur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 48 ans ayant présenté des lésions de panniculite précédant de 2 mois les signes musculaires. L'atteinte cutanée était résistante au traitement corticoïde associés aux immunosuppresseurs ce qui a nécessité le recours au traitement par Immunoglobulines polyvalentes permettant ainsi une amélioration à la fois de l'atteinte cutanée et musculaire.

  20. Newtons Universum. Materialien zur Geschichte des Kraftbegriffes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mit einem Vorwort von E. Seibold und einer Einführung von W. Neuser. This book is a selection of 15 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Impetustheorie und Intuition in der Physik (M. McCloskey). 2. Mittelalterliche Ursprünge der industriellen Revolution (T. S. Reynolds). 3. Leonardo da Vincis Beiträge zur theoretischen Mechanik (V. Foley, W. Soedel). 4. Nikolaus Kopernikus und Tycho Brahe (O. Gingerich). 5. Keplers Entdeckung der ersten beiden Planetengesetze (C. Wilson). 6. Galileis Entdeckung des Fallgesetzes (S. Drake). 7. Galileis Beobachtung des Neptun (S. Drake, C. T. Kowal). 8. Galileo Galilei und der Schatten des Giordano Bruno (L. S. Lerner, E. A. Gosselin). 9. Der Fall Galilei (O. Gingerich). 10. Newtons Apfel und Galileis "Dialog" (S. Drake). 11. Newtons Gravitationsgesetz - aus Formeln wird eine Idee (I. B. Cohen). 12. Christopher Wren: Astronom und Architekt (H. Dorn, R. Mark). 13. Atomismus und Kräfte in der Geschichte (L. Holliday). 14. Ein Elitezirkel vor 200 Jahren: Die Lunar Society von Birmingham (L. Ritchie-Calder). 15. Sadi Carnot: Technik und Theorie der Dampfmaschine (S. S. Wilson).

  1. Choice of DES: is there a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, U; Bhatia, V

    2009-01-01

    Restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions has been a major limitation of this otherwise very well-accepted method of coronary revascularisation. Coronary stents work by scaffolding the intimal flaps and preventing elastic recoil, which was a major problem after balloon angioplasty. The neointimal growth response to stenting contributes significantly to the restenotic process. Randomised studies comparing coronary artery bypass surgery with coronary stenting especially in multivessel disease clearly highlighted this problem. The problem has been greater in magnitude in special subgroups: diabetics, patients with small vessels (≤2.5 mm in diameter), long segments of disease (≥20 mm in length), etc. These limitations of Bare metal stents have been addressed by drug-eluting stents (DESs). Third-generation stents with bioabsorbable polymers like the Biolimus releasing Biomatrix stent have already become available in Europe and parts of Asia. A longer follow-up will prove their long-term safety vis-à-vis first-generation DES. The polymer-free stent with capability of using more than one drug, though very attractive, needs larger multicentric studies before gaining wider acceptance. The fully bioabsorbable stent is yet another promising concept. The feasibility has already been demonstrated, and finer refinements are under way. The future of newer DES thus is very promising, and most of the issues related to first-generation DES are at the threshold of being solved.

  2. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  3. Hybrid protocol of remote implementations of quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Ningbo; Wang Anmin

    2007-12-15

    We propose a protocol of remote implementations of quantum operations by hybridizing bidirectional quantum-state teleportation (BQST) [Huelga et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 042303 (2001)] and the Wang protocol [Wang, Phys. Rev. A 74, 032317 (2006)]. The protocol is available for remote implementations of quantum operations in the restricted sets specified in the paper. We also give a proof of the protocol and point out its optimization. As an extension, this hybrid protocol can be reduced to the BQST and Wang protocols.

  4. An Evaluation of Protocol Enhancing Proxies and File Transport Protocols for Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finch, Patrick Eugene; Sullivan, Donald; Ivancic, William D.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is utilizing Global Hawk aircraft in high-altitude, long-duration Earth science missions. Communications with the onboard research equipment and sensors (the science payload) is via Ku-Band radio utilizing satellites in geostationary orbits. All payload communications use standard Internet Protocols and routing, and much of the data to be transferred is comprised of very large files. The science community is interested in fully utilizing these communication links to retrieve data as quickly and reliably as possible. A test bed was developed at NASA Ames to evaluate modern transport protocols as well as Protocol Enhancing Proxies (PEPs) to determine what tools best fit the needs of the science community. This paper describes the test bed used, the protocols, the PEPs that were evaluated, the particular tests performed and the results and conclusions.

  5. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  6. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  7. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  8. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  9. Devising local protocols for multipartite quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2016-04-01

    We provide a method of designing protocols for implementing multipartite quantum measurements when the parties are restricted to local operations and classical communication (LOCC). For each finite integer number of rounds r , the method succeeds in every case for which an r -round protocol exists for the measurement under consideration, and failure of the method has the immediate implication that the measurement under consideration cannot be implemented by LOCC no matter how many rounds of communication are allowed, including when the number of rounds is allowed to be infinite. It turns out that this method shows—often with relative ease—the impossibility by LOCC for a number of examples, including cases where this was not previously known, as well as the example that demonstrated what has famously become known as nonlocality without entanglement.

  10. An Evaluation of UDP Transport Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S

    2004-12-21

    Although the speed of LAN and WAN networking is growing at an exponential rate, the applications that use those networks have not followed suit. With fiber optic interconnects, gigahertz processor speeds, and 10 gigabit per second network interface cards, hardware does not seem to be the limiting factor. It is becoming increasingly obvious that the protocols that are the basis of networking today are ill-suited to a new generation of networking technology. For this reason, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is particularly interested in improving bulk transfers over high-bandwidth, high-latency networks because of its involvement in storage and in the transfer of data for cutting-edge scientific applications. This report summarizes our evaluation of a new group of protocols specifically designed to get more useful bandwidth from today's high speed, wide area networks.

  11. Multipass Steering Protocols at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Bodenstein; Michael Tiefenback

    2007-06-22

    The CEBAF recirculating accelerator consists of two CW superconducting RF linacs, through which an electron beam is accelerated for up to 5 passes. Focusing and steering elements affect each pass differently, requiring a multipass steering protocol to correct the orbits. Perturbations include lens misalignments (including long-term ground motion), BPM offsets, and focusing and steering from RF fields inside the cavities. A previous treatment of this problem assumed all perturbations were localized at the quadrupoles and the absence of x-y coupling. Having analyzed the problem and characterized the solutions, we developed an empirical iterative protocol to compare against previous results in the presence of skew fields and cross-plane coupling. We plan to characterize static and acceleration-dependent components of the beam line perturbations to allow systematic and rapid configuration of the accelerator at different linac energy gains.

  12. Protocol Directed Patient Care using a Computer

    PubMed Central

    Blum, B.; Lenhard, R.; McColligan, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins Oncology Center has developed a clinical information system which assists in the care of the 2,000 patients currently under treatment at the Center. The system maintains a data base containing a summary diagnostic and treatment history plus complete tabulations of laboratory results, therapies, and other clinical findings. These data are organized and displayed in formats which aid decision-making. For the past year the Center has been working with an extension to the data system which produces daily care plans for each inpatient and outpatient treated at the Center. These plans are a function of the disease, treatment protocol, and current clinical status of each patient. This paper describes the objectives, organization, and experience to date with the use of computer generated plans for protocol directed patient care.

  13. Da Vinci robot emergency undocking protocol.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, O E; O'Sullivan, S; Hewitt, M; O'Reilly, B A

    2016-09-01

    The role of robot-assisted surgery across gynaecology is evolving with increasing numbers of procedures being undertaken with varying degrees of complexity. While the risk of conversion is low at approximately 1 %, the reasons for conversion are variable. These range from technical issues with the robot, surgical complications such as haemorrhage and anaesthetics issues such as an inability to ventilate the patient adequately. While many conversions to open or laparoscopic approach are not due to life-threatening indications, it is important that the theatre staff are aware of the indication and can perform an emergency undocking as effectively, efficiently and safely as possible when the need arises. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of the literature available outlining such protocols. For this reason, we developed an emergency undocking protocol clearly outlining the role of each theatre staff member and the need for clear concise communication. PMID:27126584

  14. Protocol for ultrarapid immunostaining of frozen sections.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, T; Nährig, J; Komminoth, P; Kowolik, J; Werner, M

    1999-01-01

    Rapid immunostaining of frozen sections within a tolerable time span would be very helpful for intraoperative diagnosis. A protocol was therefore established using the enhanced polymer one-step staining (EPOS) system (Dako) with antibodies against leucocyte common antigen (LCA), cytokeratin (CK), and anti-melanoma (MEL). Best results with reliable and specific immunostaining and a labelling intensity comparable to standard immunostaining protocols were achieved with fixation of samples in 100% acetone for 20 seconds (CK, LCA) or two minutes (MEL), followed by incubation of the primary antibody and development of the chromogen reaction with 3,3'diaminobenzidine (DAB) for three and five minutes at 37 degrees C, respectively. The total procedure takes only 12 minutes, thus enabling rapid immunostaining on intraoperative frozen sections. Apart from its use in tumour classification, this method is especially useful in detecting tumour cells in sentinel lymph nodes. Images PMID:10562816

  15. Configurations for file transfer protocol error protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.; Reichstein, Z.

    1986-01-01

    This note considers codes for computer file transfer protocols when only upper-case ASCII characters are used as control characters. Such a restriction may be necessary to avoid dependence on unique machine features and to promote portability. If ten control functions are needed, a number used in a typical sufficiently rich protocol, we seek a subset of ten upper-case ASCII characters with good distance properties. The control functions form themselves naturally into three groups. Recognizing that only even distances can occur, the need to make the intragroup minimum distances as large as possible, and the number of control characters have distance 2 as small as possible is emphasized. The optimum solution to the above problem is found as well as an assignment that attains the optimum. The codes are essentially unique.

  16. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  17. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  18. METHODS AND ANALYSES FOR IMPLEMENTING NATURAL ATTENUATION PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical protocols for evaluating natural attenuation at petroleum hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent contaminated sites specify the analysis of electron acceptors and metabolic by-products for identifying and quantifying natural attenuation processes. However, these protocols ...

  19. SCREENING PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS TOANAEROBIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A screening protocol has been developed to provide a rapid andrepeatable assessment of the effect of toxic organic chemicals onanaerobic treatment processes. his protocol also providesinformation on the rate limiting biological reactions and theconcentrations at which changes in ...

  20. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  1. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  2. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  3. Re: "Did you write a protocol before starting your project?".

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, Shivanchan; Gundogan, Buket; Agha, Riaz A

    2016-05-01

    We read the article "did you write a protocol before starting your project?" by Bando et al. In this letter, we express our opinion regarding the importance of writing protocols prior to starting projects. PMID:26987340

  4. Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, T.; Rozanov, E.; Gröbner, J.; Hauser, M.; Schmutz, W.

    2013-04-01

    Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen-containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS), the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments and Adjustments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments (MPA) on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM) SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS) prescribed according to the restrictions of the MPA. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes of the stratospheric circulation pattern as well as in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasise certain features, which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery). For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the both Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  5. Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-10-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  6. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Acevedo, Sara (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is the report resulting from the first workshop of the series on development of the criteria for a Mars sample handling protocol. Workshop 1 was held in Bethesda, Maryland on March 20-22, 2000. This report serves to document the proceedings of Workshop 1; it summarizes relevant background information, provides an overview of the deliberations to date, and helps frame issues that will need further attention or resolution in upcoming workshops. Specific recommendations are not part of this report.

  7. Avian study protocols and wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

  8. D-RATS 2011: RAFT Protocol Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview presentation on the protocol used during the D-RATS2011 field test for file transfer from the field-test robots at Black Point Lava Flow AZ to Johnson Space Center, Houston TX over a simulated time-delay. The file transfer actually uses a commercial implementation of an open communications standard. The focus of the work lies on how to make the state of the distributed system observable.

  9. CREATION OF THE MODEL ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Wulf, N.

    2010-05-25

    In 1991, the international nuclear nonproliferation community was dismayed to discover that the implementation of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its NPT INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement with Iraq had failed to detect Iraq's nuclear weapon program. It was now clear that ensuring that states were fulfilling their obligations under the NPT would require not just detecting diversion but also the ability to detect undeclared materials and activities. To achieve this, the IAEA initiated what would turn out to be a five-year effort to reappraise the NPT safeguards system. The effort engaged the IAEA and its Member States and led to agreement in 1997 on a new safeguards agreement, the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards. The Model Protocol makes explicit that one IAEA goal is to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The Model Protocol requires an expanded declaration that identifies a State's nuclear potential, empowers the IAEA to raise questions about the correctness and completeness of the State's declaration, and, if needed, allows IAEA access to locations. The information required and the locations available for access are much broader than those provided for under INFCIRC/153. The negotiation was completed in quite a short time because it started with a relatively complete draft of an agreement prepared by the IAEA Secretariat. This paper describes how the Model Protocol was constructed and reviews key decisions that were made both during the five-year period and in the actual negotiation.

  10. Protocol for electrophysiological monitoring of carotid endarterectomies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Di Giorgio, Anthony M; Williams, Eric S; Evans, William; Russell, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Near zero stroke rates can be achieved in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) surgery with selective shunting and electrophysiological neuromonitoring. though false negative rates as high as 40% have been reported. We sought to determine if improved training for interpretation of the monitoring signals can advance the efficacy of selective shunting with electrophysiological monitoring across multiple centers, and determine if other factors could contribute to the differences in reports. Processed and raw beta band (12.5-30 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) and median and tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) were monitored in 668 CEA cases at six surgical centers. A decrease in amplitude of 50% or more in any EEG or SSEP channel was the criteria for shunting or initiating a neuroprotective protocol. A reduction of 50% or greater in the beta band of the EEG or amplitude of the SSEP was observed in 150 cases. No patient showed signs of a cerebral infarct after surgery. Selective shunting based on EEG and SSEP monitoring can reduce CEA intraoperative stroke rate to a near zero level if trained personnel adopted standardized protocols. We also found that the rapid administration of a protective stroke protocol by attending anesthesiologists was an important aspect of this success rate. PMID:23554663

  11. PROTOCOLS: Chromatin Immunoprecipitation from Arabidopsis Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Winter, Cara M.; Wu, Miin-Feng; Kwon, Chang Seob; William, Dilusha A.; Wagner, Doris

    2014-01-01

    The ability of proteins to associate with genomic DNA in the context of chromatin is critical for many nuclear processes including transcription, replication, recombination, and DNA repair. Chromatin immunoprecipication (ChIP) is a practical and useful technique for characterizing protein / DNA association in vivo. The procedure generally includes six steps: (1) crosslinking the protein to the DNA; (2) isolating the chromatin; (3) chromatin fragmentation; (4) imunoprecipitation with antibodies against the protein of interest; (5) DNA recovery; and (6) PCR identification of factor associated DNA sequences. In this protocol, we describe guidelines, experimental setup, and conditions for ChIP in intact Arabidopsis tissues. This protocol has been used to study association of histone modifications, of chromatin remodeling ATPases, as well as of sequence-specific transcription factors with the genomic DNA in various Arabidopsis thaliana tissues. The protocol described focuses on ChIP-qPCR, but can readily be adapted for use in ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq experiments. The entire procedure can be completed within 3 days. PMID:24653666

  12. The Groningen Protocol - the Jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Blazer, Shraga; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant advances in neonatology, there will always be newborns with serious life-threatening conditions creating most difficult bioethical dilemmas. Active euthanasia for adult patients is one of the most controversial bioethical questions; for severely ill neonates, the issue is even more complex, due to their inability to take part in any decision concerning their future. The Groningen Protocol introduced in 2005 by P.J. Sauer proposes criteria allowing active euthanasia for severely ill, not necessarily terminal, newborns with incurable conditions and poor quality of life in order to spare them unbearable suffering. We discuss the ethical dilemma and ideological foundations of the protocol, the opinions of its defenders and critics, and the dangers involved. The Jewish perspective relating to the subject is presented based on classical Jewish sources, which we trust may enrich modern bioethical debates. In Jewish law, the fetus acquires full legal status only after birth. However, while the lives of terminally ill neonates must in no way be actively destroyed or shortened, there is no obligation to make extraordinary efforts to prolong their lives. Accurate preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis might significantly reduce the incidence of nonviable births, but active killing of infants violates the basic foundations of Jewish law, and opens the 'slippery slope' for uncontrolled abuse. Therefore, we call upon the international medical and bioethical community to reject the Groningen Protocol that permits euthanization and to develop ethical guidelines for the optimal care of severely compromised neonates. PMID:19176977

  13. A simple, reliable, and fast protocol for thraustochytrid DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Mo, C; Rinkevich, B

    2001-03-01

    DNA extraction of thraustochytrids, common marine unicellular organisms, is usually accomplished by either the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or proteinase K protocols. A novel lysis buffer protocol for thraustochytrid total DNA extraction is described. The average isolated total DNA is 20 to 40 kb, and DNA samples are suitable for a variety of uses including 18S-ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction, restriction enzyme digestions, and amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses. The new protocol is also faster than the other protocols. PMID:14961371

  14. A Model Based Security Testing Method for Protocol Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation. PMID:25105163

  15. Study on the conversion and test of protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.

    1984-06-01

    The conversion of protocols nonadapted to the open systems interconnection (OSI) architecture into compatibility with the OSI system and the test of the equipment for converting protocols are studied. Specification and validation of protocols are reviewed. The test of the X-21 procedure and the test of the signal management equipment, parts of the Telecom project, are analyzed. A specification method based on extended finite state machines is developed. A test system for protocol conversion equipment is described.

  16. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  17. Vers des boites quantiques a base de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchaud, Simon

    Le graphene est un materiau a base de carbone qui est etudie largement depuis 2004. De tres nombreux articles ont ete publies tant sur les proprietes electroniques, qu'optiques ou mecaniques de ce materiel. Cet ouvrage porte sur l'etude des fluctuations de conductance dans le graphene, et sur la fabrication et la caracterisation de nanostructures gravees dans des feuilles de ce cristal 2D. Des mesures de magnetoresistance a basse temperature ont ete faites pres du point de neutralite de charge (PNC) ainsi qu'a haute densite electronique. On trouve deux origines aux fluctuations de conductance pres du PNC, soit des oscillations mesoscopiques provenant de l'interference quantique, et des fluctuations dites Hall quantique apparaissant a plus haut champ (>0.5T), semblant suivre les facteurs de remplissage associes aux monocouches de graphene. Ces dernieres fluctuations sont attribuees a la charge d'etats localises, et revelent un precurseur a l'effet Hall quantique, qui lui, ne se manifeste pas avant 2T. On arrive a extraire les parametres caracterisant l'echantillon a partir de ces donnees. A la fin de cet ouvrage, on effectue des mesures de transport dans des constrictions et ilots de graphene, ou des boites quantiques sont formees. A partir de ces mesures, on extrait les parametres importants de ces boites quantiques, comme leur taille et leur energie de charge.

  18. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  19. 48 CFR 3439.701 - Internet Protocol version 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internet Protocol version... Requirements for Acquisition of Information Technology 3439.701 Internet Protocol version 6. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452.239-70 (Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6)) in all...

  20. 48 CFR 3439.701 - Internet Protocol version 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Internet Protocol version 6... for Acquisition of Information Technology 3439.701 Internet Protocol version 6. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 3452.239-70 (Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6)) in all...

  1. Going Online with Protocols: New Tools for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.; Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Dichter, Alan; McDonald, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Many users of the popular professional development book, "The Power of Protocols," discovered that protocols are also very useful for online teaching. This new book, by three of the same authors, focuses on using protocols to enhance learning with their students in multiple environments including online--a growing sector of the educational world.…

  2. Knowledge of error-correcting protocol helps in individual eavesdropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, D. B.

    2007-06-01

    The quantum key distribution protocol ΒΒ84 combined with the repetition protocol for error correction are analyzed from the viewpoint of security against individual eavesdropping empowered by quantum memory. We show that a mere knowledge of the error correction protocol changes the optimal attack and provides the eavesdropper with additional information about the generated key.

  3. Tendencies in the development of utilization protocols, seminar report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveri, A.

    1983-07-01

    The open system interconnections model (OSI) structured approach to specify protocols is discussed. A stratification in seven levels characterizes the architecture of the system. Transfer level protocol characterization of utilization protocols in the OSI model, data flow control, and presentation and application levels are described.

  4. The Interlibrary Loan Protocol: An OSI Solution to ILL Messaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Fay

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the interlibrary loan (ILL) protocol, a standard based on the principles of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model. Benefits derived from protocol use are described, the status of the protocol as an international standard is reviewed, and steps taken by the National Library of Canada to facilitate migration to an ILL…

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF MODELING PROTOCOLS FOR USE IN DETERMINING SEDIMENT TMDLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling protocols for use in determining sediment TMDLs are being developed to provide the Office of Water, Regions and the States with assistance in determining TMDLs for sediment impaired water bodies. These protocols will supplement the protocols developed by the Office of W...

  6. 42 CFR 438.352 - External quality review protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External quality review protocols. 438.352 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE External Quality Review § 438.352 External quality review protocols. Each protocol must specify— (a) The data to be gathered; (b) The sources of...

  7. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  8. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  9. A Biometric Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol for Secure Token

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Eun-Jun; Yoo, Kee-Young

    This letter proposes a robust biometric authenticated key agreement (BAKA) protocol for a secure token to provide strong security and minimize the computation cost of each participant. Compared with other related protocols, the proposed BAKA protocol not only is secure against well-known cryptographical attacks but also provides various functionality and performance requirements.

  10. 42 CFR 438.352 - External quality review protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External quality review protocols. 438.352 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE External Quality Review § 438.352 External quality review protocols. Each protocol must specify— (a) The data to be gathered; (b) The sources of...

  11. Choosing and applying cryopreservation protocols to new species or tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some have proposed that it is necessary to develop new cryopreservation protocols for each new plant or tissue. We have found that standard protocols can be applied to many plants with few if any changes. Screening of groups of plants in a genus show that many protocols are easily applied to large ...

  12. Multiparty quantum protocols for assisted entanglement distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutil, Nicolas

    Quantum information theory is a multidisciplinary field whose objective is to understand what happens when information is stored in the state of a quantum system. Quantum mechanics provides us with a new resource, called quantum entanglement, which can be exploited to achieve novel tasks such as teleportation and superdense coding. Current technologies allow the transmission of entangled photon pairs across distances up to roughly 100 kilometers. For longer distances, noise arising from various sources degrade the transmission of entanglement to the point that it becomes impossible to use the entanglement as a resource for future tasks. One strategy for dealing with this difficulty is to employ quantum repeaters, stations intermediate between the sender and receiver that can participate in the process of entanglement distillation, thereby improving on what the sender and receiver could do on their own. Motivated by the problem of designing quantum repeaters, we study entanglement distillation between two parties, Alice and Bob, starting from a mixed state and with the help of repeater stations. We extend the notion of entanglement of assistance to arbitrary tripartite states and exhibit a protocol, based on a random coding strategy, for extracting pure entanglement. We use these results to find achievable rates for the more general scenario, where many spatially separated repeaters help two recipients distill entanglement. We also study multiparty quantum communication protocols in a more general context. We give a new protocol for the task of multiparty state merging. The previous multiparty state merging protocol required the use of time-sharing, an impossible strategy when a single copy of the input state is available to the parties. Our protocol does not require time-sharing for distributed compression of two senders. In the one-shot regime, we can achieve multiparty state merging with entanglement costs not restricted to corner points of the entanglement cost

  13. Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

    2002-07-01

    Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concr

  14. Spacelab system analysis: The modified free access protocol: An access protocol for communication systems with periodic and Poisson traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, Frank; Owens, John; Daniel, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The protocol definition and terminal hardware for the modified free access protocol, a communications protocol similar to Ethernet, are developed. A MFA protocol simulator and a CSMA/CD math model are also developed. The protocol is tailored to communication systems where the total traffic may be divided into scheduled traffic and Poisson traffic. The scheduled traffic should occur on a periodic basis but may occur after a given event such as a request for data from a large number of stations. The Poisson traffic will include alarms and other random traffic. The purpose of the protocol is to guarantee that scheduled packets will be delivered without collision. This is required in many control and data collection systems. The protocol uses standard Ethernet hardware and software requiring minimum modifications to an existing system. The modification to the protocol only affects the Ethernet transmission privileges and does not effect the Ethernet receiver.

  15. 47 CFR 79.4 - Closed captioning of video programming delivered using Internet protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Internet protocol. Includes Transmission Control Protocol and a successor protocol or technology to... distributor or provider using the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers Timed Text format...

  16. Fissuration en relaxation des aciers inoxydables austénitiques au voisinage des soudures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L.; Gourgues, A. F.; Pineau, A.

    2003-03-01

    Des fissures intergranulaires peuvent se développer au voisinage des soudures des aciers inoxydables austénitiques lorsqu'ils sont réchauffés dans le domaine de température compris entre 500^{circ}C et 700^{circ}C. A ces températures, les contraintes résiduelles post-soudage se relaxent par déformation viscoplastique. Il peut arriver que ces zones proches de la soudure soient tellement fragiles, qu'elles ne puissent accommoder cette faible déformation. Afin de préciser quelles peuvent être les modifications microstructurales qui conduisent à une telle fragilisation, on a examiné les microstructures de ces zones et révélé ainsi un écrouissage résiduel, responsable d'une forte élévation de la dureté. On a pu reproduire par hypertrempe puis laminage entre 400^{circ}C et 600^{circ}C une microstructure similaire. Des essais mécaniques (traction, fluage, relaxation, sur éprouvettes lisses et pré-fissurées) ont été réalisés à 550^{circ}C et à 600^{circ}C sur ces zones affectées simulées et sur un état de référence hypertrempé. Ils ont montré que l'écrouissage diminuait la ductilité dans le domaine de rupture intergranulaire, sans modifier qualitativement le mécanisme d'endommagement. Pendant la pré-déformation les incompatibilités de déformation entre grains conduiraient à l'existence de contraintes locales élevées qui favoriseraient la germination des cavités intergranulaires.

  17. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  18. Le traitement familial des enfants et des adolescents anorexiques : Des lignes directrices pour le médecin communautaire

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, S; Pinzon, J; Taddeo, D; Katzman, DK

    2010-01-01

    L’anorexie mentale (AM) est une maladie grave qui met la vie en danger et qui fait généralement son apparition pendant l’adolescence. Les données probantes au sujet du traitement optimal de l’AM chez les enfants et les adolescents sont en croissance, mais il reste beaucoup à apprendre. Même si les démarches thérapeutiques actuelles varient au Canada et ailleurs, les données jusqu’à présent indiquent que le traitement familial (TF) est le plus efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents anorexiques. Un élément essentiel du modèle de TF, c’est que les parents sont investis de la responsabilité de rétablir la santé physique de leur enfant et de s’assurer de la reprise complète de son poids. Le médecin qui comprend les principes fondamentaux et la philosophie du TF peut mettre en place les éléments de cette intervention fondée sur des faits probants auprès des jeunes patients anorexiques et de leur famille.

  19. Towards a formalism for conversation protocols using joint intention theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Huber, Marcus J.; Cohen, Philip R.; McGee, David R. )

    2001-12-01

    Conversation protocols are meant to achieve certain tasks or to bring about certain state of affairs in the world. Therefore, one may identify the landmarks or the state of affairs that must be brought about during the execution of a protocol in order to achieve its goal. Accordingly, the most important aspect of protocols is these landmarks rather than the communicative actions needed to achieve the landmarks. We show that families of conversation protocols can be expressed formally as partially ordered landmarks where each landmark is characterized by propositions that are true in the state represented by that landmark. Dialogue in natural languages is regarded as joint activity. Conversation protocols in multi-agent systems are treated as dialogue templates and are composed using speech acts from natural language dialogues. As such, we treat conversation protocols as joint action expressions and gainfully apply existing formal theories of dialogue, specifically the Joint Intention Theory, to protocols and their compositions. Conversation protocols may require agents to communicate with groups as well as individuals. However, most contemporary agent communication languages, notably FIPA and KQML, have either no provision or no well-defined semantics for group communication. Furthermore, the research on protocols so far does not correctly incorporate groups into the protocols. We give a formal semantics to group communicative acts and use it to handle group communication in a formal treatment of protocols.

  20. BLUE-protocol and FALLS-protocol: two applications of lung ultrasound in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Daniel A

    2015-06-01

    This review article describes two protocols adapted from lung ultrasound: the bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (BLUE)-protocol for the immediate diagnosis of acute respiratory failure and the fluid administration limited by lung sonography (FALLS)-protocol for the management of acute circulatory failure. These applications require the mastery of 10 signs indicating normal lung surface (bat sign, lung sliding, A-lines), pleural effusions (quad and sinusoid sign), lung consolidations (fractal and tissue-like sign), interstitial syndrome (lung rockets), and pneumothorax (stratosphere sign and the lung point). These signs have been assessed in adults, with diagnostic accuracies ranging from 90% to 100%, allowing consideration of ultrasound as a reasonable bedside gold standard. In the BLUE-protocol, profiles have been designed for the main diseases (pneumonia, congestive heart failure, COPD, asthma, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax), with an accuracy > 90%. In the FALLS-protocol, the change from A-lines to lung rockets appears at a threshold of 18 mm Hg of pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, providing a direct biomarker of clinical volemia. The FALLS-protocol sequentially rules out obstructive, then cardiogenic, then hypovolemic shock for expediting the diagnosis of distributive (usually septic) shock. These applications can be done using simple grayscale machines and one microconvex probe suitable for the whole body. Lung ultrasound is a multifaceted tool also useful for decreasing radiation doses (of interest in neonates where the lung signatures are similar to those in adults), from ARDS to trauma management, and from ICUs to points of care. If done in suitable centers, training is the least of the limitations for making use of this kind of visual medicine. PMID:26033127

  1. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Luan, Da-Peng

    2013-11-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol.

  2. The EON model of intervention protocols and guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Tu, S. W.; Musen, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    We present a computational model of treatment protocols abstracted from implemented systems that we have developed previously. In our framework, a protocol is modeled as a hierarchical plan where high-level protocol steps are decomposed into descriptions of more specific actions. The clinical algorithms embodied in a protocol are represented by procedures that encode the sequencing, looping, and synchronization of protocol steps. The representation allows concurrent and optional protocol steps. We define the semantics of a procedure in terms of an execution model that specifies how the procedure should be interpreted. We show that the model can be applied to an asthma guideline different from the protocols for which the model was originally constructed. PMID:8947734

  3. Formal Analysis of Two Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David M.; Treharne, Helen; Ho, Anthony T. S.; Waller, Adrian

    In this paper we demonstrate how the formal model constructed in our previous work [1], can be modified in order to analyse additional Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocols, identifying which specific sections of the CSP scripts remain identical and which require modification. First, we model the protocol proposed by Memon and Wong [2], an examplar of the Offline Watermarking Authority (OFWA) Model, defined in the framework by Poh and Martin [3]. Second, we model the Shao protocol [4] as an example of a protocol fitting the Online Watermarking Authority (ONWA) Model. Our analysis of the protocols reaffirms the unbinding attack described by Lei et al.[5] on the Memon and Wong protocol and we identify a new unbinding attack on the protocol proposed by Shao.

  4. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  5. Design and research on a multi-protocol RAID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Can-hao; Luo, Dong-jian; Zhang, Cheng-feng; Wu, Wei

    2008-12-01

    With the rapid development of massive storages, traditional RAID of single-protocol is increasingly unable to satisfy the various demands of users. For the purpose of keeping down the investment of storages, we propose a multi-protocol RAID that utilizes existing storage devices. The multi-protocol RAID achieves the integration of storage via managing the disks of different interfaces. This paper presents a framework of multi-protocol RAID and a prototype implementation of it, i.e., the proposed multi-protocol approach can not only unify the storage devices of different types, but also provide different access channels (e.g. iSCSI, FC) to manage the heterogeneous RAID system, thus achieving the goal of centralized management. Our function tests validate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed RAID system. The comparison tests indicate that the multi-protocol RAID can attain even higher performance than that of the single-protocol RAID, especially the aggregated bandwidth.

  6. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we give additional arguments in favor of the point of view that the violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities is not due to a mysterious non locality of nature. We concentrate on an intimate relation between a protocol of a random experiment and a probabilistic model which is used to describe it. We discuss in a simple way differences between attributive joint probability distributions and generalized joint probability distributions of outcomes from distant experiments which depend on how the pairing of these outcomes is defined. We analyze in detail experimental protocols implied by local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models and show that they are incompatible with the protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. We discuss also the meaning of "free will", differences between quantum and classical filters, contextuality of Kolmogorov models, contextuality of quantum theory (QT) and show how this contextuality has to be taken into account in probabilistic models trying to explain in an intuitive way the predictions of QT. The long range imperfect correlations between the clicks of distant detectors can be explained by partially preserved correlations between the signals created by a source. These correlations can only be preserved if the clicks are produced in a local and deterministic way depending on intrinsic parameters describing signals and measuring devices in the moment of the measurement. If an act of a measurement was irreducibly random they would be destroyed. It seems to indicate that QT may be in fact emerging from some underlying more detailed theory of physical phenomena. If this was a case then there is a chance to find in time series of experimental data some fine structures not predicted by QT. This would be a major discovery because it would not only prove that QT does not provide a complete description of individual physical systems but it would prove that it is not predictably complete.

  7. Quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Zhang, Shun

    2015-08-01

    We present and define a privacy-preserving problem called the oblivious set-member decision problem, which allows a server to decide whether a private secret of a user is a member of his private set in an oblivious manner. Namely, if the secret belongs to his private set, he does not know which member it is. We propose a quantum solution to the oblivious set-member decision problem. Compared to classical solutions, the proposed quantum protocol achieves an exponential reduction in communication complexity, since it only needs O (1 ) communication cost.

  8. Impact of Communication Protocol on Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, P.H.

    1999-02-01

    We use the PSTSWM compact application benchmark code to characterize the performance behavior of interprocessor communication on the SGI/Cray Research Origin 2000 and T3E-900. We measure 1. single processor performance, 2. point-to-point communication performance, 3. performance variation as a function of communication protocols and transport layer for collective communication routines, and 4. performance sensitivity of full application code to choice of parallel implementation. We also compare and contrast these results with similar results for the previous generation of parallel platforms, evaluating how the relative importance of communication performance has changed.

  9. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Dana G.

    2012-01-01

    Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury) restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body. PMID:22315627

  10. A protocol for quantum energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2008-08-01

    In this Letter, a protocol called quantum energy distribution (QED) is proposed in which multi-parties can simultaneously extract positive energy on average from spin chains by use of common secret keys shared by an energy supplier. QED is robust against impersonation. An adversary, who does not have common secret keys and attempts to get energy, cannot obtain but give energy to spin chains. Total amount of energy transfer gives a lower bound of residual energy of a local cooling process by the energy supplier.

  11. Bedside Reporting: Protocols for Improving Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Teresa D; Howell, Teresa L

    2015-12-01

    Bedside reporting continues to gain much attention and is being investigated to support the premise that "hand-off" communications enhance efficacy in delivery of patient care. Patient inclusion in shift reports enhances good patient outcomes, increased satisfaction with care delivery, enhanced accountability for nursing professionals, and improved communications between patients and their direct care providers. This article discusses the multiple benefits of dynamic dialogue between patients and the health care team, challenges often associated with bedside reporting, and protocols for managing bedside reporting with the major aim of improving patient care. Nursing research supporting the concept of bedside reporting is examined. PMID:26596661

  12. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.; Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Horowitz, S.; Hendron, R.

    2014-03-01

    As BA has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  13. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.; Engebrecht, C. Metzger; Horowitz, S.; Hendron, R.

    2014-03-01

    As Building America has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  14. Satellite-Friendly Protocols and Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.; Schlemmer, H.; Kastner, S.; Riedler, W.

    2002-01-01

    We are currently observing a development unprecedented with other services, the enormous growth of the Internet. Video, voice and data applications can be supported via this network in high quality. Multi-media applications require high bandwidth which may not be available in many areas. When making proper use of the broadcast feature of a communications satellite, the performance of the satellite-based system can compare favourably to terrestrial solutions. Internet applications are in many cases highly asymmetric, making them very well suited to applications using small and inexpensive terminals. Data from one source may be used simultaneously by a large number of users. The Internet protocol suite has become the de-facto standard. But this protocol family in its original form has not been designed to support guaranteed quality of service, a prerequisite for real-time, high quality traffic. The Internet Protocol has to be adapted for the satellite environment, because long roundtrip delays and the error behaviour of the channel could make it inefficient over a GEO satellite. Another requirement is to utilise the satellite bandwidth as efficiently as possible. This can be achieved by adapting the access system to the nature of IP frames, which are variable in length. In the framework of ESA's ARTES project a novel satellite multimedia system was developed which utilises Multi-Frequency TDMA in a meshed network topology. The system supports Quality of Service (QoS) by reserving capacity with different QoS requirements. The system is centrally controlled by a master station with the implementation of a demand assignment (DAMA) system. A lean internal signalling system has been adopted. Network management is based on the SNMP protocol and industry-standard network management platforms, making interfaces to standard accounting and billing systems easy. Modern communication systems will have to be compliant to different standards in a very flexible manner. The

  15. [The protocol for multi organ donor management].

    PubMed

    Kucewicz, Ewa; Wojarski, Jacek; Zegleń, Sławomir; Saucha, Wojciech; Maciejewski, Tomasz; Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Przybylski, Roman; Knapik, Piotr; Zembala, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Identification and preparation of a potential organ donor requires careful and meticulous intensive care, so that the organs may be harvested in the best possible condition for transplantation. The protocol consists of three key elements: (1) monitoring and haemodynamicstabilisation, (2) hormonal therapy, and (3) adequate mechanical ventilation and nosocomial pneumonia prophylaxis. Standard haemodynamic monitoring should consist of a 12 lead EGG, and direct monitoring of arterial and central venous pressures. Pulmonary artery catheterisation is indicated in donors with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) below 45%. PCWP should be kept at around 12 mm Hg, Cl at greater than 2.4 L m(-2), and SVR between 800 and 1200 dyn s(-1) cm(-5). When a vasopressor is necessary, vasopressin should be used as the drug of choice. If vasopressin is not available, noradrenaline or adrenaline may be used. Haemoglobin concentration should be maintained between 5.5-6.2 mmol L(-1). In a potential heart donor, troponin concentration should be checked daily. Neutral thermal conditions should be maintained using a warm air blower. A brain dead patient cannot maintain adequate pituitary function, therefore hormone replacement therapy with methylprednisolone, thyroxin and desmopressin is indicated. Glucose concentrations should be kept within the normal range, using insulin if necessary. The lung harvesting protocol should be similarto ARDS treatment guidelines (optimal PEEP, low tidal volumes). Lung recruitment manoeuvres, and aggressive prevention and treatment of nosocomial infection are essential. PMID:20201348

  16. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  17. Separable states improve protocols with finite randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobby, Tan Kok Chuan; Paterek, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    It is known from Bell's theorem that quantum predictions for some entangled states cannot be mimicked using local hidden variable (LHV) models. From a computer science perspective, LHV models may be interpreted as classical computers operating on a potentially infinite number of correlated bits originating from a common source. As such, Bell inequality violations achieved through entangled states are able to characterize the quantum advantage of certain tasks, so long as the task itself imposes no restriction on the availability of correlated bits. However, if the number of shared bits is limited, additional constraints are placed on the possible LHV models, and separable, i.e. disentangled states may become a useful resource. Bell violations are therefore no longer necessary to achieve a quantum advantage. Here we show that, in particular, separable states improve the so-called random access codes, which is a class of communication problem wherein one party tries to read a portion of the data held by another distant party in the presence of finite shared randomness and limited classical communication. We also show how the bias of classical bits can be used to avoid wrong answers in order to achieve the optimal classical protocol and how the advantage of quantum protocols is linked to quantum discord.

  18. Resilient packet ring media access protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thepot, Frederic

    2001-07-01

    The discussion will cover the new initiative to create a new MAC layer standard for resilient packet rings: IEEE 802.17 RPR. The key aspects of the presentation will include a preliminary address of the Metro Area Network today and the current networking technologies such as SONET/SDH which are not optimized to carry IP traffic over Metro MAN. The next segment will cover the options which could change the traditional and expensive layered networking model, and address the real benefits of marrying several technologies like Ethernet, SONET/SDH and IP into one technology. The next part of the discussion will detail the technical advantages a new MAC will bring to the services providers. Lastly a summary of the view and strategy about the acceptance and deployment of this new technology in the next 12 months, specifically, now one defines and develops standards for a Resilient Packet Ring Access Protocol for use in Local, Metropolitan, and Wide Area Networks for transfer of data packets at rates scalable to multiple gigabits per second; specifically address the data transmission requirements of carriers that have present and planned fiber optic physical infrastructure in a ring topology; and, defining and developing detailed specifications for using existing and/or new physical layers at appropriate data rates that will support transmission of this access protocol.

  19. Protocol for cardiac assessment of recreational athletes.

    PubMed

    Chinea, Ana M; Lollett, Carlos; Herrera, Hector; Passariello, Gianfranco; Wong, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the development of a database on physical fitness is presented. As initial population to fill this database, people who practice recreational sports at the Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB) were chosen. The goal was studying individual physical fitness in order to structure exercise routines that gives certain benefits without risking the individual health, promoting a less sedentary way of life. Before the study, a low-cost noninvasive protocol was designed to determine the level of physical fitness. The methodology consisted of four steps: a) A review of existing protocols to propose a set of physical fitness (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)), cardiovascular (heart rate variability, heart rate recovery time and arterial blood pressure), anthropomorphic, aerobic (maximum oxygen consumption) and mood state (Profile of Mood State (POMS)) measurements, which allow sketching a complete profile on the sportsman physical fitness. b) Instrumental data collection. c) Electrocardiographic signal processing. d) Data post-processing using multivariate analysis. The database was composed of 26 subject from USB. Ten subjects were soccer players, ten were mountain climbers and six were sedentary people. Results showed that the heart rate recover time after 2-3 min, IPAQ and maximum oxygen consumption have higher weights for classifying individuals according to their habitual physical activity. Heart rate variability, as well as, POMS did not contribute greatly for discriminating recreational sport from sedentary persons. PMID:23366343

  20. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  1. Toward a Standard Protocol for Micelle Simulation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael A; Swope, William C; Jordan, Kirk E; Warren, Patrick B; Noro, Massimo G; Bray, David J; Anderson, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present protocols for simulating micelles using dissipative particle dynamics (and in principle molecular dynamics) that we expect to be appropriate for computing micelle properties for a wide range of surfactant molecules. The protocols address challenges in equilibrating and sampling, specifically when kinetics can be very different with changes in surfactant concentration, and with minor changes in molecular size and structure, even using the same force field parameters. We demonstrate that detection of equilibrium can be automated and is robust, for the molecules in this study and others we have considered. In order to quantify the degree of sampling obtained during simulations, metrics to assess the degree of molecular exchange among micellar material are presented, and the use of correlation times are prescribed to assess sampling and for statistical uncertainty estimates on the relevant simulation observables. We show that the computational challenges facing the measurement of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) are somewhat different for high and low CMC materials. While a specific choice is not recommended here, we demonstrate that various methods give values that are consistent in terms of trends, even if not numerically equivalent. PMID:27096611

  2. Internet Protocol Enhanced over Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Extensive research conducted by the Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center led to an experimental change to the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) that will increase performance over satellite channels. The change raises the size of the initial burst of data TCP can send from 1 packet to 4 packets or roughly 4 kilobytes (kB), whichever is less. TCP is used daily by everyone on the Internet for e-mail and World Wide Web access, as well as other services. TCP is one of the feature protocols used in computer communications for reliable data delivery and file transfer. Increasing TCP's initial data burst from the previously specified single segment to approximately 4 kB may improve data transfer rates by up to 27 percent for very small files. This is significant because most file transfers in wide-area networks today are small files, 4 kilobytes or less. In addition, because data transfers over geostationary satellites can take 5 to 20 times longer than over typical terrestrial connections, increasing the initial burst of data that can be sent is extremely important. This research along with research from other institutions has led to the release of two new Request for Comments from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF, the international body that sets Internet standards). In addition, two studies of the implications of this mechanism were also funded by NASA Lewis.

  3. A Contextuality Based Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    In 2005 Spekkens presented a generalization of noncontextuality that applies to imperfect measurements (POVMs) by allowing the underlying hidden variable model to be indeterministic. In addition, unlike traditional Bell-Kochen-Specker noncontextuality, HV models of a single qubit were shown to be contextual under this definition. Thus, not all single qubit POVM measurement outcomes can be modeled classically. Recently M. Pusey showed that, under certain conditions, exhibiting an anomalous weak value (i.e. values outside the eigenspectrum of the observable) implies contextuality. We will present a new single qubit prepare and measure QKD protocol that uses observation of anomalous weak values of particular observables to estimate the quantum channel error rate and certify the security of the channel. We also argue that it is the ``degree'' of contextuality of the noisy qubits exiting the channel that fundamentally determine the secure key rate. A benefit of this approach is that the security does not depend on the fair sampling assumption, and so is not compromised by Eve controlling Bob's measurement devices. Thus, it retains much of the benefit of ``Measurement Device Independent'' QKD protocols while only using single photon preparations and measurements. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-15-1-2225.

  4. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  5. OIL SPILL DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS PROTOCOL. II: PERFORMANCE OF THE REVISED PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocol for testing the effectiveness of dispersants for use in treating oil spills on the open water, the swirling flask test (SFT), has been found to give widely varying results in the hands of different testing laborator...

  6. Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: Protocol Development and Initial Outcome Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellard, Kristen K.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Farchione, Todd J.; Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The Unified Protocol (UP) is a transdiagnostic, emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment developed to be applicable across the emotional disorders. The UP consists of 4 core modules: increasing emotional awareness, facilitating flexibility in appraisals, identifying and preventing behavioral and emotional avoidance, and situational and…

  7. Three-step semiquantum secure direct communication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, XiangFu; Qiu, DaoWen

    2014-09-01

    Quantum secure direct communication is the direct communication of secret messages without need for establishing a shared secret key first. In the existing schemes, quantum secure direct communication is possible only when both parties are quantum. In this paper, we construct a three-step semiquantum secure direct communication (SQSDC) protocol based on single photon sources in which the sender Alice is classical. In a semiquantum protocol, a person is termed classical if he (she) can measure, prepare and send quantum states only with the fixed orthogonal quantum basis {|0>, |1>}. The security of the proposed SQSDC protocol is guaranteed by the complete robustness of semiquantum key distribution protocols and the unconditional security of classical one-time pad encryption. Therefore, the proposed SQSDC protocol is also completely robust. Complete robustness indicates that nonzero information acquired by an eavesdropper Eve on the secret message implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. In the proposed protocol, we suggest a method to check Eves disturbing in the doves returning phase such that Alice does not need to announce publicly any position or their coded bits value after the photons transmission is completed. Moreover, the proposed SQSDC protocol can be implemented with the existing techniques. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication protocols, the proposed SQSDC protocol has two merits: firstly the sender only needs classical capabilities; secondly to check Eves disturbing after the transmission of quantum states, no additional classical information is needed.

  8. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  9. The Quantum Steganography Protocol via Quantum Noisy Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhan-Hong; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-08-01

    As a promising branch of quantum information hiding, Quantum steganography aims to transmit secret messages covertly in public quantum channels. But due to environment noise and decoherence, quantum states easily decay and change. Therefore, it is very meaningful to make a quantum information hiding protocol apply to quantum noisy channels. In this paper, we make the further research on a quantum steganography protocol for quantum noisy channels. The paper proved that the protocol can apply to transmit secret message covertly in quantum noisy channels, and explicity showed quantum steganography protocol. In the protocol, without publishing the cover data, legal receivers can extract the secret message with a certain probability, which make the protocol have a good secrecy. Moreover, our protocol owns the independent security, and can be used in general quantum communications. The communication, which happen in our protocol, do not need entangled states, so our protocol can be used without the limitation of entanglement resource. More importantly, the protocol apply to quantum noisy channels, and can be used widely in the future quantum communication.

  10. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  11. [The prevention of voice disorders in the actor: protocol and follow-up nine months of professional theater].

    PubMed

    Ormezzano, Y; Delale, A; Lamy-Simonian, A

    2011-01-01

    In July 2009, at the beginning of this work, 26 theses addressing professional principles of voice were listed in the database of SUDOC (Système Universitaire de Documentation): 9 related to voices of teachers (about 900,000* professionals in France), 14 theses relating to singers (7500** professionals), and only 3 about the voice of actors (20 000*** professional actors in France in 2006). The latter pertaining to concerning rookie actors (sensibilisation vocale auprès du comédien débutant Bichet, Linda, Bordeaux II, 2006), the mechanical larynx (étude des mécanismes laryngés dans la voix projetée: cas particulier des comédiennes Guerin, Mélanie, Paris VI, 2009), vocal fatigue (Fatigue vocale après une tâche d'utilisation prolongée de la voix chez le comédien Canaan Baggioni, Brigitte, Aix-Marseille II, 2009). Professional actors are plentiful; their training in vocal technique is very heterogeneous, or non-existent: it is not a prerequisite to have a degree to work as an actor! This lack of vocal technique is associated with risk factors specific to the acting profession: numerous travels in air-conditioned vehicles, unsuitable workplaces; dusty or poorly heated, irregular working patterns, excessive demands from directors... All this makes the actors highly susceptible to voice disorders. The protocol for the prevention of voice disorders presented here is holistic and ecological. This work also examines the effectiveness of such a preventive protocol aimed at theatre comedians. PMID:21977701

  12. OzDES Spectroscopic Classification of DES13X3woy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Childress, M.; Sharp, R.; Lidman, C.; Parkinson, D.; Mould, J.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Foley, R. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report spectroscopic classification by OzDES of a supernova discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (370-885nm) was obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell and Wang, 2002, BAAS, 34, 1256), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  13. Prise en compte des ``courants de London'' dans la modélisation des supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossavit, Alain

    1997-10-01

    A model is given, in variational form, in which volumic “Bean currents”, ruled by Bean's law, and surface “London currents” coexist. This macroscopic model generalizes Bean's one, by appending to the critical density j_c a second parameter, with the dimension of a length, similar to London's depth λ. The one-dimensional version of the model is investigated, in order to link this parameter with the standard observable H-M characteristics On propose un modèle, sous forme variationnelle, associant des “courants de Bean” volumiques, décrits par la loi de Bean, et des “courants de London”, surfaciques. Ce modèle macroscopique généralise celui de Bean, caractérisé par le courant critique j_c, et fait intervenir un second paramètre, homogène à une longueur, analogue au λ de London. La version unidimensionnelle du modèle est étudiée en détail de manière à relier ce paramètre à l'observation des caractéristiques H-M usuelles.

  14. Radio-chimiothérapie adjuvante des adénocarcinomes gastriques: à propos de 34 cas et d'une revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    James, Laurianne; Dossou, Sepos; Bellfiq, Sarah; Irigo, Joëlle; Ogandaga, Etienne; Mouden, Karima; Loughmari, Saïda; Filali, Dounia; El Majjaoui, Sanaa; Kebdani, Tayeb; Ahid, Samir; Benjafaar, Nourredine

    2014-01-01

    Notre étude consistera en l’évaluation du pronostic des patients porteurs d'un adénocarcinome gastrique opérés et traités par radio-chimiothérapie adjuvante en technique conformationnelle. Entre Janvier 2007 et Décembre 2011, 34 patients ont reçu après une chirurgie radicale (R0 ou R1), un à trois cycles de 5-Fluoro-uracile associé à de l'Elvorine en adjuvant, suivi d'une radio-chimiothérapie selon le même protocole à la dose de 45Gy, puis de deux cycles de chimiothérapie à un mois d'intervalle après la radio-chimiothérapie concomitante. Dans le groupe d’étude, il y avait 34 patients d’âge médian 50 ans (47-58), avec un sexe ratio (H/F) de 2,4. Une chirurgie de type R1 a été réalisée dans 26,5% des cas, et 53% des patients étaient de stade III-IV. Le rapport nombres de ganglions positifs, sur nombre de ganglions prélevés étaient > 0,4 dans 26,5% des cas. Durant le traitement mené à terme, une neutropénie de grade III a été observée chez quatre patients, avec des troubles digestifs (nausées, vomissement, ou diarrhée) de grade I/II dans la majorité des cas. Après un suivi médian de 20 mois, 70,6% des patients étaient en survie sans rechute, et 29,4% ont présenté une récidive métastatique; la survie globale à 5 ans était de 35,4% et la survie sans progression de 58,7%. La radio-chimiothérapie concomitante postopératoire pourrait être un régime efficace et sûre chez les patients ayant bénéficié d'une gastrectomie à visée curative dans le cancer de l'estomac localement avancé. PMID:25709728

  15. Characterization of the Glycosyltransferase DesVII and Its Auxiliary Partner Protein DesVIII in the Methymycin/Pikromycin Biosynthetic Pathway†

    PubMed Central

    Borisova, Svetlana A.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro characterization of the catalytic activity of DesVII, the glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the macrolide antibiotics methymycin, neomethymycin, narbomycin, and pikromycin in Streptomyces venezuelae, is described. DesVII is unique among glycosyltransferases in that it requires an additional protein component, DesVIII, for activity. Characterization of the metabolites produced by a S. venezuelae mutant lacking desVIII gene confirmed that desVIII is important for the biosynthesis of glycosylated macrolides, but can be replaced by at least one of the homologous genes from other pathways. The addition of recombinant DesVIII protein significantly improves the glycosylation efficiency of DesVII in the in vitro assay. When affinity-tagged DesVII and DesVIII proteins were co-produced in E. coli, they formed a tight (αβ)3 complex that is at least 103-fold more active than DesVII alone. The formation of the DesVII/DesVIII complex requires co-expression of both genes in vivo and cannot be fully achieved by mixing the individual protein components in vitro. The ability of DesVII/DesVIII system to catalyze the reverse reaction with the formation of TDP-desosamine was also demonstrated in a transglycosylation experiment. Taken together, our data suggest that DesVIII assists the folding of DesVII during protein production and remains tightly bound during catalysis. This requirement must be taken into consideration in the design of combinatorial biosynthetic experiments of new glycosylated macrolides. PMID:20695498

  16. A secure RFID authentication protocol adopting error correction code.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Chen, Shuai-Min; Zheng, Xinying; Chen, Pei-Yu; Sun, Hung-Min

    2014-01-01

    RFID technology has become popular in many applications; however, most of the RFID products lack security related functionality due to the hardware limitation of the low-cost RFID tags. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mutual authentication protocol adopting error correction code for RFID. Besides, we also propose an advanced version of our protocol to provide key updating. Based on the secrecy of shared keys, the reader and the tag can establish a mutual authenticity relationship. Further analysis of the protocol showed that it also satisfies integrity, forward secrecy, anonymity, and untraceability. Compared with other lightweight protocols, the proposed protocol provides stronger resistance to tracing attacks, compromising attacks and replay attacks. We also compare our protocol with previous works in terms of performance. PMID:24959619

  17. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  18. The Real Performance Drivers behind XML Lock Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bächle, Sebastian; Härder, Theo

    Fine-grained lock protocols should allow for highly concurrent transaction processing on XML document trees, which is addressed by the taDOM lock protocol family enabling specific lock modes and lock granules adjusted to the various XML processing models. We have already proved its operational flexibility and performance superiority when compared to competitor protocols. Here, we outline our experiences gained during the implementation and optimization of these protocols. We figure out their performance drivers to maximize throughput while keeping the response times at an acceptable level and perfectly exploiting the advantages of our tailor-made lock protocols for XML trees. Because we have implemented all options and alternatives in our prototype system XTC, benchmark runs for all “drivers” allow for comparisons in identical environments and illustrate the benefit of all implementation decisions. Finally, they reveal that careful lock protocol optimization pays off.

  19. A Secure RFID Authentication Protocol Adopting Error Correction Code

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinying; Chen, Pei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    RFID technology has become popular in many applications; however, most of the RFID products lack security related functionality due to the hardware limitation of the low-cost RFID tags. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mutual authentication protocol adopting error correction code for RFID. Besides, we also propose an advanced version of our protocol to provide key updating. Based on the secrecy of shared keys, the reader and the tag can establish a mutual authenticity relationship. Further analysis of the protocol showed that it also satisfies integrity, forward secrecy, anonymity, and untraceability. Compared with other lightweight protocols, the proposed protocol provides stronger resistance to tracing attacks, compromising attacks and replay attacks. We also compare our protocol with previous works in terms of performance. PMID:24959619

  20. Probabilistic protocols in quantum information science: Use and abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caves, Carlton

    2014-03-01

    Protocols in quantum information science often succeed with less than unit probability, but nonetheless perform useful tasks because success occurs often enough to make tolerable the overhead from having to perform the protocol several times. Any probabilistic protocol must be analyzed from the perspective of the resources required to make the protocol succeed. I present results from analyses of two probabilistic protocols: (i) nondeterministic (or immaculate) linear amplification, in which an input coherent state is amplified some of the time to a larger-amplitude coherent state, and (ii) probabilistic quantum metrology, in which one attempts to improve estimation of a parameter (or parameters) by post-selecting on a particular outcome. The analysis indicates that there is little to be gained from probabilistic protocols in these two situations.

  1. Organisation des gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutzes auf Bundesebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschiersky-Schöneburg, Helmut; Büttner, Antje

    Zahlreiche Krisen wie Dioxin belastete Futtermittel, die missbräuchliche Verwendung von Antibiotika in der Schweinemast und nicht zuletzt das Auftreten von BSE in Deutschland erschütterten Ende der neunziger Jahre das Vertrauen der Bürger in die Sicherheit der Lebensmittel. Mit dem Weißbuch zur Lebensmittelsicherheit, das im Januar 2000 herausgegeben wurde, hatte die Europäische Kommission ihre Erfahrungen aus dem BSE-Geschehen in ein neues Konzept für den Verbraucherschutz eingearbeitet. Kernstücke des Konzepts sind die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Lebensmittelsicherheit von der landwirtschaftlichen Erzeugung bis zum Verzehr und der Anspruch nach Transparenz und Unabhängigkeit der Risikobewertung.

  2. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude de l'évolution des quasars. Elle en aborde certains aspects théoriques et observationnels, ainsi que la construction des grands échantillons de quasars dans le but à long terme de combiner le tout dans un test cosmologique géométrique pour déterminer les valeurs des paramètres cosmologiques Omega et Lambda. Les paramètres cosmologiques Omegaspan>et Lambdaspan>décrivent la géométrie globale de l'Univers. En faisant des hypothèses raisonnables sur la distribution spatiale et l'évolution des objets astrophysiques (galaxies, amas des galaxies, quasars), on peut déterminer les valeurs de ces paramètres qui sont cohérentes avec ces hypothèses. Les tests cosmologiques traditionnels ont besoin de ''chandelles standards'', objets dont les propriétés intrinsèques sont indépendantes des distances. De tels objets sont probablement fictifs. Néanmoins, certains de ces tests cosmologiques peuvent être adaptés si l'évolution individuelle, ou au moins l'évolution statistique d'une population d'objets est connue. La question de la nature de l'évolution des quasars a très vite été posée et des réponses ''phénoménologiques'' ont d'abord été données. Ces réponses ne faisaient que donner une forme mathématique à l'évolution mais n'expliquaient rien de la physique duphénomène. Les premières tentatives de construction d'un modèle physique, liées au processus d'accrétion sur un trou noir et à la théorie de la formation de l'Univers ont commencé à la fin des années 80. Depuis, des dizaines de modèles tentent d'expliquer les observations, qui sont les résultats de l'étude d'objets de plus en plus nombreux. Au cours de cette thèse, le test V/Vmax a été appliqué sur l'échantillon du Large Bright Quasar Survey en montrant 1) que l'échantillon était biaisé à cause des critères de sélection et 2) que la (simple) loi de Pure Evolution en Luminosité n'était pas une bonne approximation à tout

  3. Advanced orbiting systems test-bedding and protocol verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noles, James; De Gree, Melvin

    1989-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has begun the development of a set of protocol recommendations for Advanced Orbiting Systems (SOS). The AOS validation program and formal definition of AOS protocols are reviewed, and the configuration control of the AOS formal specifications is summarized. Independent implementations of the AOS protocols by NASA and ESA are discussed, and cross-support/interoperability tests which will allow the space agencies of various countries to share AOS communication facilities are addressed.

  4. TRIGA: Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Pingree, Paula J.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Telecommunications protocol processing subsystem using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA), a novel approach that unifies fault tolerance, error correction coding and interplanetary communication protocol off-loading to implement CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Datalink layers. The new reconfigurable architecture offers more than one order of magnitude throughput increase while reducing footprint requirements in memory, command and data handling processor utilization, communication system interconnects and power consumption.

  5. An object-oriented implementation of the Xpress transfor protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, W. Timothy; Gray, Simon; Cline, Raymond E., Jr.

    Object-oriented design principles map well onto protocol implementations because protocols essentially manipulate two structures - packets and the states of the endpoints. In this paper the authors describe an implementation of the Xpress Transfer Protocol as a user space daemon written in C++. The object-oriented model forces the programmer to properly place functionality and information ownership. The model facilitates porting to various platforms and greatly eases the task of building data delivery services.

  6. An object-oriented implementation of the Xpress Transfer Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, W.T.; Gray, S.; Cline, R.E. Jr.

    1994-10-01

    Object-oriented design principles map well onto protocol implementations because protocols essentially manipulate two structures - packets and the states of the endpoints. In this paper the authors describe an implementation of the Xpress Transfer Protocol as a user space daemon written in C++. The object-oriented model forces the programmer to properly place functionality and information ownership. The model facilitates porting to various platforms and greatly eases the task of building data delivery services.

  7. Wireless Sensor Networks Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijuan, Du; Yuanpeng, Wang; WeiPeng, Jing

    This paper presents a new wireless sensor network energy-efficient MAC protocol, ES-MAC protocol, and shows the results of simulation experiments. During the transmission the nodes do not send ACK packages while use a small amount of new information packets, so they can reduce unnecessary energy loss and wasted time. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that ES-MAC protocol reduces energy consumption while reducing network latency and improving network throughput.

  8. Secure authentication protocol for Internet applications over CATV network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Le-Pond

    1998-02-01

    An authentication protocol is proposed in this paper to implement secure functions which include two way authentication and key management between end users and head-end. The protocol can protect transmission from frauds, attacks such as reply and wiretap. Location privacy is also achieved. A rest protocol is designed to restore the system once when systems fail. The security is verified by taking several security and privacy requirements into consideration.

  9. Neonatal euthanasia: lessons from the Groningen Protocol.

    PubMed

    Eduard Verhagen, A A

    2014-10-01

    Decisions about neonatal end-of-life care have been studied intensely over the last 20 years in The Netherlands. Nationwide surveys were done to quantify these decisions, provide details and monitor the effect of guidelines, new regulations and other interventions. One of those interventions was the Groningen Protocol for newborn euthanasia in severely ill newborns, published in 2005. Before publication, an estimated 20 cases of euthanasia per year were performed. After publication, only two cases in five years were reported. Studies suggested that this might be partly caused by the lack of consensus about the dividing line between euthanasia and palliative care. New recommendations about paralytic medication use in dying newborns were issued to increase transparency and to improve reporting of euthanasia. New surveys will be needed to measure the effects of these interventions. This cycle of interventions and measurements seems useful for continuous improvement of end-of-life care in newborns. PMID:25150794

  10. Designing an Exploration Atmosphere Prebreathe Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Feiveson, A. H.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Norcross, J. R.; Wessel, J. H., III

    2015-01-01

    Extravehicular activities (EVAs) at remote locations must maximize limited resources such as oxygen (O2) and also minimize the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). A proposed remote denitrogenation (prebreathe) protocol requires astronauts to live in a mildly hypoxic atmosphere at 8.2 psia while periodically performing EVAs at 4.3 psia. Empirical data are required to confirm that the protocol meets the current accept requirements: less than or equal to 15% incidence of Type I DCS, less than or equal to 20% incidence of Grade IV venous gas emboli (VGE), both at 95% statistical confidence, with no Type II DCS symptom during the validation trial. METHODS: A repeated measures statistical design is proposed in which groups of 6 subjects with physical characteristics similar to active-duty astronauts would first become equilibrated to an 8.2 psia atmosphere in a hypobaric chamber containing 34% O2 and 66% N2, over 48 h, and then perform 4 simulated EVAs at 4.3 psia over the next 9 days. In the equilibration phase, subjects undergo a 3-h 100% O2 mask prebreathe prior to and during a 5-min ascent to 8.2 psia to prevent significant tissue N2 supersaturation on reaching 8.2 psia. Masks would be removed once 34% O2 is established at 8.2 psia, and subjects would then equilibrate to this atmosphere for 48 h. The hypoxia is equivalent to breathing air at 1,220 meters (4,000 ft) altitude, just as was experienced in the shuttle 10.2 psia - 26.5% O2 staged denitrogenation protocol and the current ISS campout denitrogenation protocol. For simulated EVAs, each subject dons a mask and breathes 85% O2 and 15% N2 during a 3-min depressurization to 6.0 psia, holds for 15 min, and then completes a 3-min depressurization to 4.3 psia. The simulated EVA period starts when 6.0 psia is reached and continues for a total of 240 min (222 min at 4.3 psia). During this time, subjects will follow a prescribed repetitive activity against loads in the upper and lower body with mean metabolic rate

  11. Protocol Sensing Across Multiple Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Gray, Andrew; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we present sensing performance using an architecture for a reconfigurable protocol chip for spacebased applications. Toward utilizing the IP packet architecture, utilizing data link layer framing structures for multiplexed data on a channel are the targeted application considered for demonstration purposes. Specifically, we examine three common framing standards and present the sensing performance of these standards and their relative de-correlation metrics. Some analysis is performed to investigate the impact of lossy links and on the number of packets required to perform a decision with some probability. Finally, we present results on a demonstration platform that integrated reconfigurable sensing technology into the Ground Station Interface Device (GRID) for End-to-End IP demonstrations in space.

  12. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  13. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  14. Assessment and classification of protocol deviations

    PubMed Central

    Ghooi, Ravindra Bhaskar; Bhosale, Neelambari; Wadhwani, Reena; Divate, Pathik; Divate, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Deviations from the approved trial protocol are common during clinical trials. They have been conventionally classified as deviations or violations, depending on their impact on the trial. Methods: A new method has been proposed by which deviations are classified in five grades from 1 to 5. A deviation of Grade 1 has no impact on the subjects’ well-being or on the quality of data. At the maximum, a deviation Grade 5 leads to the death of the subject. This method of classification was applied to deviations noted in the center over the last 3 years. Results: It was observed that most deviations were of Grades 1 and 2, with fewer falling in Grades 3 and 4. There were no deviations that led to the death of the subject (Grade 5). Discussion: This method of classification would help trial managers decide on the action to be taken on the occurrence of deviations, which would be based on their impact. PMID:27453830

  15. Automatic quality assessment protocol for MRI equipment.

    PubMed

    Bourel, P; Gibon, D; Coste, E; Daanen, V; Rousseau, J

    1999-12-01

    The authors have developed a protocol and software for the quality assessment of MRI equipment with a commercial test object. Automatic image analysis consists of detecting surfaces and objects, defining regions of interest, acquiring reference point coordinates and establishing gray level profiles. Signal-to-noise ratio, image uniformity, geometrical distortion, slice thickness, slice profile, and spatial resolution are checked. The results are periodically analyzed to evaluate possible drifts with time. The measurements are performed weekly on three MRI scanners made by the Siemens Company (VISION 1.5T, EXPERT 1.0T, and OPEN 0.2T). The results obtained for the three scanners over approximately 3.5 years are presented, analyzed, and compared. PMID:10619255

  16. Fault recovery in the reliable multicast protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd L.; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) provides a unique, group-based model for distributed programs that need to handle reconfiguration events at the application layer. This model, called membership views, provides an abstraction in which events such as site failures, network partitions, and normal join-leave events are viewed as group reformations. RMP provides access to this model through an application programming interface (API) that notifies an application when a group is reformed as the result of a some event. RMP provides applications with reliable delivery of messages using an underlying IP Multicast (12, 5) media to other group members in a distributed environment even in the case of reformations. A distributed application can use various Quality of Service (QoS) levels provided by RMP to tolerate group reformations. This paper explores the implementation details of the mechanisms in RMP that provide distributed applications with membership view information and fault recovery capabilities.

  17. Extensible Authentication Protocol Overview and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youm, Heung Youl

    The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is an authentication framework that supports multiple authentication mechanisms [38] between a peer and an authentication server in a data communication network. EAP is used as a useful tool for enabling user authentication and distribution of session keys. There are numerous EAP methods that have been developed by global SDOs such as IETF, IEEE, ITU-T, and 3GPP. In this paper, we analyze the most widely deployed EAP methods ranging from the EAP-TLS [27] to the EAP-PSK [25]. In addition, we derive the security requirements of EAP methods meet, evaluate the typical EAP methods in terms of the security requirements, and discuss the features of the existing widely-deployed EAP methods. In addition, we identify two typical use cases for the EAP methods. Finally, recent global standardization activities in this area are reviewed.

  18. Minimum-distance Problems in Protocol Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.; Reichstein, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Codes for use in personal computer file transfer as control characters, when only upper-case ASCII can be used to avoid dependence on unique machine features and promote portability. If ten control functions are needed, a number used in at least one protocol, a subset of ten upper-case ASCII characters with good distance properties is sought. The control functions form themselves naturally into three groups, one of two functions (ACK and NAK) and two of four. The aim is to make ACK and NAK as antipodal as possible (distance 6), make the distances within each of the other groups as large as possible (4), and otherwise have as few 2's in the distance table as possible, recognizing that only even distances can occur. The minimum and an assignment that attains the minimum are found. The code is essentially unique. The analogous problem for two groups of three control functions and one group of four is also solved.

  19. Protocols for Handling Messages Between Simulation Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcerowski, John P.; Dunnam, Milton

    2006-01-01

    Practical Simulator Network (PSimNet) is a set of data-communication protocols designed especially for use in handling messages between computers that are engaging cooperatively in real-time or nearly-real-time training simulations. In a typical application, computers that provide individualized training at widely dispersed locations would communicate, by use of PSimNet, with a central host computer that would provide a common computational- simulation environment and common data. Originally intended for use in supporting interfaces between training computers and computers that simulate the responses of spacecraft scientific payloads, PSimNet could be especially well suited for a variety of other applications -- for example, group automobile-driver training in a classroom. Another potential application might lie in networking of automobile-diagnostic computers at repair facilities to a central computer that would compile the expertise of numerous technicians and engineers and act as an expert consulting technician.

  20. Phenology monitoring protocol: Northeast Temperate Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tierney, Geri; Mitchell, Brian; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Katz, Jonathan; Denny, Ellen; Brauer, Corinne; Donovan, Therese; Richardson, Andrew D.; Toomey, Michael; Kozlowski, Adam; Weltzin, Jake F.; Gerst, Kathy; Sharron, Ed; Sonnentag, Oliver; Dieffenbach, Fred

    2013-01-01

    historical parks and national historic sites in the northeastern US. This protocol was developed in collaboration with and relies upon the procedures and infrastructure of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), including Nature’s Notebook, USA-NPN’s online plant and animal phenology observation program (www.nn.usanpn.org). Organized in 2007, USA-NPN is a nation-wide partnership among federal agencies, schools and universities, citizen volunteers, and others to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles on the nation’s biological resources. The overall goal of NETN’s phenology monitoring program is to determine trends in the phenology of key species in order to assist park managers with the detection and mitigation of the effects of climate change on park resources. An additional programmatic goal is to interest and educate park visitors and staff, as well as a cadre of volunteer monitors.

  1. Hamstring Muscle Injuries, a Rehabilitation Protocol Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Xavier; L.Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. Evidence Acquisition: In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. Results: The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Conclusions: Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP. PMID:26715969

  2. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2kqw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Kniazev, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2kqw discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (380-820nm) was obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  3. La détermination des distances: Sol, Hipparcos, GAIA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turon, C.

    Les parallaxes trigonométriques des étoiles les plus proches du soleil sont la base de la détermination des distances dans l'Univers. Elles permettent, par la calibration en luminosité des différents indicateurs de distance d'étalonner les distances d'abord dans notre Galaxie, puis dans les galaxies du Groupe Local, puis pour les galaxies plus lointaines. Cette base est, actuellement, très mince, et peu de types d'étoiles y sont représentés. Hipparcos va déjà apporter une amélioration sensible. Avec GAIA une révision complète des calibrations de luminosité de tous les indicateurs "primaires" serait directement possible.

  4. Outcome analysis of individualized vestibular rehabilitation protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Angel, C. R.; Pesznecker, S. C.; Gianna, C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of vestibular rehabilitation protocols in subjects with peripheral vestibular disorders compared with normal and abnormal control subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study using repeated measure, matched control design. Subjects were solicited consecutively according to these criteria: vestibular disorder subjects who had abnormal results of computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) sensory organization tests (SOTs) 5 and 6 and underwent rehabilitation; vestibular disorder subjects who had abnormal results of SOTs 5 and 6 and did not undergo rehabilitation; and normal subjects (normal SOTs). SETTING: Tertiary neurotology clinic. SUBJECTS: Men and women over age 18 with chronic vestibular disorders and chief complaints of unsteadiness, imbalance, and/or motion intolerance, and normal subjects. INTERVENTIONS: Pre- and post-rehabilitation assessment included CDP, vestibular disability, and activities of daily living questionnaires. Individualized rehabilitation plans were designed and implemented to address the subject's specific complaints and functional deficits. Supervised sessions were held at weekly intervals, and self-administered programs were devised for daily home use. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CDP composite and SOT scores, number of falls on CDP, and self-assessment questionnaire results. RESULTS: Subjects who underwent rehabilitation (Group A) showed statistically significant improvements in SOTs, overall composite score, and reduction in falls compared with abnormal (Group B) control groups. Group A's performances after rehabilitation were not significantly different from those of normal subjects (Group C) in SOTs 3 through 6, and close to normal on SOTs 1 and 2. Subjects in Group A also reported statistically significant symptomatic improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome measures of vestibular protocol physical therapy confirmed objective and subjective improvement in subjects with chronic peripheral vestibular disorders. These

  5. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  6. Empirical Evaluation of Bone Extraction Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Timothy P.; Voegele, Kristyn; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2012-01-01

    The application of high-resolution analytical techniques to characterize ancient bone proteins requires clean, efficient extraction to obtain high quality data. Here, we evaluated many different protocols from the literature on ostrich cortical bone and moa cortical bone to evaluate their yield and relative purity using the identification of antibody-antigen complexes on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis. Moa bone provided an ancient comparison for the effectiveness of bone extraction protocols tested on ostrich bone. For the immunological part of this study, we focused on collagen I, osteocalcin, and hemoglobin because collagen and osteocalcin are the most abundant proteins in the mineralized extracellular matrix and hemoglobin is common in the vasculature. Most of these procedures demineralize the bone first, and then the remaining organics are chemically extracted. We found that the use of hydrochloric acid, rather than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, for demineralization resulted in the cleanest extractions because the acid was easily removed. In contrast, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in smearing upon electrophoretic separation, possibly indicating these samples were not as pure. The denaturing agents sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, and guanidine HCl have been used extensively for the solubilization of proteins in non-biomineralized tissue, but only the latter has been used on bone. We show that all three denaturing agents are effective for extracting bone proteins. One additional method tested uses ammonium bicarbonate as a solubilizing buffer that is more appropriate for post-extraction analyses (e.g., proteomics) by removing the need for desalting. We found that both guanidine HCl and ammonium bicarbonate were effective for extracting many bone proteins, resulting in similar electrophoretic patterns. With the increasing use of proteomics, a new generation of scientists are now interested in the study of proteins

  7. NEMVP: North American energy measurement and verification protocol

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This measurement and verification protocol discusses procedures that,when implemented, allow buyers, sellers, and financiers of energy projects to quantify energy conservation measure performance and savings.

  8. A Weak Value Based QKD Protocol Robust Against Detector Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    2015-03-01

    We propose a variation of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol that utilizes the properties of weak values to insure the validity of the quantum bit error rate estimates used to detect an eavesdropper. The protocol is shown theoretically to be secure against recently demonstrated attacks utilizing detector blinding and control and should also be robust against all detector based hacking. Importantly, the new protocol promises to achieve this additional security without negatively impacting the secure key generation rate as compared to that originally promised by the standard BB84 scheme. Implementation of the weak measurements needed by the protocol should be very feasible using standard quantum optical techniques.

  9. 48 CFR 3439.701 - Internet Protocol version 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Department Requirements for Acquisition of Information Technology 3439.701 Internet Protocol version 6. The...

  10. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with the Random Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi, Wei; Guo, Fenzhuo; Luo, Yi; Cao, Shouhong; Wen, Qiaoyan

    2013-09-01

    We proposed a quantum secret comparison protocol for two parties with the random rotation angle, which is under the help of a semi-honest third party. The random rotation angle made it possible for the protocol to be safer and the two parties cannot deduce each other's information by means of their own possessions. The participants' secrets are divided into groups and the third party announced the results by group, which made the protocol more safely and sometimes it can save lots of resources. Moreover, during our protocol process any information of the two parties will not be leaked, even the third party cannot get any participants' secrets.

  11. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijia; Hu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an efficient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable efficiency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model. PMID:24971471

  12. A protocol-based evaluation of medical image digitizers.

    PubMed

    Efstathopoulos, E P; Costaridou, L; Kocsis, O; Panayiotakis, G

    2001-09-01

    Medical film digitizers play an important transitory role as digital-to-analogue bridges in radiology. Their use requires performance evaluation to assure medical image quality. A complete quality control protocol is presented, based on a set of test objects adaptable to the specification of various digitizers. The protocol includes parameters such as uniformity, input-output response, noise, geometric distortion, spatial resolution, low contrast discrimination, film slippage and light leakage, as well as associated measurement methods. The applicability of the protocol is demonstrated with two types of medical film digitizers; a charge-coupled device (CCD) digitizer and a laser digitizer. The potential value of the protocol is also discussed. PMID:11560833

  13. Protocol for a Delay-Tolerant Data-Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, Jordan; Hooke, Adrian; Burleigh, Scott; Fall, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    As its name partly indicates, the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol is a protocol for delay-tolerant transmission of data via communication networks. This protocol was conceived as a result of studies of how to adapt Internet protocols so that Internet-like services could be provided across interplanetary distances in support of deep-space exploration. The protocol, and software to implement the protocol, is being developed in collaboration among experts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other institutions. No current Internet protocols can accommodate long transmission delay times or intermittent link connectivity. The DTN Bundle Protocol represents a departure from the standard Internet assumption that a continuous path is available from a host computer to a client computer: It provides for routing of data through networks that may be disjointed and may be characterized by long transmission delays. In addition to networks that include deepspace communication links, examples of such networks include terrestrial ones within which branches are temporarily disconnected. The protocol is based partly on the definition of a message-based overlay above the transport layers of the networks on which it is hosted.

  14. Dynamic quantum secret sharing protocol based on GHZ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ci-Hong; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelish

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a new dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS) protocol using the measurement property of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and the controlled-NOT gate. In the proposed DQSS protocol, an agent can obtain a shadow of the secret key by simply performing a measurement on single photons. In comparison with the existing DQSS protocols, it provides better qubit efficiency and has an easy way to add a new agent. The proposed protocol is also free from the eavesdropping attack, the collusion attack, and can have an honesty check on a revoked agent.

  15. Variable bandwidth broadcasting protocol for video-on-demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Jehan-Francois; Long, Darrell D. E.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first broadcasting protocol that can alter the number of channels allocated to a given video without inconveniencing the viewer and without causing any temporary bandwidth surge. Our variable bandwidth broadcasting (VBB) protocol assigns to each video a minimum number of channels whose bandwidths are all equal to the video consumption rate. Additional channels can be assigned to the video at any time to reduce the customer waiting time or retaken to free server bandwidth. The cost of this additional flexibility is quite reasonable as the bandwidth requirements of our VBB fall between those of the fast broadcasting protocol and the new pagoda broadcasting protocol.

  16. The Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP): A tutorial (short version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Robert M.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP) is a reliable, light weight transfer layer protocol. Current transport layer protocols such as DoD's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and ISO's Transport Protocol (TP) were not designed for the next generation of high speed, interconnected reliable networks such as fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) and the gigabit/second wide area networks. Unlike all previous transport layer protocols, XTP is being designed to be implemented in hardware as a VLSI chip set. By streamlining the protocol, combining the transport and network layers, and utilizing the increased speed and parallelization possible with a VLSI implementation, XTP will be able to provide the end-to-end data transmission rates demanded in the high speed networks without compromising reliability and functionality. This tutorial briefly describes the operation of the XTP protocol and in particular, its error, flow and rate control; inter-networking addressing mechanisms; and multicast support features, as defined in the XTP Protocol Definition Revision 3.4.

  17. Biometrics based authentication scheme for session initiation protocol.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Tang, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Many two-factor challenge-response based session initiation protocol (SIP) has been proposed, but most of them are vulnerable to smart card stolen attacks and password guessing attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel three-factor SIP authentication scheme using biometrics, password and smart card, and utilize the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove that the proposed protocol achieves security and authentication. Furthermore, our protocol is highly efficient when compared to other related protocols. PMID:27462493

  18. Analysis of limiting information characteristics of quantum-cryptography protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Sych, D V; Grishanin, Boris A; Zadkov, Viktor N

    2005-01-31

    The problem of increasing the critical error rate of quantum-cryptography protocols by varying a set of letters in a quantum alphabet for space of a fixed dimensionality is studied. Quantum alphabets forming regular polyhedra on the Bloch sphere and the continual alphabet equally including all the quantum states are considered. It is shown that, in the absence of basis reconciliation, a protocol with the tetrahedral alphabet has the highest critical error rate among the protocols considered, while after the basis reconciliation, a protocol with the continual alphabet possesses the highest critical error rate. (quantum optics and quantum computation)

  19. The Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP): A tutorial (expanded version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Robert M.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP) is a reliable, real-time, light weight transfer layer protocol. Current transport layer protocols such as DoD's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and ISO's Transport Protocol (TP) were not designed for the next generation of high speed, interconnected reliable networks such as fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) and the gigabit/second wide area networks. Unlike all previous transport layer protocols, XTP is being designed to be implemented in hardware as a VLSI chip set. By streamlining the protocol, combining the transport and network layers and utilizing the increased speed and parallelization possible with a VLSI implementation, XTP will be able to provide the end-to-end data transmission rates demanded in high speed networks without compromising reliability and functionality. This paper describes the operation of the XTP protocol and in particular, its error, flow and rate control; inter-networking addressing mechanisms; and multicast support features, as defined in the XTP Protocol Definition Revision 3.4.

  20. A Security Analysis of the 802.11s Wireless Mesh Network Routing Protocol and Its Secure Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP. PMID:24002231

  1. A security analysis of the 802.11s wireless mesh network routing protocol and its secure routing protocols.

    PubMed

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP. PMID:24002231

  2. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River basins, southern Minnesota and northern Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, located in southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  3. Rôle des hyrates dans la formation de Titan et des satellites réguliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.

    2001-12-01

    Cette these est dediee a l'etude de l'origine de Titan et de son atmosphere. Dans l'hypothese ou la subnebuleuse de Saturne etait geometriquement mince, le modele de disque turbulent utilise, derive des travaux de Dubrulle (1993), est moins dense que le modele de Prinn et Fegley (1981). De ce fait, les conversions de Co en CH4 et de N2 en NH3 ont ete inhibees dans la subnebuleuse, contrairement a ce qui est couramment admis pour interpreter la presence du methane dans l'atmosphere de Titan. C'est pourquoi nous avons developpe un nouveau scenario de la formation de titan, qui tient compte simultanement des contraintes resultant de la chimie de la subnebuleuse et des abondances de CH4, N2 et CH3D mesurees dans l'atmosphere du satellite. Nous faisons l'hypothese que ces gaz proviennent initialement de la vaporisation du nuage presolaire, qui s'effondra et forma le Soleil et son disque environnant. Lors du refroidissement de la nebuleuse, les volatils auraient ete pieges sous formes de clathrates d'hydrates dans les grains, puis dans les planetesimaux qu'ils formerent. Les planetesimaux hydrates a l'origine de la formation de Titan seraient alors des rescapes de l'effondrement hydsrodynamique de la feeding zone de Saturne. Ce scenario a ete applique aux subnebuleuses de Jupiter et d'Uranus, et a apporte un certain nombre de contraintes sur la formation des satellites reguliers de ces planetes. Le temps et la zone de formation des grains cometaires ont egalement ete estimes dans la nebuleuse solaire. Enfin, l'etude experimentale de la temperature de fusion du dihydrate d'ammoniac dans la gamme des hautes pressions a apporte des nouvelles donnees thermodynamiques qui permettront d'ameliorer les modeles de l'interieur de Titan.

  4. Information searching protocol: a smart protocol for specific content search over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarakosol, Pattarasinee; Preechaveerakul, Ladda

    2006-10-01

    Currently, information is very important to Internet users. Unfortunately, searching for specific information from the Internet is not easy as wishes. The existing search engine mechanisms cannot be performed using a pathname of URL as a search key. Therefore, users who have a partial pathname of URL cannot use their knowledge to narrow down the search results. Thus, users have to spend a long time searching for the required web site from the result list. This paper proposes a search protocol named Information Searching Protocol (ISP) that supports the multiple search contents for users who know a partial pathname of URL and keywords. Moreover, the architecture of the Global Search Engine System (GSES) that cooperates with the ISP and is responsible for the search mechanism is also proposed. The GSES consists of two separated parts: an Internet Search Protocol agent at the client site, and GSES components at the server site. These components allow users to perform the search using a pathname of URL composing with keywords. The functions of GSES components indicate that the ISP enhances the search mechanism. So, users receive more specific URL and can, shortly, get access to the required site.

  5. Les sarcomes des tissus mous: à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Elkabous, Mustapha; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rapporter les particularités épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des sarcomes des tissus mous à l'Institut National d'Oncologie et de définir les facteurs influençant la survie des patients. C'est une étude rétrospective de 33 cas de sarcome des tissus mous, colligés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2010. Les critères d’éligibilité étaient un âge supérieur à 16 ans, une épreuve histologique d'un sarcome des tissus mous à l'exclusion des tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales (GIST). Les items recueillis étaient: épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, Radiologiques, et thérapeutiques. Des analyses univariées puis multivariées ont été réalisées à la recherche de facteurs influençant la survie à 2 ans. Il s'agit de 33 cas, 17 Hommes et 16 Femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,21 ans (Extrêmes= 18-76 ans). La tumeur était localisée aux extrémités dans 24 cas (72,72%). Le type histologique prédominant était le Liposarcome dans 9 cas (27,27%). Le stade tumoral était localisé dans 25 cas (75,8%), métastatique dans 8 cas (24,2%). Vingt-cinq tumeurs ont été traitées chirurgicalement dont 21 cas (84%) de chirurgie conservatrice et 4 cas (16%) de chirurgie radicale. La radiothérapie a été réalisée chez 10 patients (30,3%). La chimiothérapie a été faite chez 20 patients. En analyse univariée les facteurs pronostiques étaient l’âge (p=0,03) et le stade tumoral (p=0,09). L’âge et le stade tumoral sont des facteurs pronostiques influençant la survie des sarcomes des tissus mous. PMID:27022434

  6. Exploring Shared Memory Protocols in FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Mark; Kunz, Robert; Hall, Mary; Lucas, Robert; Chame, Jacqueline

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT The goal of this project was to improve the performance of large scientific and engineering applications through collaborative hardware and software mechanisms to manage the memory hierarchy of non-uniform memory access time (NUMA) shared-memory machines, as well as their component individual processors. In spite of the programming advantages of shared-memory platforms, obtaining good performance for large scientific and engineering applications on such machines can be challenging. Because communication between processors is managed implicitly by the hardware, rather than expressed by the programmer, application performance may suffer from unintended communication – communication that the programmer did not consider when developing his/her application. In this project, we developed and evaluated a collection of hardware, compiler, languages and performance monitoring tools to obtain high performance on scientific and engineering applications on NUMA platforms by managing communication through alternative coherence mechanisms. Alternative coherence mechanisms have often been discussed as a means for reducing unintended communication, although architecture implementations of such mechanisms are quite rare. This report describes an actual implementation of a set of coherence protocols that support coherent, non-coherent and write-update accesses for a CC-NUMA shared-memory architecture, the Stanford FLASH machine. Such an approach has the advantages of using alternative coherence only where it is beneficial, and also provides an evolutionary migration path for improving application performance. We present data on two computations, RandomAccess from the HPC Challenge benchmarks and a forward solver derived from LS-DYNA, showing the performance advantages of the alternative coherence mechanisms. For RandomAccess, the non-coherent and write-update versions can outperform the coherent version by factors of 5 and 2.5, respectively. In LS-DYNA, we obtain

  7. PACIFIC NORTHWEST SIDE-BY-SIDE PROTOCOL COMPARISON TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven state, tribal, and federal agencies participated during summer 2005 in a side-by-side comparison of protocols used to measure common in-stream physical attributes to help determine which protocols are best for determining status and trend of stream/watershed condition. Th...

  8. Experimental eavesdropping attack against Ekert's protocol based on Wigner's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.; Castelletto, S.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Rastello, M. L.

    2003-09-01

    We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.

  9. Power Tools for Talking: Custom Protocols Enrich Coaching Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Francesca; Ippolito, Jacy

    2015-01-01

    Discussion-based protocols--an "agreed upon set of discussion or observation rules that guide coach/teacher/student work, discussion, and interactions" (Ippolito & Lieberman, 2012, p. 79)--can help focus and structure productive professional learning discussions. However, while protocols are slowly growing into essential elements of…

  10. COMPILATION OF AMES 'SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM' PLATE INCORPORATION TEST PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objectives of this compilation are (1) to serve as a reference for workers in the genetic toxicology field, (2) as a starting point for creation of reference protocols for those who need precise Ames test protocols, and (3) as a guide to understanding variations in te...

  11. The Design of a Reliable Multipeer Protocol for DVEs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuer, Gunther; Broeckhove, Jan; Arickx, Frans

    2003-01-01

    Presents the design and implementation of a reliable multipeer protocol (RMPP), which is written in Java and is suitable for applications in the area of distributed virtual environments (DVEs). Discusses motivation, protocol classification, design goals and the error recovery algorithm and lists implementation issues. Presents two possible…

  12. Clinicians as Communication Partners: Developing a Mediated Discourse Elicitation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development and piloting of a mediated discourse elicitation protocol. Grounded in situated theories of communication and informed by mediated discourse analysis, this protocol selectively samples familiar discourse types in a manner designed to preserve interactional aspects of communication. Critically, the mediated…

  13. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices and... Prevention and Toxics, whether the protocol submitted is likely to allow analysis down to the target LOQs,...

  14. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices and... Prevention and Toxics, whether the protocol submitted is likely to allow analysis down to the target LOQs,...

  15. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices and... Prevention and Toxics, whether the protocol submitted is likely to allow analysis down to the target LOQs,...

  16. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices and... Prevention and Toxics, whether the protocol submitted is likely to allow analysis down to the target LOQs,...

  17. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices and... Prevention and Toxics, whether the protocol submitted is likely to allow analysis down to the target LOQs,...

  18. Autologous transplant in multiple myeloma with an augmented conditioning protocol.

    PubMed

    Abu Zaid, Badran; Abdul-Hai, Ali; Grotto, Itamar; Dray, Lillian; Resnick, Igor B; Tsirigotis, Panagiotis D; Samuel, Simcha; Or, Reuven; Shapira, Michael Y

    2013-11-01

    We compared the tolerability and anti-myeloma effect of two conditioning regimens for autologous stem cell transplant (auto-SCT) in consecutive groups of patients. Protocol 1 was the earlier, and consisted of the combination of three agents in a sequential manner, including etoposide, thiotepa and melphalan (n = 29), while protocol 2 employed melphalan alone (n = 34). The two groups were comparable (other than younger age in protocol 1). Conditioning with protocol 1 seemed more toxic, as expressed by the higher number of febrile days and higher demand for parenteral nutrition. This was not expressed with longer admission time. With 108 and 60 months' median follow-up, respectively, the median survival in patients treated by protocol 2 (melphalan 200 mg/m(2)) was reached at 59 months, while the median survival was not yet reached in patients treated with protocol 1 (p = 0.039). The time to progression was significantly longer with protocol 1 (median 44 months vs. 17 months with protocol 2, p = 0.033). Confounded by the small number of patients, conditioning with melphalan augmented by etoposide and thiotepa in a sequential manner is slightly more toxic than melphalan alone and may benefit patients with myeloma undergoing auto-SCT. PMID:23469964

  19. The Strong-Inference Protocol: Not Just for Grant Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Sara M.

    2007-01-01

    The strong-inference protocol puts into action the important concepts in Platt's often-assigned, classic paper on the strong-inference method (10). Yet, perhaps because students are frequently performing experiments with known outcomes, the protocols they write as undergraduates are usually little more than step-by-step instructions for performing…

  20. The Geneva Protocol of 1925: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbison, John L.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a position paper for use in high school social studies class debates on the Geneva Protocol of 1925. The Protocol was an international agreement to restrict chemical and biological warfare (CBW). The author traces the history of U.S. policies dealing with CBW since 1925. (AM)

  1. A Network Client Using the Gopher Information Discovery Protocol

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-10-05

    WSGOPHER uses the protocol known as Gopher, which is described in Internet RFC 1436. Specifically Gopher is a client/server protocol. Gopher servers provide information across the network to Gopher clients. WSGOPHER is an implementation of a Gopher client for Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows Sockets version 1.1.

  2. An efficient sampling protocol for sagebrush/grassland monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the health and condition of rangeland vegetation can be very time consuming and costly. An efficiency but rigorous sampling protocol is needed for monitoring sagebrush/grassland vegetation. A randomized sampling protocol was presented for geo-referenced, nadir photographs acquired using...

  3. WSGOPHER. A Network Client Using the Gopher Information Discovery Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.L.

    1993-10-05

    WSGOPHER uses the protocol known as Gopher, which is described in Internet RFC 1436. Specifically Gopher is a client/server protocol. Gopher servers provide information across the network to Gopher clients. WSGOPHER is an implementation of a Gopher client for Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows Sockets version 1.1.

  4. Semi-Structured Interview Protocol for Constructing Logic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugiu, P. Cristian; Rodriguez-Campos, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    This paper details a semi-structured interview protocol that evaluators can use to develop a logic model of a program's services and outcomes. The protocol presents a series of questions, which evaluators can ask of specific program informants, that are designed to: (1) identify key informants basic background and contextual information, (2)…

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION TEST PROTOCOL, GENERAL VENTILATION FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification Test Protocol, General Ventilation Filters provides guidance for verification tests.

    Reference is made in the protocol to the ASHRAE 52.2P "Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by P...

  6. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  7. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  8. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  9. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  10. SDLIP + STARTS = SDARTS: A Protocol and Toolkit for Metasearching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Noah; Ipeirotis, Panagiotis G.; Gravano, Luis

    This paper describes how SDLIP and STARTS, two complementary protocols for searching over distributed document collections, were combined. The resulting protocol, called SDARTS, is simple yet expressible enough to enable building sophisticated metasearch engines. SDARTS can be viewed as an instantiation of SDLIP with metasearch-specific elements…

  11. Caractérisation des convertisseurs matriciels : II. Synthèse des fonctions de connexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Cambronne, J. P.; Hautier, J. P.

    1996-05-01

    Knowing the wished conversion levels (-1,0,1) of a power converter, this paper describes a particular method for setting the corresponding states of switches into the matrix converter. In a first step, a mathematical analysis establishes the relations linking the states of switches with the conversion functions. Afterwards, the presented method gives the inverse relations which constitute the sequential part of the converter control. The turn-on and the turn-off sequences are designed by considering the on-line wished level conversions. This general method enhances the idea that a converter functionnality must be defined by its structure and its control. Cet article propose une méthode originale pour définir la séquence de commande d'un convertisseur à partir de la fonction de conversion globalement souhaitée. Les auteurs procèdent d'abord à une analyse mathématique précise des relations qui existent entre les états des interrupteurs et les fonctions de conversion obtenues. À partir de cette analyse, la méthode developpée permet d'établir systématiquement les relations inverses qui constituent alors le module séquentiel de la commande rapprochée du convertisseur. Les ordres d'ouverture et de fermeture des interrupteurs sont élaborés en considérant à tout instant les niveaux de conversion souhaités pour les grandeurs électriques. Cette méthode générale renforce l'idée que la fonction remplie par un convertisseur moderne doit être définie à la fois par sa structure et sa commande.

  12. La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

  13. Views on Behaviour Protocols and Their Semantic Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Hennicker, Rolf

    We consider UML protocol state machines where states are annotated with invariants and transitions are labelled with pre- and postconditions of operations. We claim that the meaning of a protocol strongly depends on the role in which the protocol is actually used. In our study we distinguish three different views on protocols: The user’s and the implementor’s perspective, which both are inspired by the contract principle, and an interaction perspective which focuses on collaborations. For each view we define a model-theoretic semantics based on labelled transition systems and simulation relations integrating control flow and the evolution of data states. Our approach is compositional in the sense that correct user and implementation models can be composed to a correct interaction model. Moreover, we define a refinement relation for protocols which retains our compositionality results.

  14. [Pediatric serial urinary cystoureterography. Needs, nursing diagnosis, and care protocol].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Lopera, María del Carmen; Esplá García, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    The authors present the causes which lead to carrying out a Series of Urinal Tract Retrograde Cystography (CUMS) study in a child and they discuss some reasons which justify the elaboration of a nursing treatment protocol and the corresponding procedures in order to care for the child. To make a protocol for a procedure facilitates and enhances its execution. Nursing treatments, like any other activity, are susceptible to having a protocol and therefore can improve their quality. Nurses in the radio-diagnostic pediatrics ward at the University Hospital Reina Sofía in Cordoba are elaborating treatment protocols for every one of their radiological studies for the care of every child to whom we attend whom requires nursing care. In this article some protocols and procedures are commented on along with the reasons which justify their elaboration. PMID:13677766

  15. Security of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kejia, Zhang; Dan, Li; Qi, Su

    2014-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to the study of arbitrated quantum signature (AQS). Among these studies, the cryptanalysis of some AQS protocols and a series of improved ideas have been proposed. Compared with the previous analysis, we present a security criterion, which can judge whether an AQS protocol is able to prevent the receiver (i.e. one participant in the signature protocol) from forging a legal signature. According to our results, it can be seen that most AQS protocols which are based on the Zeng and Keitel (ZK) model are susceptible to a forgery attack. Furthermore, we present an improved idea of the ZK protocol. Finally, some supplement discussions and several interesting topics are provided.

  16. Packet-Based Protocol Efficiency for Aeronautical and Satellite Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between bit error ratios and the effective link efficiency when transporting data with a packet-based protocol. Relations are developed to quantify the impact of a protocol s packet size and header size relative to the bit error ratio of the underlying link. These relations are examined in the context of radio transmissions that exhibit variable error conditions, such as those used in satellite, aeronautical, and other wireless networks. A comparison of two packet sizing methodologies is presented. From these relations, the true ability of a link to deliver user data, or information, is determined. Relations are developed to calculate the optimal protocol packet size forgiven link error characteristics. These relations could be useful in future research for developing an adaptive protocol layer. They can also be used for sizing protocols in the design of static links, where bit error ratios have small variability.

  17. Protocol for sampling environmental sites for legionellae.

    PubMed

    Barbaree, J M; Gorman, G W; Martin, W T; Fields, B S; Morrill, W E

    1987-07-01

    A protocol for sampling environmental sites was developed and used to identify possible sources of Legionella species in support of epidemiologic investigations at two hospitals. In hospital A, legionellae were isolated from 43 of 106 (40%) different sites. Three separate Legionella pneumophila serotypes and a previously unrecognized species were present in different combinations in the positive samples. Two of five cooling towers contained the same L. pneumophila serogroup 1 monoclonal type (1,2,4,5) as was isolated from patients. The same monoclonal type was also isolated from make-up water for the two cooling towers, a hot water tank, water separators in four main air compressor systems for respiratory therapy, and cold and hot water faucets. In hospital B, 13 of 37 (38%) sample sites contained legionellae, all of which were L. pneumophila serogroup 1. The monoclonal type matching isolates from patients (1,2,4,5) was found at the highest concentration in a hot water tank, but it was also present at four other sample sites. Since legionellae not related to disease may be found in many of the sites sampled, an epidemiologic association with the probable source should be established before intervention methods, such as disinfection, are undertaken. PMID:3662501

  18. Design issues for floor control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommel, Hans-Peter; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Jose J.

    1995-03-01

    Floor control allows users of networked multimedia applications to remotely share resources like cursors, data views, video and audio channels, or entire applications without access conflicts. Floors are mutually exclusive permissions, granted dynamically to collaborating users, mitigating race conditions and guaranteeing fair and deadlock- free resource access. Although floor control is an early concept within computer-supported cooperative work, no framework exists and current floor control mechanisms are often limited to simple objects. While small-scale collaboration can be facilitated by social conventions, the importance of floors becomes evident for large-scale application sharing and teleconferencing orchestration. In this paper, the concept of a scalable session protocol is enhanced with floor control. Characteristics of collaborative environments are discussed, and session and floor control are discerned. The system's and user's requirements perspectives are discussed, including distributed storage policies, packet structure and user-interface design for floor presentation, manipulation, and triggering conditions for floor migration. Interaction stages between users, and scenarios of participant withdrawal, late joins, and establishment of subgroups are elicited with respect to floor generation, bookkeeping, and passing. An API is proposed to standardize and integrate floor control among shared applications. Finally, a concise classification for existing systems with a notion of floor control is introduced.

  19. Enhanced parent selection algorithms in mintroute protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Il

    2012-11-01

    A low-rate, short-range wireless radio communication on a small device often hampers high reliability in wireless sensor networks. However, more applications are increasingly demanding high reliability. To meet this requirement, various approaches have been proposed in each viewpoint of layers. Among those, MintRoute is a well-known network layer approach to develop a new metric based on link quality for path selection towards the sink. By choosing the link with the highest measured value, it has a higher possibility to transmit a packet over the link without error. However, there are still several issues to be mentioned during operations. In this paper, we propose how to improve the MintRoute protocol through revised algorithms. They include a parent selection considering distance and level from the sink node, and a fast recovery method against failures. Simulations and analysis are performed by in order to validate the suitability of reduced end-to-end delay and fast recovery for failures, thus to enhance the reliability of communication.

  20. Potential anesthesia protocols for space exploration missions.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Matthieu; Watkins, Sharmila D; Lebuffe, Gilles; Clark, Jonathan B

    2013-03-01

    In spaceflight beyond low Earth's orbit, medical conditions requiring surgery are of a high level of concern because of their potential impact on crew health and mission success. Whereas surgical techniques have been thoroughly studied in spaceflight analogues, the research focusing on anesthesia is limited. To provide safe anesthesia during an exploration mission will be a highly challenging task. The research objective is thus to describe specific anesthesia procedures enabling treatment of pre-identified surgical conditions. Among the medical conditions considered by the NASA Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability element, those potentially necessitating anesthesia techniques have been identified. The most appropriate procedure for each condition is thoroughly discussed. The substantial cost of training time necessary to implement regional anesthesia is pointed out. Within general anesthetics, ketamine combines the unique advantages of preservation of cardiovascular stability, the protective airway reflexes, and spontaneous ventilation. Ketamine side effects have for decades tempered enthusiasm for its use, but recent developments in mitigation means broadened its indications. The extensive experience gathered in remote environments, with minimal equipment and occasionally by insufficiently trained care providers, confirms its high degree of safety. Two ketamine-based anesthesia protocols are described with their corresponding indications. They have been designed taking into account the physiological changes occurring in microgravity and the specific constraints of exploration missions. This investigation could not only improve surgical care during long-duration spaceflights, but may find a number of terrestrial applications in isolated or austere environments. PMID:23513283

  1. Fault discovery protocol for passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajduczenia, Marek; Fonseca, Daniel; da Silva, Henrique J. A.; Monteiro, Paulo P.

    2007-06-01

    All existing flavors of passive optical networks (PONs) provide an attractive alternative to legacy copper-based access lines deployed between a central office (CO) of the service provider (SP) and a customer site. One of the most challenging tasks for PON network planners is the reduction of the overall cost of employing protection schemes for the optical fiber plant while maintaining a reasonable level of survivability and reducing the downtime, thus ensuring acceptable levels of quality of service (QoS) for end subscribers. The recently growing volume of Ethernet PONs deployment [Kramer, IEEE 802.3, CFI (2006)], connected with low-cost electronic and optical components used in the optical network unit (ONU) modules, results in the situation where remote detection of faulty/active subscriber modules becomes indispensable for proper operation of an EPON system. The problem of the remote detection of faulty ONUs in the system is addressed where the upstream channel is flooded with the cw transmission from one or more damaged ONUs and standard communication is severed, providing a solution that is applicable in any type of PON network, regardless of the operating protocol, physical structure, and data rate.

  2. Exercise countermeasure protocol management expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, L.; Chen, J. G.; Flores, L.; Tan, S.

    1993-01-01

    Exercise will be used primarily to countermeasure against deconditioning on extended space flight. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation of an expert system for exercise countermeasure protocol management. Currently, the system includes two major subsystems: baseline prescription and prescription adjustment. The baseline prescription subsystem is designed to provide initial exercise prescriptions while prescription adjustment subsystem is designed to modify the initial prescription based on the exercised progress. The system runs under three different environments: PC, SUN workstation, and Symbolic machine. The inference engine, baseline prescription module, prescription adjustment module and explanation module are developed under the Symbolic environment by using the ART (Automated Reasoning Tool) software. The Sun environment handles database management features and interfaces with PC environment to obtain physical and physiological data from exercise units on-board during the flight. Eight subjects' data have been used to evaluate the system performance by comparing the prescription of nine experienced exercise physiologists and the one prescribed by the expert system. The results of the validation test indicated that the performance of the expert system was acceptable.

  3. [The research protocol III. Study population].

    PubMed

    Arias-Gómez, Jesús; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The study population is defined as a set of cases, determined, limited, and accessible, that will constitute the subjects for the selection of the sample, and must fulfill several characteristics and distinct criteria. The objectives of this manuscript are focused on specifying each one of the elements required to make the selection of the participants of a research project, during the elaboration of the protocol, including the concepts of study population, sample, selection criteria and sampling methods. After delineating the study population, the researcher must specify the criteria that each participant has to comply. The criteria that include the specific characteristics are denominated selection or eligibility criteria. These criteria are inclusion, exclusion and elimination, and will delineate the eligible population. The sampling methods are divided in two large groups: 1) probabilistic or random sampling and 2) non-probabilistic sampling. The difference lies in the employment of statistical methods to select the subjects. In every research, it is necessary to establish at the beginning the specific number of participants to be included to achieve the objectives of the study. This number is the sample size, and can be calculated or estimated with mathematical formulas and statistic software. PMID:27174763

  4. RADCAL Operations Manual Radiation Calibration Laboratory Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    The Life Sciences Division (LSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long record of radiation dosimetry research, primarily using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) and the Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL) in its Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Program. These facilities have been used by a broad segment of the research community to perform a variety of experiments in areas including, but not limited to, radiobiology, radiation dosimeter and instrumentation development and calibration, and the testing of materials in a variety of radiation environments. Operations of the HPRR were terminated in 1987 and the reactor was moved to storage at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; however, RADCAL will continue to be operated in accordance with the guidelines of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Secondary Calibration Laboratory program and will meet all requirements for testing dosimeters under the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). This manual is to serve as the primary instruction and operation manual for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's RADCAL facility. Its purpose is to (1) provide operating protocols for the RADCAL facility, (2) outline the organizational structure, (3) define the Quality Assurance Action Plan, and (4) describe all the procedures, operations, and responsibilities for the safe and proper operation of all routine aspects of the calibration facility.

  5. A Design Protocol to Develop Radiology Dashboards

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The main objective of this descriptive and development research was to introduce a design protocol to develop radiology dashboards. Material and methods: The first step was to determine key performance indicators for radiology department. The second step was to determine required infrastructure for implementation of radiology dashboards. Infrastructure was extracted from both data and technology perspectives. The third step was to determine main features of the radiology dashboards. The fourth step was to determine the key criteria for evaluating the dashboards. In all these steps, non-probability sampling methods including convenience and purposive were employed and sample size determined based on a persuasion model. Results: Results showed that there are 92 KPIs, 10 main features for designing dashboards and 53 key criteria for dashboards evaluation. As well as, a Prototype of radiology management dashboards in four aspects including services, clients, personnel and cost-income were implemented and evaluated. Applying such dashboards could help managers to enhance performance, productivity and quality of services in radiology department. PMID:25568585

  6. Screening protocol for Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Land, G; Burke, J; Shelby, C; Rhodes, J; Collett, J; Bennett, I; Johnson, J

    1996-01-01

    A screening test has been developed for the presumptive identification of Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata from other common clinical isolates of yeast-like fungi. An interlaboratory comparison of a protocol consisting of morphology on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and trehalose fermentation at 42 degrees C was successful in differentiating T. glabrata from other taxa that are frequent or possible clinical isolates. The screening results for 517 clinical yeast isolates, 241 of which were T. glabrata, were compared with their final identification via commercial systems (API20C Yeast Identification System [bioMERIEUX, Hazelwood, Mo.] and Rapid Yeast Identification Panel [Dade Microscan, Sacramento, Calif.]). The trehalose screening test has a sensitivity and a specificity of 97.8 and 95.8%, respectively, and a positive predictive value of 97.4% and a negative predictive value of 96.5%. Overall, the trehalose screen had an efficiency rating of 93.9% for ruling in or out T. glabrata. Since T. glabrata represents a substantial part of the workload in a clinical laboratory, a significant reduction in direct and indirect costs should be realized. PMID:8862605

  7. Data Provenance in Photogrammetry Through Documentation Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, N.; Bruseker, G.; Guillem, A.; Bellido Castañeda, D.; Coughenour, C.; Domajnko, M.; de Kramer, M.; Ramos Calles, M. M.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Suma, R.

    2016-06-01

    Documenting the relevant aspects in digitisation processes such as photogrammetry in order to provide a robust provenance for their products continues to present a challenge. The creation of a product that can be re-used scientifically requires a framework for consistent, standardised documentation of the entire digitisation pipeline. This article provides an analysis of the problems inherent to such goals and presents a series of protocols to document the various steps of a photogrammetric workflow. We propose this pipeline, with descriptors to track all phases of digital product creation in order to assure data provenance and enable the validation of the operations from an analytic and production perspective. The approach aims to support adopters of the workflow to define procedures with a long term perspective. The conceptual schema we present is founded on an analysis of information and actor exchanges in the digitisation process. The metadata were defined through the synthesis of previous proposals in this area and were tested on a case study. We performed the digitisation of a set of cultural heritage artefacts from an Iron Age burial in Ilmendorf, Germany. The objects were captured and processed using different techniques, including a comparison of different imaging tools and algorithms. This augmented the complexity of the process allowing us to test the flexibility of the schema for documenting complex scenarios. Although we have only presented a photogrammetry digitisation scenario, we claim that our schema is easily applicable to a multitude of 3D documentation processes.

  8. [The research protocol IV: study variables].

    PubMed

    Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The variables in a research study are all that is measured, the information collected, or the data that is collected in order to answer the research questions, which are specified in the objectives. Their selection is essential to the research protocol. This article aims to point out the elements to be considered in the section of the variables. To avoid ambiguity, it is necessary to select only those that will help achieve the study objectives. It should subsequently be defined how they will be measured to ensure that the findings can be replicated; it is therefore desirable to include conceptual and operational definitions. From the methodological point of view, the classification of variables helps us understand how the relationship between them is conceptualized. Depending on the study design, the independent, dependent, universal, and confounding variables should be noted. Another indispensable element for planning statistical analyses is the scale of variable measurement. Therefore, one must specify whether the variables correspond to one of the following four: qualitative nominal, qualitative ordinal, quantitative range, or quantitative ratio. Finally, we should detail the measurement units of each variable. PMID:27560918

  9. De l'importance des orbites periodiques: Detection et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Bernard

    L'ensemble des Orbites Periodiques Instables (OPIs) d'un systeme chaotique est intimement relie a ses proprietes dynamiques. A partir de l'ensemble (en principe infini) d'OPIs cachees dans l'espace des phases, on peut obtenir des quantites dynamiques importantes telles les exposants de Lyapunov, la mesure invariante, l'entropie topologique et la dimension fractale. En chaos quantique (i.e. l'etude de systemes quantiques qui ont un equivalent chaotique dans la limite classique), ces memes OPIs permettent de faire le pont entre le comportement classique et quantique de systemes non-integrables. La localisation de ces cycles fondamentaux est un probleme complexe. Cette these aborde dans un premier temps le probleme de la detection des OPIs dans les systemes chaotiques. Une etude comparative de deux algorithmes recents est presentee. Nous approfondissons ces deux methodes afin de les utiliser sur differents systemes dont des flots continus dissipatifs et conservatifs. Une analyse du taux de convergence des algorithmes est aussi realisee afin de degager les forces et les limites de ces schemes numeriques. Les methodes de detection que nous utilisons reposent sur une transformation particuliere de la dynamique initiale. Cette astuce nous a inspire une methode alternative pour cibler et stabiliser une orbite periodique quelconque dans un systeme chaotique. Le ciblage est en general combine aux methodes de controle pour stabiliser rapidement un cycle donne. En general, il faut connaitre la position et la stabilite du cycle en question. La nouvelle methode de ciblage que nous presentons ne demande pas de connaitre a priori la position et la stabilite des orbites periodiques. Elle pourrait etre un outil complementaire aux methodes de ciblage et de controle actuelles.

  10. Catalog Production for the DES Blind Cosmology Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, R. H.; Becker, M. R.; Erickson, B.; Evrard, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Blind Cosmology Challenge (BCC) is an effort by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to test analysis tools for extracting cosmological information using a set of detailed synthetic galaxy catalogs. Here, we describe the creation of these synthetic sky catalogs based on requirements of the optical (DES) and the near-IR VISTA Hemisphere Survey, producing catalogs covering a quarter of the sky to z ˜ 2, with sources complete to r ˜ 25. Starting with a nested set of lightcone outputs of large, N-body simulation, galaxies are assigned to the dark matter distribution using an empirical algorithm that is tunable to match observed evolution of low-order galaxy population properties (counts and spatial clustering) in luminosity-color-density space. Galaxies are lensed by matter along the line of sight (including magnification, shape distortion, and multiple images), using a new algorithm that calculates shear with 3.22 arcsec resolution at galaxy positions in the full catalog. The catalog is well suited to support DES+VISTA joint studies of galaxy clustering, groups and clusters of galaxies, and gravitational lensing, and we highlight their application to the ongoing DES BBCC. Catalogs include ˜320 million galaxies and ˜150 million stars, with realistic colors, shapes and photometric errors. Using the expected DES photometric errors, three independent photometric redshift codes are run on the catalog, two of which produce full probability distributions. The synthetic observable catalog includes object position, magnitudes in the DES and VISTA bands, photometric errors, photometric redshifts, size, ellipticity, for each of ˜ 500 million objects. The galaxy distribution is additionally masked appropriately for the 5000 square degree DES footprint, including the impact of bright stars. In addition, we offer separate catalogs with magnitudes for additional existing and planned surveys, including SDSS, CFHTLS, HSC, LSST, and Euclid.

  11. A Self-Stabilizing Synchronization Protocol for Arbitrary Digraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a self-stabilizing distributed clock synchronization protocol in the absence of faults in the system. It is focused on the distributed clock synchronization of an arbitrary, non-partitioned digraph ranging from fully connected to 1-connected networks of nodes while allowing for differences in the network elements. This protocol does not rely on assumptions about the initial state of the system, other than the presence of at least one node, and no central clock or a centrally generated signal, pulse, or message is used. Nodes are anonymous, i.e., they do not have unique identities. There is no theoretical limit on the maximum number of participating nodes. The only constraint on the behavior of the node is that the interactions with other nodes are restricted to defined links and interfaces. This protocol deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period. We present an outline of a deductive proof of the correctness of the protocol. A bounded model of the protocol was mechanically verified for a variety of topologies. Results of the mechanical proof of the correctness of the protocol are provided. The model checking results have verified the correctness of the protocol as they apply to the networks with unidirectional and bidirectional links. In addition, the results confirm the claims of determinism and linear convergence. As a result, we conjecture that the protocol solves the general case of this problem. We also present several variations of the protocol and discuss that this synchronization protocol is indeed an emergent system.

  12. Quantifying the magnitude and cost of collecting extraneous protocol data.

    PubMed

    Getz, Kenneth A; Stergiopoulos, Stella; Marlborough, Michelle; Whitehill, Jane; Curran, Marla; Kaitin, Kenneth I

    2015-01-01

    Although most research professionals believe that protocol designs contain a growing number of unnecessary and redundant procedures generating unused data, incurring high cost, and jeopardizing study success, there are no published studies systematically examining this issue. Between November 2011 and May 2012, Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development conducted a study among a working group of 15 pharmaceutical companies in which a total of 25,103 individual protocol procedures were evaluated and classified using clinical study reports and analysis plans. The results show that the typical later-stage protocol had an average of 7 objectives and 13 end points of which 53.8% are supplementary. One (24.7%) of every 4 procedures performed per phase-III protocol and 17.7% of all phase-II procedures per protocol were classified as "Noncore" in that they supported supplemental secondary, tertiary, and exploratory end points. For phase-III protocols, 23.6% of all procedures supported regulatory compliance requirements and 15.9% supported those for phase-II protocols. The study also found that on average, $1.7 million (18.5% of the total) is spent in direct costs to administer Noncore procedures per phase-III protocol and $0.3 million (13.1% of the total) in direct costs are spent on Noncore procedures for each phase-II protocol. Based on the results of this study, the total direct cost to perform Noncore procedures for all active annual phase-II and phase-III protocols is conservatively estimated at $3.7 billion annually, not including the indirect costs associated with collecting and managing Noncore procedure data and the ethical costs of exposing study volunteers to unnecessary risks associated with conducting extraneous procedures. PMID:23429165

  13. Extraction protocols for orthodontic treatment: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Thirunavukkarasu, Vaishnevi N.; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Dicksit, Daniel D.; Gundavarapu, Kalyan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Various extraction protocols have been followed for successful orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extraction protocols in patients who had previously undergone orthodontic treatment and also who had reported for continuing orthodontic treatment from other clinics. Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty eight patients who registered for orthodontic treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry were divided into 10 extraction protocols based on the Orthodontic treatment protocol given by Janson et al. and were evaluated for statistical significance. Results: The descriptive statistics of the study revealed a total of 40 (29%) patients in protocol 1, 43 (31.2%) in protocol 2, 18 (13%) in protocol 3, 16 (11.6%) in protocol 5, and 12 (8.7%) in Type 3 category of protocol 9. The Type 3 category in protocol 9 was statistically significant compared to other studies. Midline shift and collapse of the arch form were noticed in these individuals. Conclusion: Extraction of permanent teeth such as canine and lateral incisors without rational reasons could have devastating consequences on the entire occlusion. The percentage of cases wherein extraction of permanent teeth in the crowded region was adopted as a treatment option instead of orthodontic treatment is still prevalent in dental practice. The shortage of orthodontists in Malaysia, the long waiting period, and lack of subjective need for orthodontic treatment at an earlier age group were the reasons for the patient's to choose extraction of the mal-aligned teeth such as the maxillary canine or maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:27041899

  14. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Volume 6; Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices; Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. L. (Editor); Fargion, Giulietta S. (Editor); McClain, Charles R. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 (Mueller and Fargion 2002, Volumes 1 and 2) is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.

  15. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series: Workshop 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race Margaret S. (Editor); DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Editor); Rummel, John D. (Editor); Acevedo, Sara E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for missions to Mars that will involve the return of samples to Earth, it will be necessary to prepare for the receiving, handling, testing, distributing, and archiving of martian materials here on Earth. Previous groups and committees have studied selected aspects of sample return activities, but specific detailed protocols for the handling and testing of returned samples must still be developed. To further refine the requirements for sample hazard testing and to develop the criteria for subsequent release of sample materials from quarantine, the NASA Planetary Protection Officer convened a series of workshops in 2000-2001. The overall objective of the Workshop Series was to produce a Draft Protocol by which returned martian sample materials can be assessed for biological hazards and examined for evidence of life (extant or extinct) while safeguarding the purity of the samples from possible terrestrial contamination. This report also provides a record of the proceedings of Workshop 4, the final Workshop of the Series, which was held in Arlington, Virginia, June 5-7, 2001. During Workshop 4, the sub-groups were provided with a draft of the protocol compiled in May 2001 from the work done at prior Workshops in the Series. Then eight sub-groups were formed to discuss the following assigned topics: Review and Assess the Draft Protocol for Physical/Chemical Testing Review and Assess the Draft Protocol for Life Detection Testing Review and Assess the Draft Protocol for Biohazard Testing Environmental and Health/Monitoring and Safety Issues Requirements of the Draft Protocol for Facilities and Equipment Contingency Planning for Different Outcomes of the Draft Protocol Personnel Management Considerations in Implementation of the Draft Protocol Draft Protocol Implementation Process and Update Concepts This report provides the first complete presentation of the Draft Protocol for Mars Sample Handling to meet planetary protection needs. This Draft Protocol

  16. Regles de fusion en theorie des champs conformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begin, Luc

    1999-10-01

    Les théories de champs conformes constituent un domaine de recherche très actif avec de nombreuses applications en physique statistique, en matière condensée, en théorie des cordes, en mathématiques, etc. Nous analysons ici le calcul des règles de fusion dans les modèles Wess- Zumino-Witten par des méthodes positives. Les règles de fusion sont des quantités importantes puisqu'elles indiquent comment se combinent les champs primaires de la théorie. L'approche présentée est basée sur l'hypothèse que les règles de fusion sont décrites par un système d'inéquations linéaire et homogène et mène au concept original de «base de fusion». Cette approche simple et générale permet d'utiliser les méthodes combinatoires et de programmation linéaire pour construire les fonctions génératrices et les bases de fusion. Cette méthode permet d'obtenir des résultats originaux et explicites pour les algèbres su (3), su (4) et sp (4).

  17. Development of a novel protocol for generating flavivirus reporter particles.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Igor Velado; Okamoto, Natsumi; Ito, Aki; Fukuda, Miki; Someya, Azusa; Nishino, Yosii; Sasaki, Nobuya; Maeda, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a growing public and animal health concern worldwide. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies for the infection are urgently required. Recently, viral reverse genetic systems have been developed and applied to clinical WNV virology. We developed a protocol for generating reporter virus particles (RVPs) of WNV with the aim of overcoming two major problems associated with conventional protocols, the difficulty in generating RVPs due to the specific skills required for handling RNAs, and the potential for environmental contamination by antibiotic-resistant genes encoded within the genome RNA of the RVPs. By using the proposed protocol, cells were established in which the RVP genome RNA is replicated constitutively and does not encode any antibiotic-resistant genes, and used as the cell supply for RVP genome RNA. Generation of the WNV RVPs requires only the simple transfection of the expression vectors for the viral structural proteins into the cells. Therefore, no RNA handling is required in this protocol. The WNV RVP yield obtained using this protocol was similar that obtained using the conventional protocol. According to these results, the newly developed protocol appears to be a good alternative for the generation of WNV RVPs, particularly for clinical applications. PMID:25116200

  18. Integrated voice/data protocols for satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Cheng-Shong; Li, Victor O. K.

    1988-01-01

    Several integrated voice/data protocols for satellite channels are studied. The system consists of two types of traffic: voice calls which are blocked-calls-cleared and the data packets which may be stored when no channel is available. The voice calls are operated under a demand assignment protocol. Three different data protocols for data packets are introduced. Under Random Access Data (RAD), the Aloha random access scheme is used. Due to the nature of random access, the channel utilization is low. Under Demand Assignment Data (DAD), a demand assignment protocol is used to improve channel utilization. Since a satellite channel has long propagation delay, DAD may perform worse than RAD. The two protocols are combined to obtain a new protocol called Hybrid Data (HD). The proposed protocols are fully distributed and no central controller is required. Numerical results show that HD enjoys a lower delay than DAD and provides a much higher channel capacity than RAD. The effects of fixed and movable boundaries are compared in partitioning the total frequency band to voice and data users.

  19. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments. PMID:23844378

  20. Protocols, practices, and the reproduction of technique in molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael

    2002-06-01

    Protocols are one of the main organizational resources in molecular biology. They are written instructions that specify ingredients, equipment, and sequences of steps for making technical preparations. Some protocols are published in widely used manuals, while others are hand-written variants used by particular laboratories and individual technicians. It is widely understood, both in molecular biology and in social studies of science, that protocols do not describe exactly what practitioners do in the laboratory workplace. In social studies of science, the difference between protocols and the actual practices of doing them often is used to set up ironic contrasts between 'messy' laboratory practices and the appearance of technical order. Alternatively, in ethnomethodological studies of work, the difference is examined as a constitutive feature, both of the lived-work of doing technical projects, and of the administrative work of regulating and evaluating such projects. The present article takes its point of departure from ethnomethodology, and begins with a discussion of local problems with performing molecular biology protocols on specific occasions. The discussion then moves to particular cases in criminal law in which defense attorneys cross-examine forensic technicians and lab administrators. In these interrogations, the distinction between protocols and actual practices animates the dialogue and becomes consequential for judgments in the case at hand. The article concludes with a discussion of administrative science: the work of treating protocols and paper trails as proxies for actual 'scientific' practices. PMID:12171609

  1. How to Implement a Protocol for Babel RMI

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G; Leek, J

    2006-03-30

    RMI support in Babel has two main goals: transparency & flexibility. Transparency meaning that the new RMI features are entirely transparent to existing Babelized code; flexibility meaning the RMI capability should also be flexible enough to support a variety of RMI transport implementations. Babel RMI is a big success in both areas. Babel RMI is completely transparent to already Babelized implementation code, allowing painless upgrade, and only very minor setup changes are required in client code to take advantage of RMI. The Babel RMI transport mechanism is also extremely flexible. Any protocol that implements Babel's minimal, but complete, interface may be used as a Babel RMI protocol. The Babel RMI API allows users to select the best protocol and connection model for their application, whether that means a WebServices-like client-server model for use over a WAP, or a faster binary peer-to-peer protocol for use on different nodes in a leadership-class supercomputer. Users can even change protocols without recompiling their code. The goal of this paper is to give network researchers and protocol implementors the information they need to develop new protocols for Babel RMI. This paper will cover both the high-level interfaces in the Babel RMI API, and the low level details about how Babel RMI handles RMI objects.

  2. Compositional Mining of Multiple Object API Protocols through State Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiaoguang; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments. PMID:23844378

  3. A Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Splitting Information Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-kun; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jia-li; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantum information splitting and reconstruction, we present a quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, enabling two distrustful parties (Alice and Bob) to compare the equality of their information without revealing the information content. In this protocol, the information carriers are split into two wave packets by a beam splitter (BS), which is owned by a semi-honest third party Trent, and then they are sent to Alice and Bob, respectively. Alice and Bob encodes their secret information on the received wave packets. Only the superimposition of the two wave packets in Trent's site can reveal the compared result. Compared with the QPC protocols using entangled states, the information carriers used in our protocol is single-photon pulse, which reduces the difficulty of realization in practical. In addition, our protocol is feasible with the present techniques since only linear optical components, BS, single-photon detector, phase shifter (PS) and switcher (SWT) are required. The security of the protocol is ensured by principles on the phenomenon of quantum interference. And through the security analysis it shows that the protocol is secure and resists against the well-known attacks.

  4. Fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols against collective noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Hui; Li, Hui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    This work proposes two fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols based on the entanglement swapping of logical Bell states, which are robust against two kinds of collective noises: the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Both of the quantum blind signature protocols are constructed from four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states, i.e., logical Bell qubits. The initial message is encoded on the logical Bell qubits with logical unitary operations, which will not destroy the anti-noise trait of the logical Bell qubits. Based on the fundamental property of quantum entanglement swapping, the receiver simply performs two Bell-state measurements (rather than four-qubit joint measurements) on the logical Bell qubits to verify the signature, which makes the protocols more convenient in a practical application. Different from the existing quantum signature protocols, our protocols can offer the high fidelity of quantum communication with the employment of logical qubits. Moreover, we hereinafter prove the security of the protocols against some individual eavesdropping attacks, and we show that our protocols have the characteristics of unforgeability, undeniability and blindness.

  5. Representation of Clinical Nursing Protocols Using GEM II & GEM Cutter

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Karen A.; Woodcock, Michael W.; Harris, Marcelline R.

    2010-01-01

    The machineable representation and execution of clinical guidelines has been the focus of research efforts for some time, however there is less examination of whether the methods and techniques for guidelines are sufficient for clinical protocols. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using the Guideline Elements Model II (GEM II) and GEM Cutter for the representation of clinical protocols, specifically clinical protocols commonly used by nurses. After downloading the GEM Cutter 2.5, we decomposed a set of clinical protocols and analyzed the completeness in which elemental protocol data was represented. One of the most complicated of these protocols (extravasations of infused medication) is presented as an example. While GEM II adequately represents core elements of clinical protocols at the high level, it was not possible to adequately represent sequence and associated role based permissions via use of conditional criteria at branching and procedural levels. Functionality of the tool would also be enhanced with more robust terminology management and support for multi-authoring. PMID:21347008

  6. Problemes en enseignement fonctionnel des langues (Problems in the Functional Teaching of Languages). Publication B-103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Gerardo, Ed.; Huot, Diane, Ed.

    Articles include: (1) "L'elaboration du materiel pedagogique pour des publics adultes" (The Elaboration of Teaching Materials for the Adult Public) by G. Painchaud-Leblanc, (2) "L'elaboration d'un programme d'etudes en francais langue seconde a partir des donnees recentes en didactique des langues" (The Elaboration of a Program of Study in French…

  7. A Quantum Watermarking Protocol Based on Bell Dual Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jia; Ma, Zhaofeng; Yang, Yixian; Niu, Xinxin

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a Bell-dual-basis-based quantum watermarking protocol composed of three major algorithms: watermark embedding and extracting and the intercepting test. The first two are completed by using the entanglement swapping property of Bell dual basis and the test is accomplished through IBF protocol to guarantee its bottom security. The watermarking protocol is mainly designed for the protection of digital copyright in the existence of classical information. This design finds that the quality of digital contents is not damaged with its zero-watermark attributes when embedding watermarks.

  8. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

  9. An XML-Based Protocol for Distributed Event Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A recent trend in distributed computing is the construction of high-performance distributed systems called computational grids. One difficulty we have encountered is that there is no standard format for the representation of performance information and no standard protocol for transmitting this information. This limits the types of performance analysis that can be undertaken in complex distributed systems. To address this problem, we present an XML-based protocol for transmitting performance events in distributed systems and evaluate the performance of this protocol.

  10. High-Performance CCSDS AOS Protocol Implementation in FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) space data link protocol provides a framing layer between channel coding such as LDPC (low-density parity-check) and higher-layer link multiplexing protocols such as CCSDS Encapsulation Service, which is described in the following article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

  11. Some new retransmission strategies for multipacket slotted ALOHA protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, G.

    1988-12-01

    Some new strategies for message retransmission in the slotted ALOHA protocol with multipacket messages are described. These strategies use the information given by the positive or negative acknowledgments received for each packet of a message to reduce the probability of new overlappings among the same messages. Their application to some retransmission protocols of interfered messages, such as classical ALOHA, stop-and-wait, go-back-N, and selective protocols, is considered. The results show that a net improvement can be achieved by using these retransmisssion strategies.

  12. Associations of genetic markers in cattle receiving differing implant protocols.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Shackelford, S D; McDaneld, T G; Kuehn, L A; Kemp, C M; Smith, T P L; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2012-07-01

    The potential interaction of growth-promoting implants and genetic markers previously reported to be associated with growth, carcass traits, and tenderness was evaluated. Two implant protocols were applied to subsets of steers (n = 383) and heifers (n = 65) that were also genotyped for 47 SNP reported to be associated with variation in growth, fat thickness, LM area, marbling, or tenderness. The "mild" protocol consisted of a single terminal implant [16 mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 80 mg trenbalone acetate (TBA) or 8 mg EB, 80 mg TBA given to steers and heifers, respectively]. The "aggressive" protocol consisted of both a growing implant (8 mg EB, 40 mg TBA) for the lightest half of the animals on the aggressive protocol and 2 successive implants (28 mg EB, 200 mg TBA) given to all animals assigned to the aggressive treatment. Implant protocol had measurable impact on BW and ADG (P < 0.05), with the aggressive protocol increasing these traits before the terminal implant (relative to the mild protocol), whereas the mild protocol increased ADG after the terminal implant so that the final BW and ADG over the experimental period were similar between protocols. Animals on the aggressive protocol had significantly increased (P < 0.05) LM area (1.9 cm(2)), slice shear force (1.4 kg), and intact desmin (0.05 units), but decreased (P < 0.05) marbling score (49 units) and adjusted fat thickness (0.1 cm), and yield grade (0.15 units). Among both treatments, 8 of 9 growth-related SNP were associated with BW or ADG, and 6 of 17 tenderness-related SNP were associated with slice shear force or intact desmin. Favorable growth alleles generally were associated with increased carcass yield traits but decreased tenderness. Similarly, favorable tenderness genotypes for some markers were associated with decreased BW and ADG. Some interactions of implant protocol and genotype were noted, with some growth SNP alleles increasing the effect of the aggressive protocol. In contrast, putative

  13. A Secure Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol for Credential Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    In this paper, we propose a leakage-resilient and proactive authenticated key exchange (called LRP-AKE) protocol for credential services which provides not only a higher level of security against leakage of stored secrets but also secrecy of private key with respect to the involving server. And we show that the LRP-AKE protocol is provably secure in the random oracle model with the reduction to the computational Difie-Hellman problem. In addition, we discuss about some possible applications of the LRP-AKE protocol.

  14. Modeling Techniques for High Dependability Protocols and Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaValley, Brian; Ellis, Peter; Walter, Chris J.

    2012-01-01

    This report documents an investigation into modeling high dependability protocols and some specific challenges that were identified as a result of the experiments. The need for an approach was established and foundational concepts proposed for modeling different layers of a complex protocol and capturing the compositional properties that provide high dependability services for a system architecture. The approach centers around the definition of an architecture layer, its interfaces for composability with other layers and its bindings to a platform specific architecture model that implements the protocols required for the layer.

  15. Study & Analysis of various Protocols in popular Web Browsers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bharat; Baghel, Harish Singh; Patil, Manoj; Singh, Pramod

    2012-08-01

    The web browsers are the application software that are used to access information from the World Wide Web. With the increasing popularity of the web browsers, the modern web browsers are designed to contain more features as compared to the existing web browsers. For the transferring of information through these browsers, various protocols have been implemented on these modern web browsers to make these browsers more efficient. Different protocols used in different layers have different functions and by increasing the efficiency of these protocols we can make the working of browsers more efficient.

  16. RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sonam Devgan; Awasthi, Amit K

    2013-12-01

    Medication errors can cause substantial harm to patients. Automated patient medication system with RFID technology is purposely used to reduce the medication error, to improve the patient safety, to provide personalized patient medication and identification and also to provide counterfeit protection to the patients. In order to enhance medication safety for patients we propose a new dynamic ID based lightweight RFID authentication protocol. Due to low storage capacity and limited computational and communicational capacity of tags, only pseudo random number generator function, one way hash function and bitwise Xor operation are used in our authentication protocol. The proposed protocol is practical, secure and efficient for health care domain. PMID:24122350

  17. Comment on "Quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Xiao, Di; Huang, Wei; Song, Ting-Ting

    2016-03-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. A 92, 022309 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.022309], the authors proposed a quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol, which is designed to allow a server to check whether a private secret of a user is a member of his private set in an oblivious manner. Such protocols should protect the privacies of both the server and the user. However, we find that the user in their protocol can steal l -1 bits of information about the server's private set by sending the false decoy states.

  18. A Scalable and Practical Authentication Protocol in Mobile IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong; Lee, Goo-Yeon; Kim, Hwa-Long

    Due to the proliferation of mobile devices connected to the Internet, implementing a secure and practical Mobile IP has become an important goal. A mobile IP can not work properly without authentication between the mobile node (MN), the home agent (HA) and the foreign agent (FA). In this paper, we propose a practical Mobile IP authentication protocol that uses public key cryptography only during the initial authentication. The proposed scheme is compatible with the conventional Mobile IP protocol and provides scalability against the number of MN's. We also show that the proposed protocol offers secure operation.

  19. Performance enhancement of OSPF protocol in the private network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Lu, Yang; Lin, Xiaokang

    2005-11-01

    The private network serves as an information exchange platform to support the integrated services via microwave channels and accordingly selects the open shortest path first (OSPF) as the IP routing protocol. But the existing OSPF can't fit the private network very well for its special characteristics. This paper presents our modifications to the standard protocol in such aspects as the single-area scheme, link state advertisement (LSA) types and formats, OSPF packet formats, important state machines, setting of protocol parameters and link flap damping. Finally simulations are performed in various scenarios and the results indicate that our modifications can enhance the OSPF performance in the private network effectively.

  20. Protocol for secure quantum machine learning at a distant place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2015-10-01

    The application of machine learning to quantum information processing has recently attracted keen interest, particularly for the optimization of control parameters in quantum tasks without any pre-programmed knowledge. By adapting the machine learning technique, we present a novel protocol in which an arbitrarily initialized device at a learner's location is taught by a provider located at a distant place. The protocol is designed such that any external learner who attempts to participate in or disrupt the learning process can be prohibited or noticed. We numerically demonstrate that our protocol works faithfully for single-qubit operation devices. A trade-off between the inaccuracy and the learning time is also analyzed.

  1. An XML-based protocol for distributed event services

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Dan K.; Smith, Warren; Quesnel, Darcy

    2001-06-25

    A recent trend in distributed computing is the construction of high-performance distributed systems called computational grids. One difficulty we have encountered is that there is no standard format for the representation of performance information and no standard protocol for transmitting this information. This limits the types of performance analysis that can be undertaken in complex distributed systems. To address this problem, we present an XML-based protocol for transmitting performance events in distributed systems and evaluate the performance of this protocol.

  2. A Robust Conditional Privacy-Preserving Authentication Protocol in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Chae Duk; Sur, Chul; Park, Youngho; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    Recently, Lu et al. proposed an efficient conditional privacy preservation protocol, named ECPP, based on group signature scheme for secure vehicular communications. However, ECPP dose not provide unlinkability and traceability when multiple RSUs are compromised. In this paper, we make up for the limitations and propose a robust conditional privacy-preserving authentication protocol without loss of efficiency as compared with ECPP. Furthermore, in our protocol, RSUs can issue multiple anonymous certificates to an OBU to alleviate system overheads for validity check of RSUs. In order to achieve these goals, we consider a universal re-encryption scheme as our building block.

  3. A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-07-01

    The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.

  4. [And Sarah Félix created "L 'Eau des Fées" and "La Parfumerie des Fées"].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    century, the parisian perfumery of Sarah Felix was famous especially for her cosmetic "L'Eau des Fées" ("Water of the Fairies"), a dyeing supposed to give back to the old hair the color of their youth. Sarah Felix, sister of the famous actress Rachel, exercised several jobs before becoming perfumer. At first, she was actress, then she tried ... oyster culture in Normandy ! Abandoning these activities, Sarah Felix became really a businesswoman in Paris. She dedicated herself to perfumery, in particular to "L'Eau des Fées", from 1866. To launch its product, she was associated to competency characters (engineer, pharmacist, physician) and benefited from the protection of the imperial family. A lawsuit between the associates and the 1870 war hindered the company's early days, but "L'Eau des Fées" provided with quality pledges, imposed itself definitely. The "Parfumerie des Fées" completed the range of its cosmetics with creams, powders, etc. Sarah Félix paid attention to present "L'Eau des Fées" as a dye devoid of toxicity. Was it really the case and could il be sold nowadays? These two issues are discussed in the last part. PMID:26827551

  5. A blueprint for a sepsis protocol.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Nathan I; Howell, Michael; Talmor, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    viewed. Although complex and challenging, these therapies must be brought to the patient's bedside. We propose and describe the Multiple Urgent Sepsis Therapies (MUST) protocol as a practical way to implement a comprehensive treatment plan using available evidence-based therapies. PMID:15805328

  6. Spectroscopic confirmation of DES12S2a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Marshall, J.; Suntzeff, N.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Kessler, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gilhool, S.; Gladney, L.; Gupta, R.; Mosher, J.; Sako, M.; Campbell, H.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; March, M.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2013-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of a supernova (SN) candidate discovered by the Dark Energy Supernova Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (450-1000 nm) of DES12S2a was obtained with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (+Marcario Low-Resolution Spectrograph) by J. Caldwell. The spectrum shows a blue continuum with a narrow H-alpha emission feature atop a broader component indicative of a type IIn SN. The phase at the date of the spectrum given below is based on the DES light curves.

  7. Developing a notebook protocol for the high school chemistry classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Roselyn I.

    The focus of this project is to increase science literacy in high school students using a protocol that emphasizes writing. A protocol or lesson sequence comprises a code of behavior to encourage learning through reflection, writing, and self-assessment. A basic protocol may have a sequence of writing elements or tasks which checks for prior knowledge, looks at lesson standards, studies content, and summarizes learning. Using the protocol, students will demonstrate evidence of their learning through writing. The project will identify a progression of tasks which enable students to master content and express mastery through writing. The student's interactive notebook will record evidence of their learning. Several styles of writing and reporting tasks will be explored using the notebook. Students will help implement and identify tasks that demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of science content.

  8. Efficient multiparty quantum key agreement protocol based on commutative encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Huang, Jiwu; Wang, Ping

    2016-05-01

    A secure multiparty quantum key agreement protocol using single-qubit states is proposed. The agreement key is computed by performing exclusive-OR operation on all the participants' secret keys. Based on the commutative property of the commutative encryption, the exclusive-OR operation can be performed on the plaintext in the encrypted state without decrypting it. Thus, it not only protects the final shared key, but also reduces the complexity of the computation. The efficiency of the proposed protocol, compared with previous multiparty QKA protocols, is also improved. In the presented protocol, entanglement states, joint measurement and even the unitary operations are not needed, and only rotation operations and single-state measurement are required, which are easier to be realized with current technology.

  9. A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

  10. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xianghua; Dong, Wei; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE) approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1) achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2) greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation. PMID:25686314

  11. Medanta insulin protocols in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Beena; Mithal, Ambrish; Carvalho, Pravin; Mehta, Yatin; Trehan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is associated with poor outcomes. This is a review of the perioperative insulin protocol being used at Medanta, the Medicity, which has a large volume cardiac surgery setup. Preoperatively, patients are usually continued on their preoperative outpatient medications. Intravenous insulin infusion is intiated postoperatively and titrated using a column method with a choice of 7 scales. Insulin dose is calculated as a factor of blood glucose and patient's estimated insulin sensitivity. A comparison of this protocol is presented with other commonly used protocols. Since arterial blood gas analysis is done every 4 hours for first two days after cardiac surgery, automatic data collection from blood gas analyzer to a central database enables collection of glucose data and generating glucometrics. Data auditing has helped in improving performance through protocol modification. PMID:25143899

  12. A complete classification of quantum public-key encryption protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li

    2015-10-01

    We present a classification of quantum public-key encryption protocols. There are six elements in quantum public-key encryption: plaintext, ciphertext, public-key, private-key, encryption algorithm and decryption algorithm. According to the property of each element which is either quantum or classical, the quantum public-key encryption protocols can be divided into 64 kinds. Among 64 kinds of protocols, 8 kinds have already been constructed, 52 kinds can be proved to be impossible to construct and the remaining 4 kinds have not been presented effectively yet. This indicates that the research on quantum public-key encryption protocol should be focus on the existed kinds and the unproposed kinds.

  13. Generic Verification Protocol for Verification of Online Turbidimeters

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol provides generic procedures for implementing a verification test for the performance of online turbidimeters. The verification tests described in this document will be conducted under the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Verification tests will...

  14. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, Ernie; Nelson, James; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Savy, Jean; Wong, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This Protocol is a living guidance document for geothermal developers, public officials, regulators and the general public that provides a set of general guidelines detailing useful steps to evaluate and manage the effects of induced seismicity related to EGS projects.

  15. Current Status of EPA Verification Program for EPA Protocol Gases

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate compressed gas calibration standards are needed to calibrate continuous emission monitors (CEMs) and ambient air quality monitors that are being used for regulatory purposes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established its traceability protocol to ensure that c...

  16. 21 CFR 660.6 - Samples; protocols; official release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.6 Samples; protocols; official release. (a) Samples. (1) For the purposes... continued evaluation is necessary to ensure the potency, quality, and reliability of the product....

  17. 21 CFR 660.6 - Samples; protocols; official release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.6 Samples; protocols; official release. (a) Samples. (1) For the purposes... continued evaluation is necessary to ensure the potency, quality, and reliability of the product....

  18. 21 CFR 660.6 - Samples; protocols; official release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.6 Samples; protocols; official release. (a) Samples. (1) For the purposes... continued evaluation is necessary to ensure the potency, quality, and reliability of the product....

  19. 21 CFR 660.6 - Samples; protocols; official release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.6 Samples; protocols; official release. (a) Samples. (1) For the purposes... continued evaluation is necessary to ensure the potency, quality, and reliability of the product....

  20. Human Trials of a 2-Hour Prebreathe Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Bruce D.; Vann, R. D.; Nishi, Ronald Y.; Gerth, W. A.; Beltran, E.; Conkin, J.; Schneider, Suzanne; Loftin, K. C.; Sullivan, Pat A.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We evaluate 2-hour prebreathe protocols combining simulated microgravity and exercise during prebreathe with the objective of validating a protocol for use on International Space Station (ISS). The protocol was tested with four different exercise doses during prebreathe in a multi-center trial involving three laboratories. Subject selection, Doppler monitoring techniques for venous gas emboli (VGE), test termination criteria, and definitions of decompression sickness (DCS) were standardized in all laboratories. The Phase II protocol met the accept criteria for a prebreathe procedure for use by astronauts during assembly and maintenance of the ISS Dual-cycle ergometry or light exercise individually was not sufficient to protect against DCS at acceptable levels. The combination of both was successful.