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Sample records for des radiations gamma

  1. Des-Aspartate-Angiotensin I Attenuates Mortality of Mice Exposed to Gamma Radiation via a Novel Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Sethi, Gautam; Loke, Weng-Keong; Sim, Meng-Kwoon

    2015-01-01

    ACE inhibitors and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) have been shown to attenuate radiation injuries in animal models of lethal gamma irradiation. These two classes of drug act by curtailing the actions of angiotensin II-linked inflammatory pathways that are up-regulated during gamma radiation in organ systems such as the brain, lung, kidney, and bone marrow. ACE inhibitors inhibit ACE and attenuate the formation of angiotensin II from angiotensin I; ARBs block the angiotensin AT1 receptor and attenuate the actions of angiotensin II that are elicited through the receptor. DAA-I (des-aspartate-angiotensin I), an orally active angiotensin peptide, also attenuates the deleterious actions of angiotensin II. It acts as an agonist on the angiotensin AT1 receptor and elicits responses that oppose those of angiotensn II. Thus, DAA-I was investigated for its anticipated radioprotection in gamma irradiated mice. DAA-I administered orally at 800 nmole/kg/day for 30 days post exposure (6.4 Gy) attenuated the death of mice during the 30-day period. The attenuation was blocked by losartan (50 nmole/kg/day, i.p.) that was administered sequential to DAA-I administration. This shows that the radioprotection was mediated via the angiotensin AT1 receptor. Furthermore, the radioprotection correlated to an increase in circulating PGE2 of surviving animals, and this suggests that PGE2 is involved in the radioprotection in DAA-I-treated mice. At the hematopoietic level, DAA-I significantly improved two syndromes of myelosuppression (leucopenia and lymphocytopenia), and mice pre-treated with DAA-I prior to gamma irradiation showed significant improvement in the four myelodysplastic syndromes that were investigated, namely leucopenia, lymphocytopenia, monocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Based on the known ability of PGE2 to attenuate the loss of functional hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in radiation injury, we hypothesize that PGE2 mediated the action of DAA-I. DAA-I completely

  2. Diffuse gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Simpson, G. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An examination of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse gamma-radiation observed by SAS-2 satellite away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV has shown that it consists of two components. One component is generally correlated with galactic latitudes, the atomic hydrogen column density was deduced from 21 cm measurements, and the continuum radio emission, believed to be synchrotron emission. It has an energy spectrum similar to that in the plane and joins smoothly to the intense radiation from the plane. It is therefore presumed to be of galactic origin. The other component is apparently isotropic, at least on a coarse scale, and has a steep energy spectrum. No evidence is found for a cosmic ray halo surrounding the galaxy in the shape of a sphere or oblate spheroid with galactic dimensions. Constraints for a halo model with significantly larger dimensions are set on the basis of an upper limit to the gamma-ray anisotropy.

  3. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  4. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  5. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  6. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  7. Gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingo, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Investigation of plutonium dioxide as an isotopic fuel for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators yielded the isotopic composition of production-grade plutonium dioxide fuel, sources of gamma radiation produced by plutonium isotopes, and the gamma flux at the surface.

  8. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Sigg, R.A.

    1994-12-13

    A high efficiency radiation detector is disclosed for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data. 4 figures.

  9. Apparatus and method for detecting gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Sigg, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high efficiency radiation detector for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation from small-volume, low-activity liquid samples with an overall uncertainty better than 0.7% (one sigma SD). The radiation detector includes a hyperpure germanium well detector, a collimator, and a reference source. The well detector monitors gamma radiation emitted by the reference source and a radioactive isotope or isotopes in a sample source. The radiation from the reference source is collimated to avoid attenuation of reference source gamma radiation by the sample. Signals from the well detector are processed and stored, and the stored data is analyzed to determine the radioactive isotope(s) content of the sample. Minor self-attenuation corrections are calculated from chemical composition data.

  10. 30 CFR 57.5047 - Gamma radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gamma radiation surveys. 57.5047 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5047 Gamma radiation surveys. (a) Gamma radiation surveys shall be conducted annually in all underground mines...

  11. 30 CFR 57.5047 - Gamma radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gamma radiation surveys. 57.5047 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5047 Gamma radiation surveys. (a) Gamma radiation surveys shall be conducted annually in all underground mines...

  12. 30 CFR 57.5047 - Gamma radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gamma radiation surveys. 57.5047 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5047 Gamma radiation surveys. (a) Gamma radiation surveys shall be conducted annually in all underground mines...

  13. 30 CFR 57.5047 - Gamma radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gamma radiation surveys. 57.5047 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5047 Gamma radiation surveys. (a) Gamma radiation surveys shall be conducted annually in all underground mines...

  14. 30 CFR 57.5047 - Gamma radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gamma radiation surveys. 57.5047 Section 57..., Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5047 Gamma radiation surveys. (a) Gamma radiation surveys shall be conducted annually in all underground mines...

  15. Gamma Radiation Damage in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chensen

    A theory for interpreting carrier removal in terms of trap production has been derived from the carrier distribution function, which provides a relationship between the carrier removal rate and trap production rates due to the radiation damage. The carrier removal rate is a function of trap production as well as Fermi level position. Also, the carrier removal rate depends on many parameters, which are the density of states of the valance band as well as the conduction band, density of doping impurities, temperature, location of donor and acceptor energy levels and location of trap energy levels. P-type and n-type silicon Schottky diodes are irradiated by cobalt 60 gamma rays. The experimental results show that the carrier removal rate is dependent on the initial carrier concentration. Carrier concentrations are determined by room temperature C-V measurements while the trap production rates are determined by DLTS from measurements from 50 K to room temperature. A model presented by Williams, et al. for the carrier concentration vs. fluence, has been rederived from simple semiconductor carrier statistical mechanics. This model has then been extended to yield an expression for the initial carrier removal rate which depends on the production rate of each defect trap level in the band gap. We have tested these models thoroughly for the first time by measuring the trap production rates by DLTS, and then, using this information to calculate carrier removal rate and carrier concentration vs. fluence, we have verified that the results of the model can explain these same relationships obtained experimentally by C-V measurements. We believe that this is the first time that DLTS results have been linked directly to such simple and useful measurements as carrier removal rate and carrier concentration vs. fluence in a convincing manner. The success of this procedure also suggests that there are no "hidden" levels or traps which contribute to carrier removal rate but which do not

  16. Gamma response study of radiation sensitive MOSFETs for their use as gamma radiation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Aggarwal, Bharti; Singh, Arvind; Kumar, A. Vinod; Topkar, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Continuous monitoring of gamma dose is important in various fields like radiation therapy, space-related research, nuclear energy programs and high energy physics experiment facilities. The present work is focused on utilization of radiation-sensitive Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) to monitor gamma radiation doses. Static characterization of these detectors was performed to check their expected current-voltage relationship. Threshold voltage and transconductance per unit gate to source voltage (K factor) were calculated from the experimental data. The detector was exposed to gamma radiation in both, with and without gate bias voltage conditions, and change in threshold voltage was monitored at different gamma doses. The experimental data was fitted to obtain equation for dependence of threshold voltage on gamma dose. More than ten times increase in sensitivity was observed in biased condition (+3 V) compared to the unbiased case.

  17. Gamma Radiation Doses In Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almgren, Sara; Barregârd, Lars; Isaksson, Mats

    2008-08-01

    Gamma dose rate measurements were performed in one urban and one rural area using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) worn by 46 participants and placed in their dwellings. The personal effective dose rates were 0.096±0.019(1 SD) and 0.092±0.016(1 SD)μSv/h in the urban and rural area, respectively. The corresponding dose rates in the dwellings were 0.11±0.042(1 SD) and 0.091±0.026(1 SD)μSv/h. However, the differences between the areas were not significant. The values were higher in buildings made of concrete than of wood and higher in apartments than in detached houses. Also, 222Rn measurements were performed in each dwelling, which showed no correlation with the gamma dose rates in the dwellings.

  18. Gamma Radiation Doses In Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Almgren, Sara; Isaksson, Mats; Barregaard, Lars

    2008-08-07

    Gamma dose rate measurements were performed in one urban and one rural area using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) worn by 46 participants and placed in their dwellings. The personal effective dose rates were 0.096{+-}0.019(1 SD) and 0.092{+-}0.016(1 SD){mu}Sv/h in the urban and rural area, respectively. The corresponding dose rates in the dwellings were 0.11{+-}0.042(1 SD) and 0.091{+-}0.026(1 SD){mu}Sv/h. However, the differences between the areas were not significant. The values were higher in buildings made of concrete than of wood and higher in apartments than in detached houses. Also, {sup 222}Rn measurements were performed in each dwelling, which showed no correlation with the gamma dose rates in the dwellings.

  19. Lightning: Ground observations of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, U. B.; Gusev, A. A.; Neri, J. A. C.; Pugacheva, G. I.; Talavera, K. C.

    Recent satellite and ground observations of emissions in x and gamma-rays ascribing association with lightning phenomena have triggered interest in this natural phenomena The incentive for this Ground Gamma Radiation GGR experiment in the Brazilian Geomagnetic Anomaly BGA region is due to the absence of satellite data As a first step we want to test and calibrate the system with rocket triggered lightning flashes in the International Lightning facility in our Campus The lightning associated gamma rays can be inferred as due to bremsstrahlung associated with electrons released moments after the return stroke and the likely radiation associated with radioactive decay products in the interactions of protons generated in the lightning with the atmospheric constituents Initially in 2005 to observe the later phenomena a very large area NaI Tl detector of 40 cm diameter with a PHA system monitoring every 10 s was set up near the two rocket launchers for the induced lightning In few months of operation in 2005 increases in gamma-rays above the ground radiation flux are observed due to many rain precipitation events and in one lightning event coincident with the rocket launch To identify the association of emission due to the lightning we investigated both the decay period and the spectral information of these gamma rays The radon progeny in rain has an associated decay period of sim 30 min but however the decay time associated with the lightning is different Although the spectral information indicates a power law index for both

  20. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  1. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  2. Inspection of cargo containers using gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Esam M. A.; Gokhale, Prasad; Arendtsz, Nina V.; Lawrence, Andre H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper investigate, with the aid of Monte Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments, a technique for the detection of narcotics in large cargo containers using gamma-radiation. The transmission and back-scattering of photons, at different energies, is used to provide information useful for identifying the presence of bulk quantities of commonly encountered narcotics.

  3. Radiative Transfer In Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, Andrei

    We propose to develop state-of-the-art numerical tools for radiative transfer calculations in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We will investigate two problems: (1) Production and heating of photons at the early (opaque) stage of the explosion, which controls the brightness and spectral shape of the jet photospheric emission. (2) Transfer of GRB radiation through the external blast wave. Our recent results suggest that this transfer generates the GeV flash observed in GRBs, providing key information on the explosion and its progenitor. We will test our models against observations.

  4. Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1994-08-09

    A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminescent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminescent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO[sub 4]) or cerussite (PbCO[sub 3]) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes. 3 figs.

  5. Composition and apparatus for detecting gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation detector and a radioluminiscent composition for use therein. The detector includes a radioluminscent composition that emits light in a characteristic wavelength region when exposed to gamma radiation, and means for detecting said radiation. The composition contains a scintillant such as anglesite (PbSO.sub.4) or cerussite (PbCO.sub.3) incorporated into an inert, porous glass matrix via a sol-gel process. Particles of radiation-sensitive scintillant are added to, a sol solution. The mixture is polymerized to form a gel, then dried under conditions that preserve the structural integrity and radiation sensitivity of the scintillant. The final product is a composition containing the uniformly-dispersed scintillant in an inert, optically transparent and highly porous matrix. The composition is chemically inert and substantially impervious to environmental conditions including changes in temperature, air pressure, and so forth. It can be fabricated in cylinders, blocks with holes therethrough for flow of fluid, sheets, surface coatings, pellets or other convenient shapes.

  6. Afterglow Radiation from Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, Hugh; /Leuven U. /SLAC

    2006-08-28

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are huge fluxes of gamma rays that appear randomly in the sky about once a day. It is now commonly accepted that GRBs are caused by a stellar object shooting off a powerful plasma jet along its rotation axis. After the initial outburst of gamma rays, a lower intensity radiation remains, called the afterglow. Using the data from a hydrodynamical numerical simulation that models the dynamics of the jet, we calculated the expected light curve of the afterglow radiation that would be observed on earth. We calculated the light curve and spectrum and compared them to the light curves and spectra predicted by two analytical models of the expansion of the jet (which are based on the Blandford and McKee solution of a relativistic isotropic expansion; see Sari's model [1] and Granot's model [2]). We found that the light curve did not decay as fast as predicted by Sari; the predictions by Granot were largely corroborated. Some results, however, did not match Granot's predictions, and more research is needed to explain these discrepancies.

  7. Radiation Sterilization and Food Irradiation Using Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Kevin

    2003-03-01

    Since the introduction of MDS Nordion's first irradiator in the early 1960's, a variety of gamma-processing systems has been developed. Each design is suited to a particular set of requirements - from high-throughput operations of diverse product lots to full automation or batch processing, all using gamma radiation. Gamma irradiator designs include the Centurion irradiator for temperature-sensitive food products like hamburgers and poultry; the Brevion, a compact batch irradiator providing flexibility, timeliness and simplicity on a whole new scale; a JS-10000 irradiator that operates in either automatic or batch mode to enable multipurpose product scheduling and optimum throughput; and, an irradiator that processes full pallets and is ideal for processing high-density products requiring excellent dose uniformity. These innovative irradiator designs help facilities to be more efficient, maximize operating time, improve product turnaround and minimize inventory levels. MDS Nordion's development of improved Point Kernel and Monte Carlo techniques is discussed, including their application in radiation source optimization, production irradiator design and process control. Absorbed-dose calculations also provide insight into the critical areas for dose mapping and routine monitoring, allowing for the optimum placement of dosimeters. Calculations may also be used to determine the absorbed-dose distribution within product, especially in areas of complex geometry such as material interfaces. The use of easily accessible, accurate and validated dose-calculation programs can be used to optimize the irradiation process. Key Words: dosimetry, irradiator design, dose calculation, modelling, modeling, process control, radiation source optimization.

  8. 77 FR 62267 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Gamma Radiation Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Gamma Radiation...: I. Background Gamma radiation occurs where radioactive materials are present. It has been associated..., and ground water. Gamma radiation hazards may be found near radiation sources at surface...

  9. Near ground gamma radiation associated with lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, K.; Greenfield, M. B.; Ikeda, Y.; Kubo, K.

    2004-03-01

    Increases in the atmospheric gamma radiation of 22 to 82above normal background have been observed after the onset of lightning fifteen times since March 2001[1]. Gamma rays have been observed with up to four 12.9 cm3 NaI detectors and recently with a high resolution Ge detector positioned 6-21 m and 15 m above ground, respectively. The tail of the observed background subtracted gamma ray rates GRR were fitted with exponential decay curves yielding typical correlation coefficients of 0.95 to 0.99 and half-lives of 52.7 +/-4.81 min and 52.8+/-10.95 min, without and with precipitation, respectively. The GRR above 300 KeV from radon progeny due to precipitation were subtracted [2]. The 3x3 Ge detector with 2 KeV resolution positioned about 2 m from one of the NaI detectors observed increases in GRR minutes after the onset of lightning with a delayed 50 min exponential decay which was concurrently observed in the NaI detector. [1] M. B. Greenfield et al., Journal of Applied Physics 93 no. 3 (2003) pp 1839-1844. [2] M. B. Greenfield et al., Journal of Applied Physics 93 no. 9 (2003) pp 5733-5741.

  10. Electrode-immobilized compounds through. gamma. radiation

    SciTech Connect

    De Castro, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Chemically Modified Electrodes (CMEs) are used as substrates in heterogeneous catalysis and as sensors. This work demonstrates a new strategy for immobilizing polyelectrolytes and electroactive agents on electrode surfaces. The success of this method lies in cross-linking water soluble polymer chains through the ionizing radiation of ..gamma.. emissions from a /sup 60/Co source. Cross-linking can create a continuous network out of the polymer macromolecules which then makes the network insoluble on the electrode surface. Bonds between the network and the substrate are also possible. Redox species mixed with the polymer network and irradiated become part of the insoluble network, and are permanently attached. The use of ..gamma.. radiation to make electrochemical sensors is demonstrated. The immobilized network poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (DDAC) is placed in a solution of potassium ferricyanide and ionicly exchanges the anion into the network. An electroactive network is created from irradiating a mixture of DDAC and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP). Using the amount of electroactive DCIP remaining in the film as the optimization parameter, variables such as polymer:DCIP ratio, film thickness, and dosage employed are shown to be relevant.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on retroviral recombination.

    PubMed

    Hu, W S; Temin, H M

    1992-07-01

    To elucidate the mechanism(s) of retroviral recombination, we exposed virions to gamma radiation prior to infecting target cells. By using previously described spleen necrosis virus-based vectors containing multiple markers, recombinant proviruses were studied after a single round of retrovirus replication. The current models of retroviral recombination predict that breaking virion RNA should promote minus-strand recombination (forced copy-choice model), decrease or not affect plus-strand recombination (strand displacement/assimilation model), and shift plus-strand recombination towards the 3' end of the genome. However, we found that while gamma irradiation of virions reduced the amount of recoverable viral RNA, it did not primarily cause breaks. Thus, the frequency of selected recombinants was not significantly altered with greater doses of radiation. In spite of this, the irradiation did decrease the number of recombinants with only one internal template switch. As a result, the average number of additional internal template switches in the recombinant proviruses increased from 0.7 to 1.4 as infectivity decreased to 6%. The unselected internal template switches tended to be 5' of the selected crossover even in the recombinants from irradiated viruses, inconsistent with a plus-strand recombination mechanism. PMID:1602553

  12. Satellite observation of atmospheric nuclear gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Letaw, J R; Share, G H; Kinzer, R L; Silberberg, R; Chupp, E L; Forrest, D J; Rieger, E

    1989-02-01

    We present a satellite observation of the spectrum of gamma radiation from the Earth's atmosphere in the energy interval from 300 keV to 8.5 MeV. The data were accumulated by the gamma ray spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission over 3 1/2 years, from 1980 to 1983. The excellent statistical accuracy of the data allows 20 atmospheric line features to be identified. The features are superimposed on a continuum background which is modeled using a power law with index -1.16. Many of these features contain a blend of more than one nuclear line. All of these lines (with the exception of the 511-keV annihilation line) are Doppler broadened. Line energies and intensities are consistent with production by secondary neutrons interacting with atmospheric 14N and 16O. Although we find no evidence for other production mechanisms, we cannot rule out significant contributions from direct excitation or spallation by primary cosmic ray protons. The relative intensities of the observed line features are in fair agreement with theoretical models; however, existing models are limited by the availability of neutron cross sections, especially at high energies. The intensity and spectrum of photons at energies below the 511-keV line, in excess of a power law continuum, can be explained by Compton scattering of the annihilation line photons in traversing an average of approximately 21 g cm-2 of atmosphere. PMID:11537397

  13. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

  14. Gamma radiation effects on silicon photonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Grillanda, Stefano; Singh, Vivek; Raghunathan, Vivek; Morichetti, Francesco; Melloni, Andrea; Kimerling, Lionel; Agarwal, Anuradha M

    2016-07-01

    To support the use of integrated photonics in harsh environments, such as outer space, the hardness threshold to high-energy radiation must be established. Here, we investigate the effects of gamma (γ) rays, with energy in the MeV-range, on silicon photonic waveguides. By irradiation of high-quality factor amorphous silicon core resonators, we measure the impact of γ rays on the materials incorporated in our waveguide system, namely amorphous silicon, silicon dioxide, and polymer. While we show the robustness of amorphous silicon and silicon dioxide up to an absorbed dose of 15 Mrad, more than 100× higher than previous reports on crystalline silicon, polymer materials exhibit changes with doses as low as 1 Mrad. PMID:27367099

  15. Recoilless Nuclear Resonance Absorption of Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mössbauer, Rudolf L.

    It is a high distinction to be permitted to address you on the subject of recoilless nuclear resonance absorption of gamma radiation. The methods used in this special branch of experimental physics have recently found acceptance in many areas of science. I take the liberty to confine myself essentially to the work which I was able to carry out in the years 1955-1958 at the Max Planck Institute in Heidelberg, and which finally led to establishment of the field of recoilless nuclear resonance absorption. Many investigators shared in the preparations of the basis for the research we are concerned with in this lecture. As early as the middle of the last century Stokes observed, in the case of fluorite, the phenomenon now known as fluorescence - namely, that solids, liquids, and gases under certain conditions partially absorb incident electromagnetic radiation which immediately is reradiated. A special case is the so-called resonance fluorescence, a phenomenon in which the re-emitted and the incident radiation both are of the same wavelength. The resonance fluorescence of the yellow D lines of sodium in sodium vapour is a particularly notable and exhaustively studied example. In this optical type of resonance fluorescence, light sources are used in which the atoms undergo transitions from excited states to their ground states (Fig. 1.1). The light quanta emitted in these transitions (A → B) are used to initiate the inverse process of resonance absorption in the atoms of an absorber which are identical with the radiating atoms. The atoms of the absorber undergo a transition here from the ground state (B) to the excited state (A), from which they again return to the ground state, after a certain time delay, by emission of fluorescent light.

  16. A Device for Search of Gamma-Radiation Intensive Sources at the Radiation Accident Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Batiy, Valeriy; Klyuchnykov, A; Kochnev, N; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2005-08-08

    The procedure designed for measuring angular distributions of gamma radiation and for search of gamma radiation intensive sources is described. It is based on application of the original multidetector device ShD-1, for measuring an angular distribution in a complete solid angle (4 pi). The calibration results and data on the angular distributions of intensity of gamma radiation at the roof of Chornobyl NPP ''Shelter'' are presented.

  17. On gamma and neutrino radiation from Cyg X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berezinsky, V. S.

    1985-01-01

    The production of high energy gamma and neutrino radiation is studied for Cyg X-3. A heating model is proposed to explain the presence of only one gamma-pulse during 4.8 h period of the source. The acceleration mechanisms are discussed. High energy neutrino flux from Cyg X-3 is calculated.

  18. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-11-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents.

  19. Differential sensitivity of Chironomus and human hemoglobin to gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Pallavi S; Panicker, Lata; Mohole, Madhura; Sawant, Sangeeta; Mukhopadhyaya, Rita; Nath, Bimalendu B

    2016-08-01

    Chironomus ramosus is known to tolerate high doses of gamma radiation exposure. Larvae of this insect possess more than 95% of hemoglobin (Hb) in its circulatory hemolymph. This is a comparative study to see effect of gamma radiation on Hb of Chironomus and humans, two evolutionarily diverse organisms one having extracellular and the other intracellular Hb respectively. Stability and integrity of Chironomus and human Hb to gamma radiation was compared using biophysical techniques like Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and CD spectroscopy after exposure of whole larvae, larval hemolymph, human peripheral blood, purified Chironomus and human Hb. Sequence- and structure-based bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the sequence and structural similarities or differences in the heme pockets of respective Hbs. Resistivity of Chironomus Hb to gamma radiation is remarkably higher than human Hb. Human Hb exhibited loss of heme iron at a relatively low dose of gamma radiation exposure as compared to Chironomus Hb. Unlike human Hb, the heme pocket of Chironomus Hb is rich in aromatic amino acids. Higher hydophobicity around heme pocket confers stability of Chironomus Hb compared to human Hb. Previously reported gamma radiation tolerance of Chironomus can be largely attributed to its evolutionarily ancient form of extracellular Hb as evident from the present study. PMID:27237970

  20. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of 137Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <<0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered. PMID:27274073

  1. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered. PMID:27274073

  2. {lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma} Radiative-Decay Width

    SciTech Connect

    Vavilov, D.V.; Antipov, Yu.M.; Artamonov, A.V.; Batarin, V.A.; Victorov, V.A.; Golovkin, S.V.; Gorin, Yu.P.; Eroshin, O.V.; Kozhevnikov, A.P.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kubarovsky, V.P.; Kurshetsov, V.F.; Landsberg, L.G.; Leontiev, V.M.; Molchanov, V.V.; Mukhin, V.A.; Patalakha, D.I.; Petrenko, S.V.; Petrukhin, A.I.; Kolganov, V.Z.

    2005-03-01

    The radiative decay {lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma} was recorded in the exclusive reaction p + N {yields} {lambda}(1520)K{sup +} + N at the SPHINX facility. The branching ratio for this decay and the corresponding partial width were found to be, respectively, Br[{lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma}] = (1.02 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -2} and {gamma}[{lambda}(1520) {yields} {lambda}{gamma}] = 159 {+-} 35 keV (the quoted errors are purely statistical, the systematic errors being within 15%)

  3. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, USP material compatibility with gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt Quiles, Maritza

    Gamma radiation is a commonly used method to reduce the microbial bioburden in compatible materials when it is applied at appropriate dose levels. Gamma irradiation kills bacteria and mold by breaking down the organism’s DNA and inhibiting cell division. The purpose of this study is to determine the radiation dosage to be used to treat Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Dihydrate, USP (DCPD) and to evaluate its physicochemical effects if any, on this material. This material will be submitted to various doses of gamma radiation that were selected based on literature review and existing regulations that demonstrate that this method is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial bioburden in natural source and synthetic materials. Analytical testing was conducted to the DCPD exposed material in order to demonstrate that gamma radiation does not alter the physicochemical properties and material still acceptable for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. The results obtained through this study were satisfactory and demonstrated that the gamma irradiation dosages from 5 to 30 kGy can be applied to DCPD without altering its physicochemical properties. These are supported by the Assay test data evaluation of lots tested before and after gamma irradiation implementation that show no significant statistical difference between irradiated and non irradiated assay results. The results of this study represent an achievement for the industry since they provide as an alternative the use of Gamma irradiation technology to control the microbial growth in DCPD.

  4. Development of a novel gamma probe for detecting radiation direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Longo, M.; Donnarumma, R.; D'Alessio, A.; Borrazzo, C.; Pergola, A.; Ridolfi, S.; De Vincentis, G.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial localization of radioactive sources is currently a main issue interesting different fields, including nuclear industry, homeland security as well as medical imaging. It is currently achieved using different systems, but the development of technologies for detecting and characterizing radiation is becoming important especially in medical imaging. In this latter field, radiation detection probes have long been used to guide surgery, thanks to their ability to localize and quantify radiopharmaceutical uptake even deep in tissue. Radiolabelled colloid is injected into, or near to, the tumor and the surgeon uses a hand-held radiation detector, the gamma probe, to identify lymph nodes with radiopharmaceutical uptkake. The present work refers to a novel scintigraphic goniometric probe to identify gamma radiation and its direction. The probe incorporates several scintillation crystals joined together in a particular configuration to provide data related to the position of a gamma source. The main technical characteristics of the gamma locator prototype, i.e. sensitivity, spatial resolution and detection efficiency, are investigated. Moreover, the development of a specific procedure applied to the images permits to retrieve the source position with high precision with respect to the currently used gamma probes. The presented device shows a high sensitivity and efficiency to identify gamma radiation taking a short time (from 30 to 60 s). Even though it was designed for applications in radio-guided surgery, it could be used for other purposes, as for example homeland security.

  5. Some Radiation Techniques Used in the GU-3 Gamma Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Dodbiba, Andon; Ylli, Ariana; Stamo, Iliriana; Kongjika, Efigjeni

    2007-04-23

    Different radiation techniques, measurement of dose and its distibution throughout the irradiated materials are the main problems treated in this paper. The oscillometry method combined with the ionization chamber, as an absolute dosimeter, is used for calibration of routine ECB dosimeters. The dose uniformity, for the used radiation techniques in our GU-3 Gamma Irradiator with Cs-137, is from 93% up to 99%.

  6. Designing Equipment for Use in Gamma Radiation Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergriff, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    High levels of gamma radiation are known to cause degradation in a variety of materials and components. When designing systems to operate in a high radiation environment, special precautions and procedures should be followed. This report (1) outlines steps that should be followed in designing equipment and (2) explains the general effects of radiation on various engineering materials and components. Much information exists in the literature on radiation effects upon materials. However, very little information is available to give the designer a step-by-step process for designing systems that will be subject to high levels of gamma radiation, such as those found in a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In this report, many radiation effect references are relied upon to aid in the design of components and systems.

  7. A study of the diffuse galactic gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Assuming cosmic rays pervade the Galaxy, they necessarily produced high energy gamma-rays as they interact with the instellar matter and photons. The cosmic ray nucleon interactions five rise to gamma rays primarily through the decay of pi mesons, giving a unique spectrum with a maximum at approximately 68 MeV. Cosmic ray electrons produce gamma rays through bremsstrahlung, but with a markedly different energy spectral shape, one which decreases monotonically with energy. Cosmic ray electrons also interact with the interstellar starlight, optical and infrared photons, and the blackbody radiation through the Compton process. A model of galactic gamma ray production is discussed, and the predicted spatial distribution and energy spectra are presented. Considering the uncertainty in the point source contributions, the agreement between the theoretical predictions and the gamma ray data seems quite reasonable.

  8. Measurement and Calculation of Gamma Radiation from HWZPR Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jalali, Majid

    2006-07-01

    HWZPR is a research reactor with natural uranium fuel, D{sub 2}O moderator and graphite reflector with maximum power of 100 W. It is a suitable means for theoretical research and heavy water reactor experiments. Neutrons from the core participate in different nuclear reactions by interactions with fuel, moderator, graphite and the concrete around the reactor. The results of these interactions are the production of prompt gammas in the environment. Useful information is gained by the reactor gamma spectrum measurement from point of view of relative quantity and energy distribution of direct and scattered radiations. Reactor gamma ray spectrum has been gathered in different places around the reactor by HPGe detector. In analysis of these spectra, {sup 1}H(n,{gamma}){sup 2}H, {sup 16}O(n,n'{gamma}){sup 16}O, {sup 2}H(n,{gamma}){sup 3}H and {sup 238}U(n,{gamma}){sup 239}U reactions occurring in reactor moderator and fuel, are important. The measured spectrum has been primarily estimated by the MCNP code. There is agreement between the code and the experiments in some points. The scattered gamma rays from {sup 27}Al (n,{gamma}){sup 28}Al reaction in the reactor tank, are the most among the gammas scattered in the reactor environment. Also the dose calculations by MCNP code show that 72% of gamma dose belongs to the energy range 3-11 MeV from reactor gamma spectrum and the danger of exposure from the reactor high-energy photons is serious. (author)

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on honey quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, A.; Almeida-Muradian, L. B.; Sabato, S. F.

    2009-07-01

    Honey is one of the most complex substances produced by bees, mainly from the nectar of flowers. Gamma radiation is a technique that can be used to decrease the number of microbiological problems associated with food and increase the shelf life of certain products. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 (10 kGy) on some parameters used in honey quality control. Seven samples of pure honey were obtained from local markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2007. The methods used are in accordance with Brazilian Regulations. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture, HMF, free acidity, pH, sugars and ash. The results showed that gamma radiation, in the dose mentioned above, did not cause significant physicochemical alterations.

  10. Gamma line radiation from supernovae. [nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    Recent calculations of core collapse or massive stars result in explosive ejection of the mantle by a reflected shock. These hydrodynamic results are important for predictions of explosive nucleosynthesis and gamma-ray line emission from supernovae. Previous estimates, based on simple parameterized models or the nucleosynthesis in an average supernova, are compared with these latest results.

  11. Gamma radiation stability studies of mercury fulminate

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-02-17

    Mercury fulminate completely decomposed in a gamma source (0.86 Mrad/h) after a dose of 208 Mrad. This exposure equates to approximately 2.4 years in Tank 15H and 4 years in Tank 12H, one of the vessels of concern. Since the tanks lost the supernatant cover layer more than a decade ago, this study suggests that any mercury fulminate or closely related energetic species decomposed long ago if ever formed.

  12. Radiation burst from a single {gamma}-photon field

    SciTech Connect

    Shakhmuratov, R. N.; Vagizov, F.; Kocharovskaya, O.

    2011-10-15

    The radiation burst from a single {gamma}-photon field interacting with a dense resonant absorber is studied theoretically and experimentally. This effect was discovered for the fist time by P. Helisto et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2037 (1991)] and it was named the ''gamma echo''. The echo is generated by a 180 Degree-Sign phase shift of the incident radiation field, attained by an abrupt change of the position of the absorber with respect to the radiation source during the coherence time of the photon wave packet. Three distinguishing cases of the gamma echo are considered; i.e., the photon is in exact resonance with the absorber, close to resonance (on the slope of the absorption line), and far from resonance (on the far wings of the resonance line). In resonance the amplitude of the radiation burst is two times larger than the amplitude of the input radiation field just before its phase shift. This burst was explained by Helisto et al. as a result of constructive interference of the coherently scattered field with the phase-shifted input field, both having almost the same amplitude. We found that out of resonance the scattered radiation field acquires an additional component with almost the same amplitude as the amplitude of the incident radiation field. The phase of the additional field depends on the optical thickness of the absorber and resonant detuning. Far from resonance this field interferes destructively with the phase-shifted incident radiation field and radiation quenching is observed. Close to resonance the three fields interfere constructively and the amplitude of the radiation burst is three times larger than the amplitude of the input radiation field.

  13. Gamma Radiation from PSR B1055-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bailes, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cordes, J.; DAmico, N. D.; Esposito, J. A.; Finley, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hermsen, W.; Kanbach, G.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kuiper, L.; Lin, Y. C.; Lyne, A.; Manchester, R.; Matz, S. M.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Michelson, P. F.; Nolan, P. L.

    1998-01-01

    The telescopes on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CCRO) have observed PSR B1055-52 a number of times between 1991 and 1998. From these data, a more detailed picture of the gamma radiation from this source has been developed, showing several characteristics which distinguish this pulsar: the light curve is complex; there is no detectable unpulsed emission; the energy spectrum is flat, with no evidence of a sharp high-energy cutoff up to greater than 4 GeV. Comparisons of the gamma-ray data with observations at longer wavelengths show that no two of the known gamma-ray pulsars have quite the same characteristics; this diversity makes interpretation in terms of theoretical models difficult.

  14. Gamma Radiation from PSR B1055-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bailes, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cordes, J.; DAmico, N.; Esposito, J. A.; Finley, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hermsen, W.; Kanbach, G.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kuiper, L.; Lin, Y. C.; Lyne, A.; Manchester, R.; Matz, S. M.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Michelson, P. F.; Nolan, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    The telescopes on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) have observed PSR B1055-52 a number of times between 1991 and 1998. From these data, a more detailed picture of the gamma radiation from this source has been developed, showing several characteristics which distinguish this pulsar: the light curve is complex; there is no detectable unpulsed emission; the energy spectrum is flat, with no evidence of a sharp high-energy cutoff up to greater than 4 GeV. Comparisons of the gamma-ray data with observations at longer wavelengths show that no two of the known gamma-ray pulsars have quite the same characteristics; this diversity makes interpretation in terms of theoretical models difficult.

  15. Scan MDCs for GPS-Based Gamma Radiation Surveys.

    PubMed

    Alecksen, Tyler; Whicker, Randy

    2016-08-01

    A method for estimating the minimum detectable concentration of a contaminant radionuclide in soil when scanning with gamma radiation detectors (known as the "scan MDC") is described in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). This paper presents an alternate method for estimating scan MDCs for GPS-based gamma surveys based on detector efficiencies modeled with the probabilistic Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended (MCNPX) Transport simulation code. Results are compared to those provided in MARSSIM. An extensive database of MCNPX-based detection efficiencies has been developed to represent a variety of gamma survey applications and potential scanning configurations (detector size, scan height, size of contaminated soil volume, etc.), and an associated web-based user interface has been developed to provide survey designers and regulators with access to a reasonably wide range of calculated scan MDC values for survey planning purposes. PMID:27356162

  16. Environmental gamma radiation in the KATRIN Spectrometer Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippenbrock, Luke; Katrin Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment, presently undergoing final assembly in Germany, will use tritium β-decay to probe the electron antineutrino mass down to a sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2 (90% confidence level). The experimental apparatus has been designed to limit the effect of known and predicted backgrounds near the beta endpoint energy. However, recent commissioning measurements with the main spectrometer have shown that an elusive background source still remains. In this talk, the interaction of environmental gamma radiation inside the KATRIN main spectrometer is studied as a potential background creation mechanism. Geant4 simulations of the gamma flux, derived from concrete radioassay measurements, are compared with detector background rates collected under multiple gamma radiation conditions. Funded by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under Grant #DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  17. Gamma radiation transmission along the multibend mazes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangrok

    2016-08-01

    Installing a maze on the corridor reduces much shielding materials in shielding door at the end of the pathway. In this study, gamma transmission was measured along single-, double-, and triple-bend mazes, which were applied to nondestructive test workplace by Monte Carlo method. In the facility using (192)Ir 1.85TBq, the lengths of corridors to reduce the effective dose under the limitation without shielding door were 10 and 6m in double- and triple-bend mazes, respectively. PMID:27180220

  18. GAMMA RADIATION TREATMENT OF WATERS FROM LIGNITE MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed in this report are results of laboratory investigations carried out with the application of gamma radiation for the purification of waters drained from surface lignite mines. These waters are polluted to a considerable extent with suspended matter of various sizes, a la...

  19. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  20. Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis Through Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirado, Pablo; Garcia, Rafael; Montes, Jorge; Melendrez, Rodrigo; Barboza, Marcelino; Contreras, Oscar

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes show a great potential of applications since there discovery by Iijima in 1991[1] due to their numerous physical-chemical properties such as their high weight to strength relationship, which make them ideal to use in high resistance compound materials, and in many other applications[2] In this work, a novel method for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes is presented, starting from an ultra-thin sheet of graphite synthesized by the chemical vapor decomposition technique (CVD), using ultra high purity methane and hydrogen at 1200°C in a horizontal quartz reactor. For the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, the graphite sheets were exposed to different doses of radiation, with the objective of breaking the graphite bonds and form carbon nanotubes; a Gammacell equipment model 220 Excel was used for the purpose, which counts with a radiation source of cobalt 60, and a current radiation rate of 0.9 Gy/seconds. The time of exposure to radiation was varied in each sample, according to the desired dose of radiation in each case, afterwards the samples were characterized using the Raman spectroscopy and TEM microscopy techniques with the objective of observing the kind of nanotubes formed, their morphology and their number of defects. Results will be shown during the poster session.

  1. Gamma Radiation Induced Calibration Shift for Four Cryogenic Thermometer Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. Scott; Yeager, C. J.

    2004-06-01

    Cryogenic temperature sensors utilized in space environments are exposed to ionizing radiation with the total dose dependent upon the length of the mission. Based upon their minimal size and robust packaging, four models of cryogenic Resistance Thermometer Devices (RTDs) manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. were tested to determine their reliability for space applications with regard to radiation. Samples of Cernox™ RTDs (CX-1050-SD), ruthenium oxide RTDs (models RX-102A-AA and RX-103A-AA), and silicon diode thermometers (model DT-670-SD) were irradiated at room temperature by a cesium-137 gamma source to total doses ranging from 5 Gy to 10 kGy. This paper presents the resulting temperature shifts induced by the gamma radiation as a function of total dose over the 1.4 K to 325 K temperature range. These data show that 1) Cernox™ RTDs exhibit high radiation hardness to 10 kGy from 1.4 K to 325 K, 2) ruthenium oxide RTDs show moderate radiation hardness to 10 kGy below 10 K, and 3) silicon diodes temperature sensors exhibit some radiation tolerance to low levels of radiation (especially below 70 K), but quickly shift calibration at radiation levels above 300 Gy, especially above 100 K.

  2. Bioburden assessment and gamma radiation inactivation patterns in parchment documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Inês; Mesquita, Nuno; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Carolino, Maria Manuela; Portugal, António; Botelho, Maria Luísa

    2013-07-01

    Parchment documents are part of our cultural heritage and, as historical artifacts that they are, should be preserved. The aim of this study was to validate an appropriate methodology to characterize the bioburden of parchment documents, and to assess the growth and gamma radiation inactivation patterns of the microbiota present in that material. Another goal was to estimate the minimum gamma radiation dose (Dmin) to be applied for the decontamination of parchment as an alternative treatment to the current toxic chemical and non-chemical decontamination methods. Two bioburden assessment methodologies were evaluated: the Swab Method (SM) and the Destructive Method (DM). The recovery efficiency of each method was estimated by artificial contamination, using a Cladosporium cladosporioides spore suspension. The parchment samples' microbiota was typified using morphological methods and the fungal isolates were identified by ITS-DNA sequencing. The inactivation pattern was assessed using the DM after exposure to different gamma radiation doses, and using C. cladosporioides as reference. Based on the applied methodology, parchment samples presented bioburden values lower than 5×103 CFU/cm2 for total microbiota, and lower than 10 CFU/cm2 for fungal propagules. The results suggest no evident inactivation trend for the natural parchment microbiota, especially regarding the fungal community. A minimum gamma radiation dose (Dmin) of 5 kGy is proposed for the decontamination treatment of parchment. Determining the minimal decontamination dose in parchment is essential for a correct application of gamma radiation as an alternative decontamination treatment for this type of documents avoiding the toxicity and the degradation promoted by the traditional chemical and non-chemical treatments.

  3. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-31

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS’s requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time and reach back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron’s identiFINDER™, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18-cm x 2.54-cm cylinders) as gamma detector, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack™ that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity (comparable to that of a 7.62-cm x 7.62-cm sodium iodide crystal at low gamma energy ranging from 30 keV to 3,000 keV), better resolution (< 3.0 percent at 662 keV), faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets

  4. Rheology of Indian Honey: Effect of Temperature and Gamma Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Lata; Gautam, Satyendra

    2014-01-01

    Honey brands commonly available in Indian market were characterized for their rheological and thermal properties. Viscosity of all the honey samples belonging to different commercial brands was found to decrease with increase in temperature (5–40°C) and their sensitivity towards temperature varied significantly as explained by calculating activation energy based on Arrhenius model and ranged from 54.0 to 89.0 kJ/mol. However, shear rate was not found to alter the viscosity of honey indicating their Newtonian character and the shear stress varied linearly with shear rate for all honey samples. Honey is known to contain pathogenic microbial spores and in our earlier study gamma radiation was found to be effective in achieving microbial decontamination of honey. The effect of gamma radiation (5–15 kGy) on rheological properties of honey was assessed, and it was found to remain unchanged upon radiation treatment. The glass transition temperatures (Tg) of these honey analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry varied from −44.1 to −54.1°C and remained unchanged upon gamma radiation treatment. The results provide information about some key physical properties of commercial Indian honey. Radiation treatment which is useful for ensuring microbial safety of honey does not alter these properties. PMID:26904655

  5. Design and development of a portable gamma radiation monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, M.; Ahmad, N.; Sohail, S.; Naveed, R. A.; Rafiq, M. Q.; Khalid, M.

    2009-07-01

    A portable gamma radiation monitor has been designed and developed. The monitor can be used effectively in the dose range from 0.07 to 500 mGy/h due to gamma rays of energy greater than 65 keV. The monitor overestimated radiation doses and the uncertainty in the measured dose rate has been found to be ≤30%. The response of the monitor can be considered isotropic within an acceptable error of ±30%. Provision has also been added to use the monitor as an installed radiation monitor. In installed mode, it can be operated from a remote location up to 1 km and the timing history can be stored on a personal computer.

  6. Design and development of a portable gamma radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Munir, M.; Khalid, M.; Ahmad, N.; Sohail, S.; Naveed, R. A.; Rafiq, M. Q.

    2009-07-15

    A portable gamma radiation monitor has been designed and developed. The monitor can be used effectively in the dose range from 0.07 to 500 mGy/h due to gamma rays of energy greater than 65 keV. The monitor overestimated radiation doses and the uncertainty in the measured dose rate has been found to be {<=}30%. The response of the monitor can be considered isotropic within an acceptable error of {+-}30%. Provision has also been added to use the monitor as an installed radiation monitor. In installed mode, it can be operated from a remote location up to 1 km and the timing history can be stored on a personal computer.

  7. A study of the diffuse galactic gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The observed diffuse galactic gamma radiation is compared to that predicted from galactic cosmic ray interactions with galactic matter and photons, assuming that on a broad scale the galactic cosmic rays in the plane are correlated with matter density. Recent considerations of the galactic diffuse matter distribution, particularly the molecular hydrogen, the galactic photon density, and a revised cosmic ray galactic scale height, are included. The predictions are compared to the observational gamma ray longitude distributions, the latitude distribution, and energy spectrum, including the COS-B satellite results, and the COS-B background estimate. Considering the uncertainties, the agreement between the theoretical predictions and the gamma ray data seems generally reasonable, suggesting that the general concepts are likely to be correct. Both the results determined here alone and in conjunction with other work calculating source functions assuming only cosmic ray matter contributions indicate no necessity for a significant point source contribution to the diffuse gamma radiation in the energy range being considered (E(gamma)10 MeV).

  8. Gamma radiation resistant Fabry-Perot fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanying; Miller, Don W.; Talnagi, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1998 completed a study of emerging technologies that could be applicable to measurement systems in nuclear power plants [H. M. Hashemian [et al.], "Advanced Instrumentation and Maintenance Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants," NUREG/CR-5501 (1998)]. This study concluded that advanced fiber optic sensing technology is an emerging technology that should be investigated. It also indicated that there had been very little research related to performance evaluation of fiber optic sensors in nuclear plant harsh environments, although substantial research has been performed on nuclear radiation effects on optical fibers in the last two decades. A type of Fabry-Perot fiber optic temperature sensor, which is manufactured by Fiso Technologies in Canada, is qualified to be a candidate for potential applications in nuclear radiation environment due to its unique signal processing technique and its resistance to power loss. The gamma irradiation effects on this type of sensors are investigated in this article. Two sensors were irradiated in a gamma irradiation field and one of them was irradiated up to a total gamma dose of 133 Mrad. The sensor on-line performance was monitored during each gamma irradiation test. Furthermore, the sensor static and dynamic performance before and after each irradiation test were evaluated according to the Standard ISA-dS67.06.01 ("Performance Monitoring for Nuclear Safety-Related Instrument Channels in Nuclear Power Plants", Standard ISA-dS67.06.01, Draft 7, Instrument Society of America, 1999). Although several abnormal phenomena were observed, analysis shows that gamma irradiation is not accredited to the abnormal behavior, which implies that this type of sensor is suitable to a gamma irradiation environment with a high gamma dose.

  9. Measurement of neutron and gamma radiation in a mixed field.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, S; Bechtel, E; Brucker, G J

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a study of dosimeters with a range of 0 to 0.2 mGy that were developed by the authors and built by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). These instruments are a type of air-filled ion chamber that is self-reading by means of an internal carbon fiber electrometer. Two types of these dosimeters were constructed: one with an ion chamber wall made of a conductive hydrogenous material, and the other device made with a conductive wall lining of non-hydrogenous material. Both types of dosimeters have the same sensitivity for gamma radiation, but greatly different sensitivities for fast neutrons, thus making it possible to measure gamma radiation and neutron doses separately in a mixed radiation field. The results indicate that such pairs of dosimeters can be used for the first time to accurately monitor personnel for gamma ray and neutron doses in real time. Since the difference in neutron sensitivities is due to the properties of wall materials, periodic calibrations of the dosimeter system can be accomplished using only gamma rays after the material constants are measured. The absolute number of neutron induced transmutations in sulfur was required for this work. Methods and techniques which were applied to determine this quantity are described in the text. This approach was one of several dosimetric procedures utilized in this investigation. PMID:7558835

  10. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-01

    Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER{trademark}, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack{trademark} that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant

  11. Radiolytic oxidation of propane. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Co-60 ..gamma.. radiolysis of gaseous propane was studied at 100 torr pressure and 25/sup 0/C, both pure and with 10% added oxygen. In the unscavenged system the major products and their G-values were hydrogen, 4.99; methane, 1.30; ethane, 1.95; iso-butane, 0.61; n-butane, 0.25; i-pentane, 0.42; n-pentane, 0.14; and hexanes, 0.89. Minor products were heptanes, 0.082; octanes, 0.067; nonanes, 0.088, and decanes, 0.033. Small yields of ethylene and propylene were also observed. Yields in the presence of 10% added oxygen were hydrogen, 1.87; methane, 0.83; and ethane, 1.22. Higher saturated hydrocarbons were eliminated. The reaction scheme for formation of major products was examined using computer modeling based on 24 reactions in the unscavenged system and 28 reactions in the propane-oxygen system. Yields could be brought into agreement with the data within experimental error in nearly all cases, but in the pure propane system it was necessary to assume that the molecular hydrogen yield was accompanied by the deposition of polymer on the vessel wall.

  12. Gamma radiation survey of the LDEF spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, G. W.; King, S. E.; August, R. A.; Ritter, J. C.; Cutchin, J. H.; Haskins, P. S.; Mckisson, J. E.; Ely, D. W.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Piercey, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    The retrieval of the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft in January 1990 after nearly six years in orbit offered a unique opportunity to study the long term buildup of induced radioactivity in the variety of materials on board. We conducted the first complete gamma-ray survey of a large spacecraft on LDEF shortly after its return to earth. A surprising observation was the Be-7 activity which was seen primarily on the leading edge of the satellite, implying that it was picked up by LDEF in orbit. This is the first known evidence for accretion of a radioactive isotope onto an orbiting spacecraft. Other isotopes observed during the survey, the strongest being Na-22, are all attributed to activation of spacecraft components. Be-7 is a spallation product of cosmic rays on nitrogen and oxygen in the upper atmosphere. However, the observed density is much greater than expected due to cosmic-ray production in situ. This implies transport of Be-7 from much lower altitudes up to the LDEF orbit.

  13. Perfluorinated polymer optical fiber for gamma radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajanca, P.; Mihai, L.; Sporea, D.; Negut, D.; Krebber, K.

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity of low-loss perfluorinated polymer optical fiber (PF-POF) to gamma radiation is investigated for on-line radiation monitoring purposes. The radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) of a commercial PF-POF based on Cytop material is measured in the visible spectral region. The fiber RIA shows strong wavelength dependence with rapid increase towards the blue side of the spectrum. The wide range of radiation sensitivities is available via careful selection of appropriate monitoring wavelength. The accessible sensitivities span from 1.6 +/- 0.2 dBm-1/kGy measured at 750 nm to 18.3 +/- 0.7 dBm-1/kGy measured at 420 nm. The fairly high radiation sensitivity as well as its wide tunability makes the fiber a promising candidate for a broad range of applications.

  14. Quality assurance of environmental gamma radiation monitoring in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Stuhec, M; Zorko, B; Mitić, D; Miljanić, S; Ranogajec-Komor, M

    2006-01-01

    Environmental gamma radiation monitoring established in Slovenia consists of a network of multifunctional gamma monitors (MFMs) based on pairs of Geiger-Müller counters and a network of measuring sites with high-sensitive thermoluminiscence dosemeters. The measuring points are evenly spread across Slovenia, located at the meteorological stations and more densely on additional locations around the Krsko NPP. The MFM network has a 2-fold function with one sensor used for the purpose of early warning system in near surroundings of the NPP and the other, more sensitive, for natural radiation monitoring. The paper summarises activities to establish quality assurance of the environmental gamma radiation measurements in Slovenia, with a critical view of the results in comparison with the international standards and recommendations. While the results of linearity and energy dependence tests were satisfying, on-field intercomparison showed that the inherent signal of one of the monitors (MFM) has to be taken into account in the range of environmental background radiation. PMID:16410289

  15. Thermal stability of grafted fibers. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundardi, F.; Kadariah; Marlianti, I.

    1983-10-01

    Presented the experimental results on the study of thermal stability of grafted fibers, i.e., polypropylene-, polyester-, and rayon-grafted fibers. These fibers were obtained by radiation grafting processes using hydrophylic monomers such as 1-vinyl 2-pyrolidone, acrylic acid, N-methylol acrylamide, and acrylonitrile. The thermal stability of the fibers was studied using a Shimadzu Thermal Analyzer DT-30. The thermal stability of the fibers, which can be indicated by the value of the activation energy for thermal degradation, was not improved by radiation grafting. The degree of improvement depends on the thermal stability of the monomers used for grafting. The thermal stability of a polypropylene fiber, either a grafted or an ungrafted one, was found to be inferior compared to the polyester of a rayon fiber, which may be due to the lack of C=O and C=C bonds in the polypropylene molecules. The thermal stability of a fiber grafted with acrylonitrile monomer was found to be better than that of an ungrafted one. However, no improvement was detected in the fibers grafted with 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone monomer, which may be due to the lower thermal stability of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), compared to the polypropylene or polyester fibers. 17 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Anomalous primary radiation from the Leksell Gamma Knife Unit.

    PubMed

    Shearer, D R; Roventine, W A; Coy, S R

    1994-12-01

    The Leksell Gamma Knife Unit, Type U, utilizes 201 separate 60Co sources intersecting at a common focus for radiosurgical treatment of the brain. It has been generally understood that all primary unattenuated radiation beams are confined within the protective housing during all phases of Gamma Knife operation. We have found that when the unit's shielding door is lowered for treatment, twelve primary beams exit the unit's door opening. Furthermore, in the original Gamma Knife unit design, two of the twelve primary beams failed to be attenuated by either the unit base or the unit wings. This has implications for the design of structural shielding and the protection of personnel during emergency procedures. Engineering modifications to eliminate the problem are discussed. PMID:7960787

  17. Characterization of gamma radiation inducible thioredoxin h from Spirogyra varians.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Minchul; Yang, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Seung-Sik; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Choi, Jong-il

    2013-08-15

    In this study, thioredoxin h (Trxh) was isolated and characterized from the fresh water green alga Spirogyra varians, which was one amongst the pool of proteins induced upon gamma radiation treatment. cDNA clones encoding S. varians thioredoxin h were isolated from a pre-constructed S. varians cDNA library. Trxh had a molecular mass of 13.5kDa and contained the canonical WCGPC active site. Recombinant Trxh showed the disulfide reduction activity, and exhibited insulin reduction activity. Also, Trxh had higher 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) reduction activity with Arabidopsis thioredoxin reductase (TR) than with Escherichia coli TR. Specific expression of the Trxh gene was further analyzed at mRNA and protein levels and was found to increase by gamma irradiation upto the absorbed dose of 3kGy, suggesting that Trxh may have potential functions in protection of biomolecules from gamma irradiation. PMID:23830452

  18. Analytical modeling for gamma radiation damage on silicon photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, H.; Feghhi, S. A. H.

    2016-04-01

    Radiation-induced damage in PIN silicon photodiode induces degradation of the photodiode parameters. In this work, by presenting an analytical model, the effect of gamma dose on the dark current in a PIN photodiode array was investigated. Geant4 was used to obtain the damage constant as a result of primary incident particle fluence and NIEL distribution calculations. Experimental measurements as well as numerical simulation of the semiconductor with ATLAS were carried out to verify and parameterize the analytical model calculations. A reasonable agreement has been found between analytical results and experimental data for BPX65 silicon photodiodes irradiated by a Co-60 gamma source at total doses up to 500 krad under different reverse voltages. Moreover, the results showed that the dark current of each photodiode array pixel has considerably increased by gamma dose irradiation.

  19. Optical Sensors for Monitoring Gamma and Neutron Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Clark D.

    2011-01-01

    For safety and efficiency, nuclear reactors must be carefully monitored to provide feedback that enables the fission rate to be held at a constant target level via adjustments in the position of neutron-absorbing rods and moderating coolant flow rates. For automated reactor control, the monitoring system should provide calibrated analog or digital output. The sensors must survive and produce reliable output with minimal drift for at least one to two years, for replacement only during refueling. Small sensor size is preferred to enable more sensors to be placed in the core for more detailed characterization of the local fission rate and fuel consumption, since local deviations from the norm tend to amplify themselves. Currently, reactors are monitored by local power range meters (LPRMs) based on the neutron flux or gamma thermometers based on the gamma flux. LPRMs tend to be bulky, while gamma thermometers are subject to unwanted drift. Both electronic reactor sensors are plagued by electrical noise induced by ionizing radiation near the reactor core. A fiber optic sensor system was developed that is capable of tracking thermal neutron fluence and gamma flux in order to monitor nuclear reactor fission rates. The system provides near-real-time feedback from small- profile probes that are not sensitive to electromagnetic noise. The key novel feature is the practical design of fiber optic radiation sensors. The use of an actinoid element to monitor neutron flux in fiber optic EFPI (extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric) sensors is a new use of material. The materials and structure used in the sensor construction can be adjusted to result in a sensor that is sensitive to just thermal, gamma, or neutron stimulus, or any combination of the three. The tested design showed low sensitivity to thermal and gamma stimuli and high sensitivity to neutrons, with a fast response time.

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on snake venoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, N.; Spencer, P. J.; Andrade, H. F.; Guarnieri, M. C.; Rogero, J. R.

    1998-06-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venoms, without affecting significantly their immunogenic properties. Inn order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative pharmacological study between native and irradiated (2,000 Gy) crotoxin, the main toxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and, susbequentely submitted to irradiaiton. Gel filtration of the irradiated toxin resulted in some high molecular weight aggregates formation. Crotoxin toxicity decreased two folds after irradiation, as determined by LD 50 in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution ocured in the same general manner, with renal elimination. However, in contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native form was initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3 hr) appeared in phagocytic mononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junction rich organs (muscle and brain).

  1. Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Effects and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Goodenow, Debra A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some exposure to gamma irradiation. Non-condensable gas formation from radiation may breakdown water over time and render a portion of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature with accelerated gamma irradiation exposures on the same order of magnitude that is expected in eight years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon; evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some non-condensable gas was evident, however thermosyphon performance was not affected because the non-condensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of non-condensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the non-condensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of selected thermosyphons at temperature and in a vacuum chamber revealed that the non-condensable gas likely diffused out of the thermosyphons over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

  2. Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Exposure and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanzi, James, L.A; Jaworske, Donald, A.; Goodenow, Debra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some gamma irradiation. Noncondensable gas formation from radiation-induced breakdown of water over time may render portions of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature under accelerated gamma irradiation, with exposures on the same order of magnitude as that expected in 8 years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon: evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some noncondensable gas was evident; however, thermosyphon performance was not affected because the noncondensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of noncondensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the noncondensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of one thermosyphon in a vacuum chamber and at temperature revealed that the noncondensable gas diffused out of the thermosyphon over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

  3. Gamma radiation from the Crab and Vela pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanbach, Gottfried

    1990-01-01

    The young pulsars in Crab and Vela were observed as very efficient emitters of high energy gamma radiation. While their radiation in the radio, optical, and x ray range was always known to differ considerably, the gamma ray emission on a superficial level appears quite similar: lightcurves with two narrow peaks, separated by 141 deg (Crab) and 153 deg (Vela) and photon energies in excess of 1 GeV with spectra that can be described by a power-law for Crab and a broken power-law for Vela. The detailed observations of these sources with the COS-B instrument, extending over nearly seven years, have revealed significant differences in the characteristics of the pulsars in the gamma-ray domain. Secular changes in the temporal (Crab) and spectral (Vela) properties above 50 MeV were found. These tantalizing signatures of the pulsar emission processes must now be explored in more detail and over a larger spectral range with the GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory) instruments in order to gain a deeper understanding of the physics of young neutron stars.

  4. The Gamma-ray galactic diffuse radiation and Cerenkov telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Chardonnet, P. |; Salati, P. ||; Silk, J.; Grenier, I.; Smoot, G.

    1995-12-01

    By using the PYTHIA version of the Lund Monte Carlo program, we study the photon yield of proton-proton collisions in the energy range between 10 GeV and 1 TeV. The resulting photon spectrum turns out to scale roughly with incident energy. Then, by folding the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray protons with the distribution of HI and CO, the Galactic diffuse emission of {gamma}-rays above 100 GeV is mapped. Prospects for observing that diffuse radiation with atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes are discussed. Present instruments are able to detect the {gamma}-ray glow of the Galactic center. The latter will be mapped by the next generation of telescopes if their energy threshold is decreased. However, a detailed survey of the Galactic ridge will be a real challenge, even in the long term. The MILAGRO project seems more appropriate. Finally, we investigate the {gamma}-ray emission from weakly interacting massive particles clustering at the Galactic center. It has been speculated that those species are a major component of the halo dark matter. We show that their {gamma}-ray signal is swamped in the Galactic diffuse radiation and cannot be observed at TeV energies. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Astronomical Society.}

  5. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  6. Characterization of muon and gamma radiations at the PTOLEMY site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Susannah; Gentile, Charles; Tully, Chris; Zapata, Sandra; Chris Tully Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    PTOLEMY is an experimental project at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory designed to determine the present day number density of relic neutrinos through measurement of electrons produced from neutrino capture on tritium. The weak interaction cross section for relic neutrino interactions necessitates high sensitivity measurements that could be influenced by high energy particles, like muons and gamma ray photons, which induce nuclear transitions and secondary electrons. Muons produced from the collision of cosmic rays with atmospheric nuclei are a significant source of background radiation at and below Earth's surface. The muon flux is measured by the coincidence of minimum ionization radiation loss in two plastic scintillator paddles. The spectrum of gamma ray photons is measured using sodium iodide based scintillators. These measurements will provide a characterization of the background and rates at the PTOLEMY site.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on perfluorinated polymer optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajanca, Pavol; Mihai, Laura; Sporea, Dan; Neguţ, Daniel; Sturm, Heinz; Schukar, Marcus; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the first complex study of gamma radiation effects on a low-loss perfluorinated polymer optical fiber (PF-POF) based on Cytop® polymer. Influence of gamma radiation on fiber's optical, mechanical and climatic performance is investigated. The radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) in the visible and near-infrared region (0.4 μm-1.7 μm) is measured and its origins are discussed. Besides attenuation increase, radiation is also shown to decrease the thermal degradation stability of the fiber and to increase its susceptibility to water. With regard to complex fiber transmission performance upon irradiation, the optimal operation wavelength region of PF-POF-based systems intended for use in radiation environments is determined to be around 1.1 μm. On the other hand, the investigated fiber holds potential for low-cost RIA-based optical fiber dosimetry applications with sensitivity as high as 260 dBm-1/kGy in the visible region.

  8. Influence of gamma radiation onto polymeric matrix with papain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulli, Gislaine; Lopes, Patrícia Santos; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Alcântara, Mara Tânia Silva; Rogero, Sizue Ota; Lugao, Ademar Benévolo; Mathor, Monica Beatriz

    2010-03-01

    Papain is a proteolytic enzyme that has been widely used as debridement agent for scars and wound healing treatment. However, papain presents low stability, which limits its use to extemporaneous or short shelf-life formulations. The purpose of this study was to entrap papain into a polymeric matrix in order to obtain a drug delivery system that could be used as medical device. Since these systems must be sterile, gamma radiation is an interesting option and presents advantages in relation to conventional agents: no radioactive residues are formed; the product can be sterilized inside the final packaging and has an excellent reliability. The normative reference for the establishment of the sterilizing dose determines 25 kGy as the inactivation dose for viable microorganisms. A silicone dispersion was selected to prepare membranes containing 2% (w/w) papain. Irradiated and non-irradiated membranes were simultaneously assessed in order to verify whether gamma radiation interferes with the drug-releasing profile. Results showed that irradiation does not affect significantly papain release and its activity. Therefore papain shows radioresistance in the irradiation conditions applied. In conclusion, gamma radiation can be easily used as sterilizing agent without affecting the papain release profile and its activity onto the biocompatible device is studied.

  9. Purification of sulfide-alkali effluent with the aid of ionizing radiation. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Petryaev, E.P.; Gerasimovich, O.A.; Kovalevskaya, A.M.; Plyuto, I.Ch.; Shlyk, V.G.

    1984-03-01

    The treatment of sulfide-alkali effluent under the effect of ionizing radiation was investigated. The source was an LMB-..gamma..-1M ..gamma..-apparatus with /sup 137/Cs source. The dose rate was 52 rad/s. Irradiation was done in glass ampules and in vessels allowing bubbling with air and irradiation to be carried out at the same time. 7 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  10. Effects of gamma-Radiation on Select Lipids and Antioxidants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandolph, Jacob; Mauer, Lisa; Perchonok, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Radiation encountered on an extended duration space mission (estimates of 3 Sieverts for a mission to Mars) poses a threat not only to human health, but also to the quality, nutritional value, and palatability of the food system. Free radicals generated by radiation interaction with foods may initiate many unwanted reactions including: 1) autoxidation in lipids that alters flavor, odor, and concentrations of essential fatty acids, and 2) depletion of antioxidants food products and dietary supplements. Studies have shown that antioxidants may provide long term health protection from oxidative stress caused by radiation exposure; therefore, consumption of antioxidants will be important. Stability of essential fatty acids is also important for astronauts long-term health status. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on lipids and antioxidants by monitoring oxidation and reducing power, respectively, in model systems. Select oils and antioxidants were exposed to levels of gamma-radiation ranging from 0 to 1000 Gy (1 Gy = 1 Sv) using a Gammacell 220 and stored at ambient or elevated temperatures (65 C) for up to 3 months prior to analysis. A Fricke dosimeter was used to verify differences between the radiation doses administered. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation in soybean and peanut oils were monitored using conjugated diene and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBARs) assays. Changes in fatty acid composition and formation and vitamin E levels were also measured. The reducing power of antioxidant compounds, including vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Significant differences (alpha =0.05) were present between all radiation doses tested using the Fricke dosimeter. Increasing radiation doses above 3 Sv resulted in significantly (alpha =0.05) elevated levels of oxidation and free fatty acids in soybean and peanut oils. Decreases in

  11. Protracted low-dose radiation priming and response of liver to acute gamma and proton radiation.

    PubMed

    Gridley, D S; Mao, X W; Cao, J D; Bayeta, E J M; Pecaut, M J

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated liver from C57BL/6 mice irradiated with low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-rays (0.01 Gy, 0.03 cGy/h), with and without subsequent exposure to acute 2 Gy gamma or proton radiation. Analyses were performed on day 56 post-exposure. Expression patterns of apoptosis-related genes were strikingly different among irradiated groups compared with 0 Gy (p < 0.05). Two genes were affected in the Gamma group, whereas 10 were modified in the LDR + Gamma group. In Proton and LDR + Proton groups, there were six and 12 affected genes, respectively. Expression of genes in the Gamma (Traf3) and Proton (Bak1, Birc2, Birc3, Mcl1) groups was no longer different from 0 Gy control group when mice were pre-exposed to LDR γ-rays. When each combined regimen was compared with the corresponding group that received acute radiation alone, two genes in the LDR + Gamma group and 17 genes in the LDR + Proton group were modified; greatest effect was on Birc2 and Nol3 (> 5-fold up-regulated by LDR + Protons). Oxygen radical production in livers from the LDR + Proton group was higher in LDR, Gamma, and LDR + Gamma groups (p < 0.05 vs. 0 Gy), but there were no differences in phagocytosis of E. coli. Sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) suggested more inflammation, with and without necrosis, in some irradiated groups. The data demonstrate that response to acute radiation is dependent on radiation quality and regimen and that some LDR γ-ray-induced modifications in liver response were still evident nearly 2 months after exposure. PMID:23869974

  12. Gamma-ray pulsars: Radiation processes in the outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    1996-01-01

    We describe an emission model for gamma ray pulsars based on curvature radiation-reaction limited charges in the outer magnetosphere. We show how pair production on thermal surface flux can limit the acceleration zones. Estimates for the efficiency of GeV photon production eta gamma and the gamma-ray beaming fraction are derived, including their dependence on pulsar parameters. In general eta gamma increases with pulsar age, but is decreased for low magnetic fields and for small magnetic inclinations. We argue that this produces GeV pulse profiles, curvature spectra and detection statistics consistent with the observations. We also describe the optical through X-ray pulsar synchrotron spectrum and the spectral variations with pulsar phase. A test computation for Vela-like parameters reproduces phase-resolved GeV spectra consistent with those observed by EGRET. Finally we comment on very high energy pulsed emission and particle production and note extensions needed to allow a more complete pulsar model.

  13. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

  14. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  15. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  16. The origin of the diffuse background gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Puget, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Recent observations provided evidence for diffuse background gamma radiation extending to energies beyond 100 MeV, and evidence of isotropy and implied cosmological origin. Significant features in the spectrum of this background radiation were observed which provide evidence for its origin in nuclear processes in the early stages of big-bang cosmology, and connect these processes with the galaxy formation theory. A test of the theory is in future observations of the background radiation in the 100 MeK to 100 GeV energy range which are made with large orbiting spark-chamber satellite detectors. The theoretical interpretations of present data, their connection with baryon-symmetric cosmology and galaxy formation theory, and the need for future observations are discussed.

  17. The origin of the diffuse background gamma-radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Puget, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Recent observations have now provided evidence for diffuse background gamma radiation extending to energies beyond 100 MeV. There is some evidence of isotropy and implied cosmological origin. Significant features in the spectrum of this background radiation have been observed which provide evidence for its origin in nuclear processes in the early stages of the big-band cosmology and tie in these processes with galaxy fromation theory. A crucial test of the theory may lie in future observations of the background radiation in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV energy range which may be made with large orbiting spark-chamber satellite detectors. A discussion of the theoretical interpretations of present data, their connection with baryon symmetric cosmology and galaxy formation theory, and the need for future observations are given.

  18. Super-Eddington radiation transfer in soft gamma repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Andrew

    1994-12-01

    Bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) have been shown to be super-Eddington by a factor of 1000 and have been persuasively associated with compact objects. Super-Eddington radiation transfer on the surface of a strongly magnetic (greater than or equal to 1013 G) neutron star is studied and related to the observational constraints on SGRs. In strong magnetic fields, Thompson scattering is suppressed in one polarization state, so super-Eddington fluxes can be radiated while the plasma remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. We discuss a model which offers a somewhat natural explanation for the observation that the energy spectra of bursts with varying intensity are similar. The radiation produced is found to be linearly polarized to one part in 1000 in a direction determined by the local magnetic field, and intensity variations between bursts are understood as a change in the radiating area on the source. The net polarization is inversely correlated with burst intensity. Further, it is shown that for radiation transfer calculations in limit of superstrong magnetic fields, it is sufficient to solve the radiation transfer for the low opacity state rather than the coupled equations for both. With this approximation, standard stellar atmosphere techniques are utilized to calculate the model energy spectrum.

  19. Gamma Radiation Reduced Toxicity of Azoxystrobin Tested on Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, P; Zdarsky, M; Benova, K; Falis, M; Tomko, M

    2016-06-01

    Fungicide azoxystrobin toxicity was monitored by means of a 96-h biotest with Artemia franciscana nauplius stages after exposure to solutions with concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mg L(-1) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation with doses of 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The effects of ionization radiation on azoxystrobin toxicity were mainly manifested by a statistically significant reduction of lethality after 72- and 96-h exposure. A maximum reduction of lethality of 72 % was achieved using doses of 1-5 kGy for an azoxystrobin initial concentration of 0.4 mg L(-1) and after 72 h of exposure. At a 96-h exposure, a difference of lethal effects reached up to 70 % for a dose of 10 kGy. The observed effect of gamma ionizing radiation on azoxystrobin toxicity suggest that this approach can be applied as an alternative for a reduction of azoxystrobin residua in food. PMID:27107585

  20. EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IONIC LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A; Nicholas Bridges, N; Thad Adams, T; John Mickalonis, J; Mark02 Williamson, M

    2009-04-21

    The electrochemical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) make them attractive for possible replacement of inorganic salts in high temperature molten salt electrochemical processing of nuclear fuel. To be a feasible replacement solvent, ILs need to be stable in moderate and high doses of radiation without adverse chemical and physical effects. Here, we exposed seven different ILs to a 1.2 MGy dose of gamma radiation to investigate their physical and chemical properties as they related to radiological stability. The azolium-based ILs experienced the greatest change in appearance, but these ILs were chemically more stable to gamma radiation than some of the other classes of ILs tested, due to the presence of aromatic electrons in the azolium ring. All the ILs exhibited a decrease in their conductivity and electrochemical window (at least 1.1 V), both of which could affect the utility of ILs in electrochemical processing. The concentration of the irradiation decomposition products was less than 3 mole %, with no impurities detectable using NMR techniques.

  1. LIDT test coupled with gamma radiation degraded optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IOAN, M.-R.

    2016-06-01

    A laser can operate in regular but also in nuclear ionizing radiation environments. This paper presents the results of a real time measuring method used to detect the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the optical surfaces/volumes of TEMPAX borosilicate glasses operating in high gamma rays fields. The laser damage quantification technique is applied by using of an automated station intended to measure the damage threshold of optical components, according to the International Standard ISO 21254. Single and multiple pulses laser damage thresholds were determined. For an optical material, life time when it is subjected to multiple pulses of high power laser radiation can be predicted. A few ns pulses shooting laser, operating in regular conditions, inflects damage to a target by its intense electrical component but also in a lower manner by local absorption of its transported thermal energy. When the beam is passing thru optical glass elements affected by ionizing radiation fields, the thermal component is starting to have a more important role, because of the increased thermal absorption in the material's volume caused by the radiation induced color centers. LIDT results on TEMPAX optical glass windows, with the contribution due to the gamma radiation effects (ionization mainly by Compton effect in this case), are presented. This contribution was highlighted and quantified. Energetic, temporal and spatial beam characterizations (according to ISO 11554 standards) and LIDT tests were performed using a high power Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm), before passing the beam through each irradiated glass sample (0 kGy, 1.3 kGy and 21.2 kGy).

  2. SAS 2 observations of the earth albedo gamma radiation above 35 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Simpson, G. A.; Ozel, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The earth albedo gamma radiation above 35 MeV in the equatorial region is investigated using observations from the second Small Astronomy Satellite. The zenith angle distribution of the gamma radiation has a peak toward the horizon which is about an order of magnitude more intense than the radiation coming from the nadir, and nearly two orders of magnitude more intense than the gamma radiation from most parts of the sky. The gamma radiation originating from the western horizon is a factor of four more intense than the radiation from the eastern horizon and a factor of three more intense than that from the northern and southern directions. This reflects the geomagnetic effects on the incident cosmic rays whose interactions produce the albedo gamma rays. The variation of the upcoming gamma ray intensity with vertical cutoff rigidity is consistent with the empirical relationship found by Gur'yan et al. (1979).

  3. Ceramic Matrix Composites Performances Under High Gamma Radiation Doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemmi, A.; Baccaro, S.; Fiore, S.; Gislon, P.; Serra, E.; Fassina, S.; Ferrari, E.; Ghisolfi, E.

    2014-06-01

    Ceramic matrix composites reinforced by continuous ceramic fibers (CMCs) represent a class of advanced materials developed for applications in automotive, aerospace, nuclear fusion reactors and in other specific systems for harsh environments. In the present work, the silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiCf/SiC) composites, manufactured by Chemical Vapour Infiltration process at FN S.p.A. plant, have been evaluated in term of gamma radiation hardness at three different absorbed doses (up to around 3MGy). Samples behavior has been investigated before and after irradiation by means of mechanical tests (flexural strength) and by surface and structural analyses (X-ray diffraction, SEM, FTIR-ATR, EPR).

  4. Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Low-Dose Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegyesi, Hargita; Sándor, Nikolett; Schilling, Boglárka; Kis, Enikő; Lumniczky, Katalin; Sáfrány, Géza

    We have studied low dose radiation induced gene expression alterations in a primary human fibroblast cell line using Agilent's whole human genome microarray. Cells were irradiated with 60Co γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.5 Gy) and 2 hours later total cellular RNA was isolated. We observed differential regulation of approximately 300-500 genes represented on the microarray. Of these, 126 were differentially expressed at both doses, among them significant elevation of GDF-15 and KITLG was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Based on the transcriptional studies we selected GDF-15 to assess its role in radiation response, since GDF-15 is one of the p53 gene targets and is believed to participate in mediating p53 activities. First we confirmed gamma-radiation induced dose-dependent changes in GDF-15 expression by qRT-PCR. Next we determined the effect of GDF-15 silencing on radiosensitivity. Four GDF-15 targeting shRNA expressing lentiviral vectors were transfected into immortalized human fibroblast cells. We obtained efficient GDF-15 silencing in one of the four constructs. RNA interference inhibited GDF-15 gene expression and enhanced the radiosensitivity of the cells. Our studies proved that GDF-15 plays an essential role in radiation response and may serve as a promising target in radiation therapy.

  5. Petroleum and diesel sulfur degradation under gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos; Calvo, Wilson Aparecido Parejo; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Duarte, Celina Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is currently the most common method used by refineries to remove sulfur compounds from petroleum fractions. However, it is not highly effective for removing thiophene compounds such as benzothiophene. Additionally, this process generates high costs for the oil industry. In the present work, ionizing radiation was used in order to study the effect on the degradation of petroleum and diesel sulfur compounds. Crude oil and diesel fuel samples were studied, without any pretreatment, and irradiated using a cobalt-60 gamma cell in a batch system at absorbed doses of 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The sulfur compounds were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry (GCMS). A high efficiency of ionizing radiation was observed regarding the degradation of sulfur compounds such as benzothiophene and benzenethiol and the formation of fragments, for example 1.2-dimethylbenzene and toluene.

  6. An experimental search for gamma radiation associated with thunderstorm activity

    SciTech Connect

    Fryberger, D.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment is a repeat of an earlier experiment, but with more sensitive apparatus and in a location with a higher incidence of thunderstorm activity. The earlier experiment was undertaken by Ashby and Whitehead to investigate the theory that ball lightning might be associated with the annihilation of small amounts of antimatter, and it yielded some very interesting but inconclusive results. In the course of about 12 months of data taking, four high rate bursts of gamma radiation were detected. These events lasted a few seconds and had many thousands of counts (16500, 5000, 3700, and [gt] 7700. Unfortunately, the association of these gamma ray bursts with thunderstorms or ball lightning was not clearly established, although one of the bursts did occur during a local thunderstorm in rough coincidence with a lightning bolt striking a flagpole about 100 yards from the gamma ray detection crystals. A pulse height spectrum taken for this burst (no spectrum was taken for the other three) exhibited a significant peak, well above background, the energy of which appeared to be compatible with the 511 keV positron annihilation line. While the peak could not be unambiguously attributed to positron annihilation, this certainly appeared to be the most likely source.

  7. An experimental search for gamma radiation associated with thunderstorm activity

    SciTech Connect

    Fryberger, D.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment is a repeat of an earlier experiment, but with more sensitive apparatus and in a location with a higher incidence of thunderstorm activity. The earlier experiment was undertaken by Ashby and Whitehead to investigate the theory that ball lightning might be associated with the annihilation of small amounts of antimatter, and it yielded some very interesting but inconclusive results. In the course of about 12 months of data taking, four high rate bursts of gamma radiation were detected. These events lasted a few seconds and had many thousands of counts (16500, 5000, 3700, and {gt} 7700. Unfortunately, the association of these gamma ray bursts with thunderstorms or ball lightning was not clearly established, although one of the bursts did occur during a local thunderstorm in rough coincidence with a lightning bolt striking a flagpole about 100 yards from the gamma ray detection crystals. A pulse height spectrum taken for this burst (no spectrum was taken for the other three) exhibited a significant peak, well above background, the energy of which appeared to be compatible with the 511 keV positron annihilation line. While the peak could not be unambiguously attributed to positron annihilation, this certainly appeared to be the most likely source.

  8. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernández-Ramírez, M. V.; Arce-Corrales, M. E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-04-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 60C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  9. Radiative Penguin Decays of B Mesons: Measurements of B to K* gamma, B to K2* gamma, and Search for B0 to phi gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J.

    2005-01-03

    Electromagnetic radiative penguin decays of the B meson were studied with the BaBar detector at SLAC's PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory. Branching fractions and isospin asymmetry of the decay B {yields} K*{gamma}, branching fractions of B {yields} K*{sub 2}(1430){gamma}, and a search for B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{gamma} are presented. The decay rates may be enhanced by contributions from non-standard model processes.

  10. Removal of trihalomethane from chlorinated seawater using gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Rajamohan, R; Natesan, Usha; Venugopalan, V P; Rajesh, Puspalata; Rangarajan, S

    2015-12-01

    Chlorine addition as a biocide in seawater results in the formation of chlorination by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Removal of THMs is of importance as they are potential mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. In this context, a study was conducted that used ionizing radiation to remove THMs from chlorinated (1, 3, and 5 mg/L) seawater by applying various dosages (0.4-5.0 kGy) of gamma radiation. Bromoform (BF) showed a faster rate of degradation as compared to other halocarbons such as bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM). In chlorine-dosed seawater, total irradiation dose of 0.4 to 5 kGy caused percentage reduction in the range of 6.9 to 76.7%, 2.3 to 99.6%, and 45.7 to 98.3% for BDCM, DBCM, and BF, respectively. During the irradiation process, pH of the chlorinated seawater decreased with increase in the absorbed dose; however, no change in total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. The results show that gamma dose of 2.5 kGy was adequate for maximum degradation of THM; but for complete mineralization, higher dose would be required. PMID:26199004

  11. Effect of Gamma radiation on microbial population of natural casings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, M. J.; Fraqueza, M. J.

    1998-06-01

    The high microbial load of fresh and dry natural casings increases the risk of meat product contamination with pathogenic microorganisms, agents of foodborn diseases. The aim of this work is to evaluate the killing effect of gamma radiation of the resident microbial population of pork and beef casings, to improve their hygiene and safety. Portions of fresh pork (small intestines and colon) and dry beef casings were irradiated in a Cobalt 60 source with with absorbed doses of 1,2,5 and 10 kGy. The D 10 values of total aerobic microorganisms in the pork casings were 1.65 kGy for colon and 1.54 kGy for small intestine. The D 10 value found in beef dry casings (small intestine) was 10.17 kGy. Radurization with 5 kGy was able to reduce, at least, 6 logs the coliform bacteria in pork casings. The killing effect over faecal Streptococci was 4 logs for pork fresh casings and 2 logs for beef dry casings. Gamma radiation with 5 kGy proved to be a convenient method to reduce substantially the microbial population of pork fresh casings. Otherwise, the microbial population of beef dry casings still resisted to 10 kGy.

  12. Delayed gamma radiation from lightning induced nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, M. B.; Sakuma, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Kubo, K.

    2004-03-01

    An increase in atmospheric gamma radiation observed with NaI and Ge detectors positioned about 15 m above ground was observed following natural lightning near Tokyo, Japan [1]. Background subtracted gamma ray rates GRR following numerous lightning strokes observed since 2001 persisted for a few hours and subsequently decayed with a half-life of about 50 minutes. Using a 3x3 Ge detector, with 2 KeV resolution, positioned about 2 m from one of the NaI detectors increases in GRR were observed minutes after the onset of lightning with a delayed 50 min exponential decay. Although most of the increase in activity occured at less than a few 100 KeV, on July 11, 2003 a 1267 +/-2 KeV line was observed. Although the statistics of this event were poor, the appearance of this line with an exponential decay of 50 min half-life suggests the possibility that it may be due to 39Cl (1267 MeV; half-life = 55.5 min) via the 40Ar(gamma,p)39Cl, 40Ar(p,2p)39Cl and/or 40Ar(n,d)39Cl reactions. Observations of > 10 MeV gamma rays observed in NaI detectors within 10s of meters from and coincident with rocket-triggered lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing suggest that charged particles accelerated in intense electric fields associated with lightning give rise to photons with sufficient energy to initiate nuclear reactions [2]. Further work to explain the cause of this anomalous activity is underway using natural and triggered lightning. 1. M. B. Greenfield et al., Journal of Applied Physics 93 no. 3 (2003) pp 1839-184. 2. J. R. Dwyer et al., Science 299, (2003), pp 694-697 and recent communications

  13. Immunomagnetic Reduction Assay on Des-Gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin for Screening of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chieh, Jen-Jie; Huang, K W; Chuang, C P; Wei, W C; Dong, J J; Lee, Y Y

    2016-08-01

    The accredited biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) offers limited sensitivity and specificity in the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To improve the screening performance, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) has been identified as another promising biomarker of HCC, combined with AFP biomarkers. The results of the commercial optical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit easily have the interference problem due to the optical methodology. The immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay based on the magnetic measurement was utilized to assay DCP biomarkers without the excellent antiinterference performances. A DCP magnetic reagent, composed of iron-oxide (Fe3O4 ) magnetic nanoparticles coated with anti-DCP antibodies solved in phosphoryl-buffer solution, was synthesized and characterized. In the test of standard DCP antigens, superior antiinterference and sensitivity than optical ELISA were proved. In the animal test, the results indicate good agreement between the IMR assay findings and the tumor sizes of HCC rats at all time points after the HCC implantation. The feasibility of the developed DCP magnetic reagent with the IMR for the detection of DCP is verified, and demonstrates the high potential for future clinical applications. PMID:26415145

  14. [Protection of cadaver tissues exposed to high gamma radiation].

    PubMed

    Matus-Jiménez, J; Flores-Fletes, J R; Carrillo, A

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue is the most widely used tissue for the treatment of various conditions. As a result of this, allografts are used at an increasing frequency and processes for their harvest, preservation and sterilization have improved. The sterilization method that grants the greatest sterilization is high-dose gamma radiation, which destroys prions and any microorganism thus assuring that patients will not experience any infection. But given that radiation use has proven to deteriorate bone and tendon tissue, efforts have been made to protect the latter. One way to do this is a commercially available substance called Clearant. Studies conducted elsewhere have found that it does protect bone and tendon tissue. This study was therefore conducted with allograft samples exposed to high-dose radiation. Its purpose was to assess, with photon microscopy using various dyes and electron microscopy, the presence of color changes as well as the destruction of the anatomical structure. The same tissue was followed-up throughout the process until it was placed in the patient. The review found no structural changes in bone and tendon tissues exposed to high radiation doses (60 kilograys) when the Clearant process was used, and concluded that the former may be used safely in orthopedic or traumatologic diseases. PMID:24707605

  15. Exoemission instrument and technology to explore gamma radiation influence on bones.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohamad; Dekhtyar, Y; Bogucharska, T; Noskov, V

    This article aims at developing a new technology and instrument to explore the effect of gamma radiation on bone material. Exoelectron emission (EEE) phenomenon underlies a new electron spectroscopy to explore alteration of the electronic structurally dependence properties of bone material. The development of EEE technology for exploring the gamma radiation effects on bones is of high importance. Moreover, the influence of gamma radiation with different energies on the bone structure is discussed. It was found that the changes in EEE vary with radiation energy and radiation dose and that the response is non-linear. PMID:17643892

  16. Search for Charmonium States Decaying to J/\\psi\\gamma \\gamma $ Using Initial-State Radiation Events

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G.S.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2006-11-30

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma}){gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (J/{psi}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}){gamma} where the hard photon radiated from an initial e{sup +}e{sup -} collision with center-of-mass (CM) energy near 10.58 GeV is detected. In the final state J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma} we consider J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}, J/{psi}{eta}, {chi}{sub c1}{gamma}, and {chi}c{sub 2}{gamma} candidates. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e{sup +}e{sup -} CM energy in each event, so these data can be compared with direct e{sup +}e{sup -} measurements. We report 90% CL upper limits for the integrated cross section times branching fractions of the J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma} channels in the Y (4260) mass region.

  17. Networked gamma radiation detection system for tactical deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Smith, Ethan; Guss, Paul; Mitchell, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    A networked gamma radiation detection system with directional sensitivity and energy spectral data acquisition capability is being developed by the National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory to support the close and intense tactical engagement of law enforcement who carry out counterterrorism missions. In the proposed design, three clusters of 2″ × 4″ × 16″ sodium iodide crystals (4 each) with digiBASE-E (for list mode data collection) would be placed on the passenger side of a minivan. To enhance localization and facilitate rapid identification of isotopes, advanced smart real-time localization and radioisotope identification algorithms like WAVRAD (wavelet-assisted variance reduction for anomaly detection) and NSCRAD (nuisance-rejection spectral comparison ratio anomaly detection) will be incorporated. We will test a collection of algorithms and analysis that centers on the problem of radiation detection with a distributed sensor network. We will study the basic characteristics of a radiation sensor network and focus on the trade-offs between false positive alarm rates, true positive alarm rates, and time to detect multiple radiation sources in a large area. Empirical and simulation analyses of critical system parameters, such as number of sensors, sensor placement, and sensor response functions, will be examined. This networked system will provide an integrated radiation detection architecture and framework with (i) a large nationally recognized search database equivalent that would help generate a common operational picture in a major radiological crisis; (ii) a robust reach back connectivity for search data to be evaluated by home teams; and, finally, (iii) a possibility of integrating search data from multi-agency responders.

  18. The Impact of Gamma Radiation on Sediment Microbial Processes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ashley R.; Boothman, Christopher; Pimblott, Simon M.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities have the potential to control the biogeochemical fate of some radionuclides in contaminated land scenarios or in the vicinity of a geological repository for radioactive waste. However, there have been few studies of ionizing radiation effects on microbial communities in sediment systems. Here, acetate and lactate amended sediment microcosms irradiated with gamma radiation at 0.5 or 30 Gy h−1 for 8 weeks all displayed NO3− and Fe(III) reduction, although the rate of Fe(III) reduction was decreased in 30-Gy h−1 treatments. These systems were dominated by fermentation processes. Pyrosequencing indicated that the 30-Gy h−1 treatment resulted in a community dominated by two Clostridial species. In systems containing no added electron donor, irradiation at either dose rate did not restrict NO3−, Fe(III), or SO42− reduction. Rather, Fe(III) reduction was stimulated in the 0.5-Gy h−1-treated systems. In irradiated systems, there was a relative increase in the proportion of bacteria capable of Fe(III) reduction, with Geothrix fermentans and Geobacter sp. identified in the 0.5-Gy h−1 and 30-Gy h−1 treatments, respectively. These results indicate that biogeochemical processes will likely not be restricted by dose rates in such environments, and electron accepting processes may even be stimulated by radiation. PMID:25841009

  19. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  20. The impact of gamma radiation on sediment microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ashley R; Boothman, Christopher; Pimblott, Simon M; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-06-15

    Microbial communities have the potential to control the biogeochemical fate of some radionuclides in contaminated land scenarios or in the vicinity of a geological repository for radioactive waste. However, there have been few studies of ionizing radiation effects on microbial communities in sediment systems. Here, acetate and lactate amended sediment microcosms irradiated with gamma radiation at 0.5 or 30 Gy h(-1) for 8 weeks all displayed NO3 (-) and Fe(III) reduction, although the rate of Fe(III) reduction was decreased in 30-Gy h(-1) treatments. These systems were dominated by fermentation processes. Pyrosequencing indicated that the 30-Gy h(-1) treatment resulted in a community dominated by two Clostridial species. In systems containing no added electron donor, irradiation at either dose rate did not restrict NO3 (-), Fe(III), or SO4 (2-) reduction. Rather, Fe(III) reduction was stimulated in the 0.5-Gy h(-1)-treated systems. In irradiated systems, there was a relative increase in the proportion of bacteria capable of Fe(III) reduction, with Geothrix fermentans and Geobacter sp. identified in the 0.5-Gy h(-1) and 30-Gy h(-1) treatments, respectively. These results indicate that biogeochemical processes will likely not be restricted by dose rates in such environments, and electron accepting processes may even be stimulated by radiation. PMID:25841009

  1. Neutron and gamma radiation shielding material, structure, and process of making structure

    DOEpatents

    Hondorp, Hugh L.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel neutron and gamma radiation elding material consisting of 95 to 97 percent by weight SiO.sub.2 and 5 to 3 percent by weight sodium silicate. In addition, the method of using this composition to provide a continuous neutron and gamma radiation shielding structure is disclosed.

  2. Population doses from environmental gamma radiation in Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Marouf, B.A.; Mohamad, A.S.; Taha, J.S.; al-Haddad, I.K. )

    1992-05-01

    The exposure rates due to external gamma radiation were measured in 11 Iraqi governerates. Measurements were performed with an Environmental Monitoring System (RSS-111) in open air 1 m above the ground. The average absorbed dose rate in each governerate was as follows (number x 10(-2) microGy h-1): Babylon (6.0), Kerbala (5.3), Al-Najaf (5.4), Al-Kadysia (6.5), Wasit (6.5), Diala (6.5), Al-Anbar (6.5), Al-Muthana (6.6), Maisan (6.8), Thee-Kar (6.6), and Al-Basrah (6.5). The collective doses to the population living in these governerates were 499, 187, 239, 269, 262, 458, 384, 153, 250, 450, and 419 person-Sv, respectively.

  3. Calorimetric calibration of pyroelectric gamma-radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Strakovskaya, R.Y.; Sras', A.G.

    1985-07-01

    A method has been devised for calibrating a pyroelectric dosimeter, which is based on comparing the readings obtained with it in a gamma-ray beam with the readings of an integral calorimeter under stationary conditions, with the latter previously calibrated from Joule heat. The calorimeter used was in the form of a closed shell, whose overall thermo-emf was independent of the spatial distribution of the heat sources in it, the value being proportional to the integral heat flux through the shell. Measurements were made not only with a quasiisotropic radiation field but also in directed fields. The overall error in calibrating the pyroelectric detectors by this method was less than or equal to plus or minus 10%.

  4. Evaluation of gamma radiation shielding for nuclear waste shipping casks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Carlson, R.D.; Primeau, S.J.; Wangler, M.E.

    1998-05-01

    A method has been developed for evaluating gamma radiation shielding of shipping casks that are used to transport nuclear waste with ill-defined radionuclide contents. The method is based on calculations that establish individual limits for a comprehensive list of radionuclides in the waste, assuming that each radionuclide is uniformly distributed in a volumetric source in the cask. For multiple radionuclide mixtures, a linear fraction rule is used to restrict the total amount of radionuclides such that the sum of the fractions does not exceed 1. As long as the radionuclide limits and the linear fraction rule are followed, it can be shown that the regulatory dose rate requirements for a cask will be satisfied under normal conditions of transport and in a hypothetical accident during which the shielding thickness of the cask has been reduced by 40%.

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on viability of Encephalitozoon spores.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Trout, J M; Jenkins, M C; Palmer, R; Fayer, R

    2002-08-01

    Spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. hellem, and E. intestinalis harvested from cultured mammalian cells were suspended in deionized water, exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0-3.0 kGy, and then tested for infectivity by inoculating spores into monolayer cultures of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. The cultures were examined for developing microsporidia 4 days later. As the dosage level of radiation increased, corresponding decreases were observed in the number of developing microsporidia for all 3 species. For E. cuniculi and E. intestinalis, 100% inhibition of development was observed after exposure to 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, respectively. Although development of E. hellem was greatly inhibited (97.6% inhibition) after exposure to 3.0 kGy, complete inhibition was not obtained. These findings provide a baseline for investigating the dose levels required to render food products safe when kept under varying temperature, moisture, and other storage conditions. PMID:12197142

  6. Improving degradation of paracetamol by integrating gamma radiation and Fenton processes.

    PubMed

    Cruz-González, Germán; Rivas-Ortiz, Iram B; González-Labrada, Katia; Rapado-Paneque, Manuel; Chávez-Ardanza, Armando; Nuevas-Paz, Lauro; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises J

    2016-10-14

    Degradation of paracetamol (N-(4-hydroxiphenyl)acetamide) in aqueous solution by gamma radiation, gamma radiation/H2O2 and gamma radiation/Fenton processes was studied. Parameters affecting the radiolysis of paracetamol such as radiation dose, initial concentration of pollutant, pH and initial oxidant concentration were investigated. Gamma radiation was performed using a (60)Co source irradiator. Paracetamol degradation and mineralization increased with increasing absorbed radiation dose, but decreased with increasing initial concentration of the drug in aqueous solution. The addition of H2O2 resulted in an increased effect on irradiation-driven paracetamol degradation in comparison with the performance of the irradiation-driven process alone: paracetamol removal increased from 48.9% in the absence of H2O2 to 95.2% for H2O2 concentration of 41.7 mmol/L. However, the best results were obtained with gamma radiation/Fenton process with 100% of the drug removal at 5 kGy, for optimal H2O2 and Fe(2+) concentrations at 13.9 and 2.3 mmol/L, respectively, with a high mineralization of 63.7%. These results suggest gamma radiation/H2O2 and gamma radiation/Fenton processes as promising methods for paracetamol degradation in polluted wastewaters. PMID:27389621

  7. JITTER RADIATION MODEL OF THE CRAB GAMMA-RAY FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Teraki, Yuto; Takahara, Fumio

    2013-02-15

    The gamma-ray flares of the Crab nebula detected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites challenge our understanding of the physics of pulsars and their nebulae. The central problem is that the peak energy of the flares exceeds the maximum energy E {sub c} determined by synchrotron radiation loss. However, when turbulent magnetic fields exist with scales {lambda}{sub B} smaller than 2{pi}mc {sup 2}/eB, jitter radiation can emit photons with energies higher than E {sub c}. The scale required for the Crab flares is about two orders of magnitude less than the wavelength of the striped wind. We discuss a model in which the flares are triggered by plunging the high-density blobs into the termination shock. The observed hard spectral shape may be explained by the jitter mechanism. We make three observational predictions: first, the polarization degree will become lower in flares; second, no counterpart will be seen in TeV-PeV range; and third, the flare spectrum will not be harder than {nu}F {sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 1}.

  8. Degradation of monoterpenes in orange juice by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; Gates, R A

    2001-05-01

    Single-strength orange juice was irradiated with 0, 0.89, 2.24, 4.23, and 8.71 gGy of gamma radiation at 5 degrees C and then stored at 7 degrees C for 21 days. Volatile compounds, isolated by solid-phase microextraction, were separated and identified using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. The majority of the volatile compounds were terpenes, and the most abundant volatile compounds were ethanol and limonene. Most volatile compounds were stable during the 21-day storage period except geranial and neral which decreased over time. Irradiation reduced the concentration of acyclic monoterpenes, such as geranial, neral, myrcene, and linalool 1 and 7 days after irradiation, but did not affect other monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, or other volatile compounds. The reduction of acyclic monterpenes increased linearly with radiation dose, and correlated with an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates (TBARS) content. Reduction in the concentration of monoterpenes induced by irradiation was not significant 21 days after irradiation. Our results indicate that acyclic monoterpenes are sensitive to irradiation whereas most other volatile compounds are resistant. PMID:11368614

  9. Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2012-08-01

    For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

  10. Response of radiation monitoring labels to gamma rays and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, F. Abdel; Miller, A.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    Many kinds of coated or impregnated reflecting papers change color or become colored by large radiation doses. Such papers or "labels" do not generally supply dosimetry information, but may give useful inventory information, namely a visual indication of whether or not an industrial product or location has been irradiated to high doses. Among labels available worldwide, a few are suitable for indicating absorbed dose regions of slightly less than 10 4 Gy (< 1 Mrad), and some are intended for monitoring high dose ranges (i.e., sterilization dose levels of > 10 4 Gy or > 1 Mrad), and in some cases even up to very high dose regions (˜10 5 to 10 6 Gy or ˜10 to 100 Mrad). Only one labels which is expected to be commercially available, was studied for lower dose levels, 10 1-10 3 Gy (1-100 krad), namely one based on polymerization of diacetylene. Tests of stability, sensitivity of ambient light, and differences in dose rate and radiation type (gamma rays and electron beams) were made on 15 kinds of labels. The results show that, for many types of indicators, diverse effects may give misleading conclusions unless countermeasures are taken. For example, some of the most commonly used labels, which contain dyes that indicate changes of pH due to release of halogen from halogenated substrates, have limited shelf life and must be protected from extreme environmental conditions. Some also show a marked rate dependence of response. Readings of color reflection optical densities on labels or long paper strips permit somewhat more precise discrimination of dose levels, and may sometimes be useful for monitoring differences in local dose distributions or area monitoring of radiation damage probabilities around particle accelerators or large radionuclide sources.

  11. THERMAL RADIATION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, Akira; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Aoi, Junichi

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the light curves and spectrum of the photospheric thermal radiation from ultrarelativistic gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets are calculated using two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of jets from a collapsar. As the jet advances, the density around the head of the jet decreases, and its Lorentz factor reaches as high as 200 at the photosphere and 400 inside the photosphere. For an on-axis observer, the photosphere appears concave due to the low density and high beaming factor of the jet. The luminosity varies because of the abrupt change in the position of the photosphere due to the internal structure of the jet. Comparing our results with GRB 090902B, the flux level of the thermal-like component is similar to our model, although the peak energy appears slightly higher (but still within a factor of two). From the comparison, we estimate that the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB 090902B is {Gamma} {approx} 2.4 x 10{sup 2}(r/10{sup 12} cm), where r is the radius of the photosphere. The spectrum for an on-axis observer is harder than that for an off-axis observer. There is a time lag of a few seconds for high energy bands in the light curve. This may be the reason for the delayed onset of GeV emission seen in GRB 080916C. The spectrum below the peak energy is a power law and the index is 2.3-2.6, which is softer than that of a single temperature Planck distribution but still harder than that of the typical value of the observed spectrum.

  12. Effects of gamma radiation on fetal development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Tahere; Mozdarani, Hossein; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many cancer patients receive radiotherapy which may lead to serious damages to the ovary storage and the matrix muscle state. Some of these patients may admit to infertility clinics for having pregnancy and on the other hand hormonal administration for superovulation induction is a routine procedure in assisted reproduction technology (ART) clinics. Objective: This study aimed to investigate fertility and fetuses of hormone treated super ovulated female mice who had received whole-body gamma irradiation before mating. Materials and Methods: Female mice were randomly categorized into a control group and 3 experimental groups including: Group I (Irradiation), Group II (Superovulation), and Group III (Superovulation and Irradiation). In hormone treated groups, mice were injected with different doses of pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) followed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Irradiation was done using a Co-60 gamma ray generator with doses of 2 and 4 Gy. Number of fetuses counted and the fetus’s weight, head circumference, birth height, the number of live healthy fetuses, the number of fetuses with detected anomalies in the body, the sum of resorption and arrested fetuses were all recorded as outcome of treatments. Results: In the group I and group II, increased radiation and hormone dose led to a decrease in the number of survived fetuses (45 in 2 Gy vs. 29 in 4 Gy for irradiated group) as well as from 76 in 10 units into 48 in 15 units. In the group III, a higher dose of hormone in the presence of a 2 Gy irradiation boosted the slink rate; i.e. the number of aborted fetuses reached 21 cases while applying the dose of 15 Iu, whereas 6 cases of abortion were reported applying the hormone with a lower dose. Among different parameters studied, there was a significant difference in parameters of weight and height in the mouse fetuses (p=0.01). Conclusion: The data indicated that use of ovarian stimulating hormones in mice that received pre

  13. Influence on cell proliferation of background radiation or exposure to very low, chronic gamma radiation. [Paramecium tetraurelia; Synechococcus lividus

    SciTech Connect

    Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Tixador, R.; Richoilley, G.; Conter, A.; Croute, F.; Caratero, C.; Gaubin, Y.

    1987-05-01

    Investigations carried out on the protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia and the cyanobacteria Synechococcus lividus, which were shielded against background radiation or exposed to very low doses of gamma radiation, demonstrated that radiation can stimulate the proliferation of these two single-cell organisms. Radiation hormesis depends on internal factors (age of starting cells) and external factors (lighting conditions). The stimulatory effect occurred only in a limited range of doses and disappeared for dose rates higher than 50 mGy/y.

  14. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from DES Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates with Fermi-LAT Data

    SciTech Connect

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; et al.

    2015-08-04

    Due to their proximity, high dark-matter (DM) content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of DM. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with DM halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section for these new targets. If the estimated DM content of these dSph candidates is confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for DM particles with masses $\\lesssim 20\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ annihilating via the $b\\bar{b}$ or τ(+)τ(-) channels.

  15. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from DES Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates with Fermi-LAT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; Albert, A.; Bechtol, K.; Wood, M.; Strigari, L.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Baldini, L.; Essig, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Anderson, B.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E. D.; Caputo, R.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; de Angelis, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Kuss, M.; Loparco, F.; Lubrano, P.; Mirabal, N.; Mizuno, T.; Morselli, A.; Ohsugi, T.; Orlando, E.; Persic, M.; Rainò, S.; Sehgal, N.; Spada, F.; Suson, D. J.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Abbott, T.; Allam, S.; Balbinot, E.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Covarrubias, R.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Cunha, C. E.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D.; Jeltema, T.; Kent, S.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Luque, E.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J.; Martini, P.; Merritt, K. W.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Petravick, D.; Pieres, A.; Plazas, A. A.; Queiroz, A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wester, W.; Williams, P.; Yanny, B.; Zuntz, J.; DES Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    Due to their proximity, high dark-matter (DM) content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of DM. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with DM halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section for these new targets. If the estimated DM content of these dSph candidates is confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for DM particles with masses ≲ 20 {GeV} annihilating via the b\\bar{b} or τ+τ- channels.

  16. Gamma-ray radiation response at 1550 nm of fluorine-doped radiation hard single-mode optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngwoong; Ju, Seongmin; Jeong, Seongmook; Lee, Seung Ho; Han, Won-Taek

    2016-02-22

    We have investigated gamma-ray radiation response at 1550 nm of fluorine-doped radiation hard single-mode optical fiber. Radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) of the optical fiber was measured under intermittent gamma-ray irradiations with dose rate of ~10 kGy/h. No radiation hardening effect on the RIA by the gamma-ray pre-dose was found when the exposed fiber was bleached for long periods of time (27~47 days) at room-temperature. Photo-bleaching scheme upon 980 nm LD pumping has proven to be an effective deterrent to the RIA, particularly by suppressing the incipient RIA due to room-temperature unstable self-trapped hole defects (STHs). Large temperature dependence of the RIA of the optical fiber together with the photo-bleaching effect are worthy of note for reinforcing its radiation hard characteristics. PMID:26907044

  17. Evidence for a Solar Influence on Gamma Radiation from Radon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Steinitz, G.; Fischbach, E.; Javorsek, D.; Jenkins, J.

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon confined to an airtight vessel at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between January 28 2007 and May 10 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of strong periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year-1 and 12.5 year-1. We consider it significant that these same oscillations have previously been detected in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and at the Physiklisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. We have suggested that these oscillations are due to some form of solar radiation (possibly neutrinos) that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. Time-frequency analysis also yields quite different results from daytime and nighttime data. These procedures have also been applied to data collected from subsurface geological sites in Israel, Tenerife, and Italy, which have a variety of geological and geophysical scenarios, different elevations, and depths below the surface ranging from several meters to 1000 meters. In view of these results, and in view of the fact that there is at present no clear understanding of the behavior of radon in its natural environment, there would appear to be a need for multi-disciplinary research. Investigations that clarify the nature and mechanisms of solar influences may help clarify the nature and mechanisms of geological influences.

  18. Prompt gamma radiation as a new tool to measure reactor power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jalali, Majid; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; davati, Mojtaba Mostajabod

    2013-10-01

    A new method, based on reactor prompt gamma radiation detection, for reactor power measurement is introduced and validated. To verify, the ex-core gamma radiation spectrum from the Iranian Heavy Water Zero Power Reactor (HWZPR) were measured by HPGe and NaI detectors each suitably positioned. The collective prompt gamma count rates for all or for a portion of each of 2″×2″ NaI detector spectra were obtained for seven power level readings from calibrated reactor power monitors. A good linear behavior was found between gamma count rate and reactor power. The method of calibrated prompt gamma reactor power determination is a stable and reliable tool, on-line, sensitive to sudden variation of power, working in pulse mode, increasing redundancy and diversity and so improving the reactor safety. The prompt gamma counting system can be adopted and installed in other nuclear reactors to measure power.

  19. Radiation Metabolomics: Identification of Minimally Invasive Urine Biomarkers for Gamma-Radiation Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tyburski, John B.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Slavík, Josef; Fornace, Albert J.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-radiation exposure has both short- and long-term adverse health effects. The threat of modern terrorism places human populations at risk for radiological exposures, yet current medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are limited. Here we describe metabolomics for γ-radiation biodosimetry in a mouse model. Mice were γ-irradiated at doses of 0, 3 and 8 Gy (2.57 Gy/min), and urine samples collected over the first 24 h after exposure were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–TOFMS). Multivariate data were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS). Both 3- and 8-Gy exposures yielded distinct urine metabolomic phenotypes. The top 22 ions for 3 and 8 Gy were analyzed further, including tandem mass spectrometric comparison with authentic standards, revealing that N-hexanoylglycine and β-thymidine are urinary biomarkers of exposure to 3 and 8 Gy, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid 3-O-sulfate is elevated in urine of mice exposed to 3 but not 8 Gy, and taurine is elevated after 8 but not 3 Gy. Gene Expression Dynamics Inspector (GEDI) self-organizing maps showed clear dose–response relationships for subsets of the urine metabolome. This approach is useful for identifying mice exposed to γ radiation and for developing metabolomic strategies for noninvasive radiation biodosimetry in humans. PMID:18582157

  20. APPLICATION OF JITTER RADIATION: GAMMA-RAY BURST PROMPT POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jirong; Wang, Jiancheng

    2013-10-10

    A high degree of polarization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission has been confirmed in recent years. In this paper, we apply jitter radiation to study the polarization feature of GRB prompt emission. In our framework, relativistic electrons are accelerated by turbulent acceleration. Random and small-scale magnetic fields are generated by turbulence. We further determine that the polarization property of GRB prompt emission is governed by the configuration of the random and small-scale magnetic fields. A two-dimensional compressed slab, which contains a stochastic magnetic field, is applied in our model. If the jitter condition is satisfied, the electron deflection angle in the magnetic field is very small and the electron trajectory can be treated as a straight line. A high degree of polarization can be achieved when the angle between the line of sight and the slab plane is small. Moreover, micro-emitters with mini-jet structures are considered to be within a bulk GRB jet. The jet 'off-axis' effect is intensely sensitive to the observed polarization degree. We discuss the depolarization effect on GRB prompt emission and afterglow. We also speculate that the rapid variability of GRB prompt polarization may be correlated with the stochastic variability of the turbulent dynamo or the magnetic reconnection of plasmas.

  1. Natural gamma-radiation in the Aeolian volcanic arc.

    PubMed

    Chiozzi, P; Pasquale, V; Verdoya, M; Minato, S

    2001-11-01

    Pulse-height distributions of gamma-rays, obtained with a field NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in numerous sites of the Lipari and Vulcano islands (Aeolian volcanic arc, Italy), were measured to determine the U, Th and K concentrations of the bedrock and the relative values of the air absorbed dose rate. U is spatially related to both Th and K and the Th/U ratio is on average 3.1-3.5. The magmatic evolution is reflected by the concentration of the three radioelements, as they are more abundant within the more felsic units of the volcanic series. The higher values of U (15.7-20.0 ppm) coincide with higher Th (48.3-65.9 ppm) and K (4.9-6.1%) concentrations associated with rhyolitic rocks of the third cycle (< 50 ky). The air absorbed dose rate varies from 20 to 470 nGy h(-1). The highest values (> 350 nGy h(-1)) are observed on outcrops of rhyolitic obsidian lava flows. The cosmic-ray contribution is also evaluated to estimate the total background radiation dose rate. PMID:11573810

  2. Hydrogel membranes of PVAl/ clay by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, M. J. A.; Parra, D. F.; Amato, V. S.; Lugão, A. B.

    2013-03-01

    In the last decades several studies concerning the new methods for drug delivery system have been investigated. A new field known as "smart therapy" involves devices and drug delivery systems to detect, identify and treat the site affected by the disease, not interfering with the biological system. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin and one coetaneous treatment could be a potential solution. The aim of this study was to obtain polymeric hydrogel matrices of poly(vinylalcohol)(PVAl) and chitosan with inorganic nanoparticles, which can release a drug according to the need of the treatment of injury caused by leishmania on the skin. The hydrogels matrices were obtained with PVAl/ chitosan and PVAl/ chitosan 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5% laponite RD clay, crosslinked by ionizing gamma radiation with dose of 25 kGy. The techniques used for characterization were swelling, gel fraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TGA). After synthesis, the samples were immersed in distilled water and weighed in periods of time until 60 h for the swelling determination. The obtained results have indicated that the swelling of the membranes increases with clay concentration, in consequence of ionic groups present in the clay.

  3. Gamma radiation effect on gas production in anion exchange resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traboulsi, A.; Labed, V.; Dauvois, V.; Dupuy, N.; Rebufa, C.

    2013-10-01

    Radiation-induced decomposition of Amberlite IRA400 anion exchange resin in hydroxide form by gamma radiolysis has been studied at various doses in different atmospheres (anaerobic, anaerobic with liquid water, and aerobic). The effect of these parameters on the degradation of ion exchange resins is rarely investigated in the literature. We focused on the radiolysis gases produced by resin degradation. When the resin was irradiated under anaerobic conditions with liquid water, the liquid phase over the resin was also analyzed to identify any possible water-soluble products released by degradation of the resin. The main products released are trimethylamine (TMA), molecular hydrogen (H2g) and carbon dioxide (CO2g). TMA and H2g are produced in all the irradiation atmospheres. However, TMA was in gaseous form under anaerobic and aerobic conditions and in aqueous form in presence of liquid water. In the latter conditions, TMAaq was associated with aqueous dimethylamine (DMAaq), monomethylamine (MMAaq) and ammonia (NH). CO2g is formed in the presence of oxygen due to oxidation of organic compounds present in the system, in particular the degradation products such as TMAg.

  4. Some neutron and gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium cermet fuel for isotopic power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, R. A.; Anderson, M. E.; Campbell, A. R.; Haas, F. X.

    1972-01-01

    Gamma and neutron measurements on various types of plutonium sources are presented in order to show the effects of O-17, O-18 F-19, Pu-236, age of the fuel, and size of the source on the gamma and neutron spectra. Analysis of the radiation measurements shows that fluorine is the main contributor to the neutron yields from present plutonium-molybdenum cermet fuel, while both fluorine and Pu-236 daughters contribute significantly to the gamma ray intensities.

  5. Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-11-15

    For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required.

  6. Dosimetry of mixed neutron and gamma radiation with paired Fricke solutions in light and heavy water.

    PubMed

    Himit, M; Itoh, T; Endo, S; Fujikawa, K; Hoshi, M

    1996-06-01

    Paired Fricke solutions, made up from light water or heavy water and 0.8N in H2SO4 and 1 mM in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 and NaCl, were calibrated with 60Co gamma rays and with mixed neutron and gamma radiation from a 252Cf source. Absorbance increases, AL and AH, in light- and heavy-water Fricke dosimeters, respectively, increased with fast-neutron and gamma-ray tissue doses, Dn (GY) and D gamma (GY), of the mixed radiation as follows: AL = 0.00178Dn + 0.00371D gamma; AH = 0.00121Dn + 0.00442 D gamma. G-values of 7.2 and 5.5 were obtained for 252Cf neutrons in light- and heavy-water Fricke dosimeters, respectively. When we applied the pair of equations to AL and AH values observed after exposure to mixed radiation in a nuclear reactor, resulting Dn and D gamma values agreed within 10% to doses measured with paired ionization chambers. Doses required for Fricke dosimeters were 5 Gy or more. In contrast, we found that micronuclear yields in onion roots can measure the neutron component of mixed radiation fields at the order of 10 cGy with reasonable accuracy even if the neutron to gamma-ray dose ratio is unknown. PMID:8840720

  7. A gamma-ray testing technique for spacecraft. [considering cosmic radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gribov, B. S.; Repin, N. N.; Sakovich, V. A.; Sakharov, V. M.

    1977-01-01

    The simulated cosmic radiation effect on a spacecraft structure is evaluated by gamma ray testing in relation to structural thickness. A drawing of the test set-up is provided and measurement errors are discussed.

  8. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Zinc Tolerance Efficiency of Aspergillus terreus Thorn.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipanwita; Chakraborty, A; Santra, S C

    2016-03-01

    The present study emphasizes the potential of gamma radiation in enhancing zinc tolerance of Aspergillus terreus. Gamma-exposed A. terreus could tolerate 1.13 times more Zn, reflecting higher growth (in terms of CFU) under Zn stress and enhanced Zn removal efficacies than their unirradiated counterparts. Radiation-induced upregulation of antioxidative system (SOD, CAT, GSH and MT) of A. terreus is responsible for radiation-induced enhancement of Zn tolerance. FTIR spectra reveals the involvement of functional groups in Zn biosorption; SEM study divulges the structural changes due to metal and gamma exposure and SEM-EDX depicts the Zn uptake by A. terreus (both in gamma-exposed and unexposed conditions). This work sheds light toward utilizing low doses of ionizing radiation for making more metal-tolerant fungi and the possible mechanisms adopted by A. terreus for being more metallo-resistant. PMID:26612034

  9. Detection system for high-resolution gamma radiation spectroscopy with neutron time-of-flight filtering

    DOEpatents

    Dioszegi, Istvan; Salwen, Cynthia; Vanier, Peter

    2014-12-30

    A .gamma.-radiation detection system that includes at least one semiconductor detector such as HPGe-Detector, a position-sensitive .alpha.-Detector, a TOF Controller, and a Digitizer/Integrator. The Digitizer/Integrator starts to process the energy signals of a .gamma.-radiation sent from the HPGe-Detector instantly when the HPGe-Detector detects the .gamma.-radiation. Subsequently, it is determined whether a coincidence exists between the .alpha.-particles and .gamma.-radiation signal, based on a determination of the time-of-flight of neutrons obtained from the .alpha.-Detector and the HPGe-Detector. If it is determined that the time-of-flight falls within a predetermined coincidence window, the Digitizer/Integrator is allowed to continue and complete the energy signal processing. If, however, there is no coincidence, the Digitizer/Integrator is instructed to be clear and reset its operation instantly.

  10. Airborne time-series measurement of soil moisture using terrestrial gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.; Peck, Eugene L.

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation data and independent ground-based core soil moisture data are analyzed. They reveal the possibility of using natural terrestrial gamma radiation collected from a low-flying aircraft to make reliable real-time soil moisture measurements for the upper 20 cm of soil. The airborne data were compared to the crude ground-based soil moisture data set collected at the core sites.

  11. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  12. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel

    2009-09-01

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 °C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  13. Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS{sub 2}, which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support.

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on raspberries: safety and quality issues.

    PubMed

    Verde, S Cabo; Trigo, M J; Sousa, M B; Ferreira, A; Ramos, A C; Nunes, I; Junqueira, C; Melo, R; Santos, P M P; Botelho, M L

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing global demand from consumers for high-quality foods with major emphasis placed on quality and safety attributes. One of the main demands that consumers display is for minimally processed, high-nutrition/low-energy natural foods with no or minimal chemical preservatives. The nutritional value of raspberry fruit is widely recognized. In particular, red raspberries are known to demonstrate a strong antioxidant capacity that might prove beneficial to human health by preventing free radical-induced oxidative stress. However, food products that are consumed raw, are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles for transmission of human pathogens. Food irradiation is one of the few technologies that address both food quality and safety by virtue of its ability to control spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms without significantly affecting sensory or other organoleptic attributes of the food. Food irradiation is well established as a physical, nonthermal treatment (cold pasteurization) that processes foods at or nearly at ambient temperature in the final packaging, reducing the possibility of cross contamination until the food is actually used by the consumer. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of gamma radiation on raspberries in order to assess consequences of irradiation. Freshly packed raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were irradiated in a (60)Co source at several doses (0.5, 1, or 1.5 kGy). Bioburden, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties such as texture, color, pH, soluble solids content, and acidity, and sensorial parameters were assessed before and after irradiation and during storage time up to 14 d at 4°C. Characterization of raspberries microbiota showed an average bioburden value of 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g and a diverse microbial population predominantly composed of two morphological types (gram-negative, oxidase-negative rods, 35%, and filamentous fungi, 41

  15. Effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the functional characteristics of amniotic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rita; Purohit, Sumita; Chacharkar, M. P.

    2007-06-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation viz. 25, 36 and 50 kGy on the chemical and functional characteristics of the amniotic membrane was studied. The change in the chemical structure of amniotic membranes at high doses of gamma irradiation was evaluated by means of Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy. The degradation of amnion on irradiation with gamma rays could produce a relative variation in IR absorption troughs. This kind of variation was absent in the samples irradiated to doses of 25, 36 and 50 kGy indicating no qualitative change in the material property of amnion. No significant differences in the water absorption capacity and water vapour transmission rate of amniotic membranes irradiated to different doses were observed. Impermeability of the amniotic membranes to different microorganisms was also not affected at high doses of gamma radiation. Gamma irradiation at doses of 25-50 kGy did not evoke undesirable changes in the functional properties of the amniotic membrane.

  16. Accuracy of soil water content estimates from gamma radiation monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jie; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Reemt Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation is known to be sensitive to soil water content, and could be promising for soil water content determination because of the availability of continental-scale gamma radiation monitoring networks. However, the accuracy of soil water content estimates that can be obtained from this type of data is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of soil water content estimates from measured time series of gamma radiation. For this, four gamma radiation monitoring stations were each equipped with four soil water content sensors at 5 and 15 cm depth to provide reference soil water content measurements. The contributions of terrestrial radiation and secondary cosmic radiation were separated from the total amount of measured gamma radiation by assuming that the long-term contribution of secondary cosmic radiation was constant, and that variations were related to changes in air pressure and incoming neutrons. In addition, precipitation effects related to atmospheric washout of radon progenies to the ground that cause an increase of gamma radiation were considered by excluding time periods with precipitation and time periods less than three hours after precipitation. The estimated terrestrial gamma radiation was related to soil water content using an exponential function with two fit parameters. For daily soil water content estimates, the goodness of fit ranged from R2= 0.21 to 0.48 and the RMSE ranged from 0.048 to 0.117 m3m‑3. The accuracy of the soil water content estimates improved considerably when a weekly resolution was used (RMSE ranged from 0.029 to 0.084 m3m‑3). Overall, these results indicate that gamma radiation monitoring data can be used to obtain useful soil water content information. The remaining differences between measured and estimated soil water content can at least partly be explained by the fact that the terrestrial gamma radiation is strongly determined by the upper few centimeters of the

  17. Gamma radiation shielding and health physics characteristics of diaspore-flyash concretes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwaldeep; Singh, Sukhpal; Singh, S P; Mudahar, Gurmel S; Dhaliwal, A S

    2015-06-01

    Different gamma radiation interaction parameters has been measured experimentally for the prepared diaspore-flyash concretes at 59.54, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using narrow-beam transmission geometry and results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical values computed with a computer programme, WinXCom. The radiation exposure rate and absorbed dose rate for the gamma radiation with and without shielding of diaspore-flyash concretes have been determined using linear attenuation results. The results show that on average, there is reduction of 95%, 53% and 40% in dose rate for gamma sources (241)Am, (137)Cs and (60)Co, respectively with diaspore-flyash concretes as shielding material. Other health physics parameters namely equivalent dose, effective dose, gamma flux and energy fluence rate have also been determined. PMID:25946622

  18. [Cytotoxicity of PVC tubes sterilized in ethylene oxide after gamma radiation exposure].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Queiroz; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Ikeda, Tamiko Ichikawa; Gonçalves, Cláudia Regina; Cruz, Aurea Silveira

    2013-04-01

    Do materials sterilized using gamma rays become toxic when re-sterilized in ethylene oxide? This question guided the objective of this study, which was to investigate the potential cytotoxic effect of PVC sterilized by gamma radiation and re-sterilized with EO by the agar diffusion method in cell cultures. Nine PVC tubes were subjected to gamma radiation sterilization and were re-sterilized in EO. The tubes were divided into a total of 81 units of analysis that were tested so as to represent the internal and external surfaces and mass of each tube. It was concluded that the PVC materials sterilized in gamma radiation and re-sterilized in EO are not cytotoxic. PMID:23743920

  19. Isodose mapping of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate of Selangor state, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, M S M; Ramli, A T; Gabdo, H T; Garba, N N; Heryanshah, A; Wagiran, H; Said, M N

    2014-09-01

    A terrestrial gamma radiation survey for the state of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya was conducted to obtain baseline data for environmental radiological health practices. Based on soil type, geological background and information from airborne survey maps, 95 survey points statistically representing the study area were determined. The measured doses varied according to geological background and soil types. They ranged from 17 nGy h(-1) to 500 nGy h(-1). The mean terrestrial gamma dose rate in air above the ground was 182 ± 81 nGy h(-1). This is two times higher than the average dose rate of terrestrial gamma radiation in Malaysia which is 92 nGy h(-1) (UNSCEAR 2000). An isodose map was produced to represent exposure rate from natural sources of terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:24787672

  20. Attosecond Gamma-Ray Pulses via Nonlinear Compton Scattering in the Radiation-Dominated Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Xing; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Galow, Benjamin J.; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2015-11-01

    The feasibility of the generation of bright ultrashort gamma-ray pulses is demonstrated in the interaction of a relativistic electron bunch with a counterpropagating tightly focused superstrong laser beam in the radiation-dominated regime. The Compton scattering spectra of gamma radiation are investigated using a semiclassical description for the electron dynamics in the laser field and a quantum electrodynamical description for the photon emission. We demonstrate the feasibility of ultrashort gamma-ray bursts of hundreds of attoseconds and of dozens of megaelectronvolt photon energies in the near-backwards direction of the initial electron motion. The tightly focused laser field structure and the radiation reaction are shown to be responsible for such short gamma-ray bursts, which are independent of the durations of the electron bunch and of the laser pulse. The results are measurable with the laser technology available in the near future.

  1. An integrated view of gamma radiation effects on marine fauna: from molecules to ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Dahms, Hans-U; Kumar, K Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-11-01

    Accidental release of nuclides into the ocean is causing health risks to marine organisms and humans. All life forms are susceptible to gamma radiation with a high variation, depending on various physical factors such as dose, mode, and time of exposure and various biological factors such as species, vitality, age, and gender. Differences in sensitivity of gamma radiation are also associated with different efficiencies of mechanisms related to protection and repair systems. Gamma radiation may also affect various other integration levels: from gene, protein, cells and organs, population, and communities, disturbing the energy flow of food webs that will ultimately affect the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Depending on exposure levels, gamma radiation induces damages on growth and reproduction in various organisms such as zooplankton, benthos, and fish in aquatic ecosystems. In this paper, harmful effects of gamma-irradiated aquatic organisms are described and the potential of marine copepods in assessing the risk of gamma radiation is discussed with respect to physiological adverse effects that even affect the ecosystem level. PMID:25382502

  2. Upregulation of des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin after portal vein embolization in a cirrhotic patient with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sohda, Tetsuro; Iwata, Kaoru; Anan, Akira; Kunimoto, Hideo; Yotsumoto, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Keiji; Morihara, Daisuke; Takeyama, Yasuaki; Shakado, Satoshi; Osame, Akinobu; Kora, Shinichi; Ohishi, Jun; Yamauchi, Yasushi; Noritomi, Tomoaki; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Yamashita, Yuichi; Sakisaka, Shotaro

    2015-10-01

    A 73-year-old female with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) received percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (PTPE) before extensive right lobe hepatectomy. Serum levels of des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP) were increased and remained at a high level until hepatectomy. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that an increased expression of DCP was demonstrated not only in HCC tissues, but also in the non-cancerous liver of the right lobe, where portal blood flow was blocked off as a result of PTPE. The serum level of DCP is known to be greatly increased in patients with HCC accompanied by portal vein invasion. We speculate that this increased DCP level is caused by both increased DCP production in HCC tissue and the surrounding non-cancerous liver, where portal flow is blocked off as a result of portal invasion by HCC. PMID:26374567

  3. Comments on radiation sterilization in the UK and on the efficient operation of a gamma plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohnsdorff, R. S. M.

    Some general comments are made on the use of gamma radiation for the sterilisation of medical products in the UK. The radiation process is deceptively simple but successful operation requires careful study of detail. A computer has been programmed to study the arrangement of radio-active source rods. Optimisation of the source can improve dose uniformity and process efficiency.

  4. Mold and aflatoxin reduction by gamma radiation of packed hot peppers and their evolution during storage.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Qumer; Amjad, Muhammad; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Ariño, Agustin

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on moisture content, total mold counts, Aspergillus counts, and aflatoxins of three hot pepper hybrids (Sky Red, Maha, and Wonder King) was investigated. Whole dried peppers packed in polyethylene bags were gamma irradiated at 0 (control), 2, 4, and 6 kGy and stored at 25°C for 90 days. Gamma radiation proved to be effective in reducing total mold and Aspergillus counts in a dose-dependent relationship. Total mold counts in irradiated peppers immediately after treatments were significantly lowered compared with those in nonirradiated samples, achieving 90 and 99% reduction at 2- and 4-kGy doses, respectively. Aspergillus counts were significantly reduced, by 93 and 97%, immediately after irradiation at doses of 2 and 4 kGy, respectively. A radiation dose of 6 kGy completely eliminated the population of total molds and Aspergillus fungi. The evolution of total molds in control and irradiated samples indicated no further fungal proliferation during 3 months of storage at 25°C. Aflatoxin levels were slightly affected by radiation doses of 2 and 4 kGy and showed a nonsignificant reduction of 6% at the highest radiation dose of 6 kGy. The distinct effectiveness of gamma radiation in molds and aflatoxins can be explained by the target theory of food irradiation, which states that the likelihood of a microorganism or a molecule being inactivated by gamma rays increases as its size increases. PMID:22856582

  5. RecBC enzyme overproduction affects UV and gamma radiation survival of Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Nivedita P; Kamble, Vidya A; Misra, Hari S

    2008-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans recovering from the effect of acute dose of gamma (gamma) radiation shows a biphasic mechanism of DNA double strands breaks repair that involves an efficient homologous recombination. However, it shows higher sensitivity to near-UV (NUV) than Escherichia coli and lacks RecBC, a DNA strand break (DSB) repair enzyme in some bacteria. Recombinant Deinococcus expressing the recBC genes of E. coli showed nearly three-fold improvements in near-UV tolerance and nearly 2 log cycle reductions in wild type gamma radiation resistance. RecBC over expression effect on radiation response of D. radiodurans was independent of indigenous RecD. Loss of gamma radiation tolerance was attributed to the enhanced rate of in vivo degradation of radiation damaged DNA and delayed kinetics of DSB repair during post-irradiation recovery. RecBC expressing cells of Deinococcus showed wild type response to Far-UV. These results suggest that the overproduction of RecBC competes with the indigenous mechanism of gamma radiation damaged DNA repair while it supports near-UV tolerance in D. radiodurans. PMID:17720630

  6. Distribution of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in the eastern coastal area of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Prasad, G; Omori, Y; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S; Ramola, R C

    2012-11-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation is one of the important radiation exposures on the earth's surface that results from the three primordial radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The elemental concentration of these elements in the earth's crust could result in the anomalous variation of the terrestrial gamma radiation in the environment. The geology of the local area plays an important role in distribution of these radioactive elements. Environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured around the eastern coastal area of Odisha with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level. The values of the terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate vary significantly at different locations in the study area. The values of the terrestrial gamma dose rate ranged from 77 to 1651 nGy h(-1), with an average of 230 nGy h(-1). During the measurement of the terrestrial gamma dose rate, sand and soil samples were also collected for the assessment of natural radionuclides. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K from these samples were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry with a NaI(Tl) detector. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K ranged from 15.6 to 69 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 46.7 Bq kg(-1), from 28.9 to 973 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 250 Bq kg(-1) and from 139 to 952 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 429, respectively. The detailed significance of these studies has been discussed from the radiation protection point of view. PMID:22874894

  7. Repair effects of exogenous SOD on Bacillus subtilis against gamma radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, E; Fang, Liu; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhu, Jie; He, Wei; Luo, Xuegang

    2013-12-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that removes free radicals from cells in many organisms. In order to further characterize these repair effects and their mechanism when subjected to radiation, Bacillus subtilis cells were exposed to gamma radiation and the cell survival rate, intracellular SOD activity, and DNA double-strand breakage were investigated. Vegetative cells of B. subtilis were irradiated by (60)Co gamma radiation at varying doses and subsequently exposed to varying levels of exogenous SOD. Standard plate-count, xanthine oxidase, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methods were employed to investigate the repair effects. The results showed that the exogenous SOD could significantly improve cell survival rate and intracellular SOD activity after gamma radiation. The cell survival rate was elevated 30-87 times above levels observed in control samples. Adding exogenous SOD into gamma irradiated cells may dramatically increase intracellular SOD activity (p < 0.01), while percentage of DNA release (PR) values may decrease significantly when cells are treated with SOD. The repair effects were observed to vary with the gamma radiation dose and SOD concentration. These findings suggest that exogenous SOD may have the ability to repair vegetative B. subtilis cell damage after irradiated by gamma radiation. DNA strand scission may also be prevented by addition of SOD. This research contributes to better understanding of protection from the effects of free radicals and their mechanisms, an ongoing process in many organisms that involves the cellular response to gamma radiation, which occurs naturally in soil and water, as well as in unusual cases of high-dosage exposure. PMID:24096311

  8. Gamma radiation monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Miranda, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Nitschke, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of gamma radiation is often performed in nuclear facilities and industrial environments as a way to control the ambient radioactivity and give warning of potential accidents. However, gamma radiation is also ubiquitous in the natural environment. The main sources are i) cosmic radiation from space, including secondary radiation from the interaction with atoms in the atmosphere, ii) terrestrial sources from mineral grains in soils and rocks, particularly Potassium (K-40), Uranium (U-238) and Thorium (Th-232) and their decay products (e.g. Radium, Ra-226) , and iii) airborne Radon gas (Rn-222), which is the dominant source of natural environmental radioactivity. The temporal variability of this natural radiation background needs to be well understood and quantified in order to discriminate non-natural sources of radiation in the environment and artificial radionuclides contamination. To this end, continuous gamma radiation monitoring is being performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The site is unique for the study of the natural radioactivity background on one hand due to the remote oceanic geographical location, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean and clear of direct continental influence, and on the other hand because of the comprehensive dataset of atmospheric parameters that is available for enhancing the interpretation of the radiation measurements, as a result of the vast array of very detailed and high-quality atmospheric measurements performed at the ARM-ENA facility. Gamma radiation in the range 475 KeV to 3000 KeV is measured continuously with a 3" x 3" NaI(Tl) scintillator. The campaign started started in May 2015, with gamma

  9. Reflectivity of linear and nonlinear gamma radiated apodized chirped Bragg grating under ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdalla, Taymour A.

    2012-09-06

    In this paper, the effect Co{sup 60} gamma radiation is investigated on the effective refractive index of apodized chirped Bragg grating. Nine apodization profiles are considered. Comparison between the reflectivity of the gamma radiated and non radiated fiber Bragg grating has been carried out. The electric field of signals propagating through the apodized chirped fiber Bragg grating (ACFBG) is first calculated from which, new values for the refractive index are determined. The nonlinear effects appear on the ACFBG reflectivity. The effect of nonlinearity and undersea temperature and pressure on the grating is also studied.

  10. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING AND ANALYZING POLARIZED GAMMA RADIATION

    DOEpatents

    Hamermesh, M.; Hanna, S.S.; Perlow, G.J.

    1964-04-21

    A method of polarizing and resolving the plane of polarization of gamma rays is described. Polarization is produced by positioning a thin disc of ferromagnetic metal, cortaining /sup 57/Co, in a magnetic field. Resolution is accomplished by rotating a thin disc of iron enriched in /sup 57/Fe relative to a second magnetic field and noting the change of gamma absorption at each rotational position. (AEC)

  11. Comparison of the effects of gamma radiation on hydrated and air dried rye grass seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, M.

    1988-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the effects of gamma radiation on the growth of hydrated and air dried seeds during the first weeks of primary growth. Four groups of seeds were used in the study: 1) hydrated sweet corn, 2) air dried sweet corn, 3) hydrated rye grass, and 4) air dried rye grass. Each group was then further subdivided and exposed to various levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 irradiator, except for the control samples of the four groups which received no radiation above background level. All seeds samples were then planted, allowed to grow for approximately 12 days, and harvested. Growth of both shoot and root of each seed was recorded for data analysis according to specific groups. Analyses of data from this study shows that the mean growth of air dried seeds when exposed to gamma radiation prior to planting.

  12. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl/sub 2/ solutions and MgCl/sub 2/ hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180/sup 0/C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H/sub 2/ (G(H/sub 2/)) and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H/sub 2/) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143/sup 0/C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45/sup 0/C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl/sub 2/ and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O/sub 2/ into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H/sub 2/ was present as O/sub 2/. We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H/sub 2/ from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85/sup 0/C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143/sup 0/C and 30 to 45/sup 0/C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. The values found in this work for G(H/sub 2/) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H/sub 2/ in pure H/sub 2/O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H/sub 2/) in 2 M NaCl solutions

  13. Galactic plane gamma radiation. [SAS-2 and COS-b observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Ogelman, H. B.; Tuner, T.; Ozel, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the complete data from SAS-2 accentuates the fact that the distribution of galactic gamma radiation has several similarities to that of other large-scale tracers of galactic structure. The gamma radiation shows no statistically significant variation with direction, and the spectrum seen along the plane is the same as that derived for the galactic component of the gamma radiation at high latitude. This uniformity of the energy spectrum, the smooth decrease in intensity as a function of galactic latitude, and the absence of any galactic gamma ray sources at high latitudes argue in favor of a diffuse origin for most of the galactic gamma radiation, rather than a collection of localized sources. All the localized sources identified in the SAS 2 data are associated with known compact objects on the basis of observed periodicities, except gamma195+5 Excluding those SAS 2 sources observed by COS-B and two other excesses (CG 312-1 and CG333+0) visible in the SAS 2 data associated with tangential directions of spiral arms, thera are eight remaining new sources in the COS-B catalog.

  14. What is the radiative process of the prompt phase of Gamma Ray Bursts?

    SciTech Connect

    Ghisellini, G.

    2010-07-15

    Despite the dramatic improvement of our knowledge of the phenomenology of Gamma Ray Bursts, we still do not know several fundamental aspects of their physics. One of the puzzles concerns the nature of the radiative process originating the prompt phase radiation. Although the synchrotron process qualifies itself as a natural candidate, it faces severe problems, and many efforts have been done looking for alternatives. These, however, suffer from other problems, and there is no general consensus yet on a specific radiation mechanism.

  15. The radiation tolerance of MTP and LC optical fibre connectors to 500 kGy(Si) of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. C.; Hamilton, P.; Huffman, B. T.; Teng, P. K.; Weidberg, A. R.

    2012-04-01

    The LHC luminosity upgrade, known as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will require high-speed optical links to read out data from the detectors. The optical fibre connectors contained within such a link must have a small form factor and be capable of operating in the harsh radiation environment at the HL-LHC. MTP ribbon fibre connectors and LC single fibre connectors were exposed to 500 kGy(Si) of gamma radiation and their radiation hardness was investigated. Neither type of connector exhibited evidence for any significant radiation damage and both connectors could be qualified for use at HL-LHC detectors.

  16. Features of the flux of gamma-radiation in the lower atmosphere during precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanenko, A. V.; Balabin, Yu V.; Gvozdevsky, B. B.; Vashenyuk, E. V.

    2013-02-01

    We are carrying out observations and studies of increases of gamma radiation intensity in a ground atmosphere layer during precipitations. Measurements have been carried out in two high-altitude points: Apatity (Murmansk) and Barentsburg (Spitsbergen). Scintillation detectors on the basis of NaI(Tl) crystals are used. Continuous radiation detection is made as the count rate in integral channels with threshold values >20 keV, >100 keV. There are more than 500 events of increase in gamma-ray background during precipitation. Average profiles of X-ray radiation increases in a ground level and the related with them increases of intensity of precipitations for stations in Apatity and Barentsburg have been built up. In Apatity the average increase profile in the gamma-ray flux and accompanying with profile of precipitations rate have been obtained. A time gap between peaks of precipitation and increase one is 30-40 minutes. A barometric coefficient of each component of radiation has been calculated. The barometric coefficient has a zero value on gamma-ray. The charged component of the secondary cosmic rays has a typical value ~0.18 %/mB. The lack of the barometric effect on gamma-ray indicates on the local origin of this radiation.

  17. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the gas-discharge gamma-counters to the concomitant neutron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikalov, G. L.; Kiseev, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    In the fields of gamma-neutron radiation the accuracy measurement of gamma- ray doses depends on their sensitivity to concomitant neutron radiation. In this connection, verification results of gamma-dosimetry on the installation with isotope cobalt or cesium sources are not always adequate to measurement results in real gamma-neutron fields. The data prove, that the sensitivity coefficients of gas-discharge gamma-dosimeters at PRIZ-M reactor is 1.23 larger as compared to Co60 source, due to the effect of the concomitant neutrons on their indications. The error due to the neutrons effect can be significantly reduced or eliminated completely, if gamma-dosimeters calibrated in the field of gamma-neutron radiation, adequate spectral and dose characteristics to radiation fields in which they are used.

  18. High-energy gamma radiation from Geminga observed by EGRET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K. T. S.; Chiang, J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J. M.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kwok, P. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has carried out extensive studies of the gamma-ray source Geminga. Following the detection of pulsed X-rays (Halpern and Holt 1992) from Geminga, Bertsch et al. (1992) reported the same 237 ms periodicity to be visible in the EGRET data. A full analysis of the Geminga source shows that the energy spectrum is compatible with a power law with a spectral index of -1.50 +/- 0.08 between 30 MeV and 2 GeV. A falloff relative to the power law is observed for energies above 2 GeV. Phase-resolved spectra also show power laws with high-energy cutoffs, but with significant variation of the spectral index with phase. No unpulsed emission is observed. No evidence for time variation was found within the EGRET observations.

  19. Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N.

    2012-06-01

    In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

  20. Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N.

    2012-06-05

    In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

  1. Dipole analysis on EGRET data of extragalactic gamma ray background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying-Chi

    1990-01-01

    A dipole analysis on the EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) data seems to be one of the numerous subjects that can be investigated for the extragalactic gamma ray background radiation. By the end of the first one and half years after launch, the all-sky survey program of GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory) will be completed. The EGRET detector will cover the full sky area fairly well by that time. A set of gamma ray data suitable for dipole moment calculations will be available. Furthermore, there now exist in the literature several dipole anisotropy results calculated for optical and infrared observations on the distribution of galaxies in the full sky. The results of dipole moment analysis from gamma ray observation can be compared with those at other wavebands, and hopefully some deeper understanding can be gained on the large scale structure of the Universe.

  2. Lower Bound on the Cosmic TeV Gamma-Ray Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.

    2016-02-01

    The Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has revolutionized our understanding of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation in the GeV band. However, investigation on the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background radiation still remains sparse. Here, we report the lower bound on the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background spectrum placed by the cumulative flux of individual detected extragalactic TeV sources including blazars, radio galaxies, and starburst galaxies. The current limit on the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background above 0.1 TeV is obtained as 2.8 × 10-8(E/100 GeV)-0.55 exp(-E/2100GeV)[GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1] < E2dN/dE < 1.1 × 10-7(E/100 GeV)-0.49 [GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1], where the upper bound is set by requirement that the cascade flux from the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background radiation can not exceed the measured cosmic GeV gamma-ray background spectrum. Two nearby blazars, Mrk 421 and Mrk 501, explain ˜70% of the cumulative background flux at 0.8-4 TeV, while extreme blazars start to dominate at higher energies. We also provide the cumulative background flux from each population, i.e., blazars, radio galaxies, and starburst galaxies which will be the minimum requirement for their contribution to the cosmic TeV gamma-ray background radiation.

  3. Radiation effects on amberlite IRA-938 and bio-rad AG MP-50 ion exchange resins. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Killion, M.E.

    1982-01-15

    The radiation stability of Amberlite IRA-938, an anion exchange resin, and Bio-Rad AG MP-50, a cation exchange resin, was investigated. The resins were gamma irradiated and analyzed for exchange capacity, gas generation, thermal stability, and plutonium capacity. The radiation stabilities were comparable to those of Dowex 11 and Dowex 50W-X8, the resins presently used in Rocky Flats recovery operations.

  4. Gamma radiation exposure of accompanying persons due to Lu-177 patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovan, Bilal; Demir, Bayram; Tuncman, Duygu; Capali, Veli; Turkmen, Cuneyt

    2015-07-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are cancers usually observed and arisen in the stomach, intestine, pancreas and breathing system. Recently, radionuclide therapy applications with Lu-177 peptide compound are rapidly growing; especially effective clinical results are obtained in the treatment of well-differentiated and metastatic NET. In this treatment, Lu-177-DOTA, a beta emitter radioisotope in the radiopharmaceutical form, is given to the patient by intravenous way. Lu-177 has also gamma rays apart from beta rays. Gamma rays have 175 keV average energy and these gamma rays should be under the control in terms of radiation protection. In this study, we measured the exposure dose from the Lu-177 patient.

  5. Gamma-radiation induced changes in the physical and chemical properties of lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ferdous; Ahmad, S R; Kronfli, E

    2006-08-01

    gamma-radiation induced effects on the physical and chemical properties of natural lignocellulose (jute) polymer were investigated. Samples were irradiated to required total doses at a particular dose rate. The changes in the parameters such as the tensile strength, elongation at break, and work done at rupture for the lignocellulose samples on irradiation with the gamma-rays from a cobalt-60 source were measured. The mechanical properties were found to have nonlinear relations with the radiation doses. The chemical stability of irradiated fibers was found to degrade progressively with the increase of radiation dose. Additionally, other chemical changes of the samples due to exposure to high-energy radiation were also investigated using fluorescence and infrared spectroscopic analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric studies showed a significant reduction in thermal stability. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction study showed that structural changes of cellulose appeared due to the radiation-induced chemical reaction of lignocellulose. PMID:16903675

  6. SAS-2 observations of the high energy gamma radiation from the Vela region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Data from a scan of the galactic plane by the SAS-B high energy gamma ray experiment in the region 250 deg smaller than 12 smaller than 290 deg show a statistically significant excess over the general radiation from the galactic plane for gamma radiation of energy larger than 100 MeV. If the enhanced gamma radiation results from interactions of cosmic rays with galactic matter, as the energy spectrum suggests, it seems reasonable to associate the enhancement with large scale galactic features, such as spiral arm segments in that direction, or with the region surrounding the Vela supernova remnant with which PSR 0833-45 is associated. If the excess is attributed to cosmic rays released from the supernova interacting with the interstellar matter in that region, than on the order of 3 x 10 to the 50th power ergs would have been released by that supernova in the form of cosmic rays.

  7. Secondary production of neutral pi-mesons and the diffuse galactic gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Isobaric and scaling model predictions of the secondary spectra of neutral pi-mesons produced in proton-proton collisions, at energies between threshold and a few GeV, are compared on the basis of accelerator data and found to show the isobaric model to be superior. This model is accordingly used, in conjuction with a scaling model representation at high energies, in a recalculation of the pi exp (0) gamma-radiation's contribution to the diffuse galactic gamma background; the cosmic ray-induced production of photons (whose energy exceeds 100 MeV) by such radiation occurs at a rate of 1.53 x 10 to the -25 photons/(s-H atom). These results are compared with previous calculations of this process as well as with COS-B observations of the diffuse galactic gamma-radiation.

  8. (Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high {Tc} superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect.

  9. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. Effective gamma-ray doses due to natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Medina, N. H.; Moreira, R. H.; Bellini, B. S.; Aguiar, V. A. P.

    2010-08-01

    We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to study the distribution of natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil: Billings reservoir, Sa~o Bernardo do Campo Parks, Diadema Parks, Interlagos region, Sa~o Paulo, and soil from Sa~o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro beaches. In most of the regions studied we have found that the dose due the external exposure to gamma-rays, proceeding from natural terrestrial elements, are between the values 0.3 and 0.6 mSv/year, established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

  11. Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 by using the synergistic effect of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, U D; Govindarajan, P; Dave, P J

    1989-01-01

    Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 was studied by using gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide. A 100-krad dose of gamma radiation was sufficient to inactivate 50 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of 5% hydrogen peroxide, and 400 krad was required for total degradation of 100 micrograms of aflatoxin in the same system. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 was confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. Ames microsomal mutagenicity test showed loss of aflatoxin activity. This method of detoxification also reduces the toxin levels effectively in artificially contaminated groundnuts. Images PMID:2497710

  12. Effective gamma-ray doses due to natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Moreira, R. H.; Bellini, B. S.; Medina, N. H.; Aguiar, V. A. P.

    2010-08-04

    We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to study the distribution of natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil: Billings reservoir, Sao Bernardo do Campo Parks, Diadema Parks, Interlagos region, Sao Paulo, and soil from Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro beaches. In most of the regions studied we have found that the dose due the external exposure to gamma-rays, proceeding from natural terrestrial elements, are between the values 0.3 and 0.6 mSv/year, established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

  13. Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

    2013-02-12

    A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

  14. Gamma evaluation combined with isocenter optimal matching in intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Jino; Choi, Jin Hwa; Park, Suk Won; Park, Kwangwoo; Park, Sungho

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) dose comparisons are widely performed by using a gamma evaluation with patient-specific intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) or dose delivery quality assurance (DQA). In this way, a pass/fail determination is made for a particular treatment plan. When gamma evaluation results are close to the failure criterion, the pass/fail decision may change applying a small shift to the center of the 2D dose distribution. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the meaning of such a small relative shift in a 2D dose distribution comparison. In addition, we propose the use of a small shift for a pass/fail criterion in gamma analysis, where the concept of isocenter optimal matching (IOM) is applied to IMRT QA of 20 patients. Gamma evaluations were performed to compare two dose distributions, one with and the other without IOM. In-house software was developed in C++ in order to find IOM values including both translational and rotational shifts. Upon gamma evaluation failure, further investigation was initiated using IOM. In this way, three groups were categorized: group 1 for `pass' on gamma evaluation, group 21 for `fail' on the gamma evaluation and `pass' on the gamma the evaluation with IOM, and group 22 for `fail' on the both gamma evaluations and the IOM calculation. IOM results revealed that some failures could be considered as a `pass'. In group 21, 88.98% (fail) of the averaged gamma pass rate changed to 90.45% (pass) when IOM was applied. On average, a ratio of γ ≥ 1 was reduced by 11.06% in 20 patients. We propose that gamma evaluations that do not pass with a rate of 85% to 90% may be augmented with IOM to reveal a potential pass result.

  15. Measurement of gamma and neutron radiations inside spent fuel assemblies with passive detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Voljanskij, A.; Klupák, V.; Koleška, M.; Cabalka, M.; Turek, K.

    2011-10-01

    During operation of a fission nuclear reactor, many radionuclides are generated in fuel by fission and activation of 235U, 238U and other nuclides present in the assembly. After removal of a fuel assembly from the core, these radionuclides are sources of different types of radiation. Gamma and neutron radiation emitted from an assembly can be non-destructively detected with different types of detectors. In this paper, a new method of measurement of radiation from a spent fuel assembly is presented. It is based on usage of passive detectors, such as alanine dosimeters for gamma radiation and track detectors for neutron radiation. Measurements are made on the IRT-2M spent fuel assemblies used in the LVR-15 research reactor. During irradiation of detectors, the fuel assembly is located in a water storage pool at a depth of 6 m. Detectors are inserted into central hole of the assembly, irradiated for a defined time interval, and after the detectors removed from the assembly, gamma dose or neutron fluence are evaluated. Measured profiles of gamma dose rate and neutron fluence rate inside of the spent fuel assembly are presented. This measurement can be used to evaluate relative fuel burn-up.

  16. Gamma radiation and photospheric white-light flare continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Dwivedi, B. N.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that recent gamma-ray observations of solar flares have provided a better means for estimating the heating of the solar atmosphere by energetic protons. This type of heating has been suggested as the explanation of the continuum emission of the white-light flare. The effects on the photosphere of high-energy particles capable of producing the intense gamma-ray emission observed in the flare of July 11, 1978, are analyzed. A simple energy-balance argument is used, and hydrogen ionization is taken into account. It is found that energy deposition increases with height for the inferred proton spectra and is not strongly dependent upon the assumed angle of incidence. At the top of the photosphere, the computed energy inputs fall in the range 10-100 ergs/cu cm-s.

  17. Microwave and gamma radiation observations of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Njoku, E. G.; Peck, E.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1979-01-01

    The unique dielectric properties of water at microwave wavelengths afford the possibility for remotely sensing the moisture content in the surface layer of the soil. The surface emissivity and reflectivity for the soils at these wavelengths are strong functions of its moisture content. The changes in emissivity can be observed by passive microwave techniques (radiometry) and the change in reflectivity can be observed by active microwave techniques (radar). The difference in the natural terrestrial gamma ray flux measured for wet and dry soil may be used to determine soil moisture. The presence of water moisture in the soil causes an effective increase in soil density, resulting in an increased attenuation of the gamma flux for wet soil and a corresponding lower flux above the ground surface.

  18. Radiation detection system for portable gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2006-06-20

    A portable gamma ray detection apparatus having a gamma ray detector encapsulated by a compact isolation structure having at least two volumetrically-nested enclosures where at least one is a thermal shield. The enclosures are suspension-mounted to each other to successively encapsulate the detector without structural penetrations through the thermal shields. A low power cooler is also provided capable of cooling the detector to cryogenic temperatures without consuming cryogens, due to the heat load reduction by the isolation structure and the reduction in the power requirements of the cooler. The apparatus also includes a lightweight portable power source for supplying power to the apparatus, including to the cooler and the processing means, and reducing the weight of the apparatus to enable handheld operation or toting on a user's person.

  19. Measurement of gamma radiation levels in soil samples from Thanjavur using gamma-ray spectrometry and estimation of population exposure.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, B; Dhavamani, V; Ramkumar, S; Philominathan, P

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclides (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in 10 soil samples collected from Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu, India) using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity profile of radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low level activity in Thanjavur. The geometric mean activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K is 42.9+/-9.4 Bq.kg(-1), 14.7+/-1.7 Bq.kg(-1) and 149.5+/-3.1 Bq.kg(-1) respectively are derived from all the soil samples studied. The activity concentration of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in soil is due to the presence of metamorphic rocks like shale, hornblende-biotite gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss in these areas. Gamma absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range between 32 nGy.h(-1) and 59.1 nGy.h(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 43.3 +/-9 nGy.h(-1). This value is lesser than the population weighted world-averaged of 60 nGy.h(-1). Inhabitants of Thanjavur are subjected to external gamma radiation exposure (effective dose) ranging between 39.2 and 72.6 muSv.y(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 53.1+/-11 muSv.y(-1). The values of the external hazard index determined from the soil radioactivity of the study area are less than the recommended safe levels. PMID:20177570

  20. A biotechnological project with a gamma radiation source of 100,000 Ci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, J. H.; Smolko, E. E.

    A project for the production of radiovaccines and other bio-medical products is presented which includes a radiation facility provided with a gamma ray source equivalent to 100,000 Ci of Co-60. The whole process incorporates novel basic features in virus production and inactivation steps. The former is carried out in animals previously subjected to immunodepression through electromagnetic radiation. The later is obtained at low temperatures by using either electromagnetic or particle radiations. A vaccine manufacture process is shown to illustrate the utilization of ionizing radiations to obtain a foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine with good antigenic quality and low cost.

  1. Aberrant megakaryocytopoiesis preceding radiation-induced leukemia in the dog. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Cullen, S.M.; Poole, C.M.; Fritz, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Six of nine decedent beagles exposed continuously to 2.5 R*/22 hour day of whole-body 60Co gamma-radiation died with myeloproliferative diseases: three cases of myelogenous leukemia and one each of monocytic leukemia, erythroleukemia, and erythremic myelosis. The three dogs that died with myelogenous leukemia had micromegakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts in the peripheral blood during the preleukemic phase when myeloblasts were not observed in the peripheral blood or in increased numbers in the bone marrow. In this study we have examined the megakaryocytes during the preleukemic period by a combination of light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. Morphologic abnormalities seen by light microscopy included mononucleated and binucleated forms, many with cytoplasmic blebs. The small mononuclear forms in the bone marrow tended to form clusters. Ultrastructural features included a paucity of both specific alpha granules and dense granules. The micromegakaryocytes showed dysgenesis of the demarcation membrane system. This membrane system appeared disorganized with a few dilated round, oval, or rarely, elongated vesicles and showed no evidence of platelet formation. The cells also had a paucity of endoplasmic reticulum, few mitochrondria, and sparse glycogen accumulations. The scarcity of cytoplasmic organelles gave a pale immature appearance to the cytoplasm. By scanning electron microscopy, the sponge-like surface of large mature megakaryocytes from unirradiated marrow contrasted with the characteristically smooth, topographically featureless surfaces of the micromegakaryocytes from preleukemic dogs.

  2. Aberrant megakaryocytopoiesis preceding radiation-induced leukemia in the dog. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Cullen, S.M.; Poole, C.M.; Fritz, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Six of nine decedent beagles exposed continuously to 2.5 R/22 hour day of whole-body /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-radiation died with myeloproliferative diseases: three cases of myelogenous leukemia and one each of monocytic leukemia, erythroleukemia, and erythremic myelosis. The three dogs that died with myelogenous leukemia had micromegakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts in the peripheral blood during the preleukemic phase when myeloblasts were not observed in the peripheral blood or in increased numbers in the bone marrow. In this study we have examined the megakaryocytes during the preleukemic period by a combination of light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. Morphologic abnormalities seen by light microscopy included mononucleated and binucleated forms, many with cytoplasmic blebs. The small mononuclear forms in the bone marrow tended to form clusters. Ultrastructural features included a paucity of both specific ..cap alpha.. granules and dense granules. The micromegakaryocytes showed dysgenesis of the demarcation membrane system. This membrane system appeared disorganized with a few dilated round, oval, or rarely, elongated vesicles and showed no evidence of platelet formation. The cells also had a paucity of endoplasmic reticulum, few mitochrondria, and sparse glycogen accumulations. The scarcity of cytoplasmic organelles gave a pale immature appearance to the cytoplasm. By scanning electron microscopy, the sponge-like surface of large mature megakaryocytes from unirradiated marrow contrasted with the characteristically smooth, topographically featureless surfaces of the micromegakaryocytes from preleukemic dogs.

  3. Stability of a salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) to electron beam and gamma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Lavelle, Linda; Bodnar, Stanko; Halperin, Frederick; Harper, Ike; Griffin, Jeremy; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electron beam and gamma radiation on the physicochemical properties of a salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) was studied by exposing polymers to 0 (control), 25 and 50 kGy. After radiation exposure, salicylic acid release in vitro was monitored to assess any changes in drug release profiles. Molecular weight, glass transition temperature and decomposition temperature were evaluated for polymer chain scission and/or crosslinking as well as changes in thermal properties. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies were also used to determine polymer degradation and/or chain scission. In vitro cell studies were performed to identify cytocompatibility following radiation exposure. These studies demonstrate that the physicochemical properties of the polymer are not substantially affected by exposure to electron beam and gamma radiation. PMID:21909173

  4. Attenuation of VHE Gamma Rays by the Milky Way Interstellar Radiation Field

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.; Strong, Andrew W.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE

    2006-04-19

    The attenuation of very high energy gamma rays by pair production on the Galactic interstellar radiation field has long been thought of as negligible. However, a new calculation of the interstellar radiation field consistent with multi-wavelength observations by DIRBE and FIRAS indicates that the energy density of the Galactic interstellar radiation field is higher, particularly in the Galactic center, than previously thought. We have made a calculation of the attenuation of very high energy gamma rays in the Galaxy using this new interstellar radiation field which takes into account its nonuniform spatial and angular distributions. We find that the maximum attenuation occurs around 100 TeV at the level of about 25% for sources located at the Galactic center, and is important for both Galactic and extragalactic sources.

  5. Immunotherapy of acute radiation syndromes with antiradiation gamma G globulin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Casey, Rachael; Jones, Jeffrey; Kedar, Prasad

    Introduction: If an immunotherapy treatment approach to treatment of acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed; consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants- SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of antiradiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-indeced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic and enterotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties that combined with the direct physiochemical direct radiation damage, induce the development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and observed that their toxic properties were neutralized by specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: Rabbits were inoculated with SRD radiation toxins to induce hyperimmune serum. The hyperimmune serum was pooled from several animals, purified, and concentrated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the hyperimmune serum revealed high titers of IgG with specific binding to radiation toxins. The antiradiation IgG preparation was injected into laboratory animals one hour before and three hours after irradiation, and was evaluated for its ability to protect inoculated animals against the development of acute radiation syndromes. Results: Animals that were inoculated with specific antiradiation antibodies before receiving lethal irradiation at LD 100/30 exhibited 60-75% survival rate at 30 days, whereas all control animals expired by 30 days following exposure. These inoculated animals also exhibited markedly reduced clinical symptoms of ARS, even those that did not survive irradiation. Discussion: The results of our experiments demonstrate that rabbit hyperimmune serum directed against SRD toxins afford significant, albeit

  6. Papain incorporated chitin dressings for wound debridement sterilized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Rita

    2012-11-01

    Wound debridement is essential for the removal of necrotic or nonviable tissue from the wound surface to create an environment conducive to healing. Nonsurgical enzymatic debridement is an attractive method due to its effectiveness and ease of use. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme derived from the fruit of Carica papaya and is capable of breaking down a variety of necrotic tissue substrates. The present study was focused on the use of gamma radiation for sterilization of papain dressing with wound debriding activity. Membranes with papain were prepared using 0.5% chitin in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide solvent and sterilized by gamma radiation. Fluid absorption capacity of chitin-papain membranes without glycerol was 14.30±6.57% in 6 h. Incorporation of glycerol resulted in significant (p<0.001) increase in the absorption capacity. Moisture vapour transmission rate of the membranes was 4285.77±455.61 g/m2/24 h at 24 h. Gamma irradiation at 25 kGy was found suitable for sterilization of the dressings. Infrared (IR) spectral scanning has shown that papain was stable on gamma irradiation at 25-35 kGy. The irradiated chitin-papain membranes were impermeable to different bacterial strains and also exhibited strong bactericidal action against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluid handling characteristics and the antimicrobial properties of chitin-papain membranes sterilized by gamma radiation were found suitable for use as wound dressing with debriding activity.

  7. Influence of gamma-radiation on the nutritional and functional qualities of lotus seed flour.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Sridhar, Kandikere Ramaiah; Karim, Alias A; Young, Chiu C; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha B

    2009-10-28

    In the present study, we investigated the physicochemical and functional properties of lotus seed flour exposed to low and high doses of gamma-radiation (0-30 kGy; the dose recommended for quarantine and hygienic purposes). The results indicated raw seed flour to be rich in nutrients with minimal quantities of antinutritional factors. Irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent increase in some of the proximal constituents. The raw and gamma-irradiated seeds meet the Food and Agricultural Organization-World Health Organization recommended pattern of essential amino acids. Some of the antinutritional factors (phytic acid, total phenolics, and tannins) were lowered with gamma-irradiation, while the seed flours were devoid of lectins, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and polonium-210. The functional properties of the seed flour were significantly improved with gamma-radiation. gamma-radiation selectively preserved or improved the desired nutritional and functional traits of lotus seeds, thus ensuring a safe production of appropriate nutraceutically valued products. PMID:19778060

  8. Radiation studies of optical interferometric modulators with fast neutrons and high energy gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, T.; Radeka, V. ); Bulmer, C.H.; Burns, W.K. )

    1991-11-01

    The possibility of using Ti : LiNbO{sub 3} and single mode fibers for nuclear particle detection and transmission in large-scale machines, such as Superconducting Super Collider, calls for a detailed radiation damage study. In this report, we present radiation studies on Ti : LiNbO{sub 3} Mach-Zehnder interferometric optical modulators with fast neutrons and high energy Gamma-rays.

  9. Solid state sensor for locating and imaging sources of gamma and x-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G.J.; Bechtel, E.

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes the design and characterization of a directional Solid State Detector (SSD) that generates images of radiation point sources and scatter patterns from irradiated targets, thus accurately identifying their locations. Previous papers demonstrated that other types of directional radiation sensors, such as Ionization Chambers, Geiger-Mueller and Scintillation Counters, can be designed to detect and locate arrays of gamma ray and x-ray point sources and broad scatter patterns.

  10. Radiation effect on silicon transistors in mixed neutrons-gamma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, J.; Shweikani, R.; Ghazi, N.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gamma and neutron irradiations on two different types of transistors, Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) and Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), were investigated. Irradiation was performed using a Syrian research reactor (RR) (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR)) and a gamma source (Co-60 cell). For RR irradiation, MCNP code was used to calculate the absorbed dose received by the transistors. The experimental results showed an overall decrease in the gain factors of the transistors after irradiation, and the JFETs were more resistant to the effects of radiation than BJTs. The effect of RR irradiation was also greater than that of gamma source for the same dose, which could be because neutrons could cause more damage than gamma irradiation.

  11. Orbital Observatory GLAST - New Step in the Study of Cosmic Gamma Radiation: Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a overview of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), now named Fermi Space Telescope. The new telescope is scheduled for launch in the middle of 2008. It contains the high energy gamma-ray telescope LAT (Large Area Telescope) and the GMB (GLAST Burst Monitor). The science objectives of GLAST cover almost every area of high energy astrophysics, including Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), including Extragalactic background light (EBL), Gamma-ray bursts (GRB), Pulsars, Diffuse gamma-radiation, EGRET unidentified sources, Solar physics, Origin of Cosmic Rays and, Dark Matter and New Physics. Also included in this overview is a discussion of the preparation to the analysis of the science data.

  12. Thermal analysis evaluation of mechanical properties changes promoted by gamma radiation on surgical polymeric textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. M.; Casimiro, M. H.; Oliveira, C.; Cabeço Silva, M. E.; Marques Abreu, M. J.; Coelho, A.

    2002-05-01

    The large number of surgical operations with post-operative infection problems and the appearing of new infectious diseases, contribute to the development of new materials in order to answer the needs of health care services. This development must take into account the modifications promoted by sterilisation methods in materials, namely by gamma radiation. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA) techniques show that a nonwoven and a laminate textiles maintain a good molecular cohesion, do not showing high levels of degradation, for gamma radiation dose values lower than 100 kGy in nonwoven and 200 kGy in laminate materials. The tensile strength and the elongation decrease slowly for the nonwoven textile and decrease faster for the laminate textile for 25 and 80 kGy absorbed dose. This paper shows that the DSC and TGA techniques can be helpful for the prevision of mechanical changes occurred in the materials as a consequence of the gamma irradiation.

  13. Measuring the activity of a 51Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 51Cr is presented.

  14. New Spherical Gamma-Ray and Neutron Emitting Sources for Testing of Radiation Detection Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, L.; Pibida, L.

    2009-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed new gamma-ray and neutron emitting sources for testing radiation detection systems. These radioactive sources were developed for testing of detection systems in maritime applications. This required special source characteristics.

  15. Comparison of antibodies raised against heat-and gamma radiation-killed bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For antibody generation, pathogenic bacteria are often heat-treated prior to inoculation into host animals in order to prevent infection and subsequently, premature death of the host. Inoculation of host rabbits with gamma radiation-killed pathogenic bacteria was employed with the hopes of generati...

  16. Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The effects of (GAMMA) radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and carbohydrates) are discussed. Evaluation of preliminary results indicate that changes should be made in irradiation procedures/conditions and analyses.

  17. Use of gamma radiation as a form of preservation of sweet potatoes. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This progress report covers: harvest and conditioning following harvest; effects of ..gamma.. radiation on the sweet potato weevil, organoleptic properties of sweet potatoes, protein content of same, and sweet potato quality (vitamins, color, texture, and carbohydrates). Evaluation of preliminary results indicate that changes should be made in irradiation procedures/conditions and analyses. (DLC)

  18. Gamma radiation inactivation of non-0157:H7 shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli in foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-O157:H7 serovars of shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli are emerging foodborne pathogens that have been associated with illness outbreaks and food product recalls on a global basis. Ionizing (gamma) radiation is a nonthermal food safety intervention technology that has been approved for use i...

  19. Inactivation of foodborne pathogens on crawfish tail meat using cryogenic freezing and gamma radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including crawfish. Cryogenic freezing and gamma radiation are two technologies which can be used to improve the microbiological safety and shelf-life of foods. In the U.S. the majority of non-c...

  20. MICRONUCLEI IN BINUCLEATED LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO GAMMA RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were designed to investigate the induction of micronuclei (MN) in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) after in vitro or in vivo exposure to 60Co gamma radiation. or the in vitro experiments, 4 ml of blood from male C57BL/6J mice were either irradiated in 6 ml Fa...

  1. Short-lived variations in the background gamma-radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J L; Croudace, I W; Warwick, P E

    2010-09-01

    Sudden increases in the background gamma-radiation dose may occur due to the removal of (222)Rn and (220)Rn progeny from the atmosphere by wet deposition mechanisms. This contribution has been measured using a Geiger-Muller detector at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (Aldermaston, UK) during July 2005-April 2006. The results are approximated by a log-normal distribution and there were nine separate occurrences of the gamma-radiation dose exceeding 125% of the geometric mean value. The increases were associated with periods of heavy rainfall, although no correlation was evident between the dose rate and the amount of rainfall, as increased rainfall dilutes the activity further rather than increasing its atmospheric removal. The events were preceded by periods of fine weather and atmospheric stability that allow for the build-up of (222)Rn and (220)Rn progeny. Similar increases in gamma-radiation dose have been measured at a nearby monitoring station situated approximately 11 miles from Aldermaston. Increases in gamma-radiation dose during heavy rainfall have also been observed throughout the UK, that followed the trajectory of an air mass. All events decreased to typical values within 1-2 h as the water permeated into the ground below and the radioactivity decayed away. PMID:20826890

  2. Radiation measurement above the lunar surface by Kaguya gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Kusano, Hiroki; Hareyama, Matoko; Ideguchi, Yusuke; Shimizu, Sota; Shibamura, Eido

    The lunar surface is filled with various ionizing radiations such as high energy galactic particles, albedo particles and secondary radiations of neutrons, gamma rays and other elementary particles. A high-resolution Kaguya Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (KGRS) was carried on the Japan’s lunar explorer SELENE (Kaguya), the largest lunar orbiter since the Apollo missions. The KGRS instrument employed, for the first time in lunar exploration, a high-purity Ge crystal to increase the identification capability of elemental gamma-ray lines. The Ge detector is surrounded by BGO and plastic counters as for anticoincidence shields. The KGRS measured gamma rays in the energy range from 200 keV to 13 MeV with high precision to determine the chemical composition of the lunar surface. It provided data on the abundance of major elements over the entire lunar surface. In addition to the gamma-ray observation by the KGRS, it successfully measured the global distribution of fast neutrons. In the energy spectra of gamma-rays observed by the KGRS, several saw-tooth- peaks of Ge are included, which are formed by the collision interaction of lunar fast neutrons with Ge atoms in the Ge crystal. With these saw-tooth-peaks analysis, global distribution of neutrons emitted from the lunara surface was successfully created, which was compared with the previous results obtained by Lunar Prospector neutron maps. Another anticoincidence counter, the plastic counter with 5 mm thickness, was used to veto radiation events mostly generated by charged particles. A single photomultiplier serves to count scintillation light from the plastic scintillation counter. The global map of counting rates observed by the plastic counter was also created, implying that the radiation counting rate implies the geological distribution, in spite that the plastic counter mostly measures high energy charged particles and energetic neutrons. These results are presented and discussed.

  3. Naturally induced secondary radiation in interplanetary space: Preliminary analyses for gamma radiation and radioisotope production from thermal neutron activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Rosado, Heriberto

    1991-09-01

    Thermal neutron activation analyses were carried out for various space systems components to determine gamma radiation dose rates and food radiation contamination levels. The space systems components selected were those for which previous radiation studies existed. These include manned space vehicle radiation shielding, liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for a Mars mission, and a food supply used as space vehicle radiation shielding. The computational method used is based on the fast neutron distribution generated by the BRYNTRN and HZETRN transport codes for Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) at solar minimum conditions and intense solar flares in space systems components. The gamma dose rates for soft tissue are calculated for water and aluminum space vehicle slab shields considering volumetric source self-attenuation and exponential buildup factors. In the case of the lunar habitat with regolith shielding, a completely exposed spherical habitat was assumed for mathematical convenience and conservative calculations. Activation analysis of the food supply used as radiation shielding is presented for four selected nutrients: potassium, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus. Radioactive isotopes that could represent a health hazard if ingested are identified and their concentrations are identified. For nutrients soluble in water, it was found that all induced radioactivity was below the accepted maximum permissible concentrations.

  4. Naturally induced secondary radiation in interplanetary space: Preliminary analyses for gamma radiation and radioisotope production from thermal neutron activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza-Rosado, Heriberto

    1991-01-01

    Thermal neutron activation analyses were carried out for various space systems components to determine gamma radiation dose rates and food radiation contamination levels. The space systems components selected were those for which previous radiation studies existed. These include manned space vehicle radiation shielding, liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for a Mars mission, and a food supply used as space vehicle radiation shielding. The computational method used is based on the fast neutron distribution generated by the BRYNTRN and HZETRN transport codes for Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) at solar minimum conditions and intense solar flares in space systems components. The gamma dose rates for soft tissue are calculated for water and aluminum space vehicle slab shields considering volumetric source self-attenuation and exponential buildup factors. In the case of the lunar habitat with regolith shielding, a completely exposed spherical habitat was assumed for mathematical convenience and conservative calculations. Activation analysis of the food supply used as radiation shielding is presented for four selected nutrients: potassium, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus. Radioactive isotopes that could represent a health hazard if ingested are identified and their concentrations are identified. For nutrients soluble in water, it was found that all induced radioactivity was below the accepted maximum permissible concentrations.

  5. Radon flux maps for the Netherlands and Europe using terrestrial gamma radiation derived from soil radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, S. N.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Herber, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, radon (222Rn) is a valuable tracer to study atmospheric processes and to validate global chemical transport models. However, the use of radon as a proxy in atmospheric and climate research is limited by the uncertainties in the magnitude and distribution of the radon flux density over the Earth's surface. Terrestrial gamma radiation is a useful proxy for generating radon flux maps. A previously reported radon flux map of Europe used terrestrial gamma radiation extracted from automated radiation monitoring networks. This approach failed to account for the influence of local artificial radiation sources around the detector, leading to under/over estimation of the reported radon flux values at different locations. We present an alternative approach based on soil radionuclides which enables us to generate accurate radon flux maps with good confidence. Firstly, we present a detailed comparison between the terrestrial gamma radiation obtained from the National Radiation Monitoring network of the Netherlands and the terrestrial gamma radiation calculated from soil radionuclides. Extending further, we generated radon flux maps of the Netherlands and Europe using our proposed approach. The modelled flux values for the Netherlands agree reasonably well with the two observed direct radon flux measurements (within 2σ level). On the European scale, we find that the observed radon flux values are higher than our modelled values and we introduce a correction factor to account for this difference. Our approach discussed in this paper enables us to develop reliable and accurate radon flux maps in countries with little or no information on radon flux values.

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on micromechanical hardness of lead-free solder joint

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, Wilfred; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Jalar, Azman; Kamil, Insan; Bakar, Maria Abu; Yusoff, Wan Yusmawati Wan

    2015-09-25

    Lead-free solders are important material in nano and microelectronic surface mounting technology for various applications in bio medicine, environmental monitoring, spacecraft and satellite instrumentation. Nevertheless solder joint in radiation environment needs higher reliability and resistance to any damage caused by ionizing radiations. In this study a lead-free 99.0Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu wt.% (SAC) solder joint was developed and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation to investigate the effects of the ionizing radiation to micromechanical hardness of the solder. Averaged hardness of the SAC joint was obtained from nanoindentation test. The results show a relationship between hardness values of indentations and the increment of radiation dose. Highest mean hardness, 0.2290 ± 0.0270 GPa was calculated on solder joint which was exposed to 5 Gray dose of gamma radiation. This value indicates possible radiation hardening effect on irradiated solder. The hardness gradually decreased to 0.1933 ± 0.0210 GPa and 0.1631 ± 0.0173 GPa when exposed to doses 50 and 500 gray respectively. These values are also lower than the hardness of non irradiated sample which was calculated as 0.2084 ± 0.0.3633 GPa indicating possible radiation damage and needs further related atomic dislocation study.

  7. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water

    PubMed Central

    Lousada, Cláudio M.; Soroka, Inna L.; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V.; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories. PMID:27086752

  8. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lousada, Cláudio M.; Soroka, Inna L.; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V.; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-04-01

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories.

  9. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water.

    PubMed

    Lousada, Cláudio M; Soroka, Inna L; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories. PMID:27086752

  10. Gamma radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, D.W.; Boyd, G.

    1994-12-31

    Several factors have been identified that may affect the responses of foodborne pathogens to ionizing radiation. Among these are the temperature and atmosphere during the process of irradiation; the medium in which the pathogen is suspended; and the genus, species, serovar, and physiological state of the organism. In addition to these factors, variations in {open_quotes}apparent{close_quotes} radiation sensitivity of bacteria may occur because of the incubation conditions and media used to estimate the number of surviving colony-forming units. Both incubation temperature and culture media frequently affect the ability of injured bacteria to recover. Because there are so many possible variables, it is often difficult to compare data on the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens from different studies. The objectives of the studies reported here were to compare the radiation sensitivities of Bacillus cereus on beef, beef gravy, chicken, pork, and turkey; and of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus on beef, pork, lamb, turkey breast, and turkey leg meats. Examples of the effects of serovar, irradiation temperature, growth phase, and atmosphere during irradiation were also examined.

  11. An automated system for gamma radiation field mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Robert; Tarpinian, James E.; Kenney, Edward S.

    1990-12-01

    Remote radiation survey equipment was sorely needed at Chernobyl but adequate systems did not exist. The current state of the art still consists of a survey meter mounted on a robotic carriage, which scans an area at many points on a grid. This process is both time consuming and somewhat inaccurate. The system we have developed will overcome these limitations, and would provide significant savings in man-hours and man-rem over manual survey techniques. The system we have developed consists of a collimated ionization chamber mounted in a scanning head. The measurement process is similar to that used in medical computed tomography (CT) imaging and consists of a series of collimator rotations and translations. The key to this work is the use of a collimator to provide position information with a position insensitive detector. In addition, an inverse filter image reconstruction technique has been used to reduce the distortion effects due to the scanner and scanning process in the resulting maps. This technique models the distortion as a linear, space invariant degrading function which is removed in a deconvolution process. We have constructed first- and second-generation prototype scanners, and developed software to produce three-dimensional radiation field "iso-dose" maps. The iso-dose maps will be superimposed on three-dimensional computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) drawings of the radiation area, aiding in the characterization of the source of radiation.

  12. EPR dosimetry in a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field.

    PubMed

    Trompier, F; Fattibene, P; Tikunov, D; Bartolotta, A; Carosi, A; Doca, M C

    2004-01-01

    Suitability of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for criticality dosimetry was evaluated for tooth enamel, mannose and alanine pellets during the 'international intercomparison of criticality dosimetry techniques' at the SILENE reactor held in Valduc in June 2002, France. These three materials were irradiated in neutron and gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions in order to evaluate their neutron sensitivity. The neutron response was found to be around 10% for tooth enamel, 45% for mannose and between 40 and 90% for alanine pellets according their type. According to the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of criticality accident absorbed dose, analyzed results show the EPR potentiality and complementarity with regular criticality techniques. PMID:15353687

  13. PVNO-DVB hydrogels: synthesis and characterization. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasirci, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrogels with various degrees of crosslinking were synthesized from 2-vinylpyridine and divinylbenzene/ethylbenzene monomers using gamma irradiation. The influence of the solvent solubility parameter, ionic strength, and temperature on swelling and gel density were studied. Adsorption of water vapor on these gels was determined, and the data were used in the calculation of free energy changes involved in the process. Finally the drug release behavior-crosslink content relation was investigated. It was found that increase in crosslinking agent content adversely influenced swelling, gel density, and water vapor adsorption. The solvent solubility parameter was found to influence swelling more than ionic strength. Contrary to what was expected, it was not possible to classify the drug release behavior as first order.

  14. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  15. Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of: (1) peripheral leukocyte distribution, (2) plasma cytokine levels and (3) cytokine production profiles following whole blood mitogenic stimulation

  16. Effect of 60Co-gamma radiation on the binding properties in furs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raina, R. K.

    New Zealand white rabbit pelts were pickled by the usual procedure and were tanned with basic aluminium sulphate, basic chromium sulphate and their combinations. Tanned furs were irradiated with 60Co-gamma radiations in the dose range of 5.0-114.0 kGy. The effect of radiation on the binding properties of various added substances like mineral tannins, fats, moisture and shrinkage temperature has been assessed by their comparison with the control samples. The results of these investigations show that radiation on furs causes detannage, increases the moisture and bound fat content and decreases the shrinkage temperature of the furs.

  17. CARBON FIBRE COMPOSITE MATERIALS PRODUCED BY GAMMA RADIATION INDUCED CURING OF EPOXY RESINS

    SciTech Connect

    Dispenza, C.; Spadaro, G.; Alessi, S.

    2008-08-28

    It is well known that ionizing radiation can initiate polymerization of suitable monomers for many applications. In this work an epoxy difunctional monomer has been used as matrix of a carbon fibre composite in order to produce materials through gamma radiation, for aerospace and advanced automotive applications. Radiation curing has been performed at different absorbed doses and, as comparison, also thermal curing of the same monomer formulations has been done. Furthermore some irradiated samples have been also subjected to a post irradiation thermal curing in order to complete the polymerization reactions. The properties of the cured materials have been studied by moisture absorption isotherms, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and mechanical flexural tests.

  18. Gamma-irradiated onions as a biological indicator of radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Vaijapurkar, S G; Agarwal, D; Chaudhuri, S K; Senwar, K R; Bhatnagar, P K

    2001-10-01

    Post-irradiation identification and dose estimation are required to assess the radiation-induced effects on living things in any nuclear emergency. In this study, radiation-induced morphological/cytological changes i.e., number of root formation and its length, shooting length, reduction in mitotic index, micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberrations in the root tip cells of gamma-irradiated onions at lower doses (50-2000 cGy) are reported. The capabilities of this biological species to store the radiation-induced information are also studied. PMID:11762393

  19. Modification of silicone sealant to improve gamma radiation resistance, by addition of protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, Giovanni; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sealant (SS) was modified with the addition of different protective compounds to conserve its physical-chemical properties during gamma irradiation. 2-Vinyl naphthalene (2-VN), bisphenol-A (BPA) and poly (vinyl carbazole) (PVK) were used to evaluate radiation protection through the crosslinking effect of radiation. The samples were irradiated with doses from 100 kGy to 500 kGy at room temperature in air, with a 60Co gamma source, and the changes in molecular weight, thermal behavior, elastic properties and infrared spectra (FTIR-ATR) absorbance analysis were determined. The molecular weight of unmodified silicone sealant increases with the absorbed dose because of crosslinking as predominant effect. However, the crosslinking effect was inhibited with the addition of protective agent due to the aromatic compounds present. Modified silicone sealant films present better radiation resistance than unmodified system.

  20. Gamma–Gamma Absorption in the Broad Line Region Radiation Fields of Gamma-Ray Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Markus; Els, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The expected level of γγ absorption in the Broad Line Region (BLR) radiation field of γ-ray loud Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) is evaluated as a function of the location of the γ-ray emission region. This is done self-consistently with parameters inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in a single-zone leptonic EC-BLR model scenario. We take into account all geometrical effects both in the calculation of the γγ opacity and the normalization of the BLR radiation energy density. As specific examples, we study the FSRQs 3C279 and PKS 1510-089, keeping the BLR radiation energy density at the location of the emission region fixed at the values inferred from the SED. We confirm previous findings that the optical depth due to γγ absorption in the BLR radiation field exceeds unity for both 3C279 and PKS 1510-089 for locations of the γ-ray emission region inside the inner boundary of the BLR. It decreases monotonically, with distance from the central engine and drops below unity for locations within the BLR. For locations outside the BLR, the BLR radiation energy density required for the production of GeV γ-rays rapidly increases beyond observational constraints, thus making the EC-BLR mechanism implausible. Therefore, in order to avoid significant γγ absorption by the BLR radiation field, the γ-ray emission region must therefore be located near the outer boundary of the BLR.

  1. Assessing Antibody Microarray for Space Missions: Effect of Long-term Storage, Gamma radiation and High Energy proton radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Diego-Castilla, G.; Parro, V.

    2012-09-01

    Fluorescent antibody microarray has been proposed for Molecular biomarker detector in planetary exploration [1]. A number of different environmental stresses may affect the antibody performance, such as temperatures variations, highly penetrating radiation and high energy particles. Here we have tested the effect of gamma radiation, proton radiation and longterm storage on the microarray immunoassay and fluorocromes. Although different antibodies might have different susceptibilities we conclude that there was not significant reduction in the functionality of antibodies printed on the microarray and the fluorescent tracers antibodies, even in a extreme case of receiving a radiation dose 3000-fold than a biochip would receive in a trip mission to Mars. In summary, antibodies are suitable for use in planetary exploration purposes.

  2. Evaluation of fungal burden and aflatoxin presence in packed medicinal plants treated by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Simone; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Rossi, Maria Helena; Nogueira, Juliana Hellmeister de Campos; Reis, Tatiana Alves Dos; Corrêa, Benedito

    2010-05-01

    This study was developed to evaluate the fungal burden, toxigenic molds, and mycotoxin contamination and to verify the effects of gamma radiation in four kinds of medicinal plants stored before and after 30 days of irradiation treatment. Eighty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, and Cassia angustifolia) purchased from drugstores, wholesale, and open-air markets in São Paulo city, Brazil, were analyzed. The samples were treated using a (60)Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For enumeration of fungi on medicinal plants, serial dilutions of the samples were plated in duplicate onto dichloran 18% glycerol agar. The control samples revealed a high burden of molds, including toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of CFU per gram in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days of storage, using a dose of 10 kGy and maintaining samples in a protective package. No aflatoxins were detected. Gamma radiation treatment can be used as an effective method for preventing fungal deterioration of medicinal plants subject to long-term storage. PMID:20501045

  3. Inactivation of Thirty Viruses by Gamma Radiation 1

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Robert; Fassolitis, Alexander C.; Larkin, Edward P.; Read, Ralston B.; Peeler, James T.

    1971-01-01

    Decimal reduction values (D value) for 30 viruses were determined. The weighted D values of the viruses suspended in Eagle's minimum essential medium ranged from 0.39 to 0.53 Mrads. It was necessary to increase the radiation dose by a factor of >3 to inactivate virus suspended in Eagle's minimum essential medium as compared to the same virus suspended in distilled water. The destruction rate curves were of a first-order reaction. PMID:4999976

  4. Radiation anomaly detection algorithms for field-acquired gamma energy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ron; Guss, Paul; Mitchell, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing a tactical, networked radiation detection system that will be agile, reconfigurable, and capable of rapid threat assessment with high degree of fidelity and certainty. Our design is driven by the needs of users such as law enforcement personnel who must make decisions by evaluating threat signatures in urban settings. The most efficient tool available to identify the nature of the threat object is real-time gamma spectroscopic analysis, as it is fast and has a very low probability of producing false positive alarm conditions. Urban radiological searches are inherently challenged by the rapid and large spatial variation of background gamma radiation, the presence of benign radioactive materials in terms of the normally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and shielded and/or masked threat sources. Multiple spectral anomaly detection algorithms have been developed by national laboratories and commercial vendors. For example, the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) a one-dimensional deterministic radiation transport software capable of calculating gamma ray spectra using physics-based detector response functions was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The nuisance-rejection spectral comparison ratio anomaly detection algorithm (or NSCRAD), developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, uses spectral comparison ratios to detect deviation from benign medical and NORM radiation source and can work in spite of strong presence of NORM and or medical sources. RSL has developed its own wavelet-based gamma energy spectral anomaly detection algorithm called WAVRAD. Test results and relative merits of these different algorithms will be discussed and demonstrated.

  5. Accumulation of Mn(II) in Deinococcus radiodurans Facilitates Gamma-Radiation Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Michael J.; Gaidamakova, E; Matrosova, V; Vasilenko, A; Zhai, M; Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Hess, M; Omelchenko, M V.; Kostandarithes, Heather M.; Makarova, S; Wackett, L. P.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Ghosal, D

    2004-11-05

    Deinococcus radiodurans is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation. How this bacterium can grow under chronic gamma-radiation (50 Gy/hour) or recover from acute doses greater than 10 kGy is unknown. We show that D. radiodurans accumulates very high intracellular manganese and low iron levels compared to radiation sensitive bacteria, and resistance exhibits a concentration-dependent response to Mn(II). Among the most radiation-resistant bacterial groups reported, Deinococcus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and cyanobacteria spp. accumulate Mn(II). In contrast, Shewanella oneidensis and Pseudomonas putida have high Fe but low intracellular Mn concentrations and are very sensitive. We propose that Mn(II) accumulation facilitates recovery from radiation injury.

  6. Bactericidal Effect of Various Combinations of Gamma Radiation and Chloramine on Aqueous Suspensions of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Venosa, Albert D.; Chambers, Cecil W.

    1973-01-01

    Methods of combining gamma radiation with chloramine to disinfect aqueous suspensions of Escherichia coli were investigated. Logarithmically grown cells were exposed to the bactericidal agents sequentially (i.e., radiation followed by chloramine, and chloramine followed by radiation) and simultaneously. Regardless of which combination was used, the bactericidal effect was always less than additive. During the phase of work involving the simultaneous addition of both agents, it was observed that chloramine was destroyed more rapidly by radiation than were the organisms. Since an increase in the bactericidal effectiveness of either disinfectant by prior or simultaneous treatment of the cells with the other disinfectant was not achieved in buffered distilled water, it was concluded that disinfection of wastewater effluents by combining ionizing radiation with chloramine would not be economically feasible. Images PMID:4577176

  7. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  8. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Anbumani, S; Mohankumar, Mary N

    2016-09-01

    Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α - r=0.85, p=0.0073; cdk1 - r=0.86, p=0.0053; bcl-2 - r=0.89, p=0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote 'repair' and 'death' circuitries in fish blood cells. PMID:27497304

  9. Foods for a Mission to Mars: Investigations of Low-Dose Gamma Radiation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandolph, J.; Shand, A.; Stoklosa, A.; Ma, A.; Weiss, I.; Alexander, D.; Perchonok, M.; Mauer, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    Food must be safe, nutritious, and acceptable throughout a long duration mission to maintain the health, well-being, and productivity of the astronauts. In addition to a developing a stable pre-packaged food supply, research is required to better understand the ability to convert edible biomass into safe, nutritious, and acceptable food products in a closed system with many restrictions (mass, volume, power, crew time, etc.). An understanding of how storage conditions encountered in a long-term space mission, such as elevated radiation, will impact food quality is also needed. The focus of this project was to contribute to the development of the highest quality food system possible for the duration of a mission, considering shelf-stable extended shelf-life foods, bulk ingredients, and crops to be grown in space. The impacts of space-relevant radiation doses on food, bulk ingredient, and select candidate crop quality and antioxidant capacity were determined. Interestingly, increasing gamma-radiation doses (0 to 1000 Gy) did not always increase dose-related effects in foods. Intermediate radiation doses (10 to 800Gy) often had significantly larger impact on the stability of bulk ingredient oils than higher (1000Gy) radiation doses. Overall, most food, ingredient, and crop systems investigated showed no significant differences between control samples and those treated with 3 Gy of gamma radiation (the upper limit estimated for a mission to Mars). However, this does not mean that all foods will be stable for 3-5 years, nor does it mean that foods are stable to space radiation comprising more than gamma rays.

  10. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Chiles, Marion M.; Mihalczo, John T.; Blakeman, Edward D.

    1989-02-07

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.