Science.gov

Sample records for desastre sus consecuencias

  1. Sucrose synthase activity in the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 Arabidopsis mutant is sufficient to support normal cellulose and starch production

    PubMed Central

    Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Muñoz, Francisco José; Li, Jun; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Almagro, Goizeder; Montero, Manuel; Etxeberria, Ed; Hidalgo, Maite; Sesma, María Teresa; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate-glucose and fructose. In Arabidopsis, a multigene family encodes six SUS (SUS1-6) isoforms. The involvement of SUS in the synthesis of UDP-glucose and ADP-glucose linked to Arabidopsis cellulose and starch biosynthesis, respectively, has been questioned by Barratt et al. [(2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:13124–13129], who showed that (i) SUS activity in wild type (WT) leaves is too low to account for normal rate of starch accumulation in Arabidopsis, and (ii) different organs of the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 SUS mutant impaired in SUS activity accumulate WT levels of ADP-glucose, UDP-glucose, cellulose and starch. However, these authors assayed SUS activity under unfavorable pH conditions for the reaction. By using favorable pH conditions for assaying SUS activity, in this work we show that SUS activity in the cleavage direction is sufficient to support normal rate of starch accumulation in WT leaves. We also demonstrate that sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 leaves display WT SUS5 and SUS6 expression levels, whereas leaves of the sus5/sus6 mutant display WT SUS1–4 expression levels. Furthermore, we show that SUS activity in leaves and stems of the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 and sus5/sus6 plants is ?85% of that of WT leaves, which can support normal cellulose and starch biosynthesis. The overall data disprove Barratt et al. (2009) claims, and are consistent with the possible involvement of SUS in cellulose and starch biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:22184213

  2. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  3. Outer membrane proteins related to SusC and SusD are not required for Cytophaga hutchinsonii cellulose utilization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongtao; Kwiatkowski, Kurt J; Yang, Tengteng; Kharade, Sampada S; Bahr, Constance M; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Liu, Weifeng; McBride, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, employs a novel collection of cell-associated proteins to digest crystalline cellulose. Other Bacteroidetes rely on cell surface proteins related to the starch utilization system (Sus) proteins SusC and SusD to bind oligosaccharides and import them across the outer membrane for further digestion. These bacteria typically produce dozens of SusC-like porins and SusD-like oligosaccharide-binding proteins to facilitate utilization of diverse polysaccharides. C. hutchinsonii specializes in cellulose digestion and its genome has only two susC-like genes and two susD-like genes. Single and multiple gene deletions were constructed to determine if the susC-like and susD-like genes have roles in cellulose utilization. A mutant lacking all susC-like and all susD-like genes digested cellulose and grew on cellulose as well as wild-type cells. Further, recombinantly expressed SusD-like proteins CHU_0547 and CHU_0554 failed to bind cellulose or ?-glucan hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The results suggest that the Bacteroidetes Sus paradigm for polysaccharide utilization may not apply to the cellulolytic bacterium C. hutchinsonii. PMID:25846333

  4. Porcine kobuvirus in wild boars (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Gábor; Nemes, Csaba; Boros, Ákos; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2012-01-01

    Fecal samples (N=10) from 6- to 8-week-old wild boar piglets (Sus scrofa), collected from an animal park in Hungary in April 2011, were analyzed using viral metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. Kobuvirus (genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae) was detected in all (100%) specimens, with the closest nucleotide (89%) and amino acid (94%) sequence identity of the strain wild boar/WB1-HUN/2011/HUN (JX177612) to the prototype porcine kobuvirus S-1-HUN (EU787450). This study suggests that genetically highly similar (practically the same geno-/serotype) porcine kobuvirus circulate in wild boars, the wildlife counterparts of domestic pigs. Wild boars could be an important host and reservoir for kobuvirus. PMID:22926717

  5. Porcine kobuvirus in wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Reuter, Gábor; Nemes, Csaba; Boros, Akos; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Fecal samples (N = 10) from 6- to 8-week-old wild boar piglets (Sus scrofa), collected from an animal park in Hungary in April 2011, were analyzed using viral metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. Kobuvirus (genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae) was detected in all (100 %) specimens, with the closest nucleotide (89 %) and amino acid (94 %) sequence identity of the strain wild boar/WB1-HUN/2011/HUN (JX177612) to the prototype porcine kobuvirus S-1-HUN (EU787450). This study suggests that genetically highly similar (practically the same geno-/serotype) porcine kobuvirus circulate in wild boars, the wildlife counterparts of domestic pigs. Wild boars could be an important host and reservoir for kobuvirus. PMID:22926717

  6. SUCROSE SYNTHASE (SUS) OLIGOMERIZATION IS REGULATED BY SUCROSE LEVELS WITHIN PLANT CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) is an important plant metabolic enzyme as it cleaves sucrose in the cytoplasm of plant cells. There are three known isoforms of SUS within Zea mays: SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2 (formerly SUS3). It is thought that SUS is predominantly a hetero-tetramer composed of the three isoform...

  7. Outgassing Rate Measurement of SUS430 Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shinichi; Kamiya, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Kazami; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    For reliable and stable operation of a particle accelerator, it is necessary to shield the accelerated particles inside the vacuum chambers from unwanted external stray magnetic fields. Instead of an external shield, it can be quite efficient to design a vacuum chamber itself as a magnetic shield. Therefore, we have developed a vacuum chamber with magnetic shielding properties by using the magnetic material SUS430. For this chamber not only magnetic shielding is required, but also a low outgassing rate, so that it can be used for a high intensity particle accelerator. First, we measured the outgassing rate of SUS430 using small samples with the differential pressure flow method. The results suggested that SUS430 is compatible with our low outgassing rate requirement. Then a vacuum chamber designed for installation into the synchrotron was manufactured using SUS430, and it was confirmed that the outgassing rate of the chamber is low enough.

  8. Identification and Characterization of the Duplicate Rice Sucrose Synthase Genes OsSUS5 and OsSUS7 Which Are Associated with the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung-Il; Kim, Hyun-Bi; Kim, Chi-Yeol; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2011-01-01

    Systematic searches using the complete genome sequence of rice (Oryza sativa) identified OsSUS7, a new member of the rice sucrose synthase (OsSUS) gene family, which shows only nine single nucleotide substitutions in the OsSUS5 coding sequence. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the synteny between OsSUS5 and OsSUS7 is conserved, and that significant numbers of transposable elements are scattered at both loci. In particular, a 17.6-kb genomic region containing transposable elements was identified in the 5? upstream sequence of the OsSUS7 gene. GFP fusion experiments indicated that Os- SUS5 and OsSUS7 are largely associated with the plasma membrane and partly with the cytosol in maize mesophyll protoplasts. RT-PCR analysis and transient expression assays revealed that OsSUS5 and OsSUS7 exhibit similar expression patterns in rice tissues, with the highest expression evident in roots. These results suggest that two redundant genes, OsSUS5 and OsSUS7, evolved via duplication of a chromosome region and through the transposition of transposable elements. PMID:21533550

  9. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  10. Exome Capture with Heterologous Enrichment in Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Guiatti, Denis; Pomari, Elena; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Stefanon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of new protein-coding DNA variants related to carcass traits is very important for the Italian pig industry, which requires heavy pigs with higher thickness of subcutaneous fat for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) productions. Exome capture techniques offer the opportunity to focus on the regions of DNA potentially related to the gene and protein expression. In this research a human commercial target enrichment kit was used to evaluate its performances for pig exome capture and for the identification of DNA variants suitable for comparative analysis. Two pools of 30 pigs each, crosses of Italian Duroc X Large White (DU) and Commercial hybrid X Large White (HY), were used and NGS libraries were prepared with the SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System for Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Library (Agilent). A total of 140.2 M and 162.5 M of raw reads were generated for DU and HY, respectively. Average coverage of all the exonic regions for Sus scrofa (ENSEMBL Sus_scrofa.Sscrofa10.2.73.gtf) was 89.33X for DU and 97.56X for HY; and 35% of aligned bases uniquely mapped to off-target regions. Comparison of sequencing data with the Sscrofa10.2 reference genome, after applying hard filtering criteria, revealed a total of 232,530 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of which 20.6% mapped in exonic regions and 49.5% within intronic regions. The comparison of allele frequencies of 213 randomly selected SNVs from exome sequencing and the same SNVs analyzed with a Sequenom MassARRAY® system confirms that this “human-on-pig” approach offers new potentiality for the identification of DNA variants in protein-coding genes. PMID:26431395

  11. Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400/sup 0/C to a target fluence of 5 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel.

  12. An intronic RNA structure modulates expression of the mRNA biogenesis factor Sus1.

    PubMed

    AbuQattam, Ali; Gallego, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. Unlike most yeast genes, the SUS1 pre-mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. Using in silico analyses together with NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and UV thermal denaturation experiments, we show that the downstream intron (I2) of SUS1 forms a weakly stable, 37-nucleotide stem-loop structure containing the branch site near its apical loop and the 3' splice site after the stem terminus. A cellular assay revealed that two of four mutants containing altered I2 structures had significantly impaired SUS1 expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that all mutants accumulated unspliced SUS1 pre-mRNA and/or induced distorted levels of fully spliced mRNA relative to wild type. Concomitantly, Sus1 cellular functions in histone H2B deubiquitination and mRNA export were affected in I2 hairpin mutants that inhibited splicing. This work demonstrates that I2 structure is relevant for SUS1 expression, and that this effect is likely exerted through modulation of splicing. PMID:26546116

  13. An intronic RNA structure modulates expression of the mRNA biogenesis factor Sus1

    PubMed Central

    AbuQattam, Ali; Gallego, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. Unlike most yeast genes, the SUS1 pre-mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. Using in silico analyses together with NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and UV thermal denaturation experiments, we show that the downstream intron (I2) of SUS1 forms a weakly stable, 37-nucleotide stem–loop structure containing the branch site near its apical loop and the 3′ splice site after the stem terminus. A cellular assay revealed that two of four mutants containing altered I2 structures had significantly impaired SUS1 expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that all mutants accumulated unspliced SUS1 pre-mRNA and/or induced distorted levels of fully spliced mRNA relative to wild type. Concomitantly, Sus1 cellular functions in histone H2B deubiquitination and mRNA export were affected in I2 hairpin mutants that inhibited splicing. This work demonstrates that I2 structure is relevant for SUS1 expression, and that this effect is likely exerted through modulation of splicing. PMID:26546116

  14. Identification and Characterization of the Sucrose Synthase 2 Gene (Sus2) in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Volpicella, Mariateresa; Fanizza, Immacolata; Leoni, Claudia; Gadaleta, Agata; Nigro, Domenica; Gattulli, Bruno; Mangini, Giacomo; Blanco, Antonio; Ceci, Luigi R.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS), which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for SUS in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo) is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur, and 5-BIL42). The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modeling approaches. The combined results of sucrose synthase 2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield. PMID:27014292

  15. Lo que usted debe saber antes de dar sus tejidos para investigación médica

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las cosas que usted debe saber y tener en cuenta al tomar una decisión de donar sus tejidos para investigación. El tejido puede incluir materiales de su cuerpo tales como piel, cabello, uñas, sangre y orina.

  16. Internal Stress Distribution Measurement of TIG Welded SUS304 Samples Using Neutron Diffraction Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslih, M. Refai; Sumirat, I.; Sairun; Purwanta

    2008-03-01

    The distribution of residual stress of SUS304 samples that were undergone TIG welding process with four different electric currents has been measured. The welding has been done in the middle part of the samples that was previously grooved by milling machine. Before they were welded the samples were annealed at 650 degree Celsius for one hour. The annealing process was done to eliminate residual stress generated by grooving process so that the residual stress within the samples was merely produced from welding process. The calculation of distribution of residual stress was carried out by measuring the strains within crystal planes of Fe(220) SUS304. Strain, Young modulus, and Poisson ratio of Fe(220) SUS304 were measured using DN1-M neutron diffractometer. Young modulus and Poisson ratio of Fe(220) SUS304 sample were measured in-situ. The result of calculations showed that distribution of residual stress of SUS304 in the vicinity of welded area is influenced both by treatments given at the samples-making process and by the electric current used during welding process.

  17. Absence of bovine tuberculosis in feral swine (Sus scrofa) from the Southern Texas border region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-ranging wildlife, like feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are infectious to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is lacking regarding the exposure and infection rates for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis; bTB), and many othe...

  18. Development of nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC with superior tensile properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Tsuchida, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Terasawa, M.; Yamasaki, T.; Kawai, M.

    2015-11-01

    Structural materials used in radiation environments require radiation tolerance and sufficient mechanical properties in the controlled state. In order to offer SUS316L austenitic stainless steel with the assumed requirements, nanostructured SUS316L with TiC addition of 2% (SUS316L-2TiC) that is capable of exhibiting enhanced tensile ductility and flow strength sufficient for structural applications was fabricated by advanced powder metallurgical methods. The methods include MA (Mechanical Alloying), HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), GSMM (Grain boundary Sliding Microstructural Modification) for ductility enhancement, cold rolling at temperatures below Md (the temperature where the martensite phase occurs by plastic deformation) for phase transformation from austenite to martensite and heat treatment for reverse transformation from martensite to austenite. It is shown that the developed SUS316L-2TiC exhibits ultrafine grains with sizes of 90-270 nm, accompanied by TiC precipitates with 20-50 nm in grain interior and 70-110 nm at grain boundaries, yield strengths of 1850 to 900 MPa, tensile strengths of 1920 to 1100 MPa and uniform elongations of 0.6-21%, respectively, depending on the heat treatment temperature after rolling at -196 °C.

  19. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  20. [The discourse of managers on equity: a challenge for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Granja, Gabriela Ferreira; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida

    2013-12-01

    Equity is one of the pillars of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). However, analysis of the scientific literature shows that the concept of equity is polysemic and open to many interpretations. The scope of this article is to identify the meanings conferred upon equity in the discourse of SUS managers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals in three municipalities in the state of Sao Paulo, namely Marília, São Carlos and Santos. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject method. In the analysis of the results, three core categories were identified: Treat everyone in an egalitarian manner; treat the unequal in an unequal manner, prioritizing the most needy in accordance with their social and economic status; and treating the unequal in an unequal manner, prioritizing specific groups in accordance with risk criteria. The managers acknowledge equity as being a SUS principle and seek prudent clinical and epidemiological criteria to justify their choices in allocating resources. There is a need for further research into the concept and operationalization of equity and the need to hear the other actors of SUS who are involved in the actions and are jointly responsible for decisions on healthcare. PMID:24263892

  1. Effect of Pulse Current on the Tensile Deformation of SUS304 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Wang, Shen; Zhao, Shuangjun; Ding, Wei; Chen, Jun; Wu, Guohong

    2015-12-01

    The effect of pulse current on the mechanical properties of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless steel was studied by tension test with and without air-cooling under different current densities. The microstructural variations at different conditions were also studied by SEM, TEM, and Feritscope. A negative effect on the plasticity was observed when current pulse was applied without air-cooling. But when Joule heating resulting from current pulse was excluded by air-cooling, the elongation of SUS304 stainless steel was increased to 72.4% at a current density of 2.95 A/mm2, which is 23.3% higher than that tested without pulse current at room temperature. Pulse current can decrease the dislocation density and dislocation pile-ups. Furthermore, EP effect from pulse current can accelerate martensitic transformation and enhance TRIP effect. The mechanism of current-induced martensitic transformation was discussed from Gibbs free energy change.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Celebes wild boar, Sus celebensis (Cetartiodactyla: Suina: Suidae), and comparative mitochondrial genomics of the Sus species.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-di; Li, Kui; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of Sus celebensis was firstly determined. The total genome was 16,481?bp in length and its overall base composition was estimated to be 34.9% for A, 25.8% for T, 26.2% for C, 13.1% for G, respectively, indicating an A-T (60.7%)-rich feature in Celebes wild boar mitogenome. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). Comparisons with other publicly available pig mitogenomes revealed abundant nucleotide diversity. This complete mitgenome sequence would accelerate further studies on pig evolution and domestication that will enhance germplasm preservation and breeding programs of the pig gene pool. PMID:25162119

  3. Residual stress and fracture characteristics of zirconia/metal(Ni, SUS304) functionally gradient materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yeon-Gil; Choi, Sung-Churl; Paik, Un-Gyu

    1995-09-01

    To analyze the residual stress and the fracture behavior of FGMs. disc-type TZP/Ni- and TZP/SUS304-FGM were hot passed, and compared with MM& The continuous interface and the microstructure of FGMs were characterized with EPMA, optical microscopy and SEM. The defect-like cracks in the FGMs induced by the preferential shear stress have been shown to cause fracture. This fact has well corresponded to the analysis of the residual stress distribution by FEM.

  4. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN*

    PubMed Central

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Materials and Methods Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type of service providers and outsourced services were retrieved and evaluated. Also, such data were compared with those from institutions certified by CNEN. Results The present study demonstrated that the system still lacks maturity in terms of correct data input, particularly regarding equipment available. It was possible to list the most common procedures and check the growth of the specialty along the study period. Private centers are responsible for most of the procedures covered and reimbursed by SUS. However, many healthcare facilities are not certified by CNEN. Conclusion Datasus provides relevant data for analysis as done in the present study, although some issues still require attention. The present study has quantitatively depicted the Brazilian reality regarding access to nuclear medicine procedures offered by/for SUS. PMID:25741070

  5. [The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) is universal, but quotas are the norm].

    PubMed

    Viegas, Selma Maria da Fonseca; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the Unified Health System (SUS), health actions and services constitute a social right to be guaranteed by the State and managed under the responsibility of three autonomous spheres of government. This is a holistic multiple case study with a qualitative approach based on the assumptions of Comprehensive Everyday Sociology, which originated from a PhD thesis. It sought to understand the construction of comprehensive health practices in the daily work of family health teams and managers of the cities in Vale do Jequitinhonha - Minas Gerais, Brazil. The individuals studied were professionals from the Family Health Teams, support staff and managers with a total of 48 participants. In order to reveal the construction of the whole, the data show that "SUS is universal, but quotas are the norm." Bearing in mind its limitations, it is difficult to ensure that SUS is a right for all. Thus, regulation is essential to order, guide, define and optimize the use of resources available for comprehensive care and also guarantee public access to actions and services in a timely and equitable manner. PMID:23338508

  6. [Whose is SUS? About the social representation of the users of the Family Health Program].

    PubMed

    Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Mendes, Fábio Farias; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschinni, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Cazal, Mariana de Melo; Batista, Rodrigo Siqueira

    2011-03-01

    The present study analyzes the representation of the users of SUS and PSF, presenting data obtained by semi-structured interviews, using the theoretical referential of the qualitative research. The results show a social representation marked by a focused vision and assistance, pointing to the concentration of public resources in poor segments of the society and centered in the biomedical model of attention. It stands out that PSF did not reach their objectives to provide changes in the praxis in health. In relation to the social control, it is observed that only 5.9% of the interviewees know the CMS. The presented data show a great ignorance by the studied population on the sanitary system and conquered social laws, and many people still see SUS as a "health plan for the poor". Due to the lived reality, the need of the implementation of strategies is emphasized for the reach of larger powerment/liberation of the population, seeking to build effective possibilities so that their actors will be active participant of the process of construction of a common project, actually based on the democratic ideals of SUS, being PSF strategically important in the accomplishment of these actions. PMID:21519681

  7. Biochemical and molecular characterization of RcSUS1, a cytosolic sucrose synthase phosphorylated in vivo at serine 11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-28

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of (32)P(i) from [?-(32)P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes. PMID:25313400

  8. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of RcSUS1, a Cytosolic Sucrose Synthase Phosphorylated in Vivo at Serine 11 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds*

    PubMed Central

    Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M.; Mullen, Robert T.; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of 32Pi from [γ-32P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes. PMID:25313400

  9. Sus1 is recruited to coding regions and functions during transcription elongation in association with SAGA and TREX2

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-García, Pau; Govind, Chhabi K.; Queralt, Ethel; Cuenca-Bono, Bernardo; Llopis, Ana; Chavez, Sebastián; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2008-01-01

    Gene transcription, RNA biogenesis, and mRNA transport constitute a complicated process essential for all eukaryotic cells. The transcription/export factor Sus1 plays a key role in coupling transcription activation with mRNA export, and it resides in both the SAGA and TREX2 complexes. Moreover, Sus1 is responsible for GAL1 gene gating at the nuclear periphery, which is important for its transcriptional status. Here, we show that Sus1 is required during transcription elongation and is associated with the elongating form of RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) phosphorylated on Ser5 and Ser2 of the C-terminal domain (CTD). In addition, Sus1 copurifies with the essential mRNA export factors Yra1 and Mex67, which bind to the mRNA cotranscriptionally. Consistently, ChIP analysis reveals that Sus1 is present at coding regions dependent on transcription in a manner stimulated by Kin28-dependent CTD phosphorylation. Strikingly, eliminating the TREX2 component Sac3 or the SAGA subunit Ubp8 partially impairs Sus1 targeting to coding sequences and upstream activating sequences (UAS). We found, unexpectedly, that Sgf73 is necessary for association of Sus1 with both SAGA and TREX2, and that its absence dramatically reduces Sus1 occupancy of UAS and ORF sequences. Our results reveal that Sus1 plays a key role in coordinating gene transcription and mRNA export by working at the interface between the SAGA and TREX2 complexes during transcription elongation. PMID:18923079

  10. Cytochrome b based genetic differentiation of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and its use in wildlife forensics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajit; Hussain, Syed Ainul; Vipin; Singh, Lalji

    2013-06-01

    The Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) is a protected species and listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The wild pig is often hunted illegally and sold in market as meat warranting punishment under law. To avoid confusion in identification of these two subspecies during wildlife forensic examinations, we describe genetic differentiation of Indian wild and domestic pigs using a molecular technique. Analysis of sequence generated from the partial fragment (421bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene exhibited unambiguous (>3%) genetic variation between Indian wild and domestic pigs. We observed nine forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) variations between Indian wild and domestic pigs. The overall genetic variation described in this study is helpful in forensic identification of the biological samples of wild and domestic pigs. It also helped in differentiating the Indian wild pig from other wild pig races. This study indicates that domestic pigs in India are not descendent of the Indian wild pig, however; they are closer to the other wild pig races found in Asia and Europe. PMID:23601732

  11. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Sandu black pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2014-09-26

    Abstract Sandu black pig is one of the native breed in Guizhou province in China. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Sandu black pig is 16,741?bp. Mitochondrial genome contains a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. This is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence about Sandu black pig. The mitochondrial genome data of Sandu black pig presented is useful novel markers for further studying the population genetics of sus scrofa. PMID:25259459

  12. [Methodology for construction of a panel of indicators for monitoring and evaluation of unified health system (SUS) management].

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi; Felisberto, Eronildo; Alves, Cinthia Kalyne de Almeida; Drumond Junior, Marcos; Bezerra, Luciana Caroline de Albuquerque; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino; Miranda, Alcides Silva de

    2012-04-01

    This study sought to develop methodology for the construction of a Panel for the Monitoring and Evaluation of Management of the Unified Health System (SUS). The participative process used in addition to the systematization conducted made it possible to identify an effective strategy for building management tools in partnership with researchers, academic institutions and managers of the SUS. The final systematization of the Panel selected indicators for the management of the SUS in terms of Demand, Inputs, Processes, Outputs and Outcomes in order to provide a simple, versatile and useful tool for evaluation at any level of management and more transparent and easier communication with all stakeholders in decision-making. Taking the management of the SUS as the scope of these processes and practices in all normative aspects enabled dialog between systemic theories and those which consider the centrality of the social actor in the decision-making process. PMID:22534839

  13. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    N?mejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Kv?to?ová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Pawe?; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kvá?, Martin

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus-and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

  14. [Speech-language pathology formation in the city of Salvador and the consolidation of SUS].

    PubMed

    Lemos, Marcio; Bazzo, Leda Maria Fonseca

    2010-08-01

    The Human Resources in Health (HRH) academic field is recognized as a critical area, which is part of the reorientation process in the health sector. The elaboration of the Unified Health System (SUS) represents challenges to the academic field process, especially regarding new careers such as speech-language pathology. This is related with the lack of awareness regarding collective health and the past history that strengthened the public health policies in Brazil. Yet, the powerful influence of the service model to the spontaneous demand and reabilitation therapy plays another key role in the aspect. The aim was to analyze the academic field of the speech-language pathology profile in the city of Salvador, Bahia State. Documental analysis and coordinator interviews were used to investigate how the public area is characterized in 3 modules. It was noticed little adhesion of the upper level institutions to the legislation of the field; lack of contact between graduating students and collective health, and a teaching-service disconnection. The graduation of the speech therapist was shown incipient regarding SUS's consolidation. Identifying challenges and opportunities of changes in HRH formation in upper level institutions may lead to better levels of aid to the population, quality of education and expansion of theoretical and practical models of knowledge. PMID:20802888

  15. Presence of Torque teno sus virus in porcine circovirus type 2-associated disease in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novosel, D; Cubric-Curik, V; Jungic, A; Lipej, Z

    2012-11-24

    Torque teno virus (TTV) is ubiquitous and species-specific, and two different TTV species, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2), have been described in domestic pigs and wild boars. Whether these two species are involved in clinical cases of porcine circovirus type 2-associated disease (PCVDs) remains unknown. This study investigates the presence of TTSuV in 85 fetuses, pigs and wild boars infected by PCV2 and affected by PCVDs other than postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome. It also explores the genetic diversity of identified strains using phylogenetic analysis. The presence or absence of TTSuV was determined in 85 samples of PCV2-containing organs from 85 infected animals using a specific, one-step PCR method. A nucleotide distance matrix between sequences was computed to infer phylogeny based on a median-joining (MJ) network. TTSuV2 showed high prevalence in animals affected by nephropathy and proliferative and necrotising pneumonia (PNP), and both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 showed high prevalence in wild boars affected by PMWS. TTSuV1 showed low prevalence in animals affected by nephropathy and PNP, and both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 showed low prevalence in animals with reproductive disorders. MJ network analysis revealed significant genetic diversity among Croatian isolates. PMID:23104589

  16. Comparison of two codon optimization strategies enhancing recombinant Sus scrofa lysozyme production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Cai, G; Wu, D; Lu, J

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme has played an important role in animal feed additive industry, food additive industry and biological engineering. For improving expression efficiency of recombinant lysozyme from Sus scrofa, two genes respectively designed by the most used codon optimization strategies, "one amino acid one codon" and "codon randomization", were synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris X—33. At shaking flask level, Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL) under two conditions had a highest activity of 153.33±10.41 and 538.33±15.18 U/mL after a 5 days induction of 1% methanol, with secreted protein concentration 80.03±1.94 and 239.60±4.16 mg/L, respectively. Compared with the original SSL gene, the expression of optimized SSL gene by the second strategy showed a 2.6 fold higher level, while the first method had no obvious improvement in production. In total secreted protein, the proportions of recombinant SSL encoded by the original gene, first method optimized gene and the second—strategy optimized one were 75.06±0.25%, 74.56±0.14% and 79.00±0.14%, respectively, with the same molecular weight about 18 kDa, optimum acidity pH 6.0 and optimum temperature 35degC. PMID:26025401

  17. Cell proliferation in the seminiferous and epididymal epithelia of Sus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Mañas, C M; Beltrán-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Seco-Rovira, V; Pinart, E; Briz, M D; Bonet, S; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2014-03-15

    It is important to understand the proliferative activity of the different structures of the male reproductive apparatus in livestock species, such as Sus domesticus, to ensure reproductive efficiency. The main aims of this study were (a) to evaluate the proliferative activity of the spermatogonia in the different stages of the seminiferous cycle and (b) to study the cell proliferation in the epididymal epithelium in each region, identifying the different cells involved. For this, the testes and epididymis of three healthy, sexually mature Sus domesticus boars were used. The organs were processed for light microscopy, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The cells immunostaining positively and negatively for proliferating cell nuclear antigen were counted and several parameters and indexes were calculated to evaluate the proliferation in both epithelia, taking into account the stage of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, and, in the case of the epididymal epithelium, the different regions and cells are the same. Finally, a contrast analysis of equality between pairs of means was carried out followed by a least significant differences test, in which differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. In the seminiferous epithelium, the greatest total number of spermatogonia and proliferating spermatogonia was observed in the postmeiotic stages (mainly VII and VIII). The proliferation index of the spermatogonia increased from the meiotic to postmeiotic stages. As regards the epididymal epithelium, the total proliferation index was higher in the caput. In each region, the clear and principal cells showed the highest proliferation index with respect to the total number of cells counted, whereas the proliferation index of each cell with respect to the same type was higher in the clear cells, followed by the narrow and principal cells. In conclusion, the proliferative activity of spermatogonia in the seminiferous epithelium of Sus domesticus is stage-dependent, and mainly occurs in the postmeiotic stages. In the epididymal epithelium, proliferative activity takes place in several cell types and is dependent on the anatomical region of the epididymis. We think that these results may be of importance for understanding the pathologic or reproductive processes in which cell proliferation is involved in the male reproductive system. PMID:24418529

  18. Fracture toughness of partially welded joints of SUS316 in high magnetic field at 4K

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, A.; Yamamoto, J.; Motojima, O.

    1997-06-01

    Two kinds of partially welded austenitic stainless steel joints were prepared using SUS 316, 75 mm thick. One joint was fabricated using tungsten inert gas welding and metal arc gas welding, and the other was electron beam welded. Compact tension specimens for fracture toughness tests were machined out from these welded plates in the thickness direction. The fracture toughness tests of these specimens with natural cracks were carried out in 0, 8, and 14 T fields at 4 K. The test results show that there is no strong effect of the high magnetic field on the fracture toughness of these joints, and the electron beam welded joints give a very low toughness in any case because of the complicated natural crack front shape.

  19. Fatal infection due to Haemophilus parasuis in a young wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Cuesta Gerveno, Jesus M; Risco Pérez, David; Gonçalves Blanco, Pilar; García Jiménez, Waldo L; Gil Molino, Maria; Fernandez-Llario, Pedro; Hermoso de Mendoza Salcedo, Javier; Gómez Gordo, Luis J

    2013-03-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is a recognized pathogen in domestic pigs; the pathogen has been also isolated from healthy wild boar (Sus scrofa). In the current report, a case of fatal H. parasuis infection in a wild boar piglet from central Spain is described. The affected animal presented severe pneumonic lesions, inflammation in tarsal joints with presence of fibrinous deposits, and epidural hemorrhage in the atlanto-occipital joint. Pure growth of H. parasuis was obtained from lungs and tarsal joints. The current case illustrates the susceptibility of wild boar to this agent. The gross pathology results were similar to that described in domestic pigs, but there were no fibrinous deposits on serosal surfaces. PMID:23512924

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Diqing wild boar (Sus verrucosus breed Diqing wild boar).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Fang; Lei, Tao; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Kang-Yu; Yang, Jing; Liu, Xiu-Ming; Yao, Na; Du, Lin-Na; Dong, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Nuo; Ma, Ji-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the diqing wild boar (Sus verrucosus breed diqing wild boar) was reported for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,506?bp. It contained the typical structure, including two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one non-coding control region (D-loop region) as that of most other wild boars. The overall composition of the mitogenome was estimated to be 34.9% for A, 26.1% for T, 26.0% for C and 13.0% for G showing an A-T (61.0%)-rich feature. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic resource to uncover wild boars' genetic diversity. PMID:24972145

  1. Study on electron beam weld joints between pure vanadium and SUS316L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Miyazaki, Jumpei; Hasegawa, Akira; Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo

    2013-11-01

    The mechanical and metallographical properties of the electron beam weld joints between pure vanadium (V) and SUS316L austenitic stainless steel and the effect of post-welding heat treatment (PWHT) at 873 and 1273 K for 1 h on these properties were investigated. The electron beam was shifted by 0.2 mm (EB02S), 0.4 mm (EB04S), and 0.6 mm (EB06S) on the SUS316L side. No significant defects (e.g., pores, macro-cracks, or micro-cracks) were observed in the as-welded EB02S and EB04S joints, whereas a non-welded region was formed in the as-welded EB06S joint. Much higher hardness was observed in the weld metal (WM) of the as-welded EB02S and EB04S joints than in the base metals (BMs), which might be attributed to solution hardening. A significant increment in the hardness of the WM of EB02S joint occurred due to the PWHT at 873 and 1273 K, which might be attributed to solution hardening and formation of Ni2V3 and NiV3 precipitates. Almost no change in the hardness due to the PWHT at 873 and 1273 K occurred in the WM of the EB04S joint. The interlayer was formed at the edge of the WM of the V side only in the post-welding heat-treated EB04S joint. The interlayer showed much higher hardness than the BMs and WM, which might be attributable to solution hardening, formation of ? phase of the Fe-V system, and formation of Ni2V3 and NiV3 precipitates.

  2. Structure of BT_3984, a member of the SusD/RagB family of nutrient-binding molecules

    PubMed Central

    Bakolitsa, Constantina; Xu, Qingping; Rife, Christopher L.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron protein BT_3984 was determined to a resolution of 1.7 Å and was the first structure to be determined from the extensive SusD family of polysaccharide-binding proteins. SusD is an essential component of the sus operon that defines the paradigm for glycan utilization in dominant members of the human gut microbiota. Structural analysis of BT_3984 revealed an N-terminal region containing several tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), while the signature C-terminal region is less structured and contains extensive loop regions. Sequence and structure analysis of BT_3984 suggests the presence of binding interfaces for other proteins from the polysaccharide-utilization complex. PMID:20944222

  3. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  4. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the treatments. The measured ecological diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, HꞋ; Simpson, D; and richness, S) of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene profiles also revealed differences between the treatments, with bacterial and fungal community dominance recorded in the presence of S. scrofa domesticus and grass trimming decomposition, respectively. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in evenness (p>0.05) was observed between the treatments. PMID:26654074

  5. The effects of continuous application of the TASER X26 waveform on Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David M; Murray, W Bosseau; Kennett, Mary J; Hughes, Edward L; Werner, Jacob R

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated and evaluated the safety margins of the continuous long duration (up to 30 min) effect of the TASER X26 waveform, using a Sus scrofa model. Long duration continuous stimulus has not been evaluated on humans or human surrogates prior to this study. Swine were used as models due to similarities with humans in their skin and cardiovascular systems. Very long duration was used to determine both exposure dose and possible adverse physiological effects of dose. The trial began with an application of 10 min, and subsequent animals received increasing exposure time up to a survived maximum duration of 30 min. At the onset of this work, it was hypothesized that there would be a time limit after which most animals would not survive consistent with increased dose response. However, this hypothesis was not supported by the experimental results. All animals (10 of 10) survived up to 3 min. Seven of the 10 animals survived up to a 10-min exposure and 3 of 5 animals with a 30-min target exposure survived the full exposure. Surviving animals were recovered and observed for 24 h, with no postrecovery deaths. This suggests that swine (based on physiology) will not experience a fatal event when exposed to the TASER X26 for a continuous 3 min. Conclusions regarding longer duration (10-30 min) are not as certain due to the small sample sizes at these time intervals. PMID:23489132

  6. Laser desensitization treatment for inside surface of SUS304 stainless steel pipe welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Seiichiro; Kono, Wataru; Kawano, Syohei; Sumiya, Rie

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technology for preventing the occurrence of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) by irradiating a high power YAG laser beam onto the sensitized Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) surface of SUS304 stainless steel. By irradiating a laser beam of the appropriate power density, a laser de-sensitization heat treatment (LDT) process was realized that formed both a molten layer of approximately 0.2 mm depth and a solution heat treated layer. The results of a Creviced Bent Beam (CBB) test to evaluate IGSCC showed that no cracks had appeared on the surface of the LDT parts. Also, after LDT was applied at a width of 40 mm in the vicinity of welding joints in the inside surface of pipes (thickness: 8 mm), approximately 250 MPa of tensile stress was measured as a residual stress on this LDT- processed surface. On the other hand, the tensile stress on the outside surface of these pipes decreased to the compression stress.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan. PMID:26116524

  8. Fatigue Properties of SUS304 Stainless Steel after Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (unsm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K. Y.; Pyoun, Y. S.; Cao, X. J.; Wu, B.; Murakami, R.

    The changing of materials surface properties method always was taken into improving the fatigue strength. In this paper, an ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification(UNSM) technique was used on the SUS 304 stainless steel to form a nanostructured surface layer with different static load(70N, 90N, 110N, 130N) and the vibration strike number was about 20,000times/mm2. The untreated and different condition specimens fatigue strength was all tested by a dual-spindle rotating bending fatigue test machine. SPring-8(a large synchrotron radiation facility) was used to test the surface nanocrystallization components. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscope and a micro-Vickers hardness tester (MVK-E3, Akashi) were separately used to get the surface residual stresses, fracture surface after fatigue testing, metallographic structure and the microhardness of the nanostructured surface layer. The result showed that martensite transformation took place on the surface of specimens, the surface residual stresses had only a small increase and some cracks occurred between the martensite layer and the austenite layer, but the fatigue strength of 90N improved 81%.

  9. Prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Portugal: risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Faria, M C; Nunes-Pereira, M; Faria, A S; Veloso, O; Vieira, M L; Paiva-Cardoso, Md N

    2015-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by infection with pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. The wild boar (Sus scrofa), an important hunting species in Europe, seems to play a significant role in the epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis. A total of 101 serum samples from wild boar hunted in Northern Portugal were analysed for leptospiral antibodies detection by microscopic agglutination test. Sera were collected during hunting seasons (2011-2013) and tested with 17 different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Antibodies against nine serovars were detected in 66 (65·4%) of these sera. Serovars Tarassovi and Altodouro exhibited the highest seroreactivity rates (23·8% and 16·8%, respectively), followed by Autumnalis (7·9%) and Bratislava (6·9%). Age and district of origin were found to be risk factors for the presence of leptospiral antibodies in contrast to gender. From a One Health perspective, this study revealed that wild boar should be considered as a potential source of leptospirosis dissemination for humans and animal species (domestic and wild) in shared environments, particularly in the Trás-os-Montes region. PMID:25519057

  10. Digestible energy content of pasture species in growing European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.).

    PubMed

    Quijada, R P; Bitsch, N I; Hodgkinson, S M

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the apparent energy digestibility of six pasture species frequently grazed by European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) and to estimate the digestible energy (DE) consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar. Seven diets were prepared; a base diet (BD) which did not contain any pasture species, diets D1 to D5 which included 75% of the BD and 25% of the dried pasture species Lolium perenne (D1), Festuca arundinacea (D2), Agrostis capillaris (D3), Bromus staminius (D4) or Trifolium repens (D5) and D6 which contained 85% BD and 15% dried Plantago lanceolata. Seven purebred European wild boar (initial liveweight 24.4 ± 0.8 kg, average ± SEM) were given access to the diets following a Latin Square design. The animals received each diet for eight days, with faecal sampling on days 6, 7 and 8. The total apparent DE consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar was estimated using previously collected pasture consumption data from wild boar. The digestibility coefficients and DE contents of the pasture species ranged from 0.29 to 0.65, and 5.8 to 12.6 MJ/kg DM respectively, with L. perenne and P. lanceolata having the greatest digestibility coefficients and DE contents. The wild boar were estimated to satisfy between 52% and 142% of their maintenance energy requirements through pasture consumption. Grazing wild boar are able to utilise an important proportion of the energy present in pasture species. PMID:21575078

  11. High frequency magnetotelluric and geoelectric researches in the Provita de Sus landslide area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diacopolos, Constantin

    2010-05-01

    In the Provita de Sus area, high frequency magnetotelluric and geoelectric (Vertical Electric Soundings) measurements have been performed in order to delineate the landslide area. The high frequency magnetotelluric method uses the time variations of the natural electromagnetic field propagating inside the Earth and induces a secondary electromagnetic field, measured at the surface by special devices, in order to investigate the Earth's shallow electric conductivity structure. We performed these measurements aiming to point out the slide interface, as well as its the depth, and to establish the dip and strike of a relatively evident fault system from the studied area. The high frequency magnetotelluric data have been obtained in the frequency range 24 KHz - 1Hz by using a GMS 06 devices and the MAPROS software. For the geoelectric measurements we used the IntV3 resistivimeter, Schlumberger type array. This device version is designed for geophysical appliances allowing the soil resistivity measurements, under natural conditions of climate and land morphology. The field measurements led to a series of potential difference values expressed in micro V. The interpretation is based on the apparent resistivity resulting from the field measurements by using standard relation. The results highlight the usefulness of the geoelectric method for the landslide areas delineation, taking into account its user-friendliness, having all the technical facilities for measurement, processing and interpretation. The results are presented along two resistivity cross-sections, placed perpendicular and parallel to landslide surface.

  12. Wild boar hair (Sus scrofa) as a non-invasive indicator of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Soba?ska, Marta A

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the usefulness of wild boar (Sus scrofa) hair as a non-invasive indicator of mercury pollution. Samples were collected in two hunting seasons (1998/1999 and 1999/2000) by hunters from four differently polluted regions of Poland. Mercury content was determined by AAS methods. Different washing procedures were compared. De-ionised water was found to be suitable for the removal of exogenous mercury sources in hair analysis. Metal distribution along hair was analysed. It was found that problems arising from differences in distribution of metal along a single hair strand as well as differences in the hair colour can be eliminated through the careful homogenisation of the samples before analysis. The influences of physiological, ecological and environmental factors that might significantly affect the obtained results (age, gender, season, location of habitat and diet of the sampled animals) were estimated and taken into account. The present study revealed that female hair contained a higher amount of mercury than male hair. Moreover the highest mercury content was found in young individuals between 1 and 2 years of age. A positive correlation of the present results with environmental data taken from the State Offices showed an influence of environmental pollution on the mercury level in wild boar hair. PMID:15740760

  13. Functional characterization of a new promoter isolated from torque teno sus virus 1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbo; Wei, Yanwu; Huang, Liping; Wang, Yiping; Chen, Dongjie; Wu, Hongli; Liu, Changming

    2016-02-01

    Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) has a non-enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense circular DNA genome, and it is widely distributed in pigs. Open reading frame 1 (ORF1) of TTSuV1 can be transcribed into mRNA and then translated into protein; however, its promoter has not yet been identified. We used a dual-luciferase reporter system, involving pGL3-Basic and pRL-TK, to identify the promoter of TTSuV1 ORF1. Our results revealed that the sequence between nucleotides 196 and 525 promoted the transcription of the firefly luciferase gene. The core sequence of the promoter was between nucleotides 250 and 400. A comparison of the identified TTSuV1 ORF1 promoter with that from cytomegalovirus (CMV) suggested that the two promoters were similar in strength. Our findings provide new information regarding the molecular biology of TTSuV1 and have revealed a new promoter that can be used in plasmids for numerous applications. PMID:26526149

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of pig (Sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome and dating evolutionary divergence within Artiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Lin, C S; Sun, Y L; Liu, C Y; Yang, P C; Chang, L C; Cheng, I C; Mao, S J; Huang, M C

    1999-08-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the pig (Sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome, containing 16613bp, is presented in this report. The genome is not a specific length because of the presence of the variable numbers of tandem repeats, 5'-CGTGCGTACA in the displacement loop (D-loop). Genes responsible for 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 protein-coding regions are found. The genome carries very few intergenic nucleotides with several instances of overlap between protein-coding or tRNA genes, except in the D-loop region. For evaluating the possible evolutionary relationships between Artiodactyla and Cetacea, the nucleotide substitutions and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes were aligned by pairwise comparisons of the pig, cow, and fin whale. By comparing these sequences, we suggest that there is a closer relationship between the pig and cow than that between either of these species and fin whale. In addition, the accumulation of transversions and gaps in pig 12S and 16S rRNA genes was compared with that in other eutherian species, including cow, fin whale, human, horse, and harbor seal. The results also reveal a close phylogenetic relationship between pig and cow, as compared to fin whale and others. Thus, according to the sequence differences of mitochondrial rRNA genes in eutherian species, the evolutionary separation of pig and cow occurred about 53-60 million years ago. PMID:10433971

  15. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ? 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig. PMID:21719838

  16. Analysis of Muscle and Ovary Transcriptome of Sus scrofa: Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Qinghua; Fang, Meixia; Jia, Xinzheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoning; He, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiquan

    2011-01-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa) is an important organism for both agricultural and medical purpose. This study aims to investigate the S. scrofa transcriptome by the use of Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained a total of 558 743 and 528 260 reads for the back-leg muscle and ovary tissue each. The overall 1 087 003 reads give rise to 421 767 341 bp total residues averaging 388 bp per read. The de novo assemblies yielded 11 057 contigs and 60 270 singletons for the back-leg muscle, 12 204 contigs and 70 192 singletons for the ovary and 18 938 contigs and 102 361 singletons for combined tissues. The overall GC content of S. scrofa transcriptome is 42.3% for assembled contigs. Alternative splicing was found within 4394 contigs, giving rise to 1267 isogroups or genes. A total of 56 589 transcripts are involved in molecular function (40 916), biological process (38 563), cellular component (35 787) by further gene ontology analyses. Comparison analyses showed that 336 and 553 genes had significant higher expression in the back-leg muscle and ovary each. In addition, we obtained a total of 24 214 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 11 928 simple sequence repeats. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetic makeup of S. scrofa transcriptome and provide useful information for functional genomic research in future. PMID:21729922

  17. Technological incorporation in the Unified Health System (SUS): the problem and ensuing challenges.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2014-12-01

    Technological incorporation is a central topic among the concerns regarding health care systems. This paper discusses the role of technology dynamics in health systems' cost increases, suggesting two different approaches - a 'pragmatic-economic' approach and a 'rational-defensive' approach - as guidelines to explain the reasons for this centrality. The paper shows how judicialization results from this situation and discusses two doctrinal views - 'reserve for contingencies' and 'rational use' - as the views that usually guide the debates in the courts and among health policy makers. The paper suggests that the attitude currently prevalent in the Brazilian judiciary system can prejudice the principle of equity by improperly evaluating the principle of integrality. We present a brief genealogy of HTA and a timeline of HTA in Brazil. We also discuss the relevance and the impact of Law 12401/2011, which regulates the principle of integrality in the Unified Health System (SUS) and propose three challenges to the development of HTA actions aiming at technology incorporation in Brazil. Finally, we discuss the entry and the role of private health insurance companies, emphasizing changes in the scenario and in their position. PMID:25388198

  18. A Novel Bonding Method of Pure Aluminum and SUS304 Stainless Steel Using Barrel Nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jung Hyun; Okumiya, Masahiro; Tsunekawa, Yoshiki; Yun, Ky Youl; Kim, Sang Gweon; Yoshida, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    A great deal of research is being carried out on welding or bonding methods between iron and aluminum. However, it is not so easy to make Fe-Al bonding materials with both high strength and light weight. Recently, a new nitriding process has been proposed to produce aluminum nitride on an aluminum surface using a barrel. This study proposes a new concept in the production of a multilayer which has an AlN and Fe-Al intermetallic compound layer between the aluminum and steel using a barrel nitriding process. The bonding process was carried out from 893 K to 913 K (620 °C to 640 °C) for 18, 25.2, and 36 ks with Al2O3 powder and Al-Mg alloy powder. After the process, an aluminum nitride (AlN) layer and a Fe-Al intermetallic compound (Fe2Al5.4) layer were formed at the interface between the pure aluminum and SUS304 austenitic stainless steel. The thicknesses of the AlN layer and the intermetallic compound layer increased with increasing treatment temperature and time. The maximum hardnesses of the AlN layer and Fe2Al5.4 layers were found to be 377HV and 910HV, respectively, after barrel nitriding at 893 K (620 °C) for 18 ks.

  19. Light-absorbing Aerosol Properties in the Kathmandu Valley during SusKat-ABC Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kim, J.; Cho, C.; Jung, J.

    2013-12-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), are major contributors to the atmospheric heating and the reduction of solar radiation reaching at the earth's surface. In this study, we investigate light-absorption and scattering properties of aerosols (i.e., BC mass concentration, aerosol solar-absorption/scattering efficiency) in the Kathmandu valley during Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu valley (SusKat)-ABC campaign, from December 2012 to February 2013. Kathmandu City is among the most polluted cities in the world. However, there are only few past studies that provide basic understanding of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, which is not sufficient for designing effective mitigation measures (e.g., technological, financial, regulatory, legal and political measures, planning strategies). A distinct diurnal variation of BC mass concentration with two high peaks observed during wintertime dry monsoon period. BC mass concentration was found to be maximum around 09:00 and 20:00 local standard time (LST). Increased cars and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to high BC concentration. Low BC concentrations during the daytime can be explain by reduced vehicular movement and cooking activities. Also, the developmements of the boundary layer height and mountain-valley winds in the Kathmandu Valley paly a crucial role in the temproal variation of BC mass concentrations. Detailed radiative effects of light-absorbing aerosols will be presented.

  20. Dissimilar welding of nickel-based Alloy 690 to SUS 304L with Ti addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. T.; Jeng, S. L.; Yen, C. H.; Kuo, T. Y.

    2004-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of Ti addition on the weldability, microstructure and mechanical properties of a dissimilar weldment of Alloy 690 and SUS 304L. Shielding metal arc welding (SMAW) is employed to butt-weld two plates with three welding layers, where each layer is deposited in a single pass. To investigate the effects of Ti addition, the flux coatings of the electrodes used in the welding process are modified by varying additions of either a Ti-Fe compound or a Ti powder. The results indicate that the microstructure of the fusion zone (FZ) is primarily dendritic. With increasing Ti content, it is noted that the microstructure changes from a columnar dendritic to an equiaxed dendritic, in which the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) becomes shorter. Furthermore, it is observed that the amount of Al-Ti oxide phase increases in the inter-dendritic region, while the amount of Nb-rich phase decreases. Moreover, the average hardness of the FZ increases slightly. The results indicate that Ti addition prompts a significant increase in the elongation of the weldment (i.e. 36.5%, Ti: 0.41 wt%), although the tensile strength remains relatively unchanged. However, at an increased Ti content of 0.91 wt%, an obvious reduction in the tensile strength is noted, which can be attributed to a general reduction in the weldability of the joint.

  1. Serologic and molecular survey for hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mazzei, M.; Nardini, R.; Verin, R.; Forzan, M.; Poli, A.; Tolari, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). Sixty-four blood and faecal samples collected from wild boar hunted in Central Italy in 2011–2012 were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR analysis. Positive RT-PCR samples were further examined by nucleotide sequence determination and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-six sera (56.2%) were positive for HEV-specific antibodies, and six (9.4%) faecal samples scored RT-PCR-positive results. Four animals were positive by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected wild boar–derived HEV sequences clustered within genotype 3, with similarity to sequences of human origin collected in a nearby area in 2012. Our data confirm that HEV is endemic in the wild boar population in the research area and that these wild animals could play an important role in the epidemiology of HEV infection. PMID:26199731

  2. Testis morphometry and kinetics of spermatogenesis in the feral pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Costa, Deiler S; Faria, Fábio J C; Fernandes, Carlos A C; Silva, Juliana C B; Auharek, Sarah A

    2013-11-01

    The feral pig (Sus scrofa sp) also known as Monteiro pig, originated from a domestic pig breed that was introduced into Pantanal region in Brazil in the eighteenth century. Although the feral pig has commercial potential, there are few reports in the literature concerning the reproductive biology of this species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further describe the feral pig testis parenchyma as well as characterize the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle by tubular morphology method, and to evaluate the number of differentiated spermatogonia generations in this species. Eight sexually mature feral pigs were analyzed. Fragments of testes were embedded in plastic resin and used to prepare slides for morphometrical studies. It was concluded that the feral pig has six generations of differentiated spermatogonials (A1, A2, A3, A4, In, B) and that the cellular composition in the eight stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle of these animals were very similar to those reported in species of suidae and tayssuidae already studied. PMID:24100067

  3. Expression profile and subcellular localization of Torque teno sus virus proteins.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guinó, Laura; Ballester, Maria; Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, the expression, generation and subcellular localization of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) proteins were characterized into two genetically distinct TTSuV species (TTSuV1 and TTSuV2). Following transfection of three TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 full-length ORF (ORF1, ORF2 and ORF3) expression constructs into porcine kidney cells, alternative splice variants encoding new TTSuV protein isoforms were identified for the first time. Proteins encoded from ORF1 and ORF3 were localized in the nucleoli of porcine kidney cells and that of ORF2 in the cytoplasm and nucleus excluding the nucleoli. The subcellular localization of the different protein isoforms was not only similar between distinct TTSuV species but also to the ones described in human Torque teno virus (TTV). Results of the present in vitro study were not based on full-length viral clones but suggested that alternative splicing strategy to generate TTSuV protein isoforms probably occurs in vivo. Obtained data provide new information on molecular biology of TTSuV and anelloviruses, which until now has been solely based on results obtained from human TTV. PMID:21715596

  4. Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nuno; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Källenius, Gunilla; Svenson, Stefan B; Almeida, Virgílio

    2009-10-01

    Tuberculosis has been diagnosed in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in several European countries during the last decade; however, almost no information has been reported to date for Portugal. This study aimed to investigate tuberculosis in wild boar in Portugal through characterization of Mycobacterium bovis infection and identification of disease risk factors. Tissue samples were obtained from hunted wild boar during the 2005 and 2006 hunting seasons. Samples were inspected for gross lesions and processed for culture. Acid-fast bacterial isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction and spoligotyping. Associations between tuberculosis in wild boar and several variables linked to wild ungulate diversity and relative abundance, livestock density, and cattle tuberculosis incidence were investigated. Mycobacterium bovis isolates were identified in 18 of 162 wild boars from three of eight study areas. Infection rates ranged from 6% (95% confidence interval [CI(P95%)] = 1-21%) to 46% (CI(P95%) = 27-67%) in the three infected study areas; females in our sample were at greater risk of being infected than males (odds ratio = 4.33; CI(P95%) = 3.31-5.68). Spoligotyping grouped the M. bovis isolates in three clusters and one isolate was a novel spoligotype not previously reported in international databases. Detection of M. bovis was most consistently associated with variables linked to wild ungulate relative abundance, suggesting that these species, particularly the wild boar, might act as maintenance hosts in Portugal. PMID:19901381

  5. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from wild boar (Sus scrofa) in France.

    PubMed

    Richomme, C; Aubert, D; Gilot-Fromont, E; Ajzenberg, D; Mercier, A; Ducrot, C; Ferté, H; Delorme, D; Villena, I

    2009-10-14

    Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from domestic animals and humans have been classified into three clonal lineages types I-III, with differences in terms of pathogenicity to mice. Much less is known on T. gondii genotypes in wild animals. In this report, genotypes of T. gondii isolated from wild boar (Sus scrofa) in France are described. During the hunting seasons 2002-2008, sera and tissues of individuals from two French regions, one continental and one insular, were tested for Toxoplasma infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 26 (17.6%) of 148 wild boars using the modified agglutination test (MAT, positivity threshold: 1:24). Seroprevalence was 45.9% when considering a threshold of 1:6. Hearts of individuals with a positive agglutination (starting dilution 1:6) (n=60) were bioassayed in mice for isolation of viable T. gondii. In total, 21 isolates of T. gondii were obtained. Genotyping of the isolates using 3 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2 and GRA7) and 6 microsatellite loci analysis (TUB2, TgM-A, W35, B17, B18 and M33) revealed that all belonged to type II lineage. These results underline that wild boar may serve as an important reservoir for transmission of T. gondii, and that strains present in wildlife may not be different from strains from the domestic environment. PMID:19592170

  6. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Lessa, Ss; Paes, Rcs; Santoro, Pn; Mauro, Ra; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  7. Hemodynamic and Histologic Characterization of a Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) Model of Chronic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Abraham; Wiencek, Robert G; Davidson, Stephanie; Evans, William N; Restrepo, Humberto; Sarukhanov, Valeri; Rivera-Begeman, Amanda; Mann, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and characterize an aortopulmonary shunt model of chronic pulmonary hypertension in swine and provide sequential hemodynamic, angiographic, and histologic data by using an experimental endoarterial biopsy catheter. Nine Yucatan female microswine (Sus scrofa domestica) underwent surgical anastomosis of the left pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. Sequential hemodynamic, angiographic, and pulmonary vascular samples were obtained. Six pigs (mean weight, 22.4 ± 5.3 kg; mean age, 7.3 ± 2.7 mo at surgery) survived long-term (6 mo) and consistently developed marked pulmonary arterial hypertension. Angiography showed characteristic central pulmonary arterial enlargement and peripheral tortuosity and pruning. The biopsy catheter was safe and effective in obtaining pulmonary endoarterial samples for histologic studies, which showed neointimal and medial changes. Autopsy confirmed severe pulmonary vascular changes, including concentric obstructive neointimal and plexiform-like lesions. This swine model showed hemodynamic, angiographic, and histologic characteristics of chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension that mimicked the arterial pulmonary hypertension of systemic-to-pulmonary arterial shunts in humans. Experimental data obtained using this and other models and application of an in vivo endoarterial biopsy technique may aid in understanding mechanisms and developing therapies for experimental and human pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:21819696

  8. [The contemporary relationship between work, qualification and recognition: repercussions on the Unified Health System (SUS) workers].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Monica; Chinelli, Filippina

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between work, qualification and recognition as it occurs in the field of health today, specifically considering the employability of technical workers in the Unified Health System, the way they perceive the employment relationship with respect to their self-esteem regarding their subjectivities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the subject is treated in the wider context of ongoing changes in the workplace, which are associated with intensification, flexibility and precariousness of labor relations, with repercussions on the specific aspects mentioned. An attempt is made to establish a critical dialogue with the analytical aspect that emphasizes daily work as a privileged forum for overcoming the contradictions that characterize the field of work and education in the SUS nowadays. The text emphasizes the following issues: analysis of the relationship between work and education from the perspective of the concept of skill; the broadening of the meaning of health work; and a critical evaluation of policies that end up making the workers liable for the quality of services rendered. PMID:23752526

  9. Establishing a DNA identification system for pigs (Sus scrofa) using a multiplex STR amplification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Lee, James Chun-I; Hsiao, Chung-Ting; Lin, Der-Yuh; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin

    2014-03-01

    In this study we establish a novel STR multiplex using 13 tetra-nucleotide STRs and the amelogenin marker for the forensic identification of pigs. The genotypes and allele frequency were generated based on 341 samples from 11 pig breeds in Taiwan. Genetic variation was tested including Na, Ne, Ho, He, F-statistics, PIC, Pm and PE for each STR locus and for each breed. Based upon the 341 samples in this study, the CPm and CPEtrio of the 13 STR loci were 1.31 E-11 and 0.9996 respectively. The CPItrio based on ten family sets ranged from 4.012 E+4 to 4.332 E+6 for paternity test. Validation of the multiplex included: determining the sensitivity of the test, where reproducible full DNA profiles were obtained using an initial template of between 0.25 and 1 ng; a comprehensive range of tissue types generated the same genotype; and the specificity was confirmed as no DNA full profile was generated for any species other than Sus scrofa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the European domestic breeds clustered separately from the Asian breeds, as expected, and their hybrids formed unique clades respectively between the clades of Asian and European breeds. Eleven test samples, acting as unknown samples, matched all expected breeds. We demonstrate that this novel 14-plex PCR system is valuable in pig individualization, parentage testing, breed assessment, phylogenetic study and forensic applications. PMID:24528574

  10. An Analysis of Recent Enrollment, Discipline and Graduation Trends among Females and Underrepresented Minorities at SUS Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore; Borman, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    Increased numbers of minority students as well as increased numbers of Florida high school graduates entering higher education in Florida have influenced Florida SUS [State University System] enrollment and graduation characteristics. This study of 510,952 undergraduate students shows that between the years 1996 and 2003, the number of entering…

  11. Gene expression profile suggests that pigs (Sus scrofa) are susceptible to Anaplasma phagocytophilum but control infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects a wide variety of hosts and causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans, horses and dogs and tick-borne fever in ruminants. Infection with A. phagocytophilum results in the modification of host gene expression and immune response. The objective of this research was to characterize gene expression in pigs (Sus scrofa) naturally and experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum trying to identify mechanisms that help to explain low infection prevalence in this species. Results For gene expression analysis in naturally infected pigs, microarray hybridization was used. The expression of differentially expressed immune response genes was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR in naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Results suggested that A. phagocytophilum infection affected cytoskeleton rearrangement and increased both innate and adaptive immune responses by up regulation of interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1), T-cell receptor alpha chain (TCR-alpha), thrombospondin 4 (TSP-4) and Gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1) genes. Higher serum levels of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in infected pigs when compared to controls supported data obtained at the mRNA level. Conclusions These results suggested that pigs are susceptible to A. phagocytophilum but control infection, particularly through activation of innate immune responses, phagocytosis and autophagy. This fact may account for the low infection prevalence detected in pigs in some regions and thus their low or no impact as a reservoir host for this pathogen. These results advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the host-pathogen interface and suggested a role for newly reported genes in the protection of pigs against A. phagocytophilum. PMID:22935149

  12. Characterization of Sus scrofa Small Non-Coding RNAs Present in Both Female and Male Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykiewicz, Dorota; Świercz, Aleksandra; Handschuh, Luiza; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Figlerowicz, Marek; Wrzesinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs) present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30–36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5′ uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent. PMID:25415416

  13. Age-related tissue distribution of swine Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Aramouni, M; Segalés, J; Cortey, M; Kekarainen, T

    2010-12-15

    Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular single-stranded DNA genome, belonging to the family Anelloviridae. In swine, two genetically distinct species have been identified, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2). The aim of the present work was to study the tissue distribution of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 in pigs of different ages, including foetuses at the second and last thirds of gestation, and animals at 5 days and 5, 15 and 24 weeks of age. Investigated tissues included brain, lung, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and bone marrow. Viral DNA from tissue extractions were tested by a comparative PCR for the presence of TTSuVs. Overall, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 species were found in all tissues tested, with variations depending on age, and following similar infection dynamics in all tissues, increasing progressively in prevalence and virus load over time. The highest prevalence was found at 5 weeks of age and maintained afterwards, and the highest loads of virus in the different tissues were seen in the oldest animals (15 and 24 weeks of age). No animals were negative to TTV, including foetuses. In conclusion, the present study indicated that swine TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 can be found virtually in all body tissues of the pig. Both swine TTV species were present in high levels in almost all older animals, while viral negative tissues were only found in 5-week-old and 5-day-old pigs, and foetuses. PMID:20646878

  14. Nonstructural proteins of Torque teno sus virus 2 from O2AUG: prediction to experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Yu, Haisheng; Nie, Xiaohua; Li, Yongqing; Zhang, Liguo; Lu, Chengping

    2013-12-26

    The expression profiles of nonstructural proteins (NSPs) in Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2) have not yet been characterized. Here, we determined the coding sequences of the TTSuV2 NSPs ORF2, ORF2/2, and ORF2/2/3 by overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent expression in bacterial and mammalian cells. We generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 2E5 and 6F8, from mice immunized with mixed Escherichia coli expressing His-tagged ORF2 and ORF2/2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis revealed that, 2E5 mAbs bound to the consensus sequences of ORF2, ORF2/2, and ORF2/2/3, while 6F8 recognized the common sequences of ORF2/2 and ORF2/2/3. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that ORF2 was localized in the cytoplasm, ORF2/2, in the nucleus but not the nucleolus, and ORF2/2/3, in the peri-nuclear region. To identify the expression profiles of TTSuV NSPs, a circular TTSuV2_ZJ (GenBank: KF660540) genomic DNA clone was constructed and transfected into HEK293T and HeLa cells. Splicing mRNAs and the expression and localization of ORF2/2 and ORF2/2/3 were identified by RT-PCR, western blot analysis, and IFA, respectively. However, ORF2 was not detected either at the RNA or protein level. Our study is the first to provide experimental evidence of the existence of ORF2/2 and ORF2/2/3 at the protein level. Moreover, the mAbs have potential applications in future research on TTSuV2 viral protein function and diagnosis of related diseases. PMID:24091363

  15. Vaccination of pigs reduces Torque teno sus virus viremia during natural infection.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Melsió, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Fernando; Darji, Ayub; Segalés, Joaquim; Cornelissen-Keijsers, Vivian; van den Born, Erwin; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2015-07-01

    Anelloviruses are a group of single-stranded circular DNA viruses infecting several vertebrate species. Four species have been found to infect swine, namely Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) 1a and 1b (TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b; genus Iotatorquevirus), TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b (genus Kappatorquevirus). TTSuV infection in pigs is distributed worldwide, and is characterized by a persistent viremia. However, the real impact, if any, on the pig health is still under debate. In the present study, the impact of pig immunization on TTSuVk2a loads was evaluated. For this, three-week old conventional pigs were primed with DNA vaccines encoding the ORF2 gene and the ORF1-A, ORF1-B, and ORF1-C splicing variants and boosted with purified ORF1-A and ORF2 Escherichia coli proteins, while another group served as unvaccinated control animals, and the viral load dynamics during natural infection was observed. Immunization led to delayed onset of TTSuVk2a infection and at the end of the study when the animals were 15 weeks of age, a number of animals in the immunized group had cleared the TTSuVk2a viremia, which was not the case in the control group. This study demonstrated for the first time that TTSuV viremia can be controlled by a combined DNA and protein immunization, especially apparent two weeks after the first DNA immunization before seroconversion was observed. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms behind this and its impact for pig producers. PMID:26051513

  16. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  17. The morphology of the inner ear from the domestic pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Lovell, J M; Harper, G M

    2007-12-01

    The morphology of the hair cells of the inner ear end organs from the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) have been studied using a combination of Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM), revealing hair cells from the cochlea and vestibule using a novel surgical and technical approach. This is the first time that the inner ear hair cells from S. scrofa have been studied, thus providing useful anatomical information on the morphology of the hair cells from the cochlea, saccule and utricle from a large mammal. Anatomical information in relation to the morphology of the inner ear is of considerable importance, both in the pathological diagnosis of trauma and in the development of cochlea implants and other biotechnological systems associated with the enhancement of hearing. Standard fixation protocols using cardiac perfusion was not employed in this study as this method cannot always be applied, such as the pathological examination of the human ear, or the study of animals protected by endangered species legislation. With the exception of a very few countries, cetaceans cannot be killed for research purposes, yet physiological information on the inner ear from these species is urgently required for ecological assessment reasons. Supporting the use of S. scrofa as a model for cetacean hearing research is that this animal is a member of the order Artiodactyla, which includes both the hippopotamus and cetaceans. Being of a similar size, the pig is an ideal subject for developing protocols and surgical techniques required to investigate both the human and small cetacean auditory systems. PMID:18045329

  18. Sus1p facilitates pre-initiation complex formation at the SAGA-regulated genes independently of histone H2B de-ubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Durairaj, Geetha; Shukla, Abhijit; Bhaumik, Sukesh R.

    2014-01-01

    Sus1p is a common component of transcriptional co-activator, SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase), and mRNA export complex, TREX-2 (Transcription-export 2), and is involved in promoting transcription as well as mRNA export. However, it is not clearly understood how Sus1p promotes transcription. Here, we show that Sus1p is predominantly recruited to the upstream activating sequence of a SAGA-dependent gene, GAL1, under transcriptionally active conditions as a component of SAGA to promote the formation of pre-initiation complex (PIC) at the core promoter, and consequently, transcriptional initiation. Likewise, Sus1p promotes the PIC formation at other SAGA-dependent genes, and hence transcriptional initiation. Such function of Sus1p in promoting PIC formation and transcriptional initiation is not mediated via its role in regulation of SAGA’s histone H2B de-ubiquitylation activity. However, Sus1p’s function in regulation of histone H2B ubiquitylation is associated with transcriptional elongation, DNA repair and replication. Collectively, our results support that Sus1p promotes PIC formation (and hence transcriptional initiation) at the SAGA-regulated genes independently of histone H2B de-ubiquitylation, and further controls transcriptional elongation, DNA repair and replication via orchestration of histone H2B ubiquitylation, thus providing distinct functional insights of Sus1p in regulation of DNA transacting processes. PMID:24911582

  19. Indirect versus direct detection methods of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa), one of the main sources of human trichinellosis, continue to represent a public health problem. The detection of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of wild boar by digestion can prevent the occurrence of clinical trichinellosis in humans. However, the analytical sensitivity of digestion in the detection process is dependent on the quantity of tested muscle. Consequently, large quantities of muscle have to be digested to warrant surveillance programs, or more sensitive tests need to be employed. The use of indirect detection methods, such as the ELISA to detect Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar has limitations due to its low specificity. The aim of the study was to implement serological detection of anti-Trichinella spp. antibodies in meat juices from hunted wild boar for the surveillance of Trichinella spp. infections. Methods Two tests were used, ELISA for the initial screening test, and a specific and sensitive Western blot (Wb) as a confirmatory test. The circulation of anti-Trichinella IgG was determined in hunted wild boar muscle juice samples in 9 provinces of 5 Italian regions. Results From 1,462 muscle fluid samples, 315 (21.5%, 95% C.I. 19.51-23.73) were tested positive by ELISA. The 315 ELISA-positive muscle fluid samples were further tested by Wb and 32 (10.1%, 95% C.I. 7.29-13.99) of these were positive with a final seroprevalence of 2.2% (95% C.I 1.55-3.07; 32/1,462). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected by artificial digestion in muscle tissues of one (0.07%, 95%C.I. 0.01-0.39) out of the 1,462 hunted wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in Wb-negative wild boar. From 2006 to 2012, a prevalence of 0.017% was detected by muscle digestion in wild boar hunted in the whole Italian territory. Conclusions The combined use of both serological methods had a sensitivity 31.4 times higher than that of the digestion (32/1,462 versus 1/1,462), suggesting their potential use for the surveillance of the Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar populations. PMID:24708795

  20. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  1. Residual stress in the cylindrical drawing cup of SUS304 stainless steel evaluated by split-ring test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang-Hong; Yuan, Dao-He; Xiang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Gang; Zhou, Yi-Chun

    2015-09-01

    The residual stresses in the wall of a SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup were evaluated by split-ring tests, and the influences of stamping die parameters on the residual stress were investigated. A new theoretical model of a split-ring test was developed to evaluate the residual stress in a ring, which was verified to be reasonable and reliable by numerical simulations with ABAQUS code and by nanoindentation tests. Seven groups of split-ring tests were completed, and the residual stresses were calculated according to the theoretical model. The split-ring test results showed that the circumferential residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup was very large and did not change with the different die corner radius. The circumferential residual stress first increased with the increase of drawing punch-die clearance, then was almost unchanged when the clearance increased greater than blank thickness 1 mm. Thus, a smaller clearance was suggested to be chosen to reduce the residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel drawing cup.

  2. Residual stress in the cylindrical drawing cup of SUS304 stainless steel evaluated by split-ring test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang-Hong; Yuan, Dao-He; Xiang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Gang; Zhou, Yi-Chun

    2016-02-01

    The residual stresses in the wall of a SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup were evaluated by split-ring tests, and the influences of stamping die parameters on the residual stress were investigated. A new theoretical model of a split-ring test was developed to evaluate the residual stress in a ring, which was verified to be reasonable and reliable by numerical simulations with ABAQUS code and by nanoindentation tests. Seven groups of split-ring tests were completed, and the residual stresses were calculated according to the theoretical model. The split-ring test results showed that the circumferential residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup was very large and did not change with the different die corner radius. The circumferential residual stress first increased with the increase of drawing punch-die clearance, then was almost unchanged when the clearance increased greater than blank thickness 1 mm. Thus, a smaller clearance was suggested to be chosen to reduce the residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel drawing cup.

  3. High Prevalence of Co-Infection with Multiple Torque Teno Sus Virus Species in Italian Pig Herds

    PubMed Central

    Blois, Sylvain; Mallus, Francesca; Liciardi, Manuele; Pilo, Cristian; Camboni, Tania; Macera, Lisa; Maggi, Fabrizio; Manzin, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are a large group of vertebrate-infecting small viruses with circular single-stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In swine, two genetically distinct species, Torque teno sus virus 1a (TTSuV1a) and 1b (TTSuV1b) are currently grouped into the genus Iotatorquevirus. More recently, a novel Torque teno sus virus species, named Torque teno sus virus k2b (TTSuVk2b), has been included with Torque teno sus virus k2a (TTSuVk2a) into the genus Kappatorquevirus. In the present study, TTSuV1 (TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b), TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b prevalence was evaluated in 721 serum samples of healthy pigs from Sardinian farms, insular Italy. This is the largest study to date on the presence of TTSuV in healthy pigs in Italy. The global prevalence of infection was 83.2% (600/721), being 62.3% (449/721), 60.6% (437/721), and 11.5% (83/721) the prevalence of TTSuV1, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b, respectively. The rate of co-infection with two and/or three species was also calculated, and data show that co-infections were significantly more frequent than infections with single species, and that TTSuV1+TTSuVk2a double infection was the prevalent combination (35.4%). Quantitative results obtained using species-specific real time-qPCR evidenced the highest mean levels of viremia in the TTSuV1 subgroup, and the lowest in the TTSuVk2b subgroup. Interestingly, multiple infections with distinct TTSuV species seemed to significantly affect the DNA load and specifically, data highlighted that double infection with TTSuVk2a increased the viral titers of TTSuV1, likewise the co-infection with TTSuVk2b increased the titers of TTSuVk2a. PMID:25411972

  4. New Middle Miocene Bryozoa from Gârbova de Sus (Romania) and their relationship to the sedimentary environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zágoršek, Kamil; Filipescu, Sorin; Holcová, Katarína

    2010-12-01

    The section of Gârbova de Sus contains diverse fossil groups and rich bryozoan assemblages, with 77 species altogether. Several taxa have been recognized as very important in the assemblage and two new taxa are described in detail: Poricella garbovensis sp. nov. and Therenia transylvanica sp. nov. Foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil assemblages were used for biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental interpretations. On the basis of sedimentological features and micropaleontological data, the sequence of paleoenvironments can be subdivided into two intervals indicating slightly different climatic conditions.

  5. SusG: A Unique Cell-Membrane-Associated [alpha]-Amylase from a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Targets Complex Starch Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-09-21

    SusG is an {alpha}-amylase and part of a large protein complex on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and plays a major role in carbohydrate acquisition by the animal gut microbiota. Presented here, the atomic structure of SusG has an unusual extended, bilobed structure composed of amylase at one end and an unprecedented internal carbohydrate-binding motif at the other. Structural studies further demonstrate that the carbohydrate-binding motif binds maltooligosaccharide distal to, and on the opposite side of, the amylase catalytic site. SusG has an additional starch-binding site on the amylase domain immediately adjacent to the active cleft. Mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that these two additional starch-binding sites appear to play a role in catabolism of insoluble starch. However, elimination of these sites has only a limited effect, suggesting that they may have a more important role in product exchange with other Sus components.

  6. Fracture toughness of partially welded joints of SUS316 stainless steel at 4 K by large bend tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, A.; Tobler, R.L.; Tamura, H.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Yamamoto, J.; Motojima, O.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, S.

    1996-07-01

    Austenitic stainless steels in relatively thick sections are specified in support structure designs for huge superconducting magnets in fusion energy machines such as the Large Helical Device (LHD). In the LHD under construction at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan, partial welding of SUS 316 stainless steel is employed to fabricate the 100-mm thick coil can and coil support structures. Partial welding lowers the heat input and reduces residual deformation after welding. The main disadvantage is that a sizable crack-like defect remains embedded in the unwelded portion of the primary structural component. Here, SUS 316 stainless steel bars were partially welded and tested in 3-point bending to evaluate the effect of natural cracks on fusion zone toughness at 4 K. The specimens had a cross-section 87.5 mm {times} 175 mm and were fractured in liquid helium using a 10 MN cryogenic mechanical testing machine. In two tests, unstable fracture occurred at maximum load and at critical stress intensity factors K{sub max} = 227 and 228 MPa{radical}m. Results indicate a high resistance to fracture initiation but no stable tearing. Therefore, no resistance to crack propagation may exist in a fusion zone at a weld root under cryogenic temperature.

  7. Al2O3/SUS304 Brazing via AgCuTi-W Composite as Active Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Cherng-Yuh; Zhuang, Xie-Zongyang; Pan, Cheng-Tang

    2014-03-01

    Alumina ceramic (?-Al2O3) was brazed to stainless steel (SUS304) using an Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler and a traditional active brazing filler alloy (CuSil-ABA). Then, the effects of the presence of W particles and of the brazing parameters on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the brazed joints were investigated. The maximum tensile strength of the joints obtained using Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler was 13.2 MPa, which is similar to that obtained using CuSil-ABA filler (13.5 MPa). When the joint was brazed at 930 °C for 30 min, the tensile strengths decreased for both kinds of fillers, although the strength was slightly higher for the Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler than for the Ag-Cu-Ti filler. The interfacial microstructure results show that the Ti reacts with W to form a Ti-W-O compound in the brazing alloy. When there are more W particles in the brazing alloy, the thickness of the Ti X O Y reaction layer near the alumina ceramic decreases. Moreover, W particles added to the brazing alloy can reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion of the brazing alloy, which results in lower residual stress between the Al2O3 and SUS304 in the brazing joints and thus yields higher tensile strengths as compared to those obtained using the CuSil-ABA brazing alloy.

  8. Seroprevalence of Trichinella sp. in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Chung, Ok-Sik; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lee, Seung-Ha; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seo, Min

    2015-01-01

    A total 7 outbreaks of trichinellosis have occurred in Korea, mostly as a result of consumption of raw wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat. Since only 1 serological survey on wild boars had yet been performed in Korea, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and some species of rodents by artificial digestion and serological examinations in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, the endemic area of trichinellosis. Both the wild boar and rodent muscle samples revealed no Trichinella larvae by direct examination and artificial digestion method. However, serological examinations revealed that 4 wild boar sera samples out of 118 (3.4%) were positive to Trichinella antigen. Although the recovery of Trichinella larvae ended in a failure, it is proved for the first time that the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella has been maintained in wild boars of Gangwon-do, Korea. PMID:25925185

  9. Seroprevalence of Trichinella sp. in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Chung, Ok-Sik; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lee, Seung-Ha; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seo, Min

    2015-04-01

    A total 7 outbreaks of trichinellosis have occurred in Korea, mostly as a result of consumption of raw wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat. Since only 1 serological survey on wild boars had yet been performed in Korea, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and some species of rodents by artificial digestion and serological examinations in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, the endemic area of trichinellosis. Both the wild boar and rodent muscle samples revealed no Trichinella larvae by direct examination and artificial digestion method. However, serological examinations revealed that 4 wild boar sera samples out of 118 (3.4%) were positive to Trichinella antigen. Although the recovery of Trichinella larvae ended in a failure, it is proved for the first time that the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella has been maintained in wild boars of Gangwon-do, Korea. PMID:25925185

  10. In-situ Stress Measurements on SUS316L Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water Simulated Boiling Water Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Nakahigashi, S.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.; Akiniwa, Y.; Yamada, T.; Liu, L.; Shobu, T.; Tsubakino, H.

    2007-01-01

    An in-situ straining device has been developed, which enables one to apply a load of 240 N to a specimen in hot water at 561 K and a pressure of 8 MPa, simulating the environment in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The device is equipped with sapphire glass windows for a light path, that is, the device can be used for dynamic measurements of stress induced in the specimen using a synchrotron radiation facility. In-situ stress measurements have been carried out at SPring-8 (BL02B1) on a specimen prepared from SUS316L stainless steel. Inhomogeneity in stress distribution and time-dependent changes in stress were successfully measured.

  11. CO2 Laser Cladding and Plasma Cladding of Ni-Based Alloy Powder on the SUS316LN Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guojian; Kutsuna, Munaharu; Liu, Zhongjie

    Clad layers of Ni-based alloy were deposited on the power plant machinery parts made of SUS316LN stainless steel by CO2 laser cladding and plasma cladding. A smooth clad bead was obtained by CO2 laser cladding. The phases of the clad layers were investigated by laser microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The microstructures of clad layers belonged to a hypereutectic structure. Primary phases consisted of boride CrB and carbide Cr7C3. The eutectic structure consisted of Ni + CrB or Ni + Cr7C3. Compared with plasma cladding, excellent wear resistance, fine microstructures, low dilutions and high Vickers hardness were obtained by CO2 laser cladding. All these results show that laser cladding realizes higher efficiency and good cladding quality.

  12. Seroprevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild boar ( Sus scrofa) in a Mediterranean island.

    PubMed

    Richomme, C; Afonso, E; Tolon, V; Ducrot, C; Halos, L; Alliot, A; Perret, C; Thomas, M; Boireau, P; Gilot-Fromont, E

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge of the factors affecting the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife is limited. Here we analyse which local landscape characteristics are associated with the presence of toxoplasmosis in wild boar, Sus scrofa, on the island of Corsica, France. Meat juice samples from 1399 wild boars collected during two hunting seasons were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (titre 1:4). The overall seroprevalence was 0.55 (95% CI 0.50-0.59) for the first year and 0.33 (95% CI 0.29-0.35) for the second year. Seroprevalence varied according to age and county. At the county level, seropositivity in adults was related to farm density during year 1, and to habitat fragmentation, farm density and altitude during year 2. The exposure of wild boar to T. gondii is thus variable according to landscape characteristics and probably results in a variable risk of transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. PMID:20096148

  13. Experiment and numerical simulation on cross-die forming of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless using a modified Johnson-Cook model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Ding, Wei; Ye, Liyan; Chen, Jun

    2013-12-01

    True stress-strain curves of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless steel at various strain rates were fitted by a modified Johnson-Cook material model. The effect of blank-holder force on Cross-die forming of SUS304 stainless steel was studied. The forming process was also simulated by the software Marc based on this model. Major strain distribution, thickness distribution and load-displacement were compared between experiment and simulation. The results indicated the modified Johnson-Cook model could well predict the deformation behavior of SUS304 stainless steel. The martensitie volume fraction at different positions of the formed part was in good agreement with what can be expected.

  14. Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).

    PubMed

    Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G

    2007-06-01

    Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions. PMID:17516948

  15. Effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting of molten multi-component oxides ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Matsuda, Nozomu; Shinozaki, Nobuya; Miyoshi, Noriko; Shiraishi, Takanobu

    2015-02-01

    A study on the effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting behavior of molten multi-component oxides ceramic was performed and aimed to contribute to the further understanding of the application of oxides ceramic in penetration treatment of stainless steel coatings and the deposition of stainless steel cermet coatings. The results show that at 1273 K, different surface pre-treatments (polishing and heating) had an important effect on the wetting behavior. The molten multi-component oxides showed good wettability on both stainless steel substrates, however, the wetting process on the polished substrate was significantly slower than that on the heated substrates. The mechanism of the interfacial reactions was discussed based on the microscopic and thermodynamic analysis, the substrates reacted with oxygen generated from the decomposition of the molten multi-component oxides and oxygen contained in the argon atmosphere, and the oxide film caused the molten multi-component oxides ceramic to spread on the substrates surfaces. For the polished substrate, more time was required for the surface oxidation to reach the surface composition of Heated-S, which resulted in relatively slow spreading and wetting rates. Moreover, the variance of the surface roughness drove the final contact angles to slightly different values following the sequence Polished-S > Heated-S.

  16. [The trajectory of the national policy for the reorientation of professional training in health in the Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Dias, Henrique Sant'anna; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Teixeira, Márcia

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the national policy and its antecedents for reorientation of professional health training implemented after 2003. It highlights landmarks and transformations in the course of policies between 1980 and 2010, elements of continuity and change and the connections between past and current policy initiatives. The study involved a review of the literature on the subject and document analysis supported by theoretical analysis of public policies, particularly historical institutionalism. The results point to four different moments during the trajectory of the policy, marked by changes in the initiatives of reorientation of higher education in health: antecedents; initial experiences; university protagonism; broadening and enhancement. As an element of continuity, there is the permanence of objects in the guiding principles advocated in the policies. The evidence of implementation expresses prospects of enhancement, with diversification of mobilized actors and organizations, and more projects implemented. The accumulated experience suggests structural maturity of the structural bases of action and the main changes relate to the enhancement of decision-making bodies of the SUS and the approximation to the process of decentralization and regionalization of national health policy. PMID:23752528

  17. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Southern Spain: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic concerns.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Benítez-Medina, J M; Martínez, R; Carranza, J; Cerrato, R; García-Sánchez, A; Risco, D; Moreno, J C; Sequeda, M; Gómez, L; Fernández-Llario, P; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2015-02-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in wet soil, marshland, rivers or streams, but also are causative agents of a wide variety of infections in animals and humans. Little information is available regarding the NTM prevalence in wildlife and their effects or significance in the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) epidemiology and diagnosis. This research shows the most frequently NTM isolated in lymph nodes of wild boar (Sus scrofa) from southern Spain, relating the NTM presence with the individual characteristics, the management of animals and the possible misdiagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in concurrent infections. A total of 219 NTM isolates were obtained from 1249 wild boar mandibular lymph nodes sampled between 2007 and 2011. All but 75 isolates were identified by the PCR-restriction analysis-hsp65, and a partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA was carried out to identify the rest of the isolates. Results showed that Mycobacterium chelonae was the most frequently isolated NTM specie (133 isolates, 60.7%), followed by Mycobacterium avium (24 isolates, 11%). No relation was found regarding sex, body condition and management, but M. chelonae was more frequently detected in adults, whereas M. avium was more prevalent in subadults. The high NTM prevalence observed in the studied wild boar populations could make difficult the bTB diagnostic. PMID:23895110

  18. Spatial distribution of Trichinella britovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis of domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Ludovisi, A; Gómez-Morales, M A; Sréter, T; Pozio, E

    2012-02-10

    Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of raw meat and raw meat-derived products from swine, horse and some game animals infected with nematode worms of the genus Trichinella. Between June 2006 and February 2011, 16 million domestic pigs and 0.22 million wild boars (Sus scrofa) were tested for Trichinella sp. in Hungary. Trichinella infection was not found in any pigs slaughtered for public consumption. Nevertheless, Trichinella spiralis was detected in four backyard pigs when trace back was done following a family outbreak. Trichinella infection was demonstrated in 17 wild boars (0.0077%). Larvae from wild boars were identified as Trichinella britovi (64.7%), T. spiralis (29.4%) and Trichinella pseudospiralis (5.9%). Although the prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in wild boars and domestic pigs is very low, the spatial analysis reveals that the level of risk differs by region in Hungary. Most of the T. britovi infected wild boars (63.6%) were shot in the north-eastern mountain area of Hungary; whereas domestic pigs and wild boars infected with T. spiralis were detected only in the southern counties bordering Croatia and Romania. In the north-western and central counties, the prevalence of Trichinella infection seems to be negligible. PMID:21852037

  19. Bronchopneumonia in wild boar (Sus scrofa) caused by Rhodococcus equi carrying the VapB type 8 plasmid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhodococcus equi is associated with pyogranulomatous infections, especially in foals, and this bacterium has also emerged as a pathogen for humans, particularly immunocompromised patients. R. equi infections in pigs, wild boar (Sus scrofa) and humans are mainly due to strains carrying the intermediate virulence (VapB) plasmid. In Brazil, R. equi carrying the VapB type 8 plasmid is the most common type recovered from humans co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). R. equi infection in pigs and wild boar is restricted predominantly to the lymphatic system, without any reports of pulmonary manifestations. Findings This report describes the microbiological and histopathological findings, and molecular characterization of R. equi in two bronchopneumonia cases in wild boar using PCR and plasmid profile analysis by digestion with restriction endonucleases. The histological findings were suggestive of pyogranulomatous infection, and the plasmid profile of both R. equi isolates enabled the characterization of the strains as VapB type 8. Conclusions This is the first report of bronchopneumonia in wild boar due to R. equi. The detection of the VapB type 8 plasmid in R. equi isolates emphasize that wild boar may be a potential source of pathogenic R. equi strains for humans. PMID:23531380

  20. [The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), State Public Policy: its institutionalized and future development and the search for solutions].

    PubMed

    Santos, Nelson Rodrigues Dos

    2013-01-01

    This paper redeems the significance of the health reform movement and the municipal healthcare movement in the context of the 1970s and 1980s, and its social, politic and innovative power in the democratic reconstruction of the day. It then notes that the implementation of the constitutional guidelines, regulated in 1990 by Laws 8080/90 and 8142/90, has been characterized in the last 22 years by four major and mounting obstacles imposed by State policy on all governments: federal underfunding; federal subsidies to the private health plan market; resistance to reform of the State management structure of service provision; and the handing over of administration of public facilities to private entities. The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) included half the population that was once excluded in the public health system, though these obstacles keep the coverage of primary care focused below the poverty line and with poor resolution. The conclusion drawn is that the real policy of the state for healthcare in the past 22 years has prioritized the creation and expansion of the private health plan market for consumer rights, and relegated the effectiveness of constitutional guidelines for civic human rights to second place. PMID:23338517

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF PORCINE PARVOVIRUS TYPE 3 AND PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE 2 IN WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA) IN SLOVAKIA.

    PubMed

    Sliz, Ivan; Vlasakova, Michaela; Jackova, Anna; Vilcek, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    As the number of free-living wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) continues to rise in Slovakia, the probability of pathogen transmission between susceptible species increases. We investigated the distribution and genetic characterization of porcine parvovirus type 3 (PPV3), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and their coinfection in wild boars. Among 194 animals tested, 19.1% were positive for PPV3 and 43.8% for PCV2. Similar rates of coinfection with both viruses reaching 11.0% and 11.8% were observed in juvenile and mature wild boars, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 sequences from VP1 and NS1 genomic regions revealed a close genetic relationship among isolates from Slovakia and those sampled worldwide. Prevalence of PCV2 in wild boars was lower than that reported in domestic pigs in Slovakia. The PCV2 variants originating from sylvatic and domestic hosts in Slovakia were grouped in the same clusters, namely PCV2b-1A/1B and PCV2a-2D. PMID:25973618

  2. Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) Mediate Large-Scale Edge Effects in a Lowland Tropical Rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2012-01-01

    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects. PMID:22615977

  3. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys. PMID:26161723

  4. Globalisation and global trade influence molecular viral population genetics of Torque Teno Sus Viruses 1 and 2 in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cortey, Martí; Pileri, Emanuela; Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2012-04-23

    Globalisation, in terms of the rapid and free movement of people, animals and food, has created a new paradigm, increasing the range and rate of distribution of many pathogens. In the present study, Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) have been used as a model to evaluate the effects of global trade on viral heterogeneity, and how the movement of live pigs can affect the distribution and composition of virus populations. Seventeen countries from different parts of the world have been screened for TTSuV1 and TTSuvV2. High levels of genetic diversity have been found as well as two new TTSuV subtypes. A small fraction of this diversity (<5%) was related with spatial structure; however the majority (>50%) was best explained by the exchange of live pigs among countries, pointing to the direct relationship between the movement of hosts and the diversity of their accompanying viruses. Taking TTSuVs as sentinels, this study revealed that the distribution and diversity of comensal microflora in live animals subjected to global trade is shaped by the commercial movements among countries. In the case of TTSuVs, it appears that commercial movements of animals are eroding the genetic composition of the virus populations that may have been present in pig herds since their domestication. PMID:22101091

  5. Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax): Description and molecular identification of intradermal females.

    PubMed

    Uni, Shigehiko; Fukuda, Masako; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Bain, Odile; Otsuka, Yasushi; Nakatani, Jun; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Harada, Masashi; Omar, Hasmahzaiti; Ramli, Rosli; Hashim, Rosli; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Human zoonotic onchocercosis is caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica, parasitic in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) in Japan. Previously, microfilariae longer than those of Onchocerca dewittei japonica were observed in skin snips from wild boars during the study of O. dewittei japonica. Moreover, the third-stage larvae (L3) of these longer microfilariae were obtained from the blackfly Simulium bidentatum after experimental injections. Based on morphometric and molecular studies, similar L3 were found in blackflies during fieldwork in Oita, Japan. However, except for O. dewittei japonica, adult worms of Onchocerca have not been found in wild boars. In this study, we discovered adult females of a novel Onchocerca species in the skin of a wild boar in Oita, and named it Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. Females of this new species had longer microfilariae and differed from O. dewittei japonica in terms of their morphological characteristics and parasitic location. The molecular characteristics of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S rRNA genes of the new species were identical to those of the longer microfilariae and L3 previously detected, but they differed from those of O. dewittei japonica at the species level. However, both species indicated a close affinity among their congeners and Onchocerca ramachandrini, parasitic in the warthog in Africa, was basal in the Suidae cluster of the 12S rRNA tree. PMID:26165205

  6. Novel Technique for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Willens, Scott; Cox, David M; Braue, Ernest H; Myers, Todd M; Wegner, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Telemetric monitoring of physiologic parameters in animal models is a critical component of chemical and biologic agent studies. The long-term collection of neurobehavioral and other physiologic data can require larger telemetry devices. Furthermore, such devices must be implanted in a location that is safe, well-tolerated, and functional. Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) present an ideal large animal model for chemical agent studies due to their relatively small size, characterized health status, and ease of training and handling. We report an effective approach to implanting a novel device to measure transthoracic impedance to approximate respiratory tidal volume and rate in Suidae. We tested the approach using 24 male Göttingen minipigs. A ventral midline abdominal incision extending from the umbilicus to the prepuce was followed by a paramedian incision of the parietal peritoneum and dorsal blunt dissection to create a retroperitoneal pocket. The device was anchored inside the pocket to the internal abdominal musculature with 3-0 nonabsorbable suture, biopotential leads were routed through the abdominal musculature, and the pocket was closed with 3-0 absorbable suture. Paired biopotential leads were anchored intermuscularly at the level of the seventh rib midway between spine and sternum bilaterally to provide surrogate data for respiratory function. Postoperative recovery and gross pathology findings at necropsy were used to assess safety and refine the surgical procedure. Results demonstrated that this procedure permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance, without negatively affecting the health and behavior of the animals. PMID:25527027

  7. Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) mediate large-scale edge effects in a lowland tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D

    2012-01-01

    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects. PMID:22615977

  8. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs. PMID:25640718

  9. Prevalence of antibody to Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. in feral pigs (Sus scrofa) of eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Sandfoss, Mark; DePerno, Christopher; Patton, Sharon; Flowers, James; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) survive in many climates, reproduce year-round, and are dietary generalists. In the United States, the size and range of the feral pig population has expanded, resulting in greater interaction with humans and domestic swine and increased potential for disease transmission. We conducted a serosurvey in feral pigs from eastern North Carolina to determine exposure to the zoonotic parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. Between September 2007 and March 2009, blood serum was collected from 83 feral pigs harvested at Howell Woods Environmental Learning Center, Four Oaks, North Carolina, USA. We used a modified agglutination test to test for T. gondii antibodies and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test for Trichinella spp. antibodies. The prevalences of antibodies to T. gondii and Trichinella spp. were 27.7% and 13.3%, respectively and 4% (n=3) had antibodies to both agents. We detected an increased risk of T. gondii antibodies with age, whereas the risk of exposure to T. gondii across years and between sexes was similar. In eastern North Carolina, feral pigs have been exposed to T. gondii and Trichinella spp. and may pose a health risk to domestic swine and humans. PMID:21441186

  10. Epidemiological survey of trichinellosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and fox (Vulpes vulpes) in a French insular region, Corsica.

    PubMed

    Richomme, C; Lacour, S A; Ducrot, C; Gilot-Fromont, E; Casabianca, F; Maestrini, O; Vallée, I; Grasset, A; van der Giessen, J; Boireau, P

    2010-08-27

    The Mediterranean island of Corsica was considered Trichinella-free until 2004, when T. britovi larvae were discovered in domestic pigs at meat inspection. One red fox was also found infected the same year and in the same area than the infected pigs. This last finding highlighted the presence of trichinellosis in Corsican wildlife. A Trichinella survey was thus performed in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and fox (Vulpes vulpes), the two large wild species present on the island, to determine prevalence of muscle larvae and antibodies. Diaphragm muscles of 1881 wild boars and 74 forelegs of foxes were tested by artificial digestion. No Trichinella larva was identified. The highly sensitive ELISA was used to test muscle fluid samples of 1492 wild boars. The apparent serological prevalence of Trichinella infections in wild boar was 2.01% (95% CI: 1.36-2.86). The present results suggest that wildlife is currently exposed to Trichinella in Corsica. In this context, adequate cooking and veterinary controls of meat offer the only complete sanitary warranties to consumers. PMID:20471753

  11. Encoding of Situations in the Vocal Repertoire of Piglets (Sus scrofa): A Comparison of Discrete and Graded Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Céline; Linhart, Pavel; Policht, Richard; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Šime?ek, Petr; Kratinova, Petra; Špinka, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions in bioacoustics are whether vocal repertoires of animals are graded or discrete and how the vocal expressions are linked to the context of emission. Here we address these questions in an ungulate species. The vocal repertoire of young domestic pigs, Sus scrofa, was quantitatively described based on 1513 calls recorded in 11 situations. We described the acoustic quality of calls with 8 acoustic parameters. Based on these parameters, the k-means clustering method showed a possibility to distinguish either two or five clusters although the call types are rather blurred than strictly discrete. The division of the vocal repertoire of piglets into two call types has previously been used in many experimental studies into pig acoustic communication and the five call types correspond well to previously published partial repertoires in specific situations. Clear links exist between the type of situation, its putative valence, and the vocal expression in that situation. These links can be described adequately both with a set of quantitative acoustic variables and through categorisation into call types. The information about the situation of emission of the calls is encoded through five call types almost as accurately as through the full quantitative description. PMID:23967251

  12. Nuevo sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) Cancer.gov en español - Silvia Inéz Salazar - transcript

    Cancer.gov

    Transmisiones de radio para promover Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) Cancer.gov en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover

  13. ¿Cómo puede usted contribuir a la investigación médica? Done su sangre, sus tejidos y otras muestras

    Cancer.gov

    Explica la importancia de la donación de tejidos, responde a posibles preocupaciones y anima a los pacientes a que hablen con sus proveedores de cuidados para la salud acerca de la donación de muestras biológicas.

  14. Suppressor of sable [Su(s)] and Wdr82 down-regulate RNA from heat-shock-inducible repetitive elements by a mechanism that involves transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Brewer-Jensen, Paul; Wilson, Carrie B; Abernethy, John; Mollison, Lonna; Card, Samantha; Searles, Lillie L

    2016-01-01

    Although RNA polymerase II (Pol II) productively transcribes very long genes in vivo, transcription through extragenic sequences often terminates in the promoter-proximal region and the nascent RNA is degraded. Mechanisms that induce early termination and RNA degradation are not well understood in multicellular organisms. Here, we present evidence that the suppressor of sable [su(s)] regulatory pathway of Drosophila melanogaster plays a role in this process. We previously showed that Su(s) promotes exosome-mediated degradation of transcripts from endogenous repeated elements at an Hsp70 locus (Hsp70-?? elements). In this report, we identify Wdr82 as a component of this process and show that it works with Su(s) to inhibit Pol II elongation through Hsp70-?? elements. Furthermore, we show that the unstable transcripts produced during this process are polyadenylated at heterogeneous sites that lack canonical polyadenylation signals. We define two distinct regions that mediate this regulation. These results indicate that the Su(s) pathway promotes RNA degradation and transcription termination through a novel mechanism. PMID:26577379

  15. Investigating Characteristics that Typify Engineering, Computer and Biological Sciences Graduates, the Differences that Occur among and between these Disciplines and the General Population of SUS Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise was to determine whether any of the available demographic or academic variables show distinct trends in three specific discipline areas that differ from those of other areas: (1) Engineering, (2) Computer Sciences, and (3) Biological Sciences. Using data from 39,087 SUS graduates in 2002-03 and of 324,164 science…

  16. The wear properties and adhesion strength of the diamond-like carbon film coated on SUS, Ti and Ni-Ti with plasma pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Masuzawa, T; Hirakuri, K K

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on stainless steel (SUS), titanium (Ti) and nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) substrates using a radiofrequency plasma chemical vapour deposition method. Prior to DLC coating, the substrates were exposed to O2 and N2 plasma to enhance the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the substrate. After the plasma pre-treatment, the chemical composition and the wettability of the substrate surface was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement, respectively. A pull-out test and a ball-on-disc test were carried out to evaluate the adhesion strength and the wear properties of the DLC-coated substrates. The XPS results showed that the N2 and O2 plasma pre-treatment produced nitride and oxide on the substrate surfaces, such as TiO2, TiO, Fe2O3, CrN and TiNO. In the pull-out test, the adhesion strengths of the DLC film to the SUS, Ti and Ni-Ti substrates were improved with the plasma pre-treatment. In the ball-on-disc test, the DLC coated SUS, Ti and Ni-Ti substrates without the plasma pre-treatment showed severe film failure following the test. The DLC coated SUS and Ni-Ti substrates with the N2 plasma pre-treatment showed good wear resistance, compared with that with the O2 plasma pre-treatment. PMID:20448301

  17. The stress response and exploratory behaviour in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa): Relations to sex and social rank.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Sarah J J; Martin, Gerard M; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2015-12-01

    According to the coping styles hypothesis, an individual demonstrates an integrated behavioural and physiological response to environmental challenge that is consistent over time and across situations. Individual consistency in behavioural responses to challenge has been documented across the animal kingdom. Comparatively few studies, however, have examined inter-individual variation in the physiological response, namely glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels, the stress hormones secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. Variation in coping styles between individuals may be explained in part by differences in social rank and sex. Using 20 Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) we: (1) investigated the existence of consistent inter-individual variation in exploratory behaviour and the hormonal stress response, and tested for correlations as predicted by the coping styles hypothesis; and (2) evaluated whether inter-individual behavioural and hormonal variation is related to social rank and sex. Salivary stress biomarkers (cortisol, alpha-amylase, chromogranin A) were assessed in the presence and absence of a stressor consisting of social isolation in a crate for 10 min. Principal components analysis on a set of behavioural variables revealed two traits, which we labelled exploratory tendency and neophobia. Neither exploratory tendency nor neophobia predicted the physiological stress response. Subordinate pigs exhibited higher catecholamine levels compared to dominant conspecifics. We observed sex differences in the repeatability of salivary stress markers and reactivity of the stress systems. The results do not provide support for the existence of behavioural-physiological coping styles in pigs. Sex is an important determinant of the physiological stress response and warrants consideration in research addressing behavioural and hormonal variation. PMID:26450148

  18. Numerical Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Friction Welding of Two Similar Materials of S25C or SUS304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isshiki, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kawai, Gosaku; Ochi, Hiizu; Ogawa, Koichi

    An approach to combine a friction heat input model with a non-steady heat conduction analysis has enabled a numerical simulation of a heat input and a transient temperature distribution in friction welding processes. This report describes the result obtained by applying this approach to the friction welding process of two similar materials of S25C carbon steel or SUS304 stainless steel. When base metals are different, the friction heat input model and the thermophysical property data are changed depending on a quality of base metal. Comparison between a calculated result and an experimental result was carried out, and appropriateness of this approach was examined. Furthermore, a difference of temperature distribution in friction welding region with the difference of thermophysical property of base metal was examined, and also the heat-affected zone was investigated. As a result, it was verified that this approach could simulate a characteristic of a welding process in brake-type friction welding. And the calculated results agreed with the experimental results on a difference of quantity of heat input to be caused by a difference of a friction welding condition. A difference of a temperature history caused in a different base metal appeared to be estimated from a calculated result, and it was confirmed that this approach was appropriate. The width of heat-affected zone was estimated by an calculated result of the maximum temperature distribution in the vicinity of friction surface by using this approach combining a friction heat input model with a non-steady heat conduction analysis.

  19. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  20. Response of pigmented porcine skin (Sus scrofa domestica) to single 3.8-micron laser radiation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, Anthony C.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Randolph, Donald Q.; Winston, Golda C. H.

    2005-04-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of melanin on skin response to single 3.8 micron, eight microsecond laser pulses and the difference in lesion formation thresholds for input into laser safety standards. Williams et al., performed a study examining laser tissue interaction from 3.8-micron lasers in lightly pigmented Yorkshire pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). However, studies performed by Eggleston et al comparing pigmented and lightly pigmented skin with human skin found that the Yucatan mini-pig is a superior model for laser skin exposures. Methods: Five Yucatan mini-pigs under general anesthesia were exposed to 3.8 micron laser pulses ranging from 0.8 J/cm2 to 93 J/cm2. Gross examinations were done acutely and 24 hours after laser exposure. Skin biopsies were then collected at various times post exposure, and histologic examinations were conducted. Results: The 24 hour ED50 was determined to be 4.5 J/cm2 with fiducial limits of 6.2 and 2.2 J/cm2. As deposited energy was increased, the lesion presentation ranged from whitening of the epidermis (4 J/cm2) to whitening with inflammatory centers (14 J/cm2), and at the highest energy levels inflammatory areas were replaced with an epidermal ulcerated central area (>21 J/cm2). Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest pigmentation or melanin may play a minor role in the mechanism of laser-tissue damage. The ED50 of Yorkshire pigs was 2.6 J/cm2. The ED50 of the Yucatan mini-pig was found to be 3.6 J/cm2, and although it was higher, it is still within the 95% fiducial limits.

  1. Long-Term Evaluation of a Selective Retrograde Coronary Venous Perfusion Model in Pigs (Sus Scrofa Domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Harig, Frank; Schmidt, Joachim; Hoyer, Evelyn; Eckl, Sebastian; Adamek, Edytha; Ertel, Dirk; Nooh, Ehab; Amann, Kerstin; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M

    2011-01-01

    The lack of suitable target vessels remains a challenge for aortocoronary bypass grafting in end-stage coronary heart disease. This study aimed to investigate the arterialization of cardiac veins as an alternative myocardial revascularization strategy in an experimental long-term model in pigs. Selective retrograde perfusion of a coronary vein (aorta to coronary vein bypass, retrobypass) before ligation of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis (equivalent to the left anterior descending artery in humans) was performed in 20 German Landrace pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). Retroperfusion of the left anterior descending vein was performed in 10 pigs (RP+) but not in the other 10 (RP–), and the vena cordis magna was ligated (L+) in 5 pigs in each of these groups but left open (L–) in the remaining animals. Hemodynamic performance (for example, cardiac output) was significantly better in the group that underwent selective retroperfusion with proximal ligation of vena cordis magna (RP+L+; 4.1 L/min) compared with the other groups (RP+L–, 2.5 L/min; RP–L+, 2.2 L/min; RP–L–, 1.9 L/min). Long-term survival was significantly better in RP+L+ pigs (112 ± 16 d) than in all other groups. Histologic follow-up studies showed significantly less necrosis in the RP+L+ group compared with all other groups. Venous retroperfusion is an effective technique to achieve long-term survival after acute occlusion of the left anterior descending artery in a pig model. In this model, proximal ligation of vena cordis magna is essential. PMID:21535926

  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results). PMID:22247377

  3. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study. PMID:26537041

  4. [The feral pig (Sus scrofa, Suidae) in Cocos Island, Costa Rica: composition of its diet, reproductive state and genetics].

    PubMed

    Sierra, C

    2001-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) cause different kinds of damage specially on oceanic islands. Pigs were introduced at Cocos Island, Costa Rica, during 1793 and bred successfully. I analyzed feral pigs diet, reproductive state, genetics and the effects of predation, in order to gather data on their ecology and impact on certain Cocos Island communities. The diet was studied, during a dry and a wet period, through stomach contents. The genetic variability was determined through PCR analysis on tissue samples which were taken from feral (Cocos Island) and domestic (mainland) pig ear-lobes. Pigs at Cocos were omnivorous, the most important diet category in both seasons was fruits. More pigs consumed fruits during the wet season but the fruits did occupy more somuch volume during the dry season. Feral pigs did not disperse exotic seeds nor prey on animal endemic species. 56% of the hunted pigs were males and 44% were females. From females in reproductive age, 46% were pregnant or suckling, and the average number of fetuses in a litter was 4.4. I confirmed a reproductive peak during January/February but could not demonstrate a reproductive peak during June/July. The low fetuses number per litter could be related with some levels of stress. The genetic variability for all the evaluated parameters within the feral population was low but not as low as expected. I suggest a compensatory mechanism were the inbreeding depression reduces consanguinity and a species susceptible to stocastic, demographic or environmental factors turns to be an adapted species with high resilience. PMID:12189796

  5. Presence, viral load and characterization of Torque teno sus viruses in liver and pork chop samples at retail.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Danielle; Houde, Alain; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Plante, Daniel; Bellon-Gagnon, Pascale; Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria; Wilhelm, Barbara; Avery, Brent; Janecko, Nicol; Brassard, Julie

    2014-05-16

    Torque teno viruses (TTV) are widespread in humans, swine as well as in several other animal species. In market ready swine, the reported prevalence ranges between 11% and 100%. Through a national retail sampling plan from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) program, 283 and 599 liver and pork chop samples, respectively, were collected over a 12-month period from commercial establishments in 5 selected geographical regions of Canada to assess the presence of Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) in these products. TTSuVs were detected in 97.9% of pork chops with viral loads ranging between 1×10(4) and 9.9×10(5) genomic copies (gc)/g and 98.6% of liver samples with viral loads ranging from 1×10(5) to 9.9×10(6) gc/g. A selection of 20 positive samples (10 pork chop and 10 liver) from the 5 geographical regions were further tested for the production, of a 305bp fragment for TTSuV1 and a 253bp fragment for TTSuV2 in the non-coding region. TTSuV1 was present in all 10 liver and 10 pork chops samples while TTSuV2 was detected in 10 liver and 9 pork chop samples. Two different TTSuV1 sequences were simultaneously detected from 5 of 20 samples and 2 different TTSuV2 sequences were detected from 6 of 19 samples. The omnipresence of TTSuVs in commercial pork samples may allow its use as a viral indicator to monitor the effectiveness of cleaning and disinfecting process in slaughtering, cutting, slicing and packaging facilities. PMID:24680858

  6. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study. PMID:26537041

  7. Morphological aspects and physical properties of enamel and dentine of Sus domesticus: A tooth model in laboratory research.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Cardoso, Miquéias André Gomes; Miranda, Mayara Sabrina Luz; Silva, Raira de Brito; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Nogueira, Bárbara Catarina Lima; Nogueira, Brenna Magdalena Lima; de Melo, Sara Elisama Silva; da Costa, Natacha Malu Miranda; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze morphological and physical properties of deciduous teeth of Sus domesticus. Ultrastructural analysis, mineral composition and microhardness of enamel and dentine tissues were performed on 10 skulls of S. domesticus. External anatomic characteristics and the internal anatomy of the teeth were also described. Data regarding microhardness and ultrastructural analysis were subjected to statistical tests. For ultrastructural analysis, we used the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post hoc (p?0.05) test. In the analysis of microhardness, the difference between the enamel and dentine tissues was analyzed by a Student's t test. Values were expressed as mean with standard error. The results of ultrastructural analysis showed the presence of an enamel prism pattern. A dentinal tubule pattern was also observed, with a larger diameter in the pulp chamber and the cervical third, in comparison to middle and apical thirds. We observed an average microhardness of 259.2kgf/mm(2) for enamel and 55.17kgf/mm(2) for dentine. In porcine enamel and dentine, the chemical elements Ca and P showed the highest concentration. The analysis of internal anatomy revealed the presence of a simple root canal system and the occurrence of main canals in the roots. The observed features are compatible with the functional demand of these animals, following a pattern very similar to that seen in other groups of mammals, which can encourage the development of research using dental elements from the pig as a substitute for human teeth in laboratory research. PMID:26434756

  8. Long-term monitoring of classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa sp.) using serological data.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sophie; Artois, Marc; Pontier, Dominique; Crucière, Catherine; Hars, Jean; Barrat, Jacques; Pacholek, Xavier; Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2005-01-01

    In the European Community, epizootics of classical swine fever (CSF) in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) are compulsorily monitored because transmission may occur between wild boars and domestic pigs, causing heavy economic losses to the pork industry. The estimation of incidence in populations of wild boars is generally based on viroprevalence. However, viral isolation becomes rare when the incidence is low because the virus cannot be detected for more than a few weeks following infection. On the contrary, seroprevalence is detectable at low incidence levels, because antibodies can be detected for the lifetime of the infected animal. We thus attempted to analyse the long-term evolution of CSF incidence using serological data. The data came from France, where CSF had been monitored from 1992 to 2002, and where the virus has not been detected since 1997. We assumed that the overall seroprevalence would estimate the proportion of immune wild boars, that seroprevalence in juveniles would approximate incidence and that seroprevalence in different age classes would show the evolution of incidence in a given cohort. Spatial and temporal trends of incidence and seroprevalence were explored using logistic modelling and the spatial trend was analysed using polynomial regression. In 1992, incidence peaked in the northern area. After 1993, incidence decreased but remained the highest in the northern area. After 2000, no seropositive juvenile was observed, suggesting the extinction of the epizootic. Our results support the reliability of serological monitoring since it allowed a longer detection of viral transmission and provided more information on the spatio-temporal evolution of incidence than did viral isolation. We advocate that the highest persistence of infection in northeastern France is not independent from infection persistence in Reinland-Pfalz (Germany). Such persistence may be due to favourable local conditions and/or the social organisation of wild boars. PMID:15610721

  9. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Peixoto, Raquel; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, M Adela

    2013-12-01

    Fasciolosis is an emerging or reemerging human and animal disease in numerous parts of the world. In Galicia (NW, Spain), the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild ungulate in terms of abundance and distribution. Its population has continuously increased over the past decades and this population growth has been accompanied by a reduction of habitats, so that the wild boar populations encroach more and more frequently onto agricultural lands. The increase of the interface area between livestock and the wild boars frequently involves the sharing of pastures and water sources, so that the circulation of common pathogens is propitiated. This is the first report concerning the importance of the wild boar as a possible reservoir of Fasciola hepatica infection in Spain. Livers from 358 hunted wild boars were analyzed showing that 11.2% were parasitized by F. hepatica, with burdens ranging from 1 to 14 flukes (mean=2.3). Fecal analysis demonstrated that 40.0% of parasitized animals shed F. hepatica eggs with a mean excretion of 6.1 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The presence of coproantigens analyzed by MM3-COPRO ELISA was positive in 62.9% of infected wild boars. After incubation, the percentage of hatched eggs ranged between 41.0% and 90.0% suggesting that the wild boar is very likely to contribute to the environmental contamination with viable parasite eggs. Comparative morphometric data were obtained using a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements. F. hepatica from cattle, sheep and wild boars from the same geographical area presents a similar body development and gravidity. Our study shows for the first time that the F. hepatica uterus from the wild boar presents an intermediate size between that found in primary reservoir hosts such as cattle and sheep, i.e., the individual potential egg output capacity of the wild boar does not greatly differ from that detected in Galician livestock. These results show that F. hepatica in Galicia has a normal development in wild boars, presenting its own characteristics in shape and size in comparison with other host species. The high prevalence of infection detected in the wild boar, the normal fluke development in the liver, and the possibility of shedding F. hepatica eggs capable of embryonating and giving rise to viable miracidia with the potential to infect intermediate hosts suggest a possible role of this species as a secondary reservoir in this Spanish region. PMID:24103736

  10. An RNA-based analysis of changes in biodiversity indices in response to Sus scrofa domesticus decomposition.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, R C; Ralebitso-Senior, T K; Thompson, T J U

    2014-08-01

    Despite emergent research initiatives, significant knowledge gaps remain of soil microbiology-associated cadaver decomposition. Nevertheless, preliminary studies have shown that the vast diversity and complex interactions of soil microbial communities have great potential for forensic applications such as clandestine grave location and postmortem interval estimation. This study investigated changes in soil bacterial communities during pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) leg decomposition. 16S rRNA, instead of the usually applied 16S rDNA marker, was used to compare the metabolically active bacteria. Total bacterial RNA was extracted from soil samples of three different layers on day 3, 28 and 77 after the shallow burial of a pig leg. The V3 region of the 16S rRNA was amplified, analysed by RT-PCR DGGE, and compared with control soil bacterial community profiles. Statistically significant differences in soil bacterial biodiversity were observed. For the control, bacterial diversity (H') and species richness (S) of the three layers averaged 2.48±0.14 (H') and 18.8±2.5 (S), respectively, while for the test soil increases (p=0.027) were recorded between day 3 (H'=2.71±0.02; S=21.3±2.0) and 28 (H'=3.46±0.32; S=60.3±16.9), particularly in the middle (10-20 cm) and bottom (20-30 cm) soil layers. Between day 28 and 77 the diversity and richness then decreased on average for all three layers (H'=3.43±0.20; S=60.0±17.3) but remained higher than on day 3. Thus, responses in soil bacterial profiles and activity to carcass decomposition, detected and characterised by RNA-based DGGE, could be used together with RNA sequencing data, changes in physico-chemical variables (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, temperature, redox potential, water activity and pH) and conventional macroecology markers (e.g. insects and vegetation), to develop a suite of analytical protocols for different forensic scenarios. PMID:24967869

  11. Reduced spillover transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to feral pigs (Sus scofa) following population control of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Nugent, G; Whitford, J; Yockney, I J; Cross, M L

    2012-06-01

    In New Zealand, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is present in domestic cattle and deer herds primarily as the result of on-going disease transmission from the primary wildlife host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). However, bTB is also present in other introduced free-ranging mammalian species. Between 1996 and 2007, we conducted a series of studies to determine whether poison control of possum populations would have any effect on the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in sympatric feral pigs (Sus scrofa). We compared trends in the prevalence of bTB infection in feral pigs in six study areas: possum numbers were reduced in three areas, but not in the other three, effectively providing a thrice-replicated before-after-control-intervention design. Before possum control, the overall prevalence of culture-confirmed M. bovis infection in feral pigs was 16.7-94.4%, depending on area. Infection prevalence varied little between genders but did vary with age, increasing during the first 2-3 years of life but then declining in older pigs. In the areas in which possum control was applied, M. bovis prevalence in feral pigs fell to near zero within 2-3 years, provided control was applied successfully at the whole-landscape scale. In contrast, prevalence changed much less or not at all in the areas with no possum control. We conclude that feral pigs in New Zealand acquire M. bovis infection mainly by inter-species transmission from possums, but then rarely pass the disease on to other pigs and are end hosts. This is in contrast to the purported role of pigs as bTB maintenance hosts in other countries, and we suggest the difference in host status may reflect differences in the relative importance of the oral route of infection in different environments. Despite harbouring M. bovis infection for a number of years, pigs in New Zealand do not sustain bTB independently, but are good sentinels for disease prevalence in possum populations. PMID:21849098

  12. Reduced spillover transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to feral pigs (Sus scofa) following population control of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Nugent G; Whitford J; Yockney IJ; Cross ML

    2012-06-01

    In New Zealand, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is present in domestic cattle and deer herds primarily as the result of on-going disease transmission from the primary wildlife host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). However, bTB is also present in other introduced free-ranging mammalian species. Between 1996 and 2007, we conducted a series of studies to determine whether poison control of possum populations would have any effect on the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in sympatric feral pigs (Sus scrofa). We compared trends in the prevalence of bTB infection in feral pigs in six study areas: possum numbers were reduced in three areas, but not in the other three, effectively providing a thrice-replicated before-after-control-intervention design. Before possum control, the overall prevalence of culture-confirmed M. bovis infection in feral pigs was 16.7-94.4%, depending on area. Infection prevalence varied little between genders but did vary with age, increasing during the first 2-3 years of life but then declining in older pigs. In the areas in which possum control was applied, M. bovis prevalence in feral pigs fell to near zero within 2-3 years, provided control was applied successfully at the whole-landscape scale. In contrast, prevalence changed much less or not at all in the areas with no possum control. We conclude that feral pigs in New Zealand acquire M. bovis infection mainly by inter-species transmission from possums, but then rarely pass the disease on to other pigs and are end hosts. This is in contrast to the purported role of pigs as bTB maintenance hosts in other countries, and we suggest the difference in host status may reflect differences in the relative importance of the oral route of infection in different environments. Despite harbouring M. bovis infection for a number of years, pigs in New Zealand do not sustain bTB independently, but are good sentinels for disease prevalence in possum populations.

  13. Effects of beam offset on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Alloy 690-SUS 304L EBW joints for nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Ding; Lee, Hwa-Teng; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Jeng, Sheng-Long; Wu, Jia-Lin

    2010-06-01

    The current study investigates the effect of the beam offset (BOF) on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and the corrosion resistance of the fusion zone (FZ) of Alloy 690-SUS 304L stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal butt joints formed by electron beam welding (EBW). The experimental results showed that as the value of the BOF increased from 0 to 0.30 mm, i.e. the electron beam shifted progressively toward the Alloy 690 base metal (BM), the tensile strength of the FZ fell from 582.1 to 541.2 MPa. However, the modified Huey test results indicated that the interdendritic corrosion resistance of the FZ was significantly enhanced. Pit nucleation potential value ( Enp) was raised from 385 to 1050 mV. An offset of 0.30 mm appears to be the optimal BOF setting when fabricating Alloy 690-SUS 304L SS dissimilar metal butt joints using the EBW technique.

  14. Structure of a SusD Homologue, BT1043, Involved in Mucin O-Glycan Utilization in a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2009-05-21

    Mammalian distal gut bacteria have an expanded capacity to utilize glycans. In the absence of dietary sources, some species rely on host-derived mucosal glycans. The ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent human gut symbiont, to forage host glycans contributes to both its ability to persist within an individual host and its ability to be transmitted naturally to new hosts at birth. The molecular basis of host glycan recognition by this species is still unknown but likely occurs through an expanded suite of outermembrane glycan-binding proteins that are the primary interface between B. thetaiotaomicron and its environment. Presented here is the atomic structure of the B. thetaiotaomicron protein BT1043, an outer membrane lipoprotein involved in host glycan metabolism. Despite a lack of detectable amino acid sequence similarity, BT1043 is a structural homologue of the B. thetaiotaomicron starch-binding protein SusD. Both structures are dominated by tetratrico peptide repeats that may facilitate association with outer membrane {beta}-barrel transporters required for glycan uptake. The structure of BT1043 complexed with N-acetyllactosamine reveals that recognition is mediated via hydrogen bonding interactions with the reducing end of {beta}-N-acetylglucosamine, suggesting a role in binding glycans liberated from the mucin polypeptide. This is in contrast to CBM 32 family members that target the terminal nonreducing galactose residue of mucin glycans. The highly articulated glycan-binding pocket of BT1043 suggests that binding of ligands to BT1043 relies more upon interactions with the composite sugar residues than upon overall ligand conformation as previously observed for SusD. The diversity in amino acid sequence level likely reflects early divergence from a common ancestor, while the unique and conserved {alpha}-helical fold the SusD family suggests a similar function in glycan uptake.

  15. SusHi: A program for the calculation of Higgs production in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the Standard Model and the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlander, Robert V.; Liebler, Stefan; Mantler, Hendrik

    2013-06-01

    This article describes the code SusHi (for "Supersymmetric Higgs") [108] which calculates the cross sections pp/pp ¯ ??+X in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the SM and the MSSM, where ? is any of the neutral Higgs bosons within these models. Apart from inclusive cross sections up to NNLO QCD, differential cross sections with respect to the Higgs transverse momentum pT and (pseudo-)rapidity y(?) can be calculated through NLO QCD. In the case of gluon fusion, SusHi contains NLO QCD contributions from the third family of quarks and squarks, NNLO corrections due to top-quarks, approximate NNLO corrections due to top-squarks, and electro-weak effects. It supports various renormalization schemes for the sbottom sector and the bottom Yukawa coupling, as well as resummation effects of higher order tan?-enhanced sbottom contributions. SusHi provides a link to FeynHiggs for the calculation of the Higgs masses. Program SummaryProgram title: SusHi Catalogue identifier: AEOY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 47725 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 338380 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Unix/Linux, Mac OS. RAM: A few 100 MB Classification: 11.1. External routines: LHAPDF (http://lhapdf.hepforge.org), FeynHiggs (http://www.feynhiggs.de) Nature of problem: Calculation of inclusive and exclusive Higgs production cross sections in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the Standard Model and the MSSM through next-to-leading order QCD, includes next-to-next-to-leading order top-(s)quark contributions and electro-weak effects Solution method: Numerical Monte Carlo integration Additional comments: Code includes ggh@nnlo (http://www.robert-harlander.de/software/ggh@nnlo), bbh@nnlo (http://www.robert-harlander.de/software/bbh@nnlo) and evalcsusy.f (http://www.robert-harlander.de/software) Running time: All the examples provided take a minute or less to run.

  16. Alloimmunisation fœto-maternelle Rhésus grave à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Zineb, Benkerroum; Boutaina, Lachiri; Ikram, Lazrak; Driss, Moussaoui Rahali; Mohammed, Dehayni

    2015-01-01

    L'incompatibilité fœto-maternelle Rhésus peut être à l'origine d'un syndrome hémolytique dont l'expression clinique est l′anémie fœtale éventuellement compliquée par une anasarque fœto-placentaire ou à l'extrême une mort fœtale in utéro. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un cas d'allo immunisation Rhésus à 34 SA ayant aboutit un hydrops foetalis, l'extraction fœtale par césarienne en vue d'une exsanguino-transfusion a été réalisée, mais le nouveau né est décédé au cours de l'exsanguino-transfusion. Le dépistage des femmes à risque et l'utilisation d'Immunoglobulines anti D ont permis une réduction importante de l′incidence des accidents d'incompatibilité. La mesure du pic systolique de vélocité dans l'artère cérébrale moyenne a bouleversé la surveillance et la prise en charge prénatale des anémies fœtales secondaires à une allo-immunisation Rhésus. Son utilisation dans la surveillance des cas d'allo-immunisation Rhésus permettrait ainsi de réserver les procédures invasives (cordocentèse) comme geste thérapeutique qui permet la transfusion fœtale in utéro. Grâce à une collaboration multidisciplinaire cohérente, l'extraction fœtale peut être programmée, ce qui permet une prise en charge adéquate et rigoureuse, même des nouveaux nés avec atteinte sévère. PMID:26889318

  17. Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island South-East Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Groenen, Martien A M; Lohse, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, we investigate this issue using genome sequences of three pig (Sus) species, two of which are found on islands of the Sunda-shelf shallow seas in Island South-East Asia (ISEA). A previous study revealed signatures of interspecific admixture between these Sus species (Genome biology,14, 2013, R107). However, the timing, directionality and extent of this admixture remain unknown. Here, we use a likelihood-based model comparison to more finely resolve this admixture history and test whether it was mediated by humans or occurred naturally. Our analyses suggest that interspecific admixture between Sunda-shelf species was most likely asymmetric and occurred long before the arrival of humans in the region. More precisely, we show that these species diverged during the late Pliocene but around 23% of their genomes have been affected by admixture during the later Pleistocene climatic transition. In addition, we show that our method provides a significant improvement over D-statistics which are uninformative about the direction of admixture. PMID:25294645

  18. Parasites of the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa (wild boar) from commercial breeder in southern Brazil and its relationship with Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Diego; Müller, Gertrud

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the species of helminths infecting the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa from commercial breeding and check the existence of a possible antagonistic relationship of these species with Ascaris suum. Forty wild boars were analyzed, and the genus Metastrongylus was recorded in the bronchi and bronchioles of 60 % of these, with the occurrence of the species Metastrongylus apri, Metastrongylus salmi, and Metastrongylus pudendotectus. The highest prevalence found was in M. apri (52.5 %), followed by M. salmi (20 %), and M. pudendotectus (7.5 %), registering the highest prevalence of Metastrongylus in wild boars from commercial breeding so far. M. apri was first reported parasitizing wild boars bred in captivity. There was no observed significant influence of A. suum in the mean intensity of Metastrongylus. PMID:23224612

  19. A Sealers Midden Provides Evidence a Live Pig ( Sus scrofa) was Taken Ashore at Heard Island During the "Elephanting" Industry (1855-1882)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry; Robins, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.

  20. Serological Investigation of Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) As Indicator Animals for Circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment. PMID:24359418

  1. Serological investigation of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicator animals for circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter; Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment. PMID:24359418

  2. Ocular lesions associated with Chlamydia suis in a wild boar piglet (Sus scrofa) from a semi-free range population in Spain.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; García, Alfredo; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Garcia, Waldo L; Benítez, José M; Gonçalves, Pilar; Cuesta, Jesús M; Gómez, Luis; Rey, Joaquín; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2013-03-01

    The role of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for a large number of pathogens that can affect both domestic animals and humans has been widely studied in the last few years. However, the impact of some of these pathogens on the health of wild boar populations is still being determined. This article presents a clinical case of severe bilateral keratoconjunctivitis affecting a 2-mo-old piglet from a semi-free range population in Spain. Histopathologic and microbiologic analysis revealed lesions in the cornea, choroid, and optical nerve, and Chlamydia suis was detected in the eyes bilaterally. The visual handicap resulting from this type of lesion greatly affects the survival of this affected piglet. PMID:23505718

  3. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    PubMed

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jall?lah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istih?lah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istih?lah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istih?lah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days. PMID:22953853

  4. Exposures of Sus scrofa to a TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon: no effects on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    In an earlier study, we found significant changes in red-blood-cell, leukocyte, and platelet counts, and in red-blood-cell membrane proteins, following exposures of anesthetized pigs to a conducted electrical weapon. In the current study, we examined potential changes in plasma proteins [analyzed via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE)] following two 30 s exposures of anesthetized pigs (Sus scrofa) to a TASER (®) C2 conducted electrical weapon. Patterns of proteins, separated by 2-DGE, were consistent and reproducible between animals and between times of sampling. We determined that the blood plasma collection, handling, storage, and processing techniques we used are suitable for swine blood. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma proteins following the conducted-electrical-weapon exposures. Overall gel patterns of fibrinogen were similar to results of other studies of both pigs and humans (in control settings, not exposed to conducted electrical weapons). The lack of significant changes in plasma proteins may be added to the body of evidence regarding relative safety of TASER C2 device exposures. PMID:25319243

  5. [Primary health care--the "apple of the eye" of SUS: about social representations of the protagonists of the Unified Health System].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Martins, Tatiana de Castro Pereira

    2011-01-01

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) is the first contact level with the health system. In Brazil, the Family Health Program (PSF) is the main implementation and organization strategy of the PHC. The objective of this study is to evaluate the actions and services of health offered by the PSF, starting from the social representations of the interviewee on the exclusive dimensions of PHC - attention to the first contact, longitudinality, integrality and coordination. It is a quali-quantitative research, accomplished in Cajuri, Minas Gerais State. Municipal managers, PSF professionals and pregnant women assisted by PSF were interviewed. Regarding social representations on SUS, it was observed an inadequate level of apprehension and knowledge of their principles and guidelines. As for PSF, several positive connotations were expressed and the set of perceptions of the protagonists identified it as a restructuring strategy of PHC in the municipality. In spite of this, strong influences of the biomedical model and the challenge of the integration with the other levels of attention were noticed, indicating the need of investments in the professional's training and in the organization of the other levels of attention to health. PMID:21503436

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral pathogens in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia in 2005-06 and 2009-10.

    PubMed

    Roic, Besi; Jemersic, Lorena; Terzic, Svjetlana; Keros, Tomislav; Balatinec, Jelena; Florijancic, Tihomir

    2012-01-01

    We determined prevalence of antibody to selected viral pathogens important for domestic pigs and livestock in 556 wild boar (Sus scrofa) sera collected during 2005-06 and 2009-10 in four counties in Croatia. These counties account for an important part of the Croatian commercial pig production and have a high density of wild boars. Samples were tested for antibodies to porcine parvovirus (PPV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Antibodies to all of the infectious pathogens except SVDV were detected. There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence between the two periods for PPV, ADV, PCV2, PRRSV, and PRCV, with a higher prevalence of PPV and ADV in the 2009-10 period (P<0.05). During the same period, the prevalence of PCV2, PRRSV, and PRCV was lower (P<0.05). Our results provide information on the current disease exposure and health status of wild boars in Croatia and suggest that wild boars may act as a reservoir for several pathogens and a source of infection for domestic pigs and other livestock as well as humans, especially for ADV. PMID:22247381

  7. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  8. Survival of anesthetized Sus scrofa after cycling (7-second on/3-second off) exposures to an electronic control device for 3 minutes.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Seaman, Ronald L; Fines, David A

    2011-06-01

    Electronic control devices (ECDs) may eventually be deployed by the military in a manner resulting in longer exposures than those encountered during law-enforcement operations. In a previous study, 18 repeated cycling (5-second on/5-second off) exposures (within a 3-minute period) of anesthetized swine to an ECD (TASER International's Advanced TASER X26 device) resulted in leg muscle contraction, acidosis, and increases in blood electrolytes. In the current study, experiments were performed to examine effects of exposures to a different cycling rate (7-second on/3-second off), from a modified X26 ECD, on 10 swine (Sus scrofa), maintained on propofol anesthesia. In contrast with the previous study, a large number of animals (6/10) died immediately after the exposures. There were no major differences in pre-exposure blood factors from survivors versus nonsurvivors, with the exception of hematocrit and 2 isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase. It is doubtful that these factors would be useful in predicting survival after ECD exposure. Blood pH was significantly decreased after exposure, but (in animals that survived) subsequently returned to baseline levels. On the basis of the overall survival rate, further development of useful ECDs (for long-term incapacitation during military operations) may require consideration of longer pauses between repeated exposures over a 3-minute period. PMID:21464698

  9. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100BAEEunit/mg) than a commercial product (9500BAEEunit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up. PMID:26318238

  10. The Care management Information system for the home Care Network (SI GESCAD): support for care coordination and continuity of care in the Brazilian Unified health system (SUS).

    PubMed

    Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Gottems, Leila Bernarda Donato; Vasconcelos Filho, José Eurico; Silva, Kênia Lara; Gamarski, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The present article describes the development of the initial version of the Brazilian Care Management Information System for the Home Care Network (SI GESCAD). This system was created to enhance comprehensive care, care coordination and the continuity of care provided to the patients, family and caretakers of the Home Care (HC) program. We also present a reflection on the contributions, limitations and possibilities of the SI GESCAD within the scope of the Home Care Network of the Brazilian Unified Health System (RAS-AD). This was a study on technology production based on a multi-method protocol. It discussed software engineering and human-computer interaction (HCI) based on user-centered design, as well as evolutionary and interactive software process (prototyping and spiral). A functional prototype of the GESCAD was finalized, which allowed for the management of HC to take into consideration the patient's social context, family and caretakers. The system also proved to help in the management of activities of daily living (ADLs), clinical care and the monitoring of variables associated with type 2 HC. The SI GESCAD allowed for a more horizontal work process for HC teams at the RAS-AD/SUS level of care, with positive repercussions on care coordination and continuity of care. PMID:26060958

  11. Low-energy EDX--a novel approach to study stress corrosion cracking in SUS304 stainless steel via scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Meisnar, Martina; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Moody, Michael; Holland, James

    2014-11-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in type SUS304 stainless steels, tested under pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water conditions, has been characterized with unprecedented spatial resolution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and novel low-energy (?3 kV) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). An advancement of the large area silicon drift detector (SDD) has enhanced its sensitivity for X-rays in the low-energy part of the atomic spectrum. Therefore, it was possible to operate the SEM at lower accelerating voltages in order to reduce the interaction volume of the beam with the material and achieve higher spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise ratio. In addition to studying the oxide chemistry at the surface of intergranular stress corrosion cracks, the technique has proven capable of resolving Ni enrichment ahead of some crack tips. Active cracks could be distinguished from inactive ones due to the presence of oxides in the open crack and Ni-rich regions ahead of the crack tip. Furthermore, it has been established that SCC features can be better resolved with low-energy (3 kV) than high-energy (12 kV) EDX. The low effort in sample preparation, execution and data analysis makes SEM the ideal tool for initial characterization and selection of the most important SCC features such as dominant cracks and interesting crack tips, later to be studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). PMID:25080272

  12. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    PubMed

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite. PMID:26002310

  13. Genome-wide identification, classification and functional analyses of the bHLH transcription factor family in the pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wuyi

    2015-08-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are one of the largest families of gene regulatory proteins and play crucial roles in genetic, developmental and physiological processes in eukaryotes. Here, we conducted a survey of the Sus scrofa genome and identified 109 putative bHLH transcription factor members belonging to super-groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while four members were orphan genes. We identified 6 most significantly enriched KEGG pathways and 116 most significant GO annotation categories. Further comprehensive surveys in human genome and other 12 medical databases identified 72 significantly enriched biological pathways with these 113 pig bHLH transcription factors. From the functional protein association network analysis 93 hub proteins were identified and 55 hub proteins created a tight network or a functional module within their protein families. Especially, there were 20 hub proteins found highly connected in the functional interaction network. The present study deepens our understanding and provided insights into the evolution and functional aspects of animal bHLH proteins and should serve as a solid foundation for further for analyses of specific bHLH transcription factors in the pig and other mammals. PMID:25687626

  14. Determining the persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish in select tissues of orally vaccinated feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.).

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Rhyan, Jack C; McCollum, Matt P; Triantis, Joni M; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Salman, Mo D

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for vaccination of feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.). Since BCG is a live bacterium, evaluation of its safety and persistence in tissues is important. Fifteen feral swine received approximately 4.5×10(6) colony forming units of BCG Danish via oral bait. Four animals received bait without BCG. At 1, 3, 6, and 9months post-vaccination, four vaccinates were euthanized. Non-vaccinates were euthanized at 9months. Clinical signs were not noted in vaccinated pigs at any time. Tissues from all 20 pigs were culture-negative for mycobacteria. Based on our data, BCG is safe and appears not to persist in feral swine tissues after one month post-oral vaccination. However, further work must be performed at higher doses, and on a larger number of animals representing the target population, and further evaluation of persistence in tissues within the first month post-vaccination is needed. PMID:26850536

  15. Development of a two-parameter slit-scan flow cytometer for screening of normal and aberrant chromosomes: application to a karyotype of Sus scrofa domestica (pig)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Arnold, Armin; Stepanow, Boris; Wickert, Burkhard; Boscher, Jeannine; Popescu, Paul C.; Cremer, Christoph

    1992-07-01

    Laser fluorescence activated slit-scan flow cytometry offers an approach to a fast, quantitative characterization of chromosomes due to morphological features. It can be applied for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. We give a preliminary report on the development of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer. Time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome passes perpendicularly through a narrowly focused laser beam combined by a detection slit in the image plane. So far automated data analysis has been performed off-line on a PC. In its final performance, the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer will achieve on-line data analysis that allows an electro-acoustical sorting of chromosomes of interest. Interest is high in the agriculture field to study chromosome aberrations that influence the size of litters in pig (Sus scrofa domestica) breeding. Slit-scan measurements have been performed to characterize chromosomes of pigs; we present results for chromosome 1 and a translocation chromosome 6/15.

  16. Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 viral loads in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) affected pigs.

    PubMed

    Aramouni, M; Segalés, J; Sibila, M; Martin-Valls, G E; Nieto, D; Kekarainen, T

    2011-12-15

    Torque teno viruses (TTV) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular single-stranded DNA genome, which are considered non-pathogenic. However, TTVs have been eventually linked to human diseases. TTVs infecting pigs, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2), have been recently associated to porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). To get more insights into such potential disease association, the aim of this study was to quantify TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral loads in serum of pigs affected by two PCVDs, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). Such study was carried out by means of a newly developed real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. Both TTSuVs were highly prevalent among studied pigs. TTSuV2 viral loads were significantly higher in PMWS affected animals, further supporting the previously suggested association between TTSuV2 and PMWS. On the contrary, TTSuV1 prevalence and loads were not related with the studied PCVDs. PMID:21719215

  17. Genetic variability and phylogeny of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) based on complete genomes.

    PubMed

    Cortey, Martí; Macera, Lisa; Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2011-03-24

    Thirteen genomes of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) were obtained to examine the diversity and evolution of swine TTVs. Despite the low nucleotide identity reported, the genomic organization and transcriptional profiles of TTVs are similar. The nucleotide diversity for TTSuV1 was higher than TTSuV2, and the pattern of mutation among the ORFs was also different. Phylogenetic and genetic analyses support the proposed division of TTV into two species. TTSuV1 showed high levels of variability (>30%), with three different types (the third described for the first time) that may display a geographical structure. In contrast, TTSuV2 showed lower levels of variability (<15%), and no different types could be described. Larger values for the ratios of synonymous (dS) to non-synonymous (dN) base substitutions (dS/dN) were reported for the ORFs pointing to a certain level of selective constraint in TTV genomes. PMID:20833485

  18. Lung parasites of the genus Metastrongylus Molin, 1861 (Nematoda: Metastrongilidae) in wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) in Central-Italy: An eco-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Poglayen, Giovanni; Marchesi, Barbara; Dall'Oglio, Giulia; Barlozzari, Giulia; Galuppi, Roberta; Morandi, Benedetto

    2016-02-15

    The respiratory tracts of 57 wild boars (Sus scrofa L. 1758) hunted in central Italy during the 2011/2012 hunting season were examined to detect the presence of lung worms. Fifty-five out of 57 animals (96,5%) were positive. Five species of Metastrongylus were detected and their prevalence was as follows: Metastrongylus asymmetricus Noda, 1973 (91.2%), Metastrongylus confusus Jansen, 1964 and Metastrongylus salmi Gedoelst, 1923 (87.7%), Metastrongylus apri Gmelin, 1790 (80.7%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus Vostokov, 1905 (70.2%). In most cases multi-species infection was observed. The highest parasite load was found in young animals (<1 year old). The Metastrongylus genus sex ratio (M/F) had a range from 1:4.8 to 1:1.5 in favor of females. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices showed a moderate uniformity in parasite community composition. The Fager index highlighted a high degree of affinity among all pairs of selected parasites. The whole parasite population showed an aggregate distribution. Our findings confirm that these parasites are widespread in the wild boar population. The establishment of outdoor domestic pig farming in the same area of the game preserve could pose the risk of infection to domestic animals. Further studies will be needed to understand the factors involved in the presence and prevalence of the intermediate host as well as the population dynamics of Metastrongylus spp. PMID:26827860

  19. Influence of the particle size and phase type of ZrO{sub 2} on the fabrication and residual stress of ZrO{sub 2}SUS304 FGM

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yeon-Gil; Choi, Sung-Churl; Paik, U.

    1997-12-31

    TZP/SUS304- and ZT/SUS304-FGM were fabricated by pressureless sintering. The defects originating from the different shrinkage and sintering behavior of ceramic and metal could be controlled by the adjustments in terms of the particle size and phase type of ZrO{sub 2}. The residual stresses in TZP/SUS304-FGM have irregular patterns resulting from sintering defects and thermal expansion mismatch. In ZT/SUS304-FGM, compressive stress is induced on the ceramic regions by the volume expansion of MZP. Also, compressive stress is induced on the metal regions by the constraint of warping and frustum formation which must be created to the metal direction caused by the difference of CTEs. As a consequence, it has been verified that the residual stresses generated on FGM are dominantly influenced by the thickness and number of compositional gradient layers, and the sintering defects and residual stress can be controlled by the decrease of the difference of the shrinkage and sintering behavior of each component.

  20. Effects of a TASER® conducted energy weapon on the circulating red-blood-cell population and other factors in Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Bernhard, Joshua A; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L; Tarango, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    In previous studies hematocrit has been consistently increased in an anesthetized animal model after exposures to TASER(®) conducted energy weapons (CEWs). In the present study we analyzed changes in blood cell counts and red blood cell membrane proteins following two 30-s applications of a TASER C2 device (which is designed for civilian use). Hematocrit increased significantly from 33.2 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD) to 42.8 ± 4.6 % immediately after CEW exposure of eleven pigs (Sus scrofa). Red blood cell count increased significantly from 6.10 ± 0.55 × 10(12)/L to 7.45 ± 0.94 × 10(12)/L, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly from 54.5 ± 2.4 fl to 57.8 ± 2.6 fl. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly from 20.5 ± 0.7 to 18.5 ± 0.6 mM. Thirty protein spots (from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, selected for detailed comparison) exhibited greater densities 30-min post-exposure compared with pre-exposure values. A greater number of echinocytes were observed following CEW exposure. On the basis of these results it appears that, during the strong muscle contractions produced by TASER CEWs, a specific population of red blood cells (RBCs) may be released from the spleen or other reservoirs within the body. The total time of CEW exposure in the present study was relatively long compared with exposures in common law-enforcement scenarios. Despite statistically significant changes in red blood cell counts (and other measures directly related to RBCs), the alterations were short-lived. The transient nature of the changes would be likely to counteract any potentially detrimental effects. PMID:23543463

  1. Linkage disequilibria and the site frequency spectra in the su(s) and su(w(a)) regions of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Langley, C H; Lazzaro, B P; Phillips, W; Heikkinen, E; Braverman, J M

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, surveys of DNA sequence variation in natural populations of several Drosophila species and other taxa have established that polymorphism is reduced in genomic regions characterized by low rates of crossing over per physical length. Parallel studies have also established that divergence between species is not reduced in these same genomic regions, thus eliminating explanations that rely on a correlation between the rates of mutation and crossing over. Several theoretical models (directional hitchhiking, background selection, and random environment) have been proposed as population genetic explanations. In this study samples from an African population (n = 50) and a European population (n = 51) were surveyed at the su(s) (1955 bp) and su(w(a)) (3213 bp) loci for DNA sequence polymorphism, utilizing a stratified SSCP/DNA sequencing protocol. These loci are located near the telomere of the X chromosome, in a region of reduced crossing over per physical length, and exhibit a significant reduction in DNA sequence polymorphism. Unlike most previously surveyed, these loci reveal substantial skews toward rare site frequencies, consistent with the predictions of directional hitchhiking and random environment models and inconsistent with the general predictions of the background selection model (or neutral theory). No evidence for excess geographic differentiation at these loci is observed. Although linkage disequilibrium is observed between closely linked sites within these loci, many recombination events in the genealogy of the sampled alleles can be inferred and the genomic scale of linkage disequilibrium, measured in base pairs between sites, is the same as that observed for loci in regions of normal crossing over. We conclude that gene conversion must be high in these regions of low crossing over. PMID:11102378

  2. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  3. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa) in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christopher M; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  4. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Sarah J.; Miller, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of agricultural systems including epidemiological studies, food safety, biosecurity issues, emergency-response planning, and conflicts between livestock and other natural resources. PMID:26571497

  5. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Christopher L; Kraus, Brian R; Garza, Sarah J; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of agricultural systems including epidemiological studies, food safety, biosecurity issues, emergency-response planning, and conflicts between livestock and other natural resources. PMID:26571497

  6. The pathogenic role of torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 and their correlations with various viral pathogens and host immunocytes in wasting pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao; Lin, Chun-Ming; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Hui-Wen; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Pang, Victor Fei

    2015-11-18

    The pathogenic role of torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) in swine is controversial among different studies. The present study intended to evaluate the potential pathogenicity of TTSuV based on its correlations with the histopathological changes, various common concurrently infected viral pathogens including porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV), as well as changes in the distribution and population of host immunocytes such as B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and macrophages by using the superficial inguinal lymph nodes (siLNs) of wasting pigs. A tissue microarray consisting of 270 available siLNs collected from 262 clinically wasting and 8 healthy pigs, respectively, were used for the detection of TTSuV1, TTSuV2, PCV2, PRRSV, and PPV by either in situ hybridization (ISH) or immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, and for the detection of various subsets of immunocytes by IHC staining with monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD79a, and lysozyme. The slides were then subject to digital scanning followed by a semi-quantitative positive pixel evaluation for further statistical analysis. Although a high prevalence of TTSuV1 and/or TTSuV2 infection was noted in both wasting and healthy pigs, the wasting pigs had a significantly higher intensity in both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 ISH-positive signals than healthy ones did. In the wasting pigs, a significant positive correlation in the tissue viral load was noted between TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 and between TTSuV2 and PCV2, but not between TTSuV1 and PCV2. Conversely, a significant negative correlation in the tissue viral load was revealed between TTSuV2, but not TTSuV1, and PRRSV. The tissue viral load of TTSuV1 was significantly correlated with B cell hyperplasia, while the tissue viral load of TTSuV2 was significantly correlated with increased macrophage population. The ISH positivity of TTSuV2 was significantly correlated with lymphoid depletion and granulomatous inflammation, which are the characteristic histopathological findings in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome-affected pigs. These findings suggest that both TTSuV species may have the potential involving the development of porcine circovirus-associated lymphoid lesions via alternating the host immune system. PMID:26390821

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. Strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. Strain GCS4, Shinella sp. Strain GWS1, and Shinella sp. Strain SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katy J; Moore, Karen; Sambles, Christine; Love, John; Studholme, David J; Aves, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. strain GCS4, and Shinella sp. strains GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, strain Guadeloupe. PMID:26769927

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. Strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. Strain GCS4, Shinella sp. Strain GWS1, and Shinella sp. Strain SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katy J.; Moore, Karen; Love, John

    2016-01-01

    A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. strain GCS4, and Shinella sp. strains GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, strain Guadeloupe. PMID:26769927

  9. Estudio comparativo de las moléculas isovalentes de interés atmosférico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes halógenos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los últimos años un creciente interés entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas espectroscópicas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electrónicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorción que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atmósfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtención de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran interés. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las moléculas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas moléculas presentan idéntica estructura electrónica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la corrección de nuestros resultados en base a las analogías esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones análogas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado carácter atómico en el espectro correspondiente a estas moléculas, siendo muy similar a los de los átomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, además de establecer la comparación entre ambas moléculas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos halógenos. Los cálculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodología Molécular de Orbítales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los átomos de Cl y Br se empleó la versión relativista del método (RQDO) [3].

  10. Dynamics of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) DNA loads in serum of healthy and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs.

    PubMed

    Nieto, D; Aramouni, M; Grau-Roma, L; Segalés, J; Kekarainen, T

    2011-09-28

    Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are vertebrate infecting, small viruses with circular single stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In pigs, two different TTV species have been described so far, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2). TTSuVs have lately been linked to postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In the present study, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 prevalence and DNA loads in longitudinally collected serum samples of healthy and PMWS affected pigs from Spanish conventional, multi-site farms were analyzed. Serum samples were taken at 1, 3, 7, 11 and around 15 weeks of age (age of PMWS outbreak) and viral DNA loads determined by quantitative PCR. For both TTSuV species, percentage of viremic pigs increased progressively over time, with the highest prevalence in animals of about 15 weeks of age. TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral DNA loads in healthy and TTSuV1 loads in PMWS affected animals increased until 11 weeks of age declining afterwards. On the contrary, TTSuV2 DNA loads in PMWS affected pigs increased throughout the sampling period. It seems that TTSuV species differ in the in vivo infection dynamics in PMWS affected animals. PMID:21680113

  11. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population. PMID:23490145

  12. Availability of hospital dental care services under sedation or general anesthesia for individuals with special needs in the Unified Health System for the State of Minas Gerais (SUS-MG), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jacqueline Silva; Valle, Déborah Andrade; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; do Amaral, João Henrique Lara; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2015-02-01

    This study identified the demographic characteristics of individuals and dental treatment care under sedation/general anesthesia in a hospital environment in the Unified Health System in the State of Minas Gerais (SUS-MG). All Hospitalization Authorizations (AIHs) for Dental Treatment for Patients with Special Needs procedures were evaluated between July 2011 and June 2012. Demographic and health care variables for treatment were also assessed. Hospitalization rates per 10,000 inhabitants, and health care coverage provided in the state of Minas Gerais and in each of the Broader Health Regions were calculated. Descriptive analysis of data was carried out by calculating the central trend and variability frequency and measurements. All 1,063 AIHs paid during the study period were evaluated, which is equivalent to a rate of 0.54 hospitalizations per 10,000 individuals. The majority of the patients were adult, male, diagnosed with mental or behavioral disorders and resident in 27.7% of the municipalities in Minas Gerais. The procedures were performed in 39 municipalities and the care coverage was equal to 1.58%. The study reveals a classic demographic and clinical profile of patient attendance. Difficulties in establishing a network of dental care were identified. PMID:25715145

  13. Investigating the Role of Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in the Re-Emergence of Enzootic Pneumonia in Domestic Pig Herds: A Pathological, Prevalence and Risk-Factor Study

    PubMed Central

    Batista Linhares, Mainity; Belloy, Luc; Origgi, Francesco C.; Lechner, Isabel; Segner, Helmut; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3–29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs. PMID:25747151

  14. Reproductive physiology and ovarian folliculogenesis examined via 1H-NMR metabolomics signatures: a comparative study of large and small follicles in three mammalian species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus and Equus ferus caballus).

    PubMed

    Gérard, Nadine; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Grupen, Christopher G; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of follicular fluid (FF) collected from the small and large follicles of three mammalian species, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa domesticus, and Equus ferus caballus, that display distinct ovulatory properties. For each species, five large FF samples and five small FF samples were analyzed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The FF metabolic profiles of the three species were very distinct. In cows and mares, the metabolic profiles of large FF and small FF were also very distinct. The concentrations of seventeen identified metabolites differed significantly between the sample groups. In mares, fourteen metabolites were found at much greater concentrations in large FF than in small FF (p<0.05). In cows, four metabolites differed in concentration between the large FF and small FF samples (p<0.05). A common feature of the monovulatory species was that the concentrations of ?- and ?-glucose were much greater in large FF compared with small FF (p<0.05). Sow FF was characterized by the apparent absence of citrate (detected in cow and mare FF), and the presence of succinate (not detected in cow and mare FF). Another obvious difference between species was the concentration of lactate, which was minimal in mare FF compared with cow and sow FF (p<0.05). The findings provide valuable insights into reproductive physiology broadly, and indicate that the activities of central metabolic enzymes differ enormously between these species. Future investigations into species-specific differences in follicle metabolism would increase our understanding of the processes critical to folliculogenesis and the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence. PMID:25393852

  15. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  16. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, C.; Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Rupakheti, M.; Panday, A.; Mahata, K. S.; Rupakheti, D.; Kathayat, B.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2015-09-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the Valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs by deploying a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS)-the first such deployment in South Asia. 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2 σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the Valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m/Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The highest average VOC mixing ratios during the measurement period were (in rank order): acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb), methanol (7.4 ppb), acetone (4.2 ppb), benzene (2.7 ppb), toluene (1.5 ppb), isoprene (1.1 ppb), acetonitrile (1.1 ppb), C8-aromatics (~ 1 ppb), furan (~ 0.5 ppb), and C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m/z = 69.070) and furan (m/z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde (~ 9 ppb), acetonitrile (~ 1 ppb) and isoprene (~ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported till date. Two "new" ambient compounds namely, formamide (m/z = 46.029) and acetamide (m/z = 60.051), which can photochemically produce isocyanic acid in the atmosphere, are reported in this study along with nitromethane (a tracer for diesel exhaust) which has only recently been detected in ambient studies. Two distinct periods were selected during the campaign for detailed analysis: the first was associated with high wintertime emissions of biogenic isoprene, and the second with elevated levels of ambient acetonitrile, benzene and isocyanic acid from biomass burning activities. Emissions from biomass burning and biomass co-fired brick kilns were found to be the dominant sources for compounds such as propyne, propene, benzene and propanenitrile which correlated strongly with acetonitrile (r2 > 0.7), a chemical tracer for biomass burning. The calculated total VOC OH reactivity was dominated by acetaldehyde (24.0 %), isoprene (20.2 %) and propene (18.7 %), while oxygenated VOCs and isoprene collectively contributed to more than 68 % of the total ozone production potential. Based on known SOA yields and measured ambient concentrations in the Kathmandu Valley, the relative SOA production potential of VOCs were: benzene > naphthalene > toluene > xylenes > monoterpenes > trimethyl-benzenes > styrene > isoprene. The first ambient measurements from any site in South Asia of compounds with significant health effects such as isocyanic acid, formamide, acetamide, naphthalene and nitromethane have been reported in this study. Our results suggest that mitigation of intense wintertime biomass burning activities, in particular point sources such biomass co-fired brick kilns, would be important to reduce the emission and formation of toxic VOCs (such as benzene and isocyanic acid) in the Kathmandu Valley and improve its air quality.

  17. Prevalencia y Consecuencias del Abuso Sexual al Menor en Espana (Prevalence and Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse in Spain).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Felix; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse in Spain were studied, using interview and survey responses from 1,821 individuals. Results indicated a high prevalence of sexual abuse prior to age 17 (15 percent of males and 22 percent of females) and a number of short-term and long-term effects, including a tendency toward mental health…

  18. Informe del NCI y los CDC sobre el tabaco sin humo

    Cancer.gov

    El primer informe sobre el consumo mundial del tabaco sin humo y sus consecuencias en la salud pública reveló que más de 300 millones de personas en al menos 70 países usan estos productos dañinos.

  19. 78 FR 62643 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Disaster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...), Solicitud en Papel/Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre;...

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Yorkshire pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Yang, Hu; Ma, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the complete nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial genome in the Yorkshire pig. Sequence analysis indicates that the genome structure is in accordance with other pig breeds, and it contains 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Yorkshire pig provides an important record set for further study on genetic mechanism. PMID:24725014

  1. Como reembolsar sus prestamos para estudiantes (Repaying Your Student Loans).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This guide, written in Spanish, discusses how to repay student loans. Following a general introduction, the guide discusses the grace period before repayment and repayment requirements. Repayment plans are described for Perkins Loans, Direct Loans, and Federal Family Education Loans. Repayment options are discussed, including consolidation,…

  2. Salmonella sp. in game (Sus scrofa and Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Morais, Luísa; Caleja, Cristina; Themudo, Patrícia; Torres, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia; Martins, Conceição

    2011-06-01

    The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of Salmonella sp.-induced diseases is a matter of increasing concern to public health. However, to date, reports on the occurrence of Salmonella sp. in game hunted for human consumption are very limited. The current study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella sp. in fecal samples of wild boars and wild rabbits hunted in Northern Portugal. The results show that 22% of the (17/77) wild boar and 48% (38/80) of the wild rabbit presented Salmonella sp. in their feces. Two serovars were identified from samples of wild boars: Salmonella Typhimurium (65%) and Salmonella Rissen (35%). Five serovars were identified from wild rabbit samples: Salmonella Rissen (29%), Salmonella Enteritidis (26%), Salmonella Havana (24%), Salmonella Typhimurium (16%), and Salmonella Derby (5%). These results confirm the importance of wild boar and wild rabbit as carriers of pathogenic Salmonella serovars. Hence, they could represent sources of infection not only for animals (wild and domestic) but also for humans. PMID:21254910

  3. Mechanical properties of the periosteum in the pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Popowics, T E; Zhu, Z; Herring, S W

    2002-10-01

    The fibrous periosteum forms an intermediary between muscle and ligament forces and the underlying osteoblastic tissue, thus the mechanical properties of the periosteum are critical to understanding osteogenic stimuli. Regional and directional variation in periosteal properties may contribute to the biomechanical regulation of growth in some bones. Periostea of the pig mandibular body, zygomatic arch and metacarpal were loaded to failure under continuous tension. Each tissue type was tested in both the long-axis and transverse orientation. Stiffness, peak stress and peak strain were compared between orientations and among regions. Within the zygomatic periosteum there was little indication of regional difference, and neither zygomatic nor mandibular periosteum showed directional differences. The metacarpal periosteum showed a directional effect only in peak strain, which was greater longitudinally than transversely. There were striking differences, however, among the periostea of the three bones. The zygomatic arch periosteum was the stiffest tissue (91.7+/-30.5 MPa) and showed the highest strength (12.3+/-4.6 MPa). The metacarpal periosteum demonstrated slightly lower stiffness and strength (84.7+/-35.1 and 11.3+/-5.3 MPa), and peak strains in zygomatic and metacarpal periostea were similarly high (17.7+/-3.7 and 17.9+/-3.7 MPa, respectively). The periosteum of the mandibular body was the most deformable tissue (63.0+/-25.4 MPa), with the lowest-peak strain (15.6+/-3.0 MPa) and the least strength (8.2+/-4.1 MPa). These results correspond with those of previous work in long bones, in that periosteum interfacing with ligament or muscle (e.g. zygomatic, metacarpal) demonstrates greater stiffness and strength than periosteum adjacent to loose connective tissue (e.g. mandibular body). Therefore, the degree to which the periosteal tissue serves as a functional interface between bone and muscle is reflected in the different failure properties of periostea from different bones. The structural fortification of the zygomatic arch periosteum relative to other periosteal tissues suggests a role for the periosteum in stabilizing the zygomatic arch-muscle functional complex. On the other hand, the similar failure properties of zygomatic and squamosal periostea from the zygomatic arch mean that the differential growth of these bones cannot be attributed to mechanical stimuli intrinsic to the periosteal tissue. PMID:12356505

  4. Shedding patterns of endemic Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) pathogens.

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, David; Martín-Hernando, María Paz; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    The Eurasianwild boar has experienced aworldwide demographic explosion that increases awareness on shared pathogens. However, shedding routes of relevant wild boar pathogens are unknown. Previous observations on sex- and age-related differences in Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) exposure led us to hypothesize that shedding patterns of endemicwild boar pathogens may be influenced by individual traits.We investigated shedding routes of ADV, porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Coxiella burnetii and analysed the effect of host sex and age on pathogen shedding patterns. The presence of pathogen antibodies in serumand of pathogen DNA in oral, nasal, genital and rectal swabswas analysed by ELISA and PCR, respectively. The influence of sex and age in pathogen shedding prevalencewas tested statistically.Main routes of ADV, PPV, PCV2 and C. burnetii shedding were identified but the hypothesis of sex- and/or age-related shedding patterns couldn't be confirmed. PMID:26412545

  5. Characterisation of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Briones, Víctor; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Vela, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Wild boar are widely distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and can carry potentially virulent strains of Streptococcus suis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. suis in wild boars from two large geographical regions of Spain. Serotypes 1, 2, 7 and 9 identified were further genetically characterised by virulence-associated genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the population structure of S. suis carried by these animals. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 39.1% of the wild boars examined: serotype 9 was the most frequently isolated (12.5%), followed by serotype 1 (2.5%). Serotype 2 was rarely isolated (0.3%). Eighteen additional serotypes were identified indicating wide diversity of this pathogen within the wild boar population. This heterogeneity was confirmed by PFGE and MLST analyses and the majority of isolates exhibited the virulence-associated genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-. The results of this study highlight that the carriage of S. suis by wild boars is commonplace. However, MLST data indicate that these isolates are not related to prevalent clonal complexes ST1, ST16, ST61 and ST87 typically associated with infection of pigs or humans in Europe. PMID:24726078

  6. Meat from wild boar (Sus scrofa L.): a review.

    PubMed

    Sales, James; Kotrba, Radim

    2013-06-01

    Wild boar is a species that is utilised for food and sport hunting throughout the world. Recent increases in natural populations and the potential of farming wild boars have stimulated interest in this species as a meat producer. Compared to domestic pigs, wild boars present a higher degree of carcass fatness and larger loin areas, more slow-twitch oxidative (I) and fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (IIA) and less fast-twitch glycolytic (IIB) muscle fibres, and darker, less tender and leaner meat. Differences in diets might contribute to differences in cooked meat flavour and fatty acid composition between wild boars and domestic pigs. Higher ?-tocopherol concentrations in wild boar might extend its meat shelf-life. Mechanical massaging of muscles, vacuum package ageing and addition of marinates have been attempted to tenderise wild boar meat. Further research on hunting protocols for wild boar, and value-added products from its meat, are needed. PMID:23501250

  7. Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

  8. Serological Profile of Torque Teno Sus Virus Species 1 (TTSuV1) in Pigs and Antigenic Relationships between Two TTSuV1 Genotypes (1a and 1b), between Two Species (TTSuV1 and -2), and between Porcine and Human Anelloviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yao-Wei; Harrall, Kylie K.; Dryman, Barbara A.; Opriessnig, Tanja; Vaughn, Eric M.; Roof, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    The family Anelloviridae includes human and animal torque teno viruses (TTVs) with extensive genetic diversity. The antigenic diversity among anelloviruses has never been assessed. Using torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) as a model, we describe here the first investigation of the antigenic relationships among different anelloviruses. Using a TTSuV genotype 1a (TTSuV1a) or TTSuV1b enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the respective putative ORF1 capsid antigen and TTSuV1-specific real-time PCR, the combined serological and virological profile of TTSuV1 infection in pigs was determined and compared with that of TTSuV2. TTSuV1 is likely not associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), because both the viral loads and antibody levels were not different between affected and unaffected pigs and because there was no synergistic effect of concurrent PCV2/TTSuV1 infections. We did observe a higher correlation of IgG antibody levels between anti-TTSuV1a and -TTSuV1b than between anti-TTSuV1a or -1b and anti-TTSuV2 antibodies in these sera, implying potential antigenic cross-reactivity. To confirm this, rabbit antisera against the putative capsid proteins of TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b, or TTSuV2 were generated, and the antigenic relationships among these TTSuVs were analyzed by an ELISA and by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using PK-15 cells transfected with one of the three TTSuV ORF1 constructs. The results demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity between the two genotypes TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b but not between the two species TTSuV1a or -1b and TTSuV2. Furthermore, an anti-genogroup 1 human TTV antiserum did not react with any of the three TTSuV antigens. These results have important implications for an understanding of the diversity of anelloviruses as well as for the classification and vaccine development of TTSuVs. PMID:22811540

  9. Serological profile of torque teno sus virus species 1 (TTSuV1) in pigs and antigenic relationships between two TTSuV1 genotypes (1a and 1b), between two species (TTSuV1 and -2), and between porcine and human anelloviruses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Wei; Harrall, Kylie K; Dryman, Barbara A; Opriessnig, Tanja; Vaughn, Eric M; Roof, Michael B; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2012-10-01

    The family Anelloviridae includes human and animal torque teno viruses (TTVs) with extensive genetic diversity. The antigenic diversity among anelloviruses has never been assessed. Using torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) as a model, we describe here the first investigation of the antigenic relationships among different anelloviruses. Using a TTSuV genotype 1a (TTSuV1a) or TTSuV1b enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the respective putative ORF1 capsid antigen and TTSuV1-specific real-time PCR, the combined serological and virological profile of TTSuV1 infection in pigs was determined and compared with that of TTSuV2. TTSuV1 is likely not associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), because both the viral loads and antibody levels were not different between affected and unaffected pigs and because there was no synergistic effect of concurrent PCV2/TTSuV1 infections. We did observe a higher correlation of IgG antibody levels between anti-TTSuV1a and -TTSuV1b than between anti-TTSuV1a or -1b and anti-TTSuV2 antibodies in these sera, implying potential antigenic cross-reactivity. To confirm this, rabbit antisera against the putative capsid proteins of TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b, or TTSuV2 were generated, and the antigenic relationships among these TTSuVs were analyzed by an ELISA and by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using PK-15 cells transfected with one of the three TTSuV ORF1 constructs. The results demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity between the two genotypes TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b but not between the two species TTSuV1a or -1b and TTSuV2. Furthermore, an anti-genogroup 1 human TTV antiserum did not react with any of the three TTSuV antigens. These results have important implications for an understanding of the diversity of anelloviruses as well as for the classification and vaccine development of TTSuVs. PMID:22811540

  10. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  11. Délais de prise en charge des syndromes coronariens aigus avec sus-décalage du segment ST à Ouagadougou et facteurs associés à un allongement de ces délais: étude transversale à propos de 43 cas colligés au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo

    PubMed Central

    Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Samadoulougou, André; Millogo, Georges; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Kombassere, Karim; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    La prise en charge de l'infarctus du myocarde est une course contre la montre et les trois premières heures constituent les « golden hours ». Les objectifs de ce travail étaient de déterminer le délai de prise en charge des infarctus du myocarde du myocarde au Burkina Faso, les facteurs liés à un allongement du délai et le pronostic des patients. Il s'agit d'une étude transversale descriptive menée de Septembre 2010 à Août 2011. Le critère d'inclusion était l'infarctus du myocarde dont le diagnostic était basé sur des critères clinique (douleur angineuse), électrocardiographique (sus-décalage persistant du segment ST dans au moins deux dérivations contiguës du même territoire coronaire, onde Q de nécrose) et biologique (élévation de la troponine). Les informations relatives au délai de prise en charge ont été recueillies: début du premier symptôme, contact avec le premier agent de santé et le cardiologue, nombre de centre de santé consulté avant le transfert en cardiologie, situation géographique des patients, moyen de transport utilisé. Les données ont été analysées grâce au logiciel SPSS version 17. Durant la période d’étude, 43 patients d’âge moyen de 56,51 ± 12,91 ans ont été admis pour infarctus du myocarde. Plus de la moitié des patients (72,0%) habitait Ouagadougou et sa banlieue. Le délai moyen entre le début de la douleur et la consultation dans la première structure sanitaire était de 48 ± 20,8 heures; celui entre le début de la douleur et la réalisation du premier ECG était en moyenne de 8,6 ±4,5 jours. Le délai entre la réalisation de l'ECG et l'admission dans le service de cardiologie était de 4,35 ±4,0 jours [00 heure et 13 jours]. Le délai entre l'admission dans le service de cardiologie et la thrombolyse était de 34 minutes. Enfin le délai entre le début de la douleur et le contact avec le cardiologue était de 9,6±3,5 jours. Il n'y avait pas de différence statiquement significative (P = 0,076) entre le délai de consultation des malades résidant en campagne et ceux résidant en ville. Le moyen de déplacement le plus utilisé était les transports en commun (67,4%). Aucun patient n’était référé par un transport médicalisé. Aucun patient n’était référé après la première consultation dans une structure sanitaire. Seuls 6 patients étaient référés avec le diagnostic de SCA ST+. L’âge de plus de 60 ans (P = 0,016), la prescription des antalgiques (p =0,021) et le niveau socioéconomique faible (P= 0,038) étaient également des facteurs associés à un allongement des délais de prise en charge. La reperfusion myocardique était constituée par la thrombolyse à la streptokinase qui a été réalisée chez 2 patients. La coronarographie n'a pas été réalisée. L’évolution a été marquée par 5 décès (11,6%). la prise en charge des infarctus du myocarde au Burkina Faso est caractérisée par de très longs délais. Elle n'est de ce fait pas optimale. PMID:23396976

  12. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educación en Astronomía y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educação em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando

    2014-12-01

    This paper is a reflection about the use of History of Science in the curriculum of formal education, through the discussion concerning cultural elements of several ethnic groups in Brazil, in actions related to astronomy education. The work was developed in the framework of an extension course and the analysis undertaken here refers to a meeting that discussed didactic sequences relating to that theme, based on the Brazilian law 11.645/2008, which states the obligation to present the subject "African-brazilian and indigenous History and Culture" in the official curriculum. The extension action was developed with teachers who teach Natural Sciences, in São Paulo state, discussing issues related to the use of History of Science and the relationship with cosmogonies from Iorubá and Tupi peoples, highlighting how they can enhance the work with Astronomy(ies) in the classroom. It was observed that the participants had not yet presented these themes in their classes and also did not participate in training courses that discussed these subjects. Este artículo presenta una reflexión sobre el uso de la historia de la ciencia en el currículo de la educación formal, a través de la discusión sobre el uso de los elementos culturales de los grupos étnicos en Brasil, en acciones relacionadas con la educación en astronomía. El trabajo se desarrolló en el marco de un curso de extensión y el análisis realizado aquí se refiere a un encuentro en el cual se abordaron secuencias didácticas relacionadas con ese tema, sobre la base de la ley brasilera 11.645/2008 que dispone la obligatoriedad del tema "Historia y Cultura africana e indígena en el Brasil" en el currículo oficial. La acción de extensión se desarrolló con los profesores de ciencias naturales en el interior del estado de São Paulo, discutiendo temas relacionados con el uso de la historia de la ciencia y la relación con las cosmogonías de los pueblos Iorubá y Tupi, que muestra cómo se puede mejorar el trabajo con Astronomía(s) en la clase. Se observó que los participantes todavía no habían presentado estos temas en sus clases y tampoco habían participado en cursos de formación que abordaran estos temas. O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflexão acerca da utilização da História da Ciência no currículo da educação formal, por meio da discussão relativa ao emprego de elementos culturais de grupos étnicos em ações voltadas à educação em Astronomia. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no âmbito de um curso de extensão e a análise aqui empreendida refere-se a um encontro que abordou sequências didáticas relativas àquele tema, com fundamento na lei 11.645/2008 e a obrigatoriedade de abordagem da temática "História e Cultura Afro-Brasileira e Indígena" no currículo oficial. A ação de extensão ocorreu junto a professores que ensinam Ciências da Natureza, no interior do estado de São Paulo, discutindo-se temas relativos ao uso de História da Ciência e o relacionamento com cosmogonias oriundas dos povos Iorubá e Tupi, evidenciando como podem enriquecer o trabalho com a(s) Astronomia(s) em sala de aula. Observou-se que os participantes ainda não haviam apresentado estes temas em suas aulas e, igualmente, não participaram de cursos de formação que contemplassem a referida temática.

  13. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  14. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  15. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus orígenes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. Pharmacokinetics of sustained-release and transdermal buprenorphine in Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Thiede, Allison J; Garcia, Kelly D; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Jenkins, Gary J; Nunamaker, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-01

    The opioid buprenorphine has been shown to provide adequate postoperative analgesia in both companion and laboratory animals. However, its use is still hindered by the need for multiple parenteral injections to achieve continuous analgesia. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a pharmacokinetic analysis of 2 new long-acting formulations of buprenorphine-an injectable sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and a transdermal buprenorphine (TDB) patch-in healthy Göttingen minipigs by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of 0.18 mg/kg SC SRB and 30 ? g/h TDB achieved AUC(0-Tlast) of 221.6 ± 26.8 and 25.2 ± 3.9 ng × h/mL, respectively, compared with 9.7 ± 1.4 ng*h/mL for 0.02 mg/kg IV buprenorphine. By using a hypothesized therapeutic plasma buprenorphine concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL, therapeutic concentrations were achieved at the first study time point (5 to 30 min) and lasted an average of 8.0 ± 1.3 h for intravenous buprenorphine and 264.0 ± 32.2 h for SRB. TDB achieved therapeutic concentrations in 12 to 24 h after patch application, which lasted until the patch was removed at 72 h. The results of this study suggest that SRB and TDB are long-acting alternatives for pain management, and their use could decrease animal handling and stress, thereby simplifying pain management and improving welfare in laboratory swine. PMID:25650977

  17. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. Results We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340?m in a 12?hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343?m2 (range 2,937–32,759?m2) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964?m2 (range 246–3,289?m2) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. Conclusion These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium. PMID:23497587

  18. Salmonella serotypes in wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic enteric bacteria able to infect humans, livestock and wildlife. However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour (omnivorous scavengers), wild boars may be a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in hunted wild boars and to determine the serotype the isolated strains. Findings Over three hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 1,313 boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 326 boars (24.82%). Thirty different serovars belonging to three different S. enterica spp. were found. Twenty-one serovars of S. enterica subsp. Enterica were found including the human pathogens S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. In addition, nine serovars belonging to S.enterica subsp. diarizonae and S. enterica subsp. houtenae were detected. Conclusions Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated. Wild boars may act as healthy carriers of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes. PMID:23692883

  19. La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah

    2011-12-01

    En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion por quienes promueven estas practicas. A partir de los resultados, la investigadora concluye que la problematica sobre la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia esta influenciada por unos procesos de ensenanza enfocados en una vision distorsionada de la ciencia, producto de la no integracion de los aspectos filosoficos, historicos y sociales de la misma.

  20. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of Bama miniature pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hu; Xu, Xing-Li; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming; Li, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial nucleotide sequence of the Bama miniature pig was sequenced in this study. This sequence is homologous to that of the other vertebrate mitochondrial genome. The mitochondrial genome of the Bama miniature pig is 16,711?bp and contains 37 genes including 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region (D-loop). The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN as start codon and terminated with TAA, TA or T as stop codon. The DNA sequence in the Bama miniature pig D-loop region contains the repeat motif (-TACACGTGCG-) and 5'nucleotide of the first repeat is at the position 796?bp. PMID:24521503

  1. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of Wuzhishan pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Chai, Yu-Lan; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Wuzhishan pig, which was 16?741?bp in size and had a nucleotide composition in A and T (60.46%). The genome consisted of a major non-coding control region (D-loop region) and 37 genes, including 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The genes in the mitochondrial genomes of Wuzhishan pig used three kinds of initiation codons (ATA, ATG, and GTG) and four kinds of termination codons (TAA, AGA, TAG, and an incomplete termination codons T-). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Wuzhishan pig provides an important data set for further study on genetic mechanism. PMID:26490573

  2. El círculo meridiano automático de San Fernando - San Juan. Sus primeros pasos en el hemisferio sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamaci, C. C.; Muiños, J. L.; Gallego, M.; Pérez, J. A.; Marmolejo, L.; Navarro, J. L.; Sedeño, J.; Vallejos, M.; Belizón, F.

    Se informa sobre el estado actual del Círculo Meridiano Automático de San Fernando-San Juan. El instrumento (Grubb-Parson, de 178mm de abertura y 2665 mm de distancia focal) es gemelo del que se encuentra en las Islas Canarias, y fue instalado durante los meses de julio y agosto de 1996 en la estación astronómica ``Dr. C.U.Cesco" (El Leoncito, Barreal), a unos 200 km de distancia de la ciudad de San Juan, merced a un Convenio de Cooperación Científica, firmado en 1994 entre el ROA (España) y el OAFA (Argentina). En la actualidad se está llevando a cabo un programa de prueba cuyos resultados preliminares muestran que el telescopio está en buenas condiciones para observar estrellas de hasta magnitud aproximada 14.5, con buenos errores de observación (<0.12" en ascensión recta y declinación).

  3. La historia de la Literatura: sus problemas y methodos (The History of Literature: Problems and Methods)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopico, Blanca

    1975-01-01

    In order to achieve its goals, the study of literary history should follow a "programmed process." Such a process would help solve problems in the following areas: bibliography, text criticism, interpretation and explanation, dates and chronology, authenticity, source and origin etc. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography of Pulmonary Arterial Walls in Humans and Pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brunner, Nathan W; Zamanian, Roham T; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Mitsutake, Yoshiaki; Connolly, Andrew J; Shuffle, Eric; Yuan, Ke; Orcholski, Mark; Lyons, Jennifer; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio A

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disorder characterized by progressive elevation of the pulmonary pressures that, in the absence of therapy, results in chronic right-heart failure and premature death. The vascular pathology of PAH is characterized by progressive loss of small (diameter, less than 50 ?m) peripheral pulmonary arteries along with abnormal medial thickening, neointimal formation, and intraluminal narrowing of the remaining pulmonary arteries. Vascular pathology correlates with disease severity, given that hemodynamic effects and disease outcomes are worse in patients with advanced compared with lower-grade lesions. Novel imaging tools are urgently needed that demonstrate the extent of vascular remodeling in PAH patients during diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a catheter-based intravascular imaging technique used to obtain high-resolution 2D and 3D cross-sectional images of coronary arteries, thus revealing the extent of vascular wall pathology due to diseases such as atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis; its utility as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of the pulmonary circulation is unknown. Here we show that OCT provides high-definition images that capture the morphology of pulmonary arterial walls in explanted human lungs and during pulmonary arterial catheterization of an adult pig. We conclude that OCT may facilitate the evaluation of patients with PAH by disclosing the degree of wall remodeling present in pulmonary vessels. Future studies are warranted to determine whether this information complements the hemodynamic and functional assessments routinely performed in PAH patients, facilitates treatment selection, and improves estimates of prognosis and outcome. PMID:26141446

  5. Epidemiological Significance of the Domestic Black Pig (Sus scrofa) in Maintenance of Bovine Tuberculosis in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Piera; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Aronica, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Fiasconaro, Michele; Cifani, Noemi; Corneli, Sara; Biasibetti, Elena; Biagetti, Massimo; Pacciarini, Maria Lodovica; Cagiola, Monica; Pasquali, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an emerging disease among wild animals in many parts of the world. Wildlife reservoir hosts may thus represent a potential source of infection for livestock and humans. We investigated the role played by the Sicilian black pig, an autochthonous free- or semi-free-ranging domestic pig breed, as a potential source of bTB infection in an area where bTB prevalence in cattle is high. We initially performed a preliminary field study to assess the occurrence of bTB in such animals. We sampled 119 pigs at abattoir and found 6.7% and 3.4% of them to be affected by gross tuberculous-like lesions (TBL) and Mycobacterium bovis culture positive, respectively. We then proceeded to investigate the dissemination and characteristics of lesions in a second field study performed on 100 animals sampled from infected herds. Here, tissues collected at the abattoir were examined macroscopically, microscopically, and by culture tests. Most pigs with TBL showed generalized lesions in both gross and histological examinations (53% and 65.5%, respectively). Head lymph nodes were the most frequently affected in both localized and generalized TB cases observed macroscopically and microscopically. M. bovis was the most frequently isolated etiologic agent. The molecular characterization of isolates from both field studies by spoligotyping and analysis of 12 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci, followed by their comparison to isolates of cattle origin, suggested a potential transmission of mycobacteria from domestic animals to black pigs and vice versa. Our findings, along with ethological, ecological, and management considerations, suggest that the black pig might act as a bTB reservoir in the ecosystem under study. However, additional studies will be necessary to establish the true epidemiological significance of the Sicilian black pig. PMID:22322347

  6. [On the ultrastructure of the lacrimal gland in pigs (Sus scropha L.) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kühnel, W; Scheele, G

    1979-01-01

    The lacrimal gland of pigs has been investigated light- and electron microscopically. Among others the results are as follows: 1. The lacrimal gland of pigs is a tubuloacinar or compound acinar gland. Acini often are elongated. Tubuli and acini are enclosed in a basal lamina with some myoepithelial cells. 2. Tubuli and acini consist of mucoserous, mucous and serous cells. Mucoserous cells predominate and show secretory granules with a typical bipartite structure. 3. Like salivary glands, the lacrimal gland of pigs has a prominent duct system. Intercalated ducts have a stratified cuboidal epithelium. The cells of the proximal part contain secretory granules. The intercalated duct continues into the striated duct. Cells here are tall or columnar in shape and show basal striation, which by electron microscopy is resolved as basal invaginations of the plasma membrane with numerous elongated mitochondria in the pockets of cytoplasm so formed. Excretory ducts commence with pseudostratified columnar epithelium. 4. Terminal nerve fibres penetrate the basal lamina and make contakt with the glandular cells, the myoepithelial cells and the duct cells. The terminal axons contain abundantly synaptic vesicles, sporadic dense cored vesicles and mitochondria. Until now, we could not find any specialized presynaptic or postsynaptic membranes. PMID:434482

  7. Promoting the Use of Life Cycle Assessment for a Sus-tainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies that address the holistic human health and environmental impacts related to food, feed, and bio-based fuel roduction has steadily increased in recent years. Studies on agricultural systems have identified environmental issues ranging from greenhouse gas emis...

  8. Cooperation improves the access of wild boars (Sus scrofa) to food sources.

    PubMed

    Focardi, S; Morimando, F; Capriotti, S; Ahmed, A; Genov, P

    2015-12-01

    Wild boar is a highly polycotous ungulate species, characterized by a complex and dynamical social organization based on the maintenance of long-term bonds between mother and daughters. The roots of this social organization have to be researched at the individual level, considering adaptations that improve fitness in hostile environments. We used information collected by camera-traps at artificial feeding sites, in two contrasting environments in Bulgaria (mountain habitat) and Italy (sub-Mediterranean habitat). We recorded 417 and 885 distinct groups on 7 and 11 foraging sites in Bulgaria and Italy, respectively. We computed (controlling for time range, study area and supplementary feeding site) an index of effective foraging time of the different social groups. We observed a positive and significant effect of the number of conspecifics of the same social group on the effective foraging time. The impact of the other social classes on effective foraging time is also positive, and males, yearlings, and juveniles benefited more from the presence of other social classes, while females were less affected. The access of the different social groups to foraging sites is not random. Males and yearlings play producers (i.e., search for food) and are prone to attend foraging sites before adult females and subadults, so attaining a larger foraging efficiency with respect to a situation where other groups are already present on the feeding site. Wild boars exhibit a more complex social organisation than previously believed, where cooperation prevails largely on competition. A rough division of labour is also present: yearlings, males, and juveniles use to play producers and assume a significant amount of risk determined by the presence of predators or hunters. PMID:26522932

  9. The contribution of social effects to heritable variation in finishing traits of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Bergsma, R; Kanis, E; Knol, E F; Bijma, P

    2008-03-01

    Social interactions among individuals are ubiquitous both in animals and in plants, and in natural as well as domestic populations. These interactions affect both the direction and the magnitude of responses to selection and are a key factor in evolutionary success of species and in the design of breeding schemes in agriculture. At present, however, very little is known of the contribution of social effects to heritable variance in trait values. Here we present estimates of the direct and social genetic variance in growth rate, feed intake, back fat thickness, and muscle depth in a population of 14,032 domestic pigs with known pedigree. Results show that social effects contribute the vast majority of heritable variance in growth rate and feed intake in this population. Total heritable variance expressed relative to phenotypic variance was 71% for growth rate and 70% for feed intake. These values clearly exceed the usual range of heritability for those traits. Back fat thickness and muscle depth showed no heritable variance due to social effects. Our results suggest that genetic improvement in agriculture can be substantially advanced by redirecting breeding schemes, so as to capture heritable variance due to social effects. PMID:18245326

  10. 1973/74 Interinstitutional Salary of Professional Librarians Employed by the SUS of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spyers-Duran, Peter

    A survey was conducted of the salaries paid to the professional librarians staffing the various libraries of the Florida State University System. The data collected indicated the following average salaries for the seven major types of positions: 1) directors- $24,500; 2) assistant directors-$16,549; 3) branch heads-$14,432; 4) department…

  11. Blood factors of Sus scrofa following a series of three TASER electronic control device exposures.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Cook, Michael C; Beason, Charles W

    2008-03-01

    In a previous study, 18 repeated exposures of anaesthetized swine to an electro-muscular incapacitating device (TASER International's ADVANCED TASER X26 electronic control device) resulted in acidosis and increases in blood electrolytes. In the current study, experiments were performed to investigate effects of a more typical scenario of repeated exposures of the device on muscle contraction and changes in blood factors. Ten swine were exposed for 5s, followed by a 5-s period of no exposure, three times. Selected blood factors were monitored for 3h following exposure. Transient increases in blood glucose, lactate, sodium, potassium, calcium, and pCO(2) were consistent with previous reports in the literature dealing with studies of muscle stimulation or exercise. Blood pH was decreased immediately following exposure, but subsequently returned toward a normal level. Oxygen saturation (measured by pulse oximetry) was not changed significantly. In conclusion, three repeated TASER device exposures had only transient effects on blood factors, which all returned to pre-exposure levels, with the exception of hematocrit (which remained elevated after 3h). Since the increase in this factor was less than that which may occur after short periods of exercise, it is unlikely that this would be an indicator of any serious harm. PMID:17630236

  12. Evidence for a link between tail biting and central monoamine metabolism in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Valros, Anna; Palander, Pälvi; Heinonen, Mari; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Brunberg, Emma; Keeling, Linda; Piepponen, Petteri

    2015-05-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a major welfare problem within the swine industry. Even though there is plenty of information on housing and management-related risk factors, the biological bases of this behavioral problem are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between tail biting, based on behavioral recordings of pigs during an ongoing outbreak, and certain neurotransmitters in different brain regions of these pigs. We used a total of 33 pigs at a farm with a long-standing problem of tail biting. Three equally big behavioral phenotypic groups, balanced for gender and age were selected, the data thus consisting of 11 trios of pigs. Two of the pigs in each trio originated from the same pen: one tail biter (TB) and one tail biting victim (V). A control (C) pig was selected from a pen without significant tail biting in the same farm room. We found an effect of tail biting behavioral phenotype on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, with a tendency for a higher 5-HIAA level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of TB compared to the other groups, while V pigs showed changes in both serotonin and dopamine metabolism in the striatum (ST) and limbic cortex (LC). Trp:BCAA and Trp:LNAA correlated positively with serotonin and 5-HIAA in the PFC, but only in TB pigs. Furthermore, in both ST and LC, several of the neurotransmitters and their metabolites correlated positively with the frequency of bites received by the pig. This is the first study indicating a link between brain neurotransmission and tail biting behavior in pigs with TB pigs showing a tendency for increased PFC serotonin metabolism and V pigs showing several changes in central dopamine and serotonin metabolism in their ST and LC, possibly due to the acute stress caused by being bitten. PMID:25728243

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, David; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Moretti, Annabella; Branciari, Raffaella; Miraglia, Dino; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Piergili Fioretti, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Wild and farmed game meat consumption has been highlighted as an emerging risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans. In Central Italy wild boar is widely distributed and is also one of the most popular game species. The main goal of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies through a serological survey conducted on 400 hunted wild boars (250 males and 150 females) during three subsequent hunting seasons (2009-2011), using an Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay. The animals were sorted by age, determined on the evaluation of the dental table; 101 were <1 year old, 175 from 1 to 3 years, and 124 > 3 years. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 56 (14%) serum samples with titers ranging from 40 to ?160; a significant association (p < 0.05) was found between seropositivity and age, but not gender, hunting districts, or year of sampling. PMID:24280567

  14. Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, Michaela; Pinková, Martina; Květoňová, Dana; Kalinová, Jana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Vítovec, Jiří; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, John; Stenger, Brianna; Sak, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    We describe the morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium pig genotype II and propose the species name Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. to reflect its prevalence in adult pigs worldwide. Oocysts of C. scrofarum are morphologically indistinguishable from C. parvum, measuring 4.81–5.96 µm (mean = 5.16) × 4.23–5.29 µm (mean = 4.83) with a length to width ratio of 1.07 ± 0.06 (n = 400). Oocysts of C. scrofarum obtained from a naturally infected pig were infectious for 8-week-old pigs but not 4-week-old pigs. The prepatent period in 8-week-old Cryptosporidium-naive pigs was 4–6 days and the patent period was longer than 30 days. The infection intensity of C. scrofarum in pigs was generally low, in the range 250-4000 oocysts per gram of faeces. Infected pigs showed no clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and no pathology was detected. Cryptosporidium scrofarum was not infectious for adult SCID mice, adult BALB c mice, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), southern multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha), yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), or guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Phylogenetic analyses based on Small subunit rRNA, actin, and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences revealed that C. scrofarum is genetically distinct from all known Cryptosporidium species. PMID:23021264

  15. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Duroc pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Chai, Yu-Lan; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the total length of mitochondrial genome of Duroc pig is 16,731?bp, including 34.66% A, 26.27% C, 25.74% T and 13.33% G. Mitochondrial genome contains a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. ND2 selects ATT as the initiation codon, and ATA is chose as an initiation codon in ND3 and ND5, the nonstandard start codon is GTG in ND4L and the rest protein common start codon is ATG. The mitochondrial genome of Duroc pig provides an important data in genetic mechanism, which plays an important role in the three-way crossbred pigs. PMID:24438249

  16. Cadaveric volatile organic compounds released by decaying pig carcasses (Sus domesticus L.) in different biotopes.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, J; Verheggen, F J; Gohy, M; Hubrecht, F; Bourguignon, L; Lognay, G; Haubruge, E

    2009-08-10

    Forensic entomology uses pig carcasses to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal colonization. Insects communicate with their environment through the use of chemical mediators, which in the case of necrophagous insects, may consist in the cadaveric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the corpse under decomposition. Previous studies have focused on cadaveric VOCs released from human corpses. Nevertheless, studies on human corpses are restricted for many reasons, including ethics. Forensic entomologists use pig as animal model but very few information are available about the decompositional VOCs released by a decaying pig carcass. We here tested a passive sampling technique, the Radiello diffusive sampler, to monitor the cadaveric VOCs released by decomposing pig carcasses in three biotopes (crop field, forest, urban site). A total of 104 chemical compounds, exclusively produced by the decompositional process, were identified by thermal desorption interfaced with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Ninety, 85 and 57 cadaveric VOCs were identified on pig carcasses laying on the agricultural site, the forest biotope and in the urban site, respectively. The main cadaveric VOCs are acids, cyclic hydrocarbons, oxygenated compounds, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A better knowledge of the smell of death and their volatile constituents may have many applications in forensic sciences. PMID:19423246

  17. Helminth infections of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in the Bursa province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Senlik, B; Cirak, V Y; Girisgin, O; Akyol, C V

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the status of helminth infections in wild boars in the Bursa province of Turkey. For this purpose, during 2007-2008, 27 wild boars were necropsied and examined for helminths. Individual samples of tongue and diaphragm from 27 necropsied wild boars and an additional 22 tongue and diaphragm samples provided by hunters were examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion for Trichinella spp. larvae. Twenty animals (74%) were identified as being infected with at least one helminth species. Twelve species of helminths were detected, with the following prevalence rates: Metastrongylus apri (59%), Metastrongylus salmi (52%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus (52%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (33%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (22%), Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (19%), Gongylonema pulchrum (11%), Physocephalus sexalatus (7%), Trichuris suis (7%), Ascarops strongylina (4%), Hyostrongylus rubidus (4%) and Taenia hydatigena larvae (4%). Generally, lungworms were the predominant helminths. The highest mean abundance was observed for M. pudendotectus, and the lowest was determined for T. hydatigena larvae. Significant differences in the prevalence and intensity were found for D. dendriticum with respect to host age and sex, respectively. The mean intensity of M. pudendotectus was significantly influenced by the sex and age of the wild boars. This study is the first report describing the presence of M. salmi, M. pudendotectus, D. dendriticum, G. urosubulatus, M. hirudinaceus, P. sexalatus, A. strongylina and H. rubidus in wild boars in Turkey. All analysed muscle samples were negative for Trichinella spp. larvae. PMID:21114894

  18. Evaluation on management of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) population in Bolu-Sazakici hunting ground.

    PubMed

    Beskardes, Vedat; Yilmaz, Ersel; Oymen, Tamer

    2010-01-01

    Bolu-sazakiçi sample hunting ground covered 9132 ha divided into 360 sample areas of 25 ha each. 50 of them were sampled by means of the simple random sampling method. In the sample areas "Point Counts" was applied and the population of wild boar density and numbers were determined. As a result, it was estimated that 734 wild boars inhabit the area. Of these individuals, 79 were males, 238 were females and 417 were piglets. The wild boar density in the area was determined as 8.03 individual 100 ha(-1). In this paper, first of all, the density of wild boar population was determined by the point counts method, then it was tried to evaluate its management for Bolu-sazakiçi sample hunting ground. PMID:20648834

  19. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Gulyaeva, A S; Roshchecskaya, I M; Roshchevsky, M P

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium. PMID:25486814

  20. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium. PMID:25508945

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of hearts of adult SCNT Bama miniature pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Shu-Shan, Zhang; Jian-Jun, Dai; Cai-Feng, Wu; Ting-Yu, Zhang; De-Fu, Zhang

    2014-04-15

    This study aims to determine the effects of SCNT on cardiac development of SCNT pigs through proteomic methods. Heart proteins from three adult SCNTs and two normal reproductive Bama miniature pigs were extracted, separated, and identified via comparative proteomic methods, including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and Western blot. Eleven differentially expressed spots were identified as differentially expressed proteins, of which five spots were upregulated proteins such as cardiac myosin heavy chain, cathepsin D, and heat shock protein beta-1 (HSP27). By contrast, six spots were downregulated proteins such as alpha skeletal muscle and actin. The results also demonstrated that nuclear transfer might result in abnormal expression of some important proteins in hearts from SCNT pigs, and affect the cardiac development in SCNT pigs' survival. PMID:24560549

  2. Como ayudar a sus hijos a usar la biblioteca (Helping Your Child Use the Library).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkinson, Kathryn

    Focusing on the cooperative role of parents and public libraries in stimulating reading interests in children of all ages, this booklet addresses the following issues: (1) getting children interested in reading (reading aloud to children; encouraging children to read to you; starting a home library; showing children that you enjoy reading;…

  3. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Lantang pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Ran, Mao-Liang; Liu, Zhen; Yang, An-Qi; Li, Zhi; Chen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Lantang pig is a native breed of Guangzhou Province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Lantang pig is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,709?bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 conntrol region (D-loop region, Table 1). The total base composition of Lantang pig mitochondrial genome is 34.69% for A, 26.18% for C, 25.82% for T and 13.31% for G, in the order A>C>T>G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lantang pig provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes. PMID:25109629

  4. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Rongchang pig is one of the native breeds in Sichuan province in China. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig is 16,710?bp, including 34.67% A, 26.18% C, 25.82% T and 13.33% G, and in the order A?>?C?>?T?>?G. Mitochondrial genome contains a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. This is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence about Rongchang pig. The mitochondrial genome of Rongchang pig subsequently provides an important information in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes. PMID:25090381

  5. Increased hematocrit after applications of conducted energy weapons (including TASER(®) devices) to Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R

    2011-01-01

    Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) are used by law enforcement personnel to incapacitate individuals quickly and effectively, without intending to cause lethality. CEWs have been deployed for relatively long or repeated exposures in some cases. In laboratory animal models, central venous hematocrit has increased significantly after CEW exposure. Even limited applications (e.g., three 5-sec applications) resulted in statistically significant increases in hematocrit. Preexposure hematocrit was significantly higher in nonsurvivors versus survivors after more extreme CEW applications. The purpose of this technical note is to address specific questions that may be generated when examining these results. Comparisons among results of CEW applications, other electrical muscle stimulation, and exercise/voluntary muscle contraction are included. The anesthetized swine appears to be an acceptable animal model for studying changes in hematocrit and associated red blood cell changes. Potential detrimental effects of increased hematocrit, and considerations during law enforcement use, are discussed. PMID:21198623

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography of Pulmonary Arterial Walls in Humans and Pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Nathan W; Zamanian, Roham T; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Mitsutake, Yoshiaki; Connolly, Andrew J; Shuffle, Eric; Yuan, Ke; Orcholski, Mark; Lyons, Jennifer; Perez, Vinicio A de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disorder characterized by progressive elevation of the pulmonary pressures that, in the absence of therapy, results in chronic right-heart failure and premature death. The vascular pathology of PAH is characterized by progressive loss of small (diameter, less than 50 ?m) peripheral pulmonary arteries along with abnormal medial thickening, neointimal formation, and intraluminal narrowing of the remaining pulmonary arteries. Vascular pathology correlates with disease severity, given that hemodynamic effects and disease outcomes are worse in patients with advanced compared with lower-grade lesions. Novel imaging tools are urgently needed that demonstrate the extent of vascular remodeling in PAH patients during diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a catheter-based intravascular imaging technique used to obtain high-resolution 2D and 3D cross-sectional images of coronary arteries, thus revealing the extent of vascular wall pathology due to diseases such as atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis; its utility as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of the pulmonary circulation is unknown. Here we show that OCT provides high-definition images that capture the morphology of pulmonary arterial walls in explanted human lungs and during pulmonary arterial catheterization of an adult pig. We conclude that OCT may facilitate the evaluation of patients with PAH by disclosing the degree of wall remodeling present in pulmonary vessels. Future studies are warranted to determine whether this information complements the hemodynamic and functional assessments routinely performed in PAH patients, facilitates treatment selection, and improves estimates of prognosis and outcome. PMID:26141446

  7. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation

    PubMed Central

    Oja, Ragne; Zilmer, Karoline; Valdmann, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk. PMID:26244659

  8. Un lugar seguro para sus ninos: development and evaluation of a pesticide education video.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Marie; Lasarev, Michael; Beltran, Marco; Philips, Jacki; Bryan, Charlene; McCauley, Linda

    2002-01-01

    The need exists for culturally appropriate and effective educational interventions to reduce pesticide exposure in migrant and seasonal farm-worker (MSFW) communities. The development of one such intervention was part of a community-based research project which partnered the Oregon Health Sciences University and the Oregon Child Development Coalition (Migrant Head Start). The process involved identifying an optimal educational method and content, evaluating existing educational materials on pesticides, developing the selected educational tool (a video), and assessing the effectiveness of the video as an intervention. Focus groups were conducted with MSFWs to elicit their perceived need for education and desired content, method, and delivery. Four currently used educational tools were evaluated for satisfaction, preference, recall ability and knowledge change. Based on these findings, a pesticide exposure video directed at the protection of children was produced. To determine the effectiveness of the video, knowledge, satisfaction and self-reported behaviors were assessed with MSFWs. A sizeable increase in overall pesticide knowledge was measured after seeing the video (p < 0.0001). MSFWs overall were satisfied with the video and reported increased protective behaviors after seeing the video. PMID:16228753

  9. Light Microscopic, Electron Microscopic, and Immunohistochemical Comparison of Bama Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) and Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Jun-ying; Shang, Hai-tao; Liu, Chang-e; Wang, Yong; Niu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Wei, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Here we sought to evaluate the possibility of using Chinese Bama miniature pig skin as a suitable animal model for human skin. Morphologic features of the skin of Bama miniature pigs resemble those of human skin, including skin layer thickness, development of a superficial vascular system, structure of the dermal–epidermal interface, and extracellular matrix. The characteristics and densities of Langerhans cells, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and mast cells were similar between Bama pig and human skin. Immunohistochemistry showed that miniature pigs and humans have the same antigenic determinants of human laminin, fibronectin, filaggrin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, and keratin but not CD34, ICAM1, or S100. In addition, collagen type I from Bama miniature pig skin exhibited physicochemical characteristics resembling those of human skin, in regard to HPLC chromatography, UV spectroscopy, amino-acid composition, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Given these results, we concluded that Bama miniature pigs have great potential as a human skin model and for developing dermal substitute materials in wound repair. However, we also observed some disparities between the skin of Bama miniature pigs and humans, including pigment cell distribution, sweat gland types, and others. Therefore, further studies are needed to completely evaluate the effects of these interspecies differences on the actual application of the model. PMID:20412690

  10. Long-Term Surveillance of Aujeszky's Disease in the Alpine Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Chiari, Mario; Ferrari, Nicola; Bertoletti, Marco; Avisani, Dominga; Cerioli, Monica; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Alborali, Loris G; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Lelli, Davide; Martin, Ana Moreno; Antonio, Lavazza

    2015-12-01

    Although wild boar can act as a persistent Aujeszky's disease (AD) reservoir, limited data are available on long-term epidemiology in free-ranging wild boar living in areas where industrial swine herds are limited. Hence, this study provides crucial information, which fills this knowledge gap, on the natural dynamics of AD infection. From 3260 sera sampled during eight hunting seasons, 162 (4.97%) were tested positive. Factors, including the animal's age class, and the sampling year, had significant effects on the probability of the wild boar being seropositive, while wild boar mean abundance per area, yearly abundance and the total number of pig farms, as well as interactions among age, year and sex, were not significant. In particular, a positive trend of seroprevalence was observed over the years, with values ranging from 2.1 to 10.8%. This long-term surveillance showed an increase in seroprevalence with a higher probability of being seropositive in older individuals and the independence of wild boar seropositivity from the likelihood of contact with pigs in the area. PMID:26391375

  11. Como Ayudar a sus Hijos a Aprender Ciencia (Helping Your Child Learn Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy; Martin, Margery

    Because most parents say they do not or cannot help their children with science, this booklet was designed to help them do so, easily and with pleasure for both parent and child. The introduction presents information on why and how parents should help their children and provides a general orientation to the ideas and activities offered in the…

  12. Promotores Comunitarios: sus aportes y difficultades (Community Facilitators: Their Contributions and Difficulties.) Occasional Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Jani; Martinic, Sergio

    The Bernard van Leer Foundation sponsors nontraditional, nonschool programs designed to improve the chances that preschoolers will enroll in school. In these programs and other informal education efforts, the community facilitator plays an important role. Typically, the facilitator is a member of the community who works without remuneration as a…

  13. Innate Immunity Correlates with Host Fitness in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Exposed to Classical Swine Fever

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Sophie; Doucelin, Anaïs; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Eraud, Cyril; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive humoral immunity (CHI) is thought to be a first-line of protection against pathogens invading vertebrate hosts. However, clear evidence that CHI correlates with host fitness in natural conditions is still lacking. This study explores the relationship between CHI, measured using a haemagglutination-haemolysis assay (HAHL), and resistance to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) among wild boar piglets. The individual dynamics of HAHL during piglet growth was analysed, using 423 serum samples from 92 piglets repeatedly captured in the absence of CSFV (in 2006) within two areas showing contrasting food availability. Natural antibody levels increased with age, but, in the youngest piglets antibody levels were higher in individuals from areas with the highest food availability. Complement activity depended on natural antibody levels and piglets' body condition. In the presence of CSFV (i.e., in 2005 within one area), serum samples from piglets that were repeatedly captured were used to assess whether piglet HAHL levels affected CSFV status at a later capture. The correlation between CHI and resistance to CSFV was tested using 79 HAHL measures from 23 piglets captured during a CSFV outbreak. Both natural antibodies and complement activity levels measured at a given time correlated negatively to the subsequent probability of becoming viremic. Finally, capture-mark-recapture models showed that piglets with medium/high average complement activity, independently of their age, were significantly less at risk of becoming viremic and more likely to develop a specific immune response than piglets with low complement activity. Additionally, piglets with high average complement activity showed the highest survival prospects. This study provides evidence linking CHI to individual fitness within a natural mammal population. The results also highlight the potential of HAHL assays to explore the dynamics and co-evolution between wildlife mammal hosts and blood-borne parasites interacting with the CHI. PMID:24260286

  14. ElecSus: A program to calculate the electric susceptibility of an atomic ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentile, Mark A.; Keaveney, James; Weller, Lee; Whiting, Daniel J.; Adams, Charles S.; Hughes, Ifan G.

    2015-04-01

    We present a computer program and underlying model to calculate the electric susceptibility of a gas, which is essential to predict its absorptive and dispersive properties. Our program focuses on alkali-metal vapours where we use a matrix representation of the atomic Hamiltonian in the completely uncoupled basis in order to calculate transition frequencies and strengths. The program calculates various spectra for a weak-probe laser beam in an atomic medium with an applied axial magnetic field. This allows many optical devices to be designed, such as Faraday rotators/filters, optical isolators and circular polarisation filters. Fitting routines are also provided with the program which allows the user to perform optical metrology by fitting to experimental data.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diannan small-ear pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Xiao, Ding-Fu; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diannan small-ear pig in Yunnan Province was firstly reported, which was determined through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Diannan small-ear pig was 16720?bp, including 34.77% A, 26.18% C, 25.81% T and 13.24% G, and in the order A?>?C?>?T?>?G. Mitochondrial genome contained a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of Diannan small-ear pig provides an important data set for the study on genetic mechanism. PMID:25090388

  16. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of Laiwu Black pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hu; Xu, Xing-Li; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the ear tissue of an adult Laiwu Black pig is from the Shandong province of China. The complete mitochondrial genome of Laiwu Black pig was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,710?bp, and it contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a control region (D-loop), with the genome organization and gene order being identical to that of the typical vertebrates. PMID:24960570

  17. Microstructure analysis for chemical interaction between cesium and SUS 316 steel in fast breeder reactor application

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, K.; Fukumoto, K. I.; Oshima, T.; Tanigaki, T.; Masayoshi, U.

    2012-07-01

    In this study the corrosion products on a surface after cesium corrosion examination at 650 deg. C for 100 hrs were characterized by TEM observation around the corroded area on the surface in order to understand the corrosion mechanism of cesium fission product for cladding materials in fast reactor. The experimental results suggest the main corrosion mechanism occurred in the process of the separation of cesium chromate and metal (Fe, Ni). The main reaction of corrosion process was considered to be equation, 2Cs + 7/2 O{sub 2} + 2Cr {yields} Cs{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}(L). (authors)

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Sustained-Release and Transdermal Buprenorphine in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Allison J; Garcia, Kelly D; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Jenkins, Gary J; Nunamaker, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The opioid buprenorphine has been shown to provide adequate postoperative analgesia in both companion and laboratory animals. However, its use is still hindered by the need for multiple parenteral injections to achieve continuous analgesia. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a pharmacokinetic analysis of 2 new long-acting formulations of buprenorphine—an injectable sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and a transdermal buprenorphine (TDB) patch—in healthy Göttingen minipigs by using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of 0.18 mg/kg SC SRB and 30 μg/h TDB achieved AUC0-Tlast of 221.6 ± 26.8 and 25.2 ± 3.9 ng × h/mL, respectively, compared with 9.7 ± 1.4 ng*h/mL for 0.02 mg/kg IV buprenorphine. By using a hypothesized therapeutic plasma buprenorphine concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL, therapeutic concentrations were achieved at the first study time point (5 to 30 min) and lasted an average of 8.0 ± 1.3 h for intravenous buprenorphine and 264.0 ± 32.2 h for SRB. TDB achieved therapeutic concentrations in 12 to 24 h after patch application, which lasted until the patch was removed at 72 h. The results of this study suggest that SRB and TDB are long-acting alternatives for pain management, and their use could decrease animal handling and stress, thereby simplifying pain management and improving welfare in laboratory swine. PMID:25650977

  19. Crystal Structure of Sus scrofa Quinolinate Phosphoribosyltransferase in Complex with Nicotinate Mononucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Mun-Kyoung; Kang, Gil Bu; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lee, Jung-Gyu; An, Jun Yop; Park, Kyoung Ryoung; Lee, Youngjin; Kang, Jung Youn; Song, Hye-Eun; Park, Inju; Cho, Chunghee; Fukuoka, Shin-Ichi; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of porcine quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QAPRTase) in complex with nicotinate mononucleotide (NAMN), which is the first crystal structure of a mammalian QAPRTase with its reaction product. The structure was determined from protein obtained from the porcine kidney. Because the full protein sequence of porcine QAPRTase was not available in either protein or nucleotide databases, cDNA was synthesized using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to determine the porcine QAPRTase amino acid sequence. The crystal structure revealed that porcine QAPRTases have a hexameric structure that is similar to other eukaryotic QAPRTases, such as the human and yeast enzymes. However, the interaction between NAMN and porcine QAPRTase was different from the interaction found in prokaryotic enzymes, such as those of Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The crystal structure of porcine QAPRTase in complex with NAMN provides a structural framework for understanding the unique properties of the mammalian QAPRTase active site and designing new antibiotics that are selective for the QAPRTases of pathogenic bacteria, such as H. pylori and M. tuberculosis. PMID:23626766

  20. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden and evaluation of ELISA test performance.

    PubMed

    Wallander, C; Frössling, J; Vågsholm, I; Uggla, A; Lundén, A

    2015-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite, infecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals. The Swedish wild boar population is expanding and increased hunting provides its meat to a growing group of consumers. We performed a spatio-temporal investigation of T. gondii seroprevalence in Swedish wild boars. An ELISA was set up and evaluated against a commercial direct agglutination test, using Bayesian latent class analysis. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were estimated to 79% and 85%, respectively. Of 1327 serum samples, 50% were positive. Thirty-four per cent of young wild boars and 55% of adults were positive (P < 0.001). The total seroprevalence ranged from 72% in 2005 to 38% in 2011 (P < 0.001), suggesting a declining trend. The highest seroprevalence, 65%, was recorded in South Sweden. In other regions it varied from 29% in Stockholm to 46% in East Middle Sweden. PMID:25373497

  1. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE1

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  2. Como Trabajar y Vivir en la Realidad: Pasos Basicos Para Jovenes con Incapacidades, sus Padres y sus Profesores (How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia L.; And Others

    This Spanish version of "How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers" is for young people with handicaps who are getting ready to graduate from high school and begin working and living in the adult world. The booklet places a special focus on individuals with cultural differences. It…

  3. Domestic pigs' (Sus scrofa domestica) use of direct and indirect visual and auditory cues in an object choice task.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard

    2015-05-01

    Recently, foraging strategies have been linked to the ability to use indirect visual information. More selective feeders should express a higher aversion against losses compared to non-selective feeders and should therefore be more prone to avoid empty food locations. To extend these findings, in this study, we present a series of studies investigating the use of direct and indirect visual and auditory information by an omnivorous but selective feeder-the domestic pig. Subjects had to choose between two buckets, with only one containing a reward. Before making a choice, the subjects in Experiment 1 (N = 8) received full information regarding both the baited and non-baited location, either in a visual or auditory domain. In this experiment, the subjects were able to use visual but not auditory cues to infer the location of the reward spontaneously. Additionally, four individuals learned to use auditory cues after a period of training. In Experiment 2 (N = 8), the pigs were given different amounts of visual information about the content of the buckets-lifting either both of the buckets (full information), the baited bucket (direct information), the empty bucket (indirect information) or no bucket at all (no information). The subjects as a group were able to use direct and indirect visual cues. However, over the course of the experiment, the performance dropped to chance level when indirect information was provided. A final experiment (N = 3) provided preliminary results for pigs' use of indirect auditory information to infer the location of a reward. We conclude that pigs at a very young age are able to make decisions based on indirect information in the visual domain, whereas their performance in the use of indirect auditory information warrants further investigation. PMID:25650328

  4. Synthesis and properties of uranium sulfide cations. An evaluation of the stability of thiouranyl, {S?U?S}2+.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudia C L; Michelini, Maria del Carmen; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gong, Yu; Gibson, John K

    2013-12-16

    Atomic uranium cations, U(+) and U(2+), reacted with the facile sulfur-atom donor OCS to produce several monopositive and dipositive uranium sulfide species containing up to four sulfur atoms. Sequential abstraction of two sulfur atoms by U(2+) resulted in US2(2+); density functional theory computations indicate that the ground-state structure for this species is side-on ?(2)-S2 triangular US2(2+), with the linear thiouranyl isomer, {S?U(VI)?S}(2+), some 171 kJ mol(-1) higher in energy. The result that the linear thiouranyl structure is a local minimum at a moderate energy suggests that it should be feasible to stabilize this moiety in molecular compounds. PMID:24256167

  5. Genome Sequences of Seven Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Strains Isolated from the Joint Tissue of Infected Swine (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Bumgardner, Eric; Bey, Russell F; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E; Lawrence, Paulraj K

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyosynoviae is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause debilitating arthritis in swine. Currently, there are no M. hyosynoviae genome sequences in the GenBank database, which makes it impossible to understand its pathogenesis, nutrition, or colonization characteristics, or to devise an effective strategy for its control. Here, we report the genome sequences of seven strains of M. hyosynoviae. Within each genome, several virulence factors were identified that may prove important in the pathogenesis of M. hyosynoviae-mediated arthritis and serve as potential virulence markers that may be critical in vaccine development. PMID:24903877

  6. Genome Sequences of Seven Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Strains Isolated from the Joint Tissue of Infected Swine (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Bumgardner, Eric; Bey, Russell F.; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyosynoviae is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause debilitating arthritis in swine. Currently, there are no M. hyosynoviae genome sequences in the GenBank database, which makes it impossible to understand its pathogenesis, nutrition, or colonization characteristics, or to devise an effective strategy for its control. Here, we report the genome sequences of seven strains of M. hyosynoviae. Within each genome, several virulence factors were identified that may prove important in the pathogenesis of M. hyosynoviae-mediated arthritis and serve as potential virulence markers that may be critical in vaccine development. PMID:24903877

  7. Expression, immunolocalization and processing of fertilins ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 in the boar (sus domesticus) spermatozoa during epididymal maturation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fertilin alpha (ADAM-1) and beta (ADAM-2) are integral membrane proteins of the ADAM family that form a fertilin complex involved in key steps of the sperm-oocyte membrane interaction. In the present work, we analyzed the presence of ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs, the spermatozoa proteins' processing and their sub-cellular localization in epididymal samples from adult boars. ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs were highly produced in the testis, but also in the vas efferens and the epididymis. On immunoblots of sperm extracts, ADAM-1 subunit appeared as a main reactive band of ~50-55 kDa corresponding to occurrence of different isoforms throughout the epididymal duct, especially in the corpus region where isoforms ranged from acidic to basic pI. In contrast, ADAM-2 was detected as several bands of ~90 kDa, ~75 kDa, ~50-55 kDa and ~40 kDa. The intensity of high molecular mass bands decreased progressively in the distal corpus where lower bands were also transiently observed, and only the ~40 kDa was observed in the cauda. The presence of bands of different molecular weights likely results from a proteolytic processing occurring mainly in the testis for ADAM-1, and also throughout the caput epididymis for ADAM-2. Immunolocalization showed that fertilin migrates from the acrosomal region to the acrosomal ridge during the sperm transit from the distal corpus to the proximal cauda. This migration is accompanied by an important change in the extractability of a part of ADAM-1 from the sperm membrane. This suggests that the fertilin surface migration may be triggered by the biochemical changes induced by the epididymal post-translational processing of both ADAM1 and ADAM-2. Different patterns of fertilin immunolocalization then define several populations of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis. Characterization of such fertilin complex maturation patterns is an important step to develop fertility markers based on epididymal maturation of surface membrane proteins in domestic mammals. PMID:21718510

  8. BETAINE IMPROVES GROWTH BUT DOES NOT INDUCE WHOLE BODY OR HEPATIC PALMITATE OXIDATION IN SWINE (SUS SCROFA DOMETICA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary betaine can reduce carcass fat in growing pigs. We explored the effects of betaine on growth and on in vivo and in vitro fatty acid oxidation. Growing pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed diets containing either 0% (control), 0.125% or 0.5% betaine at 80% of ad libitum energy int...

  9. Cell Biology Symposium: Zinc finger nucleases to create custom-designed modifications in the swine (Sus scrofa) genome.

    PubMed

    Whyte, J J; Prather, R S

    2012-04-01

    Engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) are rapidly gaining popularity as a means to enhance the rate and specificity of DNA modifications in plant and animal cells. Repair-mediated gene modification by ZFN is driven by introducing DNA double-strand breaks via a nonspecific nuclease domain linked to a sequence-specific zinc finger nucleotide recognition domain. This review examines the use of ZFN to produce genetically modified swine and the potential of this technology for the future. By combining conventional gene targeting methods with somatic cell nuclear transfer, several genetically modified pig models have been produced. These conventional techniques are inefficient in mammalian somatic cells and provide little control over the site specificity and rate of exogenous DNA integration. The use of engineered ZFN that bind and cleave genomic DNA at specific loci can enhance targeting efficiencies by orders of magnitude. Recent publication of the first genetic modification in pigs by combining ZFN technology with somatic cell nuclear transfer has opened the door to genome targeting with a precision that was not previously possible in a large animal model. Since that time, model pigs with selective knockout of endogenous genes have been produced. This review will examine the use of ZFN to generate these pig models and the potential of ZFN to accelerate the production of genetically modified pigs of agricultural and biomedical importance. Current methods of ZFN design, important considerations for their safe and effective use in modification of the swine genome, and future innovative applications of this technology in pigs will be discussed. PMID:22038991

  10. Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER exposures.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Sherry, Clifford J; Fines, David A; Cook, Michael C

    2006-08-10

    Repeated exposure to electro-muscular incapacitating devices could result in repetitive, sustained muscle contraction, with little or no muscle recovery period. Therefore, rhabdomyolysis and other physiological responses, including acidosis, hyperkalaemia, and altered levels of muscle enzymes in the blood, would be likely to occur. Experiments were performed to investigate effects of repeated exposures of TASER International's Advanced TASER X26 on muscle contraction and resultant changes in blood factors in an anaesthetized swine model. A total of 10 animals were used. Six swine were exposed for 5 s, followed by a 5-s period of no exposure, repeatedly for 3 min. (In five of the animals, after a 1-h delay, a second 3-min exposure period was added.) The remaining four animals were used for an additional pilot study. All four limbs of each animal exhibited contraction even though the electrodes were positioned in areas at some distances from the limbs. The degree of muscle contraction generated during the second exposure period was significantly lower than that in the first exposure series. This finding was consistent with previous studies showing that prolonged activity in skeletal muscle will eventually result in a decline of force production. There were some similarities in blood sample changes in the current experiments with previous studies of muscular exercise. Thus problems concerning biological effects of repeated TASER exposures may be related, not directly to the "electric output" per se, but rather to the resulting contraction of muscles (and related interruption of respiration) and subsequent sequelae. Transient increases in hematocrit, potassium, and sodium were consistent with previous reports in the literature dealing with studies of muscle stimulation or exercise. It is doubtful that these short-term elevations would have any serious health consequences in a healthy individual. Blood pH was significantly decreased for 1h following exposure, but subsequently returned toward a normal level. Leg muscle contractions and decreases in respiration each appeared to contribute to the acidosis. Lactate was highly elevated, with a slow return (time course greater than 1 h) to baseline. Other investigators have reported profound metabolic acidosis during restraint-associated cardiac arrest. Since restraint often occurs immediately after TASER exposure, this issue should be considered in further development of deployment concepts. On the basis of the results of the current studies, the repeated use of electro-muscular incapacitating devices in a short period of time is, at least, feasible, with the caveat that some medical monitoring of subjects may be required (to observe factors such as lactate and acidosis). PMID:16289999

  11. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A.F.; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.; Groenen, Martien A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future. PMID:24863459

  12. You Can Help Your Young Child Learn Mathematics = Usted puede ayudar a sus hijos a aprender mathematicas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Research.

    These two booklets (one in English and one in Spanish) are designed to help parents become more involved in their children's mathematics education. The booklets are divided into two sections. The first section explains why mathematics is an important subject for children to learn as they prepare themselves for a place in today's society. The…

  13. Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boar (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758) in south regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Forejtek, P; Hutarova, Z; Vodnansky, M

    2013-10-18

    From March 2012 to February 2013, 221 wild boar carcasses obtained from regular hunts in the Czech Republic were tested for Alaria alata mesocercariae using the Alaria-migration-technique. Most samples originated from South Moravia (173), and all 15 positive samples were found in this region, in particular in Tvrdonice (3/10) and Lanžhot (12/28), close to the site of the first description of this parasitic stage in wild boars in the territory of former ČSSR. These hunting grounds are located between the rivers March and Thaya, and rich in floodplains. Among the 38 carcasses tested in this area, higher carcass weights were associated with higher frequency of positive carcasses (P<0.05). Overall frequency of positive carcasses was 15/221 (6.8%). In positive samples (adipose and glandular tissue and muscle), the median number of mesocercariae was 14.3 per 100 g (range 3-69). PMID:23806746

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation of bronchi and emphysematous changes of pulmonary parenchyma in miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Chen, Piren; Hou, Jiafa; Ding, Dezhong; Hua, Xiuguo; Yang, Zhibiao; Cui, Li

    2013-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used to induce chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in animal models. Rodents are most commonly used to model COPD, but their substantial anatomic and physiological differences from humans present a challenge in the research of COPD pathogenesis. The authors induced COPD in miniature pigs by intratracheal administration of LPS solution. They carried out bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and collected the fluid for analyses of white blood cells, cytokines and proteases and obtained lung tissues for histological assessment. Intratracheal administration of LPS caused bronchitis, obstruction of distal bronchi and damage of pulmonary alveoli, as well as increases in white blood cell counts and expression levels of cytokines and proteases. These results are consistent with the presentation of COPD in humans, making LPS administration in miniature pigs a valuable animal model for the research of pathogenesis and treatment of COPD. PMID:23423297

  15. Modulation of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) carbonyl reducing enzymes by anthelmintic therapy with flubendazole.

    PubMed

    Szotáková, Barbora; Nobilis, Milan; Lamka, Jirí; Krízová, Veronika; Savlík, Michal; Skálová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) is a widely administered benzimidazole anthelmintic indicated for the control of parasitic diseases in farm animals including pigs and pheasants. This study was designed to test the biotransformation of FLU in control animals and animals treated with FLU in recommended therapeutic doses. The activities of several pheasant and porcine hepatic and intestinal carbonyl reducing enzymes and their modulation by FLU were also studied. Twelve adult pheasant hens, approximately 1 year old, were divided into two groups and treated for 7 days with placebo or 6 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Eight male hog weaners, approximately 3 month old, were divided into two groups and treated for 5 days with placebo or 1.57 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Subcellular fractions, prepared from livers and small intestines of control and FLU treated animals, were incubated with FLU. In vitro formation of two main FLU metabolites, reduced FLU, and hydrolyzed FLU were analyzed using HPLC. While FLU was reduced significantly more intensively in FLU-treated pheasants than in control animals, no differences were observed in pigs. These results were confirmed by measuring the enzyme activities: carbonyl reducing enzyme activities were increased in pheasants treated by FLU, whereas FLU did not affect these enzymes in pigs. PMID:19356067

  16. El Universo a Sus Pies: Actividades y Recursos para Astronomia (Universe at Your Fingertips: An Astronomy Activity and Resource Notebook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew, Ed.; Schatz, Dennis, Ed.

    The goal of this resource notebook is to provide activities selected by astronomers and classroom teachers, comprehensive resource lists and bibliographies, background material on astronomical topics, and teaching ideas from experienced astronomy educators. Activities are grouped into several major areas of study in astronomy including lunar…

  17. Responses of single taste fibers and whole chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve in the domestic pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Danilova, V; Roberts, T; Hellekant, G

    1999-06-01

    Whole nerve, as well as single fiber, responses in the chorda tympani proper (CT) and glossopharyngeal (NG) nerves of 1- to 7-week-old pigs were recorded during taste stimulation. In the CT acids and in the NG bitter compounds gave the largest responses. Both nerves exhibited large responses to monosodium glutamate (MSG), MSG with guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and MSG with inositine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) as well as to glycine, xylitol, sucrose, fructose and glucose. Alitame, aspartame, betaine, neohesperedin dihydrochalcone (NHDHC), super-aspartame, saccharin and thaumatin elicited no or little response. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 49 CT fibers separated four major clusters. The M cluster, comprising 28.5% of all fibers, is characterized by strong responses to MSG, KCl, LiCl and NaCl. The responses to NaCl and LiCl were unaffected by amiloride. The H cluster (24.5%) includes units responding principally to acids. The Q cluster (18.5%) responds to quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and salts with amiloride. The S cluster (28.5%) exhibits strong responses to xylitol, glycine and the carbohydrates as well as to MSG alone and to MSG with GMP or IMP. In 31 NG fibers, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four clusters: the M cluster (10%), responding to MSG and MSG with GMP or IMP; the H cluster (13%), responding to acids; the Q cluster (29%), responding strongly to QHCl, SOA and tilmicosinR; and the S cluster (48%), responding best to xylitol, carbohydrates and glycine but also to the umami compounds. Multidimensional scaling analysis across fiber responses to all stimuli showed the best separation between compounds with different taste qualities when information from both nerves was utilized. PMID:10400449

  18. Familias Latinas: Participando en la educacion de sus hijos (Latino Families: Getting Involved in Your Children's Education). Early Childhood Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Eliot

    Noting that many Latino parents have questions about parent participation in their children's education and how to go about getting involved, this Spanish-language early childhood digest answers some of those questions by providing suggestions for ways parents can involve themselves in a child's education both at school and at home. Following a…

  19. Epidemiological study on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Vicente, Joaquin; Segalés, Joaquim; Höfle, Ursula; Balasch, Mònica; Plana-Durán, Joan; Domingo, Mariano; Gortázar, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered as the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in domestic pigs, where the virus is ubiquitous as evidenced by serological surveys. We present the results of the first nationwide sero-survey on the presence of PCV2 antibodies in European wild boars, and report the first PMWS case in a wild boar from Spain. Sera from 656 hunter harvested wild boars from 45 different geographical sites and 22 additional imported animals were analysed by means of an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). We also examined the tissues from 55 healthy and one diseased wild boars for the presence of PCV2 nucleic acid and PMWS lesions by in situ hybridisation and histopathology, respectively. Additionally, abundance estimates of wild boars and field interviews were carried out on 30 sampling sites. The prevalence of medium to high PCV2 serological titres among the examined wild boars was 47.89 +/- 1.9%. Seropositive wild boars appeared in all but one of the geographical regions analysed. Seroprevalence and titre of PCV2 antibodies were closely related to the management of the wild boar populations. Wild boars from intensively managed, farm-like populations had higher prevalence than wild boars living in more natural situations. The effect of wild boar abundance and management on PCV2 antibody prevalence was further evidenced by the high correlation existing between the relative abundance estimates of animals and the percentage of wild boars with medium to high levels of PCV2 antibodies. PCV2 nucleic acid was detected in the tissues of three wild boars. One of these was diagnosed as PMWS. The results, in addition to information on piglet mortalities, suggest a potential role of PMWS in piglet mortality in intensively managed wild boar populations. PMID:15099500

  20. Maternal investment, sibling competition, and offspring survival with increasing litter size and parity in pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Inger Lise; Nævdal, Eric; Bøe, Knut Egil

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of litter size and parity on sibling competition, piglet survival, and weight gain. It was predicted that competition for teats would increase with increasing litter size, resulting in a higher mortality due to maternal infanticide (i.e., crushing) and starvation, thus keeping the number of surviving piglets constant. We predicted negative effects on weight gain with increasing litter size. Based on maternal investment theory, we also predicted that piglet mortality would be higher for litters born late in a sow's life and thus that the number of surviving piglets would be higher in early litters. As predicted, piglet mortality increased with increasing litter size both due to an increased proportion of crushed piglets, where most of them failed in the teat competition, and due to starvation caused by increased sibling competition, resulting in a constant number of survivors. Piglet weight at day 1 and growth until weaning also declined with increasing litter size. Sows in parity four had higher piglet mortality due to starvation, but the number of surviving piglets was not affected by parity. In conclusion, piglet mortality caused by maternal crushing of piglets, many of which had no teat success, and starvation caused by sibling competition, increased with increasing litter size for most sow parities. The constant number of surviving piglets at the time of weaning suggests that 10 to 11 piglets could be close to the upper limit that the domestic sow is capable of taking care of. PMID:21743767

  1. "En Sus Proprias Palabras" ("In Their Own Words"): Latina Women's Perspectives on Enablers of HIV Testing Using Freelisting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Sharon D.; Sudha, S.; Herrera, Samantha; Ruiz, Carolina; Thomas, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive information on the facilitators of HIV testing in Latino women (Latinas) in the Southeastern USA is lacking. Efforts to rectify this should include Latina perspectives on the issue. This study aimed to (1) solicit Latina perspectives using qualitative methodology and (2) characterise enablers of HIV testing follow-through.…

  2. Betaine improves growth, but does not induce whole body or hepatic palmitate oxidation in swine (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Wray-Cahen, Diane; Fernández-Fígares, Ignacio; Virtanen, Erkki; Steele, Norman C; Caperna, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Dietary betaine may reduce carcass fat in growing pigs. We explored the effects of betaine on short-term growth and in vivo and in vitro fatty acid oxidation. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed diets containing either 0% (control), 0.125% or 0.5% betaine at 80% of ad libitum energy intake. Fatty acid oxidation was measured during intravenous infusions of 1-(13)C-palmitate and in hepatocytes incubated in the presence or absence of betaine and carnitine. CO2 and palmitate isotopic enrichments were determined by mass spectrometry. Pigs consuming 0.125% and 0.5% betaine for at least 9 days had growth rates that were 38% and 12% greater than controls, respectively. Feed efficiency was also improved with betaine. Fasting increased palmitate oxidation rates 7-8-fold (P < 0.01), but betaine had no effect in either the fed or fasted state (P > 0.1). For hepatocytes, carnitine but not betaine enhanced palmitate oxidation. This response suggests that previously observed reduction in adipose accretion must be via a mechanism other than oxidation. Betaine had no effect on plasma non-esterified fatty acids or urea nitrogen. Under the confinement conditions in this study, dietary betaine improved animal growth responses, but it had no apparent effect on either whole body or hepatic fatty acid oxidation. PMID:14720598

  3. Highly conserved ENY2/Sus1 protein binds to Drosophila CTCF and is required for barrier activity

    PubMed Central

    Maksimenko, Oksana; Kyrchanova, Olga; Bonchuk, Artem; Stakhov, Viacheslav; Parshikov, Alexander; Georgiev, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin insulators affect interactions between promoters and enhancers/silencers and function as barriers for the spreading of repressive chromatin. Drosophila insulator protein dCTCF marks active promoters and boundaries of many histone H3K27 trimethylation domains associated with repressed chromatin. In particular, dCTCF binds to such boundaries between the parasegment-specific regulatory domains of the Bithorax complex. Here we demonstrate that the evolutionarily conserved protein ENY2 is recruited to the zinc-finger domain of dCTCF and is required for the barrier activity of dCTCF-dependent insulators in transgenic lines. Inactivation of ENY2 by RNAi in BG3 cells leads to the spreading of H3K27 trimethylation and Pc protein at several dCTCF boundaries. The results suggest that evolutionarily conserved ENY2 is responsible for barrier activity mediated by the dCTCF protein. PMID:25147918

  4. Different distributions of preproMCH and hypocretin/orexin in the forebrain of the pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Chometton, S; Franchi, G; Houdayer, C; Mariot, A; Poncet, F; Fellmann, D; Tillet, Y; Risold, P Y

    2014-11-01

    Neurons producing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) have been implicated in the sleep/wake cycle and feeding behavior. Sleep and feeding habits vary greatly among mammalian species, depending in part of the prey/predatory status of animals. However, the distribution of both peptides has been described in only a limited number of species. In this work, we describe the distribution of MCH neurons in the brain of the domestic pig. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, their cell bodies are shown to be located in the posterior lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), as expected. They form a dense cluster ventro-lateral to the fornix while only scattered cells are present dorsal to this tract. By comparison, Hcrt cell bodies are located mainly dorsal to the fornix. Therefore, the two populations of neurons display complementary distributions in the posterior LHA. MCH projections are, as indicated by MCH-positive axons, very abundant in all cortical fields ventral to the rhinal sulcus, as well as in the lateral, basolateral and basomedial amygdala. In contrast, most of the isocortex is sparsely innervated. To conclude, the distribution of MCH cell bodies and projections shows some very specific features in the pig brain, that are clearly different of that described in the rat, mouse or human. In contrast, the Hcrt pattern seems more similar to that in these species, i.e. more conserved. These results suggest that the LHA anatomic organization shows some very significant interspecies differences, which may be related to the different behavioral repertoires of animals with regard to feeding and sleep/wake cycles. PMID:25124772

  5. Closed-loop glycaemic control using an implantable artificial pancreas in diabetic domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Gregory, R; Tomlins, P; Jacob, D; Hubble, J; Sahota, T S

    2016-03-16

    The performance of a completely implantable peritoneal artificial pancreas (AP) has been demonstrated in principle in a live diabetic domestic pig. The device consists of a smart glucose-sensitive gel that forms a gateway to an insulin reservoir and is designed to both sense glucose and deliver insulin in the peritoneal cavity. It can be refilled with insulin via subcutaneous ports and surgery was developed to insert the AP. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ), the device filled with insulin (Humulin(®) R U-500) in situ and the animal observed for several weeks, during which time there was normal access to food and water and several oral glucose challenges. Blood glucose (BG) levels were brought down from >30mmol/L (540mg/dL) to non-fasted values between 7 and 13mmol/L (126-234mg/dL) about five days after filling the device. Glucose challenge responses improved ultimately so that, starting at 10mmol/L (180mg/dL), the BG peak was 18mmol/L (324mg/dL) and fell to 7mmol/L (126mg/dL) after 30min, contrasting with intravenous attempts. The reservoir solution was removed after 8days of blood glucose levels during which they had been increasingly better controlled. A rapid return to diabetic BG levels (30mmol/L) occurred only after a further 24days implying some insulin had remained in the device after removal of the reservoir solution. Thus, the closed loop system appeared to have particular influence on the basal and bolus needs for the 8days in which the reservoir solution was in place and substantial impact for a further 3 weeks. No additional insulin manual adjustment was given during this period. PMID:26691655

  6. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health. PMID:25608621

  7. Characterization of the adaptive immune response following immunization in pregnant sows (Sus scrofa) kept in two different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Grün, V; Schmucker, S; Schalk, C; Flauger, B; Stefanski, V

    2014-08-01

    Housing conditions might differentially affect the adaptive immune responses to a neoantigen in pregnant sows with possible consequences for the success of vaccinations. Therefore, this study aimed at characterizing antigen-specific T cell and B cell responses of pregnant sows (German Landrace) either housed in a social group (GP; n = 22) or confined in individual gestation crates (CR; n = 11). All sows were immunized with the neoantigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) 7 and 5 wk prepartum. Blood samples were taken 7, 6, 4, and 2 wk prepartum, thus before and after the first as well as second immunization. This study aimed at identifying both the resulting cellular as well as humoral KLH-specific immune response in the pregnant sows. We therefore analyzed total IgG and anti-KLH IgG concentrations and the KLH-specific lymphocyte proliferation as well as the KLH-specific production of the T helper cell type 1 (TH1)-related cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? and interferon (IFN) ? in main T cell subsets before and after the immunization. Anti-KLH IgG titers significantly increased during the experimental procedure (P < 0.001) reflecting the activation and differentiation of KLH-specific B cells on immunization. However, CR-housed sows showed greater anti-KLH IgG concentrations compared to GP-housed sows (P < 0.05). Keyhole limpet hemocyanin-specific TNF?-producing cytotoxic T cells (CTL) and T helper (TH) cells were detectable in CR-housed sows not before the second immunization (both P < 0.05), whereas those cells were detectable already after the first immunization in GP-housed sows (CTL: P < 0.01 and TH: P < 0.05). Similarly, KLH-specific TNF?/IFN?-double producing CTL and TH cells were detectable earlier in GP-housed sows than in CR-housed sows (both P < 0.05). Keyhole limpet hemocyanin-induced lymphocyte proliferation and total IgG concentrations were not affected by the housing system. Our results show that housing conditions affect the adaptive immunity to a neoantigen in pregnant sows. Whereas GP housing of pregnant sows induced a rather TH1-mediated cellular response, individual housing in CR resulted in a T helper cell type 2 (TH2)-pronounced humoral response to KLH. The greater anti-KLH IgG concentration and the delayed activation and differentiation of KLH-specific TH1 cells in CR-housed sows support the hypothesis of a shifted TH1:TH2 ratio in individually housed sows of this study. We presume differences in the stressfulness of the housing system to be mainly responsible for the occurring effects. PMID:24948651

  8. "En Sus Proprias Palabras" ("In Their Own Words"): Latina Women's Perspectives on Enablers of HIV Testing Using Freelisting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Sharon D.; Sudha, S.; Herrera, Samantha; Ruiz, Carolina; Thomas, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive information on the facilitators of HIV testing in Latino women (Latinas) in the Southeastern USA is lacking. Efforts to rectify this should include Latina perspectives on the issue. This study aimed to (1) solicit Latina perspectives using qualitative methodology and (2) characterise enablers of HIV testing follow-through.…

  9. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A F; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-08-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya, and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes, both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future. PMID:24863459

  10. An in vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Conrad, Matthew S; Sutton, Bradley P; Dilger, Ryan N; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet. In addition, we have developed probabilistic tissue classification maps. These tools can be used with brain mapping software packages (e.g. SPM and FSL) to aid in voxel-based morphometry and image analysis techniques. The atlas enables efficient study of neurodevelopment in a highly tractable translational animal with brain growth and development similar to humans. PMID:25254955

  11. Consentimiento informado: una praxis dialogica para la investigacion

    PubMed Central

    Mondragon-Barrios, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    El consentimiento informado es un proceso, en el que una persona acepta participar en una investigation, conociendo los riesgos, beneficios, consecuencias o problemas que se puedan presenter durante el desarrollo de la misma. El objetivo de este trabajo es reunir las caracteristicas del proceso de consentimiento informado (PCI) pare que su discernimiento y cumplimiento posibilite el ejercicio etc° dialogico, reflexivo y responsable del investigador. Se presentan los resultados de una extensa revision de les elementos del PCI, desde sus cornponentes hasta su fundamento etico y legal, incluyendo los mites y realidades que existen sobre el formato de consentimiento informado come recurso legal de protection. El consentimiento informado no es un formato establecido que los investigadores repliquen, se trata de que la praxis del PCI sea una tarea cotidiana dentro de la investigation con seres humanos, como comunicaciOn deliberative y critica, responsable y comprometida entre dos agentes morales, investigador-investigado. PMID:19507477

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Pig (Sus scrofa) Olfactory Soluble Proteome Reveals O-Linked-N-Acetylglucosaminylation of Secreted Odorant-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nagnan-Le Meillour, Patricia; Vercoutter-Edouart, Anne-Sophie; Hilliou, Frédérique; Le Danvic, Chrystelle; Lévy, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of olfactory binding proteins (OBPs) is a key point to understand their role in molecular olfaction. Since only few different sequences were characterized in each mammalian species, they have been considered as passive carriers of odors and pheromones. We have explored the soluble proteome of pig nasal mucus, taking benefit of the powerful tools of proteomics. Combining two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and western-blot with specific antibodies, our analyses revealed for the first time that the pig nasal mucus is mainly composed of secreted OBP isoforms, some of them being potentially modified by O-GlcNAcylation. An ortholog gene of the glycosyltransferase responsible of the O-GlcNAc linking on extracellular proteins in Drosophila and Mouse (EOGT) was amplified from tissues of pigs of different ages and sex. The sequence was used in a phylogenetic analysis, which evidenced conservation of EOGT in insect and mammalian models studied in molecular olfaction. Extracellular O-GlcNAcylation of secreted OBPs could finely modulate their binding specificities to odors and pheromones. This constitutes a new mechanism for extracellular signaling by OBPs, suggesting that they act as the first step of odor discrimination. PMID:25538681

  13. Isolation of Campylobacter from feral swine (Sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak investigation in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the...

  14. Diffusion bonding/superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn/SUS 304 stainless steel/Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, J. S.; Chuang, T. H.

    1996-02-01

    The superplasticity of the Ti- 6Al- 6V- 2Sn alloy for different temperatures was evaluated by single-sheet free blowing. The optimal superplastic temperature for the Ti- 6Al- 6V- 2Sn alloy was found to be 850 °C. Diffusion bonding of Ti- 6Al- 6V- 2Sn and 304 stainless steel was carried out in a vacuum. The interface of both bonded alloys was examined by EPMA. The concentration profile of Ni exhibited a peak at the interlayer and a valley adjacent it, whereas that of Cr exhibited a peak where Ni showed the valley. X- ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the Fe 2 Ti, NiTi, and CrMn Intermetallic compounds and the Cr element formed at the interface. The thickness profiles of the blown specimens were measured and compared with theoretical calculations.

  15. The influence of environmental and physiological factors on the litter size of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in an agriculture dominated area in Germany.

    PubMed

    Frauendorf, Magali; Gethöffer, Friederike; Siebert, Ursula; Keuling, Oliver

    2016-01-15

    The wild boar population has increased enormously in all of Europe over the last decades and caused problems like crop damage, transmission of diseases, and vehicle accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the underlying causes of this increase in order to be able to manage populations effectively. The purpose of this study was to analyse how environmental (food and climate) and physiological factors (maternal weight and age) as well as hunting and population density influence the litter size of wild boar populations in Northern Germany. The mean litter size in the studied population for the whole period was 6.6 (range 1–12), which is one of the highest in all of Europe. Litter size was positively influenced by maternal body weight, higher mast yield of oak as well as higher temperature in combination with higher precipitation in summer. Only higher temperature or only higher precipitation in summer however had a negative effect on litter size production. Probably,weather and food conditions act via maternal bodyweight on the litter size variation in wild boar. Hunting as well a s population density did not affect the litter size variation in this study which might indicate that wild boar population did not reach carrying capacity yet. PMID:26437356

  16. Keep It Safe. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conozca sus Derechos. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on one's rights as a consumer is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to become familiar with their…

  17. Diffusion bonding/superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn/SUS 304 stainless steel/Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, J.S.; Chuang, T.H.

    1996-02-01

    The superplasticity of the Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloy for different temperatures was evaluated by single-sheet free blowing. The optimal superplastic temperature for the Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloy was found to be 850 C. Diffusion bonding of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn and 304 stainless steel was carried out in a vacuum. The interface of both bonded alloys was examined by EPMA. The concentration profile of Ni exhibited a peak at the interlayer and a valley adjacent it, whereas that of Cr exhibited a peak where Ni showed the valley. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the Fe{sub 2}Ti, NiTi, and CrMn intermetallic compounds and the Cr element formed at the interface. The thickness profiles of the blown specimens were measured and compared with theoretical calculations.

  18. A Family Guide to Systems of Care for Children with Mental Health Needs = Guia para la familia de "Systems of Care" para la salud mental de sus hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Janice; Harris, Pam; Hawes, Janet; Shepler, Rick; Tolin, Canice; Truman, Connie

    This bilingual (English-Spanish) guide is intended to assist parents and caregivers in seeking help for children with mental health problems. As part of the system of care, parents and caregivers need to work together to help the child in need. Caregivers and counselors can help families define their strengths, determine the things they want to…

  19. Serological Survey of Porcine circovirus-2 in Captive Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Registered Farms of South and South-east Regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, C N; Martins, N R S; Freitas, T R P; Lobato, Z I P

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to survey captive wild boars for antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in registered farms. Serum samples (n = 1305) were collected from 90-day-old wild boars from 118 farms of the Brazilian South-east region, including the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and South region, including the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. All herds (100%) presented reactive animals, in varying numbers and from low-to-high antibody titres, with the occurrence ranging from 82 to 89%. Considering farms, the average prevalence was of 84.9% (P < 0.05) and ranged from 54.1 to 94.95%. Regarding the geographic regions studied, the prevalence was of 100%, with PCV2 antibodies detected in wild boars of all regions. This study provides the first evidence of PCV2 antibodies in captive wild boars in Brazil. PMID:25056836

  20. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) y de sus parasitoides sobre dietas artificiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the mass rearing system of the coffee berry borer, cbb, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and its African parasitoids: the ectoparasitoids Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Betrem) and Prorops nasuta ((Waterston) (Hymenop...

  1. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  2. Hable con sus hijos: Antes de que lo hagan todos los demas (Talk with Your Kids...before Everyone Else Does: Talking with Kids about Tough Issues).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, Oakland, CA.

    Parents are challenged daily with a wide range of disturbing issues that are difficult for children to understand and for adults to explain. This Spanish-language booklet offers practical, concrete tips and techniques for talking easily and openly with 8- to 12-year-olds about sex, HIV/AIDS, violence, drugs, and alcohol. The book is divided into…

  3. [Conceptions and typology of conflicts between workers and managers in the context of primary healthcare in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Peduzzi, Marina; Ayres, José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze perceptions of conflict between workers and managers in primary healthcare units and to present a typology of conflicts on the job. This was a comprehensive interpretive case study with a critical hermeneutic approach. Data collection techniques included: focus group with managers, workplace observation, and worker interviews, conducted from April to November 2011. The results were triangulated and indicated the coexistence of distinct concepts of conflict, typified in six modalities: lack of collaboration at work; disrespect resulting from asymmetrical relations between workers; problematic employee behavior; personal problems; asymmetry with other management levels; and inadequate work infrastructure. The relevance of (non)mutual recognition, as proposed by Axel Honneth, stood out in the interpretation of the causes and practical implications of these conflicts. PMID:25166942

  4. You Can Help Your Child with Reading and Writing! Ten Fun and Easy Tips = Puede ayudar a sus hijos a leer y escribir! Diez sugerencias faciles y divertidas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Adapted from "101 Ideas to Help Your Child Learn to Read and Write," this booklet presents 10 tips for parents to help their children learn and have a good time in the process. The booklet begins with a letter to parents which discusses five basic principles to remember as they help their children. Tips in the booklet include: read aloud to…

  5. Variation in the Timing and Frequency of Sucking and Swallowing over an Entire Feeding Session in the Infant Pig Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Holman, Shaina D.; Ding, Peng; Bakshi, Shubham

    2014-01-01

    Feeding is a rhythmic behavior that consists of several component cycle types. How the timing of these cycles changes over a complete feeding sequence is not well known. To test the hypothesis that cycle frequency/duration changes as a function of time spent feeding, we examined complete feeding sequences in six infant pigs, using EMG of mylohyoid (MH) and thyrohyoid (TH) as cycle markers. We measured the instantaneous frequency of sucking and of swallowing cycles in 19 sequences. Each sequence contained three qualitatively distinctive phases of sucking frequency. Phase 1 started with cycles at a very high frequency and quickly dropped to a more constant level with low variation, which characterized phase 2. Phase 3 had a steady level of frequency but was interspersed with a number of high- or low-frequency cycles. Each phase differed from the others in patterns of within-phase variation and among-phase variation. Phase 2 had the least variation, and phase 3 had the largest range of frequencies. The number of sucks per swallow also differed among phases. These patterns, which characterize normative feeding, could indicate a physiologic basis in satiation. In human infant clinical studies, where data collection is often limited, these results indicated the utility of collecting data in different phases. Finally, these results can be used as a template or pattern with which to assess clinically compromised infants. PMID:24839189

  6. Prepare Your Child For Reading Tests: Tips for Parents = Prepare a sus hijos para tomar pruebas de lectura: Ideas para padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Tori Mello

    Parents can help their children prepare for reading tests in a number of ways, not only just before the test, but also with everyday activities. There are generally two types of reading tests given to students: tests given by teachers throughout the year to see what information students have retained, and more formal, often standardized, tests…

  7. Immunohistochemical and ultra-structural detection of Pneumocystis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borba, Mauro Riegert; Sanches, Edna Maria Cavallini; Corrêa, André Mendes Ribeiro; Spanamberg, Andréia; de Souza Leal, Juliano; Soares, Mauro Pereira; Guillot, Jacques; Driemeier, David; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2011-02-01

    Pneumocystis spp. are fungi that are able to infect a variety of host species and, occasionally, lead to severe pneumonia. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an important viral pathogen which affects both swine and wild boar herds worldwide. Co-infection between PCV2 and other pathogens has been reported, and the secondary immunodeficiency caused by the virus may predispose to these co-infections. In the present study, postmortem tissue samples obtained from wild boar herds in Southern Brazil were analyzed by histopathology, ultra-structural observation, and immunohistochemistry. Forty-seven out of seventy-eight (60%) wild boars showed clinical signs, gross, and histopathological lesions characteristic of infection by PCV2. Pneumocystis was detected by immunohistochemistry in 39 (50%) lungs and viral antigens of PCV2 were found in 29 (37.2%) samples. Concomitant presence of Pneumocystis and PCV2 were observed in 16 (20.5%) of the wild boars. Cystic and trophic forms of Pneumocystis were similar to previously described ultra-structural observations in other mammals. PMID:20807029

  8. Efficacy of the blizzard blanket or blizzard blanket plus thermal angel in preventing hypothermia in a hemorrhagic shock victim (Sus scrofa) under operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Elizabeth; Schmelz, Joseph; Evers, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The prevention of hypothermia in military casualties under field conditions is challenging. The efficacy of a baffled reflective Blanket (Blizzard Blanket), a portable intravenous fluid warmer (Thermal Angel), and wool Blankets (control) in preventing hypothermia was tested under military field conditions in a swine hemorrhagic shock model. Fifteen pigs were bled at 10 degrees C. After 45 minutes, Hextend was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 10 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel); groups 2 and 3 were encircled with a Blizzard Blanket. After 120 minutes, the pigs were moved to 21 degrees C to simulate a field hospital; group 1 was covered with Blankets. Blood was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 4 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel) with 180 minutes of monitoring. The core temperature was <35 degrees C in five of five control pigs, four of five Blizzard-only pigs, and one of five Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket pigs. The Blizzard Blanket limited but did not prevent hypothermia. The Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket combination prevented hypothermia. The Thermal Angel is useful for bolus administration when electricity is limited; its military field use is constrained by battery weight and battery life. PMID:17274259

  9. Effect of Cattle on Salmonella Carriage, Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance in Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Porrero, Concepción M.; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mateos, Ana; López-Martín, José M.; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike’s Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19–43.70) than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74–29.91). Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35). Serotype richness (diversity) was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern. PMID:23284725

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Pig (Sus scrofa) Olfactory Soluble Proteome Reveals O-Linked-N-Acetylglucosaminylation of Secreted Odorant-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nagnan-Le Meillour, Patricia; Vercoutter-Edouart, Anne-Sophie; Hilliou, Frédérique; Le Danvic, Chrystelle; Lévy, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of olfactory binding proteins (OBPs) is a key point to understand their role in molecular olfaction. Since only few different sequences were characterized in each mammalian species, they have been considered as passive carriers of odors and pheromones. We have explored the soluble proteome of pig nasal mucus, taking benefit of the powerful tools of proteomics. Combining two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and western-blot with specific antibodies, our analyses revealed for the first time that the pig nasal mucus is mainly composed of secreted OBP isoforms, some of them being potentially modified by O-GlcNAcylation. An ortholog gene of the glycosyltransferase responsible of the O-GlcNAc linking on extracellular proteins in Drosophila and Mouse (EOGT) was amplified from tissues of pigs of different ages and sex. The sequence was used in a phylogenetic analysis, which evidenced conservation of EOGT in insect and mammalian models studied in molecular olfaction. Extracellular O-GlcNAcylation of secreted OBPs could finely modulate their binding specificities to odors and pheromones. This constitutes a new mechanism for extracellular signaling by OBPs, suggesting that they act as the first step of odor discrimination. PMID:25538681

  11. Galanin is Co-Expressed with Substance P, Calbindin and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) in The Enteric Nervous System of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Czujkowska, A; Arciszewski, M B

    2016-04-01

    Galanin is a neuropeptide widely present in the enteric nervous system of numerous animal species and exhibiting neurotransmittery/neuromodulatory roles. Colocalization patterns of galanin with substance P (SP), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and calbindin were studied in the small intestine of the wild boar using immunofluorescence technique. We demonstrated the presence of SP in substantial populations of galanin-immunoreactive (IR) submucous neurons. Additionally, different amounts of nerve fibres exhibiting simultaneous presence of galanin and SP were noted in the small intestinal smooth musculature, submucous ganglia, lamina muscularis mucosae and mucosa. In the wild boar duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the co-expression of galanin and calbindin was limited to minor populations of submucous neurons only. Single galanin-/CRF-IR nerve fibres were exclusively present in the duodenal and jejunal (but not ileal) mucosa. These results strongly suggest that galanin participates in neuronal control of the wild boar small intestine also by functional co-operation with other biologically active neuropeptides. PMID:25907507

  12. The Influence of Antral Ulcers on Intramural Gastric Nerve Projections Supplying the Pyloric Sphincter in the Pig (Sus scrofa domestica)—Neuronal Tracing Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zalecki, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric ulcerations in the region of antrum pylori represent a serious medical problem in humans and animals. Such localization of ulcers can influence the intrinsic descending nerve supply to the pyloric sphincter. The pyloric function is precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. Impaired neural regulation could result in pyloric sphincter dysfunction and gastric emptying malfunction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of gastric antral ulcerations on the density and distribution of intramural gastric descending neurons supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings The experiment was performed on 2 groups of pigs: healthy gilts (n=6) and gilts with experimentally induced peptic ulcers in the region of antrum pylori (n=6). Gastric neurons supplying pyloric sphincter were labeled using the retrograde neuronal tracing technique (20?l of Fast Blue tracer injected into the pyloric sphincter muscle). After a week survival period the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were collected. Then, the stomach wall was cross-cut into 0.5cm thick sections taken in specified intervals (section I - 1.5cm; section II - 3.5cm; section III - 5.5cm; section IV – 7.5cm) starting from the sphincter. Consecutive microscopic slices prepared from each section were analyzed under fluorescent microscope to count traced neurons. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The total number of FB-positive perikarya observed within all studied sections significantly decreased from 903.3 ± 130.7 in control to 243.8 ± 67.3 in experimental animals. In healthy pigs 76.1 ± 6.7% of labeled neurons were observed within the section I, 23.53 ± 6.5% in section II and only occasional cells in section III. In experimental animals, as many as 93.8 ± 2.1% of labeled cells were observed within the section I and only 6.2 ± 2.2% in section II, while section III was devoid of such neurons. There were no traced perikarya in section IV observed in both groups of pigs. Conclusions/Significance Obtained results revealed for the first time significant impact of antral ulcerations on intramural descending nerve pathways supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs, animals of increasing value in biomedical research and great economic importance. PMID:25962176

  13. Tissue concentrations of sulfamethazine and tetracycline hydrochloride of swine (Sus scrofa domestica) as it relates to withdrawal methods for international export.

    PubMed

    Mason, Sharon E; Wu, Huali; Yeatts, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-04-01

    The use of water medications is a common practice in the US swine industry to treat and prevent infections in swine herds with minimal labor and without risk of needle breakage. There are concerns that FDA-approved withdrawal times (WDT) may be inadequate for several water medications when exporting pork products to countries where MRLs (maximum residue limits) are lower than US tolerance levels. In this study, withdrawal intervals (WDI) were estimated for pigs when dosed with tetracycline and sulfamethazine in water. The WDI were calculated using the FDA tolerance method (TLM) and a population-based pharmacokinetic method (PopPK). The estimated WDIs (14-16 days using TLM) were similar to the approved WDT of 15 days for sulfamethazine. However, the PopPK method extended WDIs for both sulfamethazine (19-20 days) and tetracycline (12 days) compared to the currently approved WDTs in the U.S. This study also identified potential differences in WDI between weanling and finisher pigs. In conclusion, the TLM may not always provide adequate WDT for foreign export markets especially when MRLs differ from tolerance levels approved for US markets. However, PopPK methods can provide conservative WDIs in situations with considerable variability in medication exposure such as with administration in water. PMID:25707857

  14. Prepare Your Child For Reading Tests: Tips for Parents = Prepare a sus hijos para tomar pruebas de lectura: Ideas para padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Tori Mello

    Parents can help their children prepare for reading tests in a number of ways, not only just before the test, but also with everyday activities. There are generally two types of reading tests given to students: tests given by teachers throughout the year to see what information students have retained, and more formal, often standardized, tests…

  15. Estudiantes con discapacidades preparandose para la educacion postsecundaria: Conozca sus derechos y responsabilidades (Students with Disabilities Preparing for Postsecondary Education: Know Your Rights and Responsibilities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet, in Spanish, intended for postsecondary students with disabilities, explains the rights and responsibilities of these students and the obligations of a postsecondary school to provide academic adjustments. The federal legislation on which the information is based is described. Information for students is presented in question and…

  16. Quantitative trait loci associated with AutoFOM grading characteristics, carcass cuts and chemical body composition during growth of Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Mohrmann, M; Roehe, R; Knap, P W; Looft, H; Plastow, G S; Kalm, E

    2006-10-01

    A three-generation full-sib resource family was constructed by crossing two commercial pig lines. Genotypes for 37 molecular markers covering chromosomes SSC1, SSC6, SSC7 and SSC13 were obtained for 315 F2 animals of 49 families and their parents and grandparents. Phenotypic records of traits including carcass characteristics measured by the AutoFOM grading system, dissected carcass cuts and meat quality characteristics were recorded at 140 kg slaughter weight. Furthermore, phenotypic records on live animals were obtained for chemical composition of the empty body, protein and lipid accretion (determined by the deuterium dilution technique), daily gain and feed intake during the course of growth from 30 to 140 kg body weight. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection was conducted using least-squares regression interval mapping. Highest significance at the 0.1% chromosome-wise level was obtained for five QTL: AutoFOM belly weight on SSC1; ham lean-meat weight, percentage of fat of primal cuts and daily feed intake between 60 and 90 kg live weight on SSC6; and loin lean-meat weight on SSC13. QTL affecting daily gain and protein accretion were found on SSC1 in the same region. QTL for protein and lipid content of empty body at 60 kg liveweight were located close to the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) locus on SSC6. On SSC13, significant QTL for protein accretion and feed conversion ratio were detected during growth from 60 to 90 kg. In general, additive genetic effects of alleles originating from the Piétrain line were associated with lower fatness and larger muscularity as well as lower daily gain and lower protein accretion rates. Most of the QTL for carcass characteristics were found on SSC6 and were estimated after adjustment for the RYR1 gene. QTL for carcass traits, fatness and growth on SSC7 reported in the literature, mainly detected in crosses of commercial lines x obese breeds, were not obtained in the present study using crosses of only commercial lines, suggesting that these QTL are not segregating in the analysed commercial lines. PMID:16978171

  17. Measurement methods for surface oxides on SUS 316L in simulated light water reactor coolant environments using synchrotron XRD and XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masashi; Yonezawa, Toshio; Shobu, Takahisa; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescent (XRF) measurement techniques have been used for non-destructive characterization of surface oxide films on Type 316L austenitic stainless steels that were exposed to simulated primary water environments of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The layer structures of the surface spinel oxides were revealed ex situ after oxidation by measurements made as a function of depth. The layer structure of spinel oxides formed in simulated PWR primary water should normally be different from that formed in simulated BWR water. After oxidation in the simulated BWR environment, the spinel oxide was observed to contain NiFe2O4 at shallow depths, and FeCr2O4 and Fe3O4 at deeper depths. By contrast, after oxidation in the simulated PWR primary water environment, a Fe3O4 type spinel was observed near the surface and FeCr2O4 type spinel near the interface with the metal substrate. Furthermore, by in situ measurements during oxidation in the simulated BWR environment, it was also demonstrated that the ratio between spinel and hematite Fe2O3 can be changed depending on the water condition such as BWR normal water chemistry or BWR hydrogen water chemistry.

  18. Implication of cortisol and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in the development of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) ovarian follicles and cysts.

    PubMed

    Sunak, Neera; Green, Daphne F; Abeydeera, Lalantha R; Thurston, Lisa M; Michael, Anthony E

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated cortisol inactivation by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta HSD) enzymes in porcine granulosa cells from antral follicles at different developmental stages and in ovarian cysts. In granulosa cells, cortisol oxidation increased threefold with antral follicle diameter (P < 0.001). This trend was paralleled by a threefold increase in NADP(+)-dependent 11beta-dehydrogenase activity in granulosa cell homogenates with follicle diameter. Intact granulosa cells from ovarian cysts exhibited significantly lower enzyme activities than cells from large antral follicles. Neither intact cells norcell homogenates displayed net 11-ketosteroid reductase activities. Since porcine follicular fluid (FF) from large antral follicles and ovarian cysts contains hydrophobic inhibitors of glucocorticoid metabolism by type 1 11beta HSD, this studyalso investigated whether levels of 11beta HSD inhibitors changed during follicle growth and could affect cortisol metabolism in granulosa cells. The extent of inhibition of 11beta HSD1 activity in rat kidney homogenates decreased progressively from 50 +/- 8% inhibition by FF from small antral follicles (P < 0.001) to 23 +/- 6% by large antral FF (P < 0.05). Cyst fluid inhibited 11beta HSD1 activity by 59 +/- 4% (P < 0.001). Likewise, net cortisol oxidation in granulosa cells was significantly decreased by large antral FF (35-48% inhibition, P < 0.05) and cyst fluid (45-75% inhibition, P < 0.01). We conclude that inactivation of cortisol by 11beta HSD enzymes in porcine granulosa cells increases with follicle development but is significantly decreased in ovarian cysts. Moreover, changes in ovarian cortisol metabolism are accompanied by corresponding changes in the levels of paracrine inhibitors of 11beta HSD1 within growing ovarian follicles and cysts, implicating cortisol in follicle growth and cyst development. PMID:17636169

  19. The Interface between Primary Care and Emergency Dental Services (SOU) in the SUS: the interface between levels of care in oral health.

    PubMed

    Austregésilo, Silvia Carréra; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Figueiredo, Nilcema; de Góes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras

    2015-10-01

    Considering that emergency dental services include the referral network and the counter-referral network, interacting at the intersection between primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare, this study aims to describe the interface between primary healthcare (APS - Atenção Primária a Saúde), particularly of the Family Health Strategy, and secondary care in oral health, using the Emergency Dental Services (SOU), in the municipality of Recife. It is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive case study. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Classical ALCESTE analysis was used based on the Descending Hierarchical Classification Dendrogram, making it possible to understand the expressions and each one of the words spoken by the dental health professionals, analyzing them using their social places and contexts as a starting point. What we found was only a fragile degree of integration, and little capacity for solution, between the levels of care - a partially disconnected network. Undoubtedly the problems with the interface between primary care and the emergency services in oral health are multiple and complex. The individual solutions have low efficacy, and are complex in their operation. PMID:26465853

  20. 101 ideas para ayudar a sus hijos a aprender a leer y escribir (101 Ideas To Help Your Child Learn To Read and Write).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Based on the idea that parents are the first and most important teachers of their children's literacy, this booklet offers 101 practical and fun-to-do activities that children and parents can do together. The activities in the booklet are organized to fit the way parents tend to think about their time with their children: in the nursery; at…

  1. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Hunted Wild Boars (Sus scrofa): Heart Meat Juice as an Alternative Sample to Serum for the Detection of Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Catarina; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Cardoso, Luís; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a global zoonosis caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Detection of antibodies to T. gondii in serum samples from hunted animals may represent a key step for public health protection. It is also important to assess the circulation of this parasite in wild boar population. However, in hunted animals, collection of blood is not feasible and meat juice may represent an alternative sample. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate heart meat juice of hunted wild boars as an alternative sample for post-mortem detection of antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). The agreement beyond chance between results from meat juice assessed with Cohen's kappa coefficient revealed that the 1:20 meat juice dilution provided the highest agreement. McNemars's test further revealed 1:10 as the most suitable meat juice dilution, as the proportion of positive paired samples (serum and meat juice from the same animal) did not differ at this dilution. All together, these results suggest a reasonable accuracy of heart meat juice to detect antibodies to T. gondii by MAT and support it as an alternative sample in post-mortem analysis in hunted wild boars. PMID:26597339

  2. How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Saubusse, Thibault; Masson, Jean-Daniel; Le Dimma, Mireille; Abrial, David; Marcé, Clara; Martin-Schaller, Regine; Dupire, Anne; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010-2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serological data collected in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars from 2010 up to 2013, using a spatial Bayesian model accounting for hunting data autocorrelation and heterogeneity. At the level of the whole area, seroprevalence in juvenile boars decreased from 28% in 2010-2011 down to 1% in 2012-2013, but remained locally high (above 5%). The model revealed the existence of one particular seroprevalence hot-spot where a longitudinal survey of marked animals was conducted in 2013-2014, for deciphering the origin of antibodies. Eleven out of 107 captured piglets were seropositive when 3-4 months-old, but their antibody titres progressively decreased until 6-7 months of age. These results suggest piglets were carrying maternal antibodies, few of them carrying maternal antibodies lasting until the hunting season. Our study shows that OMV may generate confusion in the CSF surveillance several years after the completion of vaccination. We recommend using quantitative serological tools, hunting data modelling and capture approaches for better interpreting serological results after vaccination completion. Surveillance perspectives are further discussed. PMID:26810218

  3. Mapa de Vulnerabilidad en Honduras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Dado que Honduras geográficamente se encuentra en una zona que esta expuesta a diferentes fenómenos sísmicos y climatológicos. Investigamos cuales son las zonas mas propensas a desastres naturales, la vulnerabilidad y el factor de resiliencia de la población de acuerdo a diferentes parámetros de estudio.

  4. 77 FR 2306 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Disaster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... (Spanish), Solicitud en Papel/Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De... and Spanish), FEMA Forms 009-0-1 and 009-0-2, 18 minutes; Smartphone Application for...

  5. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  6. Novice Non-Native English Teachers' Reflections on Their Teacher Education Programmes and Their First Years of Teaching (Reflexiones de profesores novatos y no nativos del inglés sobre sus programas de formación y sus primeros años de instrucción)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcan, Sumru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates novice non-native English teachers' opinions about the effectiveness of their teacher education programme and the challenges during their initial years of teaching. The results of a survey administered to fifty-five novice teachers and follow-up interviews identify strengths and weaknesses in their teacher education…

  7. Del sujeto que ha intentado suicidarse y el Otro: la Institución Psiquiátrica

    PubMed Central

    Liliana, Mondragón B.; Miguel Ángel, Caballero G.

    2009-01-01

    El hospital psiquiátrico se ha constituido como un lugar donde se posibilita legitimar la exclusión y la radicalidad de ese otro “que no es igual”, como es el caso del sujeto que atenta contra su propia vida. En consecuencia, el intento de suicidio desde el pensamiento foucaultiano, es una resistencia que desmantela la estructura de dominación a través de un acto de poder, el cual se ejerce sobre el propio cuerpo. Así, la intención de este texto es mostrar que la relación Otro-otro es un lugar en la estructura subjetiva, que se deposita en la institución psiquiátrica, la cual representa el poder, la ley, y es aquello a lo que se le quiere agredir, resistir, abatir con un intento de suicidio. Para demostrar como se materializan estos hechos, se exponen los testimonios de tres adolescentes atendidas en un hospital psiquiátrico por intentos suicidas, en los cuales se señalan los diferentes significados que le atribuyen a la institución psiquiátrica en tanto que representa un Otro en sus actos autoinfligidos. PMID:25400324

  8. Heart to Heart: Parents of Blind and Partially Sighted Children Talk about Their Feelings = De Corazon a Corazon: Padres de Ninos Ciegos y Parcialmente Ciegos Hablan acerca de Sus Sentimientos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blind Childrens Center, Los Angeles, CA.

    English and Spanish versions of this booklet describe typical feelings experienced by parents of blind and partially sighted children. Experiences are cited including first feelings of shock and confusion, days of dramatic ups and downs, need to find a reason for the blindness, self doubts and anxiety, and reactions from strangers. In closing, the…

  9. The Science Teachers and Their way of Thinking about Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Los Profesores de Ciencias y Sus Formas de Pensar la Astronomía.) Os Professores de Ciências e Suas Formas de Pensar a Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Cristina; Hosoume, Yassuko

    2007-12-01

    The research presented in this article is about the way science teachers from Elementary School think about astronomical elements. Its methodology is based on semi-structured interviews, which were video recorded. The research is centered in a three-dimensional perspective of astronomical Earth, the Sun, the Moon, the planets and the stars, and also the conceptions about sky and Universe. The esults indicate a Universe that contains: Sun, stars, planets and Moon; where the Solar System is a little part of the whole. Sometimes they think that the Solar System is the Universe. The objects are in the sky or in the Universe, which, for many of them, is only the space above the Earth. The flat shape of astronomical objects and the spatial structure of the Universe are striking features. Many of them think that Sun and stars are different: the Sun is a hot object and the stars are cold ones. These results worry us and they certainly indicate how urgent it is to plan Professional Development in Astronomy for teachers, after all the PCN's emphasize that this subject is important to be taught. El objeto de investigación de este artículo es la manera de pensar sobre los elementos de la Astronomía de los profesores de Ciencias en la enseñanza fundamental. La metodología consiste en entrevistas semi-estructuradas, filmadas en video y centradas en la tridimensionalidad de los elementos astronómicos, para posibilitar un mapeamiento de las concepciones sobre las formas y dimensiones de la Tierra, del Sol, de la Luna, de los planetas y de las estrellas, como también de la concepción de cielo y de Universo en su totalidad. Los resultados indican un Universo conteniendo: Sol, estrellas, planetas y Luna, donde el Sistema Solar se ubica como parte. Algunas veces, el Universo es concebido como el propio Sistema Solar. Los objetos están en el cielo o en el Universo, que, para muchos, se restringe al espacio que está arriba de la Tierra. La forma plana de los objetos astronómicos y la estructura espacial del montaje del Universo son características fundamentales. Muchos indican Sol y estrellas como cosas distintas: el Sol es un objeto caliente y las estrellas son frías. Esos resultados nos preocupan y ciertamente señalan una urgencia de programas de formación continuada para profesores en el contenido de astronomía, pues los PCN's (Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales) recomiendan con énfasis la enseñanza de este contenido. O modo de pensar dos professores de Ciências do ensino fundamental sobre os elementos da Astronomia é o objeto de pesquisa presente neste artigo, cuja metodologia consiste em entrevistas semiestruturadas, filmadas em vídeo e centradas numa perspectiva tridimensional dos elementos astronômicos, possibilitando um mapeamento das concepções das formas e das dimensões da Terra, do Sol, da Lua, dos planetas e das estrelas, bem como da concepção de céu e de Universo como um todo. Os resultados indicam um Universo contendo: Sol, estrelas, planetas e Lua, onde o Sistema Solar é parte do todo. Algumas vezes o Universo é concebido como o próprio Sistema Solar. Os objetos estão no céu ou no Universo o qual, para muitos, se restringe ao espaço que está acima da Terra. A forma plana dos objetos astronômicos e a estrutura espacial da montagem do Universo são características marcantes. Muitos indicam Sol e estrelas como coisas diferentes: Sol é um objeto quente e as estrelas são frias. Esses resultados nos preocupam e certamente sinalizam uma urgência de programas de formação continuada para professores no conteúdo de astronomia, uma vez que os PCN's indicam fortemente o ensino desse conteúdo.

  10. [Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) and notification of infant-juvenile violence in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in Feira de Santana in the state of Bahia].

    PubMed

    Souza, Camila dos Santos; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Musse, Jamilly de Oliveira; Sobrinho, Carlito Nascimento; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis

    2014-03-01

    The scope of the study is to analyze data of children and adolescents who are the victims of different forms of violence, registered in the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA/MS) in Feira de Santana in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The total number of records, since the implementation of VIVA in the city (01/2009 to 01/2011) was used and the analyses sought associations between characteristics of violence and profiles of victims and perpetrators. The results showed that children and adolescents were molested using different types of violence, including the use of physical force, verbal threats and weapons and sundry cases of personal injury. Approximately 35% were hospitalized and 15% died. Physical violence was more common among males during adolescence in the home environment and perpetrated by a family member. Sexual violence occurred with greater frequency among females during childhood and 55.5% of the cases occurred in the home environment and more frequently perpetrated by a family member or acquaintances. The results highlight the importance of investments in policies and programs for harm prevention and reduction, seeking to broaden coverage in the care and the enhancement of the information system and surveys of these indicators. PMID:24714892

  11. Cuidado de ninos con necesidades especiales en el hogar: Manual de referencia para las personas que cuidan ninos en sus hogares (Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook for Family Day Care Home Providers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Brosse, Beatrice

    The Spanish translation of this guide offers information to Spanish-speaking family day care providers who desire to expand their knowledge of early childhood development in order to work with infants and young children with special needs in their day care settings. The first of four chapters answers common questions and concerns of day care…

  12. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. PMID:26005913

  13. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  14. Learning & Growing Together: Understanding and Supporting Your Child's Development = Aprender y crecer juntos: Como comprender y fomentar el desarrollo de sus hijos [with] Tip Sheets: Ideas for Professionals in Programs That Serve Young Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Dombro, Amy Laura; Powers, Stefanie

    Based on the view that the primary caregivers for infants and toddlers are their own best resource for understanding and caring for their child and that parenting is a lifelong learning process, this book provides information and tools to help caregivers build a strong foundation for their child's development. The book, both in English and…

  15. Investigacion educativa. El sistema escolar en sus diferentes niveles, factores que favorecen o frenan su eficacia y medidas de superacion (Educational Research. The Educational System at Different Levels; Factors Promoting or Hindering Its Efficiency; Possible Improvements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Lozano, Blanca; And Others

    This document is an English-language abstract (Approximately 1,500 words) of a study on educational research in Mexico. Chapter one discusses the importance of educational research, in terms of its role both in scientific and technical development; it should use scientific methods so that it will have solid foundations. Chapter two is a survey of…

  16. Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa

    El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la investigacion se utilizo una metodologia cuantitativa y la herramienta para lograrlo fue una encuesta. La encuesta se analizo estadisticamente mediante analisis de frecuencias y por cientos, prueba ANOVA, prueba t, pruebas Post Hoc de Tukey y de Levene. Tambien se realizo nuevamente una prueba de confiabilidad mediante el alfa de Cronbach. Los resultados reflejaron que los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion, Humanidades, Estudios Generales y el Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas tienen una percepcion muy positiva del concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos curriculares de Ciencias Biologicas y del nuevo bachillerato.

  17. Follow the Footprints: Discover the Hidden Talents of Your Children = Siga las huellas: Busque 105 tesoros escondidos en sus hijos = Swiv piti ou toutan: Chache jween tout don li genyen lot moun pa ka we. Teacher's Reference Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services.

    This brochure, in English, Spanish, and Haitian Creole, is intended to help parents identify children who are gifted and may need an education that goes beyond what is provided in their classrooms. It focuses on eight characteristics typical of such children with examples of behaviors showing the characteristic. The characteristics are: (1)…

  18. La Exploracion Del Contexto Social y Sus Efectos en el Programa de Espanol en Mexico Rural. (Exploring the Social Context Affecting a Pre-School Spanish Program in Rural Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lynda

    A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The…

  19. Head Start Service Guide for Children and Families with HIV or AIDS = Guia de Servicios para Ninos con V.I.H. Positivo y con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (S.I.D.A.) y sus Familias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.

    This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…

  20. La lectura literaria como arte de "performance": la teoria transaccional de Louise Rosenblatt y sus implicaciones pedagogicas (The Use of Literature as Performance Art: The Transactional Theory of Louise Rosenblatt and Its Pedagogical Implications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper focuses on the work that Louise Rosenblatt and her followers in the United States have done to improve the teaching and learning of literature at all educational levels. Although these researchers have focused almost exclusively on the use of literature in the native language, the paper uses transactional theory as a basis for teaching…

  1. Investigacion educativa. El sistema escolar en sus diferentes niveles, factores que favorecen o frenan su eficacia y medidas de superacion (Educational Research. The Educational System at Different Levels; Factors Promoting or Hindering Its Efficiency; Possible Improvements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Lozano, Blanca; And Others

    This document is an English-language abstract (Approximately 1,500 words) of a study on educational research in Mexico. Chapter one discusses the importance of educational research, in terms of its role both in scientific and technical development; it should use scientific methods so that it will have solid foundations. Chapter two is a survey of…

  2. Vamos juntos a la escuela: Consejos para ayudar a los padres a asegurar el exito academico de sus hijos (Let's Go to School Together: Tips To Help Parents Ensure Their Children's Educational Success). [Videotape Kit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Resource Center (ED), Washington, DC.

    Noting research showing that when parents are involved in their children's learning, students achieve more and are less likely to drop out of school, this videotape kit offers Spanish-speaking parents tips to help them become involved in their children's learning, from infancy through adolescence. The kit is intended for use in schools,…

  3. Retrograde and destination transfer of sex steroid hormones in the spermatic cord vessels of the mature boar (Sus scrofa) in short-daylight and long-daylight periods, as well as vernal and autumnal equinox.

    PubMed

    Tabęcka-Łonczyńska, Anna; Kulpa, Magdalena; Grzesiak, Małgorzata; Koziorowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in concentration of steroid hormones in the spermatic cord vessels of the mature boar. Cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) was also localized in the arteries and veins of the spermatic cord. Arterial blood was collected from the common carotid artery and from two branches of the testicular artery supplying the testis and epididymis to determine progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A2), testosterone (T2) and estradiol (E2) plasma concentrations. The greatest concentration of P4 was found in testicular artery during December (P<0.001), when compared with other periods and vessels. In contrast, the greatest A2 concentration was observed in the epididymal artery during the same season (P<0.001). Greater T2 concentrations were found in both testis and epididymal arteries than in common artery in March (P<0.001, P<0.001; respectively) and in September (P<0.01, P<0.001; respectively). The E2 concentration was weakly affected by seasonal periods, but greater E2 concentrations were found within vessels in the testis and epididymis than in the common artery. The P450arom was immunolocalized in all layers of the arteries and veins of the testicular spermatic cord. The intensity of P450arom staining was greater in December than in June (P<0.001). There were greater steroid concentrations in arterial vessels during December in comparison to June and this may explain the summer infertility in boars and may be related to the local retrograde and destination transfer into the spermatic cord area. The P450arom gene expression in this area seems to be involved in the conversion of T2 into E2 to enrich the testes and epididymis. PMID:26608934

  4. Single- and joint-population analyses of two experimental pig crosses to confirm quantitative trait loci on Sus scrofa chromosome 6 and leptin receptor effects on fatness and growth traits.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G; Ovilo, C; Silió, L; Tomás, A; Noguera, J L; Rodríguez, M C

    2009-02-01

    The primary goal of this study was to detect and confirm QTL on SSC6 for growth and fatness traits in 2 experimental F(2) intercrosses: Iberian x Landrace (IB x LR) and Iberian x Meishan (IB x MS), which were used in this study for the first time in a QTL analysis related to productive traits. For this purpose, single- and joint-population analyses with single and bivariate trait models of both populations were performed. The presence of the SSC6 QTL for backfat thickness previously identified in the IB x LR cross was detected in this population with additional molecular information, but also was confirmed in the IB x MS cross. In addition, a QTL affecting BW was detected in both crosses in a similar position to the QTL detected for backfat thickness. This is the first study in which a QTL affecting BW is detected on SSC6 in the IB x LR cross, as well as in the IB x MS resource population. Furthermore, we analyzed a previously described nonsynonymous leptin receptor (LEPR) SNP located in exon 14 (c.2002C > T) for causality with respect to this QTL within both F(2) populations. Our results supported the previously reported association between LEPR alleles and backfat thickness in the IB x LR cross, and this association was also confirmed within the IB x MS cross. An association not reported before between LEPR alleles and BW was identified in both populations. PMID:18952727

  5. La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argos, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

  6. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  7. First detection of Echinococcus granulosus G1 and G7 in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Romania using PCR and PCR-RFLP techniques.

    PubMed

    Onac, D; Győrke, A; Oltean, M; Gavrea, R; Cozma, V

    2013-03-31

    The epidemiological status of CE in our country places Romania into the top of the European countries and among the first countries worldwide. Two hundred ninety wild animals (267 wild boars, 21 red deer and 2 mouflons) hunted in a private ground from Bihor county from western Romania were the subject of the necropsy in January 2012.Out of 290 wild animals, 35 were positive during necropsy for hydatic cysts and from these, 33 wild boars and 2 red deer had hydatic cystsonly in the liver parenchyma. This paper presents the first identification of Echinococcus granulosus G1 in cervids (100%). In wild boars it were identified G1 (45.5%) and G7 genotypes (39.4%). The mouflons were free of hydatic cysts. Our resultsconfirmthat the sheep strain (G1) is the predominant Echinococcus genotype, which occurs, followed closely by the pig strain (G7) and that wildlife reservoirs should be taken in consideration for the management of the disease. PMID:23332123

  8. A Guide for Reading: How Parents Can Help Their Children Be Ready To Read and Ready To Learn = Guia Para Leer: Como los padres pueden preparar a sus hijos a leer y aprender desde la infancia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Washington, DC.

    As part of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, this brochure (in English and Spanish) provides a guide to assist parents in helping their children become ready to read and to learn. The suggestions include: (1) talking to infants/toddlers to help them learn to speak and understand the meaning of words; (2)…

  9. A Guide for Reading: How Parents Can Help Their Children Be Ready To Read and Ready To Learn = Guia Para Leer: Como los padres pueden preparar a sus hijos a leer y aprender desde la infancia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Washington, DC.

    As part of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, this brochure (in English and Spanish) provides a guide to assist parents in helping their children become ready to read and to learn. The suggestions include: (1) talking to infants/toddlers to help them learn to speak and understand the meaning of words; (2)…

  10. Un Manual para Padres y Madres Immigrantes. Proteja los Derechos de Educacion para Sus Hijos e Hijas (A Handbook for Immigrant Parents: Protect the Educational Rights of Your Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy (META), Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    This handbook for Spanish-speaking immigrant parents outlines the legal rights of immigrant children to educational services. All children in the United States have a right to attend school. Schools may require proof of residency and vaccination before enrollment, but a signed sworn statement attesting to the child's age may be substituted for a…

  11. La columna, el circulo y sus variantes en la poesia primera de Pedro Salinas (The Vertical Line, the Circle, and other Geometric Varieties in the Early Poetry of Pedro Salinas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Armas, Jose R.

    1970-01-01

    Interprets Salinas' use of geometric figures for depicting concepts of time and infinity, and for portraying idealism and realism (the vertical line is idealism, perfection; the circle stands for reality and imperfection). (DS)

  12. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  13. Learning & Growing Together: Understanding and Supporting Your Child's Development = Aprender y crecer juntos: Como comprender y fomentar el desarrollo de sus hijos [with] Tip Sheets: Ideas for Professionals in Programs That Serve Young Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Dombro, Amy Laura; Powers, Stefanie

    Based on the view that the primary caregivers for infants and toddlers are their own best resource for understanding and caring for their child and that parenting is a lifelong learning process, this book provides information and tools to help caregivers build a strong foundation for their child's development. The book, both in English and…

  14. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  15. Intellectual Disability

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aprendizaje en la escuela. El discapacidad intelectual puede ser la consecuencia de un problema que comienza antes ... los 18 años de edad. La causa puede ser una lesión, enfermedad o un problema en el ...

  16. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  17. Cuidado de Ninos con Necesidades Especiales en el Hogar: Manual de Estrategias y Actividades para Proveedores que Cuidan Ninos en Sus Hogares (Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook of Approaches and Activities for Family Day Care Home Providers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Brosse, Beatrice

    Practical information and sample teaching activities for child caregivers who work with young developmentally disabled children in family day care settings are provided in this manual. Each chapter shares a typical experience a caregiver may have with a particular child. Chapter 1 focuses on getting to know a new child, initial expectations, and…

  18. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 7th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Septimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  19. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 9th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Noveno Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  20. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 5th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 5to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  1. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 10th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Decimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  2. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 6th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 6to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  3. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 11th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 11 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  4. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 12th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 12 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  5. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 4th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 4to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  6. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 8th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Octavo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  7. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 3rd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 3er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  8. The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene intron3-g.3072G>A polymorphism is not the only Sus scrofa chromosome 2p mutation affecting meat production and carcass traits in pigs: evidence from the effects of a cathepsin D (CTSD) gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, L; Speroni, C; Buttazzoni, L; Scotti, E; Dall'Olio, S; Nanni Costa, L; Davoli, R; Russo, V

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mutations in 2 genes [IGF2 and cathepsin D (CTSD)] that map on the telomeric end of the p arm of SSC2. In this region, an imprinted QTL affecting muscle mass and fat deposition was reported, and the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A substitution was identified as the causative mutation. In the same chromosome region, we assigned, by linkage mapping, the CTSD gene, a lysosomal proteinase, for which we previously identified an SNP in the 3'-untranslated region (AM933484, g.70G>A). We have already shown strong effects of this CTSD mutation on several production traits in Italian Large White pigs, suggesting a possible independent role of this marker in fatness and meat deposition in pigs. To evaluate this hypothesis, after having refined the map position of the CTSD gene by radiation hybrid mapping, we analyzed the IGF2 and the CTSD polymorphisms in 270 Italian Large White and 311 Italian Duroc pigs, for which EBV and random residuals from fixed models were calculated for several traits. Different association analyses were carried out to distinguish the effects of the 2 close markers. In the Italian Large White pigs, the results for IGF2 were highly significant for all traits when using either EBV or random residuals (e.g., using EBV: lean cuts, P = 2.2 x 10(-18); ADG, P = 2.6 x 10(-16); backfat thickness, P = 2.2 x 10(-9); feed:gain ratio, P = 2.3 x 10(-9); ham weight, P = 1.5 x 10(-6)). No effect was observed for meat quality traits. The IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A mutation did not show any association in the Italian Duroc pigs, probably because of the small variability at this polymorphic site for this breed. However, a significant association was evident for the CTSD marker (P < 0.001) with EBV of all carcass and production traits in Italian Duroc pigs (lean content, ADG, backfat thickness, feed:gain ratio) after excluding possible confounding effects of the IGF2 mutation. The effects of the CTSD g.70G>A mutation were also confirmed in a subset of Italian Large White animals carrying the homozygous genotype IGF2 intron3-g.3072GG, and by haplotype analysis between the markers of the 2 considered genes in the complete data set. Overall, these results indicate that the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A mutation is not the only polymorphism affecting fatness and muscle deposition on SSC2p. Therefore, the CTSD g.70G>A polymorphism could be used to increase selection efficiency in marker-assisted selection programs that already use the IGF2 mutation. However, for practical applications, because the CTSD gene should not be imprinted (we obtained this information from expression analysis in adult skeletal muscle), the different modes of inheritance of the 2 genes have to be considered. PMID:20382874

  9. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 1st Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 1er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  10. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your Kindergartner Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Jardin Infantil (Kindergarten) Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  11. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 2nd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 2do Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  12. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para las familias: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Families: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close friend) can use to…

  13. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

  14. Expression of the putative ORF1 capsid protein of Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2) and development of Western blot and ELISA serodiagnostic assays: correlation between TTSuV2 viral load and IgG antibody level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y W; Harrall, K K; Dryman, B A; Beach, N M; Kenney, S P; Opriessnig, T; Vaughn, E M; Roof, M B; Meng, X J

    2011-06-01

    Porcine Torque teno virus (TTV) has a single-stranded circular DNA genome and is currently classified into a new genus Iotatorquevirus with two species in a newly established family Anelloviridae. Viral DNA of both porcine TTV species (TTSuV1 and TTSuV2) has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased pigs worldwide and multiple infections of TTSuV with distinct genotypes or subtypes of the same species has been documented in the United States and in Europe. However, the prevalence of specific TTSuV antibodies in pigs remains unknown. In this study, the putative ORF1 capsid protein from TTSuV2 isolate PTTV2c-VA was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant ORF1 protein was used as the antigen for the development of Western blot and indirect ELISA to detect TTSuV2-specific IgG antibodies in pig sera. The results revealed a relatively high rate of seropositivity to TTSuV2 in conventional pigs from different sources but not in gnotobiotic pigs. Overall, pigs with undetectable TTSuV2 viral load were more likely to have a lower anti-TTSuV2 antibody level. An analysis of 10 conventional pigs during a 2-month period showed that decreased viral loads or presumed virus clearance were associated with elevated anti-ORF1 IgG antibody levels. Interestingly, porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD)-affected pigs had a significantly lower level of TTSuV2 antibody than PCVAD-unaffected pigs (p<0.01). This is the first study to establish essential serodiagnostic tools for investigation of TTSuV seroprevalence and infection dynamics, which will help elucidate the potential pathogenicity of TTSuV infection in pigs. PMID:21439334

  15. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde el conjunto de conocimientos y habilidades es predominantemente escolar. Estudia la interfase entre los conocimientos terrestres y los celestes, dándoles un significado geográfico. Analiza las relaciones humanas y naturales con el Espacio Sideral y sus consecuencias para la sociedad y la naturaleza.

  16. Condiciones Físicas en Nebulosas Gaseosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luridiana, V.

    1999-03-01

    El presente trabajo se ha enfocado a determinar y entender las condiciones físicas en una variedad de objetos nebulares, prestando particular atención al problema de la determinación de las abundancias químicas. Para este fin, hemos utilizado métodos analíticos en algunos casos, y modelos numéricos de fotoionización en otros. El objetivo general del trabajo es proveer de una visión amplia de las herramientas teórico-observacionales que se utilizan para la determinación de la estructura de temperatura y densidad de las regiones fotoionizadas, poniendo en evidencia posibles fuentes de errores sistemáticos y sus consecuencias para la determinación de las abundancias químicas, y proponiendo métodos para corregirlos. Los resultados principales de este trabajo est´n listados a continuación: a) Se discute el problema de la discrepancia entre T(C III) y T(O III) en las nebulosas planetarias, y se muestra como tal discrepancia implica probablemente la presencia de fluctuaciones de temperatura. Debido a que la temperatura de O++ es muy afectada por fluctuaciones de temperatura, se recomienda usar la temperatura de C++ para determinar la abundancia de carbono. b) Presentamos dos nuevos métodos para determinar la temperatura electrónica en nebulosas planetarias, basados en la medición de las intensidades de las líneas de He I. Las temperaturas que se obtienen a partir de estos métodos son menores que aquellas que se obtienen a partir de las líneas de [O III], implicando la presencia de fluctuaciones espaciales de temperatura. Despreciando las fluctuaciones de temperatura, se obtienen valores sesgados de las abundancias químicas. Determinamos las abundancias en las nebulosas planetarias de tipo I de algunos de los elementos más importantes, tomando en cuenta las fluctuaciones de temperatura. c) Presentamos modelos numéricos de las dos regiones H II extragalácticas gigantes NGC 2363 y NGC 5461. Con el modelaje numérico, pretendemos acotar las carácteristicas principales de las nubes ionizadas (distribución espacial del gas, estructura de ionización y de temperatura) y de los cúmulos ionizantes (función inicial de masa, historia de formación estelar, edad). En ambos casos, mostramos que con modelos numéricos calculados para el valor de metalicidad que se determina a partir de la temperatura de [O III], no es posible reproducir el espectro de emisión observado, y que para reproducir las restricciones más robustas es necesario subir la metalicidad de los modelos por un factor de 2. Esto constituye una fuerte indicación en favor de la presencia de fluctuaciones de temperatura. d) Para poder comparar los modelos numéricos con los datos observacionales. mostramos la importancia de corregir las predicciones de los modelos por el sesgo introducido por el tamaío finito de la rendija.

  17. Sucrose synthase interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel suggests a potential role for the enzyme in inter-organellar signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism and uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. SUS is encoded by three genes in maize: sh1, sus1 and sus2 and the active enzyme is a homo or hetero-tetramer. Our...

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Citrus Sucrose Synthase Genes: Investigation of Possible Roles in the Regulation of Sugar Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Zahidul; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) (EC 2.4.1.13) is a key enzyme for the sugar accumulation that is critical to form fruit quality. In this study, extensive data-mining and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least six Sus genes (CitSus1-6) in the citrus genome. Gene structure and phylogeny analysis showed an evolutionary consistency with other plant species. The six Sus genes contain 12–15 exons and 11–14 introns and were evenly distributed into the three plant Sus groups (CitSus1 and CitSus2 in the Sus I group, CitSus3 and CitSus6 in the Sus II group, and CitSus4 and CitSus5 in the Sus III group). Transcripts of these six CitSus genes were subsequently examined. For tissues and organs, CitSus1 and 2 were predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS) whereas CitSus3 and 4 were predominantly expressed in early leaves (immature leaves), and CitSus5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in fruit JS and in mature leaves. During fruit development, CitSus5 transcript increased significantly and CitSus6 transcript decreased significantly in fruit JS. In the fruit segment membrane (SM), the transcript levels of CitSus2 and 5 were markedly higher and the abundant levels of CitSus3 and 6 gradually decreased. Moreover, transcript levels of CitSus1-4 examined were higher and the CitSus5 transcript level was lower in the fruit SM than in fruit JS, while CitSus6 had a similar transcript level in fruit JS and SM. In addition, transcripts of CitSus1-6 responded differently to dehydration in mature leaves or to mild drought stress in fruit JS and SM. Finally, the possible roles of Sus genes in the regulation of sugar accumulation are discussed; however, further study is required. PMID:25420091

  19. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family. PMID:26440085

  20. SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven C. Huber

    2009-05-12

    Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

  1. A Novel Isoform of Sucrose Synthase Is Targeted to the Cell Wall during Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Cotton Fiber[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Elizabeth; van Thournout, Michel; White, Rosemary G.; Llewellyn, Danny; Campbell, Peter M.; Engelen, Steven; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Arioli, Tony; Furbank, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) synthase (Sus) is the major enzyme of Suc breakdown for cellulose biosynthesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber, an important source of fiber for the textile industry. This study examines the tissue-specific expression, relative abundance, and temporal expression of various Sus transcripts and proteins present in cotton. A novel isoform of Sus (SusC) is identified that is expressed at high levels during secondary cell wall synthesis in fiber and is present in the cell wall fraction. The phylogenetic relationships of the deduced amino acid sequences indicate two ancestral groups of Sus proteins predating the divergence of monocots and dicots and that SusC sequences form a distinct branch in the phylogeny within the dicot-specific clade. The subcellular location of the Sus isoforms is determined, and it is proposed that cell wall-localized SusC may provide UDP-glucose for cellulose and callose synthesis from extracellular sugars. PMID:21757635

  2. Sucrose metabolism contributes to in vivo fitness of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Camilli, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Summary We characterized two sucrose-metabolizing systems – sus and scr – and describe their roles in the physiology and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in murine models of carriage and pneumonia. The sus and scr systems are regulated by LacI family repressors SusR and ScrR respectively. SusR regulates an adjacent ABC transporter (susT1/susT2/susX) and sucrose-6-phosphate (S-6-P) hydrolase (susH). ScrR controls an adjacent PTS transporter (scrT), fructokinase (scrK) and second S-6-P hydrolase (scrH). sus and scr play niche-specific roles in virulence. The susH and sus locus mutants are attenuated in the lung, but dispensable in nasopharyngeal carriage. Conversely, the scrH and scr locus mutants, while dispensable in the lung, are attenuated for nasopharyngeal colonization. The scrH/susH double mutant is more attenuated than scrH in the nasopharynx, indicating SusH can substitute in this niche. Both systems are sucrose-inducible, with ScrH being the major in vitro hydrolase. The scrH/susH mutant does not grow on sucrose indicating that sus and scr are the only sucrose-metabolizing systems in S. pneumoniae. We propose a model describing hierarchical regulation of the scr and sus systems by the putative inducer, S-6-P. The transport and metabolism of sucrose or a related disaccharide thus contributes to S. pneumoniae colonization and disease. PMID:17880421

  3. Sucrose metabolism contributes to in vivo fitness of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Camilli, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    We characterized two sucrose-metabolizing systems -sus and scr- and describe their roles in the physiology and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in murine models of carriage and pneumonia. The sus and scr systems are regulated by LacI family repressors SusR and ScrR respectively. SusR regulates an adjacent ABC transporter (susT1/susT2/susX) and sucrose-6-phosphate (S-6-P) hydrolase (susH). ScrR controls an adjacent PTS transporter (scrT), fructokinase (scrK) and second S-6-P hydrolase (scrH). sus and scr play niche-specific roles in virulence. The susH and sus locus mutants are attenuated in the lung, but dispensable in nasopharyngeal carriage. Conversely, the scrH and scr locus mutants, while dispensable in the lung, are attenuated for nasopharyngeal colonization. The scrH/susH double mutant is more attenuated than scrH in the nasopharynx, indicating SusH can substitute in this niche. Both systems are sucrose-inducible, with ScrH being the major in vitro hydrolase. The scrH/susH mutant does not grow on sucrose indicating that sus and scr are the only sucrose-metabolizing systems in S. pneumoniae. We propose a model describing hierarchical regulation of the scr and sus systems by the putative inducer, S-6-P. The transport and metabolism of sucrose or a related disaccharide thus contributes to S. pneumoniae colonization and disease. PMID:17880421

  4. Stainless-Steel Ball-Milling Method for Hydro-/Deutero-genation using H2 O/D2 O as a Hydrogen/Deuterium Source.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Kawajiri, Takahiro; Niikawa, Miki; Goto, Ryota; Yabe, Yuki; Takahashi, Tohru; Marumoto, Takahisa; Itoh, Miki; Kimura, Yuuichi; Monguchi, Yasunari; Kondo, Shin-Ichi; Sajiki, Hironao

    2015-11-01

    A one-pot continuous-flow method for hydrogen (deuterium) generation and subsequent hydrogenation (deuterogenation) was developed using a stainless-steel (SUS304)-mediated ball-milling approach. SUS304, especially zero-valent Cr and Ni as constituents of the SUS304, and mechanochemical processing played crucial roles in the development of the reactions. PMID:26493945

  5. Sucrose synthase oligomerization and F-actin association are regulated by sucrose concentration and phosphorylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme in plant metabolism, as it serves to cleave the photosynthetic end product sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose. SUS is generally assumed to be a tetrameric protein, but results in the present study suggest that SUS can form dimers as well as tetramers and th...

  6. Determination of structural requirements and probable regulatory effectors for membrane association of maize sucrose synthase 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) cleaves sucrose to form UDP-glucose and fructose, and exists in soluble (s-SUS) and membrane-associated (m-SUS) forms, with the latter proposed to channel UDP-glucose to the cellulose synthase complex on the plasma membrane of plant cells during synthesis of cellulose. However...

  7. Metabolic signals control the selective degradation of sucrose synthase in maize leaves during de-etiolation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The content and activity of sucrose (Suc) synthase (SUS) protein is high in sink organs but low in source organs. In the present report, we examined light and metabolic signals regulating SUS protein degradation in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves during de-etiolation. We found that SUS protein accumulate...

  8. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. Mejoría de la Alimentación Suplementaria en la Conservación de Especies Resumen La alimentación suplementaria con frecuencia es una reacción instintiva a la declinación de poblaciones y su aplicación no se evalúa críticamente, lo que lleva a opiniones polarizadas sobre su uso entre los manejadores. Aquí abogamos por una estrategia más decisiva para la alimentación suplementaria para que la opción de usarla esté claramente justificada sobre, o en combinación con, otras acciones de manejo y las consecuencias pronosticadas sean entonces evaluadas críticamente después de su implementación. Proponemos combinar métodos de otro conjunto de disciplinas especialistas que permitirán la evaluación crítica de la necesidad, el beneficio y los riesgos de la alimentación suplementaria. Por medio del uso de la ecología nutricional, la ecología de poblaciones y la toma de decisiones estructuradas, quienes manejan la conservación pueden tomar mejores decisiones sobre qué y cómo alimentar al estimar las consecuencias de la recuperación poblacional a través de un rango de acciones posibles. Esta estrategia estructurada también informa al monitoreo enfocado y permite con mayor claridad la integración de la alimentación suplementaria a los planes de recuperación y reduce el riesgo de decisiones ineficientes. En Nueva Zelanda, los manejadores del hihi (Notiomystis cincta) que se encuentra en peligro de extinción, con frecuencia dependen de la alimentación suplementaria para apoyar a las poblaciones reintroducidas. En la isla de Kapiti, la población reintroducida de hihis ha respondido de buena manera a la alimentación suplementaria, pero la logística de proporcionar a una demanda en crecimiento recientemente sobrepasó la capacidad de manejo. Para decidir si el régimen alimentario debería revisarse y cómo hacerlo, los manejadores usaron una estrategia estructurada de toma de decisiones con información sobre las respuestas de la población a regímenes alternativos de alimentación. La decisión se hizo para reducir la distribución espacial de los comederos e invertir el tiempo ahorrado en incrementar el volumen de alimento que se lleva a una zona núcleo más pequeña. La estrategia usada permitió una decisión de manejo transparente y defendible con respecto a la alimentación suplementaria, lo que refleja los objetivos múltiples de los manejadores y sus prioridades. PMID:25354808

  9. Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, Carmen Lopez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from…

  10. Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, Carmen Lopez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from…

  11. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Geographic range size is often conceptualized as a fixed attribute of a species and treated as such for the purposes of quantification of extinction risk; species occupying smaller geographic ranges are assumed to have a higher risk of extinction, all else being equal. However many species are mobile, and their movements range from relatively predictable to-and-fro migrations to complex irregular movements shown by nomadic species. These movements can lead to substantial temporary expansion and contraction of geographic ranges, potentially to levels which may pose an extinction risk. By linking occurrence data with environmental conditions at the time of observations of nomadic species, we modeled the dynamic distributions of 43 arid-zone nomadic bird species across the Australian continent for each month over 11 years and calculated minimum range size and extent of fluctuation in geographic range size from these models. There was enormous variability in predicted spatial distribution over time; 10 species varied in estimated geographic range size by more than an order of magnitude, and 2 species varied by >2 orders of magnitude. During times of poor environmental conditions, several species not currently classified as globally threatened contracted their ranges to very small areas, despite their normally large geographic range size. This finding raises questions about the adequacy of conventional assessments of extinction risk based on static geographic range size (e.g., IUCN Red Listing). Climate change is predicted to affect the pattern of resource fluctuations across much of the southern hemisphere, where nomadism is the dominant form of animal movement, so it is critical we begin to understand the consequences of this for accurate threat assessment of nomadic species. Our approach provides a tool for discovering spatial dynamics in highly mobile species and can be used to unlock valuable information for improved extinction risk assessment and conservation planning. Tamaño de Extensión Geográfica y Evaluación de Riesgo de Extinción en Especies Nómadas Resumen El tamaño de extensión geográfica se conceptualiza frecuentemente como un atributo fijo de las especies y se trata como tal para los propósitos de cuantificación de riesgo de extinción; se asume que las especies que ocupan extensiones geográficas más pequeñas tienen un riesgo de extinción más alto, cuando todo lo demás es igual. Sin embargo, muchas especies son móviles y sus movimientos varían desde migraciones de ida y vuelta relativamente predecibles hasta movimientos irregulares complejos, como los que muestran las especies nómadas. Estos movimientos pueden llevar a expansiones sustanciales temporales y a una reducción de las extensiones geográficas, todo esto con el potencial de llegar a niveles que pueden presentar un riesgo de extinción. Al enlazar los datos de presencia con las condiciones ambientales al momento de la observación de las especies nómadas pudimos modelar las distribuciones dinámicas de 43 especies de aves de zonas áridas a lo largo de la isla de Australia durante cada mes a lo largo de once años y calculamos el tamaño de extensión mínima y el alcance de las fluctuaciones en el tamaño de extensión geográfica a partir de estos modelos. Hubo una enorme variabilidad en la distribución espacial pronosticada a lo largo del tiempo: diez especies variaron en el tamaño de extensión geográfica por más de una orden de magnitud y dos especies variaron por más de dos órdenes de magnitud. Durante situaciones de condiciones ambientales pobres, varias especies que actualmente no se encuentran clasificadas como amenazadas a nivel global redujeron sus extensiones a áreas muy pequeñas, esto a pesar de su gran tamaño de extensión geográfica normal. Este hallazgo genera preguntas sobre lo idóneo de las evaluaciones convencionales del riesgo de extinción con base en el tamaño estático de extensión geográfica (p. ej.: la Lista Roja de la UICN). Se pronostica que el cambio climático afectará los patrones de las fluctuaciones de recursos en casi todo el hemisferio sur, donde el nomadismo es la forma dominante de movimiento de animales, así que es crítico que comencemos a entender las consecuencias de esto para tener una evaluación certera del riesgo de extinción de especies nómadas. Nuestra estrategia proporciona una herramienta para descubrir las dinámicas espaciales de especies con movilidad alta y puede usarse para liberar información valiosa para una mejor evaluación de riesgo de extinción y planeación de la conservación. PMID:25580637

  12. The Idealized Brazilian Health System versus the real one: contributions from the nursing field1

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Dirce Stein; de Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira; Marchiori, Mara Teixeira Caino; Colomé, Juliana Silveira; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Lunardi, Wilson Danilo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the perceptions of professionals working in a facility connected with the Brazilian Unified Health System - SUS in regard to what they know, think and talk about public health policy. METHOD: this exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative nature was conducted with 28 professionals working in a facility connected with the SUS. Data were collected through interviews with guiding questions and analyzed through the thematic content analysis technique. RESULTS: coded and interpreted data resulted in three thematic axes: The SUS - perfect web that does not work in practice; The recurrent habit of complaining about the SUS; The need to rethink the way of thinking about, acting in and managing the SUS. CONCLUSION: the professionals working for the SUS are aware of the principles and guidelines that govern the Brazilian health system, however, they reproduce a dichotomous and linear model of conception and practice strongly linked to the thinking of society in general. PMID:25591099

  13. Effect of stainless steel chemical composition on brazing ability of filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Yasuyuki; Ohta, Kei; Nishiyama, Akira

    2014-08-01

    Many kinds of stainless steel have been used in the engineering field. So it is necessary to investigate the effect of SUS chemical compositions on the brazing ability of filler metal. In this study, SUS315J containing Cr, Ni, Si, Cu, and Mo was employed as a base metal. Excellent spreading ability of the molten nickel-based brazing filler on SUS315J was obtained as compared with that on SUS316. Copper and silicon influenced the significant spreading ability of the filler.

  14. [An automated registry program for nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Polanco-González, Carlos; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales presentan un gran reto para la medicina hospitalaria, en general, y para las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en particular. Su elevada prevalencia, la gran morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, el incremento de la estancia hospitalaria y, en consecuencia, los costos de la atención médica han hecho que los programas de vigilancia, control y prevención de infecciones nosocomiales sean una parte toral de los protocolos de seguridad para el paciente y un indicador de calidad de la atención médica. PMID:25643679

  15. The Three Maize Sucrose synthase Isoforms Differ in Distribution, Localization, and Phosphorylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although sucrose synthase (SUS) is widely appreciated for its role in plant metabolism and growth, very little is known about the contribution of each of the SUS isoforms to these processes. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we evaluated the three known isoforms individually at the protein level. ...

  16. The effect of sucrose and abscisic acid interaction on sucrose synthase and its relationship to grain filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Tang; Xie, Hong; Wang, Yuxia; Lü, Bing; Liang, Jiansheng

    2009-01-01

    Rice grain filling is a process of conversion of sucrose into starch catalysed by a series of enzymes. Sucrose synthase (SUS) is considered as a key enzyme regulating this process. This study investigated the possible roles of sucrose and abscisic acid (ABA) in mediating the activity and expression of SUS protein of grains during grain filling in rice (Oryza sativa). Field-grown rice plants and detached cultured panicles were used as experimental materials. Several treatments, including spikelet thinning, leaf cutting, and applications of different concentrations of exogenous sucrose and ABA, were imposed during grain filling. A higher SUS activity was found in superior grains than in inferior grains in the earlier stage of grain filling, which was significantly and closely related to a higher grain filling rate and starch accumulation. An increase in sucrose concentration in grains as a result of different treatments increased both SUS activity and SUS protein expression in grains. An increase in ABA concentration gave similar results. Furthermore, effects of interactions between sucrose and ABA on the activity and expression of SUS protein in grains were also found. It was suggested that sucrose- and ABA-mediated rice grain filling is largely due to an increase in SUS activity and SUS protein expression. PMID:19401410

  17. Impact of Projected State University System Retirements. Information Brief. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The likely retirement age of "baby boomers" among the tenured faculty in the State University System (SUS) will coincide with a steep increase in the population of traditional college-age students over the next ten years. The majority (53.5%) of SUS faculty were born in the baby boom years between 1943 and 1959. This group is already beginning to…

  18. Drought in the Southern United States over the 20th century: Variability and its impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity and carbon storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is one of the most devastating natural hazards faced by the Southern United States (SUS) today. Although precipitation in the SUS as a whole has been found to increase during 1895-2007, drought events and their adverse impacts on the economy, society and environment have been extensively rep...

  19. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa stem vascular tissue by a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: sucrose synthase construct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important role of sucrose synthase (SUS, EC 2.4.1.13) in plants is to provide UDP-glucose needed for cellulose synthesis in cell walls. We examined if over-expressing SUS in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) would increase cellulose content of stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with two ...

  20. Mensaje para alumnos y padres - Duration: 3 minutes, 1 second.

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  1. Sucrose Synthase: Expanding Protein Function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS: EC 2.4.1.13), a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism, is uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. Our research indicates that the biological function of SUS may extend beyond its catalytic activity. Th...

  2. How We Justify and Maintain the White, Male Academic Status Quo through the Use of Biased College Admissions Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Prompted by a puzzling recent growth in the proportions of minority entrants from Community Colleges (CCTs) into the Florida State University System (SUS), the current study analyzed over one million SUS applicants to determine whether any biases in entrance test scores tended to favor either whites over minorities, or males over females. Today,…

  3. A metabolic flux analysis to study the role of sucrose synthase in the regulation of the carbon partitioning in central metabolsim in maize root tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand the role of sucrose synthase in carbon partitioning, metabolic fluxes were analyzed in maize root tips of lineage-related genotypes of a double mutant (dm) of sucrose synthase genes, sh1 sus1 and the corresponding wild type, Sh1 Sus1, in W22 inbred background. Pulse labeling e...

  4. MITOCHONDRIAL LOCALIZATION AND A PUTATIVE SIGNALING FUNCTION OF SUCROSE SYNTHASE IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many organisms, an increasing number of proteins seem to play two or more unrelated roles. Here, we report that maize sucrose synthase (SUS) is distributed in organelles and may have additional roles besides sucrose catabolism. Bioinformatics analysis predicts that among the three maize SUS isofo...

  5. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  6. Ten-years of bariatric surgery in Brazil: in-hospital mortality rates for patients assisted by universal health system or a health maintenance organization

    PubMed Central

    KELLES, Silvana Márcia Bruschi; MACHADO, Carla Jorge; BARRETO, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is an option for sustained weight loss for the morbidly obese patient. In Brazil coexists the Unified Health System (SUS) with universal coverage and from which depend 150 million Brazilians and supplemental health security, predominantly private, with 50 million beneficiaries. Aim To compare access, in-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs for patients undergoing bariatric surgery, assisted in one or another system. Methods Data from DATASUS and IBGE were used for SUS patients' and database from one health plan of southeastern Brazil for the health insurance patients. Results Between 2001 and 2010 there were 24,342 and 4,356 surgeries performed in SUS and in the health insurance company, respectively. The coverage rates for surgeries performed in 2010 were 5.3 and 91/100.000 individuals in SUS and health insurance respectively. The rate of in-hospital mortality in SUS, considering the entire country, was 0.55 %, 0.44 % considering SUS Southeast, and 0.30 % for the health insurance. The costs of surgery in the SUS and in the health insurance trend to equalization over the years. Conclusion Despite differences in access and characteristics that may compromise the outcome of bariatric surgery, patients treated at the Southeast SUS had similar rate of in-hospital mortality compared to the health insurance patients. PMID:25626935

  7. Hacer frente - La adaptación al cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información para ayudarle a usted y a su familia a enfrentar los desafíos que representa el cáncer en su vida. Incluye temas sobre cómo hablar con sus médicos, sugerencias para hablar con sus hijos, cambios en su familia e información sobre grupos de apoy

  8. Perceived Usability Evaluation of Learning Management Systems: Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…

  9. GENOTYPIC VARIATION IN THE PROMOTER REGION OF SUCROSE SYNTHASE-2 IN THE GENUS SACCHARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) is an important enzyme of sucrose metabolism in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids). One of the genes for sucrose synthase (Sus2) is more highly expressed in sucrose-storing genotypes than low-sucrose genotypes. We designed primers to amplify the 5' end of the Sus2 gene...

  10. Characterization and expression profile analysis of a sucrose synthase gene from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during seed development.

    PubMed

    Abid, Ghassen; Muhovski, Yordan; Jacquemin, Jean-Marie; Mingeot, Dominique; Sassi, Khaled; Toussaint, André; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-02-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sucrose synthase (designated as Pv_BAT93 Sus), which catalyses the synthesis and cleavage of sucrose, was isolated from seeds at 15 days after pollination (DAP) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of Pv_BAT93 Sus had a 2,418 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 806 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison analysis showed that Pv_BAT93 Sus was very similar to several members of the sucrose synthase family of other plant species. Tissue expression pattern analysis showed that Pv_BAT93 Sus was expressed in leaves, flowers, stems, roots, cotyledons, and particularly during seed development. Expression studies using in situ hybridization revealed altered spatial and temporal patterns of Sus expression in the EMS mutant relative to wild-type and confirmed Sus expression in common bean developing seeds. The expression and accumulation of Sus mRNA was clearly shown in several tissues, such as the suspensor and embryo, but also in the transfer cells and endothelium. The results highlight the diverse roles that Sus might play during seed development in common bean. PMID:21573790

  11. Influence of high pressure hydrogen environment on tensile and fatigue properties of stainless steels at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, T.

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) of stainless steels in the environment of high pressure and low temperature hydrogen gas was evaluated using a very simple mechanical properties testing procedure. In the method, the high-pressure hydrogen environment is produced just inside the hole in the specimen. In this work, the effects of HEE on fatigue properties for austenitic stainless steels SUS304L and SUS316L were evaluated at 298 and 190 K. The effects of HEE on the tensile properties of higher strength stainless steels, such as strain-hardened 316, SUS630, and other alloys, SUH660 and Alloy 718 were also examined. The less effect of HEE on fatigue properties of SUS316L and tensile properties of strain-hardened 316 were observed compared with SUS304L and other steels at room temperature and 190 K.

  12. Transformation of sulfonylurea herbicides in simulated drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binnan; Kong, Deyang; Lu, Junhe; Zhou, Quansuo

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs) were detected in natural waters and could be potentially exposed to human beings via portable use. Thus, the removal of five representative SUs in simulated water treatment processes including coagulation, activated carbon adsorption, and chlorination disinfection was systematically investigated. Results showed that coagulation had little effect on the removal of the herbicides with the average removal less than 10 %. Powder-activated carbon adsorption was apparently more effective with removal rates of 50?~?70 %. SUs were also partially removed in chlorination process. A complete removal was achieved when the three treatments were performed in series. However, it was found that parts of the SUs were transformed into certain stable products with triazine/pyrimidine structures which might be of potential health risks in chlorination process. Thus, current drinking water treatment processes are not likely to provide sufficient protection for human population from exposure to SUs. PMID:25269843

  13. Influence of tensile stress on permeability properties of type 304 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, K.

    2015-05-01

    The permeability properties of type SUS304 stainless steel (SUS304 steel) were evaluated under different values of tensile stress using the electromagnetic impedance method. The impedance-magnetic-field curve of SUS304 steel, which corresponds to the permeability-magnetic field-curve, was measured under tensile stresses of 0, 70, and 140 MPa for specimens subjected to prestrains of 5% to 40% to change the martensite fraction. The impedance curves were measured in the length (tensile) direction and the width direction. The results showed that the tensile direction was the magnetic hard axis of the martensite phase in SUS304 steel. The applied stress sensitivity of the permeability in SUS304 steel was affected by the volume fraction, residual stress, stress distribution according to the orientation angle of the martensite phase, and their interactions.

  14. Clinical, paraclinical and serological findings in Susac syndrome: an international multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Susac syndrome (SuS) is a rare disorder thought to be caused by autoimmune-mediated occlusions of microvessels in the brain, retina and inner ear leading to central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, visual disturbances due to branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAO), and hearing deficits. Recently, a role for anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in SuS has been proposed. Objectives To report the clinical and paraclinical findings in the largest single series of patients so far and to investigate the frequency, titers, and clinical relevance of AECA in SuS. Patients and methods A total of 107 serum samples from 20 patients with definite SuS, 5 with abortive forms of SuS (all with BRAO), and 70 controls were tested for AECA by immunohistochemistry employing primate brain tissue sections. Results IgG-AECA >1:100 were detected in 25% (5/20) of patients with definite SuS and in 4.3% (3/70) of the controls. Median titers were significantly higher in SuS (1:3200, range 1:100 to 1:17500) than in controls (1:100, range 1:10 to 1:320); IgG-AECA titers >1:320 were exclusively present in patients with SuS; three controls had very low titers (1:10). Follow-up samples (n?=?4) from a seropositive SuS patient obtained over a period of 29 months remained positive at high titers. In all seropositive cases, AECA belonged to the complement-activating IgG1 subclass. All but one of the IgG-AECA-positive samples were positive also for IgA-AECA and 45% for IgM-AECA. SuS took a severe and relapsing course in most patients and was associated with bilateral visual and hearing impairment, a broad panel of neurological and neuropsychological symptoms, and brain atrophy in the majority of cases. Seropositive and seronegative patients did not differ with regard to any of the clinical or paraclinical parameters analyzed. Conclusions SuS took a severe and protracted course in the present cohort, resulting in significant impairment. Our finding of high-titer IgG1 and IgM AECA in some patients suggest that humoral autoimmunity targeting the microvasculature may play a role in the pathogenesis of SuS, at least in a subset of patients. Further studies are warranted to define the exact target structures of AECA in SuS. PMID:24606999

  15. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del mundo: el caso de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en dromedarios transmitido por orugas y observado por pastores nómadas saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades locales de todo el mundo son una valiosa fuente de nuevas ideas e información para la ciencia. En este estudio, se utilizaron los conocimientos de etnoveterinaria de pastores saharauis del Sáhara Occidental con el fin de proponer una hipótesis científica sobre las interacciones competitivas entre los camellos y las orugas en el ecosistema del Sáhara. Métodos Entre los años 2005 y 2009, se realizaron 44 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a los pastores saharauis en los territorios administrados por la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática, Sáhara Occidental, mediante un diseño de muestreo por bola de nieve. Resultados Los pastores nómadas saharauis describieron un síndrome reproductivo transmitido por orugas, llamado duda, entre sus camellas. Sobre la base de los conocimientos saharauis sobre el duda y una revisión literaria exhaustiva, se propuso la siguiente hipótesis: 1) brotes esporádico de orugas de la familia Lasiocampidae (géneros Lasiocampa, Psilogaster o Streblote) en árboles de Acacia se pueden presentar después de fuertes lluvias en el ecosistema del Sáhara Occidental; 2) durante estos brotes, los camellos ingieren las orugas durante el pastoreo; 3) como consecuencia de esta ingestión, se producen abortos repentinos o partos de crías debilitadas. Apoyamos esta hipótesis mediante razonamiento inductivo basado en evidencia circunstancial y razonamiento analógico con síndromes similares en yeguas de los Estados Unidos y Australia. Conclusiones Este es el primer reporte de la posible existencia de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en camellos, transmitido por orugas. Se insinúa que estos síndromes son más comunes que lo que actualmente se conoce. Se sugieren investigaciones adicionales para poner a prueba nuestra hipótesis. Finalmente, se destaca la importancia de estudios de las enfermedades del ganado en pueblos de pastores nómadas porque pueden revelar fenómenos biológicos aún desconocidos y merecen ser investigados. PMID:23305273

  16. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate smoking patterns in an elderly, low-income population and to identify predictors of smoking cessation, in addition to analyzing the importance of smoking in relation to other risk factors for hospitalization. DESIGN The data were part of an urban health study conducted among 740 individuals aged ≥60 years in three suburban communities of low socio-economic status in Beirut, one of them a refugee camp. A detailed interview schedule was administered that included comprehensive social and health information. RESULTS The overall prevalence of current smokers was 28.1%. Almost half of the group were ever smokers, of whom 44% had quit smoking when they experienced negative health effects. Having at least one chronic illness and having a functional disability significantly increased the odds of smoking cessation. In addition, being a former smoker increased the likelihood of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS This study is of particular importance, as it has implications for similar low-income and refugee communities in the region and elsewhere. There is a need for more concerted efforts by public health officials to target elderly individuals as a group for smoking cessation interventions, particularly now that mortality and health benefits have been well documented. RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Investiguer les types de tabagisme dans une population âgée à faibles revenus et identifier les facteurs prédictifs de l’arrêt du tabagisme, tout en analysant l’importance du tabagisme par rapport aux autres facteurs de risque d’hospitalisation. SCHÉMA Les données constituent une fraction de l’étude de santé urbaine menée chez 740 personnes âgées de ≥60 ans à Beyrouth dans trois collectivités suburbaines à faible statut socio-économique dont une des trois se situe dans un camp de réfugiés. Un schéma détaillé d’interview a été utilisé comportant des informations complètes sur le plan social et celui de la santé. RÉSULTATS La prévalence globale des fumeurs actuels est de 28,1%. Près de la moitié des personnes âgées ont fumé à un moment quelconque dans leur vie et parmi celles-ci, 44% ont cessé de fumer. Les personnes âgées ont cessé de fumer lorsqu’elles en ont perçu les effets négatifs sur la santé. Le fait d’avoir au moins une maladie chronique et de souffrir d’une incapacité fonctionnelle ont augmenté d’une façon significative les chances d’arrêt du tabagisme. De plus, le fait d’être un ancien fumeur a augmenté le risque d’admission hospitalière. CONCLUSIONS Cette étude est d’une importance particulière car ses implications s’élargissent à des collectivités à faibles revenus similaires et chez les réfugiés dans la région ainsi qu’ailleurs. Il est nécessaire que les responsables de la santé publique fassent un effort plus concerté pour cibler les personnes âgées comme groupe en vue d’interventions d’arrêt du tabagisme, d’autant plus que les avantages en matière de mortalité et de santé ont aujourd’hui été bien documentés. RESUMEN OBJETIVOS Investigar los tipos de hábito tabáquico en una población de personas ancianas, de bajos ingresos y determinar los factores pronósticos del abandono del hábito. Asimismo, se analizó la importancia del tabaquismo en relación con otros factores de riesgo de hospitalización. DISEÑO Los datos formaban parte de un estudio de salud urbana de 740 personas de ≥60 años de edad, en tres comunidades suburbanas de bajo estrato socioeconómico en Beirut, una de las cuales era un campo de refugiados. Se administró una entrevista estructurada que aportaba amplia información social y sanitaria. RESULTADOS La prevalencia global de fumadores fue de 28,1%. Casi la mitad de las personas ancianas había sido fumadora en algún momento y 44% habían abandonado el tabaquismo. Estas personas abandonaron el hábito tabáquico cuando tuvieron repercusiones negativas sobre su salud. La presencia de por lo menos una enfermedad crónica y de discapacidad funcional aumentó en forma significativa las probabilidades de abandono del tabaquismo. Además, el antecedente de tabaquismo aumentó el riesgo de hospitalización. CONCLUSIÓN El presente estudio reviste una importancia particular, pues sus implicaciones son amplias para comunidades similares de escasos ingresos y de refugiados en esta y otras regiones. Pone en evidencia la necesidad de iniciativas más coordinadas por parte de los funcionarios de salud pública, destinadas a enfocar las campañas de abandono del tabaquismo en la población de edad mayor ; aún más hoy, cuando se ha demostrado la utilidad del abandono en términos de disminución de la mortalidad y consecuencias positivas para la salud. PMID:16898378

  17. Dissimilar Materials Micro Welding between Stainless Steel and Plastics by Using Pulse YAG Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Yukio; Takahashi, Masaru; Takemi, Masashi; Oyama, Kosei; Mutoh, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Hironori

    Direct joint of dissimilar materials between SUS304 stainless steel and plastics, PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) or PC (Polycarbonate), was studied by using pulse YAG laser. Welding configuration was lap joint. Weldability and shear-tensile strength were investigated for the joints. It was possible to make a joint for both combination of materials, SUS304/PET and SUS304/PC. Weldable condition range was wider in case of SUS304/PET joint compared to that in case of SUS304/PC joint. The difference in the weldability may be due to difference in glass transition temperature of the plastics. Pores were observed in plastics near the interface of the joint for both combinations of the materials when the joint welded with higher heat input. Sear-tensile test was carried out for the joints. SUS304/PET joint shows higher strength compared to SUS304/PC joint. Higher strength was observed for the joint which includes pores near the interface in plastics. However, if large size and number of pores are existing near the interface in plastics, the pores play as a defect and causes degradation of the strength.

  18. Multiple, Distinct Isoforms of Sucrose Synthase in Pea1

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, D.H. Paul; Barber, Lorraine; Kruger, Nicholas J.; Smith, Alison M.; Wang, Trevor L.; Martin, Cathie

    2001-01-01

    Genes encoding three isoforms of sucrose synthase (Sus1, Sus2, and Sus3) have been cloned from pea (Pisum sativum). The genes have distinct patterns of expression in different organs of the plant, and during organ development. Studies of the isoforms expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli show that they differ in kinetic properties. Although not of great magnitude, the differences in properties are consistent with some differentiation of physiological function between the isoforms. Evidence for differentiation of function in vivo comes from the phenotypes of rug4 mutants of pea, which carry mutations in the gene encoding Sus1. One mutant line (rug4-c) lacks detectable Sus1 protein in both the soluble and membrane-associated fractions of the embryo, and Sus activity in the embryo is reduced by 95%. The starch content of the embryo is reduced by 30%, but the cellulose content is unaffected. The results imply that different isoforms of Sus may channel carbon from sucrose towards different metabolic fates within the cell. PMID:11598239

  19. [Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2012-11-01

    The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system. PMID:23175305

  20. Multifunctional Nutrient-Binding Proteins Adapt Human Symbiotic Bacteria for Glycan Competition in the Gut by Separately Promoting Enhanced Sensing and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Elizabeth A.; Kwiatkowski, Kurt J.; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Koropatkin, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To compete for the dynamic stream of nutrients flowing into their ecosystem, colonic bacteria must respond rapidly to new resources and then catabolize them efficiently once they are detected. The Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron starch utilization system (Sus) is a model for nutrient acquisition by symbiotic gut bacteria, which harbor thousands of related Sus-like systems. Structural investigation of the four Sus outer membrane proteins (SusD, -E, -F, and -G) revealed that they contain a total of eight starch-binding sites that we demonstrated, using genetic and biochemical approaches, to play distinct roles in starch metabolism in vitro and in vivo in gnotobiotic mice. SusD, whose homologs are abundant in the human microbiome, is critical for the initial sensing of available starch, allowing sus transcriptional activation at much lower concentrations than without this function. In contrast, seven additional binding sites across SusE, -F, and -G are dispensable for sus activation. However, they optimize the rate of growth on starch in a manner dependent on the expression of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule, suggesting that they have evolved to offset the diffusion barrier created by this structure. These findings demonstrate how proteins with similar biochemical behavior can serve orthogonal functions during different stages of cellular adaptation to nutrients. Finally, we demonstrated in gnotobiotic mice fed a starch-rich diet that the Sus binding sites confer a competitive advantage to B. thetaiotaomicron in vivo in a manner that is dependent on other colonizing microbes. This study reveals how numerically dominant families of carbohydrate-binding proteins in the human microbiome fulfill separate and sometimes cooperative roles to optimize gut commensal bacteria for nutrient acquisition. PMID:25205092

  1. Effects of simulated weightlessness on the intestinal mucosal barrier of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Chun-min; Mao, Gao-ping; Liu, Qing-sen; Guo, Ming-zhou

    2011-07-01

    This study employed a rat tail-suspension model to investigate the effects of simulated weightlessness on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (CON), 14-day tail-suspension (SUS-14d), and 21-day tail-suspension (SUS-21d) groups ( n = 8 per group). Expression of occludin and zonula occludins-1 (ZO-1), proteins of the tight junction (TJ), in the intestinal mucosa was measured by immunohistochemical analysis, Western blotting, and mRNA fluorescent quantitation PCR. Plasma concentrations of diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate were determined using an enzymatic spectrophotometric assay. Expression of occludin and ZO-1 was reduced in the SUS-14d and SUS-21d groups as compared to the CON group, with lowest expression observed in the SUS-21d group ( P < 0.01). Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the jejunal epithelium revealed increased intercellular space, decreased TJ and desmosome densities, and destruction of microvilli in the SUS-14d and SUS-21d groups. Plasma DAO and D-lactate concentrations in the SUS-21d group were higher than those in SUS-14d group and significantly higher than those in the CON group ( P < 0.01). In all three groups, the expression of occludin and ZO-1 was found to correlate negatively with DAO ( P < 0.01) and D-lactate ( P < 0.01) concentrations. It is concluded that simulated weightless results in down-regulation of expression of TJ proteins in the rat intestinal mucosa. Simulated weightlessness is proposed to increase intestinal permeability through damage to the TJ.

  2. Towards a National Hazard Map of Landslides: Juan de Grijalva, Chiapas, and Mitlatongo, Oaxaca, two catastrophic landslides on southeastern of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-M, L.; Castañeda, A.; Ramirez, A.; González, A. E.

    2013-05-01

    One of the most catastrophic events, with economical losses and deaths, in Mexico and Latin America, is the landslide event. The Juan de Grijalva landslide, which blocked one of the largest rivers in the Chiapas state of Mexico, on November 4, 2007, is considered one of the greatest that have occurred in the world in the last 100 years (Dominguez, 2008) and it could be the one with the largest economic impact in the history of Mexico. This landslide occurred four days after a period of very heavy rains that caused, in the peak of the emergency, flooding in almost 62% of the area of the state of Tabasco (CENAPRED, 2009) and is also one of the most serious disasters that were faced by the Mexican government in the past 10 years. The Juan de Grijalva landslide mobilized the entire government apparatus and required an investment of just over 0.1 billions of US Dollars (CENAPRED, 2009) for the rehabilitation of the river runway and additional works in order to prevent further damages if another landslide occurs in the vicinity. A similar case of interest for Mexican researchers and specialists in earth sciences is the big landslide occurred in the communities of Santa Cruz Mitlatongo, municipality of Magdalena Jaltepec, and Santiago Mitlatongo, municipality of Nochixtlan, both in the state of Oaxaca (Dominguez, 2011). This landslide has dimensions of just over 2,500 m long and 900 m wide, and it remains active from September 2011. Since then, the landslide has moved just over 230 m in length and has destroyed about 850 houses. Given the geological and geotechnical characteristics of these landslides and the economic and social impact caused, the National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) has initiated a research project in order to learn the main factors (constraints and triggers) that influenced both landslides. In relation with the National Hazard Landslide Map, developed by CENAPRED, these events are an important task of the National Inventory of Landslides and represent two of the most outstanding and representative events in southeastern Mexico. Domínguez L., 2008 "El deslizamiento del 4 de noviembre de 2007 en la comunidad Juan de Grijalva, municipio de Ostuacán, Chiapas, y su relación con el Frente Frio no. 4" Report prepared to the General Coordination of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres, 2009 "Características e impacto socioeconómico de los principales desastres ocurridos en la República Mexicana en el año 2007" Socieconomic Impact by Disasters in Mexico Serie, National System of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico. Domínguez L., 2011 "Deslizamiento de suelos y rocas en las comunidades de Santiago Mitlatongo, municipio de Nochixtlán, y Santa Cruz Mitlatongo, municipio de Magdalena Jaltepec, Oaxaca" Report prepared to the General Coordination of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico.

  3. Effects of insulin and exercise on rat hindlimb muscles after simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Craig S.; Balon, Thomas W.; Tipton, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the insulin- and exercise-stimulated glucose uptake and metabolism in the hindlimb muscles of rats was investigated using three groups of rats suspended at 45 head-down tilt (SUS) for 14 days: (1) cage control, (2) exercising (treadmill running) control, and (3) rats subjected to suspension followed by exercise (SUS-E). It was found that the suspension of rats with hindlimbs non-weight bearing led to enhanced muscle responses to insulin and exercise, when these stimuli were applied separately. However, the insulin affect appeared to be impaired after exercise for the SUS-E rats, especially for the soleus muscle.

  4. Enhancing Diversity In The Geosciences; Intensive Field Experience In USA And Mexico For Middle And High School Teachers Serving Large Hispanic Populations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Kitts, K. B.; Velazquez Oliman, G.; Perry, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    To encourage Hispanic participation and enrolment in the geosciences and ultimately enhance diversity within the discipline, we recruited ten middle and high school science teachers serving large Hispanic populations (60-97%) for a paid three-week field experience supported by an NSF Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences grant. In 2006, the field experiences focused on volcanic events and the water problems of the Central part of Mexico. In 2008, the field experiences focused on karstic and hydrogeological conditions of the Yucatan Peninsula. In addition to the geological aspects of the fieldwork experience, the trip to Mexico exposed the teachers to a social environment outside of their community where they interacted with a diverse group of scientists from the Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY) and Centro Nacional de Desastres (CENAPRED). A key part of this project was the encounter between American and Mexican teachers that included a day of presentations, panel discussion and some class-room activities. Direct interaction between the cooperating teachers and the American and Mexican geoscientists provided actual scientific research experiences to educate and to help dispel misconceptions the teachers themselves may have had about who geoscientists really are and what they do. Teachers of the 2006 group produced educational materials from their field experiences and presented these materials at professional conferences. We measured the efficacy of these activities quantitatively via pre- and post-tests assessing confidence levels, preconceptions and biases, NIU staff observations of participants in their home institutions, and evaluations of participants' field books and pedagogical materials. We present these data here and identify specific activities that are both effective and efficient in changing teacher behaviours and attitudes enabling them to better connect with their Hispanic students in their Geoscience classrooms. Post experience activities of the 2008 group will build on these results.

  5. Evolving Hazard Monitoring and Communication at San Vicente Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    El Salvador has 20 potentially active volcanoes, four of which have erupted in the last 100 years. Since San Vicente Volcano has had no historic eruptions, monitoring is not a high priority; especially given the current eruptive crisis at San Miguel Volcano. Though probability of eruptive hazards remains low at San Vicente, it is arguably one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the country due to rainfall-induced landslides and debris-flow risk. At least 250 deaths occurred in November 2009 from landslides and debris flows triggered by Hurricane Ida. This disaster caused the Universidad de El Salvador - Facultad Multidisciplinaria Paracentral (UES-FMP, San Vicente, El Salvador) to partner with governmental and nongovernmental organizations (including the U.S. Peace Corps, U.S. Fulbright Program, Korean International Cooperation Agency, Protección Civil and the Centro de Protección para Desastres (CEPRODE)) to focus its faculty and student research toward hazard monitoring and risk studies. Newly established monitoring efforts include: measurement of surface cracks and localized rainfall by Protección Civil and local residents using crude extensometers and rain gauges; installation of six weather stations that operate within the most at-risk municipalities; seismic refraction surveys to better characterize stratigraphy and seasonal water table changes; and most recently, a USAID/NSF-funded initiative partnered with the UES-FMP to monitor seasonal hydrologic conditions related to flooding and groundwater recharge. The information from these initiatives is now used to communicate current conditions and warnings through a network of two-way radios established by CEPRODE and Protección Civil. Representatives from the multi-institutional team also communicate the data to authorities who make better-informed decisions regarding warnings and evacuations, as well as determine suitable areas for population relocation in the event of a crisis. Data will eventually be used to model and forecast potential hazard events.

  6. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  7. Fenómenos solares que afectan la atmósfera terrestre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M.

    Se describen los principales fenómenos solares como fulguraciones, prominencias eruptivas, viento solar y eyecciones de masa coronal (CME) que tienen consecuencias en la atmósfera terrestre. En algunos casos el material es eyectado a velocidades superiores a los 900 km/seg y tarda menos de 48 horas en llegar a la Tierra. En general, estos CME no son peligrosos ya que el campo magnético terrestre actúa como protector siendo un aislante efectivo. Si el viento solar es muy intenso puede comprimir la magnetósfera y producir una tormenta geomagnética. En casos extremos, puede interferir la transmisión de potencia eléctrica, perturbar los satélites y producir auroras polares.

  8. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth > For Parents > Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  9. COMPARISON OF SCANNING ELECTRON AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OF SURFACE FINISHES ON STAINLESS STEEL THAT REDUCE BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria adhere to food products and processing surfaces that can cross-contaminate other products and work surfaces (Arnold, 1998). Using materials for food processing surfaces that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety. Stainless steel, although sus...

  10. Tomografía computarizada (TC) y exploraciones para cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe el procedimiento y la tecnología de exploraciones con tomografía computarizada así como sus usos para el diagnóstico, para exámenes de detección y para tratamiento del cáncer.

  11. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot - Duration: 102 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  12. Explore medicamentos | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Aprenda sobre los medicamentos que lo ayudarán a dejar de fumar, incluso el tratamiento de reemplazo de la nicotina. El uso de estos medicamentos puede duplicar sus probabilidades de dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  13. Tracing the X-Ray Trail

    MedlinePLUS

    ... magnética (RM) u otro procedimiento de producción de imágenes para diagnóstico, probablemente querrá saber cuándo se enterará de los resultados y qué muestran sus imágenes. Se trata de preguntas muy naturales, pues la ...

  14. Everybody's Different Nobody's Perfect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... University Medical Center in Chicago. Adaptado para los niños del libro "Todos somos diferentes, nadie es perfecto", ... kids have a disease called MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. Algunos niños tienen discapacidades porque sus músculos son muy débiles ...

  15. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass of plantaris and soleus of a rats in hindlimb suspension, and on the isomyosin expression in these muscles, was investigated in young female rats divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal steroid (NS), normal suspension (N-sus), and suspension steroid (sus-S). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (sus-S vs N-sus) was found to partially spare body weight and muscle weight, as well as myofibril content of plantaris (but not soleus), but did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs NC), steroid treatment did enhance body weight and plantaris muscle weight; the treatment did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type.

  16. Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker sus...

  17. Correlation of the Genetic Map and the Endonuclease Site Map of Bacillus subtilis Bacteriophage SP02

    PubMed Central

    Graham, S.; Sutton, S.; Yoneda, Y.; Young, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    By marker rescue of bacteriophage SP02 sus mutants with purified bacteriophage SP02 DNA fragments, 11 of the 17 known bacteriophage SP02 sus loci were assigned to discrete DNA fragments. The left-most genetic locus, susA, was found to reside near one bacteriophage SP02 terminus (EcoRI-C1 fragment), whereas the right-most genetic locus, susP, was found to reside near the other bacteriophage SP02 terminus (EcoRI-C2 fragment). The physical locations of the intervening genetic loci were found to be consistent with the previously determined genetic order. Evidence was also obtained which suggested that at least one end of a transforming DNA fragment is degraded during DNA uptake by the competent bacterium. PMID:16789220

  18. Superresolution Imaging Captures Carbohydrate Utilization Dynamics in Human Gut Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S.; Cameron, Elizabeth A.; Martens, Eric C.; Koropatkin, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut microbes play a key role in human health and nutrition by catabolizing a wide variety of glycans via enzymatic activities that are not encoded in the human genome. The ability to recognize and process carbohydrates strongly influences the structure of the gut microbial community. While the effects of diet on the microbiota are well documented, little is known about the molecular processes driving metabolism. To provide mechanistic insight into carbohydrate catabolism in gut symbionts, we studied starch processing in real time in the model Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron starch utilization system (Sus) by single-molecule fluorescence. Although previous studies have explored Sus protein structure and function, the transient interactions, assembly, and collaboration of these outer membrane proteins have not yet been elucidated in live cells. Our live-cell superresolution imaging reveals that the polymeric starch substrate dynamically recruits Sus proteins, serving as an external scaffold for bacterial membrane assembly of the Sus complex, which may promote efficient capturing and degradation of starch. Furthermore, by simultaneously localizing multiple Sus outer membrane proteins on the B. thetaiotaomicron cell surface, we have characterized the dynamics and stoichiometry of starch-induced Sus complex assembly on the molecular scale. Finally, based on Sus protein knockout strains, we have discerned the mechanism of starch-induced Sus complex assembly in live anaerobic cells with nanometer-scale resolution. Our insights into the starch-induced outer membrane protein assembly central to this conserved nutrient uptake mechanism pave the way for the development of dietary or pharmaceutical therapies to control Bacteroidetes in the intestinal tract to enhance human health and treat disease. PMID:25389179

  19. Sex determination of porcine embryos using a new developed duplex polymerase chain reaction procedure based on the amplification of repetitive sequences.

    PubMed

    Torner, Eva; Bussalleu, Eva; Briz, M Dolors; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Bonet, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays have become increasingly prevalent for sexing embryos. The aim of the present study was to develop a suitable duplex PCR procedure based on the amplification of porcine repetitive sequences for sexing porcine tissues, embryos and single cells. Primers were designed targeting the X12696 Y chromosome-specific repeat sequence (SUSYa and SUSYb; sex-related primer sets), the multicopy porcine-specific mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene (SUS12S; control primer set) and the X51555 1 chromosome repeat sequence (SUS1; control primer set). The specificity of the primer sets was established and the technique was optimised by testing combinations of two specific primer sets (SUSYa/SUS12S; SUSYb/SUS12S), different primer concentrations, two sources of DNA polymerase, different melting temperatures and different numbers of amplification cycles using genomic DNA from porcine ovarian and testicular tissue. The optimised SUSYa/SUS12S- and SUSYb/SUS12S-based duplex PCR procedures were applied to porcine in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts, cell-stage embryos and oocytes. The SUSYb/SUS12S primer-based procedure successfully sexed porcine single cells and IVP cell-stage embryos (100% efficiency), as well as blastocysts (96.6% accuracy; 96.7% efficiency). This is the first report to demonstrate the applicability of these repetitive sequences for this purpose. In conclusion, the SUSYb/SUS12S primer-based duplex PCR procedure is highly reliable and sensitive for sexing porcine IVP embryos. PMID:23445818

  20. Nitric Oxide Protects L-Type Calcium Channel of Cardiomyocyte during Long-Term Isoproterenol Stimulation in Tail-Suspended Rats.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhi-Jie; Xu, Peng-Tao; Jiao, Bo; Chang, Hui; Song, Zhen; Xie, Man-Jiang; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on L-type calcium channel (LTCC) gating properties of cardiomyocytes during long-term isoproterenol (ISO) stimulation. Expression and activity of nNOS as well as S-nitrosylation of LTCC ?1C subunit significantly decreased in the myocardium of SUS rats. Long-term ISO stimulation increased ROS in cardiomyocytes of SUS rats. ISO-enhanced calcium current (I Ca,L) in the SUS group was less than that in the CON group. The maximal I Ca,L decreased to about 80% or 60% of initial value at the 50th minute of ISO treatment in CON or SUS group, respectively. Specific inhibitor NAAN of nNOS reduced maximal I Ca,L to 50% of initial value in the CON group; in contrast, NO donor SNAP maintained maximal I Ca,L in SUS group to similar extent of CON group after 50 min of ISO treatment. Long-term ISO stimulation also changed steady-state activation (P < 0.01), inactivation (P < 0.01), and recovery (P < 0.05) characteristics of LTCC in SUS group. In conclusion, NO-induced S-nitrosylation of LTCC ?1C subunit may competitively prevent oxidation from ROS at the same sites. Furthermore, LTCC can be protected by NO during long-term ISO stimulation. PMID:26167497

  1. Nitric Oxide Protects L-Type Calcium Channel of Cardiomyocyte during Long-Term Isoproterenol Stimulation in Tail-Suspended Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhi-Jie; Xu, Peng-Tao; Jiao, Bo; Chang, Hui; Song, Zhen; Xie, Man-Jiang; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on L-type calcium channel (LTCC) gating properties of cardiomyocytes during long-term isoproterenol (ISO) stimulation. Expression and activity of nNOS as well as S-nitrosylation of LTCC ?1C subunit significantly decreased in the myocardium of SUS rats. Long-term ISO stimulation increased ROS in cardiomyocytes of SUS rats. ISO-enhanced calcium current (ICa,L) in the SUS group was less than that in the CON group. The maximal ICa,L decreased to about 80% or 60% of initial value at the 50th minute of ISO treatment in CON or SUS group, respectively. Specific inhibitor NAAN of nNOS reduced maximal ICa,L to 50% of initial value in the CON group; in contrast, NO donor SNAP maintained maximal ICa,L in SUS group to similar extent of CON group after 50?min of ISO treatment. Long-term ISO stimulation also changed steady-state activation (P < 0.01), inactivation (P < 0.01), and recovery (P < 0.05) characteristics of LTCC in SUS group. In conclusion, NO-induced S-nitrosylation of LTCC ?1C subunit may competitively prevent oxidation from ROS at the same sites. Furthermore, LTCC can be protected by NO during long-term ISO stimulation. PMID:26167497

  2. UV irradiation enhances the bonding strength between citric acid-crosslinked gelatin and stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Motoki; Sasaki, Makoto; Katada, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2011-11-01

    The effect of ultraviolet ray (UV) irradiation on the bonding strength between low carbon stainless steel 316 (SUS316L) and trisuccinimidyl citrate (TSC)-crosslinked alkali-treated gelatin (AlGelatin-TSC) was investigated. The UV irradiation effectively generated hydroxyl groups on the surface of SUS316L. The bonding strength between AlGelatin-TSC and SUS316L before UV irradiation was 0.345±0.007 MPa, and upon UV irradiation it increased to 0.750±0.069 MPa. In order to explain this enhanced bonding strength, the surface of SUS316L was examined using its water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the N 1s peaks derived from the TSC succinimidyl group were assigned to the surface of SUS316L after the immobilization of the TSC. This indicates that ester bond formation between the TSC active esters and the SUS316L hydroxyl groups contributed to the enhanced bonding strength. Therefore, UV irradiation and subsequent TSC immobilization is a simple way to functionalize biometal surfaces with various structures. This has practical applications for medical devices such as drug-eluting stents, dental implants, and metallic artificial bone. PMID:21831616

  3. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  4. Reprint of: Locus coeruleus neuronal activity determines proclivity to consume alcohol in a selectively-bred line of rats that readily consumes alcohol.

    PubMed

    West, Charles H K; Boss-Williams, Katherine A; Ritchie, James C; Weiss, Jay M

    2016-02-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats selectively-bred for susceptibility to stress in our laboratory (Susceptible, or SUS rats) voluntarily consume large amounts of alcohol, and amounts that have, as shown here, pharmacological effects, which normal rats will not do. In this paper, we explore neural events in the brain that underlie this propensity to readily consume alcohol. Activity of locus coeruleus neurons (LC), the major noradrenergic cell body concentration in the brain, influences firing of ventral tegmentum dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic system (VTA-DA neurons), which mediate rewarding aspects of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that in SUS rats alcohol potently suppresses LC activity to markedly diminish LC-mediated inhibition of VTA-DA neurons, which permits alcohol to greatly increase VTA-DA activity and rewarding aspects of alcohol. Electrophysiological single-unit recording of LC and VTA-DA activity showed that in SUS rats alcohol decreased LC burst firing much more than in normal rats and as a result markedly increased VTA-DA activity in SUS rats while having no such effect in normal rats. Consistent with this, in a behavioral test for reward using conditioned place preference (CPP), SUS rats showed alcohol, given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, to be rewarding. Next, manipulation of LC activity by microinfusion of drugs into the LC region of SUS rats showed that (a) decreasing LC activity increased alcohol intake and increasing LC activity decreased alcohol intake in accord with the formulation described above, and (b) increasing LC activity blocked both the rewarding effect of alcohol in the CPP test and the usual alcohol-induced increase in VTA-DA single-unit activity seen in SUS rats. An important ancillary finding in the CPP test was that an increase in LC activity was rewarding by itself, while a decrease in LC activity was aversive; consequently, effects of LC manipulations on alcohol-related reward in the CPP test were perhaps even larger than evident in the test. Finally, when increased LC activity was associated with (i.e., conditioned to) i.p. alcohol, subsequent alcohol consumption by SUS rats was markedly reduced, indicating that SUS rats consume large amounts of alcohol because of rewarding physiological consequences requiring increased VTA-DA activity. The findings reported here are consistent with the view that the influence of alcohol on LC activity leading to changes in VTA-DA activity strongly affects alcohol-mediated reward, and may well be the basis of the proclivity of SUS rats to avidly consume alcohol. PMID:26873226

  5. Stroke units in Italy.

    PubMed

    Candelise, L; Bersano, A

    2006-06-01

    It is well known that stroke is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Previous studies and metaanalysis provide evidence favouring care of stroke patients in Stroke Units (SU). We published data on SU coverage for seven Italian regions during 2000-2001. The aim of this study is to conduct a new recent survey of SUs in the entire national territory and to evaluate changes in number of SUs and in organisation of in-hospital care in the seven Italian regions evaluated in our previous survey. Hospital services were identified through the diagnosis-related groups (DRG 14) from national hospital discharge registers. We selected services recording at least 50 acute stroke discharges per year. The characteristics of hospital services were obtained from a structured questionnaire submitted by phone by trained researchers to the doctors in charge of services. A SU was defined as a ward that admits acute stroke patients cared for in dedicated beds and by dedicated staff. Out of 676 hospital services evaluated during 2003-2004, 68 were SUs. The national coverage for SU services was 10%, ranging from 0% to 50% in different regions. In 2003-2004 SUs admitted 10% of the total national acute stroke cases. SUs have a more facilitated access to diagnostic evaluations and also seem to be better organised than general wards. Between 2000 and 2004 the number of SUs increased from 7% to 11% in the seven regions evaluated in our first survey. Notwithstanding we found an increase of 30% in the number of SUs, at least in the regions previously evaluated, there is still a shortage of SU beds and high regional heterogeneity. PMID:16752052

  6. Adaptive Evolution of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in the Family Suidae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Members of the family Suidae have diverged over extended evolutionary periods in diverse environments, suggesting that adaptation in response to endemic infectious agents may have occurred. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a multigene family that acts as the first line of defense against infectious microbes at the host-environment interface. We hypothesized that across the Suidae, positive selection mediated by infectious agents has contributed to the evolution of TLR diversity. Thus, we analyzed Sus scrofa, Sus barbatus, Sus verrucosus, Sus celebensis, Sus scebifrons, Babyrousa babyrussa, Potamochoerus larvatus, Potamochoerus porcus and Phacochoerus africanus genomes. Specifically, analyses were performed to identify evidence of positive selection using Maximum likelihood (ML) methods within a phylogenetic framework for bacterial and viral sensing Suidae TLR extracellular domains. Our analyses did not reveal evidence of positive selection for TLR3 and TLR7, suggesting strong functional conservation among these two genes for members of the Suidae. Positive selection was inferred for Suidae TLR1, TLR2, TLR6 and TLR8 evolution. ML methods identified amino acid sites of the bacterial sensing TLR1, TLR2, TLR6 and the viral sensing TLR8 to be under persistent positive selection. Some of these sites are in close proximity to functionally relevant sites, further strengthening the case for pathogen mediated selection for these sites. The branch leading to the genus Sus demonstrated evidence of episodic positive selection for TLR1, indicating selection mediated by infectious agents encountered within the specific geographic origin of the Sus. These results indicate that species of the Suidae have positively selected residues within functional domains of TLRs reflective of prior infections. Thus, TLR genes represent candidates for experimental validation to determine their functional role in antibacterial and antiviral activity within members of the Suidae. PMID:25894218

  7. Altered hippocampal function before emotional trauma in rats susceptible to PTSD-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nalloor, Rebecca; Bunting, Kristopher M; Vazdarjanova, Almira

    2014-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs after experiencing a traumatic event. Susceptibility to PTSD exists, as only some trauma-exposed individuals develop this condition. Investigating susceptibilities in animal models can contribute to understanding the etiology of the disorder. We previously reported an animal model which allows reliable pre-classification of rats as susceptible (Sus) or resistant (Res) to developing a PTSD-like phenotype after a later trauma. Here we report that Sus, compared to Res, rats have altered hippocampal function, along the septo-temporal axis, prior to experiencing a traumatic event. In Experiment I, Res and Sus rats explored a novel box twice. Using a cellular imaging method for assessing plasticity-related immediate-early gene expression in large neuronal ensembles, Arc/Homer1a catFISH, we show that Sus rats have smaller vCA3 ensembles during the second exploration. This suppressed vCA3 activation in Sus rats was not due to a difference in exploratory behavior, or to a difference in Arc/Homer1a expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). BLA is a main source of inputs to vCA3, but both the ensemble size and overlap of BLA ensembles activated during the two explorations was similar to that of Res rats. Additionally, Sus rats had significant 'infidelity' in their dorsal hippocampal representations of the second event: a lower overlap, compared to Res rats, of Arc/Homer1a-expressing ensembles activated during the two explorations (the size of the ensembles were similar to those of Res rats). These differences were revealed only in conditions of relatively low stress, because they were not observed when Sus and Res rats experienced fear conditioning (Experiment II). Combined, the findings show that altered hippocampal function exists before experiencing emotional trauma in susceptible rats and suggest that this is a risk factor for PTSD. PMID:24583372

  8. Soybean Yield and Heterodera glycines Responses to Liquid Swine Manure in Nematode Suppressive Soil and Conducive Soil.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yong; Chen, Senyu; Vetsch, Jeffery; Randall, Gyles

    2013-03-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major factor limiting soybean yield. Experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 to determine the effects of liquid swine manure and chemical fertilizer PK on soybean and corn yields, and on SCN population in an SCN-suppressive field (S-Site) and an SCN-conducive field (C-Site) in Minnesota. The experiment was a split-plot design with crop sequences as main plots and fertilizer treatments as subplots. The 2-yr crop sequences were Sus-Sus, Res-Sus, and Corn-Sus, where Sus was SCN-susceptible soybean, and Res was SCN-resistant soybean. The fertilizer treatments were manure, PK, and a nonfertilizer as control. Manure did not reduce SCN egg population density but resulted in 31% lower SCN second-stage juvenile (J2) population density at the S-Site at 45 d after planting (DAP) in 2009. Manure also reduced spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus spp.) population density by 52% compared with PK and nonfertilizer treatments at S-Site at 45 DAP in 2009. The crop sequence of Corn-Sus and Res-Sus reduced the SCN egg and J2 but increased spiral nematode population density at both sites. An increase of 1.4 Mg/ha and 0.5 Mg/ha in yield of susceptible soybean was observed in manure and PK treatments, respectively, at the C-Site in 2009. Corn yield was 2.8 Mg/ha and 5.0 Mg/ha greater when treated with manure than nonfertilizer at the S-Site and C-Site, respectively. This study suggests that soil fertility management may be a useful strategy to alleviate the SCN damage to soybean. PMID:23589656

  9. cDNA-AFLP transcriptional profiling reveals genes expressed during flower development in Oncidium Milliongolds.

    PubMed

    Qian, X; Gong, M J; Wang, C X; Tian, M

    2014-01-01

    The flower developmental process, which is crucial to the whole lifecycle of higher plants, is influenced by both environmental and endogenous factors. The genus Oncidium is commercially important for cut flower and houseplant industry and is ideal for flower development studies. Using cDNA-amplified restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we profiled transcripts that are differentially expressed during flower development of Oncidium Milliongolds. A total of 15,960 transcript-derived fragments were generated, with 114 primer sets. Of these, 1248 were sequenced, producing 993 readable sequences. BLASTX/N analysis showed that 833 of the 993 transcripts showed homology to genes in the NCBI databases, exhibiting functions involved in various processes, such as signal transduction, energy conversion, metabolism, and gene expression regulation. The full-length mRNAs of SUCROSE SYNTHASE 1 (SUS1) and LEAFY (LFY) were cloned, and their expression patterns were characterized. The results showed that the expression levels of SUS1 and LFY were similar during flower development. To confirm the function of SUS1 in flower buds, carbohydrate content and sucrose synthase activity were determined. The results showed that changes in sucrose content and sucrose synthase activity reflected SUS1 expression levels. Collectively, these results indicate that SUS1 influences flower development by regulating LFY expression levels through changing the sucrose content of flower buds. PMID:24634291

  10. A robust cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation in cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Feng, Shuo; Wu, Qihui; Zheng, Xueqiang; Xu, Yuhua; Ding, Guoru

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology that brings about remarkable improvement in spectrum utilization. To tackle the hidden terminal problem, cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) which benefits from the spatial diversity has been studied extensively. Since CSS is vulnerable to the attacks initiated by malicious secondary users (SUs), several secure CSS schemes based on Dempster-Shafer theory have been proposed. However, the existing works only utilize the current difference of SUs, such as the difference in SNR or similarity degree, to evaluate the trustworthiness of each SU. As the current difference is only one-sided and sometimes inaccurate, the statistical information contained in each SU's historical behavior should not be overlooked. In this article, we propose a robust CSS scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation. It is carried out in four successive steps, which are basic probability assignment (BPA), trustworthiness degree calculation, selection and adjustment of BPA, and combination by Dempster-Shafer rule, respectively. Our proposed scheme evaluates the trustworthiness degree of SUs from both current difference aspect and historical behavior aspect and exploits Dempster-Shafer theory's potential to establish a `soft update' approach for the reputation value maintenance. It can not only differentiate malicious SUs from honest ones based on their historical behaviors but also reserve the current difference for each SU to achieve a better real-time performance. Abundant simulation results have validated that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing ones under the impact of different attack patterns and different number of malicious SUs.

  11. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  12. Fabrication of Stainless Steel Mold Using Electrochemical Fabrication Method for Microfluidic Biochip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-Soo; Lim, Hyun-Woo; Sunyong Lee, Caroline; Cho, Byung-Ki; Park, Jin-Goo

    2008-06-01

    Imprinting method mechanically transfers patterns from a stamp onto a substrate. In imprinting process, the mold is one of the most important factors. A new micro fabrication method termed electrochemical fabrication (ECF) is introduced to overcome conventional problems of electrical discharge machining (EDM), FeCl3 Wet etching, laser method, electro plating, such as low reliability and reproducibility, high cost. This ECF method defines micro patterns using a conventional photolithography, allowing it to produce micro-scale patterns with an excellent surface roughness and of excellent quality. In this paper, a 150 mm stainless steel (SUS 304, 5 mm in thickness) mold was fabricated using both ECF method and FeCl3-etchant method, respectively. As a result, the ECF mold resulted 10 times better surface roughness values than that of mold using FeCl3 etchant. Also, metal surface of the ECF-SUS mold was cleaner and smoother than that the FeCl3 etched SUS mold. Therefore, SUS mold was successfully fabricated for the first time in micro-scale and multi-step patterns. Plastic replica was fabricated successfully using the ECF-SUS mold.

  13. Place of sulfonylureas in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Asia: A consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Aamir, A. H.; Raza, Abbas; Das, A. K.; Azad Khan, A. K.; Shrestha, Dina; Qureshi, Md Faisal; Md Fariduddin; Pathan, Md Faruque; Jawad, Fatema; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Tandon, Nikhil; Somasundaram, Noel; Katulanda, Prasad; Sahay, Rakesh; Dhungel, Sanjib; Bajaj, Sarita; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ghosh, Sujoy; Madhu, S. V.; Ahmed, Tofail; Bulughapitiya, Uditha

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction in clinical practice in the 1950's, Sulfonylureas (SUs) have remained the main-stay of pharmacotherapy in the management of type 2 diabetes. Despite their well-established benefits, their place in therapy is inappropriately being overshadowed by newer therapies. Many of the clinical issues associated with the use of SUs are agent-specific, and do not pertain to the class as such. Modern SUs (glimepiride, gliclazide MR) are backed by a large body of evidence, experience, and most importantly, outcome data, which supports their role in managing patients with diabetes. Person-centred care, i.e., careful choice of SU, appropriate dosage, timing of administration, and adequate patient counseling, will ensure that deserving patients are not deprived of the advantages of this well-established class of anti-diabetic agents. Considering their efficacy, safety, pleiotropic benefits, and low cost of therapy, SUs should be considered as recommended therapy for the treatment of diabetes in South Asia. This initiative by SAFES aims to encourage rational, safe and smart prescription of SUs, and includes appropriate medication counseling. PMID:26425465

  14. [The evolution of the Brazilian National Health System, strategic courses of action and strategies to understand these actions].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Nelson Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    The author has the intention to propose to the Brazilian health care management and sanitary reform managers an examination and positioning on the course of action in the implementation of SUS (Brazilian National Health System). The findings underscore two non-convergent set of policies that have affected the course of action in the implementation of the SUS in the 1990s: the first and 'main' course of action derives from policies created in 1988 in the so-called Citizen Constitution, of which the SUS is the most important achievement. The second and "additional" course of action derives from the prevailing macro-economic model and its related policies, implemented since the 1990s, besides advocating a social inclusion measure while leaving out all the related improvements of SUS such as Universality, Integrity and Equity. In addition, the second course of action is in opposition to the model based on social protection, besides raising the importance of market-based individualistic values and actions in general, it carries them into the health care system. The author suggests that a clarification on the desirable and on the deviant courses of action of SUS may be a vital contribution to guaranteeing social rights in health care, while preserving its integrity, equity and universal nature. PMID:17680098

  15. Scanning ultrasound removes amyloid-? and restores memory in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Leinenga, Gerhard; Götz, Jürgen

    2015-03-11

    Amyloid-? (A?) peptide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We present a nonpharmacological approach for removing A? and restoring memory function in a mouse model of AD in which A? is deposited in the brain. We used repeated scanning ultrasound (SUS) treatments of the mouse brain to remove A?, without the need for any additional therapeutic agent such as anti-A? antibody. Spinning disk confocal microscopy and high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction revealed extensive internalization of A? into the lysosomes of activated microglia in mouse brains subjected to SUS, with no concomitant increase observed in the number of microglia. Plaque burden was reduced in SUS-treated AD mice compared to sham-treated animals, and cleared plaques were observed in 75% of SUS-treated mice. Treated AD mice also displayed improved performance on three memory tasks: the Y-maze, the novel object recognition test, and the active place avoidance task. Our findings suggest that repeated SUS is useful for removing A? in the mouse brain without causing overt damage, and should be explored further as a noninvasive method with therapeutic potential in AD. PMID:25761889

  16. Guard cell-specific upregulation of sucrose synthase 3 reveals that the role of sucrose in stomatal function is primarily energetic.

    PubMed

    Daloso, Danilo M; Williams, Thomas C R; Antunes, Werner C; Pinheiro, Daniela P; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo E; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-03-01

    Isoform 3 of sucrose synthase (SUS3) is highly expressed in guard cells; however, the precise function of SUS3 in this cell type remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterized transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants overexpressing SUS3 under the control of the stomatal-specific KST1 promoter, and investigated the changes in guard cell metabolism during the dark to light transition. Guard cell-specific SUS3 overexpression led to increased SUS activity, stomatal aperture, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate and growth. Although only minor changes were observed in the metabolite profile in whole leaves, an increased fructose level and decreased organic acid levels and sucrose to fructose ratio were observed in guard cells of transgenic lines. Furthermore, guard cell sucrose content was lower during light-induced stomatal opening. In a complementary approach, we incubated guard cell-enriched epidermal fragments in (13) C-NaHCO3 and followed the redistribution of label during dark to light transitions; this revealed increased labeling in metabolites of, or associated with, the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The results suggest that sucrose breakdown is a mechanism to provide substrate for the provision of organic acids for respiration, and imply that manipulation of guard cell metabolism may represent an effective strategy for plant growth improvement. PMID:26467445

  17. Absolute absorption on the potassium D lines: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Ryan K.; Gregory, Philip D.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Cornish, Simon L.

    2015-10-01

    We present a detailed study of the absolute Doppler-broadened absorption of a probe beam scanned across the potassium D lines in a thermal vapour. Spectra using a weak probe were measured on the 4S \\to 4P transition and compared to the theoretical model of the electric susceptibility detailed by Zentile et al (2015 Comput. Phys. Commun. 189 162-74) in the code named ElecSus. Comparisons were also made on the 4S \\to 5P transition with an adapted version of ElecSus. This is the first experimental test of ElecSus on an atom with a ground state hyperfine splitting smaller than that of the Doppler width. An excellent agreement was found between ElecSus and experimental measurements at a variety of temperatures with rms errors ˜ {10}-3. We have also demonstrated the use of ElecSus as an atomic vapour thermometry tool, and present a possible new measurement technique of transition decay rates which we predict to have a precision of ˜3 {kHz}.

  18. Effectiveness of nateglinide on in vitro insulin secretion from rat pancreatic islets desensitized to sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Hu, S; Wang, S; Dunning, B E

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure of pancreatic islets to sulfonylureas (SUs) is known to impair the ability of islets to respond to subsequent acute stimulation by SUs or glucose. Nateglinide (NAT) is a novel insulinotropic agent with a primarily site of action at beta-cell K(ATP) channels, which is common to the structurally diverse drugs like repaglinide (REP) and the SUs. Earlier studies on the kinetics, glucose-dependence and sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors of the interaction between NAT and K(ATP) channels suggested a distinct signaling pathways with NAT compared to REP, glyburide (GLY) or glimepiride (GLI). To obtain further evidence for this concept, the present study compared the insulin secretion in vitro from rat islets stimulated acutely by NAT, GLY, GLI or REP at equipotent concentrations during 1-hr static incubation following overnight treatment with GLY or tolbutamide (TOL). The islets fully retained the responsiveness to NAT stimulation after prolonged pretreatment with both SUs, while their acute response to REP, GLY, and GLI was markedly attenuated, confirming the desensitization of islets. The insulinotropic efficacy of NAT in islets desensitized to SUs may result from a distinct receptor/effector mechanism, which contributes to the unique pharmacological profile of NAT. PMID:12369729

  19. Graphene grown on stainless steel as a high-performance and ecofriendly anti-corrosion coating for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Nen-Wen; Shi, Gia-Nan; Liu, Yih-Ming; Sun, Xueliang; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Sun, Chia-Liang; Ger, Ming-Der; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wang, Po-Chiang; Peng, You-Yu; Wu, Chia-Hung; Lawes, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on SUS304 stainless steel and on a catalyzing Ni/SUS304 double-layered structure was investigated. The results indicated that a thin and multilayered graphene film can be continuously grown across the metal grain boundaries of the Ni/SUS304 stainless steel and significantly enhance its corrosion resistance. A 3.5 wt% saline polarization test demonstrated that the corrosion currents in graphene-covered SUS304 were improved fivefold relative to the corrosion currents in non-graphene-covered SUS304. In addition to enhancing the corrosion resistance of stainless steel, a graphene coating also ameliorates another shortcoming of stainless steel in a corrosive environment: the formation of a passive oxidation layer on the stainless steel surface that decreases conductivity. After a corrosion test, the graphene-covered stainless steel continued to exhibit not only an excellent low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of 36 m? cm2 but also outstanding drainage characteristics. The above results suggest that an extremely thin, lightweight protective coating of graphene on stainless steel can act as the next-generation bipolar plates of fuel cells.

  20. Polar-axis-oriented crystal growth of tetragonal PZT films on stainless steel substrate using pseudo-perovskite nanosheet buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minemura, Yoshiki; Ichinose, Daichi; Nagasaka, Kohei; Kim, Jin Woon; Shima, Hiromi; Nishida, Ken; Kiguchi, Takanori; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Oshima, Naoya; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film with polar axis orientation was grown on a SUS 316L stainless steel substrate with the help of a Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheet (ns-CN) layer that had a pseudo-perovskite-type crystal structure. The ns-CN buffer layer was supported on a platinized SUS 316L (Pt/SUS) substrate, followed by chemical solution deposition (CSD) of the PZT films with tetragonal symmetry (Zr/Ti =40/60). The PZT films consisting of c-domain, with [001]-axis orientation of the perovskite unit cell, were deposited on the ns-CN/Pt/SUS substrate owing to (i) epitaxial lattice matching between the unit cell of PZT and substrate surface and (ii) in-plane thermal stress applied to the PZT film during cooling-down step of CSD procedure. The c-domain-oriented PZT film on ns-CN/Pt/SUS substrate exhibited enhanced remanent polarization of approximately 52 μC/cm2 and lowered dielectric permittivity of approximately 230, which are superior to those of conventional PZT films with random crystal orientation and comparable to those of epitaxial PZT films grown on (100)SrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 substrates.

  1. Place of sulfonylureas in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Asia: A consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Aamir, A H; Raza, Abbas; Das, A K; Azad Khan, A K; Shrestha, Dina; Qureshi, Md Faisal; Md Fariduddin; Pathan, Md Faruque; Jawad, Fatema; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Tandon, Nikhil; Somasundaram, Noel; Katulanda, Prasad; Sahay, Rakesh; Dhungel, Sanjib; Bajaj, Sarita; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ghosh, Sujoy; Madhu, S V; Ahmed, Tofail; Bulughapitiya, Uditha

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction in clinical practice in the 1950's, Sulfonylureas (SUs) have remained the main-stay of pharmacotherapy in the management of type 2 diabetes. Despite their well-established benefits, their place in therapy is inappropriately being overshadowed by newer therapies. Many of the clinical issues associated with the use of SUs are agent-specific, and do not pertain to the class as such. Modern SUs (glimepiride, gliclazide MR) are backed by a large body of evidence, experience, and most importantly, outcome data, which supports their role in managing patients with diabetes. Person-centred care, i.e., careful choice of SU, appropriate dosage, timing of administration, and adequate patient counseling, will ensure that deserving patients are not deprived of the advantages of this well-established class of anti-diabetic agents. Considering their efficacy, safety, pleiotropic benefits, and low cost of therapy, SUs should be considered as recommended therapy for the treatment of diabetes in South Asia. This initiative by SAFES aims to encourage rational, safe and smart prescription of SUs, and includes appropriate medication counseling. PMID:26425465

  2. Optimized molecular structure of photoreactive biocompatible block copolymers for surface modification of metal substrates.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Akira; Yusa, Shin-ichi

    2012-06-27

    Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate-co-2-cinnamoyloxyethyl methacrylate) (PMPC-b-P(MPA/CMA)) was prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-controlled radical polymerization. The block copolymers were coated on stainless steel (SUS316L) and other metal substrates, and then the surface was subsequently irradiated with UV light. The wettability of a specimen surface treated with a block copolymer was improved in comparison with that of an untreated SUS316L plate. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, it was clear that the P(MPA/CMA) block worked as a binding site on the SUS316L surface. The surface density of the block copolymer-immobilized SUS316L surface was influenced by the molecular weight of the PMPC block. The stability of the immobilized layer was improved by UV irradiation, which induced intermolecular dimerization of the CMA. In addition to the SUS316L surface, various other metal surfaces could be modified by surface immobilization of block copolymers. Serum protein adsorption and fibroblast adhesion were effectively reduced by surface immobilization of block copolymers with optimal molecular weight of PMPC block. The nonfouling property was preserved after 1 week of cell cultivation. PMID:22639819

  3. Nickel-free stainless steel avoids neointima formation following coronary stent implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiu, Katsuhito; Manabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Inoue, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroshi; Hasumi, Eriko; Komuro, Issei; Katada, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2012-12-01

    SUS316L stainless steel and cobalt-chromium and platinum-chromium alloys are widely used platforms for coronary stents. These alloys also contain nickel (Ni), which reportedly induces allergic reactions in some subjects and is known to have various cellular effects. The effects of Ni on neointima formation after stent implantation remain unknown, however. We developed coronary stents made of Ni-free high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel prepared using a N2-gas pressurized electroslag remelting (P-ESR) process. Neointima formation and inflammatory responses following stent implantation in porcine coronary arteries were then compared between the Ni-free and SUS316L stainless steel stents. We found significantly less neointima formation and inflammation in arteries implanted with Ni-free stents, as compared to SUS316L stents. Notably, Ni2+ was eluted into the medium from SUS316L but not from Ni-free stainless steel. Mechanistically, Ni2+ increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor protein-1? (HIF-1?) and its target genes in cultured smooth muscle cells. HIF-1? and their target gene levels were also increased in the vascular wall at SUS316L stent sites but not at Ni-free stent sites. The Ni-free stainless steel coronary stent reduces neointima formation, in part by avoiding activation of inflammatory processes via the Ni-HIF pathway. The Ni-free-stainless steel stent is a promising new coronary stent platform.

  4. The Effect of Hygiene-Based Lymphedema Management in Lymphatic Filariasis-Endemic Areas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stocks, Meredith E.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Addiss, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphedema of the leg and its advanced form, known as elephantiasis, are significant causes of disability and morbidity in areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), with an estimated 14 million persons affected worldwide. The twin goals of the World Health Organization’s Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis include interrupting transmission of the parasitic worms that cause LF and providing care to persons who suffer from its clinical manifestations, including lymphedema—so-called morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP). Scaling up of MMDP has been slow, in part because of a lack of consensus about the effectiveness of recommended hygiene-based interventions for clinical lymphedema. Methods and Findings We conducted a systemic review and meta-analyses to estimate the effectiveness of hygiene-based interventions on LF-related lymphedema. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, MedCarib, Lilacs, REPIDISCA, DESASTRES, and African Index Medicus databases through March 23, 2015 with no restriction on year of publication. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they (1) were conducted in an area endemic for LF, (2) involved hygiene-based interventions to manage lymphedema, and (3) assessed lymphedema-related morbidity. For clinical outcomes for which three or more studies assessed comparable interventions for lymphedema, we conducted random-effects meta-analyses. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and two meta-analyses were possible. To evaluate study quality, we developed a set of criteria derived from the GRADE methodology. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Participation in hygiene-based lymphedema management was associated with a lower incidence of acute dermatolymphagioadenitis (ADLA), (Odds Ratio 0.32, 95% CI 0.25–0.40), as well as with a decreased percentage of patients reporting at least one episode of ADLA during follow-up (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.12–0.47). Limitations included high heterogeneity across studies and variation in components of lymphedema management. Conclusions Available evidence strongly supports the effectiveness of hygiene-based lymphedema management in LF-endemic areas. Despite the aforementioned limitations, these findings highlight the potential to significantly reduce LF-associated morbidity and disability as well as the need to develop standardized approaches to MMDP in LF-endemic areas. PMID:26496129

  5. Change in the composition ratio of a stainless-steel alloy layer on polymer films by using ion beam sputtering deposition (IBSD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, YongGi; Yeo, Sunmog; Kim, BomSok

    2015-02-01

    We successfully coated a stainless-steel alloy on a polymer substrate from a stainless-steel 304 (SUS 304) target by means of ion-beam sputtering deposition (IBSD). The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) image shows that submicron size grains are imbedded on the coated surfaces. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) reveals that the atomic percents of Cr and Ni for the SUS 304 coating are 6.92% and 24.85%, respectively. Compared to the as-received SUS 304, the atomic percent of Cr for the coating is reduced by more than two times while the atomic percent of Ni is increased by more than two times. We discuss why the surface morphology has submicron-sized grains and why the atomic percents for the coating are different from those for the target materials.

  6. Multi layer precursor method for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells fabricated on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantana, Jakapan; Watanabe, Taichi; Teraji, Seiki; Kawamura, Kazunori; Minemoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells are deemed one of the highest conversion efficiency thin-film solar cells, and the utilization of flexible (stainless steel; SUS) substrates offers several advantages in terms of lowering manufacturing costs. In this work, CIGS films on SUS substrates are deposited by the so-called “multi layer precursor method” using multi layer co-evaporation of material sources. The examination concentrates on the influence of growth temperature and Ga/III, Ga/(In + Ga), profiles of CIGS layers on the cell performance. According to the results, CIGS crystallization is primarily manipulated by growth temperature. Ultimately, the deposition of CIGS on a flexible SUS substrate can be readily controlled to obtain a suitable double Ga/III-grading profile with large grains of CIGS for a high cell efficiency of 16.05%.

  7. Tensile Properties, Ferrite Contents, and Specimen Heating of Stainless Steels in Cryogenic Gas Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, T.; Yuri, T.; Ono, Y.

    2006-03-01

    We performed tensile tests at cryogenic temperatures below 77 K and in helium gas environment for SUS 304L and SUS 316L in order to obtain basic data of mechanical properties of the materials for liquid hydrogen tank service. We evaluate tensile curves, tensile properties, ferrite contents, mode of deformation and/or fracture, and specimen heating during the testing at 4 to 77 K. For both SUS 304L and 316L, tensile strength shows a small peak around 10 K, and specimen heating decreases above 30 K. The volume fraction of α-phase increases continuously up to 70 % with plastic strain, at approximately 15 % plastic strain for 304L and up to 35 % for 316L. There was almost no clear influence of testing temperature on strain-induced martensitic transformation at the cryogenic temperatures.

  8. [Considerations on the Sistema Único de Saúde in the twenty-first century: an interview with Lígia Bahia].

    PubMed

    Bahia, Lígia; Cueto, Marcos; Benchimol, Jaime; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio; Cerqueira, Roberta C

    2014-01-01

    This interview with Lígia Bahia explores evaluations of the first 25 years of Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and analyzes the project's progress, impasses, and missteps. Bahia is critical of both tendencies currently found within SUS: the one that sees the system as aimed at equity and the other posing equality as its goal. She criticizes the ambivalence that various spheres of government have displayed in their decisions regarding large corporate groups and private health insurance plans, which conflict with the ideas of SUS. She evaluates the participation of doctors and other healthcare professionals in the system. Lastly, she analyzes the emergence of identity politics, which are missing from the public health reform project, whose emphasis was on equality. PMID:24789487

  9. [The participation of users, workers and counselors of health: a qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Grisotti, Márcia; Patrício, Zuleica Maria; Silva, Andréia da

    2010-05-01

    This is a qualitative approach research that aimed to analyze the effectiveness and the resoluteness of SUS actions as well as the satisfaction of the users. The units analyzed were a community and the Municipal Health Council of Florianópolis city. All data were collected through documental analysis, interview and participative observation. The sources for the data were: official documents and field observation record; community residents (subjects and families users of SUS), health workers and the Municipal Health Counselors. The results shows different understanding of health among the three classes of subjects, as well as the distance between practices and the referential professed within the Family Health Strategies. The council shows deficiencies in its organization, referral of deliberations, composition and representativeness, and the role of the counselor and its relationship with the entity represented. The public participation and the social control as essential conditions for the effectiveness of SUS proposals, still remain as an expectation and a big challenge. PMID:20464196

  10. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances. PMID:24583645

  11. Starch Catabolism by a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Is Directed by the Recognition of Amylose Helices

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2009-01-12

    The human gut microbiota performs functions that are not encoded in our Homo sapiens genome, including the processing of otherwise undigestible dietary polysaccharides. Defining the structures of proteins involved in the import and degradation of specific glycans by saccharolytic bacteria complements genomic analysis of the nutrient-processing capabilities of gut communities. Here, we describe the atomic structure of one such protein, SusD, required for starch binding and utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent adaptive forager of glycans in the distal human gut microbiota. The binding pocket of this unique {alpha}-helical protein contains an arc of aromatic residues that complements the natural helical structure of starch and imposes this conformation on bound maltoheptaose. Furthermore, SusD binds cyclic oligosaccharides with higher affinity than linear forms. The structures of several SusD/oligosaccharide complexes reveal an inherent ligand recognition plasticity dominated by the three-dimensional conformation of the oligosaccharides rather than specific interactions with the composite sugars.

  12. The principles of the Brazilian Unified Health System, studied based on similitude analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Pontes, Ana Paula Munhen; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to analyze and compare the incorporation of the ethical-doctrinal and organizational principles into the social representations of the Unified Health System (SUS) among health professionals. Method a study grounded in Social Representations Theory, undertaken with 125 subjects, in eight health institutions in Rio de Janeiro. The free word association technique was applied to the induction term "SUS", the words evoked being analyzed using the techniques of the Vergès matrix and similitude analysis. Results it was identified that the professionals' social representations vary depending on their level of education, and that those with higher education represent a subgroup responsible for the process of representational change identified. This result was confirmed through similitude analysis. Conclusion a process of representational change is ongoing, in which it was ascertained that the professionals incorporated the principles of the SUS into their symbolic constructions. The similitude analysis was shown to be a fruitful technique for research in nursing. PMID:24553704

  13. A nanostructured electrode of IrOx foil on the carbon nanotubes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Min; Cai, Jhen-Hong; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Tiong, Kwong-Kau

    2011-09-01

    IrOx nanofoils (IrOxNF) of high surface area are sputtered on multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the preparation of a structured electrode on a stainless steel (SUS) substrate for supercapacitor applications. This IrOx/CNT/SUS electrode is featured with intriguing IrOx curved foils of 2-3 nm in thickness and 400-500 nm in height, grown on top of the vertically aligned CNT film with a tube diameter of ~ 40 nm. These nanofoils are moderately oxidized during reactive sputtering and appeared translucent under the electron microscope. Detailed structural analysis shows that they are comprised of contiguous grains of iridium metal, iridium dioxide, and glassy iridium oxide. Considerable Raman line broadening is also evidenced for the attributed nanosized iridium oxides. Two capacitive properties of the electrode are significantly enhanced with addition of the curved IrOx foils. First, IrOxNF reduces the electrode Ohmic resistance, which was measured at 3.5 ? cm2 for the CNT/SUS and 2.5 ? cm2 for IrOxNF/CNT/SUS using impedance spectroscopy. Second, IrOxNF raises the electrode capacitance from 17.7 F g - 1 (CNT/SUS) to 317 F g - 1 (IrOx/CNT/SUS), measured with cyclic voltammetry. This notable increase is further confirmed by the galvanostatic charge/discharge experiment, measuring 370 F g - 1 after 2000 uninterrupted cycles between - 1.0 and 0.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl).

  14. A nanostructured electrode of IrOx foil on the carbon nanotubes for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Min; Cai, Jhen-Hong; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Tiong, Kwong-Kau

    2011-09-01

    IrO(x) nanofoils (IrO(x)NF) of high surface area are sputtered on multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the preparation of a structured electrode on a stainless steel (SUS) substrate for supercapacitor applications. This IrO(x)/CNT/SUS electrode is featured with intriguing IrO(x) curved foils of 2-3 nm in thickness and 400-500 nm in height, grown on top of the vertically aligned CNT film with a tube diameter of ? 40 nm. These nanofoils are moderately oxidized during reactive sputtering and appeared translucent under the electron microscope. Detailed structural analysis shows that they are comprised of contiguous grains of iridium metal, iridium dioxide, and glassy iridium oxide. Considerable Raman line broadening is also evidenced for the attributed nanosized iridium oxides. Two capacitive properties of the electrode are significantly enhanced with addition of the curved IrO(x) foils. First, IrO(x)NF reduces the electrode Ohmic resistance, which was measured at 3.5 ? cm(2) for the CNT/SUS and 2.5 ? cm(2) for IrO(x)NF/CNT/SUS using impedance spectroscopy. Second, IrO(x)NF raises the electrode capacitance from 17.7 F g(-1) (CNT/SUS) to 317 F g(-1) (IrO(x)/CNT/SUS), measured with cyclic voltammetry. This notable increase is further confirmed by the galvanostatic charge/discharge experiment, measuring 370 F g(-1) after 2000 uninterrupted cycles between - 1.0 and 0.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl). PMID:21828896

  15. Global Selection on Sucrose Synthase Haplotypes during a Century of Wheat Breeding1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jian; Jiang, Qiyan; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Zhang, Hongna; Zhang, Xueyong

    2014-01-01

    Spike number per unit area, number of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weight (TKW) are important yield components. In China, increases in wheat (Triticum aestivum) yields are mainly due to increases in grain number per spike and TKW. TKW mainly depends on starch content, as starch accounts for about 70% of the grain endosperm. Sucrose synthase catalysis is the first step in the conversion of sucrose to starch, that is, the conversion of sucrose to fructose and UDP-glucose by the wheat sucrose synthase genes (TaSus1 and TaSus2) that are located on chromosomes 7A/7B/7D and 2A/2B/2D, respectively. A total of 1,520 wheat accessions were genotyped at the six loci. Two, two, five, and two haplotypes were identified at the TaSus2-2A, TaSus2-2B, TaSus1-7A, and TaSus1-7B loci, respectively. Their main variations were detected within the introns. Significant differences between the haplotypes correlated with TKW differences among 348 modern Chinese cultivars from the core collection. Frequency changes for favored haplotypes showed gradual increases in cultivars released since beginning of the last century in China, Europe, and North America. Geographic distributions and time changes of favored haplotypes were characterized in six major wheat production regions worldwide. Strong selection bottlenecks to haplotype variations occurred at polyploidization and domestication and during breeding of wheat. Genetic-effect differences between haplotypes at the same locus influence the selection time and intensity. This work shows that the endosperm starch synthesis pathway is a major target of indirect selection in global wheat breeding for higher yield. PMID:24402050

  16. Rheological modelling of complex fluids. I. The concept of effective volume fraction revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quemada, D.

    1998-01-01

    Number of complex fluids (as slurries, drilling muds, paints and coatings, many foods, cosmetics, biofluids...) can approximately be described as concentrated dispersions of Structural Units (SUs). Due to shear forces, SUs are assumed to be approximately spherical in shape and uniform in size under steady flow conditions, so that a complex fluid can be considered as a roughly monodisperse dispersion of roughly spherical SUs (with a shear-dependent mean radius), what allows to generalize hard sphere models of monodisperse suspensions to complex fluids. A rheological model of such dispersions of SUs is based on the concept of the effective volume fraction, ?_{eff} which depends on flow conditions. Indeed, in competition with particle interactions, hydrodynamic forces can modify (i) S, the number fraction of particles that all SUs contain, (ii) both SUs arrangements and their internal structure, especially the SU's compactness, \\varphi. As a structural variable, S is governed by a kinetic equation. Through the shear-dependent kinetic rates involved in the latter, the general solution S depends on ?, a dimensionless shear variable, leading to ?_{eff}(t, ?; \\varphi). The structural modelling is achieved by introducing this expression of ?_{eff} into a well-established viscosity model of hard sphere suspensions. Using the steady state solution of the kinetic equation, S_{eq}(? ), allows to model non-Newtonian behaviors of complex fluids under steady shear conditions, as pseudo-plastic, plastic, dilatant ... ones. In this model, the ratio of high shear to low shear limiting viscosities appears as a key variable. Different examples of application will be discussed.

  17. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum speed. PMID:25741285

  18. Fasiglifam/TAK-875, a Selective GPR40 Agonist, Improves Hyperglycemia in Rats Unresponsive to Sulfonylureas and Acts Additively with Sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryo; Tsujihata, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Masami; Miyawaki, Kazumasa; Matsuda, Kae; Takeuchi, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Sulfonylureas (SUs) are widely used insulin secretagogues, but they have adverse effects including hypoglycemia and secondary failure. Fasiglifam/TAK-875, a selective GPR40 agonist, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improves hyperglycemia. In the present study, we compared the in vivo glucose-lowering effects of fasiglifam with SUs. The risk of secondary failure of fasiglifam and the efficacy in rats desensitized to SUs were also evaluated. Moreover, we assessed whether fasiglifam was effective when combined with SUs. In diabetic neonatally streptozotocin-induced rats 1.5 days after birth (N-STZ-1.5), oral administrations of fasiglifam (3-30 mg/kg) dose dependently improved glucose tolerance; the effect was greater than that of glibenclamide at maximal effective doses (glucose AUC: fasiglifam, -37.6%; glibenclamide, -12.3%). Although the glucose-lowering effects of glibenclamide (10 mg/kg/day) were completely diminished in N-STZ-1.5 rats after 4 weeks of treatment, effects were maintained in rats receiving fasiglifam (10 mg/kg/day), even after 15 weeks. Fasiglifam (3-10 mg/kg) was still effective in two models desensitized to SUs: 15-week glibenclamide-treated N-STZ-1.5 rats and aged Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Acute administration of fasiglifam (3 mg/kg) and glimepiride (10 mg/kg) in combination additively decreased glucose AUC (fasiglifam, -25.3%; glimepiride, -20.0%; combination, -43.1%). Although glimepiride (10 mg/kg) decreased plasma glucose below normal in nonfasted control rats, fasiglifam (3 mg/kg) maintained normoglycemia, and no further exaggeration of hypoglycemia was observed with combination treatment. These results indicate that GPR40 agonists could be more effective and durable than SUs. Our results also provide new insights into GPR40 pharmacology and rationale for the use of GPR40 agonists in diabetic patients with SU failure. PMID:26813930

  19. Maternal care affects the phenotype of a rat model for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    van Vugt, Ruben W. M.; Meyer, Francisca; van Hulten, Josephus A.; Vernooij, Jeroen; Cools, Alexander R.; Verheij, Michel M. M.; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder caused by an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including early postnatal stressors. To explore this issue, we use two rat lines, apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rats that display schizophrenia-relevant features and their phenotypic counterpart, apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rats. These rat lines differ not only in their gnawing response to apomorphine, but also in their behavioral response to novelty (APO-SUS: high, APO-UNSUS: low). In this study, we examined the effects of early postnatal cross-fostering on maternal care and on the phenotypes of the cross-fostered APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS animals later in life. Cross-fostered APO-UNSUS animals showed decreased body weights as pups and decreased novelty-induced locomotor activity as adults (i.e., more extreme behavior), in accordance with the less appropriate maternal care provided by APO-SUS vs. their own APO-UNSUS mothers (i.e., the APO-SUS mother displayed less non-arched-back nursing and more self-grooming, and was more away from its nest). In contrast, cross-fostered APO-SUS animals showed increased body weights as pups and reduced apomorphine-induced gnawing later in life (i.e., normalization of their extreme behavior), in line with the more appropriate maternal care provided by APO-UNSUS relative to their own APO-SUS mothers (i.e., the APO-UNSUS mother displayed more non-arched-back nursing and similar self-grooming, and was not more away). Furthermore, we found that, in addition to arched-back nursing, non-arched-back nursing was an important feature of maternal care, and that cross-fostering APO-SUS mothers, but not cross-fostering APO-UNSUS mothers, displayed increased apomorphine-induced gnawing. Thus, cross-fostering not only causes early postnatal stress shaping the phenotypes of the cross-fostered animals later in life, but also affects the phenotypes of the cross-fostering mothers. PMID:25157221

  20. [Community Health Agent: status adapted with Family Health Program reality?].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karina Tonini; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Arcieri, Renato Moreira; Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the status and work reality of Community Health Agents, with the purpose of contributing to the improvement of the Brazilian Health System (SUS) in small cities. It was discussed aspects related to their participation in the team of the Family Health Program (PSF) and their interaction with the community. It was observed a lack of motivation and experience, which compromises the quality of Agents performance in the community. It is known that these findings are reflex and consequence of an established context. It is necessary the team rethink their practice, specially the managers, having always as a fundament the principles that guide the SUS and PSF. PMID:21503451

  1. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  2. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  3. Perfil de Franklin Chang- Díaz de Franklin Chang-Díaz - Duration: 117 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Franklin Chang-Díaz, el primer astronauta hispano de la NASA, habla sobre qué lo inspiró a trabajar con cohetes y convertirse en astronauta. Chang-Díaz alienta a los jóvenes para que sigan sus sueños.

  4. Articulation Report: Report for the Florida Community College System, Data for Fall 1995, Fall 1996, Fall 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This articulation report presents descriptive headcount statistics for undergraduates in Florida's State University System (SUS) institutions who, prior to enrolling in the university, were enrolled in a Florida public community college. In fall 1997, there were 66,299 such students, a decrease of 0.7 percent from fall 1995 in which there were…

  5. Planificar la transición a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  6. Excluding feral swine, javelina, and raccoons from deer bait stations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a design, list of materials, and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to adm...

  7. Validation of a major quantitative trait locus associated with host response to experimental infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious diseases are costly to the swine industry and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most devastating. In earlier work, a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV was identified on Sus scrofa chromosome 4 (SSC4) using ~560 exp...

  8. Design of Higher Education Teaching Models and Carbon Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caird, Sally; Lane, Andy; Swithenby, Ed; Roy, Robin; Potter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the main findings of the SusTEACH study of the carbon-based environmental impacts of 30 higher education (HE) courses in 15 UK institutions, based on an analysis of the likely energy consumption and carbon emissions of a range of face-to-face, distance, online and information and communication technology…

  9. Importance and Update of Direct Seed Certification Programs in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) and agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming. As part of no-regret strategies, practices that sequester soil C help reduce soil erosion and improve water quality and are consistent with more sus...

  10. Aujeszky's disease in red fox (Vulpes vulpes): phylogenetic analysis unravels an unexpected epidemiologic link.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Claudio; Dondo, Alessandro; Cerutti, Francesco; Masoero, Loretta; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Zoppi, Simona; D'Errico, Valeria; Grattarola, Carla; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Peletto, Simone

    2014-07-01

    We describe Aujeszky's disease in a female of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Although wild boar (Sus scrofa) would be the expected source of infection, phylogenetic analysis suggested a domestic rather than a wild source of virus, underscoring the importance of biosecurity measures in pig farms to prevent contact with wild animals. PMID:24807353

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LACTOBACILLUS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM FUEL-ETHANOL PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial contamination of commercial fermentation cultures is a common and costly problem to the fuel ethanol industry. Antimicrobials such as tetracycline (TET), penicillin G (PEN), and virginiamycin (VIR) are frequently used to control contamination but there are little data available on the sus...

  12. Cystic Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Cystic Fibrosis KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis Print A A A Text Size What's in ... with a condition she's known all her life — cystic fibrosis (say: SIS-tik fi-BRO-sus). Her parents ...

  13. Tissue reaction around metal implants observed by X-ray scanning analytical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Uo, M; Watari, F; Yokoyama, A; Matsuno, H; Kawasaki, T

    2001-04-01

    The soft tissues implanted with Cu, Ni, Fe, Ag, Ti, Ni-Ti, SUS304 and SUS316 wires were investigated with XSAM and compared with histological observation. The relationship between the distribution of dissolved metal elements and the tissue response was evaluated. Of the metals whose dissolution was clearly observed by XSAM, severe tissue damage was observed around Ni and Cu implants, while fibrous connective tissue was formed around the Fe implant. The concentration in surrounding tissue was estimated by XSAM using the newly prepared standard specimens. The dissolved concentration was approximately 10-20 mm for Ni and Cu and was considered to be in the order of ten times higher in Fe. The results indicated that the toxicity at the same concentration was from greater Ni > Cu > Fe. For Ag, Ti, Ni-Ti, SUS304 and SUS316 implants, significant dissolution and severe tissue damage were not observed. The XSAM was especially useful to obtain the information of dissolution and distribution behavior of rare content of toxic and chemically unstable metals in the soft tissue. PMID:11246961

  14. Reproduccion del ganado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    La determination de prenez es una de las principales herramientas de manejo en el Ganado de came. Le habilidad de determiner prenez proporciona al productor un medio de tomar sus decsiones de seleccion y descartarte en momentos decisivos, enfocando los recursos de la operacion en reporductores confi...

  15. Los Sentimientos, Luchas, y Esperanzas de Cinco Familias Mexicana: The Sentiments, Struggles, and Hopes of Five Mexican Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dueñas, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Within the everyday space of their modest trailer homes, I observed compelling environments in the households of 5 Mexican families. In their homes, there existed "los padres con sus hijos" (parents with their children) who intuitively expressed "cariño," or love, for one another, conversed in multiple languages, practiced…

  16. Genetic analysis and identification of DNA markers linked to a novel Phytophthora sojae resistance gene in the Japanese soybean cultivar Waseshiroge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Waseshiroge is considered to be strongly resistant to several races of Phytophthora sojae in Japan. In order to characterize the inheritance of Waseshiroge resistance to P. sojae isolates, 42 F2 progeny plants and 94 F7:8 families were produced from crosses between the sus...

  17. Soil N and P availability for field applied slurry from swine fed traditional and low phytate corn diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine (Sus scrofa) slurry contains nutrients essential for crop production but usually contains more P relative to N than is required by most crops. Land application at rates to meet the crop N needs results in accumulation of excess P creating the potential for negative environmental impacts. Diet ...

  18. Allelic Polymorphism in the Promoter Region of the Sucrose Synthase-2 Gene in the Genus Saccharum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) is an important enzyme of sucrose metabolism in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids). One of the genes for sucrose synthase (Sus2) is more highly expressed in sucrose-storing genotypes than low sucrose S. spontaneum genotypes. We amplified and cloned the promoter region ...

  19. Estudio Lung-MAP: Protocolo modelo para el cáncer de pulmón de células escamosas

    Cancer.gov

    Conjunto de información sobre el estudio Lung-Map, el cual examinará los resultados del tratamiento en pacientes con cáncer de pulmón de células escamosas, quienes fueron asignados a recibir diferentes medicamentos dirigidos según los resultados del perfil genómico de sus tumores.

  20. Industry-University Research in Florida: Incentives, Barriers, and Prospects. A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Steven K.; And Others

    A project to assess the range of incentives and programs to establish more extensive research relationships between business firms and the Florida State University System (SUS) is described. The focus was research and development in the high-technology areas. Information was sought on incentives and barriers affecting business-university research…

  1. Preguntas y respuestas acerca del Estudio del

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en ingls) es un estudio clnico (un estudio de investigacin conducido con voluntarios) diseado para ver cómo el medicamento raloxifeno (Evista) se compara con el medicamento tamoxifeno (Nolvadex)

  2. Use of an Advanced Intercross Line Population for Precise Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Gray Leaf Spot Resistance in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grey leaf spot (GLS) (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) of maize (Zea mays L.)is an important fungal disease of maize in the U.S. and worldwide. The IBM population, an advanced intercross recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the maize lines Mo17 (resistant) and B73 (sus...

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Three Iberian Brucella suis Biovar 2 Strains Isolated from Wild Boars

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Tenreiro, Rogério; Corrêa de Sá, Maria Inácia

    2014-01-01

    Brucella suis biovar 2 is the most common biovar isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa) associated with transmission to outdoor-reared pigs in Europe. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequences of three strains isolated from wild boars in Portugal and Spain and belonging to the Iberian clone (haplotypes 2d and 2e). PMID:24994794

  4. An Integrated Systems Toxicology Approach to Assess and Predict the Health Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials and Their Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of nanotechnology on the US EPA and related research needs has been described in the Agency’s Nanotechnology White Paper1,2 and ORD’s Research Strategy3. The US EPA’s NMs environmental, health and ecological effects research is conducted in its Chemical Safety for Sus...

  5. Environmental and economic comparisons of manure application methods in farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative methods for applying livestock manure to no-till soils involve environmental and economic trade-offs. A process-level farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to evaluate methods for applying liquid dairy (Bos taurus L.) and swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure including no...

  6. Effects of ?-ferrite and welding structure on high-cycle fatigue properties of austenitic stainless steels weld metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, T.; Ogata, T.; Saito, M.; Hirayama, Y.

    2002-05-01

    We studied the effects of ?-ferrite and welding structure on high-cycle fatigue properties for austenitic stainless steel weld metals at cryogenic temperatures. SUS304L and SUS316L weld metals contained 0% ?-ferrite (0% material) and 10% ?-ferrite (10% material) were prepared. High-cycle fatigue tests were carried out at 293, 77 and 4 K. The S-N curves of those weld metals shifted towards higher stress levels, i.e., the longer life side, with decreasing test temperature. The ratios of 106-cycles fatigue strength (FS) to tensile strength (TS) of 0% material decreased from 0.8 to 0.45 and those of 10% material decreased between 0.35 to 0.65 with decreasing test temperature. Fatigue crack initiation sites of SUS304L 10% material were almost at blowholes, and those of SUS316L 10% material were at weld pass interface boundaries. On the other hand, those of 0% materials were considered to be due to the interface of the solidification structure. Although ?-ferrite reduces toughness at cryogenic temperatures in austenitic stainless steel weld metals, the effects of ?-ferrite on high-cycle fatigue properties are not significant.

  7. Changes in Susceptibility to Soybean Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Associated with Plant Age and Leaf Node Position

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of plant age and leaf node position on susceptibility to soybean rust was evaluated on plants (cv. Williams 82) grown in greenhouse and outdoor conditions. Leaves on the 2nd, 5th and 7th nodes of plants ranging in age from 39 (V4) to 75 (R8) days old were inoculated with urediniospore sus...

  8. Un programa innovador busca ayudar a las personas que cuidan a pacientes con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un programa educativo del City of Hope Cancer Center que ofrece a los profesionales de salud la información y las herramientas necesarias para ayudar a los familiares a saber cómo cuidarse a si mismos y a sus seres queridos con cáncer.

  9. Estudio muestra reducción de mortalidad en hombres con cáncer de próstata de grado intermedio

    Cancer.gov

    Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patroci

  10. Sustainable Manure Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability of modern manure management is far from certain, with many demonstrating significant limitations from the stand point of efficient use of manure resources and protection of environmental quality and human health. As demonstrated through this review, for manure management to be sus...

  11. Are we ready for the (range)land revolution?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland scientists have a tremendous amount of knowledge that could ensure that the transition from livestock production to other land uses is as sustainable as possible, while maintaining livestock production systems where they are the most biophysically, socially, culturally and economically sus...

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Language Version of the System Usability Scale

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Iman; Ghanbari, Zahra; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a widely used self–administered instrument for evaluating the usability of a wide range of products and services. The aims of this descriptive-methodological study were to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the SUS. Methods: The study was conducted among 202 university students from the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Content validity was evaluated by a panel of 10 experts. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), respectively. Additionally the feasibility of the measure was judged by ceiling and floor effect. Results: Content validity of the short form of Iranian SUS was established. Factor analyses supported the conceptual uni-dimensionality, and thus confirmed the construct validity of the measure. The internal consistency (? = 0.79) and test retest reliability (ICC = 0.96) were both approved and there was also no ceiling nor floor effect. Conclusions: The findings support the use of SUS for both practical and research settings in Iranian population. PMID:25097841

  13. Molecular and metabolic changes of cherelle wilt of cacao and its effect on Moniliophthora roreri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seeds of Theobroma cacao L. pods are processed into cocoa products. Cherelle wilt is physiological thinning of young pods that result in loss of potential pods. Cherelle wilt first occurs 50 days after pollination (DAP) and a second thinning occurs around 70 DAP. Cherelles are also highly sus...

  14. Divergent metabolic responses of Apostichopus japonicus suffered from skin ulceration syndrome and pathogen challenge.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Ou, Changrong; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Yali; Su, Xiurong; Li, Ye; Li, Taiwu

    2013-11-13

    Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is the main limitation in the development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries, in which Vibrio splendidus has been well documented as one of the major pathogens. However, the intrinsic mechanisms toward pathogen challenge and disease outbreak remain largely unknown at the metabolic level. In this work, the metabolic responses were investigated in muscles of sea cucumber among natural SUS-diseased and V. splendidus-challenged samples. The pathogen did not induce obvious biological effects in A. japonicus samples after infection for the first 24 h. An enhanced energy storage (or reduced energy demand) and immune responses were observed in V. splendidus-challenged A. japonicus samples at 48 h, as marked by increased glucose and branched chain amino acids, respectively. Afterward, infection of V. splendidus induced significant increases in energy demand in A. japonicus samples at both 72 and 96 h, confirmed by decreased glucose and glycogen, and increased ATP. Surprisingly, high levels of glycogen and glucose and low levels of threonine, alanine, arginine, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and ATP were founded in natural SUS-diseased sea cucumber. Our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interaction for sea cucumber, and informed that the metabolic biomarkers induced by V. splendidus were not usable for the prediction of SUS disease in practice. PMID:24127639

  15. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fy-BRO-sus) eat? mac 'n cheese hot dogs broccoli caramel apples all of the above If you picked #5, you're right! Kids with cystic ... she digs in every day at lunch. Maybe you can dig into a healthy lunch, too — and help other kids understand why eating right helps someone with CF stay ...

  16. Agriculture in the U.S. Corn Belt: Past, Present, and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past 50 years, agriculture in the U.S. Corn Belt has changed from diversified farms that included forage, grain, and livestock operations to larger management units that separated grain and animal production. Swine (Sus scrofa L.), chicken (Gallus Domesticus), turkey (Meleagris gallopava)...

  17. Coupling Manure Injection with Cover Crops to Enhance Nutrient Cycling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale hog (Sus scrofa) production is a major agricultural enterprise in the Midwest. Large numbers of confined hogs produce about 50 million tons per year of swine manure in Iowa alone. Rapid expansion of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased concentrations o...

  18. Temporal flux and spatial dynamics of nutrients, fecal indicators, and zoonotic pathogens in anaerobic swine manure lagoon water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure management in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the Mid-South US involves anaerobic lagoons. Lagoon effluent is used to irrigate and fertilize crops. Nutrients and bacteria in effluent have been sporadically characterized, but annual temporal changes...

  19. Forage soybean yield and quality response to water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forages could be used to diversify reduced and no-till dryland cropping systems from the traditional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system in the semiarid central Great Plains. Forages present an attractive alternative to grain and seed crops because of greater water use efficiency and less sus...

  20. [Use and sources of medicines: a population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Karen Sarmento; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicines is influenced by different factors. This study aimed to analyze the use of medicines and identify the sources for obtaining them and associated factors, using a population-based cross-sectional design with two-stage cluster sampling in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2008. Prevalence of use of at least one drug in the 3 previous days was 57.2% and prevalence of obtaining the drug from the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) was 30%. 47.8% of individuals with no health insurance had to pay out-of-pocket for their medication, and 10.9% of individuals with insurance nevertheless obtained their medication from the SUS. Use of medicines obtained from the SUS was associated with older age, widowhood, black or brown skin color, lower schooling and income, and lack of insurance. Only 2.1% reported not being able to obtain the prescribed medication, and the main reasons were lack of availability in the public system and lack of money for out-of-pocket purchases. The study identified the subgroups that obtained most of their medicines in the SUS and showed that these were the subgroups with the lowest use of medicines in the system. PMID:26886184