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Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim is to show the constitution of a theory of the learning in Jean Piaget's work from the overcoming of the secular opposition between learning and intelligence and on essa base to discuss the pedagogic traditional practice and his possible transformations. For it, we will effect the following analyses: 1) analysis of the relations that exist between theory and



Indicadores de riesgo y de gestión del riesgo de los desastres: resultados para Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los desastres naturales han repercutido en las perspectivas de desarrollo de muchos de los países de América Latina y el Caribe. Nicaragua está al frente de esta infortunada realidad, estando localizada en una de las zonas del mundo más propensa a amenazas naturales. Con el fin de apoyar a Nicaragua es reducir su vulnerabilidad frente a las amenazas y las

Omar D. Cardona




Microsoft Academic Search

Los desastres ocurridos en centros urbanos, no sólo en Colombia (sismo de 1983 en Popayán, el sismo de 1999 en el eje cafetero), sino en otros países del mundo1, han generado interés acerca de las implicaciones de las amenazas en las ciudades. Ante ello el gobierno colombiano ha expresado su preocupación a través de una serie de reformas y leyes

Alexandra Vallejo


SUS Source Level Committee Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report of the SUS Source Level Committee, which was established by the Manager, Long Range Acoustic Propagation Project to investigate the source levels of small explosive charges, principally SUS. The need for the study arose because of...



SUS Source Level Error Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an analysis of major terms which contribute to signal analysis error in a proposed experiment to calibrate source levels of SUS (Signal Underwater Sound). A unique model of the digital signal analysis process was used to verify and emp...

C. I. Holmer



Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta: Economía de sus recursos naturales  

Microsoft Academic Search

La La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta es una subregión estratégica para el Caribe colombiano, en la medida en que es la principal fuente de agua para tres de sus departamentos. Los ríos que nacen en la Sierra Nevada producen más de 10.000 millones de metros cúbicos de agua por año, de los cuales una parte se convierte en fuente

Joaquín Viloria De La Hoz



Identification of the Site-Specific DNA Invertase Responsible for the Phase Variation of SusC/SusD Family Outer Membrane Proteins in Bacteroides fragilis? †  

PubMed Central

The human gut microbe Bacteroides fragilis can alter the expression of its surface molecules, such as capsular polysaccharides and SusC/SusD family outer membrane proteins, through reversible DNA inversions. We demonstrate here that DNA inversions at 12 invertible regions, including three gene clusters for SusC/SusD family proteins, were controlled by a single tyrosine site-specific recombinase (Tsr0667) encoded by BF0667 in B. fragilis strain YCH46. Genetic disruption of BF0667 diminished or attenuated shufflon-type DNA inversions at all three susC/susD genes clusters, as well as simple DNA inversions at nine other loci, most of which colocalized with susC/susD family genes. The inverted repeat sequences found within the Tsr0667-regulated invertible regions shared the consensus motif sequence AGTYYYN4GDACT. Tsr0667 specifically mediated the DNA inversions of 10 of the 12 regions, even under an Escherichia coli background when the invertible regions were exposed to BF0667 in E. coli cells. Thus, Tsr0667 is an additional globally acting DNA invertase in B. fragilis, which probably involves the selective expression of SusC/SusD family outer membrane proteins.

Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ichimura, Minoru; Wakimoto, Shin; Kuhara, Satoru; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Kuwahara, Tomomi



Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate  

SciTech Connect

PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400/sup 0/C to a target fluence of 5 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel.

Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.



Las corporaciones autonomas regionales del caribe colombiano: Un analisis de sus finanzas y gobierno corporativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales (car) y las Corporaciones de Desarrollo Sostenible (cds) son las instituciones encargadas de la protección del medio ambiente en Colombia. Este trabajo estudia el desempeño de las corporaciones que tienen jurisdicción sobre la Costa Caribe. En particular, examina sus principales fortalezas y limitaciones administrativas, y analiza si en sus presupuestos se reproducen las desigualdades regionales que

Joaquin Viloria de la Hoz



Localization of sucrose synthase in developing seed and siliques of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals diverse roles for SUS during development  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the roles of sucrose synthase (SUS) in developing seeds and siliques of Arabidopsis thaliana. Enzyme activity assays showed that SUS activity was highest in developing whole siliques and young rosette leaves compared with other tissues including mature leaves, stems, and flowers. Surprisingly, quantitative PCR analyses revealed little correlation between SUS activity and transcript expression, which indicated the importance of examining the role of SUS at the protein level. Therefore, immunolocalization was performed over a developmental time course to determine the previously unreported cellular localization of SUS in Arabidopsis seed and silique tissues. At 3?d and 10?d after flowering (daf), SUS protein localized to the silique wall, seed coat, funiculus, and endosperm. By 13 daf, SUS protein was detected in the embryo and aleurone layer, but was absent from the seed coat and funiculus. Starch grains were also present in the seed coat at 3 and 10 daf, but were absent at 13 daf. Co-localization of SUS protein and starch grains in the seed coat at 3 and 10 daf indicates that SUS may be involved in temporary starch deposition during the early stages of seed development, whilst in the later stages SUS metabolizes sucrose in the embryo and cotyledon. Within the silique wall, SUS localized specifically to the companion cells, indicating that SUS activity may be required to provide energy for phloem transport activities in the silique wall. The results highlight the diverse roles that SUS may play during the development of silique and seed in Arabidopsis.

Fallahi, Hossein; Scofield, Graham N.; Badger, Murray R.; Chow, Wah Soon; Furbank, Robert T.; Ruan, Yong-Ling



[The construction of the 'SUS problem' in the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo].  


The article examines the process of discursive construction of the 'SUS problem' in reports published in the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo in 2008. Through an online search of the Folha archives, 667 news items were selected and then studied from the perspectives of critical discourse analysis and contributions from social constructionism. In methodological terms, at the text practice level of analysis, the investigation sought to determine what linguistic resources had been used to construct the SUS problem. At the discursive practice level of analysis, it further explored how the newspaper medium and the journalistic style influenced the production of these meanings. The article concludes that as this production constructs the SUS problem, it fosters a limited, negative view of the the Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Healthcare System, or SUS) based on mistrust and on the notion that it is impossible to improve the system. PMID:23970172

Silva, Gabriela Martins; Rasera, Emerson Fernando



High temperature erosion characteristics of surface treated SUS410 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the high temperature erosion characteristics of two types of surface-treated SUS410 steels; overlay welding and forging of the base metal. Two-layer overlay welding of 6mm and forging with a 10% reduction, were used on a base metal of SUS410, to prepare specimens. High temperature solid particle erosion tests using a test temperature of 1173K were performed using

K. Shimizu; Y. Xinba; M. Ishida; T. Kato




Microsoft Academic Search

From the perspective of the contribution social sciences can make towards neutralizing the impacts that phenomena such as hurricanes and floods can generate on the economic and social life in Veracruz, we are interested in exploring the relationship that exists between human development and natural disasters in this text. To this end, we can find support in the wide range

Hipólito Rodríguez



Internal Stress Distribution Measurement of TIG Welded SUS304 Samples Using Neutron Diffraction Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of residual stress of SUS304 samples that were undergone TIG welding process with four different electric currents has been measured. The welding has been done in the middle part of the samples that was previously grooved by milling machine. Before they were welded the samples were annealed at 650 degree Celsius for one hour. The annealing process was done to eliminate residual stress generated by grooving process so that the residual stress within the samples was merely produced from welding process. The calculation of distribution of residual stress was carried out by measuring the strains within crystal planes of Fe(220) SUS304. Strain, Young modulus, and Poisson ratio of Fe(220) SUS304 were measured using DN1-M neutron diffractometer. Young modulus and Poisson ratio of Fe(220) SUS304 sample were measured in-situ. The result of calculations showed that distribution of residual stress of SUS304 in the vicinity of welded area is influenced both by treatments given at the samples-making process and by the electric current used during welding process.

Muslih, M. Refai; Sumirat, I.; Sairun; Purwanta



Differentiation of European wild boar ( Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic swine ( Sus scrofa domestica) meats by PCR analysis targeting the mitochondrial D-loop and the nuclear melanocortin receptor 1 ( MC1R) genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) meats by PCR targeting sequences from two molecular markers: the mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) region and the nuclear melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene. A polymorphic D-loop fragment (?270bp) was amplified and sequenced in a number of wild and domestic Sus scrofa meat

Violeta Fajardo; Isabel González; Irene Martín; Mar?´a Rojas; Pablo E. Hernández; Teresa Garc?´a; Rosario Martín



A Study of Instructional Faculty Salaries at USF, SUS and National Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates 10-year trends in instructional faculty salaries by sex and rank for USF, five SUS Peers (UF, FSU, FIU, UCF, FAU) and eight National Peers (North Carolina State, Alabama-Birmingham, Illinois-Chicago, California-Irvine, SUNY-Stony Brook, SUNY-Buffalo, Cincinnati, Rutgers). Methods: Historical instructional faculty salary…

Micceri, Theodore



The development of a sonobuoy using sparker acoustic sources as an alternative to explosive SUS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is on the development and testing of sparker acoustic sources deployed in a sonobuoy for environmental measurements. Currently, signal underwater sound (SUS) explosive acoustic source devices are used in the measurement of acoustic transmission loss and reverberation. Sparker acoustic sources are an alternative to explosives that offer potential as a cost-effective method of obtaining controllable, multiple, broadband acoustic

Raymond B. Schaefer; Dan Flynn




Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, five wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) from Greece were introduced to the island of Cyprus for game farming. Examination of the coloration of piglets born in captivity indicated that they were the product of crossbreeding with domestic pig. In 1994, wild boars were illegally released in Lemesos (Limassol) Forest and, in 1996, in Troodos National Forest Park. Quickly,



Optimizing SUS 304 wire drawing process by grey relational analysis utilizing Taguchi method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the stainless steel 304 (SUS 304) wire drawing process, optimizing the die life and wire tensile strength, which are the larger-the-better quality characteristics (QCH) types, is of main interest. Three control factors, involving reduction ratio, lubricant temperature, and drawing speed, were investigated utilizing L9(34) orthogonal array (OA). The grey relational analysis was conducted for the normalized signal-to-noise (S\\/N) ratios.

Al-Refaie Abbas; Ming-Hsien Li; Kuo-Cheng Tai



Torque teno sus virus (TTV) detection in aborted and slaughterhouse collected foetuses.  


The aim of this study was to estimate the presence of Torque teno sus virus (TTV) species in pig foetuses in order to assess the possible relationship between swine TTV infection and abortion in swine. A total of 98 abortion cases and foetuses collected from 55 pregnant sows at slaughterhouse were analysed by PCR for the presence of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTV1) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTV2). All foetuses were necropsied and relevant tissues were collected, pooled, and submitted to DNA extraction. The overall prevalence of swine TTV1 and TTV2 in aborted foetuses (n = 98) was 17.0% and 29.6%, respectively. For slaughterhouse collected foetuses (n = 55), 10.9% were TTV1 PCR positive and 40.0% were positive for TTV2. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing prevalence of swine TTVs by type of sample (aborted versus slaughterhouse collected foetuses) or by gestation stage. The present work represents the first description of swine TTV infection in pig foetuses at different stages of gestation. Results obtained confirm that vertical transmission is an important route of TTVs dissemination. In addition, data obtained suggest that swine TTVs should not be considered as infectious agents responsible for abortion occurrence. PMID:20452011

Martínez-Guinó, L; Kekarainen, T; Maldonado, J; Aramouni, M; Llorens, A; Segalés, J



[The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) is universal, but quotas are the norm].  


In the context of the Unified Health System (SUS), health actions and services constitute a social right to be guaranteed by the State and managed under the responsibility of three autonomous spheres of government. This is a holistic multiple case study with a qualitative approach based on the assumptions of Comprehensive Everyday Sociology, which originated from a PhD thesis. It sought to understand the construction of comprehensive health practices in the daily work of family health teams and managers of the cities in Vale do Jequitinhonha - Minas Gerais, Brazil. The individuals studied were professionals from the Family Health Teams, support staff and managers with a total of 48 participants. In order to reveal the construction of the whole, the data show that "SUS is universal, but quotas are the norm." Bearing in mind its limitations, it is difficult to ensure that SUS is a right for all. Thus, regulation is essential to order, guide, define and optimize the use of resources available for comprehensive care and also guarantee public access to actions and services in a timely and equitable manner. PMID:23338508

Viegas, Selma Maria da Fonseca; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos



Key features of the two-intron Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene SUS1 contribute to its alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing allows dramatic expansion of the eukaryotic proteome and facilitates cellular response to changes in environmental conditions. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene SUS1, which encodes a protein involved in mRNA export and histone H2B deubiquitination, contains two introns; non-canonical sequences in the first intron contribute to its retention, a common form of alternative splicing in plants and fungi. Here we show that the pattern of SUS1 splicing changes in response to environmental change such as temperature elevation, and the retained intron product is subject to nonsense-mediated decay. The activities of different splicing factors determine the pattern of SUS1 splicing, including intron retention and exon skipping. Unexpectedly, removal of the 3? intron is affected by splicing of the upstream intron, suggesting that cross-exon interactions influence intron removal. Production of different SUS1 isoforms is important for cellular function, as we find that the temperature sensitivity and histone H2B deubiquitination defects observed in sus1? cells are only partially suppressed by SUS1 cDNA, but SUS1 that is able to undergo splicing complements these phenotypes. These data illustrate a role for S. cerevisiae alternative splicing in histone modification and cellular function and reveal important mechanisms for splicing of yeast genes containing multiple introns.

Hossain, Munshi Azad; Rodriguez, Caitlin M.; Johnson, Tracy L.



Drosophila Suppressor of Sable Protein [Su(s)] Promotes Degradation of Aberrant and Transposon-Derived RNAs?  

PubMed Central

RNA-binding proteins act at various stages of gene expression to regulate and fine-tune patterns of mRNA accumulation. One protein in this class is Drosophila Su(s), a nuclear protein that has been previously shown to inhibit the accumulation of mutant transcripts by an unknown mechanism. Here, we have identified several additional RNAs that are downregulated by Su(s). These Su(s) targets include cryptic wild-type transcripts from the developmentally regulated Sgs4 and ng1 genes, noncoding RNAs derived from tandemly repeated ??/?? elements within an Hsp70 locus, and aberrant transcripts induced by Hsp70 promoter transgenes inserted at ectopic sites. We used the ?? RNAs to investigate the mechanism of Su(s) function and obtained evidence that these transcripts are degraded by the nuclear exosome and that Su(s) promotes this process. Furthermore, we showed that the RNA binding domains of Su(s) are important for this effect and mapped the sequences involved to a 267-nucleotide region of an ?? element. Taken together, these results suggest that Su(s) binds to certain nascent transcripts and stimulates their degradation by the nuclear exosome.

Kuan, Yung-Shu; Brewer-Jensen, Paul; Bai, Wen-Li; Hunter, Cedric; Wilson, Carrie B.; Bass, Sarah; Abernethy, John; Wing, James S.; Searles, Lillie L.



Discrimination of two alleles of the melanocortin receptor 1 gene to discern European wild boar ( Sus scrofa scrofa ) and domestic pig ( Sus scrofa domestica ) in meat products by real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for the discrimination of two subspecies of sus scrofa in meat\\u000a products has been developed. Primers and probes target at a sequence in the melanocortin receptor 1 (MCR1) gene being associated\\u000a in the expression of wild-type coat color. Both PCRs amplify a 56-bp product of DNA from wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa)

Walter Mayer; Rupert Hochegger



Differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) meats by PCR analysis targeting the mitochondrial D-loop and the nuclear melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) genes.  


This work describes the differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) meats by PCR targeting sequences from two molecular markers: the mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) region and the nuclear melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene. A polymorphic D-loop fragment (?270bp) was amplified and sequenced in a number of wild and domestic Sus scrofa meat samples, to find a nucleotide region suitable for PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequence data showed the presence of only a few point mutations across Sus scrofa D-loop sequences, not allowing direct discrimination between wild boar and domestic swine meats. Later, the MC1R gene was targeted and Sus scrofa-specific primers designed to amplify a 795bp MC1R fragment. Subsequent RFLP analysis of the MC1R swine-specific amplicons allowed selection of BspHI and BstUI endonucleases to carry out intraspecific Sus scrofa differentiation. Digestion of MC1R amplicons with the chosen enzymes generated characteristic PCR-RFLP profiles that allowed discrimination among meats from wild and domestic swine specimens. The technique also enabled the detection of samples that yielded heterozygous profiles, suggesting hybrids resulting from wild boar and domestic pig breeding. The PCR-RFLP reported here, targeting the MC1R gene may be routinely applied to verify the correct labelling of game products. PMID:22062284

Fajardo, Violeta; González, Isabel; Martín, Irene; Rojas, Mar? A; Hernández, Pablo E; Garc? A, Teresa; Martín, Rosario



SUS-BAR: a database of pig proteins with statistically validated structural and functional annotation.  


Given the relevance of the pig proteome in different studies, including human complex maladies, a statistical validation of the annotation is required for a better understanding of the role of specific genes and proteins in the complex networks underlying biological processes in the animal. Presently, approximately 80% of the pig proteome is still poorly annotated, and the existence of protein sequences is routinely inferred automatically by sequence alignment towards preexisting sequences. In this article, we introduce SUS-BAR, a database that derives information mainly from UniProt Knowledgebase and that includes 26 206 pig protein sequences. In SUS-BAR, 16 675 of the pig protein sequences are endowed with statistically validated functional and structural annotation. Our statistical validation is determined by adopting a cluster-centric annotation procedure that allows transfer of different types of annotation, including structure and function. Each sequence in the database can be associated with a set of statistically validated Gene Ontologies (GOs) of the three main sub-ontologies (Molecular Function, Biological Process and Cellular Component), with Pfam functional domains, and when possible, with a cluster Hidden Markov Model that allows modelling the 3D structure of the protein. A database search allows some statistics demonstrating the enrichment in both GO and Pfam annotations of the pig proteins as compared with UniProt Knowledgebase annotation. Searching in SUS-BAR allows retrieval of the pig protein annotation for further analysis. The search is also possible on the basis of specific GO terms and this allows retrieval of all the pig sequences participating into a given biological process, after annotation with our system. Alternatively, the search is possible on the basis of structural information, allowing retrieval of all the pig sequences with the same structural characteristics. PMID:24065691

Piovesan, Damiano; Profiti, Giuseppe; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fariselli, Piero; Fontanesi, Luca; Casadio, Rita



Cytochrome b based genetic differentiation of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and its use in wildlife forensics.  


The Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) is a protected species and listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The wild pig is often hunted illegally and sold in market as meat warranting punishment under law. To avoid confusion in identification of these two subspecies during wildlife forensic examinations, we describe genetic differentiation of Indian wild and domestic pigs using a molecular technique. Analysis of sequence generated from the partial fragment (421bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene exhibited unambiguous (>3%) genetic variation between Indian wild and domestic pigs. We observed nine forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) variations between Indian wild and domestic pigs. The overall genetic variation described in this study is helpful in forensic identification of the biological samples of wild and domestic pigs. It also helped in differentiating the Indian wild pig from other wild pig races. This study indicates that domestic pigs in India are not descendent of the Indian wild pig, however; they are closer to the other wild pig races found in Asia and Europe. PMID:23601732

Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajit; Hussain, Syed Ainul; Vipin; Singh, Lalji



Pig-mentation: postmortem iris color change in the eyes of Sus scrofa.  


Experienced forensic pathologists and examiners may be familiar with the phenomenon of postmortem iris color change; however, only Knight, Simpson's forensic medicine, Arnold, London, 1997; Ref. 1 and Saukko and Knight, Knight's forensic pathology, 3rd ed., Arnold, London, 2004; Ref. 2 have referred to it in the literature, and to date, there have been no published scientific research studies on this taphonomic artifact. A controlled experiment was conducted of postmortem changes to isolated Sus scrofa eyes. The eyes (n = 137) were separated into three groups and each sample was observed for 3-day postmortem at a different temperature. In addition, a Sus scrofa head was obtained to observe postmortem changes of eyes in situ. All isolated blue eyes in the experiment, at room temperature and higher, changed to brown/black within 48 h. The in situ blue eye, at room temperature, turned brown/black within 72 h. If iris color consistently changes postmortem in humans, then this taphonomic artifact must be incorporated into victim identification protocol, including disaster victim identification software, and autopsy reports to prevent inaccurate victim identification and inappropriate exclusion from the identification process. PMID:18471208

Abraham, Elizabeth; Cox, Margaret; Quincey, David



Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Evaluation in Fatigue Properties of Stainless Steel SUS304L at Cryogenic Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very simple and safe mechanical properties testing procedure to evaluate hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) in the environment of high pressure and low temperature hydrogen has been developed. In this method, the high-pressure hydrogen environment is produced just inside the hole in the specimen. In this work, the effect of HEE on fatigue property for an austenitic stainless steel SUS304L was evaluated at 298, 190, and 20 K. The tests at 20 K were carried out using a cryostat with a Gifford-McMahan (GM) refrigerator. It took about 10 hours to cool specimens from room temperature to 20 K in the cryostat. The effect of HEE in fatigue properties was observed at higher stress level in room temperature and 190 K, but it was not clear at 20 K.

Ogata, T.



Bacterial expression strategies for several Sus scrofa diacylglycerol kinase alpha constructs: solubility challenges  

PubMed Central

We pursued several strategies for expressing either full-length Sus scrofa diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) alpha or the catalytic domain (alphacat) in Escherichia coli. Alphacat could be extracted, refolded, and purified from inclusion bodies, but when subjected to analytical gel filtration chromatography, it elutes in the void volume, in what we conclude are microscopic aggregates unsuitable for x-ray crystallography. Adding glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin, or maltose binding protein as N-terminal fusion tags did not improve alphacat's solubility. Coexpressing with bacterial chaperones increased the yield of alphacat in the supernatant after high-speed centrifugation, but the protein still elutes in the void upon analytical gel filtration chromatography. We believe our work will be of interest to those interested in the structure of eukaryotic DGKs, so that they know which expression strategies have already been tried, as well as to those interested in protein folding and those interested in chaperone/target-protein interactions.

Petro, Elizabeth J.; Raben, Daniel M.



Congenital toxoplasmosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and identification of the Toxoplasma gondii types involved.  


Congenital toxoplasmosis has been little described in wild animals. We report a case of vertical transmission in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Necropsy and histopathologic examination of a pregnant female and her three fetuses revealed all to have lesions compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Nested polymerase chain reaction B1 gene detected Toxoplasma gondii in maternal (heart and diaphragm) and fetal (central nervous system, retina, optic nerve, heart, lung, tongue, and diaphragm) samples. The mother had a mixed infection of T. gondii types I and III. One fetus with type III infection developed no malformations, but the others-one with type I infection and one infected by types I and III-showed bilateral ocular agenesis, prognathism, and agenesis of the nasal cartilage. These results suggest the pathogenicity of the various T. gondii types may differ in wild boars. PMID:24502733

Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Gómez-Gordo, Luis; Saugar, José María; Frontera, Eva; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Reina, David; Serrano, Francisco Javier; Fuentes, Isabel



Structure of BT_3984, a member of the SusD/RagB family of nutrient-binding molecules  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron protein BT_3984 was determined to a resolution of 1.7?Å and was the first structure to be determined from the extensive SusD family of polysaccharide-binding proteins. SusD is an essential component of the sus operon that defines the paradigm for glycan utilization in dominant members of the human gut microbiota. Structural analysis of BT_3984 revealed an N-terminal region containing several tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), while the signature C-terminal region is less structured and contains extensive loop regions. Sequence and structure analysis of BT_3984 suggests the presence of binding interfaces for other proteins from the polysaccharide-utilization complex.

Bakolitsa, Constantina; Xu, Qingping; Rife, Christopher L.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.



No evidence for the occurrence of substrate inhibition of Arabidopsis thaliana sucrose synthase-1 (AtSUS1) by fructose and UDP-glucose  

PubMed Central

Sucrose synthase (SuSy) catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and NDP into the corresponding nucleotide-sugars and fructose. The Arabidopsis genome possesses six SUS genes (AtSUS1–6) that code for proteins with SuSy activity. As a first step to investigate optimum fructose and UDP-glucose (UDPG) concentrations necessary to measure maximum sucrose-producing SuSy activity in crude extracts of Arabidopsis, in this work we performed kinetic analyses of recombinant AtSUS1 in two steps: (1) SuSy reaction at pH 7.5, and (2) chromatographic measurement of sucrose produced in step 1. These analyses revealed a typical Michaelis-Menten behavior with respect to both UDPG and fructose, with Km values of 50 ?M and 25 mM, respectively. Unlike earlier studies showing the occurrence of substrate inhibition of UDP-producing AtSUS1 by fructose and UDP-glucose, these analyses also revealed no substrate inhibition of AtSUS1 at any UDPG and fructose concentration. By including 200 mM fructose and 1 mM UDPG in the SuSy reaction assay mixture, we found that sucrose-producing SuSy activity in leaves and stems of Arabidopsis were exceedingly higher than previously reported activities. Furthermore, we found that SuSy activities in organs of the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 mutant were ca. 80–90% of those found in WT plants.

Almagro, Goizeder; Baroja-Fernandez, Edurne; Munoz, Francisco Jose; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Etxeberria, Ed; Li, Jun; Montero, Manuel; Hidalgo, Maite; Sesma, Maria Teresa; Pozueta-Romero, Javier



Comparison of IEEE Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX). Part 1 and X/Open Single Unix Specifications (SUS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a textual comparison study of the IEEE 1003.1 Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) - Part 1: System Application Program Interface (C Language) (IEEE 1003.1:1990) and X/OPEN Single UNIX Specification (SUS). The purpose of this docum...

D. K. Fisher K. M. Tran



Long-term monitoring of classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa sp.) using serological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the European Community, epizootics of classical swine fever (CSF) in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) are compulsorily monitored because transmission may occur between wild boars and domestic pigs, causing heavy economic losses to the pork industry. The estimation of incidence in populations of wild boars is generally based on viroprevalence. However, viral isolation becomes rare when the incidence is

Faune Sauvage


An Analysis of Recent Enrollment, Discipline and Graduation Trends among Females and Underrepresented Minorities at SUS Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased numbers of minority students as well as increased numbers of Florida high school graduates entering higher education in Florida have influenced Florida SUS [State University System] enrollment and graduation characteristics. This study of 510,952 undergraduate students shows that between the years 1996 and 2003, the number of entering…

Micceri, Theodore; Borman, Kathy



Comparison between diode laser and TIG cladding of Co-based alloys on the SUS403 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diode laser and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) cladding were carried out for depositing Co-based alloys (Stellite-6) on SUS403 martensitic stainless steel plate. Cladding layer shape, dilution, Vickers hardness, Dendrite Arm Spacing (DAS) value, microstructure, distribution of alloying elements and wear resistance were investigated. Compared with TIG clad layer, the laser cladding layer have the characters of small dilution rate, fine

Guojian Xu; Muneharu Kutsuna; Zhongjie Liu; Katsusige Yamada



Occurrence of Moniezia expansa (Rud, 1810) Blanchard, 1891 (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) in domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica Linnaeus, 1758) in Perú.  


The presence of Moniezia expansa (Rud, 1810) Blanchard, 1891, is reported in domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica Linnaeus, 1758). Four tapeworms were collected and identified as M. expansa. This is the first report of M. expansa collected in a domestic pig in Perú. PMID:19028016

Gómez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; González, Armando E



The failure of the introduction of wild boar Sus scrofa in the island of Cyprus: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) were introduced in the island of Cyprus in 1990, when five animals were imported from Greece for game farming. In 1994, wild boars were illegally released in Lemesos (Limassol) Forest and in 1996 in the Troodos National Forest Park. Soon the population increased and dispersed throughout the park. In 1997, the government of Cyprus decided

Eleftherios Hadjisterkotis; Peter M. Heise-Pavlov



Fatigue Properties of SUS304 Stainless Steel after Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (unsm)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changing of materials surface properties method always was taken into improving the fatigue strength. In this paper, an ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification(UNSM) technique was used on the SUS 304 stainless steel to form a nanostructured surface layer with different static load(70N, 90N, 110N, 130N) and the vibration strike number was about 20,000times/mm2. The untreated and different condition specimens fatigue strength was all tested by a dual-spindle rotating bending fatigue test machine. SPring-8(a large synchrotron radiation facility) was used to test the surface nanocrystallization components. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscope and a micro-Vickers hardness tester (MVK-E3, Akashi) were separately used to get the surface residual stresses, fracture surface after fatigue testing, metallographic structure and the microhardness of the nanostructured surface layer. The result showed that martensite transformation took place on the surface of specimens, the surface residual stresses had only a small increase and some cracks occurred between the martensite layer and the austenite layer, but the fatigue strength of 90N improved 81%.

Zhang, K. Y.; Pyoun, Y. S.; Cao, X. J.; Wu, B.; Murakami, R.


Establishing a DNA identification system for pigs (Sus scrofa) using a multiplex STR amplification.  


In this study we establish a novel STR multiplex using 13 tetra-nucleotide STRs and the amelogenin marker for the forensic identification of pigs. The genotypes and allele frequency were generated based on 341 samples from 11 pig breeds in Taiwan. Genetic variation was tested including Na, Ne, Ho, He, F-statistics, PIC, Pm and PE for each STR locus and for each breed. Based upon the 341 samples in this study, the CPm and CPEtrio of the 13 STR loci were 1.31 E-11 and 0.9996 respectively. The CPItrio based on ten family sets ranged from 4.012 E+4 to 4.332 E+6 for paternity test. Validation of the multiplex included: determining the sensitivity of the test, where reproducible full DNA profiles were obtained using an initial template of between 0.25 and 1 ng; a comprehensive range of tissue types generated the same genotype; and the specificity was confirmed as no DNA full profile was generated for any species other than Sus scrofa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the European domestic breeds clustered separately from the Asian breeds, as expected, and their hybrids formed unique clades respectively between the clades of Asian and European breeds. Eleven test samples, acting as unknown samples, matched all expected breeds. We demonstrate that this novel 14-plex PCR system is valuable in pig individualization, parentage testing, breed assessment, phylogenetic study and forensic applications. PMID:24528574

Lin, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Lee, James Chun-I; Hsiao, Chung-Ting; Lin, Der-Yuh; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin



Light-absorbing Aerosol Properties in the Kathmandu Valley during SusKat-ABC Field Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), are major contributors to the atmospheric heating and the reduction of solar radiation reaching at the earth's surface. In this study, we investigate light-absorption and scattering properties of aerosols (i.e., BC mass concentration, aerosol solar-absorption/scattering efficiency) in the Kathmandu valley during Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu valley (SusKat)-ABC campaign, from December 2012 to February 2013. Kathmandu City is among the most polluted cities in the world. However, there are only few past studies that provide basic understanding of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, which is not sufficient for designing effective mitigation measures (e.g., technological, financial, regulatory, legal and political measures, planning strategies). A distinct diurnal variation of BC mass concentration with two high peaks observed during wintertime dry monsoon period. BC mass concentration was found to be maximum around 09:00 and 20:00 local standard time (LST). Increased cars and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to high BC concentration. Low BC concentrations during the daytime can be explain by reduced vehicular movement and cooking activities. Also, the developmements of the boundary layer height and mountain-valley winds in the Kathmandu Valley paly a crucial role in the temproal variation of BC mass concentrations. Detailed radiative effects of light-absorbing aerosols will be presented.

Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kim, J.; Cho, C.; Jung, J.



The effects of continuous application of the TASER X26 waveform on Sus scrofa.  


This study investigated and evaluated the safety margins of the continuous long duration (up to 30 min) effect of the TASER X26 waveform, using a Sus scrofa model. Long duration continuous stimulus has not been evaluated on humans or human surrogates prior to this study. Swine were used as models due to similarities with humans in their skin and cardiovascular systems. Very long duration was used to determine both exposure dose and possible adverse physiological effects of dose. The trial began with an application of 10 min, and subsequent animals received increasing exposure time up to a survived maximum duration of 30 min. At the onset of this work, it was hypothesized that there would be a time limit after which most animals would not survive consistent with increased dose response. However, this hypothesis was not supported by the experimental results. All animals (10 of 10) survived up to 3 min. Seven of the 10 animals survived up to a 10-min exposure and 3 of 5 animals with a 30-min target exposure survived the full exposure. Surviving animals were recovered and observed for 24 h, with no postrecovery deaths. This suggests that swine (based on physiology) will not experience a fatal event when exposed to the TASER X26 for a continuous 3 min. Conclusions regarding longer duration (10-30 min) are not as certain due to the small sample sizes at these time intervals. PMID:23489132

Jenkins, David M; Murray, W Bosseau; Kennett, Mary J; Hughes, Edward L; Werner, Jacob R



Genome sequencing reveals fine scale diversification and reticulation history during speciation in Sus  

PubMed Central

Background Elucidating the process of speciation requires an in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the species in question. Studies that rely upon a limited number of genetic loci do not always reveal actual evolutionary history, and often confuse inferences related to phylogeny and speciation. Whole-genome data, however, can overcome this issue by providing a nearly unbiased window into the patterns and processes of speciation. In order to reveal the complexity of the speciation process, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 10 wild pigs, representing morphologically or geographically well-defined species and subspecies of the genus Sus from insular and mainland Southeast Asia, and one African common warthog. Results Our data highlight the importance of past cyclical climatic fluctuations in facilitating the dispersal and isolation of populations, thus leading to the diversification of suids in one of the most species-rich regions of the world. Moreover, admixture analyses revealed extensive, intra- and inter-specific gene-flow that explains previous conflicting results obtained from a limited number of loci. We show that these multiple episodes of gene-flow resulted from both natural and human-mediated dispersal. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the importance of past climatic fluctuations and human mediated translocations in driving and complicating the process of speciation in island Southeast Asia. This case study demonstrates that genomics is a powerful tool to decipher the evolutionary history of a genus, and reveals the complexity of the process of speciation.



Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O



Organization, complexity and allelic diversity of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin lambda locus.  


We have characterized the organization, complexity, and expression of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) light chain locus, which accounts for about half of antibody light chain usage in swine, yet is nearly totally unknown. Twenty-two IGL variable (IGLV) genes were identified that belong to seven subgroups. Nine genes appear to be functional. Eight possess stop codons, frameshifts, or both, and one is missing the V-EXON. Two additional genes are missing an essential cysteine residue and are classified as ORF (open reading frame). The IGLV genes are organized in two distinct clusters, a constant (C)-proximal cluster dominated by genes similar to the human IGLV3 subgroup, and a C-distal cluster dominated by genes most similar to the human IGLV8 and IGLV5 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the porcine IGLV8 subgroup genes have recently expanded, suggesting a particularly effective role in immunity to porcine-specific pathogens. Moreover, expression of IGLV genes is nearly exclusively restricted to the IGLV3 and IGLV8 genes. The constant locus comprises three tandem cassettes comprised of a joining (IGLJ) gene and a constant (IGLC) gene, whereas a fourth downstream IGLJ gene has no corresponding associated IGLC gene. Comparison of individual BACs generated from the same individual revealed polymorphisms in IGLC2 and several IGLV genes, indicating that allelic variation in IGLV further expands the porcine antibody light chain repertoire. PMID:22186825

Schwartz, John C; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Murtaugh, Michael P



Hemodynamic and histologic characterization of a swine (Sus scrofa domestica) model of chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension.  


The purpose of this work was to develop and characterize an aortopulmonary shunt model of chronic pulmonary hypertension in swine and provide sequential hemodynamic, angiographic, and histologic data by using an experimental endoarterial biopsy catheter. Nine Yucatan female microswine (Sus scrofa domestica) underwent surgical anastomosis of the left pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. Sequential hemodynamic, angiographic, and pulmonary vascular samples were obtained. Six pigs (mean weight, 22.4±5.3 kg; mean age, 7.3±2.7 mo at surgery) survived long-term (6 mo) and consistently developed marked pulmonary arterial hypertension. Angiography showed characteristic central pulmonary arterial enlargement and peripheral tortuosity and pruning. The biopsy catheter was safe and effective in obtaining pulmonary endoarterial samples for histologic studies, which showed neointimal and medial changes. Autopsy confirmed severe pulmonary vascular changes, including concentric obstructive neointimal and plexiform-like lesions. This swine model showed hemodynamic, angiographic, and histologic characteristics of chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension that mimicked the arterial pulmonary hypertension of systemic-to-pulmonary arterial shunts in humans. Experimental data obtained using this and other models and application of an in vivo endoarterial biopsy technique may aid in understanding mechanisms and developing therapies for experimental and human pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:21819696

Rothman, Abraham; Wiencek, Robert G; Davidson, Stephanie; Evans, William N; Restrepo, Humberto; Sarukhanov, Valeri; Rivera-Begeman, Amanda; Mann, David



Evolution of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin kappa locus through germline gene conversion.  


Immunoglobulin (IG) gene rearrangement and expression are central to disease resistance and health maintenance in animals. The IG kappa (IGK) locus in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) contributes to approximately half of all antibody molecules, in contrast to many other Cetartiodactyla, whose members provide the majority of human dietary protein and in which kappa locus utilization is limited. The porcine IGK variable locus is 27.9 kb upstream of five IG kappa J genes (IGKJ) which are separated from a single constant gene (IGKC) by 2.8 kb. Fourteen variable genes (IGKV) were identified, of which nine are functional and two are open reading frame (ORF). Of the three pseudogenes, IGKV3-1 contains a frameshift and multiple stop codons, IGKV7-2 contains multiple stop codons, and IGKV2-5 is missing exon 2. The nine functional IGKV genes are phylogenetically related to either the human IGKV1 or IGKV2 subgroups. IGKV2 subgroup genes were found to be dominantly expressed. Polymorphisms were identified on overlapping BACs derived from the same individual such that 11 genes contain amino acid differences. The most striking allelic differences are present in IGKV2 genes, which contain as many as 16 amino acid changes between alleles, the majority of which are in complementarity determining region (CDR) 1. In addition, many IGKV2 CDR1 are shared between genes but not between alleles, suggesting extensive diversification of this locus through gene conversion. PMID:22109540

Schwartz, John C; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Murtaugh, Michael P



Sus1p Facilitates Pre-Initiation Complex Formation at the SAGA-Regulated Genes Independently of Histone H2B De-Ubiquitylation.  


Sus1p is a common component of transcriptional co-activator, SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase), and mRNA export complex, TREX-2 (Transcription-export 2), and is involved in promoting transcription and mRNA export. However, it is not clearly understood how Sus1p promotes transcription. Here, we show that Sus1p is predominantly recruited to the upstream activating sequence of a SAGA-dependent gene, GAL1, under transcriptionally active conditions as a component of SAGA to promote the formation of pre-initiation complex (PIC) at the core promoter and, consequently, transcriptional initiation. Likewise, Sus1p promotes the PIC formation at other SAGA-dependent genes and hence transcriptional initiation. Such function of Sus1p in promoting PIC formation and transcriptional initiation is not mediated via its role in regulation of SAGA's histone H2B de-ubiquitylation activity. However, Sus1p's function in regulation of histone H2B ubiquitylation is associated with transcriptional elongation, DNA repair and replication. Collectively, our results support that Sus1p promotes PIC formation (and hence transcriptional initiation) at the SAGA-regulated genes independently of histone H2B de-ubiquitylation and further controls transcriptional elongation, DNA repair and replication via orchestration of histone H2B ubiquitylation, thus providing distinct functional insights of Sus1p in regulation of DNA transacting processes. PMID:24911582

Durairaj, Geetha; Sen, Rwik; Uprety, Bhawana; Shukla, Abhijit; Bhaumik, Sukesh R



Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia.



Genomic Diversity in Pig (Sus scrofa) and its Comparison with Human and other Livestock  

PubMed Central

We have reviewed the current pig (Sus scrofa) genomic diversity within and between sites and compared them with human and other livestock. The current Porcine 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel has an average SNP distance in a range of 30 - 40 kb. Most of genetic variation was distributed within populations, and only a small proportion of them existed between populations. The average heterozygosity was lower in pig than in human and other livestock. Genetic inbreeding coefficient (FIS), population differentiation (FST), and Nei’s genetic distance between populations were much larger in pig than in human and other livestock. Higher average genetic distance existed between European and Asian populations than between European or between Asian populations. Asian breeds harboured much larger variability and higher average heterozygosity than European breeds. The samples of wild boar that have been analyzed displayed more extensive genetic variation than domestic breeds. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) in improved pig breeds extended to 1 - 3 cM, much larger than that in human (~ 30 kb) and cattle (~ 100 kb), but smaller than that in sheep (~ 10 cM). European breeds showed greater LD that decayed more slowly than Asian breeds. We briefly discuss some processes for maintaining genomic diversity in pig, including migration, introgression, selection, and drift. We conclude that, due to the long time of domestication, the pig possesses lower heterozygosity, higher FIS, and larger LD compared with human and cattle. This implies that a smaller effective population size and less informative markers are needed in pig for genome wide association studies.

Zhang, Chunyan; Plastow, Graham



Age-related tissue distribution of swine Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2.  


Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular single-stranded DNA genome, belonging to the family Anelloviridae. In swine, two genetically distinct species have been identified, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2). The aim of the present work was to study the tissue distribution of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 in pigs of different ages, including foetuses at the second and last thirds of gestation, and animals at 5 days and 5, 15 and 24 weeks of age. Investigated tissues included brain, lung, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and bone marrow. Viral DNA from tissue extractions were tested by a comparative PCR for the presence of TTSuVs. Overall, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 species were found in all tissues tested, with variations depending on age, and following similar infection dynamics in all tissues, increasing progressively in prevalence and virus load over time. The highest prevalence was found at 5 weeks of age and maintained afterwards, and the highest loads of virus in the different tissues were seen in the oldest animals (15 and 24 weeks of age). No animals were negative to TTV, including foetuses. In conclusion, the present study indicated that swine TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 can be found virtually in all body tissues of the pig. Both swine TTV species were present in high levels in almost all older animals, while viral negative tissues were only found in 5-week-old and 5-day-old pigs, and foetuses. PMID:20646878

Aramouni, M; Segalés, J; Cortey, M; Kekarainen, T



Exploratory study of Torque teno sus viruses in pulmonary inflammatory lesions in pigs.  


The pathogenic role of Torque teno sus viruses 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2), and their capacity to induce lesions are controversial. TTSuVs have been linked to porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs) and described as cause of mild respiratory lesions in gnotobiotic pigs; moreover, an increased TTSuV prevalence has been found in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) affected pigs. In the present study, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 loads and their prevalence were evaluated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung samples displaying different types of inflammatory lesions. Such measurements were made by means of a real time quantitative PCR technique to detect these viruses. The technique was optimised for its use on FFPE tissues comparing results with frozen lung tissues. Selection criteria included negativity against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) and swine influenza virus (SIV). Results from the present study demonstrated that both TTSuVs were present in lung. However, TTSuV2 had higher viral load and prevalence in all the studied groups when compared to TTSuV1. TTSuV2 mean load was also higher in lungs with viral background (interstitial pneumonia and broncho-interstitial pneumonia) when compared to normal lungs or to those with bacterial background (catarrhal-purulent bronchopneumonia, fibrinous pleuritis and fibrinous-necrotizing pleuropneumonia). This result suggests a possible role of TTSuV2 in the pathogenic mechanism of inflammatory lesions of lungs compatible with viral infection. PMID:23031343

Aramouni, M; Martínez, J; Nieto, D; Kekarainen, T; Segalés, J



Molecular investigation of Torque teno sus virus in geographically distinct porcine breeding herds of Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), infecting domestic swine and wild boar, is a non-enveloped virus with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. which has been classified into the genera Iotatorquevirus (TTSuV1) and Kappatorquevirus (TTSuV2) of the family Anelloviridae. A molecular study was conducted to detect evidence of a phylogenic relationship between these two porcine TTSuV genogroups from the sera of 244 infected pigs located in 21 subordinate prefectures and/or cities of Sichuan. Results Both genogroups of TTSuV were detected in pig sera collected from all 21 regions examined. Of the 244 samples, virus from either genogroup was detected in 203 (83.2%), while 44 animals (18.0%) were co-infected with viruses of both genogroups. Moreover, TTSuV2 (186/244, 76.2%) was more prevalent than TTSuV1 (61/244, 25%). There was statistically significant difference between the prevalence of genogroups 1 infection alone (9.4%, 23/244) and 2 alone (64.8%, 158/244), and between the prevalence of genogroups 2 (76.2%, 186/244) and both genogroups co-infection (18.0%, 44/244). The untranslated region of the swine TTSuV genome was found to be an adequate molecular marker of the virus for detection and surveillance. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both genogroups 1 and 2 could be further divided into two subtypes, subtype a and b. TTSuV1 subtype b and the two TTSuV2 subtypes are more prevalent in Sichuan Province. Conclusions Our study presents detailed geographical evidence of TTSuV infection in China.



Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals the origin of Sus scrofa from Rebun Island, Japan.  


The Kabukai A site (5 to 8C A.D.) of the Okhotsk cultural area is on Rebun Island, a small island near the coast, north-northwest of Hokkaido, Japan. Specimens of Sus scrofa, called the Sakhalin pig, were discovered in five cultural layers at the Kabukai A site. Ancient DNA was extracted from the remains of 42 Sakhalin pig bones. Thirty-nine nucleotide sequences of the 574-bp mitochondrial DNA control region, estimated to have originated from at least 21 individuals, were amplified and analyzed phylogenetically. Nine distinct haplotypes (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, and D2) from this site were classified into four haplotype groups (A, B, C, and D) by parsimonious network analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 9 ancient and 55 modern haplotypes indicated that the population of Sakhalin pigs at the Kabukai A site belonged to two distinct clusters; haplotype groups A and B formed a cluster comprised only of themselves, and haplotype groups C and D belonged to the cluster of one of the two genetic groups of Japanese wild boars uniquely distributed in the western part of Japan, including one northeast Mongolian wild boar. Analysis of the haplotype distribution among three archaeological sites and their historical transitions among the five layers reflecting the cultural periods at the Kabukai A site suggests that the Sakhalin pig populations were introduced from Sakhalin island and the Amur River basin in the northeastern Eurasian continent together with some cultural influences. PMID:11428465

Watanobe, T; Ishiguro, N; Okumura, N; Nakano, M; Matsui, A; Hongo, H; Ushiro, H



Effects of Feral Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Exclusion on Enterococci in Runoff from the Forested Headwaters of a Hawaiian Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role feral pigs (Sus scrofa) as a source of fecal contamination in Pacific Island ecosystems is not well understood. This study investigated the effects\\u000a of feral pigs on enterococci (ENT) in runoff and soils of a Hawaiian forest. Seven sites were established with paired fenced\\/unfenced\\u000a runoff plots in the Manoa watershed. Runoff was collected monthly from these plots after

Dashiell O. Dunkell; Gregory L. Bruland; Carl I. Evensen; Mark J. Walker


Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania  

PubMed Central

Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region.

Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedrina, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith



Guia de Desastres Naturales: Huracanes (Guide for Natural Disasters: Hurricanes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide to Hurricanes explains how hurricanes are created and their parts. It then gives detailed instructions on what to do before, during and after a hurricane. Hurricane advisories and signals are also covered.

J. J. Lastra Aracil



Indirect versus direct detection methods of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

Background Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa), one of the main sources of human trichinellosis, continue to represent a public health problem. The detection of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of wild boar by digestion can prevent the occurrence of clinical trichinellosis in humans. However, the analytical sensitivity of digestion in the detection process is dependent on the quantity of tested muscle. Consequently, large quantities of muscle have to be digested to warrant surveillance programs, or more sensitive tests need to be employed. The use of indirect detection methods, such as the ELISA to detect Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar has limitations due to its low specificity. The aim of the study was to implement serological detection of anti-Trichinella spp. antibodies in meat juices from hunted wild boar for the surveillance of Trichinella spp. infections. Methods Two tests were used, ELISA for the initial screening test, and a specific and sensitive Western blot (Wb) as a confirmatory test. The circulation of anti-Trichinella IgG was determined in hunted wild boar muscle juice samples in 9 provinces of 5 Italian regions. Results From 1,462 muscle fluid samples, 315 (21.5%, 95% C.I. 19.51-23.73) were tested positive by ELISA. The 315 ELISA-positive muscle fluid samples were further tested by Wb and 32 (10.1%, 95% C.I. 7.29-13.99) of these were positive with a final seroprevalence of 2.2% (95% C.I 1.55-3.07; 32/1,462). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected by artificial digestion in muscle tissues of one (0.07%, 95%C.I. 0.01-0.39) out of the 1,462 hunted wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in Wb-negative wild boar. From 2006 to 2012, a prevalence of 0.017% was detected by muscle digestion in wild boar hunted in the whole Italian territory. Conclusions The combined use of both serological methods had a sensitivity 31.4 times higher than that of the digestion (32/1,462 versus 1/1,462), suggesting their potential use for the surveillance of the Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar populations.



SusG: A Unique Cell-Membrane-Associated [alpha]-Amylase from a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Targets Complex Starch Molecules  

SciTech Connect

SusG is an {alpha}-amylase and part of a large protein complex on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and plays a major role in carbohydrate acquisition by the animal gut microbiota. Presented here, the atomic structure of SusG has an unusual extended, bilobed structure composed of amylase at one end and an unprecedented internal carbohydrate-binding motif at the other. Structural studies further demonstrate that the carbohydrate-binding motif binds maltooligosaccharide distal to, and on the opposite side of, the amylase catalytic site. SusG has an additional starch-binding site on the amylase domain immediately adjacent to the active cleft. Mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that these two additional starch-binding sites appear to play a role in catabolism of insoluble starch. However, elimination of these sites has only a limited effect, suggesting that they may have a more important role in product exchange with other Sus components.

Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)



A cephalometric comparative study of class II correction with Sabbagh Universal Spring (SUS2) and Forsus FRD appliances  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this clinical prospective study was to compare the dentofacial changes produced by the Sabbagh Universal Spring (SUS2) and Forsus FRD appliances in late adolescent patients with Class II malocclusion, and quantify them in comparison with an untreated group. Method: The study was carried out on 59 patients with skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion due to retrognatic mandible. Among these, 20 were treated with SUS2, 20 were treated with FRD, and no treatment was done to 19 subjects as the control group. 36 cephalometric landmarks were identified on each lateral cephalometric radiograph. Results: The effects of both appliances were dentoalveolar and no significant vertical and sagittal skeletal effect on maxilla and mandible was achieved. The retrusion and extrusion of the maxillary incisors as well as the protrusion and intrusion of mandibular incisors were found to be statistically significant in both treatment groups. Soft tissue profile improvement was limited in both treatment groups. Conclusions: Both appliances corrected Class II discrepancies through dentoalveolar changes; however lower incisor proclination was more prominent with the Forsus FRD.

Oztoprak, Mehmet Oguz; Nalbantgil, Didem; Uyanlar, Ayhan; Arun, Tulin



Isolation and cloning of two variant papillomaviruses from domestic pigs: Sus scrofa papillomaviruses type 1 variants a and b.  


The healthy skin of two female domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) was sampled with cotton-tipped swabs. Total genomic DNA was extracted from the samples and subjected to PCR with degenerate papillomavirus (PV)-specific primers. Similarity searches performed with blastn showed that partial E1 and L1 sequences of two novel PVs were amplified. Subsequently, the complete genomes of these Sus scrofa papillomaviruses (SsPVs) were amplified by long-template PCR, cloned and sequenced using a transposon insertion method. They contained the typical PV open reading frames (ORFs) E1, E2, E4, E6, L1 and L2, but the E7 ORF was absent in both viruses. Pairwise nucleotide sequence alignment of the L1 ORFs of the SsPVs showed 98.5 % similarity, classifying these viruses as SsPV type 1 'variants' (SsPV-1a and -1b). Based on a concatenated alignment of the E1, E2, L1 and L2 ORFs of SsPV-1 variants a and b, and 81 other human and animal PV type species, a neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed. This phylogenetic analysis showed that the SsPV-1a and -1b variants did not cluster with the other PVs of artiodactyls (cloven-hoofed) host species, but clustered on the edge of the genus Alphapapillomavirus, very near to the root of this genus. PMID:18796716

Stevens, Hans; Rector, Annabel; Van Der Kroght, Kees; Van Ranst, Marc



Detection of Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 in tissues from stillborn piglets delivered by sows via natural farrowing  

PubMed Central

We detected Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 (TTSuV1 and TTSuV2) in tissue samples from 18 stillborn piglets using nested polymerase chain reaction. The detection rates of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 were 78% and 50%, respectively, with 83% of the stillborn piglets positive for TTSuV1 or TTSuV2. TTSuV1 was detected highest in the liver (72%) followed by heart (56%), spleen (38%) and tonsils (38%) while TTSuV2 was detected highest in the tonsils (38%) followed by liver (33%), spleen (25%), and heart (17%). These results indicate that TTSuVs are commonly present but not equally distributed among the tissues of stillborn piglets.

Tshering, Chenga; Takagi, Mitsuhiro



In-situ Stress Measurements on SUS316L Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water Simulated Boiling Water Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in-situ straining device has been developed, which enables one to apply a load of 240 N to a specimen in hot water at 561 K and a pressure of 8 MPa, simulating the environment in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The device is equipped with sapphire glass windows for a light path, that is, the device can be used for dynamic measurements of stress induced in the specimen using a synchrotron radiation facility. In-situ stress measurements have been carried out at SPring-8 (BL02B1) on a specimen prepared from SUS316L stainless steel. Inhomogeneity in stress distribution and time-dependent changes in stress were successfully measured.

Yamamoto, A.; Nakahigashi, S.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.; Akiniwa, Y.; Yamada, T.; Liu, L.; Shobu, T.; Tsubakino, H.



La Observaci?n Sistem?tica de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social  

PubMed Central

El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile.

Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela



Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts using a microfluidic device equipped with the SUS micromesh and FITC-labeled antibody.  


Development of a microfluidic device equipped with micromesh for detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst was reported. A micromesh consisting of 10 x 10 cavities was microfabricated on the stainless steel plate by laser ablation. Each cavity size, approximately 2.7 microm in diameter, was adopted to capture a single C. parvum oocyst. Under negative pressure operation, suspensions containing microbeads or C. parvum oocysts flowed into the microchannel. Due to strong non-specific adsorption of microbeads onto the PDMS microchannel surface during sample injection, the surface was treated with air plasma, followed by treatment with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. This process reduced the non-specific adsorption of microbeads on the microchannel to 10% or less in comparison to a non-treated microchannel. This microfluidic device equipped with the SUS micromesh was further applied for the capture of C. parvum oocysts. Trapped C. parvum oocysts were visualized by staining with FITC-labeled anti-C. parvum oocyst antibody on a micromesh and counted under fluoroscopic observation. The result obtained by our method was consistent with that obtained by direct immunofluorescence assay coupled with immunomagnetic separation (DFA-IMS) method, indicating that the SUS micromesh is useful for counting of C. parvum oocysts. The newly designed microfluidic device exploits a geometry that allowed for the entrapment of oocysts on the micromesh while providing the rapid introduction of a series of reagents and washes through the microfluidic structure. Our data indicate that this microfluidic device is useful for high-throughput counting of C. parvum oocysts from tap water sample. PMID:16917954

Taguchi, Tomoyuki; Arakaki, Atsushi; Takeyama, Haruko; Haraguchi, Satoshi; Yoshino, Masato; Kaneko, Masao; Ishimori, Yoshio; Matsunaga, Tadashi



Experiment and numerical simulation on cross-die forming of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless using a modified Johnson-Cook model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

True stress-strain curves of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless steel at various strain rates were fitted by a modified Johnson-Cook material model. The effect of blank-holder force on Cross-die forming of SUS304 stainless steel was studied. The forming process was also simulated by the software Marc based on this model. Major strain distribution, thickness distribution and load-displacement were compared between experiment and simulation. The results indicated the modified Johnson-Cook model could well predict the deformation behavior of SUS304 stainless steel. The martensitie volume fraction at different positions of the formed part was in good agreement with what can be expected.

Li, Xifeng; Ding, Wei; Ye, Liyan; Chen, Jun



Nuevo sitio web en español del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) en español - Silvia Inéz Salazar - transcript

Transmisiones de radio para promover en espa%XF1ol | Nuevo sitio web en espa%XF1ol del Instituto Nacional del C%XE1ncer, (NCI, por sus siglas en ingl%XE9s) en espa%XF1ol | Transcripci%XF3n Transmisiones de radio para promover


Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) mediate large-scale edge effects in a lowland tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia.  


Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects. PMID:22615977

Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D



Infection dynamics of Torque teno sus virus types 1 and 2 in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  


This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Torque teno sus virus types 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) in a longitudinally (14 to 150 days of age) collected paired pooled sera (pSE) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pPBMCs) using nested polymerase chain reaction. The detection rate of TTSuV1 in pSE increased from 14 to 90 days of age, but a progressive decline was observed from 120 to 150 days of age, while in pPBMC, a high value was maintained till the end of growing-finishing period. On the contrary, except in PBMCs at 30 days of age, high detection rates of TTSuV2 were found in both pSE and pPBMCs in all sampling ages. The detection rate of TTSuVs between pSE and pPBMCs was positively correlated at all sampling ages except for TTSuV1 at 150 days of age. This is the first study showing the presence of TTSuVs in PBMCs from pigs and describing the in vivo infection dynamics of TTSuV in paired sera and PBMCs during the entire growing and finishing periods of pigs reared in conventional farms. PMID:22123304

Tshering, Chenga; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Deguchi, Eisaburo



Detection and distribution of torque teno sus virus 1 in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus positive/negative pigs.  


To investigate the detection rate and distribution of torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) positive/negative pigs, 2384 pathological tissues samples collected from 6 provinces of Eastern China from 2010 to 2013 were amplified using previously published PRRSV and TTSuV1 primers. The presence and viral load of TTSuV1 were investigated in a wide range of samples from 5 PRRSV positive/negative 4-week-old pigs by real-time TaqMan PCR. TTSuV1 was detected in 65.3% of 1115 PRRSV-positive samples, and 47.2% of 1269 negative samples. Viral DNA was most commonly detected in the immune organs, including spleen, lung, pancreas, and mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes, followed by serum, liver, kidney, trachea, anal swabs, nasal swabs and sex glands of PRRSV-positive or negative pigs. TTSuV1 DNA loads in PRRSV-positive pigs increased from 2 to 5 times in almost all the corresponding parts compared with PRRSV-negative pigs. Statistical analysis showed that PRRSV may have a synergistic effect with TTSuV1, and promote the replication and proliferation of TTSuV1. PMID:24970361

Zhang, Zhicheng; Wang, Yang; Dai, Wei; Dai, Dingzhen



A practical method for non-surgically inserting intra-arterial catheters in European wild boars (Sus scrofa).  


In endocrinological studies, the usual methods for taking blood samples are impractical because of the need for frequent sampling, and catheterization is required. The catheterization methods described for domestic pigs are not suitable for use with European wild boars (Sus scrofa) under field conditions. We describe a method for inserting an intra-arterial catheter into the European wild boar. The animals were sedated with a combination of medetomidin (Domitor 1 mg/ml, Orion-Farmos, Finland) and zolazepam and tiletamine (Zoletil forte vet 50 mg/ml + 50 mg/ml, Virbac Laboratories, France). Four animals were catheterized and sampled at 2-h intervals for 48 h in March under winter conditions and five in June under summer conditions. In March, all the catheters remained in place for the entire sampling period. In June, one animal managed to displace the catheter from its artery, but it was recatheterized and the rest of the samples were collected without problems. This catheterization method is relatively easy to carry out and requires no special facilities. PMID:10703751

Tast, A; Hälli, O; Peltoniemi, O A



Vegetable and animal food sorts found in the gastric content of Sardinian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa meridionalis).  


Authors report results emerging from gastric content analysis from n. 96 wild boars hunted in Sardinia isle, during the hunting tide (2001-2005), from November to January. Mean pH of the gastric content was 3.77 +/- 0.69. Mean total capacity (TC) of each stomach was 1702 +/- 680 g. Mean Stuff ratio (CW/TC) between the content weight (CW) and stomachs TC was 0.45. Food categories found in animal stomachs were: 19 categories of vegetal species (Allium spp., Arbutus unedo, Arisarum vulgare, Avena fatua, Avena sativa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Chamaerops umilis, Cichorium intybus, Hordeum sativum, Juniperus oxycedrus, Myrtus communis, Olea europea, Pirus amygdaliformis, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus spp., Rhamnus alaternus, Triticum durum, Zea mais); 11 categories of animal species (Agriotes lineatus, Apodemus sylvaticus dicrurus, Chalcides chalcides, Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu, Crematogaster scutellaris, Forficula auricularia, Helix aspersa, Lumbricus terrestris, Ovis aries, Podarcis tiliguerta tiliguerta, Scolopendra cingulata); three categories were identified in general terms (insects larvae, hairs of mammals, feathers of birds). Food categories found in the stomach contents of Sus scrofa meridionalis confirm observations by other researchers who report the prevalence of vegetables in spite of animal food sorts in the wild boar diet in Italian regions. PMID:17516948

Pinna, W; Nieddu, G; Moniello, G; Cappai, M G



Globalisation and global trade influence molecular viral population genetics of Torque Teno Sus Viruses 1 and 2 in pigs.  


Globalisation, in terms of the rapid and free movement of people, animals and food, has created a new paradigm, increasing the range and rate of distribution of many pathogens. In the present study, Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) have been used as a model to evaluate the effects of global trade on viral heterogeneity, and how the movement of live pigs can affect the distribution and composition of virus populations. Seventeen countries from different parts of the world have been screened for TTSuV1 and TTSuvV2. High levels of genetic diversity have been found as well as two new TTSuV subtypes. A small fraction of this diversity (<5%) was related with spatial structure; however the majority (>50%) was best explained by the exchange of live pigs among countries, pointing to the direct relationship between the movement of hosts and the diversity of their accompanying viruses. Taking TTSuVs as sentinels, this study revealed that the distribution and diversity of comensal microflora in live animals subjected to global trade is shaped by the commercial movements among countries. In the case of TTSuVs, it appears that commercial movements of animals are eroding the genetic composition of the virus populations that may have been present in pig herds since their domestication. PMID:22101091

Cortey, Martí; Pileri, Emanuela; Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija



Epidemiological survey of trichinellosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and fox (Vulpes vulpes) in a French insular region, Corsica.  


The Mediterranean island of Corsica was considered Trichinella-free until 2004, when T. britovi larvae were discovered in domestic pigs at meat inspection. One red fox was also found infected the same year and in the same area than the infected pigs. This last finding highlighted the presence of trichinellosis in Corsican wildlife. A Trichinella survey was thus performed in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and fox (Vulpes vulpes), the two large wild species present on the island, to determine prevalence of muscle larvae and antibodies. Diaphragm muscles of 1881 wild boars and 74 forelegs of foxes were tested by artificial digestion. No Trichinella larva was identified. The highly sensitive ELISA was used to test muscle fluid samples of 1492 wild boars. The apparent serological prevalence of Trichinella infections in wild boar was 2.01% (95% CI: 1.36-2.86). The present results suggest that wildlife is currently exposed to Trichinella in Corsica. In this context, adequate cooking and veterinary controls of meat offer the only complete sanitary warranties to consumers. PMID:20471753

Richomme, C; Lacour, S A; Ducrot, C; Gilot-Fromont, E; Casabianca, F; Maestrini, O; Vallée, I; Grasset, A; van der Giessen, J; Boireau, P



Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.  


The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe. PMID:24622149

Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; J?drzejewska, Bogumi?a



Serologic, molecular, and pathologic survey of pseudorabies virus infection in hunted wild boars (sus scrofa) in Italy.  


Abstract To investigate pseudorabies-virus (PrV) -antibody and viral-DNA prevalence, we collected blood, nasal and genital swabs, and tonsillar and lymph-node tissue samples from 139 wild boars (Sus scrofa; 39 piglets, 30 juveniles, and 70 adults), during the hunting season of 2010-2011 in Tuscany, Central Italy. We performed immunohistochemistry with anti-PrV monoclonal antibodies on selected tissue samples. Forty-three of 139 (30.9%) boars were PrV-antibody positive and a 1,954-base-pair PrV-specific product was amplified from nine nasal (6.5%) and 26 genital (18.7%) swabs. Sequence analysis of PrV-positive PCR products revealed identity scores of 99-100% with Suid herpesvirus 1 strain Becker (JF797219) and confirmed the identification of PrV DNA in tested swabs. There was significantly higher antibody prevalence in adults than in juveniles and in piglets than in juveniles. The prevalence of viral DNA was significantly higher in genital swabs than in nasal specimens. The percentage of positive nasal swabs did not differ among age classes. Piglets had a higher percentage of PCR-positive genital swabs than juvenile and adult subjects (30.8% vs. 13.3% and 14.3%, respectively). Results confirmed that PrV infection is widespread in the wild boar population in the study area. The presence of anti-PrV antibodies and of the PrV virus in piglets could be related to vertical transmission of the virus. This hypothesis was also supported by a higher presence of viral genome in genital swabs than in nasal swabs. This field study supports the importance of vertical transmission of PrV, and the high prevalence of virus in genital swabs supports venereal transmission in adult feral boars. PMID:24779458

Verin, Ranieri; Varuzza, Paolo; Mazzei, Maurizio; Poli, Alessandro



Molecular investigation for bacterial and protozoan tick-borne pathogens in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from southern Germany.  


Wild boars (Sus scrofa) have been suggested to be involved in the enzootic cycle of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. This observation raises the question whether they serve as reservoir hosts for A. phagocytophilum and potentially for other tick-borne pathogens of public health relevance. The aim of this study was to investigate wild boars and their ticks from a forest site in southern Germany for the presence of A. phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Borrelia spp. of the relapsing fever group, and Babesia spp. Therefore, 24 wild boars collected from October, 2010, to February, 2013, were investigated by molecular methods. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected in three out of 24 (12.5%) wild boars and in four out of 16 (25%) ticks. DNA of none of the other pathogens was found in any wild boar, but Rickettsia spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., and Cand. N. mikurensis were found in one of the investigated ticks each. Sequences of the partial 16S rRNA gene of A. phagocytophilum from one spleen and two ticks showed 100% similarity to GenBank entries from human anaplasmosis cases (accession nos. U02521 and AY886761). The sequence from the third tick was 100% similar to sequences obtained from Ixodes ricinus and roe deer from the same study area previously. Detecting a potentially human pathogenic A. phagocytophilum variant in wild boar confirms previous findings and is of public health interest. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Germany. Whether wild boars support the enzootic cycle of A. phagocytophilum variants involved in human disease requires further attention in future systematic studies. PMID:24745766

Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Overzier, Evelyn



Response of pigmented porcine skin (Sus scrofa domestica) to single 3.8-micron laser radiation pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background and purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of melanin on skin response to single 3.8 micron, eight microsecond laser pulses and the difference in lesion formation thresholds for input into laser safety standards. Williams et al., performed a study examining laser tissue interaction from 3.8-micron lasers in lightly pigmented Yorkshire pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). However, studies performed by Eggleston et al comparing pigmented and lightly pigmented skin with human skin found that the Yucatan mini-pig is a superior model for laser skin exposures. Methods: Five Yucatan mini-pigs under general anesthesia were exposed to 3.8 micron laser pulses ranging from 0.8 J/cm2 to 93 J/cm2. Gross examinations were done acutely and 24 hours after laser exposure. Skin biopsies were then collected at various times post exposure, and histologic examinations were conducted. Results: The 24 hour ED50 was determined to be 4.5 J/cm2 with fiducial limits of 6.2 and 2.2 J/cm2. As deposited energy was increased, the lesion presentation ranged from whitening of the epidermis (4 J/cm2) to whitening with inflammatory centers (14 J/cm2), and at the highest energy levels inflammatory areas were replaced with an epidermal ulcerated central area (>21 J/cm2). Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest pigmentation or melanin may play a minor role in the mechanism of laser-tissue damage. The ED50 of Yorkshire pigs was 2.6 J/cm2. The ED50 of the Yucatan mini-pig was found to be 3.6 J/cm2, and although it was higher, it is still within the 95% fiducial limits.

Bostick, Anthony C.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Randolph, Donald Q.; Winston, Golda C. H.



Long-term evaluation of a selective retrograde coronary venous perfusion model in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).  


The lack of suitable target vessels remains a challenge for aortocoronary bypass grafting in end-stage coronary heart disease. This study aimed to investigate the arterialization of cardiac veins as an alternative myocardial revascularization strategy in an experimental long-term model in pigs. Selective retrograde perfusion of a coronary vein (aorta to coronary vein bypass, retrobypass) before ligation of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis (equivalent to the left anterior descending artery in humans) was performed in 20 German Landrace pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). Retroperfusion of the left anterior descending vein was performed in 10 pigs (RP+) but not in the other 10 (RP-), and the vena cordis magna was ligated (L+) in 5 pigs in each of these groups but left open (L-) in the remaining animals. Hemodynamic performance (for example, cardiac output) was significantly better in the group that underwent selective retroperfusion with proximal ligation of vena cordis magna (RP+L+; 4.1 L/min) compared with the other groups (RP+L-, 2.5 L/min; RP-L+, 2.2 L/min; RP-L-, 1.9 L/min). Long-term survival was significantly better in RP+L+ pigs (112±16 d) than in all other groups. Histologic follow-up studies showed significantly less necrosis in the RP+L+ group compared with all other groups. Venous retroperfusion is an effective technique to achieve long-term survival after acute occlusion of the left anterior descending artery in a pig model. In this model, proximal ligation of vena cordis magna is essential. PMID:21535926

Harig, Frank; Schmidt, Joachim; Hoyer, Evelyn; Eckl, Sebastian; Adamek, Edytha; Ertel, Dirk; Nooh, Ehab; Amann, Kerstin; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M



Cost-effectivene ss and budget impact analysis of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin for LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular events lowering within the SUS* scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To perform a cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis of rosuvastatin versus ator- vastatin, using LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular events as endpoint parameters within the SUS scenario. Methods: Statin efficacy regarding LDL-C and cardiovascular events lowering data was obtained from recent meta-analysis on those subjects. Medicine cost was based on 'Por- taria' (government administrative rule) 2577 by the Brazilian Department

Araujo DV; Bahia L; Souza CPR; Pavão ALB


Corrosion behaviors of low carbon steel, SUS310 and Fe–Mn–Al alloy with hot-dipped aluminum coatings in NaCl-induced hot corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot corrosion behaviors of hot dip aluminized low carbon steel, SUS310 and Fe–Mn–Al–Cr–Si–C alloy with 9 mg cm?2 of NaCl deposition were studied at 900 °C for 1–144 h in dry air. A preoxidation of as-dipped specimens at 900 °C for 2 h was also conducted. The formation of an aluminized layer and self-healing potential are responsible for the

C. J Wang; J. W Lee; T. H Twu



A Potato Sus3 Sucrose Synthase Gene Contains a Context-Dependent 3[prime] Element and a Leader Intron with Both Positive and Negative Tissue-Specific Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine which sequences are involved in regulating the potato sucrose synthase gene Sus3-65, we examined a series of deletion and substitution constructs in transgenic potato and tobacco plants. In a construct containing 3.9 kb of 5' flanking region, substitution of the native 3' sequence with the nopaline synthase 3' sequence and deletion of the leader intron did not significantly

Hongyong Fu; Soo Young Kim; William D. Park



In-vitro analysis of metallic particles, colloidal nanoparticles and ions in wear-corrosion products of SUS317L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study attempts to clarify the relative cytotoxic levels of ions, colloidal nanoparticles, and metallic particles found in wear-corrosion products of SUS317L stainless steel. The wear-corrosion products were generated in pin-on-plate wear tests in a calcium-magnesium-free phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS(?)). Of all the particles and ions generated by wear-corrosion, colloidal nanoparticles induced maximum cytotoxicity. Metallic particles were much

Atsuo Ito; Xulin Sun; Tetsuya Tateishi



Investigation of oxides formed in the corrosion of SUS-304 in high-temperature water through the measurement of evolved hydrogen and radiochemical analyses  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion behavior of SUS-304 at 280/sup 0/C in deaerated water has been traced both through measuring H/sub 2/ gas, concomitantly formed with corrosion, and through radiochemical analysis of the corrosion layers. The calculated H/sub 2/ yield based on the reaction, M + x.H/sub 2/O = MO /sub x/ + x.H/sub 2/ (M: iron, chromium, nickel, manganese, and cobalt), agreed reasonably well with the observed H/sub 2/ yields, showing that iron is mainly in a magnetite form and chromium is in a Cr(III) state. More than 85% of the corrosion layers were recovered by repeating ultrasonic cleaning and electrostripping processes. The residual fraction was rich in chromium and dissolved in the subsequent electropolishing process. The total corrosion increases with the reaction time, although the ''inner layer'' tends to stay almost constant at a longer reaction time. In some cases, both neutron irradiated and nonirradiated SUS coexisted. Mutual transfer of the elements from one SUS to the other has been examined.

Tachikawa, E.; Hoshi, M.; Nakashima, M.; Sagawa, C.; Yonezawa, C.



An RNA-based analysis of changes in biodiversity indices in response to Sus scrofa domesticus decomposition.  


Despite emergent research initiatives, significant knowledge gaps remain of soil microbiology-associated cadaver decomposition. Nevertheless, preliminary studies have shown that the vast diversity and complex interactions of soil microbial communities have great potential for forensic applications such as clandestine grave location and postmortem interval estimation. This study investigated changes in soil bacterial communities during pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) leg decomposition. 16S rRNA, instead of the usually applied 16S rDNA marker, was used to compare the metabolically active bacteria. Total bacterial RNA was extracted from soil samples of three different layers on day 3, 28 and 77 after the shallow burial of a pig leg. The V3 region of the 16S rRNA was amplified, analysed by RT-PCR DGGE, and compared with control soil bacterial community profiles. Statistically significant differences in soil bacterial biodiversity were observed. For the control, bacterial diversity (H') and species richness (S) of the three layers averaged 2.48±0.14 (H') and 18.8±2.5 (S), respectively, while for the test soil increases (p=0.027) were recorded between day 3 (H'=2.71±0.02; S=21.3±2.0) and 28 (H'=3.46±0.32; S=60.3±16.9), particularly in the middle (10-20cm) and bottom (20-30cm) soil layers. Between day 28 and 77 the diversity and richness then decreased on average for all three layers (H'=3.43±0.20; S=60.0±17.3) but remained higher than on day 3. Thus, responses in soil bacterial profiles and activity to carcass decomposition, detected and characterised by RNA-based DGGE, could be used together with RNA sequencing data, changes in physico-chemical variables (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, temperature, redox potential, water activity and pH) and conventional macroecology markers (e.g. insects and vegetation), to develop a suite of analytical protocols for different forensic scenarios. PMID:24967869

Bergmann, R C; Ralebitso-Senior, T K; Thompson, T J U



Consecuencias de las contracciones excentricas del diafragma sobre su funcion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and Objectives: Eccentric contractions are those that occur after a muscle has been stretched, and they can predispose the muscle to damage. Most previous studies have been performed on limb muscles, and the potential consequences of eccentric contractions on the respiratory muscles are therefore unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated eccentric contractions

Joaquim Gea; Ercheng Zhu; Juan B. Galdiz; Norman Comtois; Igor Salazkin; JoseAntonio Fiz; Alejandro Grassino


Consecuencias de las contracciones excéntricas del diafragma sobre su función  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and ObjectivesEccentric contractions are those that occur after a muscle has been stretched, and they can predispose the muscle to damage. Most previous studies have been performed on limb muscles, and the potential consequences of eccentric contractions on the respiratory muscles are therefore unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated eccentric contractions on

Joaquim Gea; Ercheng Zhu; Juan B. Gáldiz; Norman Comtois; Igor Salazkin; José Antonio Fiz; Alejandro Grassino



Prevalencia y consecuencias del abuso sexual al menor en españa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of sexual abuse in Spain and its long and short effects. A representative sample of Spanish society was studied (N = 1,821) through proportional stratified random sampling. Data were obtained by interview (Personal History of Sexual Abuse), carried out in the subjects home and by means of a Self Reporting

Félix López; Eugenio Carpintero; Amparo Hernández; María Jesús Martín; Antonio Fuertes



Structure of a SusD Homologue, BT1043, Involved in Mucin O-Glycan Utilization in a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian distal gut bacteria have an expanded capacity to utilize glycans. In the absence of dietary sources, some species rely on host-derived mucosal glycans. The ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent human gut symbiont, to forage host glycans contributes to both its ability to persist within an individual host and its ability to be transmitted naturally to new hosts at birth. The molecular basis of host glycan recognition by this species is still unknown but likely occurs through an expanded suite of outermembrane glycan-binding proteins that are the primary interface between B. thetaiotaomicron and its environment. Presented here is the atomic structure of the B. thetaiotaomicron protein BT1043, an outer membrane lipoprotein involved in host glycan metabolism. Despite a lack of detectable amino acid sequence similarity, BT1043 is a structural homologue of the B. thetaiotaomicron starch-binding protein SusD. Both structures are dominated by tetratrico peptide repeats that may facilitate association with outer membrane {beta}-barrel transporters required for glycan uptake. The structure of BT1043 complexed with N-acetyllactosamine reveals that recognition is mediated via hydrogen bonding interactions with the reducing end of {beta}-N-acetylglucosamine, suggesting a role in binding glycans liberated from the mucin polypeptide. This is in contrast to CBM 32 family members that target the terminal nonreducing galactose residue of mucin glycans. The highly articulated glycan-binding pocket of BT1043 suggests that binding of ligands to BT1043 relies more upon interactions with the composite sugar residues than upon overall ligand conformation as previously observed for SusD. The diversity in amino acid sequence level likely reflects early divergence from a common ancestor, while the unique and conserved {alpha}-helical fold the SusD family suggests a similar function in glycan uptake.

Koropatkin, Nicole; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.; (Danforth); (WU-MED)



[Contradictions of public health policies geared to rare disorders: the example of the Osteogenesis Imperfecta Treatment Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)].  


The scope of this paper is to examine the process of consolidation of a public health policy in Brazil geared to a rare disorder, namely osteogenesis imperfecta, the treatment for which has fallen under the responsibility of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) after the publication of Ministerial Ruling GM/MS2305/2001. The implementation of this law has been accompanied by many contradictions, especially with respect to therapeutic decisions and the strengthening of the specialized network for addressing this condition. These attitudes are clearly shown both by the drafting process and the final text of the new law (Ministerial Ruling 714/2010). PMID:24863824

Lima, Maria Angelica de Faria Domingues de; Horovitz, Dafne Dain Gandelman



A comparative experimental investigation of deep-hole micro-EDM drilling capability for cemented carbide (WC-Co) against austenitic stainless steel (SUS 304)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectro-discharge machining (micro-EDM) has become a widely accepted non-traditional material removal process for machining\\u000a difficult-to-cut but conductive materials effectively and economically. The present study aims to investigate the feasibility\\u000a of machining deep microholes in two difficult-to-cut materials: cemented carbide (WC-Co) and austenitic stainless steel (SUS\\u000a 304) using the micro-EDM drilling. The effect of discharge energy and electro-thermal material properties on

Muhammad Pervej Jahan; Yoke San Wong; Mustafizur Rahman



SusHi: A program for the calculation of Higgs production in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the Standard Model and the MSSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the code SusHi (for "Supersymmetric Higgs") [108] which calculates the cross sections pp/pp ¯ ??+X in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the SM and the MSSM, where ? is any of the neutral Higgs bosons within these models. Apart from inclusive cross sections up to NNLO QCD, differential cross sections with respect to the Higgs transverse momentum pT and (pseudo-)rapidity y(?) can be calculated through NLO QCD. In the case of gluon fusion, SusHi contains NLO QCD contributions from the third family of quarks and squarks, NNLO corrections due to top-quarks, approximate NNLO corrections due to top-squarks, and electro-weak effects. It supports various renormalization schemes for the sbottom sector and the bottom Yukawa coupling, as well as resummation effects of higher order tan?-enhanced sbottom contributions. SusHi provides a link to FeynHiggs for the calculation of the Higgs masses. Program SummaryProgram title: SusHi Catalogue identifier: AEOY_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 47725 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 338380 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Unix/Linux, Mac OS. RAM: A few 100 MB Classification: 11.1. External routines: LHAPDF (, FeynHiggs ( Nature of problem: Calculation of inclusive and exclusive Higgs production cross sections in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the Standard Model and the MSSM through next-to-leading order QCD, includes next-to-next-to-leading order top-(s)quark contributions and electro-weak effects Solution method: Numerical Monte Carlo integration Additional comments: Code includes ggh@nnlo (, bbh@nnlo ( and evalcsusy.f ( Running time: All the examples provided take a minute or less to run.

Harlander, Robert V.; Liebler, Stefan; Mantler, Hendrik



Serological investigation of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicator animals for circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany.  


Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment. PMID:24359418

Otto, Peter; Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert



[Education and competences for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): is it possible to find alternatives to the logic of late capitalism?].  


The transformations that have revolutionized the labor market in contemporary society make it necessary to think of new alternatives for training health care professionals, thereby establishing a new approach to the health problems of individuals and collectives. Based on these considerations, this paper sets out to discuss training in health--based on the concept of competence--with a focus on education for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), using attempts to analyze and propose an alternative to the system entrenched in the logic of late capitalism as a theoretical benchmark. It is thus a reflection on the subject, correlating theory and praxis, in constant and relentless movement of construction, deconstruction and (re)construction of propositions. PMID:23338506

Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Albuquerque, Verônica Santos; Cavalcanti, Felipe de Oliveira Lopes; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre



A Sealers Midden Provides Evidence a Live Pig ( Sus scrofa) was Taken Ashore at Heard Island During the "Elephanting" Industry (1855-1882)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.

van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry; Robins, Judith



The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia.  


Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis). In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease. PMID:21647336

Pate, Mateja; Zolnir-Dov?, Manca; Kušar, Darja; Krt, Brane; Spi?i?, Silvio; Cvetni?, Zeljko; Ocepek, Matjaž



Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).  


The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour. PMID:22941514

Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise



Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.  


Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jall?lah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istih?lah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istih?lah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istih?lah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days. PMID:22953853

Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R



Pseudoscardovia suis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Bifidobacteriaceae isolated from the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa).  


Seventeen fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive bacterial strains were isolated from the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa). Most of them were identified as Bifidobacterium boum according to sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Two strains isolated from the small intestine content had unusual morphology of cells in comparison with bifidobacteria. Cells growing in liquid anaerobic media were regular shaped rods arranged mostly in pairs. These isolates showed relatively low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (maximum identity of 94%) to members of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, hsp60 and xfp gene sequences revealed that these strains are more related to recently described Neoscardovia, Aeriscardovia and other scardovial genera, than to Bifidobacterium species. Partial gene sequences of other phylogenetic markers showed low (65.8-89.5%) similarities to genome sequences of bifidobacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis. The major fatty acids detected in cells of the representative strain DPTE4(T) were C(16:0), C(18:1), C(14:0). The peptidoglycan type of the DPTE4(T) strain was A3?l-Orn(l-Lys)-l-Ser(l-Ala)-l-Ala(2). Polar lipid analysis revealed two phosphoglycolipids and phospholipids, a glycolipid and diphosphatidylglycerol. The results of phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic analyses support the proposal of a novel taxa, Pseudoscardovia suis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain=DPTE4(T)=DSM 24744(T)=CCM 7942(T)). PMID:23122702

Killer, J; Mrázek, J; Bunešová, V; Havlík, J; Koppová, I; Benada, O; Rada, V; Kope?ný, J; Vlková, E



Identification of two new antigen epitopes on the putative capsid protein encoded by torque teno sus virus type 1 ORF1.  


Torque teno sus virus type 1 (TTSuV1) ORF1 is considered to encode the viral capsid (Cap) protein, which is crucial for the induction of TTSuV1-specific antibodies and protective immunity in the host. Eight monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the Cap protein were generated and biologically characterized. The immunoreactivity of the Cap protein expressed in transfected 293T cells for these mAbs was determined with an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. The antigen epitopes of the Cap protein were mapped using these mAbs and truncated Cap proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. Fine epitope mapping was then performed with a panel of synthesized polypeptides. All the mAbs reacted with the Cap protein C fragment expressed in E. coli. One antigenic epitope of the Cap protein, which reacted with seven mAbs, had the polypeptide sequence (536)HPKYAGQGGGYTT(548), whereas another epitope recognized by the 1E9 mAb had the polypeptide sequence (549)EIGHQGITAASLR(561). It is interesting that the two new epitopes are adjacent, but mutually independent. This study should facilitate further investigation of the antigenic differences and enable the differential diagnosis of the virus. PMID:24172766

Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Long; Huang, Liping; Wei, Yanwu; Wu, Hongli; Liu, Changming



Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 viral loads in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) affected pigs.  


Torque teno viruses (TTV) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular single-stranded DNA genome, which are considered non-pathogenic. However, TTVs have been eventually linked to human diseases. TTVs infecting pigs, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2), have been recently associated to porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). To get more insights into such potential disease association, the aim of this study was to quantify TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral loads in serum of pigs affected by two PCVDs, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). Such study was carried out by means of a newly developed real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. Both TTSuVs were highly prevalent among studied pigs. TTSuV2 viral loads were significantly higher in PMWS affected animals, further supporting the previously suggested association between TTSuV2 and PMWS. On the contrary, TTSuV1 prevalence and loads were not related with the studied PCVDs. PMID:21719215

Aramouni, M; Segalés, J; Sibila, M; Martin-Valls, G E; Nieto, D; Kekarainen, T



Use of Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance Method to Detect Micro-Voids Via Evaluation of Ultrasonic Wave Attenuation Coefficient of SUS304 Steel Fabricated by Hot Isostatic Press  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep damage in SUS304 steel samples fabricated by a hot isostatic press (HIP) at 1050°C was evaluated using the electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR), noise energy and ultrasonic spectroscopy (first moment) methods. The coefficients of attenuation of 1.1 to 5.4 MHz electromagnetically excited acoustic waves in the samples were investigated. By reducing diffraction loss and the loss to the electromagnetic acoustic transducer due to transmission of the ultrasonic waves via mechanical contacts, it was possible to detect shear wave attenuation coefficients as low as 2.5×10-4/microsecond at 1.1 MHz. With specimens fabricated at pressure of 170MPa, the attenuation coefficient increased in proportion to frequency up to 5.4 MHz, whereas with specimens fabricated at pressure lower than 80 MPa the attenuation coefficient increased rapidly above 4 MHz. The void fraction was found to be greater in specimens fabricated under lower pressure, which may be responsible for the markedly higher ultrasonic attenuation in the specimens fabricated at pressure lower than 80MPa. It was apparent from the experiments that the EMAR method detects creep voids with greater sensitivity than the other methods. Accordingly we hope it will be possible for the EMAR method to be used on real facilities in the future.

Nishida, Hidetaka; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Masashi


Refinement of pig retroperfusion technique: Global retroperfusion with ligation of the azygos connection preserves hemodynamic function in an acute infarction model in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).  


In ischemic hearts, venous retroperfusion is a potential myocardial revascularization strategy. This study aimed to refine the technical and functional aspects of a pig model of acute myocardial infarction and retroperfusion with respect to the azygos connection. Global retroperfusion after ligation of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis (equivalent to the left anterior descending artery in humans) was performed in 16 Landrace pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). Coronary sinus perfusion was performed in 8 pigs (P+) but not in the other 8 (P-), and the azygos vein was ligated (L+) 4 of the 8 pigs in each of these groups but left open (L-) in the remaining animals. Hemodynamic performance (for example, cardiac output, stroke volume) was significantly better in P+L+ pigs that underwent coronary sinus perfusion with ligation of the azygos vein compared with all other animals. In addition, troponin I release was significant lower in P+L+ pigs (1.7 +/- 1.3 ng/mL) than in P-L- (5.47 +/- 2.1 ng/mL), P-L+ (6.63 +/- 2.4 ng/mL), and P+L- (4.81 +/- 2.3 ng/mL) pigs. Effective retrograde flow and thus hemodynamic stability was achieved by ligation of the azygos vein. Therefore, experiments focusing on global retroperfusion will benefit from effective inhibition of the blood flow through the azygos vein. PMID:20158947

Harig, Frank; Hoyer, Evelyn; Labahn, Dirk; Schmidt, Joachim; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M



Are juvenile domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) sensitive to the attentive states of humans?--The impact of impulsivity on choice behaviour.  


Previous studies have shown that apes, dogs and horses seem to be able to attribute attentive states to humans. Subjects had to choose between two persons: one who was able to see the animal and one who was not. Using a similar paradigm, we tested a species that does not rely strongly on visual cues, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica). Subjects could choose between two unfamiliar persons, with only one showing attention, in three different conditions (body, head away, body turned - head front). Subjects (n=16) only showed a tendency towards the attentive human in the head away condition. However, by pooling those two conditions where the position of the human head was the only salient cue, we found a significant preference for the attentive person. Moreover, two approach styles could be distinguished - an impulsive style with short response times and a non-impulsive style where response times were relatively long. With the second approach style, pigs chose the attentive person significantly more often than expected by chance level, which was not the case when subjects chose impulsively. These first results suggest that pigs are able to use head cues to discriminate between different attentive states of humans. PMID:23500190

Nawroth, Christian; Ebersbach, Mirjam; von Borell, Eberhard



Retrospective analyses of serum lipids and lipoproteins and severity of disease in 60Co-irradiated Sus scrofa domestica and Macaca mulatta.  


Profound neutropenia that provides an opportunity for infections to develop into sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients after irradiation. Human clinical studies find extremely low concentrations of cholesterol (less than 120 mg/dl) associated with high risk of death in critically ill adult patients admitted to intensive care units. This retrospective study was initiated as part of separate investigations of radiation-induced acquired infections in 2 large animal species receiving high-dose whole-body irradiation from a 60Co gamma-photon source. Nine Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and 16 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were evaluated for sepsis, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and other blood parameters. For each species, animals were grouped into 2 categories--septic and nonseptic--and severity of disease was quantified by use of a scoring system. Significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were found in the septic pigs at 24 and 48 h as compared with nonseptic pigs. HDL was significantly decreased in septic macaques within 24 h and 3 to 4, 6 to 7, and 9 to 10 d after diagnosis of sepsis, compared with that in nonseptic macaques. Coupled with hypocholesterolemia, decreased serum HDL was the parameter that was associated with disease severity at the time of sampling. Our data indicate that HDL is a reliable marker for severity of disease in these 2 preclinical models of irradiation-induced sepsis. PMID:17605346

Parra, Nannette C; Ege, Christine A; Ledney, G David



Low-energy EDX - A novel approach to study stress corrosion cracking in SUS304 stainless steel via scanning electron microscopy.  


Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in type SUS304 stainless steels, tested under pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water conditions, has been characterized with unprecedented spatial resolution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and novel low-energy (?3kV) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). An advancement of the large area silicon drift detector (SDD) has enhanced its sensitivity for X-rays in the low-energy part of the atomic spectrum. Therefore, it was possible to operate the SEM at lower accelerating voltages in order to reduce the interaction volume of the beam with the material and achieve higher spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise ratio. In addition to studying the oxide chemistry at the surface of intergranular stress corrosion cracks, the technique has proven capable of resolving Ni enrichment ahead of some crack tips. Active cracks could be distinguished from inactive ones due to the presence of oxides in the open crack and Ni-rich regions ahead of the crack tip. Furthermore, it has been established that SCC features can be better resolved with low-energy (3kV) than high-energy (12kV) EDX. The low effort in sample preparation, execution and data analysis makes SEM the ideal tool for initial characterization and selection of the most important SCC features such as dominant cracks and interesting crack tips, later to be studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). PMID:25080272

Meisnar, Martina; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Moody, Michael; Holland, James



Utilización de datos de satélite operacionales en Centro América como apoyo en el manejo de desastres  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for Central American countries to be able to respond to weather related disasters, they need to have strong meteorological forecasting capabilities, knowledge of the current state of the land and water resources, and emergency plans of action. In response to the devastating effects of Hurricane Mitch (October 1998), the United States Agency for International Development funded a project



Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa) in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.  


Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

Wurster, Christopher M; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I



Effects of various anesthetic protocols on 18F-flurodeoxyglucose uptake into the brains and hearts of normal miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).  


This study used positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) to evaluate the effects of 4 anesthetic protocols on 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) accumulation in the brains and hearts of miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). The 18F-FDG standard uptake value was quantified by dividing the brain into 6 regions: cerebellum, brainstem, and frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Five (2 female and 3 male) clinically normal miniature pigs were premedicated with medetomidine (200 ?g/kg IM) after which the following 4 anesthetic protocols were administered by using a crossover design: 1) propofol (4 mg/kg IV)-isoflurane inhalation; 2) propofol (4 mg/kg IV); 3) ketamine (5 mg/kg IV); 4) tiletamine-zolazepam (4.4 mg/kg IM). Compared with levels after other protocols, brain accumulation of 18F-FDG increased during propofol anesthesia but decreased with tiletamine-zolazepam. Relative to that due to other protocols, heart accumulation of 18F-FDG increased with propofol-isoflurane anesthesia but decreased with tiletamine-zolazepam. Comparing glucose accumulation in the brain and heart of miniature pigs by using PET-CT, we found that glucose accumulation varied according to the anesthetic protocol and between the 2 organs. These results can be used to evaluate how different anesthetic agents affect glucose metabolism in brain and heart of miniature pigs. Furthermore, these data should be considered when selecting an anesthetic agent for miniature pigs that will undergo PET-CT imaging with 18F-FDG. PMID:22776126

Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Jong-In; Lee, Jae-Won; Cho, Yoon Ju; Lee, Byeong Han; Chung, Hyun Woo; Park, Keun-Kyu; Han, Jin Soo



First time molecular detection and phylogenetic relationships of torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 in domestic pigs in Uganda: further evidence for a global distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) are small, single-stranded circular DNA viruses belonging to the Anelloviridae family. Available studies clearly show that both viruses are widely distributed in the pig populations in America, Europe and Asia, although the impact of the infection is still unclear. Currently, the situation in domestic pig populations on the African continent is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible presence of the two viruses in domestic pigs in Uganda, and describe the phylogenetic relationships to those in the rest of the world. Results Ninety-five serum samples from six districts in Uganda were used, and PCR using TTSuV1 and 2 specific primers for the UTR region was run for viral nucleic acid detection. The positive samples were sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses performed in order to compare the Ugandan sequences with sequences from other parts of the world. The prevalence of TTSuV1 and 2 in the selected domestic pigs were estimated at 16.8% and 48.4% respectively, with co-infection found in 13.7%. The sequence identity was 90-100% between the Ugandan TTSuV1; and 63-100% between the Ugandan TTSuV2 sequences. Conclusion This is the first report on the presence of TTSuV1 and 2 in domestic pigs in Uganda. These results highlight the importance of screening for emerging viruses given the globalisation of human activities.



Lack of effect of piglet vaccination against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) on serum viral loads of Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2).  


Anelloviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with circular single stranded DNA, which infect a number of animal species as well as humans. In pigs, two distinct Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) species have been described so far, being one of them linked to disease occurrence. Specifically, TTSuV2 loads in serum have been found increased in pigs suffering from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Since this pathological condition is able to be controlled by means of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination, it was hypothesized the possibility that such vaccination would have an impact on TTSuV2 prevalence and loads. A total of 150 pigs were divided in two study groups. Half of them received a PCV2 commercial vaccine, while the other half remained as non-vaccinated controls. PCV2 infection was monitored at 3-4, 8, 12, 16 and 21 weeks of age by means of an standard PCR, while TTSuV2 loads were determined at 8, 16 and 21 weeks of age by a quantitative PCR. No obvious PMWS clinical signs were observed among studied animals, although PCV2 infection was confirmed in both groups of pigs. Almost all pigs got TTSuV2 infection throughout the study period, independently of the PCV2 vaccination status of animals. Moreover, TTSuV2 load did not show significant differences between different pig groups at each sampling time, but mean viral load increased with age. Taking into account that previous results suggest that TTSuV2 load in serum is increased in the background of PMWS, the present study suggests that this is not the case in a PCV2 subclinical infection scenario. Therefore, vaccination of PCV2 subclinically infected pigs did not modify the outcome of TTSuV2 infection. PMID:22189433

Nieto, D; Aramouni, M; Sibila, M; Fraile, L; Kekarainen, T; Segalés, J



Increased viral load and prevalence of Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2) in pigs experimentally infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV).  


Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) are considered non-pathogenic viruses, although lately they have been linked to porcine circovirus diseases, mainly with post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). These associations point out a possible pathogenic role of TTSuVs or, alternatively, that TTSuV replication is up-regulated under disease conditions. In order to further explore the association of TTSuVs with disease occurrence, TTSuVs prevalence and viral load were assessed before and after an experimental infection with a highly pathogenic classical swine fever (CSF) virus (CSFV) isolate. Serum samples from 56 animals were analyzed by means of a real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 before and after (between 6 and 13 days post-inoculation) the CSFV challenge. Based on the post-infection clinical evolution and immune response against CSFV, the animals were divided into two groups: group I, with protecting immunity against CSFV and no clinical signs at the day of necropsy, and group II, with no detectable immune response against CSFV and moderate to severe clinical signs. TTSuVs qPCR results indicated that TTSuV2 and not TTSuV1 load in serum increased significantly after challenge with CSFV in the group of pigs with clinical signs, specifically in those with a moderate course of the disease. Therefore, this study emphasizes the different behaviour of both TTSuVs, as already found in the PMWS background, and further supports the association of TTSuV2 with disease occurrence. PMID:23274109

Aramouni, M; Kekarainen, T; Ganges, L; Tarradas, J; Segalés, J



Three new emerging subgroups of torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) and co-infection of TTSuVs with porcine circovirus type 2 in China  

PubMed Central

Background Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) are non-enveloped viruses and have single-stranded, negative sense circular DNA genomes and are widely distributed in pigs. But till now, the prevalence of TTSuVs with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pig herds of China is not very clear; and the genetic variation among different TTSuVs isolate is very large and need to divide the subgroups. In this study, the co-infection with TTSuVs and porcine circovrius (PCV) in the pig population of China was investigated and the subgroups of all TTSuVs genomes in Genbank were divided. Results Results showed that the rate of co-infection with TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 reached 75% in PCV2-positive samples. Also Two TTSuV1 and four TTSuV2 isolates genome sequences were obtained, and the similarity of all TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 genomic sequences in GenBank were compared. Phylogenetic trees indicated that both the TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 sequences could be divided into four genotypes. Interestingly, the sub-genotypes TTSuV1d, TTSuV2c and TTSuV2d exist only in the pig population of China. Conclusions This study demonstrates that co-infection with TTSuVs and PCVs is very common in the pig population of China, in which the viruses maybe contribute to clinical diseases cooperatively. In addition, three new subgroups of TTSuVs emerged in China for the first time and a high level of variation among different isolates of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 was indicated by their genetic diversity.



Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 distribution in tissues of porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease affected and age-matched healthy pigs.  


The present work was aimed to investigate the torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 (TTSuV1 and 2) loads of different tissues of pigs affected by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-systemic disease (PCV2-SD) and healthy age-matched ones. A total of 20 pigs (10 healthy and 10 diagnosed as PCV2-SD) were chosen for the study. From each pig, a total of 7 tissues were analyzed, including lung, kidney, liver, ileum, bone marrow, and mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes. TTSuV 1 and 2 were quantified by means of species-specific real time quantitative PCR methods. Both TTSuVs were distributed systemically. Results showed the highest loads for TTSuV2 in tissues from diseased pigs. The highest TTSuV1 DNA load was found in bone marrow, lung, and liver, while it was in bone marrow, mediastinal lymph node and liver for TTSuV2. Bone marrow was the tissue with the highest viral DNA burden for both TTSuV species. Overall, statistically significant differences were observed in viral DNA load, with TTSuV2 showing higher loads than TTSuV1 (p<0.05). Also, tissues from PCVD-SD affected pigs showed higher TTSuV2 loads than tissues of the healthy group (p<0.05). It was concluded that both TTSuVs had a wide tissue distribution all over the body, with differential load comparing diseased versus healthy pigs. It is likely that other tissues not included in this study would also be infected by TTSuVs. PMID:23395293

Nieto, David; Kekarainen, Tuija; Aramouni, Mario; Segalés, Joaquim



Linkage disequilibria and the site frequency spectra in the su(s) and su(w(a)) regions of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome.  


Over the last decade, surveys of DNA sequence variation in natural populations of several Drosophila species and other taxa have established that polymorphism is reduced in genomic regions characterized by low rates of crossing over per physical length. Parallel studies have also established that divergence between species is not reduced in these same genomic regions, thus eliminating explanations that rely on a correlation between the rates of mutation and crossing over. Several theoretical models (directional hitchhiking, background selection, and random environment) have been proposed as population genetic explanations. In this study samples from an African population (n = 50) and a European population (n = 51) were surveyed at the su(s) (1955 bp) and su(w(a)) (3213 bp) loci for DNA sequence polymorphism, utilizing a stratified SSCP/DNA sequencing protocol. These loci are located near the telomere of the X chromosome, in a region of reduced crossing over per physical length, and exhibit a significant reduction in DNA sequence polymorphism. Unlike most previously surveyed, these loci reveal substantial skews toward rare site frequencies, consistent with the predictions of directional hitchhiking and random environment models and inconsistent with the general predictions of the background selection model (or neutral theory). No evidence for excess geographic differentiation at these loci is observed. Although linkage disequilibrium is observed between closely linked sites within these loci, many recombination events in the genealogy of the sampled alleles can be inferred and the genomic scale of linkage disequilibrium, measured in base pairs between sites, is the same as that observed for loci in regions of normal crossing over. We conclude that gene conversion must be high in these regions of low crossing over. PMID:11102378

Langley, C H; Lazzaro, B P; Phillips, W; Heikkinen, E; Braverman, J M



Effects of Various Anesthetic Protocols on 18F-Flurodeoxyglucose Uptake into the Brains and Hearts of Normal Miniature Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica)  

PubMed Central

This study used positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET–CT) to evaluate the effects of 4 anesthetic protocols on 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) accumulation in the brains and hearts of miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). The 18F-FDG standard uptake value was quantified by dividing the brain into 6 regions: cerebellum, brainstem, and frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Five (2 female and 3 male) clinically normal miniature pigs were premedicated with medetomidine (200 ?g/kg IM) after which the following 4 anesthetic protocols were administered by using a crossover design: 1) propofol (4 mg/kg IV)–isoflurane inhalation; 2) propofol (4 mg/kg IV); 3) ketamine (5 mg/kg IV); 4) tiletamine–zolazepam (4.4 mg/kg IM). Compared with levels after other protocols, brain accumulation of 18F-FDG increased during propofol anesthesia but decreased with tiletamine–zolazepam. Relative to that due to other protocols, heart accumulation of 18F-FDG increased with propofol–isoflurane anesthesia but decreased with tiletamine–zolazepam. Comparing glucose accumulation in the brain and heart of miniature pigs by using PET–CT, we found that glucose accumulation varied according to the anesthetic protocol and between the 2 organs. These results can be used to evaluate how different anesthetic agents affect glucose metabolism in brain and heart of miniature pigs. Furthermore, these data should be considered when selecting an anesthetic agent for miniature pigs that will undergo PET–CT imaging with 18F-FDG.

Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Jong-In; Lee, Jae-Won; Cho, Yoon Ju; Lee, Byeong Han; Chung, Hyun Woo; Park, Keun-Kyu; Han, Jin Soo



Muscle fibre characteristics, enzyme activity and meat colour of wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) muscle with 2n=36 compared to those of phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38).  


The aim of the present study was to evaluate European wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) of chromosomal number 2n=36 in comparison with phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38) with respect to the muscle fibre characteristics and enzyme activity as well as meat colour in the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles. Differences in the proportion of IIA fibre in the LD muscle between karyotypes 2n=37 and 2n=38 were found. The 2n=36 group showed a lower muscle fibre cross-section area than the 2n=38 karyotype. The meat colour of the 2n=36 karyotype group was redder than 2n=37 and 2n=38. The muscle fibre cross-section area might explain the differences in colour of the meat of wild boar. PMID:24973777

Skewes, Oscar; Cádiz, Patricia; Merino, Victoria; Islas, Armando; Morales, Rodrigo



Measurement of hydrogen permeation through SUS 316L for pressures from 0.8 to 2.0 bar and thicknesses from 1 to 3 mm at 800°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed understanding of the permeation of hydrogen isotopes through structural materials is an important issue concerning the reliability, safety, fuelling and environmental impact of fusion power reactors. The permeation of hydrogen through SUS 316L stainless steel, which will be used in various parts of fusion power reactors, was investigated at an elevated temperature of 800 °C. From experiments at different hydrogen feed pressures of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 bar with a 3-mm-thick membrane coupon, the hydrogen pressure exponent was determined, and the rate-limiting step for the permeation was determined to be bulk diffusion. From experiments using membranes of various thicknesses of 1, 2, and 3 mm at 1 bar, the effect of the membrane thickness on the hydrogen permeation was studied and discussed in relation to the bulk diffusion process. The results and the discussions for the hydrogen permeation experiments are presented here.

Lee, S. K.; Noh, S. J.; In, S. R.



Trastornos alimentarios en el deporte: factores de riesgo, consecuencias sobre la salud, tratamiento y prevención  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders appear with relative frequency in sports, such as gymnastics, figure skating or resistance sports, in which weight control is important. Their inci- dence is greater in women, frequently appearing a low self-esteem, a distorted body image in which the body is perceived with an excess of weight, inefficiency, perfectio- nism and a sense of control loss, with compensatory

S. Márquez



Carencia de hierro en la infancia: Causas y consecuencias para el desarrollo infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenSe comentan brevemente las causas principales de la carencia de hierro (CH), seguido de un examen de los estudios sobre la CH y el desarrollo y comportamiento cognitivos y motores del niño para probar un vínculo causal, clasificando dichos estudios por su diseño. La anemia por carencia de hierro (ACH) se asocia a numerosos inconvenientes psicosociales y económicos que pueden

Sally Grantham-McGregor; Helen Baker-Henningham



Consecuencias de la restricción de peso impuesta por el deporte en la infancia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoActualmente, los competidores jóvenes emprenden programas de entrenamiento que se basan en un nivel elevado de actividad física desde una temprana edad. Este entrenamiento intensivo (volumen e intensidad) aumenta el gasto de energía, que tiene que ser compensado por una mayor ingesta nutricional. Los bailarines de ballet, los patinadores artísticos, los gimnastas o los gimnastas rítmicos comienzan a entrenar a

Nathalie Boisseau



Dynamics of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) DNA loads in serum of healthy and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs.  


Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are vertebrate infecting, small viruses with circular single stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In pigs, two different TTV species have been described so far, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2). TTSuVs have lately been linked to postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In the present study, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 prevalence and DNA loads in longitudinally collected serum samples of healthy and PMWS affected pigs from Spanish conventional, multi-site farms were analyzed. Serum samples were taken at 1, 3, 7, 11 and around 15 weeks of age (age of PMWS outbreak) and viral DNA loads determined by quantitative PCR. For both TTSuV species, percentage of viremic pigs increased progressively over time, with the highest prevalence in animals of about 15 weeks of age. TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral DNA loads in healthy and TTSuV1 loads in PMWS affected animals increased until 11 weeks of age declining afterwards. On the contrary, TTSuV2 DNA loads in PMWS affected pigs increased throughout the sampling period. It seems that TTSuV species differ in the in vivo infection dynamics in PMWS affected animals. PMID:21680113

Nieto, D; Aramouni, M; Grau-Roma, L; Segalés, J; Kekarainen, T



Avaliação tecnológica e análise custo-efetividade em saúde: a incorporação de tecnologias e a produção de diretrizes clínicas para o SUS Technology assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis in health care: the adoption of technolo- gies and the development of clinical guidelines for the Brazilian national system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses the role of tech- nology assessment in health care, particu- larly cost-effectiveness, for the planning and management of an evidence-based diffusion and incorporation (financing) of health tech- nologies in the SUS. The paper also explains the role of technology assessment in the elab- oration of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, which can serve as important tools for improving

Letícia Krauss Silva


Your Children - Sus Ninos; Your Schools - Sus Escuelas. Centennial School District, San Luis, Colorado, June 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do you feel that schools are only for teachers, principals, and people who have special training in education? Well, Centennial schools need help from parents. You don't need any special skills or training. All you have to do is care about making schools better places for children to learn. How can you help your children's schools do a better job?…

Centennial School District R-1, San Luis, CO.


Orientación al mercado y performance en las organizaciones públicas. Un estudio en el ámbito de los gobiernos locales españoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo posee como finalidad vincular los estudios de orientación al mercado desde el ámbito del marketing, con las propuestas de reforma y modernización desde los ámbitos administrativo y político. La orientación al mercado en las organizaciones empresariales, sus antecedentes y consecuencias, constituyen un tema ampliamente investigado en el ámbito empresarial. Sobre la base del análisis de estos trabajos

Amparo Crevera Taulet



78 FR 62643 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Disaster...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; and eligibility/ verification...



Detection of a porcine boca-like virus in combination with porcine circovirus type 2 genotypes and Torque teno sus virus in pigs from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected and non-PMWS-affected farms in archival samples from Great Britain.  


In this study we detail the detection and genetic analysis of a novel porcine boca-like virus (PBo-likeV) in archival sera and tissue samples from pigs from farms in Great Britain. We also investigate the distribution of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) genotypes and Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) genogroups 1 and 2 in combination with this novel PBo-likeV. PBo-likeV was detected in over 70% of all tissues investigated. Over 24% of all tissues recovered from PMWS-affected animals had all viruses present and 25% of tissues recovered from non-PMWS-affected pigs were positive for all 4 viruses. PMID:23578709

McMenamy, Michael J; McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Duffy, Catherine; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Charreyre, Catherine; Welsh, Michael; Allan, Gordon



Development and validation of a 4-plex antibody assay for simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies against Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1), TTSuV2, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus types 1 and 2.  


A fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA) for simultaneous detection of IgG antibodies against Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1), TTSuV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type 1 (PRRSV-1) and PRRSV-2 was developed. Serum samples were obtained over time from 20 pigs. Twelve of 20 were exposed to TTSuV2 on day 0, 20/20 were vaccinated with a PRRSV-2 vaccine on day 35, and 20/20 were exposed to PRRSV-2 on day 63. Anti-TTSuV antibodies were detected in 30% of the pigs on day 0, and 90% by day 35. All PRRSV-2 vaccinated pigs had detectable anti-PRRSV-2 IgG 21 days after vaccination. Field samples from 17 farms were also tested. The seroprevalence of both PRRSV and TTSuV increased with age. Comparison of the PRRSV-2 FMIA to an ELISA revealed good correlation in young pigs but a high rate of false positives in older pigs. Cross-reaction between PRRSV types was a problem. PMID:24650623

Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Gerber, Priscilla F; Rowland, Raymond R; Halbur, Patrick G; Huang, Yao-Wei; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Opriessnig, Tanja



The Electrocardiogram of Conventional and Miniature Swine (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

Standard, augmented limb leads and lead V10 (representing the Z axis) taken in sequence and three semi-orthogonal leads (I, aVF, and V10) taken simultaneously were recorded from 43 healthy pigs. Records were analyzed for rate, rhythm, interval duration and component amplitudes. The wave form of QRS complexes were analyzed in all leads studied. P, QRS, and T vectors were calculated for the mean dorsal (frontal), sagittal, and transverse planes. study of orthogonal leads in right sternal recumbency indicated that ventricular activation is spatially oriented dorsad, sinistrad and slightly caudad. No essential difference was noticed in the conventional and miniature swine. Ventricular fibrillation induced electrically in four older pigs was a progressive, terminal event; in two newborn piglets, ventricular fibrillation induced several times was terminated in each case by spontaneous recovery to sinus rhythm. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.

Dukes, T. W.; Szabuniewicz, M.



Characterisation of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild boars (Sus scrofa).  


Wild boar are widely distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and can carry potentially virulent strains of Streptococcus suis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. suis in wild boars from two large geographical regions of Spain. Serotypes 1, 2, 7 and 9 identified were further genetically characterised by virulence-associated genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the population structure of S. suis carried by these animals. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 39.1% of the wild boars examined: serotype 9 was the most frequently isolated (12.5%), followed by serotype 1 (2.5%). Serotype 2 was rarely isolated (0.3%). Eighteen additional serotypes were identified indicating wide diversity of this pathogen within the wild boar population. This heterogeneity was confirmed by PFGE and MLST analyses and the majority of isolates exhibited the virulence-associated genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-. The results of this study highlight that the carriage of S. suis by wild boars is commonplace. However, MLST data indicate that these isolates are not related to prevalent clonal complexes ST1, ST16, ST61 and ST87 typically associated with infection of pigs or humans in Europe. PMID:24726078

Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Briones, Víctor; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Vela, Ana Isabel



La pizarra digital y sus posibilidades en el mundo educativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuevos aprendizajes y nuevas mentes, llevan consigo la necesidad de profundizar en la metodología a la hora de innovar y de aplicar las nuevas tecnologías en el aula. La inquietud de un grupo cada vez más numeroso de profesores, junto a las tímidas aproximaciones de las diversas administraciones a la hora de dotar a los centros con nuevas tecnologías, hace

Ramón Domenech



Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.


Lymphome de Hodgkin: traitement des stades localisés sus-diaphragmatiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  The risk-adapted therapeutic strategy used for adult patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma is defined taking into account their\\u000a risk factors and includes standard first-line ABVD chemotherapy. In early-stage supradiaphragmatic disease, 3 chemotherapeutic\\u000a courses are applied for patients without risk factors while 4 courses are used for patients with risk factors, followed by\\u000a a radiation therapy targeting initially involved fields (IFRT) at

C. Fermé



Characterization of a polymorphic IGLV gene in pigs (Sus scrofa).  


Swine, unlike other artiodactyls, but similar to humans, utilize both lambda and kappa light chain isotypes almost equally in the generation of their antibody repertoire. The porcine antibody light chain loci have previously been characterized in a single Duroc sow in which was seen extensive allelic variation between light chain genes on homologous chromosomes. However, the extent of variation between individuals is completely unknown. Using deep sequencing of cDNA-derived amplicons from five pigs, we report the identification and characterization of an IGLV gene that is functional and highly expressed in some animals, yet completely absent in others. Our findings provide a possible rationale for the known individual-to-individual variation in antibody responses to vaccination, infectious challenge, and subsequent disease outcome. PMID:24934119

Schwartz, John C; Murtaugh, Michael P



Serological Profile of Torque Teno Sus Virus Species 1 (TTSuV1) in Pigs and Antigenic Relationships between Two TTSuV1 Genotypes (1a and 1b), between Two Species (TTSuV1 and -2), and between Porcine and Human Anelloviruses  

PubMed Central

The family Anelloviridae includes human and animal torque teno viruses (TTVs) with extensive genetic diversity. The antigenic diversity among anelloviruses has never been assessed. Using torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) as a model, we describe here the first investigation of the antigenic relationships among different anelloviruses. Using a TTSuV genotype 1a (TTSuV1a) or TTSuV1b enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the respective putative ORF1 capsid antigen and TTSuV1-specific real-time PCR, the combined serological and virological profile of TTSuV1 infection in pigs was determined and compared with that of TTSuV2. TTSuV1 is likely not associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), because both the viral loads and antibody levels were not different between affected and unaffected pigs and because there was no synergistic effect of concurrent PCV2/TTSuV1 infections. We did observe a higher correlation of IgG antibody levels between anti-TTSuV1a and -TTSuV1b than between anti-TTSuV1a or -1b and anti-TTSuV2 antibodies in these sera, implying potential antigenic cross-reactivity. To confirm this, rabbit antisera against the putative capsid proteins of TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b, or TTSuV2 were generated, and the antigenic relationships among these TTSuVs were analyzed by an ELISA and by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using PK-15 cells transfected with one of the three TTSuV ORF1 constructs. The results demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity between the two genotypes TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b but not between the two species TTSuV1a or -1b and TTSuV2. Furthermore, an anti-genogroup 1 human TTV antiserum did not react with any of the three TTSuV antigens. These results have important implications for an understanding of the diversity of anelloviruses as well as for the classification and vaccine development of TTSuVs.

Huang, Yao-Wei; Harrall, Kylie K.; Dryman, Barbara A.; Opriessnig, Tanja; Vaughn, Eric M.; Roof, Michael B.




PubMed Central

Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH.

Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Ruben; Balan, Ivan; Pando, Maria Angeles; Avila, Maria Mercedes



Consequences of antenna design in telemetry studies of small passerines [Consecuencias en el disen??o de una antena en un estudio de radiotelemetria para paserinos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Entanglement and mortality of Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, occurred when birds were radio-tagged with transmitters equipped with a long, limp, solder-tipped antenna. Birds were found suspended in trees by their transmitter antenna on eight occasions. Although these birds eventually freed themselves or were freed by us, at least one bird died afterwards. For radio telemetry studies of small passerine species we recommend avoiding transmitters equipped with an antenna that is bulbous at the tip, >16 cm in length, limp, and shiny.

Dougill, S. J.; Johnson, L.; Banko, P. C.; Goltz, D. M.; Wiley, M. R.; Semones, J. D.




Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the socioeconomic consequences of teenagers bearing is undertaken. Adolescent pregnancy constitutes a life event with important consequences on some women's dimensions: schooling, family structure, occupation, life project and marital status. Due such situation, it is important to investigate about its social and economic consequences, as well as to verify its possible inheriting behavior. A cross-sectional retrospective study on

Andrés Salazar; Luisa Fernanda Rodríguez; Rodrigo Antonio Daza


EL PROCEDIMIENTO DE CONSECUENCIAS DIFERENCIALES Y LA RECUPERACIÓN DE INFORMACIÓN EN HUMANOS The differential outcomes procedure and retrieval of information in human beings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) the organism is exposed to a stimulus (S1) in the presence of which a response is required (R1), producing a consequence or reinforcer (r1). In the presence of a stimulus S2, a response R2 is required, producing a different reinforcer (r2). The effect is an increment of the speed of acquisition and final precision

Mucio Romero; Javier Vil; Revista Colombiana de Psicología



How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

National PTA, Chicago, IL.


Development of a microsatellite-based method for the differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) from domestic pig breeds (Sus scrofa domestica) in food.  


Twenty microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSR) were used to discriminate wild boar from domestic pig and to identify mixtures of the two. Reference groups of wild boar and pig samples were collected from the UK and Europe for genetic assignment tests. Bayesian Analysis of Populations software (BAPs) gave 100% correct assignment for blind wild boar and pig samples and correctly identified mixed samples. DNA was extracted from 12 commercial food samples (11 labeled as containing wild boar) including patés, salamis, and sausage, and good SSR profiles were obtained. Eleven samples were correctly assigned as pig, and two as mixed meats. One sample sold as wild boar meat was clearly assigned as pig. A further 10 blind samples of meat cuts were analyzed, eight wild boar and two pig, and all were correctly assigned. PMID:22409233

Conyers, Christine M; Allnutt, Theodore R; Hird, Heather J; Kaye, Joy; Chisholm, James



Time-series analysis for online recognition and localization of sick pig (Sus scrofa) cough sounds.  


This paper considers the online localization of sick animals in pig houses. It presents an automated online recognition and localization procedure for sick pig cough sounds. The instantaneous energy of the signal is initially used to detect and extract individual sounds from a continuous recording and their duration is used as a preclassifier. Autoregression (AR) analysis is then employed to calculate an estimate of the sound signal, and the parameters of the estimated signal are subsequently evaluated to identify the sick cough sounds. It is shown that the distribution of just three AR parameters provides an adequate classifier for sick pig coughs. A localization technique based on the time difference of arrival is evaluated on field data and is shown that it is of acceptable accuracy for this particular application. The algorithm is applied on continuous recordings from a pig house to evaluate its effectiveness. The correct identification ratio ranged from 73% (27% false positive identifications) to 93% (7% false positive identifications) depending on the position of the microphone that was used for the recording. Although the false negative identifications are about 50% it is shown that this accuracy can be enough for the purpose of this tool. Finally, it is suggested that the presented application can be used to online monitor the welfare in a pig house, and provide early diagnosis of a cough hazard and faster treatment of sick animals. PMID:19206806

Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Silva, Mitchell; Ferrari, Sara; Guarino, Marcella; Taylor, C James; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Berckmans, Daniel



Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella in European wild boar (Sus scrofa); Latium Region - Italy.  


The prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection was determined in 499 wild boars harvested during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 hunting seasons in the Latium Region of Italy. We conducted a microbiological assessment on faeces collected at slaughter and we examined serum samples for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella spp. by ELISA assay. Out of 383 serum samples examined, 255 (66.5%) were positive for Salmonella spp. antibodies. Overall, 10.8% (54/499) of the animals were positive by microbiological assessment. The Salmonellae most frequently isolated were S. enterica subsp. salamae II (24%), S. enterica subsp. Diarizonae III b (12.9%), S. enterica subsp. houtenae IV (11.1%) and S. Fischerhuette (7.4%); less common Salmonella isolates included S. Veneziana (5.5%), S. Napoli (5.5%), S. Kottbus (5.5%), S. Thompson (5.5%), S. enterica subsp. arizonae III a (3.7%), S. Toulon (3.7%), S. Burgas (1.8%), S. Tennelhone (1.8%), S. Ferruch (1.8%), S. choleraesuis (1.8%), S. Paratyphi (1.8%), S. Stanleyville (1.8%), S. Typhimurium (1.8%) and S. enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12:1:- (1.8%). These isolates were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents and exhibited resistance to sulphonamides (92.5%), sulphonamides and thrimetroprim (14.8%), colistin (14.8%), streptomycin (18.5%), gentamycin (5.5%), tetracycline (5.5%), ceftiofur (3.7%), cefazoline (1.8%), cefotaxime (1.8%), nalidixic acid (1.8%), amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (1.8%) and ampicillin (3.7%). Our data, the first collected on this species in Italy, suggest that European wild boars are frequent carriers of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonellae and are likely involved in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance throughout the environment. PMID:23253890

Zottola, T; Montagnaro, S; Magnapera, C; Sasso, S; De Martino, L; Bragagnolo, A; D'Amici, L; Condoleo, R; Pisanelli, G; Iovane, G; Pagnini, U



[Factors associated with home care: support for care management within the SUS].  


The identification of variables associated with the type of home care (HC) of the users of the Unified Health System (UHS) contributes to the management of care in the Health Care Network (HCN). The objective was to identify variables associated with HC users in Basic Health Units (BHU) selected from Belo Horizonte. It was a transversal study in two BHU with all users (n=114) in HC in the covered area. We used a multiple logistic regression analysis for selection (stepwise) of significant variables. Greater clinical involvement of users (OR=27.47), a sad emotional state (OR=24.36), risk for pressure ulcer bythe Braden scale (OR=7.6) and semidependence by the Katz ADL index (OR=63.8) were obtained and were strongly associated with the type of HC (p<0.05). Variables based on the social, family and clinical context of the subjects subsidized the integral approach and decision-making of the healthcare team. PMID:24601142

Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen; Göttems, Leila Bernarda Donato; Figueiredo, Nívea Vieira Furtado; Spagnol, Carla Aparecida



Meiotic Recombination Analyses of Individual Chromosomes in Male Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).  


For the first time in the domestic pig, meiotic recombination along the 18 porcine autosomes was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein. In total, 7,848 synaptonemal complexes from 436 spermatocytes were analyzed, and 13,969 recombination sites were mapped. Individual chromosomes for 113 of the 436 cells (representing 2,034 synaptonemal complexes) were identified by immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The average total length of autosomal synaptonemal complexes per cell was 190.3 µm, with 32.0 recombination sites (crossovers), on average, per cell. The number of crossovers and the lengths of the autosomal synaptonemal complexes showed significant intra- (i.e. between cells) and inter-individual variations. The distributions of recombination sites within each chromosomal category were similar: crossovers in metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes were concentrated in the telomeric regions of the p- and q-arms, whereas two hotspots were located near the centromere and in the telomeric region of acrocentrics. Lack of MLH1 foci was mainly observed in the smaller chromosomes, particularly chromosome 18 (SSC18) and the sex chromosomes. All autosomes displayed positive interference, with a large variability between the chromosomes. PMID:24919066

Mary, Nicolas; Barasc, Harmonie; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Billon, Yvon; Meslier, Frédéric; Robelin, David; Calgaro, Anne; Loustau-Dudez, Anne-Marie; Bonnet, Nathalie; Yerle, Martine; Acloque, Hervé; Ducos, Alain; Pinton, Alain



Nueva Publicacion Habla de las Necesidades de los Sobrevivientes de cancer Latinos y sus Familias

Esta publicación gratuita combina la información más actual de los profesionales de la salud con anécdotas personales de sobrevivientes de cáncer latinos, sobre cómo enfrentarse a la vida después del tratamiento del cáncer


Empresas dinámicas en Ecuador: factores de éxito y competencias de sus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the information from 150 Ecuadorian entrepreneurs, we explore the existence of dynamic enterprises, their success factors and distinguishing cha- racteristics of the entrepreneurs. Also, applying a logistic regression analysis

María Elizabeth Arteaga; Virginia Lasio



La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion por quienes promueven estas practicas. A partir de los resultados, la investigadora concluye que la problematica sobre la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia esta influenciada por unos procesos de ensenanza enfocados en una vision distorsionada de la ciencia, producto de la no integracion de los aspectos filosoficos, historicos y sociales de la misma.

Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah


Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis infections in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Korea.  


Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis are important zoonotic pathogens with worldwide distributions. In Korea, several outbreaks of human toxoplasmosis and trichinellosis due to the consumption of infected wild animals have been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and T. spiralis infections in wild boars killed in Korea from December 2009 to October 2011. A total of 521 wild boars hunted in eight provinces were examined for antibodies to T. gondii and T. spiralis by using commercial ELISA kits. Overall, 25.1% of serum samples from individual boars were seropositive for T. gondii and 1.7% were seropositive for T. spiralis. Seropositive for T. gondii was found in the boars in all the eight provinces investigated and for T. spiralis in four provinces. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of T. gondii and T. spiralis infections in wild boars in Korea. The consumption of undercooked wild boar meat may expose humans to a high risk of infection. PMID:24016595

Kang, Seung Won; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Choe, Se Eun; Yoo, Mi Sun; Kim, Young Ha; Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Dieu; Van Quyen, Dong; Nguyen, Lien Thi Kim; Kweon, Chang Hee; Jung, Suk Chan



El modelo de funcionamiento económico en cuba y sus transformaciones. Seis ejes articuladores para su análisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Economía se ha convertido en el tema central de discusión en la Cuba del 2011. La dirección del Partido Comunista ha impulsado el debate masivo argumentando la necesidad de “actualizar el modelo económico cubano”. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las propuestas y reflexiones suscitadas, incluidos los Lineamientos aprobados durante el VI Congreso del PCC, se erigen sobre la base

Oscar Fernández Estrada



Como Ayudar a sus Hijos a Aprender Ciencia (Helping Your Child Learn Science).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because most parents say they do not or cannot help their children with science, this booklet was designed to help them do so, easily and with pleasure for both parent and child. The introduction presents information on why and how parents should help their children and provides a general orientation to the ideas and activities offered in the…

Paulu, Nancy; Martin, Margery


Free and sulfated steroids secretion in postpubertal boars (Sus scrofa domestica).  


Sulfated steroids have been traditionally regarded as inactive metabolites. However, they may also serve as precursors for the production of active free steroids in target cells. In this study, we used the boar as a model to study the metabolism, transport, and function of steroid sulfates due to their high production in the porcine testicular-epididymal compartment, of which the role is unknown. To characterize the secretion of free and sulfated steroids, plasma samples were collected from six postpubertal boars over 6?h every 20?min from the jugular vein. Long-term secretion profiles were also established in seven boars stimulated with human chorionic gonadotropin. To directly characterize the testicular output, samples were collected from superficial testicular arterial and venous blood vessels. Testosterone, androstenedione and sulfated pregnenolone, DHEA, estrone (E1), and estradiol-17? (E2) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free E1 and E2 were measured by RIA. Irrespective of a high variability between individuals, the results suggest that i) all steroids assessed are primarily produced in the testis, ii) they exhibit similar profiles pointing to a pulsatile secretion with low frequency (three to five pulses per day), and iii) after synthesis at least a major proportion is immediately released into peripheral circulation. The fact that all steroid sulfates assessed are original testicular products and their high correlations with one another suggest their role as being intermediates of testicular steroidogenesis rather than as being inactivated end products. Moreover, a substantial use of sulfated steroids in porcine testicular steroidogenesis would assign a crucial regulatory role to steroid sulfatase, which is highly expressed in Leydig cells. PMID:24961601

Schuler, G; Dezhkam, Y; Bingsohn, L; Hoffmann, B; Failing, K; Galuska, C E; Hartmann, M F; Sánchez-Guijo, A; Wudy, S A



A serological and bacteriological survey of brucellosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background Brucellosis is frequently reported among wild boar populations in Europe. The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation in Belgium, regarding the steady increase of wild boar populations over the last decades. Several serological tests were used and compared with culture and IS711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to determine the most suitable combination of diagnostic tools for conducting a successful prevalence study in wildlife. Results An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) was used on 1168 sera from hunter-killed wild boar sampled between 2003 and 2007 in 4 natural regions of southern Belgium. Results gave an apparent prevalence of 54.88% (95% CI 52.03-57.73). Prevalence was significantly affected by age and by the year of study, but not by sex nor by the region of sampling. The relative sensitivities of the complement fixation test (CFT), the Rose Bengal test (RBT), and the slow agglutination test (SAT) versus the iELISA differed widely between tests, reaching 62.67%, 46.68%, and 34.77%, respectively. The relative specificities of the CFT, RBT and SAT versus the iELISA were respectively 99.01%, 92.49%, and 99.1%. From seropositive animals (iELISA), 9% were positive by culture and 24% by PCR when testing spleen and/or tonsils. Sensitivity of the PCR was higher on tonsils than on spleen. All bacterial isolates were identified as Brucella suis biovar 2. Conclusions Brucellosis is widespread among wild boar in southern Belgium, with seroprevalences having increased over ten years, and constitutes a growing risk of spillback to outdoor-farmed pig herds. The iELISA showed a better sensitivity than the CFT, RBT and SAT. Serological tests must be associated with direct diagnosis and PCR proved more sensitive than culture under wildlife sampling conditions. Spleen and tonsils are lymphoid tissues usually sampled in multi-disease monitoring programs. They remain top-grade organs for direct diagnosis of brucellosis, with a preference for tonsils.



[Functional significance of musculature of the external nose in swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica)].  


The origin and attachments of the muscles of the external nose were examined in 17 pigs comprising both sexes and different age groups. The modification of the porcine nasal apex to the snout-disc leads to different functional aspects of the muscles of the external nose. Accordingly, all these muscles are attached to the snout-disc. Only the nasolabial levator and caninus muscles are also attached to the upper lip. In addition, the snout-disc includes an intrinsic muscle, the nasal muscle. With regard to morphological and functional aspects, the nostrils can be divided into two parts. The superficial part consists of muscle and connective tissue and is dilated by the cooperative contraction of all muscles of the external nose. In contrast, the second and cartilaginous part of the nostrils dilates less readily, through contraction of the rostrally located deep fibres of the levator nasolabial muscle. As an adaptation for rooting, a special supportive system for muscles of the external nose has developed in pigs, including osseous (eminentia canina) and muscular (muscular slip of the m. levator labii superioris attached to the nasal bone, species-specific development of the m. levator nasolabialis) structures. The observed cartilaginous connection between the ventral lateral nasal and the vomeronasal cartilages suggests another transport mechanism for odours into the vomeronasal organ. Due to this connection, movement of the snout-disc and the cartilages of the external nose could imply passive movement of the vomeronasal cartilage and therefore of the vomeronasal organ. PMID:10652825

Soucek, G; Breit, S; König, H E; Liebich, H G



Effects of acute dietary iron overload in pigs (Sus scrofa) with induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.  


Epidemiological studies have reported an association between high iron (Fe) levels and elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is believed that the formation of Fe-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals may contribute to the development of diabetes. Our goal was to determine the effect of a diet with a high Fe content on type 2 diabetic pigs. Four groups of piglets were studied: (1) control group, basal diet; (2) Fe group, basal diet with 3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate; (3) diabetic group (streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes) with basal diet; (4) diabetic/Fe group, diabetic animals/3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate. For 2 months, biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. Tissue samples of liver and duodenum were obtained to determine mRNA relative abundance of DMT1, ferroportin (Fpn), ferritin (Fn), hepcidin (Hpc), and transferrin receptor by qRT-PCR. Fe group presented increased levels of hematological (erythrocytes, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and iron parameters. Diabetic/Fe group showed similar behavior as Fe group but in lesser extent. The relative abundance of different genes in the four study groups yielded a different expression pattern. DMT1 showed a lower expression in the two iron groups compared with control and diabetic animals, and Hpc showed an increased on its expression in Fe and diabetic/Fe groups. Diabetic/Fe group presents greater expression of Fn and Fpn. These results suggest that there is an interaction between Fe nutrition, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the diabetes development. PMID:24699828

Espinoza, A; Morales, S; Arredondo, M



Role of endogenous and exogenous prostaglandins on the contractile functioning of isolated sow (Sus scrofa) oviducts.  


The output of prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2 and F2 alpha, from ampullary and isthmic portions of sow oviducts isolated during proestrus, estrus and metestrus, was explored. Moreover, in vitro cumulative dose-response curves for the contractile effect of these three PGs, on identical oviductal segments, were constructed. Isthmic preparations from proestrous and metestrous animals released more PGE1 and PGF2 alpha than PGE2 "like material". During estrus, the outputs of PGE1, PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were similar, whereas, oviducts from proestrous and metestrous sows released less PGE1 and PGF2 alpha than during estrus. Although the output of PGE2 "like material" from isthmic and ampullary segments did not differ significantly during the three stages of the sex cycle, ampullary metestrous preparations released more PGE1 and PGF2 alpha, than estrous or proestrous ones. The addition of PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2 alpha, consistently stimulated the amplitude of contractions of isthmic oviductal segments isolated from proestrous and metestrous sows. Within the concentration-range explored, dose-response curves for PGE2 and PGE1 were to the left of those for PGF2 alpha in the isthmus obtained before ovulation (proestrus) but not in segments isolated at later times (2-3 days) of the cycle (metestrus). The stimulatory dose-response curves for PGE1, or PGE2, in isthmic segments of metestrous preparations incubated with phentolamine (10(-6)M) were shifted to the right of controls not exposed to the adrenoreceptor blocker, whereas, the curve for PGF2 alpha without phentolamine, was identical to that obtained in its presence. PGE1 and PGE2 did not evoke significant contractile effects on oviductal ampullary portions from proestrous sows, whereas, PGF2 alpha was clearly stimulatory at concentrations of 10(-9)M and higher. In ampullary segments isolated after ovulation (metestrus) the threshold for contractile enhancement following PGF2 alpha was greater than during proestrus, whereas, PGE1 elicited a significant inhibition of contractions. The spontaneous contractile pattern exhibited by isthmic and ampullary oviductal regions, prior to and after ovulation, is discussed in terms of tissue PG generation and output and is compared with results regarding tubal motility following the exposure to exogenous PGs. PMID:6589688

Gimeno, M F; Franchi, A M; Chaud, M; Gonzalez, E T; Viggiano, M; Gimeno, A L



Annexin A2 is involved in pig (Sus scrofa)sperm-oviduct interaction.  


The oviduct is a dynamic organ which modulates gamete physiology. Sperm-oviduct interaction provides the formation of a sperm storage reservoir and allows the selection of sperm with certain qualities in eutherian mammals. In sows, the oviductal sperm binding glycoprotein (SBG) has been proposed to be involved in sperm selection. In this work, based on its affinity to sperm periacrosomal membrane proteins, we isolate another pig oviductal cell protein that interacts with sperm. Peptide identification by LC/MS-MS allowed the identification of this protein as annexin A2. The presence of this annexin, as well as annexin A1 and annexin A5 in sow oviductal cells was confirmed by Western blot with specific antibodies. The three proteins were localized in sow oviduct by immunohistochemistry, showing the presence of annexin A2 at the apical surface of the oviductal epithelial cells. Based on our data and the fact that annexins have been stated as candidate receptors of bovine sperm for sperm reservoir formation, we propose that this family of proteins is involved in sperm-oviduct interaction, annexin A2 being the main sperm binding isoform in pig. PMID:18932200

Teijeiro, Juan M; Ignotz, George G; Marini, Patricia E



Anatomical study on true hermaphroditism in an Indian pig (Sus Scrofa Domesticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pig was confirmed to be a true hermaphrodite on the basis of gross and histomorphological studies of the genital organs. The genitalia was consisted of left ovary, oviduct, two coiled uterine horns, body of uterus alongwith right testis and an epididymis. Vagina and vulva were absent but male urethra with prostate gland was present. Grossly the size of all

Neelam Bansal; K. S. Roy; D. K. Sharma; Rajnish Sharma


Anatomical study on true hermaphroditism in an Indian pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).  


A pig was confirmed to be a true hermaphrodite on the basis of gross and histomorphological studies of the genital organs. The genitalia was consisted of left ovary, oviduct, two coiled uterine horns, body of uterus along with right testis and an epididymis. Vagina and vulva were absent but male urethra with prostate gland was present. Grossly the size of all the genital organs appeared to be normal. Histomorphologically, testis and epididymis were underdeveloped as there was no clearcut spermatogenia and sertoli cells but Leydig cells were normal. The ovary presents normal histological features with some portion of testicular tissue. Degeneration of uterine epithelium was observed along with normal endometrial glands. PMID:15785130

Bansal, Neelam; Roy, K S; Sharma, D K; Sharma, Rajnish



Sow (Sus scrofa) follicular fluid: prostaglandin content and effect on the motility of isolated oviducts.  


The present study provides information regarding the effects of the sow follicular fluid (FF) on the motility of isolated segments of swine and rabbit oviducts. In addition, the concentration of prostaglandins (PGs) F2 alpha, E2 and E1 in the follicular fluid of sow ovaries isolated at different stages of the sex cycle as well as the generation of the same PGs by walls of ovarian follicles in early and late proestrus, in estrus, in metestrus and in diestrus, were explored. The stimulatory contractile effect of proestrous FF in isolated segments of sow fimbria was antagonized by polyphloretin phosphate (PPP), a PG receptor blocker and by indomethacin, an inhibitor of PG synthesis. The positive inotropism evoked by the FF was mimiked by bradykinin and the influences of both interventions were similarly antagonized by PPP. It appears plausible that the inotropic effect of the preovulatory FF on the sow fimbria could be not only by PGs already present in the fluid, but also by the stimulation of the synthesis of tubal PGs by follicular fluid bradykinin. The FF also stimulated the ampullary tubal segments isolated from proestrous sows whereas the same volume of FF depressed significantly the isometric developed tension of rabbit ampulla. The total concentration of the three PGs in the FF from late proestrous follicles was significantly greater than that of the same PGs in the other two stages of the sex cycle (early proestrus and diestrus), whereas the concentration of each PG (PGE2, PGF2 alpha or PGE1), did not differ within any of the stages of the cycle. Furthermore, the total amount of the three PGs produced by the walls of follicles from late proestrous ovaries was also significantly greater than that generated by ovarian follicles from early proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus. In summary the results document that the concentration of each one of the PGs measured (E2, E1 or F2 alpha) attained maximal values at the time of ovulation. The results regarding the effects of FF on the inotropic activity of fimbrial and ampullary segments of sow oviducts also suggest that the fluid might play a physiological role, favouring the capture and transfer of ova into the oviducts at the moment of ovulation. PMID:4040260

Gimeno, M F; Franchi, A M; Sterin-Speziale, N B; Gonzalez, E T; Speziale, E H; Gimeno, A L



Trichinella species circulating in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Poland?  

PubMed Central

Hunting in Poland has a long tradition and became more popular after 1990. Each year over 60,000 wild boar are hunted. Some of them may act as Trichinella carriers thus all carcasses of wild boar are systematically sampled in game-handling establishments as part of the post-mortem examination. The aim of the study was to determine the species of Trichinella and to evaluate the year to year differences in the occurrence of those species in the populations of wild boar in Poland. Samples for the study were provided by the Veterinary Inspection Service. Wild boar carcasses were examined using a digestion method. Only samples recognized as positive for Trichinella in these examinations were sent to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for confirmation of genus identity. Samples from 450 animals were obtained for the study (380 muscle samples and 70 larval isolates preserved in 90% ethyl alcohol). Tissue samples were digested to isolate larvae. Extracted larval DNA was amplified using a modified multiplex PCR protocol to identify the species of Trichinella. Five larvae from each sample were examined by PCR. The study revealed that Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are present in wild boar in Poland in a ratio of 3:1. Mixed infections with T. spiralis and T. britovi were found in 1% of the animals.

Bilska-Zajac, Ewa; Rozycki, Miroslaw; Chmurzynska, Ewa; Marucci, Gianluca; Cencek, Tomasz; Karamon, Jacek; Bocian, Lukasz



Induced pluripotent stem cells from swine (Sus scrofa): why they may prove to be important.  


Three recent papers, published almost simultaneously by different groups, have described the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from the pig, a species whose size, anatomy and physiology render them attractive as clinical models for the human. The approach used in each case was to infect somatic cells with integrating retroviral vectors designed to express four reprogramming genes (POU5F1, SOX2, cMYC and KLF4). The cell lines generated met the standard criteria for pluripotency, including the ability to differentiate along multiple tissue lineages. In most respects, the porcine iPS cells more resembled human embryonic stem cells and human iPS cells than their murine equivalents. Provided such porcine iPS cells can be "personalized" to specific pigs and then coaxed to differentiate along specific lineages, it should be possible to use such animals to test transplantation therapies with iPS cells for safety and efficacy before the procedures are applied to human patients. PMID:19738434

Roberts, R Michael; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Ezashi, Toshihiko



Galectin-3 immunohistochemistry in the vomeronasal organ of the domestic pig, Sus scrofa.  


The immunohistochemical localization of galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding protein, was studied in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of fetal, 1-day-old, and 6-month-old pigs. In all age groups, the porcine VNO consisted of vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VSE) located medially and non-sensory vomeronasal respiratory epithelium (VRE) located laterally. In the pig, the VNO epithelium increased in height with postnatal development from fetus to adult. In the VSE of all stages examined, galectin-3 immunostaining was seen in the supporting cells and free border, but not in receptor or basal cells. Galectin-3 immunostaining was seen in all layers of the VRE, and the intensity increased with postnatal development. In the lamina propria, galectin-3 was detected in some ductal epithelial cells and the vomeronasal nerve sheath, but not in the acini of the Jacobson glands in all age groups. In view of these observations, we postulate that galectin-3 plays a role in cell survival and cell adhesion in both the VSE and VRE of porcine VNO in all age groups. PMID:22240017

Park, Changnam; Choi, Sungyoung; Joo, Hong-Gu; Ahn, Meejung; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun



Enantiómeros puros partiendo de sus racémicos ¿Realmente se beneficia el paciente?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una revisión sobre los medicamentos enantiómeros puros que se han comercializado en nuestro país cuando ya existía el racémico y que sean usados desde atención primaria, centrando especial atención en aquellos estudios que comparen la eficacia y seguridad del racémico con el enantiómero puro en humanos con la enfermedad objeto de tratamiento.

E Carracedo Martínez


Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

We describe the morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium pig genotype II and propose the species name Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. to reflect its prevalence in adult pigs worldwide. Oocysts of C. scrofarum are morphologically indistinguishable from C. parvum, measuring 4.81–5.96 µm (mean = 5.16) × 4.23–5.29 µm (mean = 4.83) with a length to width ratio of 1.07 ± 0.06 (n = 400). Oocysts of C. scrofarum obtained from a naturally infected pig were infectious for 8-week-old pigs but not 4-week-old pigs. The prepatent period in 8-week-old Cryptosporidium-naive pigs was 4–6 days and the patent period was longer than 30 days. The infection intensity of C. scrofarum in pigs was generally low, in the range 250-4000 oocysts per gram of faeces. Infected pigs showed no clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and no pathology was detected. Cryptosporidium scrofarum was not infectious for adult SCID mice, adult BALB c mice, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), southern multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha), yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), or guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Phylogenetic analyses based on Small subunit rRNA, actin, and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences revealed that C. scrofarum is genetically distinct from all known Cryptosporidium species.

Kvac, Martin; Kestranova, Michaela; Pinkova, Martina; Kvetonova, Dana; Kalinova, Jana; Wagnerova, Pavla; Kotkova, Michaela; Vitovec, Jiri; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, John; Stenger, Brianna; Sak, Bohumil



Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa) Hind Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prophylactic fasciotomy has been used as an adjunct to alleviate the compartment syndrome after an ischemia reperfusion injury. It has been purposed that prophylactically treating compartment syndrome will improve neuromuscular recovery of the limb theref...

G. E. Burkhardt J. R. Spencer N. P. Markov S. Patel T. J. Percival



A preliminary study on insects associated with pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand.  


preliminary study on insects associated with pig carcasses was conducted in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand. Five decomposition stages of pig carcasses were categorized: fresh (0-1 day after death), bloated (2 days after death), active (3 days after death), advanced (4- 6 days after death) and dry (7-30 days after death). The arthropod species collected from the corpses in the field sites were mainly classified belonging to two orders and nine families, namely order Diptera (family Calliphoridae: Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala, family Muscidae: Musca domestica, family Faniidae: Fannia canicularis, family Sarcophagidae: Parasarcophaga ruficornis and family Piophilidae: Piophila casei,) and order Coleoptera (family Dermestidae: Dermestes maculatus, family Histeridae: Hister sp., family Cleridae: Necrobia rufipes and family Trogidae: Trox sp). The forensically dominant fly was C. rufifacies, while the beetle was D. maculatus. The beetles associated with pig carcasses found in this study are first reported in Phitsanulok, Thailand. In addition, ants, bees, spiders and millipedes were also associated with the carcasses. These findings may provide data for further use in legal investigations in Thailand. PMID:18209701

Apichat, Vitta; Wilawan, Pumidonming; Udomsak, Tangchaisuriya; Chanasorn, Poodendean; Saengchai, Nateeworanart



Meiotic Recombination Analyses of Individual Chromosomes in Male Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica)  

PubMed Central

For the first time in the domestic pig, meiotic recombination along the 18 porcine autosomes was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein. In total, 7,848 synaptonemal complexes from 436 spermatocytes were analyzed, and 13,969 recombination sites were mapped. Individual chromosomes for 113 of the 436 cells (representing 2,034 synaptonemal complexes) were identified by immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The average total length of autosomal synaptonemal complexes per cell was 190.3 µm, with 32.0 recombination sites (crossovers), on average, per cell. The number of crossovers and the lengths of the autosomal synaptonemal complexes showed significant intra- (i.e. between cells) and inter-individual variations. The distributions of recombination sites within each chromosomal category were similar: crossovers in metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes were concentrated in the telomeric regions of the p- and q-arms, whereas two hotspots were located near the centromere and in the telomeric region of acrocentrics. Lack of MLH1 foci was mainly observed in the smaller chromosomes, particularly chromosome 18 (SSC18) and the sex chromosomes. All autosomes displayed positive interference, with a large variability between the chromosomes.

Mary, Nicolas; Barasc, Harmonie; Ferchaud, Stephane; Billon, Yvon; Meslier, Frederic; Robelin, David; Calgaro, Anne; Loustau-Dudez, Anne-Marie; Bonnet, Nathalie; Yerle, Martine; Acloque, Herve; Ducos, Alain; Pinton, Alain




Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted using 20 male domestic pigs, which were in 2 (equal-sized) age groups: under 14 months old and over 18 months old. At least 5 ejaculates from each male were taken, and in each ejaculate, morphometric measurements of 50 spermatozoa were made. The measured parameters were head area, head length and width, and flagellum length. For each



Trichinella species circulating in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Poland.  


Hunting in Poland has a long tradition and became more popular after 1990. Each year over 60,000 wild boar are hunted. Some of them may act as Trichinella carriers thus all carcasses of wild boar are systematically sampled in game-handling establishments as part of the post-mortem examination. The aim of the study was to determine the species of Trichinella and to evaluate the year to year differences in the occurrence of those species in the populations of wild boar in Poland. Samples for the study were provided by the Veterinary Inspection Service. Wild boar carcasses were examined using a digestion method. Only samples recognized as positive for Trichinella in these examinations were sent to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for confirmation of genus identity. Samples from 450 animals were obtained for the study (380 muscle samples and 70 larval isolates preserved in 90% ethyl alcohol). Tissue samples were digested to isolate larvae. Extracted larval DNA was amplified using a modified multiplex PCR protocol to identify the species of Trichinella. Five larvae from each sample were examined by PCR. The study revealed that Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are present in wild boar in Poland in a ratio of 3:1. Mixed infections with T. spiralis and T. britovi were found in 1% of the animals. PMID:24533337

Bilska-Zaj?c, Ewa; Ró?ycki, Miros?aw; Chmurzy?ska, Ewa; Marucci, Gianluca; Cencek, Tomasz; Karamon, Jacek; Bocian, Lukasz



El balance de nutrientes en la Provincia de La Pampa y sus implicancias económicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La provincia de La Pampa registra una intensificación de la agricultura con una apreciación del deterioro ambiental que merece ser analizada y evaluada económicamente. La falta de información económico-ambiental no permite dimensionar y posicionar esta problemática en su real magnitud. Se estimó el balance de nutrientes y su cuantificación económica, para trigo, maíz, girasol y soja. La extracción alcanzó valores

Daniel H. Iglesias; Norberto Luis Zanotti; Gabriela Iturrioz; Enrique Álvarez Costa; Héctor Dadam; Knut Wiedenhöfer; Juan José Vasallo



Algunos problemas de la tintura de la lana y sus nuevas técnicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La introducción de la Marca Lana en la industria lanera ha planteado algunos problemas a los tintoreros. Estos problemas son siempre los mismos. Algunos tintoreros los han resuelto con éxito, y otros están en camino de hallar la solución. No obstante, dado que estos problemas son prácticamente comunes a todos, expondré algunas posibilidades que permiten generalmente mejorar los procedimientos de

A Iancovici



Resident Training in General Surgery Using a Pig Model (Sus scrofa domestica).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This protocol is designed to be part of the surgical training of Air Force physicians during their General Surgery residency at Keesler Medical Center. It augments the clinical and didactic training provided to them within the residency program while prov...

R. Cromer



Light microscopic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical comparison of Bama minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) and human skin.  


Here we sought to evaluate the possibility of using Chinese Bama miniature pig skin as a suitable animal model for human skin. Morphologic features of the skin of Bama miniature pigs resemble those of human skin, including skin layer thickness, development of a superficial vascular system, structure of the dermal-epidermal interface, and extracellular matrix. The characteristics and densities of Langerhans cells, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and mast cells were similar between Bama pig and human skin. Immunohistochemistry showed that miniature pigs and humans have the same antigenic determinants of human laminin, fibronectin, filaggrin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, and keratin but not CD34, ICAM1, or S100. In addition, collagen type I from Bama miniature pig skin exhibited physicochemical characteristics resembling those of human skin, in regard to HPLC chromatography, UV spectroscopy, amino-acid composition, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Given these results, we concluded that Bama miniature pigs have great potential as a human skin model and for developing dermal substitute materials in wound repair. However, we also observed some disparities between the skin of Bama miniature pigs and humans, including pigment cell distribution, sweat gland types, and others. Therefore, further studies are needed to completely evaluate the effects of these interspecies differences on the actual application of the model. PMID:20412690

Liu, Yu; Chen, Jun-ying; Shang, Hai-tao; Liu, Chang-e; Wang, Yong; Niu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Wei, Hong



Vagal projections to the pylorus in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica).  


The goal of the present study was to examine the precise localization of the brainstem motor and primary sensory (nodose ganglion) vagal perikarya supplying the pylorus in the domestic pig. Using the Fast Blue retrograde tracing technique it has been established that all the vagal motor neurons projecting to the pylorus (about 337 ± 59 cells per animal) were localized bilaterally in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMX, 171 - left; 167 - right) and all other regions of the porcine brainstem were devoid of labeled neurons. The vagal perikarya supplying the porcine pylorus were dispersed throughout the whole rostro-caudal extent of the DMX and no somatotopic organization of these neurons was observed. The labeled neurons occurred individually or in groups up to five cell bodies per nuclear transverse cross section area (in the middle part of the nucleus). An immunocytochemical staining procedure disclosed that all Fast Blue labeled motor neurons were choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactive, however some differences in immunofluorescence intensity occurred. The primary sensory vagal neurons were observed within the left (215±37 cells/animal) and right (148±21 cells/animal) nodose ganglion. The traced neurons were dispersed throughout the ganglia and no characteristic arrangement of these neurons was observed. The present experiment precisely indicates the sources of origin of the vagal motor and primary sensory neurons supplying the pyloric region in the pig, the animal of an increasing significance in biomedical research. PMID:23103024

Zalecki, M; Podlasz, P; Pidsudko, Z; Wojtkiewicz, J; Kaleczyc, J



Squamous cell carcinoma in an aged German Landrace sow (Sus scrofa domestica).  


Skin tumors are rarely observed in pigs, and, in particular, only a few cases of squamous cell carcinoma have been reported. The present case report describes the occurrence of a squamous cell carcinoma located in the skin at the center of the udder of a 14-year-old German Landrace sow. The tumor was spherical and 17.0 cm in diameter. The tissue of the distal pole had a cauliflowerlike appearance, was black and ulcerated with a malodorous exudation. The sow did not show any signs of reduced general condition caused by the tumor. No evidence of metastasis was noted in regional lymph nodes and in the lung. The tumor, which weighed 2.4 kg, was surgically removed. The histopathology revealed infiltratively growing pleomorphic tumor cells and cell aggregations with prominent squamous differentiation. Cells were strongly positive for several cytokeratins by immunhistochemistry. The present findings confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. After surgery, the sow recovered without complications and remained without recurrence at the follow-up three months later. This is the first report ofa squamous cell carcinoma in the skin in the udder in an old sow. PMID:23758043

von Altrock, Alexandra; Dühlmeier, Reinhard; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Seehusen, Frauke



Noninfectious complications due to vascular access ports (VAPs) in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica).  


Vascular access ports (VAPs) for studies requiring intermittent or continuous infusion and frequent sampling are well accepted and widely used in large animal species. However, the use of medical devices such as VAPs to facilitate sample collection can lead to complications. Noninfectious complications of VAP implantation can result from thrombotic or mechanical obstructions, other mechanical problems, and animal-associated complications. To facilitate our research, we surgically implanted VAPs in the right external jugular vein of 6 adult male and 3 female Yucatan miniswine (age, 12 mo) to enable collection of blood samples every 30 min for 8 h and then every 8 h for as long as 60 d. The VAPs were operational an average of 35.6 d (range, 29 to 56 d) and had an overall success rate of 77.8% with 7 of 9 VAPs functional. In these 7 animals, 53.1 samples on average (range, 28 to 95 samples) were collected from each VAP. Rates of noninfectious complications were 60% for thrombotic events and 40% for nonthrombotic events over the course of this study. PMID:17089988

Ege, Christine A; Parra, Nannette C; Johnson, Thomas E



Cadaveric volatile organic compounds released by decaying pig carcasses ( Sus domesticus L.) in different biotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology uses pig carcasses to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal colonization. Insects communicate with their environment through the use of chemical mediators, which in the case of necrophagous insects, may consist in the cadaveric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the corpse under decomposition. Previous studies have focused on cadaveric VOCs released from human corpses. Nevertheless,

J. Dekeirsschieter; F. J. Verheggen; M. Gohy; F. Hubrecht; L. Bourguignon; G. Lognay; E. Haubruge



La inflación española y sus efectos redistributivos regionales (1980-95)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Con ocasión de la publicación por el INE de datos de PIB pm a precios constantes de 1986, en este trabajo se realiza una aproximación a los efectos de la inflación en la divergencia interregional de PIB\\/habitante, llegándose a la conclusión de que el proceso inflacionista ha contribuido, junto con el dispar crecimiento regional del producto real, a ampliar las

José Ramón de Espínola



Innate immunity correlates with host fitness in wild boar (Sus scrofa) exposed to classical swine fever.  


Constitutive humoral immunity (CHI) is thought to be a first-line of protection against pathogens invading vertebrate hosts. However, clear evidence that CHI correlates with host fitness in natural conditions is still lacking. This study explores the relationship between CHI, measured using a haemagglutination-haemolysis assay (HAHL), and resistance to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) among wild boar piglets. The individual dynamics of HAHL during piglet growth was analysed, using 423 serum samples from 92 piglets repeatedly captured in the absence of CSFV (in 2006) within two areas showing contrasting food availability. Natural antibody levels increased with age, but, in the youngest piglets antibody levels were higher in individuals from areas with the highest food availability. Complement activity depended on natural antibody levels and piglets' body condition. In the presence of CSFV (i.e., in 2005 within one area), serum samples from piglets that were repeatedly captured were used to assess whether piglet HAHL levels affected CSFV status at a later capture. The correlation between CHI and resistance to CSFV was tested using 79 HAHL measures from 23 piglets captured during a CSFV outbreak. Both natural antibodies and complement activity levels measured at a given time correlated negatively to the subsequent probability of becoming viremic. Finally, capture-mark-recapture models showed that piglets with medium/high average complement activity, independently of their age, were significantly less at risk of becoming viremic and more likely to develop a specific immune response than piglets with low complement activity. Additionally, piglets with high average complement activity showed the highest survival prospects. This study provides evidence linking CHI to individual fitness within a natural mammal population. The results also highlight the potential of HAHL assays to explore the dynamics and co-evolution between wildlife mammal hosts and blood-borne parasites interacting with the CHI. PMID:24260286

Rossi, Sophie; Doucelin, Anaïs; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Eraud, Cyril; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle



Consecuencias del efecto Bullwhip según distintas estrategias de gestión de la cadena de suministro: modelado y simulación = Bullwhip Effect Consequences according to Different Supply Chain Management Strategies: Modelling and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

El efecto Bullwhip es uno de los principales causantes de las inestabilidades en el proceso de gestión de demanda que se producen a lo largo de la cadena de suministro. El presente artículo expone un modelo capaz de recrear diferentes escenarios para la gestión de demanda en una cadena de suministro determinada, con independencia del número de niveles definidos en

Francisco Campuzano Bolarín; Francisco Cruz Lario Esteban; Lorenzo Ros McDonnell



77 FR 2306 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Disaster...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA Form 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration...FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre...and 009-0-2, 18 minutes; Smartphone Application for Disaster...



Como Trabajar y Vivir en la Realidad: Pasos Basicos Para Jovenes con Incapacidades, sus Padres y sus Profesores (How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish version of "How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers" is for young people with handicaps who are getting ready to graduate from high school and begin working and living in the adult world. The booklet places a special focus on individuals with cultural differences. It…

Patton, Patricia L.; And Others


Genetic diversity in wild (Sus scrofa scrofa) and domestic (Sus scrofa domestica) pigs and their hybrids based on polymorphism of a fragment of the D-loop region in the mitochondrial DNA.  


We examined the variation in mitochondrial DNA by sequencing the D-loop region in wild and domestic (large-white breed) pigs, in hybrids between domestic and wild pigs, and in Monteiro pigs. A D-loop fragment of approximately 330 bp was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of DNA amplicons identified haplotypes previously described as European and Asian types. Monteiro pigs and wild pigs had European haplotypes and domestic pigs had both European and Asian haplotypes. PMID:17183469

Grossi, S F; Lui, J F; Garcia, J E; Meirelles, F V



La política brasileña para los residuos sólidos urbanos. Los planteamientos de catadores y empresarios en sus páginas electrónicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

El gobierno brasileño señala la posibilidad de aprobar la política nacional para los residuos sólidos urbanos (PNRS). La propuesta del Proyecto de Ley 1991\\/07 está en trámite en la cámara de los diputados desde el año 1991. Los senadores mantuvieron una charla con los catadores, empresarios del reciclaje y empresarios de servicios de gestión de residuos sólidos urbanos para conocer

Fábio Fonseca Figueiredo



Análisis de la región de alta temperatura en las estrellas Be y estudio de sus propiedades y geometría  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to analyse the Hot Temperature Region (HTR) that surrounds the photospheres of Be stars. Consequently, we have chosen 54 Be stars of spectral types B0, B1, B2, B3, B8 and B9; the sample is representative of a considerable range of temperature. We have analysed different lines that originate in the HTR from archival IUE spectra reprocessed by the INES: He II ?1640, Si IV ??1394, 1403 and Al III ??1855, 1863. From the measured values, we derive several relations that provide information on the geometry and thermodynamical properties of the HTR. Our major findings can be summarised as follows: 1) The equivalent widths of the selected lines in the spectrum of the program stars persist with similar values through all v sin(i) inclinations. 2) The equivalent widths of the Si IV lines are well correlated with the kinetic energy expansion of the wind. This suggests that the dissipation of mechanical energy in the HTR is an important source of heating. 3) The He II lines formation region, which is located at the dense base of the wind, shows full spherical symmetry. 4) The formation region of Si IV lines is located in a low-density well-developed wind and it extends over very high latitudes (˜75o). 5) The Al III lines are formed in an elongated region which is the beginning of the cool envelope. The analysis followed in this work has been completely independent from any theoretical model. Consequently, these results will be useful for deciding whether the circunstellar envelope of Be stars has an ellipsoidal geometry or a disklike shape.

Torres, A. F.; Ringuelet, A. E.


Exactitud de los Fósiles y de sus Métodos de Medición  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article asserts that fossil dating is accurate because the method follows strict scientific guidelines: the age of rocks around a fossil can be considered, mathematical calculations are used, the state of decay, carbon-14, and isotopes figure in calculations, and tree of life relationships often help sort the dates.

Michael Benton (University of Bristol;)



Use of ¹?F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a miniature pig (Sus scrofa domestica) with pneumonia.  


A 1-y-old male miniature pig housed in our laboratory facility was evaluated for weight loss and rough coat condition. CBC results revealed neutrophilia. Radiography of the thoracic area showed increased opacity throughout the thoracic cavity except for the right caudal lobe. ¹?F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) revealed elevated standard uptake values in the area corresponding to the radiologic findings. Follow-up thoracic radiography taken 2 wk after FDG-PET-CT showed several interval changes, including markedly decreased opacity throughout the entire thoracic cavity. Necropsy revealed adhesions between the upper portion of the caudal lobe of the left lung and thoracic wall. ELISA for several closely related infectious species confirmed the presence of antibody to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar V. PMID:22776053

Kim, Jong-In; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Jae Won; Jeong, Sang Min; Chung, Hyun Woo; Han, Jin Soo



Evaluation of ELISA coupled with Western blot as a surveillance tool for Trichinella infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa).  


Trichinella surveillance in wildlife relies on muscle digestion of large samples which are logistically difficult to store and transport in remote and tropical regions as well as labour-intensive to process. Serological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) offer rapid, cost-effective alternatives for surveillance but should be paired with additional tests because of the high false-positive rates encountered in wildlife. We investigated the utility of ELISAs coupled with Western blot (WB) in providing evidence of Trichinella exposure or infection in wild boar. Serum samples were collected from 673 wild boar from a high- and low-risk region for Trichinella introduction within mainland Australia, which is considered Trichinella-free. Sera were examined using both an 'in-house' and a commercially available indirect-ELISA that used excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. Cut-off values for positive results were determined using sera from the low-risk population. All wild boar from the high-risk region (352) and 139/321 (43.3%) of the wild boar from the low-risk region were tested by artificial digestion. Testing by Western blot using E/S antigens, and a Trichinella-specific real-time PCR was also carried out on all ELISA-positive samples. The two ELISAs correctly classified all positive controls as well as one naturally infected wild boar from Gabba Island in the Torres Strait. In both the high- and low-risk populations, the ELISA results showed substantial agreement (k-value=0.66) that increased to very good (k-value=0.82) when WB-positive only samples were compared. The results of testing sera collected from the Australian mainland showed the Trichinella seroprevalence was 3.5% (95% C.I. 0.0-8.0) and 2.3% (95% C.I. 0.0-5.6) using the in-house and commercial ELISA coupled with WB respectively. These estimates were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the artificial digestion estimate of 0.0% (95% C.I. 0.0-1.1). Real-time PCR testing of muscle from seropositive animals did not detect Trichinella DNA in any mainland animals, but did reveal the presence of a second larvae-positive wild boar on Gabba Island, supporting its utility as an alternative, highly sensitive method in muscle examination. The serology results suggest Australian wildlife may have been exposed to Trichinella parasites. However, because of the possibility of non-specific reactions with other parasitic infections, more work using well-defined cohorts of positive and negative samples is required. Even if the specificity of the ELISAs is proven to be low, their ability to correctly classify the small number of true positive sera in this study indicates utility in screening wild boar populations for reactive sera which can be followed up with additional testing. PMID:24225004

Cuttell, Leigh; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Cookson, Beth; Adams, Peter J; Reid, Simon A; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Gray, C; Traub, Rebecca J



Effects of parasitic helminths and ivermectin treatment on clinical parameters in the European wild boar ( Sus scrofa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited information exists on serum biochemistry and haematology of the European wild boar, and few correlations have been found between parasitic burden and clinical parameters in this species. Naturally infected wild boars were experimentally treated to study the effect of nematode parasites and ivermectin treatment on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin reaction and haematological and serum biochemical parameters. White blood cells decreased

Jorge R. López-Olvera; Ursula Höfle; Joaquín Vicente; Isabel G. Fernández-de-Mera; Christian Gortázar



Plantas asociadas a la pesca y a sus recursos por los Indígenas Chorote del Chaco Semiarido (Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Plants associated to fishing and to their resources by Chorote indians from Chaco Semiarido (Argentine). Chorote indians belong to the Mataco-mataguayo linguistic family, they live in Argentina's Semiarid Chaco along the riverbanks of the Pilcomayo river in Salta province. Traditionally, they obtained their own living from hunting, gathering and fishing; being the latter of high cultural and economic value



Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin Morphology for Three Commonly Used Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa domestica).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yorkshire and Yucatan Mini-pig breeds have been commonly used for laser-tissue studies. The newer Yucatan Micro-pig breed has not been used in laser-tissue studies, but could be an alternative to meet logistical needs for laser-tissue studies if its skin ...

A. Shingledecker D. Roberson J. Oliver K. E. Sheldon R. Vincelette



Host predilection and transmissibility of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus strains in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and swine (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB), and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly]) were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Results Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Conclusions Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.



Identificación de individuos de jaguares (Panthera onca) y pumas (Puma concolor) a partir de morfometría de sus huellas (Carnivora: Felidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of individual jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) based on footprint morphometry (Carnivora: Felidae). Estimating feline abundance becomes particularly difficult, sometimes impossible, due to their elusive behavior and extensive space requirements. Available techniques are expensive and\\/or poorly efficient, therefore alternative methods are needed. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of identifying individual jaguars and

Emiliana Isasi-Catalá; Guillermo R. Barreto


Expression, immunolocalization and processing of fertilins ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 in the boar (sus domesticus) spermatozoa during epididymal maturation  

PubMed Central

Fertilin alpha (ADAM-1) and beta (ADAM-2) are integral membrane proteins of the ADAM family that form a fertilin complex involved in key steps of the sperm-oocyte membrane interaction. In the present work, we analyzed the presence of ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs, the spermatozoa proteins' processing and their sub-cellular localization in epididymal samples from adult boars. ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs were highly produced in the testis, but also in the vas efferens and the epididymis. On immunoblots of sperm extracts, ADAM-1 subunit appeared as a main reactive band of ~50-55 kDa corresponding to occurrence of different isoforms throughout the epididymal duct, especially in the corpus region where isoforms ranged from acidic to basic pI. In contrast, ADAM-2 was detected as several bands of ~90 kDa, ~75 kDa, ~50-55 kDa and ~40 kDa. The intensity of high molecular mass bands decreased progressively in the distal corpus where lower bands were also transiently observed, and only the ~40 kDa was observed in the cauda. The presence of bands of different molecular weights likely results from a proteolytic processing occurring mainly in the testis for ADAM-1, and also throughout the caput epididymis for ADAM-2. Immunolocalization showed that fertilin migrates from the acrosomal region to the acrosomal ridge during the sperm transit from the distal corpus to the proximal cauda. This migration is accompanied by an important change in the extractability of a part of ADAM-1 from the sperm membrane. This suggests that the fertilin surface migration may be triggered by the biochemical changes induced by the epididymal post-translational processing of both ADAM1 and ADAM-2. Different patterns of fertilin immunolocalization then define several populations of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis. Characterization of such fertilin complex maturation patterns is an important step to develop fertility markers based on epididymal maturation of surface membrane proteins in domestic mammals.



Sodium Thiosulfate Versus Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute, Severe Cyanide Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare the return to baseline of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) between 3 groups of swine with acute CN toxicity and treated with HOCOB, ST, or a combination of HOCOB+ST. 36 swine ( 48-52kg) were intubated, anesthetized, instrumented and then pois...

J. Lairet P. Dixon R. Pitotti S. Valtier V. Bebarta



Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER1 exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated exposure to electro-muscular incapacitating devices could result in repetitive, sustained muscle contraction, with little or no muscle recovery period. Therefore, rhabdomyolysis and other physiological responses, including acidosis, hyperkalaemia, and altered levels of muscle enzymes in the blood, would be likely to occur. Experiments were performed to investigate effects of repeated exposures of TASER1 International's Advanced TASER1 X26 on muscle

James R. Jauchem; Clifford J. Sherry; David A. Fines; Michael C. Cook



Evaluación y perspectivas del Código Nacional de Recursos Naturales de Colombia en sus 30 años de vigencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los artículos presentados estudian la eficacia, vigencia y perspectivas del Código Nacional de Recursos Naturales, decreto 2811 de 1974, teniendo de presente el avanzado estado de la ciencia en Colombia establecido por la Constitución del 91, y la Ley 99 de 1993; de esta manera los doctrinantes retoman la historia y las funciones del Código, la biodiversidad, la diversidad de

Autores varios


Influence of coating method on catalyst activity of AgCl\\/Al 2O 3\\/SUS304 composite plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-Al203 and AgCl\\/Al203 catalyst powder were coated on a stainless steel substrate by dip coating and electrophoretic deposition method. And AgCl\\/Al203 catalyst was produced by three kinds of methods, and the difference between the NOx reduction catalysis of the coated sample was compared. XRD and SEM were used to study the crystalline structure and cross-section of the coatings. The

Satoshi Kishida; Dong-Ying Ju; Hong He



Molecular characterization and expression analysis of NDUFS4 gene in m. longissimus dorsi of Laiwu pig (Sus scrofa).  


To study the molecular basis of intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to investigate the differences in gene expression between m. longissimus dorsi (LD) of high IMF Laiwu pig group and low IMF Laiwu pig group. From two specific subtractive cDNA libraries, the expression-upregulated clone HL-27 was selected by reverse Northern high-density blot, and then identified to be pig mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4 (NDUFS4). Pig NDUFS4 full-length cDNA was cloned by RACE, and contains a 528 bp-open reading frame (ORF) encoding 175 amino acid residues. The derived amino acid sequence of NDUFS4 is well conserved compared with NDUFS4 of various species with higher degree of sequence similarity with other mammalian (86.3-92.6 %) than amphibian, aves, and fishes (70.2-81.1 %), and contains one N-linked glycosylation site, one O-linked glycosylation site, seven Ser phosphorylation sites and five Thr phosphorylation sites. A-G mutation was found at nt 122 site of ORF between Laiwu pig and Large White, which results in the K-R mutation at 41 site of protein sequence. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the level of NDUFS4 mRNA expression was higher in high IMF Laiwu pig group than in low IMF Laiwu pig group, and in Laiwu pig than in Large White. The tissue expression of the pig NDUFS4 gene showed a tissue-specific pattern: highly expressed in LD muscle, spleen and kidney, but hardly expressed in lung, stomach and large intestine. The possible role of NDUFS4 and its relation to IMF deposition are discussed. PMID:23073781

Chen, Qimei; Zeng, Yongqing; Wang, Hui; Yang, Lun; Yang, Yun; Zhu, Honglei; Shi, Yuan; Chen, Wei; Hu, Yanxia



Establishment of a Clinically Relevant Blunt Injury Animal Model for Extremity Compartment Syndrome in the Adult Swine (Sus scrofa).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the Final Report of the Establishment of a Clinically Relevant Blunt Injury Swine Model for Extremity Compartment Syndrome project funded by AFMSAISG9S contract AFDW-2011-00ZA, This Final Report discusses the successful completion of the ...

J. Lairet



Establishment of a Clinically Relevant Blunt Injury Swine Animal Model for Extremity Compartment Syndrome in the Adult Swine (Sus scrofa).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the Final Report of the Establishment of a Clinically Relevant Blunt Injury Swine Model for Extremity Compartment Syndrome project funded by AFMSAISG9S contract AFDW-2011-00ZA, This Final Report discusses the successful completion of the ...

J. Lairet



First molecular identification and phylogeny of a Babesia sp. from a symptomatic sow (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758).  


Porcine babesiosis is a widespread yet overlooked disease causing economic losses in many regions of the world. To date, the etiological agent of porcine babesiosis has not been molecularly characterized. Here, we provide the first molecular characterization of a piroplasm detected in a symptomatic sow, phylogenetically closely related to the Ungulibabesids. Results pave the way for future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:21490184

Zobba, Rosanna; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Spezzigu, Antonio; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto



First Molecular Identification and Phylogeny of a Babesia sp. from a Symptomatic Sow (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758)?  

PubMed Central

Porcine babesiosis is a widespread yet overlooked disease causing economic losses in many regions of the world. To date, the etiological agent of porcine babesiosis has not been molecularly characterized. Here, we provide the first molecular characterization of a piroplasm detected in a symptomatic sow, phylogenetically closely related to the Ungulibabesids. Results pave the way for future molecular epidemiology studies.

Zobba, Rosanna; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Spezzigu, Antonio; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto



Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos) and pigs (Sus scrofa) from an endemic region in Peru.  


The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE) is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4) in Puno and pigs (8) in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru. PMID:22415269

Sánchez, Elizabeth; Cáceres, Omar; Náquira, César; Miranda, Eduardo; Samudio, Franklyn; Fernandes, Octavio



Dissolution amounts of nickel, chromium and iron from SUS 304, 316 and 444 stainless steels in sodium chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of nickel and chromium from stainless steels by sweat, is often responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. The\\u000a amounts of metal released from stainless steels were in trace amounts, because corrosion resistance was excellent. However,\\u000a measurement of dissolution amounts is difficult, and if these amounts are not known, the improvement and development of stainless\\u000a steels with excellent resistance to




Genome Sequences of Seven Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Strains Isolated from the Joint Tissue of Infected Swine (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hyosynoviae is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause debilitating arthritis in swine. Currently, there are no M. hyosynoviae genome sequences in the GenBank database, which makes it impossible to understand its pathogenesis, nutrition, or colonization characteristics, or to devise an effective strategy for its control. Here, we report the genome sequences of seven strains of M. hyosynoviae. Within each genome, several virulence factors were identified that may prove important in the pathogenesis of M. hyosynoviae-mediated arthritis and serve as potential virulence markers that may be critical in vaccine development.

Bumgardner, Eric; Bey, Russell F.; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Bumgarner, Roger E.



Characterization of hepatic drug-metabolizing activities of Bama miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica): comparison with human enzyme analogs.  


We used various substrates and selective inhibitors of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes as probes to study the metabolism of liver microsomes from Chinese Bama miniature pigs. Nifedipine oxidation (NOD) and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (6beta-OHT) activities were similar between human liver microsomes and those from Bama miniature pigs. However, compared with those from humans, liver microsomes from Bama miniature pigs showed decreased phenacetin O-deethylation, coumarin 7-hydroxylation, and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation activities, whereas dextromethorphan O-demethylation activity was increased. Ketoconazole selectively inhibited NOD and 6beta-OHT activities in microsomes from Bama pigs, and 8-methoxypsoralen and tranylcypromine inhibited coumarin 7-hydroxylation in pig microsomes. However, furafylline and quinidine failed to selectively inhibit phenacetin O-deethylation and dextromethorphan O-demethylation in microsomes from Bama pigs, whereas chlormethiazole more efficiently inhibited coumarin 7-hydroxylation activity than chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation in pig microsomes. Our results suggest that liver microsomes from Chinese Bama miniature pigs are similar to those from humans in regard to metabolism of nifedipine and testosterone (both are probe substrates for human CYP3A4). In addition, chemical inhibitors used as specific probes for human P450 enzymes did not always show the same selectivity toward corresponding enzyme activities in liver microsomes from Bama pigs. However, ketoconazole (a potent inhibitor of human CYP3A4) could be used as a selective inhibitor probe for the NOD and 6beta-OHT activities in liver microsomes from Chinese Bama miniature pigs. PMID:16941956

Li, Jian; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Wei, Hong; Yang, Ling



Vascular access port implantation and serial blood sampling in a Gottingen minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) model of acute radiation injury.  


Threats of nuclear and other radiologic exposures have been increasing, but no countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome has been approved by regulatory authorities. Because of their similarity to humans in regard to physiology and anatomy, we are characterizing Gottingen minipigs as a model to aid the development of radiation countermeasures. Irradiated minipigs exhibit immunosuppression, severe thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and acute inflammation. These complications render serial acquisition of blood samples problematic. Vascular access ports (VAP) facilitate serial sampling, but their use often is complicated by infections and fibrin deposition. We demonstrate here the successful use of VAP for multiple blood samplings in irradiated minipigs. Device design and limited postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before irradiation were key to obtaining serial sampling, reducing swelling, and eliminating infection and skin necrosis at the implantation site. Modifications of previous protocols included the use of polydioxanone sutures instead of silk; eliminating chronic port access; single-use, sterile, antireflux prefilled syringes for flushing; strict aseptic weekly maintenance of the device, and acclimating animals to reduce stress. VAP remained functional in 19 of 20 irradiated animals for as long as 3 mo. The remaining VAP failed due to a small leak in the catheter, leading to clot formation. VAP-related sepsis occurred in 2 minipigs. Blood sampling did not cause detectable stress in nonanesthetized sham-irradiated animals, according to leukograms and clinical signs. PMID:21333166

Moroni, Maria; Coolbaugh, Thea V; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Lombardini, Eric; Moccia, Krinon D; Shelton, Larry J; Nagy, Vitaly; Whitnall, Mark H



Influence of tongue inspection during cysticercosis diagnosis on some behavioral and physiological stress measures in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).  


To evaluate the level of stress induced by the tongue inspection method during cysticercosis diagnosis in pigs at 60 and 90 kg, 27 animals were assigned to one of three experimental groups. In the first group (T1), pigs were held with a snout noose. In addition, animals in T2 were subjected to tongue inspection, while in T0, none of the procedures described above were performed. Resistance to be handled and serum cortisol concentration were higher (P??0.05) for the heavier animals. T2 did not build up a significant amount of stress with respect to T1, where only more (P?>?0.05) vocalizations were emitted by 90-kg pigs. It was concluded that the use of snout noose induces major changes in some behavioral and physiological measures of stress in swine, while the opening of the mouth including tongue inspection does not contribute significantly to this effect. PMID:21786048

Pérez-Torres, Sandra; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Orihuela, Agustín; Aguirre, Virginio; Bernal, Germán; Nieto, Alejandro; Vázquez, Reyes; Solano, Jaime J



Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation of bronchi and emphysematous changes of pulmonary parenchyma in miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).  


Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used to induce chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in animal models. Rodents are most commonly used to model COPD, but their substantial anatomic and physiological differences from humans present a challenge in the research of COPD pathogenesis. The authors induced COPD in miniature pigs by intratracheal administration of LPS solution. They carried out bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and collected the fluid for analyses of white blood cells, cytokines and proteases and obtained lung tissues for histological assessment. Intratracheal administration of LPS caused bronchitis, obstruction of distal bronchi and damage of pulmonary alveoli, as well as increases in white blood cell counts and expression levels of cytokines and proteases. These results are consistent with the presentation of COPD in humans, making LPS administration in miniature pigs a valuable animal model for the research of pathogenesis and treatment of COPD. PMID:23423297

Chen, Piren; Hou, Jiafa; Ding, Dezhong; Hua, Xiuguo; Yang, Zhibiao; Cui, Li



Modulation of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) carbonyl reducing enzymes by anthelmintic therapy with flubendazole.  


Flubendazole (FLU) is a widely administered benzimidazole anthelmintic indicated for the control of parasitic diseases in farm animals including pigs and pheasants. This study was designed to test the biotransformation of FLU in control animals and animals treated with FLU in recommended therapeutic doses. The activities of several pheasant and porcine hepatic and intestinal carbonyl reducing enzymes and their modulation by FLU were also studied. Twelve adult pheasant hens, approximately 1 year old, were divided into two groups and treated for 7 days with placebo or 6 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Eight male hog weaners, approximately 3 month old, were divided into two groups and treated for 5 days with placebo or 1.57 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Subcellular fractions, prepared from livers and small intestines of control and FLU treated animals, were incubated with FLU. In vitro formation of two main FLU metabolites, reduced FLU, and hydrolyzed FLU were analyzed using HPLC. While FLU was reduced significantly more intensively in FLU-treated pheasants than in control animals, no differences were observed in pigs. These results were confirmed by measuring the enzyme activities: carbonyl reducing enzyme activities were increased in pheasants treated by FLU, whereas FLU did not affect these enzymes in pigs. PMID:19356067

Szotáková, Barbora; Nobilis, Milan; Lamka, Jirí; Krízová, Veronika; Savlík, Michal; Skálová, Lenka



A joint intelligibility evaluation of French text-to-speech synthesis systems: the EvaSy SUS\\/ACR campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EVALDA\\/EvaSy project is dedicated to the evaluation of text-to-speech synthesis systems for the French language. It is subdivided into four components: evaluation of the grapheme-to-phoneme conversion module (Boula de Mareil et al., 2005), evaluation of prosody (Garcia et al., 2006), evaluation of intelligibility, and global evaluation of the quality of the synthesised speech. This paper reports on the key

Philippe Boula de Mareüil; Christophe d'Alessandro; Alexander Raake; Gérard Bailly; Marie-Neige Garcia; Michel Morel


Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne bacteria in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and wild deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.  


This study aimed to evaluate the role of wild boars and deer as reservoirs of foodborne bacteria. We investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26, and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from wild boars and deer in Japan, from July through December 2010. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 43.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.0-52.6) and 7.4% (95% CI: 2.8-12.1) of rectal content samples of wild boars, respectively, but not from wild deer. The most common Campylobacter species was C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis. The nine Salmonella serovars isolated were S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona (three isolates), S. Narashino (two), S. Enteritidis (one), S. Havana (one), S. Infantis (one), and S. Thompson (one). Five (16%) and 6 (29%) isolates of C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis, respectively, were resistant to enrofloxacin. STEC O157 and O26 and L. monocytogenes were isolated from 2.3% (95% CI: 0-5.0), 0.8% (95% CI: 0-2.3), and 6.1% (95% CI: 1.7-10.5) of the rectal content samples of wild deer, respectively, but not from wild boars. This first nationwide survey of the prevalence of foodborne bacteria in wild boars and wild deer in Japan suggests that consumption of meat from these animals is associated with the risk of causing infection with these bacteria in humans. Moreover, these animals are potential vehicles for distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria into their habitat. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of such foodborne bacteria in these wild animals should be monitored periodically. PMID:24161070

Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Goshima, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsuya; Murakami, Mariko; Haruna, Mika; Ito, Kazuo; Yamada, Yukiko




Microsoft Academic Search

PO C O S E S A B E D E L A S V I N C U L A C I O N E S del internacionalismo anarquista con los movimientos sociales en México en las últimas décadas del siglo X I X. Hasta ahora, quienes han to- cado este tema han privilegiado, sobre todo, la formación y

Clara E. LIDA; Carlos ILLADES



Epidemiological survey of trichinellosis in wild boar ( Sus scrofa) and fox ( Vulpes vulpes) in a French insular region, Corsica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean island of Corsica was considered Trichinella-free until 2004, when T. britovi larvae were discovered in domestic pigs at meat inspection. One red fox was also found infected the same year and in the same area than the infected pigs. This last finding highlighted the presence of trichinellosis in Corsican wildlife. A Trichinella survey was thus performed in wild

C. Richomme; S. A. Lacour; C. Ducrot; E. Gilot-Fromont; F. Casabianca; O. Maestrini; I. Vallée; A. Grasset; J. van der Giessen; P. Boireau



Does Glucagon Improve Survival in a Porcine (Sus Scrofa) of Adult Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Addition to Standard Epinephrine Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is no difference in the rate of return to spontaneous circulation between treatment with epinephrine versus glucagon or glucagon plus epinephrine. 24 female swine 30-50kg were sedated with IV anesthesia, and instrumented (continuous aortic diastolic...

A. Thompson B. Jordan D. Alfar J. Williams V. Bebarta



Some Implications of North Sea Oil for the U.K. Economy (Le pétrole de la mer du Nord: ses effets sur l'économie du Royaume-Uni) (Algunas consecuencias de la explotación del petróleo del mar del Norte para la economía del Reino Unido)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the effects that the emergence of the United Kingdom as a major oil producer, together with the pursuit of firm financial policies as part of an antiinflationary strategy, has had on the U.K. economy and, in particular, on the real exchange rate of the pound sterling, which appreciated by 45 per cent between 1977 and

Marian E. Bond; Adalbert KnÃbl



Aprovechamiento de los mercados financieros internacionales para gestionar el riesgo de amenazas naturales en América Latina  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente informe técnico analiza la potencial aplicación práctica de los instrumentos financieros diseñados para el financiamiento y la transferencia del riesgo de las amenazas naturales en América Latina. En primer lugar, se presenta, en términos generales, el papel del financiamiento y de la transferencia de los riesgos en la gestión del riesgo de desastres. Luego se analiza las fuentes

Ivar Pettersen; John Magne Skjelvik; Nils Atle Krokeide



Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

Geological Survey (U.S.)



Mapa de Vulnerabilidad en Honduras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dado que Honduras geográficamente se encuentra en una zona que esta expuesta a diferentes fenómenos sísmicos y climatológicos. Investigamos cuales son las zonas mas propensas a desastres naturales, la vulnerabilidad y el factor de resiliencia de la población de acuerdo a diferentes parámetros de estudio.

Sánchez, A. A.



Prises de risque chez les jeunes. Les conduites dangereuses en véhicules motorisés  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of risk taking behaviour is very important, as it includes  high sensation sports, non protected sexual intercourse, dangerous moped driving… After defining risk and risk taking behaviour we’ll analyse in a developmental approach the role of these behaviours during adolescence. Although risk taking may have a positive role in autonomy in teenagers,  the consequences are desastrous in accident

G Michel; D Purper-Ouakil; M. C Mouren-Siméoni



Otimização por Enxame de Partículas aplicado à formação e atuação de grupos robóticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Neste artigo, descreve-se o modelo, a implementação e a avaliação da eficiência de Algoritmos de Otimização por Enxame de Partículas aplicados à formação e atuação de grupos robóticos. A atuação do grupo robótico é realizada sobre um desastre ambiental do tipo incêndio florestal. São avaliados diversos parâmetros que influenciam o comportamento da otimização, como inércia, confiança, tipos de modelos

Gustavo Pessin; Fernando Osório



Depresion Durante y Despues del Embarazo: Un Informe par Mujeres, Sus Familias y Amigas (Depression During and After Pregnancy: A Resource for Women, Their Families, and Friends).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Depression during or after pregnancy refers to a broad range of physical and emotional struggles that many women face. You may have heard this called the Baby Blues, Postpartum Depression, Maternal Depression, Prenatal Depression, Postnatal Depression, or...



Cuando se Tiene una Biopsia del Seno: Guia para las Mujeres y Sus Familias (Having a Breast Biopsy: A Guide for Women and Their Families).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide can help you talk with your doctor or nurse about breast biopsies. If you have a breast lump or a suspicious area on your mammogram, a breast biopsy tells if it is cancer. This guide talks about the different kinds of biopsies. It will tell you...



Algunos cambios en el juego de Voleibol actual y sus efectos en la alta competencia internacional en equipos del sexo masculino  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teniendo en cuenta el desarrollo experimentado por Cuba en el deporte mundial y específicamente en el voleibol, los autores han querido contribuir a la consolidación de estas posiciones, orientando el presente estudio hacia el establecimiento de una caracterización que defina las nuevas condiciones presentes en el juego de Voleibol actual y como han influido en la actividad, competitiva los cambios

Gustavo Luna Pino; Lorenzo Gómez; Carlos Acosta Alonso



Incidencias de la Economía China en la Demanda de Bienes Mundial Sus repercusiones en el Mercado Petrolero Su incidencia en los Precios del Petróleo  

Microsoft Academic Search

En los años 1978, 1984 y 1994, las autoridades chinas emprendieron etapas de liberalización que coincidieron con un conjunto de reformas económicas las cuales propiciaron una apertura progresiva de su economía. Las dos primeras reformas convirtieron el sector exportador en un poderoso motor del crecimiento, y la tercera dio vía libre a la creación de empresas nacionales. Adicionalmente las reformas

Luis Oliveros


Factors controlling seed predation by rodents and non-native Sus scrofa in Araucaria araucana forests: potential effects on seedling establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-dispersal seed predation can severely limit plant recruitment, but its ultimate impact could be modulated by environmental\\u000a factors and by the composition of the granivore guild. Here, we analyze the relative impact of the non-native wild boar and\\u000a native rodents on seed survival and seedling establishment of the mast conifer Araucaria araucana. Predation, seed survival and seedling establishment were measured

Javier Sanguinetti; Thomas Kitzberger



Studies on Fatigue Crack Growth around Weldment in SUS304 Stainless Steel. Prediction of Crack Growth Behavior in Residual Stress Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many failures in welded structures are caused due to the initiation and propagation of cracks which are induced by the high welding residual stress. Up to now, it has been known that the welding residual stress has many influences on the crack initiation ...

K. Shibata R. Kawamura



The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel  

PubMed Central

The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy



Detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibodies in meat juice samples from Polish wild boar (Sus scrofa L.).  


PCV2 and PRRSV are two important pathogens of domestic swine. There is considerable evidence that the infection is also present in wild boars. Meat juice provides an alternative to serum for antibody testing, and it has been used in testing for many important porcine infectious diseases. Samples of brachial muscle were collected from 142 wild boars shot in different regions of Poland during the 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 hunting seasons. Meat juice harvested from muscle samples was tested using an ELISA test specific for PCV2 and PRRSV antibodies. Additionally, IgG and IgM antibodies specific for PCV2 were detected in order to estimate the status of the PCV2 infection. Only one of the tested meat juice samples was positive for PRRSV (0.7%), and 68 out of 142 (47.9%) samples were positive for PCV2. Of the positive animals, 4 (2.8%) had an antibody profile suggesting active infection, 2 (1.4%) early active infection, and 62 (43.7%) late infection. Also, a lack of association between the age of the animals and the presence of antibodies related to the infection was noticed. PMID:23974935

Fabisiak, Micha?; Podgórska, Katarzyna; Skrzypiec, Ewelina; Szczotka, Anna; Stadejek, Tomasz



Positive effects of treatment of donor cells with aphidicolin on the preimplantation development of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in Chinese Bama mini-pig (Sus Scrofa).  


To optimize somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures in mini-pigs, the present study was designed to examine the effects of donor cell types and aphidicolin (APC) treatment on in vitro development of reconstructed embryos. Oviduct epithelial cells (OEC), ear fibroblast cells (EFC) and cumulus cells (CC) derived from mini-pigs were treated with serum starvation only or serum starvation followed by treatment of 0.1 µg/mL APC. The reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7 days to evaluate their developmental competency. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of reconstructed embryos derived from the OEC by APC treatment were significantly higher than the serum starvation (61.82% vs. 56.25%, 24.55% vs. 17.86%; P < 0.05). The cleavage rate from the EFC was significantly increased by APC treatment compared to serum starvation only (63.36% vs. 57.01%; P < 0.05). In the ooctyes with the CC, the reconstructed embryos could yield high blastocyst formation rate by APC treatment (29.63%; P < 0.05). In the presence of APC, CC gave rise to the highest cleavage and blastocyst formation rates among the three cell types. Therefore, our results suggest that treatment of CC with serum starvation plus APC prior to nuclear transfer is more suitable in SCNT of mini-pigs. PMID:22339690

Zhang, Ting-Yu; Dai, Jian-Jun; Wu, Cai-Feng; Gu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Liang; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Yi-Ni; Wu, Bin; Chen, Hui-Lan; Li, Yao; Chen, Xue-Jin; Zhang, De-Fu



Contractile characteristics of fimbrial, isthmic, ampullar, and fimbrio-ampullar segments of isolated sow (Sus scrofa) oviducts as influenced by ovulation, adrenergic mechanisms, and prostaglandin E1.  


Spontaneous contractile characteristics, as well as inotropic influences of norepinephrine (NE) and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on different sow oviductal segments isolated from preovulatory or early postovulatory period, were explored. Postovulatory fimbrial preparations contracted with higher intensity and slower frequency than preovulatory ones whereas the spontaneous motility of other regions were comparable at both stages. Norepinephrine (NE) depressed preovulatory ampullar and fimbrio-ampullar portions but stimulated fimbrial and isthmic segments. However, after ovulation NE enhanced the motility of all tubal regions, particularly the fimbrial ones. Phentolamine abolished and even reversed, on postovulatory ampulla, the contractile augmentation elicited by NE. PGE1 markedly diminished the tension and frequency of preovulatory fimbrial and fimbrio-ampullar segments but it was inactive on other ampullar regions. This depressant influence on the preovulatory fimbrio-ampullar region was replaced, a few hours following ovulation, by a distinct contractile increment. Although phentolamine failed to alter the PGE1 postovulatory ampullar influences, it clearly blunted the PGE1 enhancement of postovulatory isthmic motility. The results suggest that changes observed in adrenergic or postaglandinic responses of the sow oviduct may be linked to influences exerted by rapid variations of circulating substances associated with the ovulatory process. Furthermore it is also plausible that the action of PGE1 on the isthmus but not on the ampulla is undirect and attributable, at least in part, to the release of NE. It finally appears that the fimbrio-ampullar junction of the domestic sow acts as a "prostaglandin sphincter" able to avoid the loss of oocytes newly introduced into the oviduct. PMID:6104639

Borda, E S; Speziale, N B; Borda, L J; Gimeno, M F; Gimeno, A L



Intraosseous Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute, Severe Cyanide Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model - An Alternate Administration Route for Chemical Mass Casualties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare the rerum to baseline of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) between 2 groups of swine in acute cyanide toxicity and treated with IV HOC or 10 HOC. We also compared blood cyanide, lactate, pH, nitrotyrosine levels, cerebral oxygenation, and infl...

J. Lairet R. Pitotti S. Boudreau T. Vargas V. Bebarta



First report of a Trichinella papuae infection in a wild pig ( Sus scrofa) from an Australian island in the Torres Strait region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Trichinella species are reported from the Australasian region although mainland Australia has never confirmed an indigenous case of Trichinella infection in humans or animals. Wildlife surveys in high-risk regions are essential to truly determine the presence or absence of Trichinella, but in mainland Australia are largely lacking. In this study, a survey was conducted in wild pigs from mainland

L. Cuttell; B. Cookson; L. A. Jackson; C. Gray; R. J. Traub


Caso Chernobyl: sus repercusiones en el sistema Internacional sobre responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares. (Chernobyl case: its repercussions on the International System on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. T...

J. L. Gonzalez Guadarrama



Conservative E(y)2\\/Sus1 protein is the member of SAGA complex and new nuclear pore-associated complex in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SGA\\/TFC complex plays an important role in the regulation of transcription. We have examined the significance of the gene\\u000a positioning in the nucleus for its transcription and subsequent export of nascent mRNA. It was demonstrated that E(y)2 protein\\u000a was a subunit of the SAGA\\/TFTC histone acetyl transferase complex in Drosophila and that E(y)2 concentrated at the nuclear periphery. An

M. M. Kurshakova; D. V. Kopytova; E. N. Nabirochkina; Yu. V. Nikolenko; Yu. V. Shidlovskii; S. G. Georgieva; A. N. Krasnov



Infl uencia del cambio contable en la comparabilidad de los estados fi nancieros bancarios y sus ratios de gestión. Un estudio empírico  

Microsoft Academic Search

PALABRAS CLAVE Entidades fi nancieras; Comparabilidad; Indicadores bancarios. ABSTRACT The new CBE 4\\/2004 is based on a model of banking information in accordance with the NIIF, however it advances more than the content of accounting regulation for this industry, establish- ing a management model of uniform risk and looking for transparency in the individual and group levels, adapting the content

Salvador Marín Hernández; Mercedes Palacios; Isabel Martínez




Microsoft Academic Search

Initial vigor and its relationship with grain yield and its components were evaluated in 28 maize (Zea mays L.) populations of the Chalqueño race. Fourteen were collected from the Purepecha Mountain Range, in the state of Michoacan, nine from the Chalco Valley, in the State of Mexico, and fi ve from other states. Vigor was measured through the accelerated aging

Felipe de Jesús; Leobigildo Córdova Téllez; Amalio Santacruz Varela; Fernando Castillo González; Elizabeth Cárdenas Soriano; Adriana Delgado Alvarado



La Problematica Tecnologica Latinoamericana y Sus Implicaciones en el Desarrollo de una Ingenieria Nacional (Latin America Technological Problem and Its Implications in the Development of National Engineering).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report introduces four perspectives to follow up: (1) Strategical elements that hasten the technological development within the Latin American countries; (2) Technological Policy within Latin America; (3) Characterization of the development of the Lat...

G. Tirado E. Paredes M. Genova L. Alvaray J. Giordani



Effects of a Diet High in Salt, Fat, and Sugar on Telemetric Blood Pressure Measurements in Conscious, Unrestrained Adult Yucatan Miniature Swine (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

Radiotelemetry was used to evaluate diet-related elevation of blood pressure in adult Yucatan miniature swine. Systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), diastolic atrial blood pressure (DAP), heart rate, and locomotor activity were assessed in 9- or 11-mo-old Yucatan miniature pigs fed a standard diet or a North American-type diet high in salt, fat, and sugar (HSFS). Compared with pigs fed standard diet, pigs fed HSFS diet showed markedly elevated SAP (132 ± 3 compared with 156 ± 6 mm Hg), whereas DAP was unchanged (92 ± 2 compared with 99 ± 5 mm Hg). In addition, all pigs were modestly sensitive to short-term changes in dietary salt, as indicated by a 6% to 7% response in blood pressure parameters. According to these data, the increase in SAP for pigs on the HSFS diet was too large to be explained by the NaCl content of the diet alone. We found no evidence of endothelial dysfunction, and the relaxation responses of isolated coronary arteries actually were enhanced in the HSFS group. In conclusion, in a Yucatan miniature pigs model chronically fed a HSFS diet, DAP did not increase, but SAP and pulse pressure appeared to be affected by high dietary levels of fat or sugar (or both).

Myrie, Semone B; McKnight, Leslie L; King, J Christopher; McGuire, John J; Vliet, Bruce N Van; Bertolo, Robert F



Efficacy of the blizzard blanket or blizzard blanket plus thermal angel in preventing hypothermia in a hemorrhagic shock victim (Sus scrofa) under operational conditions.  


The prevention of hypothermia in military casualties under field conditions is challenging. The efficacy of a baffled reflective Blanket (Blizzard Blanket), a portable intravenous fluid warmer (Thermal Angel), and wool Blankets (control) in preventing hypothermia was tested under military field conditions in a swine hemorrhagic shock model. Fifteen pigs were bled at 10 degrees C. After 45 minutes, Hextend was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 10 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel); groups 2 and 3 were encircled with a Blizzard Blanket. After 120 minutes, the pigs were moved to 21 degrees C to simulate a field hospital; group 1 was covered with Blankets. Blood was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 4 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel) with 180 minutes of monitoring. The core temperature was <35 degrees C in five of five control pigs, four of five Blizzard-only pigs, and one of five Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket pigs. The Blizzard Blanket limited but did not prevent hypothermia. The Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket combination prevented hypothermia. The Thermal Angel is useful for bolus administration when electricity is limited; its military field use is constrained by battery weight and battery life. PMID:17274259

Bridges, Elizabeth; Schmelz, Joseph; Evers, Karen



Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).  


Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains. PMID:24878324

Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefa?ska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, El?bieta; Kizerwetter-?wida, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji



Stage-specific differential gene expression profiling and functional network analysis during morphogenesis of diphyodont dentition in miniature pigs, Sus Scrofa  

PubMed Central

Background Our current knowledge of tooth development derives mainly from studies in mice, which have only one set of non-replaced teeth, compared with the diphyodont dentition in humans. The miniature pig is also diphyodont, making it a valuable alternative model for understanding human tooth development and replacement. However, little is known about gene expression and function during swine odontogenesis. The goal of this study is to undertake the survey of differential gene expression profiling and functional network analysis during morphogenesis of diphyodont dentition in miniature pigs. The identification of genes related to diphyodont development should lead to a better understanding of morphogenetic patterns and the mechanisms of diphyodont replacement in large animal models and humans. Results The temporal gene expression profiles during early diphyodont development in miniature pigs were detected with the Affymetrix Porcine GeneChip. The gene expression data were further evaluated by ANOVA as well as pathway and STC analyses. A total of 2,053 genes were detected with differential expression. Several signal pathways and 151 genes were then identified through the construction of pathway and signal networks. Conclusions The gene expression profiles indicated that spatio-temporal down-regulation patterns of gene expression were predominant; while, both dynamic activation and inhibition of pathways occurred during the morphogenesis of diphyodont dentition. Our study offers a mechanistic framework for understanding dynamic gene regulation of early diphyodont development and provides a molecular basis for studying teeth development, replacement, and regeneration in miniature pigs.




Microsoft Academic Search

Recibido para revisar 26 de Enero de 2006, aceptado 26 de Septiembre de 2006, versión final 15 de Octubre de 2006 RESUMEN: En la Lingüística Computacional los corpus han sido uno de los recursos más utilizados para estudiar los diferentes fenómenos lingüísticos. La recopilación de corpus en los cuales se presenta interacción entre el humano y el computador presenta como




Methylation characteristics and developmental potential of Guangxi Bama minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) cloned embryos from donor cells treated with trichostatin A and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.  


Summary Reprogramming of DNA methylation in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos is incomplete, and aberrant DNA methylation patterns are related to the inefficiency of SCNT. To facilitate nuclear reprogramming, this study investigated the effect of treating Guangxi Bama minipig donor cells with trichostatin A (TSA), 5-aza-2'-deoxycytine (5-aza-dC), or combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC prior to nuclear transfer. Analyses showed that there were no major changes in cell-cycle status among all groups. We monitored the transcription of DNMT1, DNMT3a, HDAC1 and IGF2 genes in donor cells. Transcription levels of HDAC1 were decreased significantly after treatment with a combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC, along with a significantly increased level of IGF2 (P < 0.05). Although treatment of donor cells with either TSA or 5-aza-dC alone resulted in non-significant effects in blastocyst formation rate and DNA methylation levels, a combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC significantly improved the development rates of minipig SCNT embryos to blastocyst (25.6% vs. 16.0%, P < 0.05). This change was accompanied by decreased levels of DNA methylation in somatic cells and blastocyst (P < 0.05). Thus in combination with TSA, lower concentrations of 5-aza-dC may produce a potent demethylating activity, and lead to the significantly enhanced blastocyst development percentage of Bama minipig SCNT embryos. PMID:22355002

Ning, Shu-Fang; Li, Qing-Yang; Liang, Ming-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Gan; Xu, Hui-Yan; Lu, Yang-Qing; Lu, Sheng-Sheng; Lu, Ke-Huan



Metric analysis of the upper space of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) for evaluation of the pig as a model for arthroscopic TMJ surgery.  


Minimally invasive arthroscopic surgery of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is more technically demanding than procedures in Larger joints. The acquisition of adequate arthroscopic skills for TMJ surgery requires extensive specialized training that can hardly be obtained from patients. In order to introduce a proper animal model for TMJ arthroscopy, this study focuses on the morphology of the upper joint cavity of pigs at different ages. Plastic casts of the upper joint cavity were obtained from a mixed-sex sample of eight unfixed juvenile pig heads. The morphometric evaluation of these plastic casts revealed that the TMJ of pigs with a body weight of about 30 kg resemble the situation of the human TMJ best, and thus may serve as a model for arthroscopic exercises and examinations of the TMJ. PMID:17695994

Kaduk, W M H; Koppe, Th



11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in the testis and male reproductive tract of the boar (Sus scrofa domestica) indicate local roles for glucocorticoids in male reproductive physiology.  


11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) enzymes modulate the target cell actions of corticosteroids by catalysing metabolism of the physiological glucocorticoid (GC), cortisol, to inert cortisone. Recent studies have implicated GCs in boar sperm apoptosis. Hence, the objective of this study was to characterise 11betaHSD enzyme expression and activities in the boar testis and reproductive tract. Although 11betaHSD1 and 11betaHSD2 mRNA transcripts and proteins were co-expressed in all tissues, cortisol-cortisone interconversion was undetectable in the corpus and cauda epididymides, vas deferens, vesicular and prostate glands, irrespective of nucleotide cofactors. In contrast, homogenates of boar testis, caput epididymidis and bulbourethral gland all displayed pronounced 11betaHSD activities in the presence of NADPH/NADP(+) and NAD(+), and the penile urethra exhibited NAD(+)-dependent 11beta-dehydrogenase activity. In kinetic studies, homogenates of boar testis, caput epididymidis and bulbourethral gland oxidised cortisol with K(m) values of 237-443 and 154-226 nmol/l in the presence of NADP(+) and NAD(+) respectively. Maximal rates of NADP(+)-dependent cortisol oxidation were 7.4- to 28.5-fold greater than the V(max) for NADPH- dependent reduction of cortisone, but were comparable with the rates of NAD(+)-dependent cortisol metabolism. The relatively low K(m) estimates for NADP(+) -dependent cortisol oxidation suggest that either the affinity of 11betaHSD1 has been increased or the cortisol inactivation is catalysed by a novel NADP(+)-dependent 11betaHSD enzyme in these tissues. We conclude that in the boar testis, caput epididymidis and bulbourethral gland, NADP(+)- and NAD(+)-dependent 11betaHSD enzymes catalyse net inactivation of cortisol, consistent with a physiological role in limiting any local actions of GCs within these reproductive tissues. PMID:17709565

Sharp, Victoria; Thurston, Lisa M; Fowkes, Robert C; Michael, Anthony E



Bama miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) as a model for drug evaluation for humans: comparison of in vitro metabolism and in vivo pharmacokinetics of lovastatin.  


The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Bama miniature pigs are a suitable experimental animal model for the evaluation of drugs for man. To this end, in vitro lovastatin metabolism at the minipig liver microsomal level and in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied. Results were compared with those obtained from humans. Our data indicate that the main metabolites and enzyme kinetic parameters of lovastatin metabolism are similar in pigs and humans. Triacetyloleandomycin, a specific inhibitor of human CYP3A4, inhibited the metabolism of lovastatin in pig and human liver microsomes. In addition, the pharmacokinetic parameters and absolute bioavailability suggested that the absorption and elimination of lovastatin in Bama miniature pigs were similar to those in humans. Lovastatin was distributed across many organs in pigs, but the highest levels were found in the stomach, intestines, and liver. Within 96 h, 7% and 82% of the given dose was excreted in the urine and feces, respectively. In addition, no significant species differences in the plasma protein binding ratio of lovastatin and the rates of lovastatin hydrolysis to beta-hydroxyacid lovastatin were apparent. From these results, we conclude that Bama miniature pigs are suitable for use in drug evaluation studies. PMID:19149415

Liu, Yu; Zeng, Ben-Hua; Shang, Hai-Tao; Cen, Yan-Yan; Wei, Hong



Determination of coenzyme Q10 tissue status via high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in swine tissues (Sus scrofa domestica).  


Swine tissues were used as surrogates for human tissues with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as the primary endogenous quinoid to establish a reliable method for the analysis of total CoQ10 concentration and redox status using the reduced and oxidized forms of CoQ9 as internal standards. Specimens of frozen swine tissues were disrupted by bead milling using 2-propanol as the homogenization medium supplemented with the internal standards. After hexane extraction, CoQ10 was analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The method is linear (12-60 mg fresh muscle tissue/sample), sensitive (~200 pmol CoQ10/sample), and reproducible (coefficients of variation of 6.0 and 3.2% for total CoQ10 and 2.4 and 3.2% for the redox status of within-day and day-to-day precision, respectively), with analytic recoveries for ubiquinone-10, ubihydroquinone-10, and total Q10 of 91, 104, and 94%, respectively. The concentration and redox status were stable for at least 3 months at -84°C. The total CoQ10 concentrations (pmol/mg fresh tissue) in swine tissues were as follows: lung (17.4±1.42), skeletal muscle (26.7±2.57), brain (40.7±4.02), liver (62.1±31.0), kidney (111.7±37.08), and heart muscle (149.1±36.78). Significant tissue-specific variations were also found for the redox status (% oxidation of total): swine liver (~28), lung (~36), kidney (~37), heart muscle (~57), skeletal muscle (~61), and brain (~67). PMID:23467099

Niklowitz, Petra; Döring, Frank; Paulussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas



Implication of cortisol and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in the development of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) ovarian follicles and cysts.  


This study investigated cortisol inactivation by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta HSD) enzymes in porcine granulosa cells from antral follicles at different developmental stages and in ovarian cysts. In granulosa cells, cortisol oxidation increased threefold with antral follicle diameter (P < 0.001). This trend was paralleled by a threefold increase in NADP(+)-dependent 11beta-dehydrogenase activity in granulosa cell homogenates with follicle diameter. Intact granulosa cells from ovarian cysts exhibited significantly lower enzyme activities than cells from large antral follicles. Neither intact cells norcell homogenates displayed net 11-ketosteroid reductase activities. Since porcine follicular fluid (FF) from large antral follicles and ovarian cysts contains hydrophobic inhibitors of glucocorticoid metabolism by type 1 11beta HSD, this studyalso investigated whether levels of 11beta HSD inhibitors changed during follicle growth and could affect cortisol metabolism in granulosa cells. The extent of inhibition of 11beta HSD1 activity in rat kidney homogenates decreased progressively from 50 +/- 8% inhibition by FF from small antral follicles (P < 0.001) to 23 +/- 6% by large antral FF (P < 0.05). Cyst fluid inhibited 11beta HSD1 activity by 59 +/- 4% (P < 0.001). Likewise, net cortisol oxidation in granulosa cells was significantly decreased by large antral FF (35-48% inhibition, P < 0.05) and cyst fluid (45-75% inhibition, P < 0.01). We conclude that inactivation of cortisol by 11beta HSD enzymes in porcine granulosa cells increases with follicle development but is significantly decreased in ovarian cysts. Moreover, changes in ovarian cortisol metabolism are accompanied by corresponding changes in the levels of paracrine inhibitors of 11beta HSD1 within growing ovarian follicles and cysts, implicating cortisol in follicle growth and cyst development. PMID:17636169

Sunak, Neera; Green, Daphne F; Abeydeera, Lalantha R; Thurston, Lisa M; Michael, Anthony E



Organochlorine compound residues in muscle of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) and red deer (Cervus elaphus L.): effects of age and sex.  


Twenty-six organochlorine pesticides and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in muscle of wild boar and red deer from the Czech Republic. The concentration of DDT and its metabolites was higher (p < 0.01) in wild boar than in red deer, while PCBs and HCH were higher (p < 0.01) in red deer than in wild boar. The concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers were higher (p < 0.05) in juvenile wild boar than in adults. PCB 153 and p,p'-DDE were the most prominent pollutants in both red deer and wild boar. PMID:24097284

Maršálek, Petr; Zelní?ková, Lenka; Mikuláštíková, Jitka; Svobodová, Zde?ka; Huta?ová, Zde?ka



Biochemical Analysis of Interactions between Outer Membrane Proteins That Contribute to Starch Utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron  

PubMed Central

An early step in the utilization of starch by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is the binding of starch to the bacterial surface. Four starch-associated outer membrane proteins of B. thetaiotaomicron that have no starch-degrading activity have been identified. Two of these, SusC and SusD, have been shown by genetic analysis to be required for starch binding. In this study, we provide the first biochemical evidence that these two proteins interact physically with each other. Both formaldehyde cross-linking and nondenaturing gel electrophoresis experiments showed that SusC and SusD interact to form a complex. Two other proteins encoded by genes in the same operon, SusE and SusF, proved not to be essential for starch utilization and actually decreased starch binding when they were present along with SusC and SusD. Consistent with this, nondenaturing gel analysis revealed that in a strain producing SusC, SusD, and SusE, the SusCD complex was partially destabilized. The strain producing SusC, SusD, and SusE also grew more slowly on starch than a strain producing SusC, SusD, SusE, and SusF (?max, 0.29 and 0.37/h, respectively). Thus, SusE appears to interact with the SusCD complex. SusE also interacts with SusF, because SusE was less susceptible to proteinase K digestion when SusF was present, and nondenaturing gel analysis detected a complex formed by these two proteins. Our results indicate that SusC, SusD, SusE, and SusF form a protein complex in the outer membrane but that SusE and SusF are dispensable members of this complex.

Cho, Kyu Hong; Salyers, Abigail A.



La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

Argos, Javier



Optimal Surgical Therapy in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model of Extra- Thoracic Penetrating Trauma Resulting in Hemorrhagic Shock: ED Thoracotomy vs. Immediate Trans-Abdominal Vascular Control. A Porcine Model for Evaluating the Management of Non-Compressible Torso Hemorrhage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report introduces a standardized large animal model of non- compressible torso hemorrhage which permits assessment of different management strategies for this relatively common and extremely challenging combat injury pattern. Class IV hemorrhagic sho...

A. Stannard H. Hancock J. M. White J. R. Spencer J. W. Cannon



Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la investigacion se utilizo una metodologia cuantitativa y la herramienta para lograrlo fue una encuesta. La encuesta se analizo estadisticamente mediante analisis de frecuencias y por cientos, prueba ANOVA, prueba t, pruebas Post Hoc de Tukey y de Levene. Tambien se realizo nuevamente una prueba de confiabilidad mediante el alfa de Cronbach. Los resultados reflejaron que los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion, Humanidades, Estudios Generales y el Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas tienen una percepcion muy positiva del concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos curriculares de Ciencias Biologicas y del nuevo bachillerato.

Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa


The use of a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test on sperm of the pig (Sus scrofa domesticus), emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas hamadryas), and central rock rat (Zyzomys pedunculatus).  


A hypo-osmotic swelling test using TALP-HEPES medium over a range of 50 to 300 mOsm/kg was applied to sperm from domestic and endangered species. Maximal responses of curling of the sperm tails were seen over a range of osmolalities for epididymal sperm from the pig (100 mOsm/kg), hamadryas baboon (range 50-125 mOsm/kg), and central rock rat (range 50-100 mOsm/kg), and the ejaculated sperm from the emu (50 mOsm/kg) and the Asian elephant (range 75-150 mOsm/kg). A solution of TALP-HEPES medium at 100 mOsm/kg would be suitable to obtain the maximal response in this range of mammals tested, though it would need to be diluted to at least 50 mOsm/kg when testing the viability of the emu sperm. PMID:19734955

Matson, Phillip; Kappelle, Wendy; Malecki, Irek



Resident-intruder trait aggression is associated with differences in lysine vasopressin and serotonin receptor 1A (5-HT1A) mRNA expression in the brain of pre-pubertal female domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).  


Aggressive behaviour exhibited by domestic pigs following encounters with unfamiliar individuals is a serious welfare and economical problem. Aggression resulting in skin lesions is similarly prevalent in prepubertal pigs of either sex. Little is known about the neural circuits and neuropeptides that control aggression in the pig. Because there is evidence for the involvement of the vasopressin and serotonergic systems in the regulation of aggressive behaviour in male mammals, we sought differences using quantitative in situ hybridisation of vasopressin and serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A) mRNA expression within specific brain regions of aggressive and nonaggressive prepubertal female pigs. The number of cells expressing vasopressin mRNA was significantly higher in aggressive pigs in the medial amygdala, lateral septum (LS) and showed a similar trend in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BnST) but not the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or supraoptic nucleus. The 5-HT1A receptor was widely expressed through the porcine brain and a significantly lower intensity (silver grain density) of 5-HT1A mRNA expression was observed in the BnST. In the medial amygdala and LS fewer cells expressed 5-HT1A mRNA in aggressive pigs but no differences were found in the PVN. In the absence of inbred strains or selection lines, these findings have shown that prior identification of phenotypic behavioural extremes in a population in advance of neural studies is a useful technique. Moreover, these findings support a central role for vasopressin and serotonin in the mediation of high trait aggression in prepubertal female pigs. PMID:16159381

D'Eath, R B; Ormandy, E; Lawrence, A B; Sumner, B E H; Meddle, S L



LA LEGITIMIDAD DE LOS TRIBUNALES SUPREMOS Y SUS ESTRATEGIAS COMUNICATIVAS. EL CASO DE LA CORTE SUPREMA DE EE.UU. The legitimacy of the supreme courts and communicative strategies. The case of the U.S. Supreme Court  

Microsoft Academic Search

Courts are acquiring greater power in the determination of important decisions in political systems. In order to hold that bigger intervention they only have, as pointed out in The Federalist, their power of conviction. This power makes possible that their decisions are obeyed and therefore, the way they build their political legitimacy gains an essential role. This capital is administered

Valentín Thury Cornejo



La lectura literaria como arte de "performance": la teoria transaccional de Louise Rosenblatt y sus implicaciones pedagogicas (The Use of Literature as Performance Art: The Transactional Theory of Louise Rosenblatt and Its Pedagogical Implications).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the work that Louise Rosenblatt and her followers in the United States have done to improve the teaching and learning of literature at all educational levels. Although these researchers have focused almost exclusively on the use of literature in the native language, the paper uses transactional theory as a basis for teaching…

Zoreda, Margaret Lee



Microsoft Academic Search

From an economic point of view and in order to achieve a sustainable environment it is necessary to plan and to carry out recycling for a product through its different live stages. It is convenient to start since production is taking place, usage time and when it is being

Dietmar Rössel; Hipólito Ortiz Laurel; Marco A. Cortes Chamorro; Brydson Bonora


Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.



Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The kernel of maize (Zea mays L.) is mainly composed of starch, whose size varies among races. The knowledge of the starch gelatiniza- tion process provides important information about the functionality, energy requirements, and end use of this cereal. The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationships between starch granule size, and thermal and rheological properties of

Ernesto David Narváez-González; Juan de Dios; Figueroa Cárdenas; Suketoshi Taba; Eduardo Castaño Tostado; Ramón Álvar Martínez Peniche


Attention Immigrant Parents: Send Your Children to School = Atencion Padres Immigrantes: Manden sus Ninos a la Esucela = Nhung Cha Me Di Dan De Y: Dem Con Ban Toi Truong Hoc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This one page notice to parents, printed on separate pages in English, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Chinese, emphasizes that all children have the legal right to a free public education, regardless of their immigration status. Immigrant children do not need a green card, visa, passport, or any other proof of citizenship or immigration status in order…

Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy (META), Inc., San Francisco, CA.


First detection of Echinococcus granulosus G1 and G7 in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Romania using PCR and PCR-RFLP techniques.  


The epidemiological status of CE in our country places Romania into the top of the European countries and among the first countries worldwide. Two hundred ninety wild animals (267 wild boars, 21 red deer and 2 mouflons) hunted in a private ground from Bihor county from western Romania were the subject of the necropsy in January 2012.Out of 290 wild animals, 35 were positive during necropsy for hydatic cysts and from these, 33 wild boars and 2 red deer had hydatic cystsonly in the liver parenchyma. This paper presents the first identification of Echinococcus granulosus G1 in cervids (100%). In wild boars it were identified G1 (45.5%) and G7 genotypes (39.4%). The mouflons were free of hydatic cysts. Our resultsconfirmthat the sheep strain (G1) is the predominant Echinococcus genotype, which occurs, followed closely by the pig strain (G7) and that wildlife reservoirs should be taken in consideration for the management of the disease. PMID:23332123

Onac, D; Gy?rke, A; Oltean, M; Gavrea, R; Cozma, V



Cuidado de ninos con necesidades especiales en el hogar: Manual de referencia para las personas que cuidan ninos en sus hogares (Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook for Family Day Care Home Providers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Spanish translation of this guide offers information to Spanish-speaking family day care providers who desire to expand their knowledge of early childhood development in order to work with infants and young children with special needs in their day care settings. The first of four chapters answers common questions and concerns of day care…

de la Brosse, Beatrice


Qualitative risk assessment of the role of the feral wild boar ( Sus scrofa ) in the likelihood of incursion and the impacts on effective disease control of selected exotic diseases in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative risk assessment was undertaken to analyse the likelihood of the incursion of selected exotic infectious disease\\u000a into England’s small populations of feral boar and the potential impacts these animals could have on effective disease control.\\u000a In order to identify the exposure pathways, it was necessary to consider not only the epidemiology of the pathogens but also\\u000a to understand

Matt Hartley



Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns  

PubMed Central

Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7) identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum). Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development.



Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

Ford Foundation, New York, NY.


A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 12th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 12 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.


Cuidado de Ninos con Necesidades Especiales en el Hogar: Manual de Estrategias y Actividades para Proveedores que Cuidan Ninos en Sus Hogares (Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook of Approaches and Activities for Family Day Care Home Providers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical information and sample teaching activities for child caregivers who work with young developmentally disabled children in family day care settings are provided in this manual. Each chapter shares a typical experience a caregiver may have with a particular child. Chapter 1 focuses on getting to know a new child, initial expectations, and…

de la Brosse, Beatrice


Mensaje para alumnos y padres  

NASA Video Gallery

El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...


A Novel Isoform of Sucrose Synthase Is Targeted to the Cell Wall during Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Cotton Fiber[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Sucrose (Suc) synthase (Sus) is the major enzyme of Suc breakdown for cellulose biosynthesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber, an important source of fiber for the textile industry. This study examines the tissue-specific expression, relative abundance, and temporal expression of various Sus transcripts and proteins present in cotton. A novel isoform of Sus (SusC) is identified that is expressed at high levels during secondary cell wall synthesis in fiber and is present in the cell wall fraction. The phylogenetic relationships of the deduced amino acid sequences indicate two ancestral groups of Sus proteins predating the divergence of monocots and dicots and that SusC sequences form a distinct branch in the phylogeny within the dicot-specific clade. The subcellular location of the Sus isoforms is determined, and it is proposed that cell wall-localized SusC may provide UDP-glucose for cellulose and callose synthesis from extracellular sugars.

Brill, Elizabeth; van Thournout, Michel; White, Rosemary G.; Llewellyn, Danny; Campbell, Peter M.; Engelen, Steven; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Arioli, Tony; Furbank, Robert T.



Structure and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in the rubber tree: indicative of roles in stress response and sucrose utilization in the laticifers.  


Sucrose synthase (Sus, EC is widely recognized as a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism in plants. However, nothing is known about this gene family in Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree). Here, we identified six Sus genes in H. brasiliensis that comprise the entire Sus family in this species. Analysis of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrates evolutionary conservation in the Sus families across Hevea and other plant species. The expression of Sus genes was investigated via Solexa sequencing and quantitative PCR in various tissues, at various phases of leaf development, and under abiotic stresses and ethylene treatment. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles. Each tissue has one abundant Sus isoform, with HbSus3, 4 and 5 being the predominant isoforms in latex (cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers), bark and root, respectively. HbSus1 and 6 were barely expressed in any tissue examined. In mature leaves (source), all HbSus genes were expressed at low levels, but HbSus3 and 4 were abundantly expressed in immature leaves (sink). Low temperature and drought treatments conspicuously induced HbSus5 expression in root and leaf, suggesting a role in stress responses. HbSus2 and 3 transcripts were decreased by ethylene treatment, consistent with the reduced sucrose-synthesizing activity of Sus enzymes in the latex in response to ethylene stimulation. Our results are beneficial to further determination of functions for the Sus genes in Hevea trees, especially roles in regulating latex regeneration. PMID:24279382

Xiao, Xiaohu; Tang, Chaorong; Fang, Yongjun; Yang, Meng; Zhou, Binhui; Qi, Jiyan; Zhang, Yi



Effect of high magnetic field and uniaxial stress at cryogenic temperatures on phase stability of some austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined effects of external fields, such as temperature, magnetic field, stress and combination of them on martensitic transformation of SUS304, SUS304L, SUS316 and SUS316L austenitic stainless steels, and obtained the following results. (i) An athermal martensitic transformation does not occur for all the solution-treated and the sensitized specimens, and the ?-phase exhibits an antiferromagnetic transition at a temperature

T. Fukuda; T. Kakeshita; K. Kindo




Microsoft Academic Search

El uso de las TIC cambia radicalmente la forma en que los gobiernos administran y ejecutan sus procesos internos, y abre la posibilidad de mejorar e incrementar los canales de comunicación con los ciudadanos. Así, el gobierno electrónico se observa como un medio para que los gobiernos modernicen sus procesos, mejoren sus interacciones con los ciudadanos y disminuyan la fractura

Roberto de Armas Urquiza; Alejandro de Armas Suárez



L'implication des parents dans la scolarité des filles et des garçons : des intentions à la pratique  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] En 1992, los progenitores preferían una formación técnica o científi ca para sus hijos y proyectaban un nivel de estudios globalmente más elevado para sus hijas que para sus hijos. Esta constatación sigue siendo cierta en la entrada escolar 2003. Pero analizando más concretamente el deseo de un bachillerato científi co, ya que es la carrera más rentable de

Marie Gouyon; Sophie Guérin



Políticas de vivienda social en el Gran Santiago: proletarización de los sectores populares urbanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

La sumatoria de los procesos productivos, migraciones y pobreza que ha afectado a Santiago de Chile durante el siglo XX ha configurado un cuadro de déficit de viviendas entre los sectores populares como consecuencia del fuerte crecimiento poblacional, la falta de infraestructura urbana y la inestabilidad laboral de los sectores más desposeídos. Es en la segunda mitad del siglo citado

Rodrigo Rocha Pérez; Patricio Antilef Osorio; José Villarroel de la Sotta



Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from…

Ferrero, Carmen Lopez



Efectos colaterales de un reparto insostenible de recursos  

Microsoft Academic Search

El ser humano, como cualquier otro organismo, posee la capacidad de modificar su entorno para su propio beneficio, especialmente de cara a asegurar su manutención y la de aquellos a su cargo. Con el desarrollo tecnológico esa capacidad ha adquirido dimensiones sin precedentes para el entorno que nos sustenta, con consecuencias difíciles de estimar y menos aun de predecir, que

Marta I. Saloña Bordas



Estudio estructural de membranas cyclopore de microfiltración  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica (AFM), de reciente desarrollo, se ha revelado como una técnica especialmente valiosa en la caracterización de todo tipo de superficies y materiales. En este trabajo se ha utilizado dicha técnica en la caracterización super- ficial de diversos filtros de microfiltración, obtenidos por el método de revelado de trazas nucleares, y en consecuencia, especial- mente útiles



Enteropatía congénita y trasplante intestinal  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoLa insuficiencia intestinal (II) exige el uso de nutrición parenteral (NP). Entre las causas de II prolongada grave destacan el síndrome del intestino corto, trastornos de la motilidad grave (aganglionosis total o subtotal o síndrome de seudoobstrucción intestinal crónica) y enfermedades congénitas del desarrollo de los enterocitos. Puede aparecer insuficiencia hepática grave en pacientes con II como consecuencia de una

Olivier Goulet



¿A que Juegan el Gobierno y un Banco Central Independiente?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Una consecuencia de la independencia del banco central (BC) es la posibilidad de que se presenten diferencias entre los objetivos del gobierno (G) y el banco. Estas notas pretenden ilustrar algunas de las interacciones estratégicas entre el gobierno y un banco central independiente con objetivos divergentes, bajo supuestos alternativos sobre la información que poseen el BC; el G y el

Hernando Vargas H


El papel de la Universidad en el desarrollo y la innovación tecnológica: la experiencia catalana (Relación Universidad-Empresa-Gobierno)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo busca proporcionar algunos elementos que permitan valorar una de las facetas de la contribución de la Universidad a su nueva misión, aquella orientada al desarrollo tecnológico y, como consecuencia, al desarrollo económico. En la primera parte se plantea que la nueva misión de la Universidad, además de las funciones clásicas referidas a la formación de recurso humano y

Dolly Yazmín Camacho Corredor



Financement, fiscalité et croissance des entreprises industrielles  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Financiación, fiscalidad y crecimiento de las empresas industrials, . por François Legendre, Michel Bua, Philippe Girard y Philippe Redondo.. . En el presente artículo se tratan de evaluar las consecuencias de una reducción del tipo impositivo sobre las sociedades - considerado como una disminución del coste de utilización del capital - sobre el nivel de la actividad y del

François Legendre; Philippe Redondo; Philippe Girard; Michel Bua




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: Introducción: Con entrenamiento adecuado, los estudiantes de medicina pueden convertirse en lí- deres de opinión con futura injerencia sobre las políticas de salud, así como ayudar al público a en- tender las consecuencias de los embarazos indeseados y del aborto. El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido examinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre métodos anticonceptivos (MAC) previos al inicio

Guillermo Horacio; Cáceres Pallavidino; Echevarría Avellaneda; Domingo José Pomares


Armonización legislativa en materia societaria en el Mercosur: una necesidad o una quimera?  

Microsoft Academic Search

La década del noventa puede ser sencillamente indicada como hito en cuanto a un desmesurado proceso globalizador en marcha. La llamada aldea global presenta un desarrollo cada vez más veloz que involucra distintas variables. Como consecuencia inmediata de tal realidad se destaca un notable incremento de los negocios internacionales, en especial en todo lo relativo a los espacios integrados. Aparece

Sara Lidia Feldstein de Cárdenas; Luciana Scotti; Mónica Rodriguez; Flavia Medina; Vera Baez Peña Wirt; Yamila Cárdenas



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. Después del accidente minero de Aznalcóllar (25\\/04\\/98) se llevaron a cabo las labores de recuperación de los suelos, consistentes en: a) la remoción de los lodos depositados sobre la superficie de los mismos, así como de una capa de suelo contaminado de hasta 20 cm de profundidad, y b) la aplicación de enmiendas. Como consecuencia de estas labores, quedaron

F. Moreno; I. F. Girón; F. Cabrera


Tecnología para la gestión ambiental en el sistema de gestión de recursos humanos en instituciones de educación superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se planteó en la investigación que las Instituciones de Educación Superior en Cuba (específicamente la Universidad de Holguín) presentan la necesidad de INTEGRAR la Gestión Ambiental y la Gestión de Recursos Humanos, debido al papel fundamental que juega el hombre en el desempeño exitoso de cualquier organización y por consiguiente las consecuencias que esta provoca en el entorno.

Yunelsy Ortiz Chávez



Chômage des jeunes et fonctionnement du marché du travail : les cas français et suédois  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Desocupación de los jóvenes y funcionamiento del mercado laboral : el caso francés y el sueco - En Francia como en Suecia, el desempleo de los jóvenes de menos de 25 años aumentó como consecuencia de los choques macroeconómicos de los años setenta y ochenta. No obstante, este choque ha sido mucho más fuerte en Francia y ha sido

Yves Bourdet; Inga Persson



XAFS analysis of corroded metal surfaces with molten salts by conversion-electron-yield method.  


We have measured XAFS spectra of metal surfaces corroded with melting salt (NaCl, KCl, and Na2SO4). Steel samples used were S45C, SCM435, SUS310S, and SUS304. We measured the Fe K-edge XAFS spectra for all samples and the Ni K-edge for SUS310S and SUS304 samples before and after the corrosion. The XANES spectra of samples before the corrosion show metallic structure because surface oxide thickness is thinner than probing depth with a conversion yield XAFS method. Each result of these XAFS spectra gives good agreements with the FEFF calculation in the assumption of bcc and/or fcc structure. The Fe K-edge spectra of steel samples except SUS310S after corroded treatment show existence bonding between Fe and another light element although the spectra of SUS310S samples before and after corroded treatment are much the same. PMID:11512826

Yanase, E; Arai, K; Watanabe, I; Takahashi, M; Dake, Y



Dissimilar Materials Micro Welding between Stainless Steel and Plastics by Using Pulse YAG Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct joint of dissimilar materials between SUS304 stainless steel and plastics, PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) or PC (Polycarbonate), was studied by using pulse YAG laser. Welding configuration was lap joint. Weldability and shear-tensile strength were investigated for the joints. It was possible to make a joint for both combination of materials, SUS304\\/PET and SUS304\\/PC. Weldable condition range was wider in case

Yukio Miyashita; Masaru Takahashi; Masashi Takemi; Kosei Oyama; Yoshiharu Mutoh; Hironori Tanaka



Properties of acetolactate synthase from sulfonylurea-resistant Scirpus juncoides Roxb. var. ohwianus T. Koyama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of acetolactate synthase (EC; ALS) from sulfonylurea-resistant (SUR) Scirpus juncoides Roxb. var. ohwianus T. Koyama were studied biochemically and physiologically in comparison with those from sulfonylurea-susceptible weed (SUS). GR50 values for growth inhibition and I50 values for ALS inhibition by imazosulfuron were determined for both SUR and SUS. Imazosulfuron controlled the SUS above 80% at the dosage more

Yasushi Tanaka



Iterative distributed channel probing for cognitive radios with power-controlled wireless links  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel scheme for cognitive radios that enables secondary users (SUs) to verify whether they can use the channel without reducing the signal to interference-noise ratio (SINR) of primary users (PUs) below a pre-specified threshold; i.e., SUs check whether they are admissible or not. Mathematically, to verify admissibility, SUs need to know whether the spectral radius of the

Jafar Mohammadi; Slawomir Stanczak; Renato L. G. Cavalcante; Jalal Etesami



Nondestructive Evaluation of Strain Distribution and Fatigue Distribution from Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Magnetic Sensors  

SciTech Connect

Austenitic stainless steel transforms from austenitic crystal structure to martensitic crystal structure after applying strain or stress. Because martensitic crystal structures have magnetization, strain evaluation and fatigue evaluation can be performed by measuring magnetic properties. This paper describes the measurement of leakage magnetic flux density of remanent magnetization for the strain evaluation and the fatigue evaluation by a typical Hall element sensor for SUS 304 and SUS 304L and by a high-sensitivity thin-film flux-gate magnetic sensor for SUS 316 and SUS 316L.

Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T. [Department of Computer and Control Engineering, Oita National College of Technology, 1666 Maki, Oita 870-0152 (Japan)



Nondestructive Evaluation of Strain Distribution and Fatigue Distribution from Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Magnetic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austenitic stainless steel transforms from austenitic crystal structure to martensitic crystal structure after applying strain or stress. Because martensitic crystal structures have magnetization, strain evaluation and fatigue evaluation can be performed by measuring magnetic properties. This paper describes the measurement of leakage magnetic flux density of remanent magnetization for the strain evaluation and the fatigue evaluation by a typical Hall element sensor for SUS 304 and SUS 304L and by a high-sensitivity thin-film flux-gate magnetic sensor for SUS 316 and SUS 316L.

Tsuchida, Y.; Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.



Deoxyribonucleic Acid Replication in ? Bacteriophage Mutants  

PubMed Central

After ultraviolet light induction of Escherichia coli K-12 strain W3350(?), several structural intermediate forms of phage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are synthesized. The early defective lysogens of ?, sus O8, sus P3, and T11, were found to synthesize none of the DNA structural intermediates. A lysogen believed to be defective in all known phage activities, ?sus N7, was found to be able to synthesize an early phage DNA intermediate. The lysogen ?sus Q21, defective in late phage functions, is able to synthesize the early phage DNA intermediate and a concatenated molecule of greater molecular weight than the mature ? DNA.

Salzman, Lois Ann; Weissbach, Arthur



Quince joyas de la evolución  

Microsoft Academic Search

La teoría de la evolución por selección natural de Darwin ha revolucionado campos no sólo relacionados a la biología o las ciencias naturales: inevitablemente remueve también las consideraciones, implicaciones y consecuencias antropológicas, psicológicas, filosóficas, éticas y culturales de nuestra sociedad.\\u000a\\u000aA nivel de las ciencias naturales, la mayoría de los biólogos dan por descontada la idea de que toda la

Henry Gee; Rory Howlett; Philip Campbell



Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 4 de diciembre de 2012

Los pacientes con cáncer avanzado que hablaron con sus médicos sobre su cuidado durante sus últimos días de vida en las etapas más tempranas de la enfermedad, recibieron un cuidado menos agresivo en su último mes de vida. Asimismo, tuvieron una probabilidad menor de usar servicios para enfermos terminales, según indican los resultados de un nuevo estudio.


Joint Power and Rate Control in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Game-Theoretical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cognitive radio networks, power control is necessary to not only decrease the interference among the secondary users (SUs), but also avoid negative impact to the primary users (PUs). Prevalent research works on power control are mainly focus on maximizing SINR as the QoS requirement of SUs under the interference power constraint for PUs. We note that besides achieving a

Pan Zhou; Wei Yuan; Wei Liu; Wenqing Cheng



Jeunes : les stigmatisations de l'apparence  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Jóvenes: las estigmatizaciones de la apariencia . . Hay personas que pueden tener el sentimiento que, en ciertas ocasiones de sus relaciones sociales, se ha atentado a sus derechos 0 su dignidad. Los jovenes se . distinguen claramente de los mayores a este respecto. Su sensibilidad a diferentes formas de ostracismo es mas aguda que la de los adultos,

Olivier Galland



Ciclos políticos en Colombia: impacto fiscal en el siglo XX e impacto sobre la distribución del ingreso durante los ultimos 30 años  

Microsoft Academic Search

La orientación ideológica de los gobiernos, el momento de las elecciones y los intereses particulares de los dirigentes pueden afectar de manera importante la política económica en cualquiera de sus componentes. Se puede esperar que un gobierno establezca sus políticas en materia económica, ya sea siguiendo los preceptos ideológicos que el partido político al cual pertenece haya proclamado, o bien,

John Jairo Gómez Ríos




Microsoft Academic Search

Numerosos trabajos han estudiado la influencia del consejo de administración en las decisiones y resultados de sus empresas. No obstante, la enorme popularidad alcanzada en el campo del gobierno corporativo por estos estudios, no viene acompañada por sus resultados, que han sido ambiguos y, a veces, conflictivos En esta investigación proponemos que la efectividad de los consejos depende de las

C. Barroso Castro; M. M. Villegas Periñan; L. Pérez-Calero



An Opportunistic Relaying Protocol Exploiting Distributed Beamforming and Token Passing in Cognitive Radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radio (CR) is a powerful solution that can significantly improve the utilization of the precious limited radio spectrum. It allows secondary users (SUs) to opportunistically access spectral holes of the licensed spectrum without causing harmful interference to primary users (PUs). However, waiting for idle timeslots may induce very poor quality of service (QoS) for SUs. To alleviate this, an

Juan Liu; Wei Chen; Zhigang Cao; Ying Jun Zhang



Colombia: Los problemas de competitividad de un país en conflicto  

Microsoft Academic Search

La persistencia del conflicto interno en Colombia inhibe todos los elementos principales que contribuyen a la determinación de la competitividad de la economía nacional, que son los siguientes: (i) el monto de sus recursos productivos; (ii) la calidad y productividad de los mismos; (iii) la eficiencia con que operan sus mercados; (iv) el estado de su infraestructura; (v) la capacidad

Alberto Melo




Microsoft Academic Search

La gravedad de los problemas ambientales obliga a replantear el papel de la educación ante ella; reivindicando así sus aportes al respecto. En la Universidad recae una responsabilidad de primer orden en la socialización de los conocimientos y en la formación de una nueva cultura de respeto al entorno natural y social y sus valores. Se necesita, y es impostergable,

Yaima Gómez González; Diamelys Pimentel Rivera; Maray Martínez Sánchez



Gestión ambiental en la industria: implantación y validación de un modelo de autocontrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

En los últimos años las empresas se han replanteado las relaciones que mantienen con sus principales grupos de interés, aquellos que conforman los entornos en los que desarrollan sus actividades. Así, para satisfacer las expectativas de los grupos preocupados por el medio ambiente, cada vez más numerosos, las empresas empiezan a adoptar prácticas de responsabilidad social. Ésta establece que las

Carlos atienza-sahuquillo; Virginia BarBa-sánChez




Microsoft Academic Search

Informamos aquí de las diferentes etapas históricas de esta gran biblioteca desde su fundación en 1830 hasta hoy, citando sus reglamentos, las interesantísimas aportaciones con que se ha nutrido y sus numerosos traslados, que tanto la han perjudicado. Su emplazamiento parece estar condenado a la provisionalidad, pues hoy vivimos en vísperas de un nuevo cambio de emplazamiento. De variis periodis

Margarita Navarro



Longitudinal Tenure and Attrition Rate Study in the State University System of Florida. AIR 1987 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tenure and attrition rates within the Florida State University System (SUS) were studied. Attention was directed to attrition of newly hired tenure-earning faculty members who began employment at an SUS institution in either 1976, 1977, or 1978. Each faculty group was traced from date of hire through the seventh year of employment or until they…

Stepina, Nancy; Campbell, Joann


Influence of high pressure hydrogen environment on tensile and fatigue properties of stainless steels at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) of stainless steels in the environment of high pressure and low temperature hydrogen gas was evaluated using a very simple mechanical properties testing procedure. In the method, the high-pressure hydrogen environment is produced just inside the hole in the specimen. In this work, the effects of HEE on fatigue properties for austenitic stainless steels SUS304L and SUS316L were evaluated at 298 and 190 K. The effects of HEE on the tensile properties of higher strength stainless steels, such as strain-hardened 316, SUS630, and other alloys, SUH660 and Alloy 718 were also examined. The less effect of HEE on fatigue properties of SUS316L and tensile properties of strain-hardened 316 were observed compared with SUS304L and other steels at room temperature and 190 K.

Ogata, T.



Dissimilar Materials Micro Welding between Stainless Steel and Plastics by Using Pulse YAG Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct joint of dissimilar materials between SUS304 stainless steel and plastics, PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) or PC (Polycarbonate), was studied by using pulse YAG laser. Welding configuration was lap joint. Weldability and shear-tensile strength were investigated for the joints. It was possible to make a joint for both combination of materials, SUS304/PET and SUS304/PC. Weldable condition range was wider in case of SUS304/PET joint compared to that in case of SUS304/PC joint. The difference in the weldability may be due to difference in glass transition temperature of the plastics. Pores were observed in plastics near the interface of the joint for both combinations of the materials when the joint welded with higher heat input. Sear-tensile test was carried out for the joints. SUS304/PET joint shows higher strength compared to SUS304/PC joint. Higher strength was observed for the joint which includes pores near the interface in plastics. However, if large size and number of pores are existing near the interface in plastics, the pores play as a defect and causes degradation of the strength.

Miyashita, Yukio; Takahashi, Masaru; Takemi, Masashi; Oyama, Kosei; Mutoh, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Hironori


[Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].  


The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system. PMID:23175305

Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori



Fretting corrosion resistance and fretting corrosion product cytocompatibility of ferritic stainless steel.  


To avoid nickel ion release from SUS317L as an implant material, a new type of nickel, commercially free, of high purity, and high chromium ferritic stainless steel, was developed. The new stainless steel (FJ) was studied for aspects of fretting corrosion and cytocompatibility compared with SUS317L. A pin-on-plate fretting corrosion test in an artificial physiologic solution, and cell culture in media with the addition of the artificial physiologic solution used for fretting was conducted. Resistance to the fretting induced crevice corrosion of FJ was higher than that of SUS317L because of the favorable electrochemical stability of the FJ alloy. The amount of iron ion or colloidal fine particles released from FJ was about a quarter of that from SUS317L, although the weight loss of a pin of FJ was almost 5/3 that of SUS317L. The artificial physiologic solution used for SUS317L fretting was more harmful to the growth of L929 and MC3T3-E1 cells than that used for FJ fretting. FJ was therefore superior to SUS317L as a biomaterial, judging from the resistance to fretting-induced crevice corrosion, electrochemical stability, and the cytocompatibility of fretting corrosion products. PMID:8978647

Xulin, S; Ito, A; Tateishi, T; Hoshino, A



Effects of simulated weightlessness on the intestinal mucosal barrier of rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employed a rat tail-suspension model to investigate the effects of simulated weightlessness on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (CON), 14-day tail-suspension (SUS-14d), and 21-day tail-suspension (SUS-21d) groups ( n = 8 per group). Expression of occludin and zonula occludins-1 (ZO-1), proteins of the tight junction (TJ), in the intestinal mucosa was measured by immunohistochemical analysis, Western blotting, and mRNA fluorescent quantitation PCR. Plasma concentrations of diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate were determined using an enzymatic spectrophotometric assay. Expression of occludin and ZO-1 was reduced in the SUS-14d and SUS-21d groups as compared to the CON group, with lowest expression observed in the SUS-21d group ( P < 0.01). Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the jejunal epithelium revealed increased intercellular space, decreased TJ and desmosome densities, and destruction of microvilli in the SUS-14d and SUS-21d groups. Plasma DAO and D-lactate concentrations in the SUS-21d group were higher than those in SUS-14d group and significantly higher than those in the CON group ( P < 0.01). In all three groups, the expression of occludin and ZO-1 was found to correlate negatively with DAO ( P < 0.01) and D-lactate ( P < 0.01) concentrations. It is concluded that simulated weightless results in down-regulation of expression of TJ proteins in the rat intestinal mucosa. Simulated weightlessness is proposed to increase intestinal permeability through damage to the TJ.

Chen, Ying; Yang, Chun-min; Mao, Gao-ping; Liu, Qing-sen; Guo, Ming-zhou



Effects of insulin and exercise on rat hindlimb muscles after simulated microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of simulated microgravity on the insulin- and exercise-stimulated glucose uptake and metabolism in the hindlimb muscles of rats was investigated using three groups of rats suspended at 45 head-down tilt (SUS) for 14 days: (1) cage control, (2) exercising (treadmill running) control, and (3) rats subjected to suspension followed by exercise (SUS-E). It was found that the suspension of rats with hindlimbs non-weight bearing led to enhanced muscle responses to insulin and exercise, when these stimuli were applied separately. However, the insulin affect appeared to be impaired after exercise for the SUS-E rats, especially for the soleus muscle.

Stump, Craig S.; Balon, Thomas W.; Tipton, Charles M.



Towards a National Hazard Map of Landslides: Juan de Grijalva, Chiapas, and Mitlatongo, Oaxaca, two catastrophic landslides on southeastern of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most catastrophic events, with economical losses and deaths, in Mexico and Latin America, is the landslide event. The Juan de Grijalva landslide, which blocked one of the largest rivers in the Chiapas state of Mexico, on November 4, 2007, is considered one of the greatest that have occurred in the world in the last 100 years (Dominguez, 2008) and it could be the one with the largest economic impact in the history of Mexico. This landslide occurred four days after a period of very heavy rains that caused, in the peak of the emergency, flooding in almost 62% of the area of the state of Tabasco (CENAPRED, 2009) and is also one of the most serious disasters that were faced by the Mexican government in the past 10 years. The Juan de Grijalva landslide mobilized the entire government apparatus and required an investment of just over 0.1 billions of US Dollars (CENAPRED, 2009) for the rehabilitation of the river runway and additional works in order to prevent further damages if another landslide occurs in the vicinity. A similar case of interest for Mexican researchers and specialists in earth sciences is the big landslide occurred in the communities of Santa Cruz Mitlatongo, municipality of Magdalena Jaltepec, and Santiago Mitlatongo, municipality of Nochixtlan, both in the state of Oaxaca (Dominguez, 2011). This landslide has dimensions of just over 2,500 m long and 900 m wide, and it remains active from September 2011. Since then, the landslide has moved just over 230 m in length and has destroyed about 850 houses. Given the geological and geotechnical characteristics of these landslides and the economic and social impact caused, the National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) has initiated a research project in order to learn the main factors (constraints and triggers) that influenced both landslides. In relation with the National Hazard Landslide Map, developed by CENAPRED, these events are an important task of the National Inventory of Landslides and represent two of the most outstanding and representative events in southeastern Mexico. Domínguez L., 2008 "El deslizamiento del 4 de noviembre de 2007 en la comunidad Juan de Grijalva, municipio de Ostuacán, Chiapas, y su relación con el Frente Frio no. 4" Report prepared to the General Coordination of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres, 2009 "Características e impacto socioeconómico de los principales desastres ocurridos en la República Mexicana en el año 2007" Socieconomic Impact by Disasters in Mexico Serie, National System of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico. Domínguez L., 2011 "Deslizamiento de suelos y rocas en las comunidades de Santiago Mitlatongo, municipio de Nochixtlán, y Santa Cruz Mitlatongo, municipio de Magdalena Jaltepec, Oaxaca" Report prepared to the General Coordination of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico.

Dominguez-M, L.; Castañeda, A.; Ramirez, A.; González, A. E.



Enhancing Diversity In The Geosciences; Intensive Field Experience In USA And Mexico For Middle And High School Teachers Serving Large Hispanic Populations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To encourage Hispanic participation and enrolment in the geosciences and ultimately enhance diversity within the discipline, we recruited ten middle and high school science teachers serving large Hispanic populations (60-97%) for a paid three-week field experience supported by an NSF Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences grant. In 2006, the field experiences focused on volcanic events and the water problems of the Central part of Mexico. In 2008, the field experiences focused on karstic and hydrogeological conditions of the Yucatan Peninsula. In addition to the geological aspects of the fieldwork experience, the trip to Mexico exposed the teachers to a social environment outside of their community where they interacted with a diverse group of scientists from the Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY) and Centro Nacional de Desastres (CENAPRED). A key part of this project was the encounter between American and Mexican teachers that included a day of presentations, panel discussion and some class-room activities. Direct interaction between the cooperating teachers and the American and Mexican geoscientists provided actual scientific research experiences to educate and to help dispel misconceptions the teachers themselves may have had about who geoscientists really are and what they do. Teachers of the 2006 group produced educational materials from their field experiences and presented these materials at professional conferences. We measured the efficacy of these activities quantitatively via pre- and post-tests assessing confidence levels, preconceptions and biases, NIU staff observations of participants in their home institutions, and evaluations of participants' field books and pedagogical materials. We present these data here and identify specific activities that are both effective and efficient in changing teacher behaviours and attitudes enabling them to better connect with their Hispanic students in their Geoscience classrooms. Post experience activities of the 2008 group will build on these results.

Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Kitts, K. B.; Velazquez Oliman, G.; Perry, E. C.



Effects of alloying elements on defect structures in the incubation period for void swelling in austenitic stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron lifetime measurements were used to study the effects of alloying elements on the defect structure during the incubation period for void swelling in several fcc model alloys. Pure Ni, four model alloys (Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Mn-Si and Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Mn-Si-Ti), and four commercial alloys (SUS316LSS, SUS316SS, SUS304SS and Ti added modified SUS316SS) were irradiated with electrons and neutrons. Even at 363 and 573 K to a dose of 0.2 dpa, an effect of alloying elements was observed. At 363 K irradiation, voids were formed only in Ni and Fe-Cr-Ni. At 573 K irradiation, voids were formed in Ni and all model alloys, though the concentration depended on the alloying elements. In commercial alloys, precipitates were formed instead of vacancy clusters, which prevented void growth.

Horiki, M.; Yoshiie, T.; Huang, S. S.; Sato, K.; Cao, X. Z.; Xu, Q.; Troev, T. D.



Planificación para la etapa final de la vida

Información para pacientes, sus familiares y amigos sobre el cuidado del paciente terminal, la planificación para el final de la vida, y la aflicción, el duelo y manejo de la pérdida de un ser querido.


Some Clinical and Immunological Observations on Domestic Animals Experimentally Infected with Toxoplasmosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven domestic animal species--including the cow (Bos taurus), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), camel (Camelus dromedarius), goat (Capra hircus), sheep (Ovis aries), pig (Sus scrofa) and the dog (Canis familiaris)--were experimentally infected with the Toxoplas...

B. A. M. Botros R. W. Moch I. S. Barsoum M. E. Kerkor S. M. Hanna



Tomografía computarizada (TC) y exploraciones para cáncer

Hoja informativa que describe el procedimiento y la tecnología de exploraciones con tomografía computarizada así como sus usos para el diagnóstico, para exámenes de detección y para tratamiento del cáncer.


Delicious Heart-Healthy Latino Recipes  


... Potassium 438 mg This nutritious treat will add color and joy to your celebrations. Platillos Latinos ¡Sabrosos ... Potasio 438 g Este postre nutritivo le dará color y alegría a sus fiestas y celebraciones. 60 ...


La quimioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Publicación para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo quimioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la quimioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


Perfil de Franklin Chang- Díaz de Franklin Chang-Díaz  

NASA Video Gallery

Franklin Chang-Díaz, el primer astronauta hispano de la NASA, habla sobre qué lo inspiró a trabajar con cohetes y convertirse en astronauta. Chang-Díaz alienta a los jóvenes para que sigan sus sueños.


Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens Associated with Feral Swine in Edwards Plateau and Gulf Prairies and Marshes Ecoregions of Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Feral swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) are spreading across North America at an alarming rate. Four Canadian provinces and 39 states within the continental United States now report standing populations of feral pigs. Estimates place the number of feral hogs ...

D. M. Sanders



Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud  


Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of ... su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por sus siglas en inglés), la Sociedad de ...


La radioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

E-book para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo radioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la radioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot  

NASA Video Gallery

impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...


Resultados de pruebas de laboratorio

Hoja informativa que describe la función de las pruebas de laboratorio en la detección y diagnóstico de enfermedades. Incluye una lista de las pruebas regulares que se usan en oncologïa y trata brevemente de cómo se interpretan sus resultados.


Experimental Investigation of the Detonation Properties of Hydrogen-Oxygen and Hydrogen-Nitric Oxide Mixtures at Initial Pressures up to 40 Atmospheres.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental investigations of detonation properties of hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-nitric oxide oxide mixtures at initial pressures up to 40 atmospheres are reported. It was found that theoretical and experimental detonation pressures in stable self sus...

J. N. Scott W. A. Strauss



Radiography of the Upper Extremity  


... de los tejidos blandos y artritis. El médico le pedirá este procedimiento cuando tenga una lesión en ... Paciente Antes de su examen, un técnico radiólogo le explicará el procedimiento y responderá a sus preguntas. ...


Sinus Series  


... Paciente Antes de su examen, un tecnólogo radiólogo le explicará el procedimiento y responderá a sus preguntas. ... y posicionamiento y procedimiento radiológicos. El tecnólogo radiólogo le pedirá que se saque los aros, collares, hebillas ...


Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 8 de noviembre de 2011

Le invitamos a que comparta esta publicación con sus amigos, familiares y colegas y nos ayude a continuar nuestra misión de difundir las investigaciones más recientes sobre la prevención, el tratamiento y la información del cáncer.


El cáncer

Información para mejorar sus conocimientos sobre el cáncer, que incluye las formas de prevenir el cáncer, la importancia de visitar al médico regularmente y hacerse exámenes de detección, y las diferentes opciones de tratamiento disponibles.



EPA Science Inventory

Bacteria adhere to food products and processing surfaces that can cross-contaminate other products and work surfaces (Arnold, 1998). Using materials for food processing surfaces that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety. Stainless steel, although sus...


Using Medicines Wisely  


... of Medicine Sepa cómo tomar sus medicamentos Use Medicines Wisely Print and Share (PDF 2.43MB) Medicines ... or foods should I avoid? 2. Keep a Medicine List Write down the important facts about each ...


Occurrence and distribution of sulfonylurea and related herbicides in central Canadian surface waters 2006-2008.  


Surface water sampling in 2006-2008 measured the occurrence of sulfonylureas and related herbicides (SUs) during base flow conditions and wet weather events. Flumetsulam (29.2%), diuron (36.5%) and fomesafen (25.3%) were most frequently detected over the course of the study. Typical SU concentrations were in the low parts per trillion range; however, maximum concentrations of fomesafen (873 ng/L), linuron (856 ng/L) and diuron (2,900 ng/L) approached or exceeded 1 ?g/L. The temporal trend in SUs showed a correlation with application periods. In general, detections of SUs were more frequent where rotation of row crops was more intense. Sampling during wet-weather events indicated potential for a range of SUs to be flushed into surface waters at relatively high concentrations. PMID:21792538

Struger, John; Grabuski, Josey; Cagampan, Steve; Rondeau, Myriam; Sverko, Ed; Marvin, Chris



Psoriasis (For Parents)  


... treatment doesn't work, another probably will. About Psoriasis Psoriasis (suh-RYE-uh-sus) is a non-contagious ... found on the scalp, knees, elbows, and torso. Psoriasis is a long-lasting (chronic) condition that can ...


Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.


Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer

No se puede negar que vivimos en una comunidad global, en la que los eventos de una ciudad o país pueden tener graves consecuencias para los residentes de otra ciudad o país a miles de kilómetros de distancia. Ya sea la pandemia del virus H1N1, los recientes disturbios en Irán o la recesión económica mundial, es evidente que esta interconectividad trae consigo retos importantes. Pero también puede crear oportunidades sin precedentes, en particular aquellas que podrían mejorar sustancialmente la salud pública.


Effect of carbon and nitrogen on grain boundary segregation in irradiated stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUS304 stainless steels with carbon contents of 0.052%, 0.019% and 0.004% and SUS316L stainless steels with nitrogen contents of 0.095%, 0.032% and 0.003% were irradiated with 12 MeV Ni ions at 573 K to a dose of 1 dpa at 1 ?m depth. Microstructure and grain boundary chemical composition were investigated using a transmission electron microscope with a field-emission-gun (FE-TEM)

F. Kano; K. Fukuya; S. Hamada; Y. Miwa



Effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening in stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening were studied in advance for predicting irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking. The specimens of SUS316 and SUS316L with several % plastic strains, which correspond to weld residual stress, were prepared by bending and keeping deformation under irradiation. Ion irradiations of 12MeV Ni3+ were performed at 330, 400 and 550oC to 45dpa. No bended

N. Okubo; Y. Miwa; K. Kondo; Y. Kaji



Biochemical Analysis of Interactions between Outer Membrane Proteins That Contribute to Starch Utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron  

Microsoft Academic Search

An early step in the utilization of starch by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is the binding of starch to the bacterial surface. Four starch-associated outer membrane proteins of B. thetaiotaomicron that have no starch- degrading activity have been identified. Two of these, SusC and SusD, have been shown by genetic analysis to be required for starch binding. In this study, we provide




The superconducting properties of MgB2\\/(stainless steel) tapes fabricated by the PIT process  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the superconducting properties of monofilament MgB2 tapes and wires with a stainless steel (SUS316) sheath. MgB2 powder was put into a SUS316 tube with a 6.5 mm diameter; the tube was cold-rolled into a wire with a 1.4 mm-1.0 mm diameter using groove-rolling and cassette roller dies and then cold-rolled into tapes. The stainless steel sheath is

A. Matsumoto; H. Hatakeyama; H. Kitaguchi; K. Togano; H. Kumakura



Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant sucrose synthase 1 from Solanum tuberosum L. for carbohydrate engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene sus1 from Solanum tuberosum L. encoding for sucrose synthase 1 was cloned into the plasmid pDR195 under the control of the PMA1 promotor. After transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 22574d sus1 was constitutively expressed giving a specific activity of 0.3Umg(-1) protein in the crude extract. A one-step purification by Q-Sepharose resulted in an 14-fold purified enzyme preparation in

U. Römer; Henning Schrader; N. Günther; Nadja Nettelstroth; Wolf B Frommer; Lothar Elling



Are Sulfonylureas Less Desirable Than DPP-4 Inhibitors as Add-on to Metformin in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfonylureas (SUs) are commonly used as add-on to metformin in treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients who are insufficiently\\u000a controlled by metformin alone. They have good efficacy and have been shown to prevent microvascular complications. However,\\u000a treatment with SUs is also associated with a high frequency of hypoglycemia, increased body weight, and a high risk of secondary\\u000a failure. During

Bo Ahrén



Suppressor of sable, a Putative RNA-Processing Protein, Functions at the Level of Transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila melanogaster su(s) gene product negatively regulates the expression of mutant alleles with transposon insertions in the 5-transcribed region by an unknown mechanism. We have investigated here su(s) function through in vivo structure-function analysis, heterologous reporter gene assays, and in vivo transcrip- tional induction experiments. We have shown that mutations of two arginine-rich motifs (ARMs), an acidic region, or

Yung-Shu Kuan; Paul Brewer-Jensen; Lillie L. Searles



Effect of slurry-coated LaSrMnO 3 on the electrical property of Fe–Cr alloy for metallic interconnect of SOFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of (La0.85Sr0.15)0.9MnO3 (LSM) coating layer on the electric properties of the Fe–16Cr alloy (SUS430) and Fecralloy® was examined in air. The LSM layer was coated on the Fe–Cr alloys by slurry-dipping process and was sintered at 1200 °C. When the LSM-coated SUS 430 was sintered in Ar atmosphere with H2, the phase separation of the LSM coating layer

Jong-Hee Kim; Rak-Hyun Song; Sang-Hoon Hyun



Design and evaluation of PZT thin-film micro-actuator for hard disk drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new thin-film PZT micro-actuator bonded to a stainless steel (SUS304) suspension for positioning a magnetic head for high-density hard disk devices has been designed, fabricated and investigated. This PZT micro-actuator in dual-stage serve system was made using a sol–gel technique deposited thin-film PZT and applying reactive ion etching processes to fabricate the micro-actuator. The SUS304 cantilever beam integrated with

Yang Jing; Jianbin Luo; Xiaoxing Yi; Xin Gu



Comparison of two sulfonylureas with high and low myocardial K ATP channel affinity on myocardial infarct size and metabolism in a rat model of type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Sulfonylureas (SUs) may impair outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Most experimental studies of the myocardial\\u000a effects of SU treatment are performed in non-diabetic models. We compared the effect of two widely used SUs, glibenclamide\\u000a (gb) and gliclazide (gc), with high and low myocardial KATP channel affinity, respectively, at therapeutic concentrations on infarct size, left ventricular (LV) function and

S. B. Kristiansen; B. Løfgren; J. M. Nielsen; N. B. Støttrup; E. S. Buhl; J. E. Nielsen-Kudsk; T. T. Nielsen; J. Rungby; A. Flyvbjerg; H. E. Bøtker



Caracterización de las Diatomitas de Río Seco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: La existencia de diatomita en la zona de R'o Seco (Piura, Perœ), ha llevado a los autores a realizar un estudio de sus propiedades f'sicas, qu'micas y mineral—gicas, con el objeto de determinar sus principales usos y aplicaciones. Para ello se han utilizado las t?cnicas de an‡lisis convencional, as' como microscop'a —ptica y electr—nica, difracci—n de rayos X y



Enhanced relapse prevention for bipolar disorder: a qualitative investigation of value perceived for service users and care coordinators  

PubMed Central

Background Enhanced relapse prevention (ERP) is a psychological intervention delivered by mental health professionals to help individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) recognise and manage early warning signs for mania and depression. ERP has an emerging evidence base and is recommended as good practice for mental health professionals. However, without highly perceived value to both those receiving (services users) or delivering it (health professionals), implementation will not occur. The aim of this study is to determine what values of ERP are perceived by service users (SUs) and mental health professionals (care coordinators, CCs) providing community case management. Methods A nested qualitative study design was employed as part of a randomised controlled trial of ERP. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sub-sample of 21 CCs and 21 SUs, and an iterative approach used to develop a framework of conceptual categories that was applied systematically to the data. Results The process of implementing and receiving ERP was valued by both SUs and CCs for three similar sets of reasons: improved understanding of BD (where a knowledge deficit of BD was perceived), enhanced working relationships, and improved ways of managing the condition. There were some differences in the implications these had for both CCs and SUs who also held some reservations. Conclusion CCs and SUs perceive similar value in early warning signs interventions to prevent relapse, and these have particular benefits to them. If this perceived value is maintained, CCs and SUs in routine practice may use ERP long-term.

Pontin, Eleanor; Peters, Sarah; Lobban, Fiona; Rogers, Anne; Morriss, Richard K



Soybean Yield and Heterodera glycines Responses to Liquid Swine Manure in Nematode Suppressive Soil and Conducive Soil.  


The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major factor limiting soybean yield. Experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 to determine the effects of liquid swine manure and chemical fertilizer PK on soybean and corn yields, and on SCN population in an SCN-suppressive field (S-Site) and an SCN-conducive field (C-Site) in Minnesota. The experiment was a split-plot design with crop sequences as main plots and fertilizer treatments as subplots. The 2-yr crop sequences were Sus-Sus, Res-Sus, and Corn-Sus, where Sus was SCN-susceptible soybean, and Res was SCN-resistant soybean. The fertilizer treatments were manure, PK, and a nonfertilizer as control. Manure did not reduce SCN egg population density but resulted in 31% lower SCN second-stage juvenile (J2) population density at the S-Site at 45 d after planting (DAP) in 2009. Manure also reduced spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus spp.) population density by 52% compared with PK and nonfertilizer treatments at S-Site at 45 DAP in 2009. The crop sequence of Corn-Sus and Res-Sus reduced the SCN egg and J2 but increased spiral nematode population density at both sites. An increase of 1.4 Mg/ha and 0.5 Mg/ha in yield of susceptible soybean was observed in manure and PK treatments, respectively, at the C-Site in 2009. Corn yield was 2.8 Mg/ha and 5.0 Mg/ha greater when treated with manure than nonfertilizer at the S-Site and C-Site, respectively. This study suggests that soil fertility management may be a useful strategy to alleviate the SCN damage to soybean. PMID:23589656

Bao, Yong; Chen, Senyu; Vetsch, Jeffery; Randall, Gyles



Altered hippocampal function before emotional trauma in rats susceptible to PTSD-like behaviors.  


Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs after experiencing a traumatic event. Susceptibility to PTSD exists, as only some trauma-exposed individuals develop this condition. Investigating susceptibilities in animal models can contribute to understanding the etiology of the disorder. We previously reported an animal model which allows reliable pre-classification of rats as susceptible (Sus) or resistant (Res) to developing a PTSD-like phenotype after a later trauma. Here we report that Sus, compared to Res, rats have altered hippocampal function, along the septo-temporal axis, prior to experiencing a traumatic event. In Experiment I, Res and Sus rats explored a novel box twice. Using a cellular imaging method for assessing plasticity-related immediate-early gene expression in large neuronal ensembles, Arc/Homer1a catFISH, we show that Sus rats have smaller vCA3 ensembles during the second exploration. This suppressed vCA3 activation in Sus rats was not due to a difference in exploratory behavior, or to a difference in Arc/Homer1a expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). BLA is a main source of inputs to vCA3, but both the ensemble size and overlap of BLA ensembles activated during the two explorations was similar to that of Res rats. Additionally, Sus rats had significant 'infidelity' in their dorsal hippocampal representations of the second event: a lower overlap, compared to Res rats, of Arc/Homer1a-expressing ensembles activated during the two explorations (the size of the ensembles were similar to those of Res rats). These differences were revealed only in conditions of relatively low stress, because they were not observed when Sus and Res rats experienced fear conditioning (Experiment II). Combined, the findings show that altered hippocampal function exists before experiencing emotional trauma in susceptible rats and suggest that this is a risk factor for PTSD. PMID:24583372

Nalloor, Rebecca; Bunting, Kristopher M; Vazdarjanova, Almira



A robust cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation in cognitive radio networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology that brings about remarkable improvement in spectrum utilization. To tackle the hidden terminal problem, cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) which benefits from the spatial diversity has been studied extensively. Since CSS is vulnerable to the attacks initiated by malicious secondary users (SUs), several secure CSS schemes based on Dempster-Shafer theory have been proposed. However, the existing works only utilize the current difference of SUs, such as the difference in SNR or similarity degree, to evaluate the trustworthiness of each SU. As the current difference is only one-sided and sometimes inaccurate, the statistical information contained in each SU's historical behavior should not be overlooked. In this article, we propose a robust CSS scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation. It is carried out in four successive steps, which are basic probability assignment (BPA), trustworthiness degree calculation, selection and adjustment of BPA, and combination by Dempster-Shafer rule, respectively. Our proposed scheme evaluates the trustworthiness degree of SUs from both current difference aspect and historical behavior aspect and exploits Dempster-Shafer theory's potential to establish a `soft update' approach for the reputation value maintenance. It can not only differentiate malicious SUs from honest ones based on their historical behaviors but also reserve the current difference for each SU to achieve a better real-time performance. Abundant simulation results have validated that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing ones under the impact of different attack patterns and different number of malicious SUs.

Wang, Jinlong; Feng, Shuo; Wu, Qihui; Zheng, Xueqiang; Xu, Yuhua; Ding, Guoru



[Female stress urinary incontinence first line surgical treatment].  


The sub uretral slings (SUS) have supplanted all other techniques in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in first-line both at ease, results, consequences and cost. However the results are comparable with the abdominal retropubic colposuspension. The elective indication for BSU is stress incontinence. In the mixed incontinence, the results are satisfactory and depend on the degree of urge incontinence. The intrinsic sphincter deficiency with mobile uretra can be used in indications laying BSU. Only a BMI ? 35 is a pejorative factor on the outcome of the SUS. Currently, all routes retro pubic or obturator may be used without one being superior to another. For lack of comparative studies, using mini strips is currently under reserve. No recommendation can be given regarding the installation of urinary catheter in per and post operative. The relevance of cystoscopy for all routes used with the SUS is not formal. The SUS can be raised as an outpatient, but the patient must choose. It is the same type of anesthesia that is free and does not affect the results. The peri-urethral injections have no place as first choice because they offer a lower success rate. The SUS should be knitted polypropylene monofilament. Users should require the manufacturer that implants meet the AFNOR standard. PMID:20141918

Debodinance, P; Hermieu, J-F; Lucot, J-P



Fabrication of Stainless Steel Mold Using Electrochemical Fabrication Method for Microfluidic Biochip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imprinting method mechanically transfers patterns from a stamp onto a substrate. In imprinting process, the mold is one of the most important factors. A new micro fabrication method termed electrochemical fabrication (ECF) is introduced to overcome conventional problems of electrical discharge machining (EDM), FeCl3 Wet etching, laser method, electro plating, such as low reliability and reproducibility, high cost. This ECF method defines micro patterns using a conventional photolithography, allowing it to produce micro-scale patterns with an excellent surface roughness and of excellent quality. In this paper, a 150 mm stainless steel (SUS 304, 5 mm in thickness) mold was fabricated using both ECF method and FeCl3-etchant method, respectively. As a result, the ECF mold resulted 10 times better surface roughness values than that of mold using FeCl3 etchant. Also, metal surface of the ECF-SUS mold was cleaner and smoother than that the FeCl3 etched SUS mold. Therefore, SUS mold was successfully fabricated for the first time in micro-scale and multi-step patterns. Plastic replica was fabricated successfully using the ECF-SUS mold.

Cho, Min-Soo; Lim, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Cho, Byung-Ki; Park, Jin-Goo



Effects of sulfonylurea drugs on adiponectin production from 3T3-L1 adipocytes: implication of different mechanism from pioglitazone.  


Adiponectin is a fat-derived cytokine with anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic properties. In this study, effects of sulfonylureas (SUs) on adiponectin production and the action mechanism were evaluated using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The cells were incubated with glimepiride, glibenclamide, gliclazide, pioglitazone, metformin and the medium only as the control. In the control, the adiponectin level evaluated as the production rate per 24 h was not changed, while pioglitazone significantly increased the adiponectin level. SUs also increased the adiponectin level, but metformin failed to show any increase in adiponectin production. SUs induced adiponectin gene expression as well as pioglitazone. Pioglitazone significantly increased adipogenesis, but glimepiride did not. The aP2 gene expression was increased by pioglitazone, but not by glimepiride. Forskolin, a protein kinase A stimulator, reduced the adiponectin production stimulated by glimepiride but not by pioglitazone. These observations strongly suggest that SUs stimulate the adiponectin production through a different mechanism from pioglitazone, namely an interaction with protein kinase A activity. The significance of the extrapancreatic action of SUs observed in this study should be further evaluated in the clinical field. PMID:18455831

Kanda, Yukiko; Matsuda, Masafumi; Tawaramoto, Kazuhito; Kawasaki, Fumiko; Hashiramoto, Mitsuru; Matsuki, Michihiro; Kaku, Kohei



[The participation of users, workers and counselors of health: a qualitative study].  


This is a qualitative approach research that aimed to analyze the effectiveness and the resoluteness of SUS actions as well as the satisfaction of the users. The units analyzed were a community and the Municipal Health Council of Florianópolis city. All data were collected through documental analysis, interview and participative observation. The sources for the data were: official documents and field observation record; community residents (subjects and families users of SUS), health workers and the Municipal Health Counselors. The results shows different understanding of health among the three classes of subjects, as well as the distance between practices and the referential professed within the Family Health Strategies. The council shows deficiencies in its organization, referral of deliberations, composition and representativeness, and the role of the counselor and its relationship with the entity represented. The public participation and the social control as essential conditions for the effectiveness of SUS proposals, still remain as an expectation and a big challenge. PMID:20464196

Grisotti, Márcia; Patrício, Zuleica Maria; Silva, Andréia da



Symbol Error Rate of Underlay Cognitive Relay Systems over Rayleigh Fading Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underlay cognitive systems allow secondary users (SUs) to access the licensed band allocated to primary users (PUs) for better spectrum utilization with the power constraint imposed on SUs such that their operation does not harm the normal communication of PUs. This constraint, which limits the coverage range of SUs, can be offset by relaying techniques that take advantage of shorter range communication for lower path loss. Symbol error rate (SER) analysis of underlay cognitive relay systems over fading channel has not been reported in the literature. This paper fills this gap. The derived SER expressions are validated by simulations and show that underlay cognitive relay systems suffer a high error floor for any modulation level.

Ho van, Khuong; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc


Starch Catabolism by a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Is Directed by the Recognition of Amylose Helices  

SciTech Connect

The human gut microbiota performs functions that are not encoded in our Homo sapiens genome, including the processing of otherwise undigestible dietary polysaccharides. Defining the structures of proteins involved in the import and degradation of specific glycans by saccharolytic bacteria complements genomic analysis of the nutrient-processing capabilities of gut communities. Here, we describe the atomic structure of one such protein, SusD, required for starch binding and utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent adaptive forager of glycans in the distal human gut microbiota. The binding pocket of this unique {alpha}-helical protein contains an arc of aromatic residues that complements the natural helical structure of starch and imposes this conformation on bound maltoheptaose. Furthermore, SusD binds cyclic oligosaccharides with higher affinity than linear forms. The structures of several SusD/oligosaccharide complexes reveal an inherent ligand recognition plasticity dominated by the three-dimensional conformation of the oligosaccharides rather than specific interactions with the composite sugars.

Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J. (WU); (Danforth)



[Considerations on the Sistema Único de Saúde in the twenty-first century: an interview with Lígia Bahia].  


This interview with Lígia Bahia explores evaluations of the first 25 years of Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and analyzes the project's progress, impasses, and missteps. Bahia is critical of both tendencies currently found within SUS: the one that sees the system as aimed at equity and the other posing equality as its goal. She criticizes the ambivalence that various spheres of government have displayed in their decisions regarding large corporate groups and private health insurance plans, which conflict with the ideas of SUS. She evaluates the participation of doctors and other healthcare professionals in the system. Lastly, she analyzes the emergence of identity politics, which are missing from the public health reform project, whose emphasis was on equality. PMID:24789487

Bahia, Lígia; Cueto, Marcos; Benchimol, Jaime; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio; Cerqueira, Roberta C



Starch catabolism by a prominent human gut symbiont is directed by the recognition of amylose helices  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The human gut microbiota performs functions that are not encoded in our H. sapiens genome including the processing of otherwise undigestible dietary polysaccharides. Defining the structures of proteins involved in import and degradation of specific glycans by saccharolytic bacteria complements genomic analysis of the nutrient processing capabilities of gut communities. Here we describe the atomic structure of one such protein, SusD, required for starch binding and utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent adaptive forager of glycans in the distal human gut microbiota. The binding pocket of this unique ?-helical protein contains an arc of aromatic residues that complements the natural helical structure of starch and imposes this conformation on bound maltoheptaose. Further, SusD binds cyclic oligosaccharides with higher affinity than linear forms. The structures of several SusD/oligosaccharide complexes reveal an inherent ligand recognition plasticity dominated by the three-dimensional conformation of the oligosaccharides rather than specific interactions with the composite sugars.

Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.



Análisis de abundancias de estrellas ? Sct  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las estrellas ? Sct se encuentran en la parte inferior de la franja de inestabilidad, su tipo espectral está entre A y F y sus luminosidades se extienden entre la Secuencia Principal y 2 magnitudes por encima de ella. Sus períodos son menores que 0d.3 y sus amplitudes varían entre milésimas y décimas de magnitud. En este trabajo se realiza un análisis detallado de las abundancias de un grupo de estrellas ? Sct observadas en el CASLEO con el espectrógrafo REOSC. Este trabajo forma parte de un proyecto destinado a estudiar las relaciones existentes entre los parámetros de pulsación (período y amplitudes) y parámetros físicos tales como velocidad de rotación, temperatura efectiva, metalicidades de este tipo de estrellas.

Solano, E.; Pintado, O. I.


Tensile Properties, Ferrite Contents, and Specimen Heating of Stainless Steels in Cryogenic Gas Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed tensile tests at cryogenic temperatures below 77 K and in helium gas environment for SUS 304L and SUS 316L in order to obtain basic data of mechanical properties of the materials for liquid hydrogen tank service. We evaluate tensile curves, tensile properties, ferrite contents, mode of deformation and/or fracture, and specimen heating during the testing at 4 to 77 K. For both SUS 304L and 316L, tensile strength shows a small peak around 10 K, and specimen heating decreases above 30 K. The volume fraction of ?-phase increases continuously up to 70 % with plastic strain, at approximately 15 % plastic strain for 304L and up to 35 % for 316L. There was almost no clear influence of testing temperature on strain-induced martensitic transformation at the cryogenic temperatures.

Ogata, T.; Yuri, T.; Ono, Y.



Porosity reduction in Nd YAG laser welding of stainless steel and inconel alloy by using a pulsed wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the influence of the Nd-YAG laser power wave mode on the porosity and mechanical properties of SUS 304L and inconel 690 weldments. Initially, a rectangular laser power waveform is specified. The output is then progressively changed from a pulsed wave mode to a continuous wave mode by reducing the value of ?P (?P = Pp-Pb, where Pp is the peak power and Pb is the base power) to zero. Bead-on-plate (BOP) and butt welding are performed at a constant mean output power (1.7 kW). The BOP results demonstrate that the depth/width (D/W) ratio of both materials increases with ?P and attains a maximum value when full penetration just occurs. The D/W ratio and the travel speed for full penetration are higher for SUS 304L than for inconel 690. In butt-welds of inconel 690 and SUS 304L, the porosity ratio decreases from 7.1% to 0.5% and from 2.1% to 0.5%, respectively, as ?P increases from 0 to 2780 W. Therefore, the tensile strength and percentage elongation are enhanced significantly in inconel 690. The degree of porosity reduction in inconel 690 exceeds that of SUS 304L. This suggests that the viscosity of the molten inconel 690 metal is higher than that of SUS 304L. Consequently, the effect of porosity reduction due to the increase in molten metal fluidity caused by increasing ?P is greater for inconel 690 than for SUS 304L.

Kuo, T. Y.; Jeng, S. L.



Metal elution from Ni- and Fe-based alloy reactors under hydrothermal conditions.  


Elution of metals from Ni- and Fe-based alloy (i.e. Inconel 625 and SUS 316) under hydrothermal conditions was investigated. Results showed that metals could be eluted even in a short contact time. At subcritical conditions, a significant amount of Cr was extracted from SUS 316, while only traces of Ni, Fe, Mo, and Mn were eluted. In contrast, Ni was removed in significant amounts compared to Cr when Inconel 625 was tested. Several factors including temperature and contact time were found to affect elution behavior. The presence of air in the fluid even promoted elution under subcritical conditions. PMID:15120875

Faisal, Muhammad; Quitain, Armando T; Urano, Shin-Ya; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi



La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.


Using inverse theory and seabeam bathymetry to improve seismic refraction data corrections  

Microsoft Academic Search

An array consisting of ocean bottom seismometer and on-bottom hydrophones, was used to conduct a seismic experiment on 0.4 Ma crust east of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Seismic sources were large (>50 kg) explosive charges detonated by SUS devices set to explode at 1829 or 2438 m nominal depth. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the compressional

M. Poujol; R. S. Jacobson



Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation...

J. J. Mayer



Articulation Research System: A New Direction in Curriculum Evaluation. User's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This user's manual explains the Articulation Research System (ARS), which was created by Santa Fe Community College, and its database. As introductory material notes, the ARS was designed to: (1) follow former community college students through their bachelor's degree programs in the Florida State University System (SUS); (2) compare student…

Gilbert, Russell; Delaino, G. Thomas


Argon plasma coagulation of hemorrhagic solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.  


Solitary ulcer syndrome (SUS) is a rare disorder that may provoke hematochezia. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is used in a wide range of gastrointestinal bleeding. We experienced APC in a patient with a bleeding gigantic SUS: a 64-year-old woman who developed a SUS at 60. After 3 years, recurrent hematochezia, secondary anemia, and rectal pain occurred. Endoscopy revealed a large rectal bleeding ulcer. Moreover, the pain led the patient to assume analgesics. These conditions stimulated us to treat this ulcer with APC within 4 sessions; each session spaced out at 30-day intervals. The patient experienced and maintained the following benefits: (1) resolution of bleeding and secondary anemia after the first session, (2) reduction of ulcer depth, disappearance of pain and analgesic withdrawal at the end of the cycle, (3) almost complete endoscopic healing of the ulcer after 9 months of follow-up. This experience suggests that APC may represent a therapeutic approach for bleeding SUS even if controlled studies are necessary before recommending it as acceptable treatment. PMID:14564186

Stoppino, Vincenzo; Cuomo, Rosario; Tonti, Paolo; Gentile, Marco; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Muscatiello, Nicola; Panella, Carmine; Ierardi, Enzo



Sustainable Trail Management in Costa Rica National Parks: The use of photography for trail surfacing decisions under tropical rainforest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: El Parque Nacional Volcán Poas (PNVP) es el parque mas visitado de Costa Rica. Sus facilidades físicas, accesibilidad, y su proximidad a las mayores ciudades del país hacen del PNVP un destino preferido por visitantes locales y extranjeros. Ademas de su cono volcánico activo, los senderos del parque son muy apreciados. Las condiciones lluviosas que prevalecen a través del

Juan A Aguirre



Determinantes de las visitas a los parques y jardines urbanos: aplicación de un modelo de gravedad\\/Determinants of the Visits to Urban Parks: A Gravity Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo que se presenta pretende modelizar el comportamiento de los ciudadanos en sus visitas a los parques y jardines de las ciudades. Para ello se utiliza una herramienta desarrollada en otras áreas de la economía, pero inédita en el campo de la recreación en zonas verdes urbanas. En concreto se aplica la \\




Las unidades habitacionales y la vivienda en la ciudad de Morelia: apropiación de los espacios abiertos  

Microsoft Academic Search

La apropiación del espacio libre en las unidades habitacionales, genera conflicto y tensión social, por los habitantes- usuarios que crean y desarrollan una cultura urbana; expresada en sus vivencias, que van de lo individual a lo colectivo, de lo privado a lo público; haciendo de los espacios abiertos un lugar diferente. Los habitantes- usuarios buscan la identificación con su espacio,

Pedro Lina Manjares; Ana Rosa Velasco Ávalos



Session 5: Hot Topics in In Vitro Toxicology. Long-Term Effects, Hormonal Effects, Endocrine Disrupters Endocrine disrupters —testing strategies to assess human hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade an hypothesis has been developed linking certain chemicals (natural and synthetic) to observed and sus- pected adverse effects on reproduction in both wildlife and humans. The issue of 'endocrine disruption' originally focused on che- micals that mimic the action of the natural hormone oestrogen. However, the concern is now encompassing effects on the whole endocrine system.

V. A. Baker


Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) diagnosed by direct conventional multiplex PCR: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report three pigeons euthanized in a small household breeding facility, where there was sus - picion of an avian tuberculosis outbreak. For rapid identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium direct conventional multiplex PCR was used. Nodular lesions were found on the livers of all three birds, the intestine of one bird and the kidney and ovaries of another. The

P. Kriz; I. Slan; V. Mrlik; M. Moravkova; A. Kralova; K. Krizova; I. Pavlik



Master's Degrees in the State University System of Florida. Information Brief. Volume 6, Issue 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A master's degree is a postbaccalaureate academic degree awarded after one to three years of full-time academic study. The State University System (SUS) of Florida offers master's degree programs in a variety of disciplines and at all universities, with the exception of New College. Students travel to Florida from throughout the world to earn…

Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2008



Participação social nos serviços de saúde: concepções dos usuários e líderes comunitários em dois municípios do Nordeste do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social participation in management of the health care system at different levels of government is one of the key policies promoted by the Unified National Health System (SUS) in Brazil. As with any new policy, success hinges on several factors such as stakeholders' interests and opinions, which have not always been considered in the past. This paper analyzes the un-

María Luisa Vázquez; Maria Rejane Ferreira da Silva; Eliane Siqueira Campos; Ilma Kruze Grande de Arruda; Alcides da Silva Diniz; Ida Leite Veras; Ana Paula Campos Pereira



YAG laser micro welding of stainless steel and shape memory alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the applicability of laser micro welding to the fabrication of medical devices, SUS304 stainless steel and Ti-Ni based shape memory alloy biomaterials wires were micro spot melted by using YAG laser. By the optimization of laser conditions such as laser power or pulse duration, sound spot melted wires free from any defects were prepared and the

Keisuke Uenishi; Masanori Seki; Takeshi Kunimasa; Masaya Takatsugu; Kojiro F. Kobayashi; Takeshi Ikeda; Akihiro Tsuboi



Micro welding of ultra thin metal foil using Yb-fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study was performed to determine the welding conditions for sound welding, efficiency and process of bead formation using Yb fiber laser for ultra thin metal foil (SUS304, thickness: 10~60mum). The influence of assist gas was investigated by the measurement of bead width at different gas flow rate and the conditions of keyhole welding was estimated with metal foil. Relationship

Seo-jeong Park; Etsuji Ohmura; Isamu Miyamoto



Anode mode in cathodic arc deposition apparatus with various cathodes and ambient gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anode mode of a vacuum arc in a cathodic arc deposition apparatus was observed as a function of ambient gas pressure ranging from 0.01 to 300 Pa. The chamber (400 mm in diameter and 600 mm in length) made of stainless steel (SUS304) acted as the anode. The arc was operated at a relatively low constant current of 50

R. Miyano; T Saito; K Kimura; M Ikeda; H Takikawa; T Sakakibara



Distinct Sets of Genetic Alterations in Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Exposure to ultraviolet light is a major causative factor in melanoma, although the re- lationship between risk and exposure is complex. We hypothesized that the clinical heterogeneity is explained by genetically distinct types of melanoma with different sus- ceptibility to ultraviolet light. methods We compared genome-wide alterations in the number of copies of DNA and mutational status of BRAF

John A. Curtin; Jane Fridlyand; Toshiro Kageshita; Hetal N. Patel; Klaus J. Busam; Heinz Kutzner; Kwang-Hyun Cho; Setsuya Aiba; Eva-Bettina Bröcker; Philip E. LeBoit; Dan Pinkel; Boris C. Bastian



Florida Board of Governors Degree Planning and Projection Model for the State University System. Report of Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North Highland conducted a six (6) week study with support from the Florida Department of Education, Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida (ICUF), Division of Community Colleges, and the Board of Governors (BOG) to forecast and analyze the State University System's (SUS) plans for degree production through 2013-2014. The primary goal…

Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2004



66. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 6 FROM SOUTHEAST SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, AND 8. THREE KIVAS (LEFT - SUS - KATZ - HOUSE NO. 3, CENTER MAU-HA-ROTZ - HOUSE NO. 5, RIGHT - HY-ME-TA-TIES - HOUSE NO. 8) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM


Sustained Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias Following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Comparing Mammary Versus Saphenous vein Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study was designed to determine the incidence of sus tained supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVTs) in patients undergoing coro nary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts, Group A, compared with those with saphenous vein grafts (SVG), Group B.Among 569 consecutive patients who underwent CABG surgery in the same institution, a total of 80 cases from Group

Bakr I. Salem; Abdul Chaudhry; Maged Haikal; Siddhesh Gowda; Amy Campbell; Cordie Coordes; Ronad Leidenfrost



OBTENCIÓN DE OLEORRESINAS A PARTIR DE 3 ESPECIES DE CAPSICUM sp. CULTIVADAS EN COLOMBIA (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. RESUMEN El ají es un cultivo de importancia en Colombia con una gran perspectiva en el crecimiento de sus áreas para el mercado de agro exportación. La oleorresina es el extracto líquido del fruto maduro seco de pimientos Capsicum que contiene una mezcla compleja de aceites esenciales, ceras, materiales coloreados y capsaicinoides. Se obtiene en forma de aceite, con

L. Rodríguez; J. Arango; F. Urrego


Development of High Temperature Type Vacuum Insulation Panel using Soluble Polyimide and Characteristic Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization is expected from the high-insulated characteristic as a tool for energy saving also in the high temperature insulation fields as in vacuum insulation panels (VIP) in the future. For high temperature, the material composition and process of VIP were reviewed, the SUS foil was adopted as packaging material, and soluble polyimide was developed as the thermo compression bonding

Kuninari Araki; Daigorou Kamoto; Shin-Ichi Matsuoka



Evaluation of Feral Swine Specific Feeder Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral swine (Sus scrofa) have been introduced across many portions of the globe, including rangeland ecosystems of the United States. Feral swine populations are expanding because of their adaptability, high reproductive potential, and because they are (accidentally and intentionally) released by humans. Today, feral swine are the most abundant exotic ungulate in the United States. Rangeland ecosystems are impacted by

David B. Long; Tyler A. Campbell; Giovanna Massei



Prediction System of Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) on the Internal Surface of a Cylindrical Tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study mainly used magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) to explore a stainless steel SUS304 cylindrical tube related to the processing characteristic and the prediction system. The self-made adjustable electricity polishing mechanism was assembled on a magnetic abrasive machine. The cylindrical stainless steel tube was filled with magnetic abrasive, which consisted of sintered iron and aluminum oxide powder. Magnetic abrasive in

Ching-Lien Hung; Wei-Liang Ku; Lieh-Dai Yang



Prediction system of magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) on the internal surface of cylindrical tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study mainly used the way of the magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) to explore the cylindrical tube of stainless steel SUS304 related to the processing characteristic and the prediction system. The self-make adjustable electricity polishing mechanism was assembled on the magnetic abrasive machine. The magnetic abrasive which was consisted of the sintered iron and Aluminum Oxide powder filled in the

Ching-Lien Hung; Wei-Liang Ku; Lieh-Dai Yang; Han-Ming Chow



Imaginario Social: Una aproximación  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este texto presentamos una revisión, -a modo de ejercicio de reflexión colectiva-, de la extensa producción bibliográfica de Michel Maffesoli, buscando articular desde los supuestos presentes en su obra, la noción de imaginario social. Para comprender el contexto de producción de este sociólogo francés, hemos comenzado por hacer una breve revisión de sus principales trabajos e influencias teóricas. Posteriormente

Ricardo Espinoza; Raúl García; Martín Holzknecht; Carolina Jiménez



EPA Science Inventory

The goals of the CCEH in the next five years are to: (1) better understand the mechanisms by which environmental, immunologic, and molecular factors interact to influence the risk and severity of autism; (2) identify early immunologic, environmental, and genomic markers of sus...


Los medios de comunicación y las violaciones de los derechos humanos en el área de conflicto  

Microsoft Academic Search

La autora, que actualmente es una refugiada política en Austria, relata su trabajo como periodista palestina en las áreas conflictivas de Israel. Sus experiencias revelan las violaciones de Derechos Humanos y el genocidio cometido por las fuerzas armadas israelíes. Este artículo no sólo condena al estado de Israel sino que también cuestiona la falta de compromiso de los Estados Unidos

Kawther Salam



Adopción Internacional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este Digest examina la adopción internacional como una de las soluciones posibles para aquellos niños que no pueden vivir con sus familias. Los documentos internacionales, generalmente aceptados, especifican las condiciones en las cuales se debe llevar a cabo la adopción internacional si se pretende proteger y respetar plenamente los derechos y el interés superior de los niños implicados en dicho



Conflictes armats i drets civils  

Microsoft Academic Search

En 1995 las Naciones Unidas ratificaban un protocolo sobre la RESPONSABILIDAD DE PROTEGER ante la pasividad internacional en muchos conflictos. En 2005 el Gobierno Español se mostraba dispuesto a participar activamente en la defensa de la población civil en caso de violación de sus derechos. En los últimos 50 años los conflictos del mundo han generado una gran cantidad de

Joaquim Alsina



[The Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified National Health System: a performance evaluation for auditing maternal near miss].  


This study aimed to investigate the performance of the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SIH-SUS) in identifying cases of maternal near miss in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2008. Cases were identified by reviewing medical records of pregnant and postpartum women admitted to the hospital. The search for potential near miss events in the SIH-SUS database relied on a list of procedures and codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) that were consistent with this diagnosis. The patient chart review identified 27 cases, while 70 potential occurrences of near miss were detected in the SIH-SUS database. However, only 5 of 70 were "true cases" of near miss according to the chart review, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 18.5% (95%CI: 6.3-38.1), specificity of 94.3% (95%CI: 92.8-95.6), area under the ROC of 0.56 (95%CI: 0.48-0.63), and positive predictive value of 10.1% (IC95%: 4.7-20.3). These findings suggest that SIH-SUS does not appear appropriate for monitoring maternal near miss. PMID:23843001

Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Mendes-Silva, Wallace; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Reichenheim, Michael E; Lobato, Gustavo



Los premiados con el nobel de economía, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como docente en economía quiero hacer un breve y atrevido comentario. a raíz del otorgamiento del Premio Nobel de Economía 1993 a los profesores Douglas C. North y Robert W. Fogel de las Universidades de Washington (Sant Louis) y Chicago respectivamente, por sus investigaciones en el área de la Historia Económica. La primera opinión expresada por el profesor Douglas al

Hugo Silva S



Patrones locales de cambio globales: efectos de la emigración en el cambio de uso de suelo en el centro de México. El caso de la cuenca del Lago de Cuitzeo, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad existen notables desplazamientos de personas, ocasionados por la pobreza, las guerras, la degradación del medio ambiente, etc., en el planeta más de 125 millones de seres humanos viven fuera de sus países de origen. En este trabajo se describen las implicaciones de la migración sobre el cambio de cobertura y uso del terreno. El caso de estudio

Erna López; Gerardo Bocco



Effect of gun current on the microstructure and crystallinity of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioactive material because its chemical structure is close to the natural bone. Its bioactive properties make it attractive material in biomedical applications. Gas tunnel type plasma spraying (GTPS) technique was employed in the present study to deposit HA coatings on SUS 304 stainless steel substrate. GTPS is composed of two plasma sources: gun which produces internal

M. F. Morks; A. Kobayashi



Tratamiento cognitivo-conductual para niños mexicanos con fobia social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participaron 17 niños, entre 7 y 12 años, con fobia social asignados aleatoriamente a 3 condiciones: (a) niños bajo el protocolo Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social (IAFS; Olivares, 2005), (b) el mismo protocolo a los niños e información a sus padres sobre el trastorno, y (c) lista de espera. En evaluaciones de pretest, postest, 3 y 6 meses después,

Flor Gil-Bernal; Laura Hernández-Guzmán



Insect succession on a decomposing piglet carcass placed in a man-made freshwater pond in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This entomological study was conducted in a man-made freshwater pond in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor from 23 July 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model. A 1.5 month old piglet (5 kg), which died of asphyxia after being accidentally crushed by its mother, was thrown into a pond. Observation was made for ten

Heo Chong Chin; Mohamad Abdullah Marwi; John Jeffery; Baharudin Omar



Correlación entre la estructura de bandas y las propiedades físicas de óxidos cerámicos de estructura perovskita con metales de transición (I): Propiedades de conducción electrónica  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se revisa los principales modelos teóricos, que pretenden dar una explicación sobre las propiedades de con- ducción electrónica de óxidos cerámicos con estructura perovskita, que incluyen en la posición B metales de transición del primer período (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn), en conexión con su estructura de bandas y el carácter de sus electrones más externos, así como



76 FR 3307 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...120 Class 3--Definitions. * * * * * (c) * * * (1) * * * (i) For a homogeneous, single-phase, liquid having a viscosity less than 45 S.U.S. at 38 [deg]C (100 [deg]F) that does not form a surface film while under test, one of...



21 CFR 178.3910 - Surface lubricants used in the manufacture of metallic articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...68608-26-4) derived from naphthenic oil having a Saybolt viscosity range of 500-600 Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS at 37-8...ASTM method D88-81, âStandard Test Method for Saybolt Viscosity,â which is incorporated by reference. Copies...



21 CFR 173.340 - Defoaming agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...weight after heating 4 hours at 200 °C; viscosity 300 to 1,050 centistokes at 25 °C...oxyethylene)-poly(oxypropylene)glycol Viscosity range, 4,850-5,350 Saybolt Universal...SUS) at 37.8 °C (100 °F). The viscosity range is determined by the method...



Diseño de la cadena de suministro de los productos alimenticios que demanda la dirección de alimentación de la Universidad Central de Las Villas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Dirección de Alimentación de la Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas es la encargada de elaborar y abastecer los alimentos que se consumen en las diferentes dependencias que se destinan para el consumo. Dicha dirección adolece de un desempeño adecuado debido, entre otros aspectos, a la falta de integración, coordinación y racionalidad en sus procesos por carecer de

Manley Torriente Jackson




Microsoft Academic Search

La presente investigación pretende reflejar una plataforma teórica-metodológica en materia de cadenas agroalimentarias, que plantea la existencia de dos ámbitos de análisis: (a) la cadena agroalimentaria y sus correspondientes eslabones y agentes; y (b) las unidades territoriales en las cuales se localizan los diversos agentes productivos que forman parte de la cadena agroalimentaria. Referente al proceso metodológico, y con la

Francisco Bijarro Hernández; David López Cantú; Juan Carlos Gutiérrez Hernández; José Erik Villado Mejía



La intercoperación: una respuesta a las actuales demandas del cooperativismo agrario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las cooperativas agrarias son entidades que a lo largo de la historia han demostrado una gran capacidad generadora de bienestar y riqueza para el mundo rural, constituyendo en muchas ocasiones el motor fundamental de la vida económica y social en numerosos territorios, a la vez que el principal instrumento empresarial al servicio de sus habitantes. Con todo, los importantes cambios




Conceptos fundamentales del desarrollo de proveedores (Caso de negocios 13)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El desarrollo de proveedores es una actividad que enriquece la gestión de la cadena de suministro, dotándola de mayor valor a través del aporte mutuo entre empresas clientes y subcontratistas. Este aporte incluye nuevas tecnologías, know-how, herramientas de la calidad y organización del trabajo, además de negociaciones sobre la política de precios, entre otros temas. En este trabajo presentamos sus

Enrique Yacuzzi



El almacenamiento de energía eléctrica\\/Storage of Electrical Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

El almacenamiento de electricidad constituye una potente herramienta para la operación del sistema a la hora de maximizar la integración en el sistema eléctrico de la generación procedente de energías renovables. En este artículo se repasan las principales tecnologías de almacenamiento disponibles, sus distintas funcionalidades dentro de la cadena de suministro eléctrico y en especial aquellas relacionadas con la operación




Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se analizan las variables más comunes en los procesos administrativos de los hoteles Asotelco y Cotelco en la ciudad de Cartagena a partir de estudios realizados a sus trabajadores y tomando como metodología la aplicación del concepto de Clúster y conglomerados estadísticos. En la primera parte se muestra una introducción del concepto de clúster y su valiosa

Jorge Del Río Cortina; Osvaldo Blanquicett Lozano



Eliciting cryptomnesia: Unconscious plagiarism in a puzzle task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experimental results have shown fascinating dis- sociations between implicit (or indirect) tests of memory ver- sus explicit (or direct) ones (Roediger, 1990; Schacter, 1987). Implicit tasks such as word fragment completion and de- graded word identification demonstrate that people may use information from their past experience while reporting nei- ther awareness of that past nor a conscious attempt to

Richard L. Marsh; Gordon H. Bower



Introduction of block-wise use of TOPMODEL and Muskingum-Cunge method for the hydro- environmental simulation of a large ungauged basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the sustainable management of water quantity and quality, a hydrological model that can simulate the hydro-environmental dynamics of river basins at arbitrary locations is valuable. There are several streamflow simulation models suitable for such a purpose. Yet the lack of data commonly poses a serious problem for their application. This is a serious problem encountered for the sus­ tainable




Wolf predation and snow cover as mortality factors in the ungulate community of the Bialowie?a National Park, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolf-ungulate interactions were studied in the pristine deciduous and mixed forests of the Bialowieza National Park in 1985–1989. The study period included two severe and two mild winters. The community of ungulates inhabiting Bialowieza National Park consisted of red deer Cervus elaphus, 55% of all ungulates; wild boar Sus scrofa, 42%; and roe deer Capreolus capreolus, moose Alces alces, and

Wlodzimierz J?drzejewski; Bogumila J?drzejewska; Henryk Okarma; Andrzej L. Ruprecht



Presentación atípica de tuberculosis peritoneal: Caso clínico diagnosticado por laparoscopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of peritoneal tuberculosis has to be clinically sus - pected in all patients with abdominal pain of unknown etiology, particularly when it is accompanied by fever, ascites, and abdomi - nal distension. Access to the abdominal cavity using routine la - paroscopy provides essential information on the diagnosis, from both macroscopic images and biopsy sampling, which will later

J. M. Suárez Grau; C. Rubio Chaves; J. L. García Moreno; J. A. Martín Cartes; M. Socas Macías; J. M. Álamo Martínez; F. López Bernal; H. Cadet Dussort; M. Bustos Jiménez; J. D. Tutosaus Gómez; S. Morales Méndez



A land evaluation decision support system (MicroLEIS DSS) for agricultural soil protection: With special reference to the Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil protection requires the improvement of agricultural land use, its planning and its management, in order to achieve a sus- tainable development. Land evaluation analysis is considered an interface between land resources survey and land use planning and management. The application of information and communication technology has exerted an impact on sustainable land use decision support. Since the early 1990s

Diego de la Rosa; Francisco Mayol; Elvira Díaz-Pereira; Miguel Fernandez



Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sus­tainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...


The U.S. Experience in Promoting Sustainable Chemistry (9 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope. Recent developments in European chemicals policy, including the Registration, Evaluation and Au- thorization of Chemicals (REACH) proposal, provide a unique opportunity to examine the U.S. experience in promoting sus- tainable chemistry as well as the strengths and weaknesses of ex- isting policies. Indeed, the problems of industrial chemicals and limitations in current regulatory approaches to address

Joel A. Tickner; Ken Geiser; Melissa Coffin



Using climate information for improved health in Africa: relevance, constraints and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good health status is one of the primary aspirations of human social development and, as a consequence, health indicators are key components of the human development indices by which we measure progress toward sus- tainable development. Certain diseases and ill health are associated with particular environmental and climate condi- tions. The timeframe of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) demands that

Stephen J. Connor; Pietro Ceccato; Tufa Dinku; Judy Omumbo; Emily K. Grover-Kopec; Madeleine C. Thomson



El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer publica nuevo atlas de mortalidad por cáncer

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) ha publicado un nuevo atlas, el Atlas de Mortalidad por Cáncer en los Estados Unidos, 1950-94, que muestra los patrones geográficos de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer durante más de cuatro décadas, en más de 3.000 condados a lo largo del país.


Versatile prediction and fast estimation of Architectural Vulnerability Factor from processor performance metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrinking processor feature size, lower threshold voltage and increasing clock frequency make modern processors highly vulnerable to transient faults. Archi- tectural Vulnerability Factor (AVF) reflects the possibil- ity that a transient fault eventually causes a visible error in the program output, and it indicates a system's sus- ceptibility to transient faults. Therefore, the awareness of the AVF especially at

Lide Duan; Bin Li; Lu Peng



A cytotoxic leachable compound from single-use bioprocess equipment that causes poor cell growth performance.  


A current trend in the production of biopharmaceuticals is the replacement of fixed stainless steel fluid-handling units with disposable plastic bags. Such single-use systems (SUS) offer numerous advantages, but also introduce a new set of materials into the production process and consequently expose biomanufacturers to a new set of risks related to those materials, not to mention reliance on an entirely new supply chain. In the course of developing and conducting a cell-growth-based test for suitability of disposable plastic components destined for use in cell culture operations, we discovered that the cytotoxic compound bis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate (bDtBPP) leaches out of certain bags and into cell culture media in concentrations that are deleterious to cell growth. Specifically, media held in certain bags for several days at 37°C was found to contain bDtBPP, and use of those held-media samples in cell growth experiments provides data that overlap neatly with cell growth experiments using media spiked directly with bDtBPP, proving that bDtBPP leaching is responsible for the reduced growth attributable to those SUS bags. Overall, this issue represents a risk to the production of biopharmaceuticals in SUS, a risk that must be managed by diligent collaboration among companies along the entire supply chain for SUS components. PMID:24497314

Hammond, Matthew; Marghitoiu, Liliana; Lee, Hans; Perez, Lourdes; Rogers, Gary; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Nunn, Heather; Kline, Sally



Complete Genome Sequences of Three Iberian Brucella suis Biovar 2 Strains Isolated from Wild Boars.  


Brucella suis biovar 2 is the most common biovar isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa) associated with transmission to outdoor-reared pigs in Europe. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequences of three strains isolated from wild boars in Portugal and Spain and belonging to the Iberian clone (haplotypes 2d and 2e). PMID:24994794

Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Tenreiro, Rogério; Corrêa de Sá, Maria Inácia; Dias, Ricardo



Mecanismos de fallo de aceros estructurales durante la galvanización en caliente  

Microsoft Academic Search

La galvanización en caliente de perfiles de acero estructural produce, en ocasiones, grietas de considerable tamaño debido a fenómenos de corrosión bajo tensión, no siempre fáciles de detectar. Dada la importancia de las estructuras afectadas se han desarrollado numerosos proyectos de investigación en los últimos 25 años en todo el mundo con el fin de evitar la fisuración de sus

J. Carpio; J. A. Casado; J. A. Álvarez; D. Méndez; F. Gutiérrez-Solana



Expressiveness of Timed Events and Timed Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timed process algebras are useful tools for the specification and verification of real-time systems. We study the expressiveness of (classes of) these algebras which deal with temporal aspects of concurrent systems by following very dierent interpretations: durational actions versus durationless actions, absolute time versus relative time, timed functional behavior versus time and functional behavior, local clocks ver- sus global clocks,

Diletta Cacciagrano; Flavio Corradini




Microsoft Academic Search

The last outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States occurred in 1929. Since that time, numbers and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) have increased greatly, especially in the southern states. This creates a potential risk to livestock production because swine are susceptible to, and can be carriers of, several economically harmful diseases of livestock. Most importantly, swine

Susan M. Cooper; H. Morgan Scott; Guadalupe R. de la Garza; Aubrey L. Deck; James C. Cathey



Divergent metabolic responses of Apostichopus japonicus suffered from skin ulceration syndrome and pathogen challenge.  


Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is the main limitation in the development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries, in which Vibrio splendidus has been well documented as one of the major pathogens. However, the intrinsic mechanisms toward pathogen challenge and disease outbreak remain largely unknown at the metabolic level. In this work, the metabolic responses were investigated in muscles of sea cucumber among natural SUS-diseased and V. splendidus-challenged samples. The pathogen did not induce obvious biological effects in A. japonicus samples after infection for the first 24 h. An enhanced energy storage (or reduced energy demand) and immune responses were observed in V. splendidus-challenged A. japonicus samples at 48 h, as marked by increased glucose and branched chain amino acids, respectively. Afterward, infection of V. splendidus induced significant increases in energy demand in A. japonicus samples at both 72 and 96 h, confirmed by decreased glucose and glycogen, and increased ATP. Surprisingly, high levels of glycogen and glucose and low levels of threonine, alanine, arginine, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and ATP were founded in natural SUS-diseased sea cucumber. Our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interaction for sea cucumber, and informed that the metabolic biomarkers induced by V. splendidus were not usable for the prediction of SUS disease in practice. PMID:24127639

Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Ou, Changrong; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Yali; Su, Xiurong; Li, Ye; Li, Taiwu



Molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory phenotype of neonatal splenic macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal humans and rodents are sus- ceptible to infection with encapsulated bacteria as a result of an inability to make antibodies to cap- sular polysaccharides. This is partly a result of decreased production of proinflammatory cyto- kines by splenic macrophages (M) from neonates. In this study, we show that when stimulated with a variety of agonists to TLR2, -4, and

Lakshman Chelvarajan; Diana Popa; Yushu Liu; Thomas V. Getchell; Arnold J. Stromberg; Subbarao Bondada



Aujeszky's Disease in Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes): Phylogenetic Analysis Unravels an Unexpected Epidemiologic Link.  


Abstract We describe Aujeszky's disease in a female of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Although wild boar (Sus scrofa) would be the expected source of infection, phylogenetic analysis suggested a domestic rather than a wild source of virus, underscoring the importance of biosecurity measures in pig farms to prevent contact with wild animals. PMID:24807353

Caruso, Claudio; Dondo, Alessandro; Cerutti, Francesco; Masoero, Loretta; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Zoppi, Simona; D'Errico, Valeria; Grattarola, Carla; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Peletto, Simone



Identificación de variables en el proceso de decisión de compra de materiales autoadhesivos  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de la mayoría de las compañías se centra en obtener el liderazgo de su respectivo mercado, desarrollando diferentes estrategias, las cuales buscan ganar la preferencia del cliente en el momento de seleccionar una marca. Como variable crítica para lograrlo se encuentra la generación de una ventaja competitiva que lo diferencie de sus competidores. Sin embargo, la construcción de

David Gómez Gómez



El seguro de depósito y su incidencia en la disciplina de mercado en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El concepto de disciplina de mercado es de gran importancia en el análisis del sistema financiero de un país. La disciplina de mercado se define como la reacción de los acreedores bancarios frente al riesgo financiero y la subsiguiente reacción de los bancos ante las acciones de sus acreedores. Este trabajo busca probar si la disciplina de mercado es típica

Julián Márquez A



Les secteurs sensibles de l'industrie  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Los sectores vulnerables de la industria - A partir de una clasificación pormenorizada de 600 productos industriales, las actividades industriales fueron clasificadas según sus respectivos comportamientos potenciales en el mercado, estimados a partir de su evolución entre 1970 y 1977. Se retuvo tres tipos de mercado, o sea : favorable, mediano y desfavorable. Al parecer, puede desprenderse de este

Michel Hannoun; Jean-Claude Dutailly



El mercado de los economistas y el mercado de los sociologos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo explora la posible ‘fertilización cruzada’ entre la sociología y la economía recurriendo a trabajos sociológicos recientes sobre las relaciones de mercado. Muestra que la principal diferencia entre estas dos disciplinas reside en el tipo de organización social que suponen sus modelos respectivos, y la atribuye a que los investigadores de ambos campos tienen aspiraciones distintas: mientras que los

Pétronille Rème



Caos en el mercado cambiario mexicano. Aplicación de la teoría del caos en los tipos de cambio  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo estudia la dinámica cambiaria en México bajo el enfoque de una metodología poco conocida: la Teoría del Caos o, en términos de nuestra ciencia, la Economía Dinámica Caótica. Dado lo relativamente reciente de esta metodología, se presentará de manera clara y lo más rigurosamente posible sus bases teóricas, metodologías y campos de aplicación reciente; lo cual permitirá

Julián Ibarra Onofre



Antimicrobial resistance in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (Northeastern Spain).  


Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected. PMID:23892753

Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S



Sorption and Detoxification of Toxic Compounds by a Bifunctional Organoclay  

Microsoft Academic Search

isotherms, which are commonly associated with two- dimensional surface interactions and therefore are sus- Organoclays are excellent sorbents for nonionic contaminants and ceptible to competitive sorption. The second group of therefore may have many environmental applications. A major limita- organoclays, called organophilic organoclays, is com- tion on the use of organoclays is that the contaminant merely changes its location from

Ludmila Groisman; Chaim Rav-Acha; Zev Gerstl; Uri Mingelgrin



Valuación y gobierno corporativo: elementos de juicio de Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo se analiza por primera vez la relación que hay entre diversas medidas de propiedad y control y niveles de separación con el valor y el desempeño de una empresa, partiendo de una muestra de 108 compañías no financieras que negociaron sus acciones durante el período de 1998 a 2002. Se descubrió que

Luis H. Gutiérrez; Carlos Pombo



El efecto de las prácticas de gobierno corporativo sobre la valuación de mercado y políticas de pago de compañías chilenas  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo nos preguntamos si las prácticas de conducción empresarial al nivel de compañía en un país dado inciden o no en la valuación de mercado de esas compañías. Esta cuestión es esencial para poder evaluar los beneficios potenciales que puede reportar a las empresas un cambio de sus prácticas, aún cuando las mismas

Fernando Lefort; Eduardo Walker



La capacidad redistributiva y estabilizadora del presupuesto del gobierno central español  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de este trabajo es estimar los efectos redistributivo y estabilizador\\/asegurador del presupuesto de la Administración Pública Central española en el período 1991-1996 a nivel regional. Este análisis se lleva a cabo para el conjunto del presupuesto a través de los saldos fiscales regionales y, separadamente, para el conjunto de ingresos y gastos y sus principales categorías. La metodología




Liberalización financiera internacional, inversores institucionales y gobierno corporativo de la empresa  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo analizamos cómo la crisis de rentabilidad de los años setenta ha tratado de ser superada con el despliegue de un conjunto de contrarreformas neoliberales, siendo una de sus principales vertientes la desreglamentación y liberalización de los mercados financieros internacionales. Estas medidas han dado lugar a un nuevo contexto financiero internacional caracterizado por la preeminencia de la liquidez

Bibiana Medialdea García; Nacho Álvarez Peralta




Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos al estudiar el grado de desarrollo del gobierno electrónico en la provincia de La Habana, analizando la situación que presenta el Consejo de la Administración Provincial y el de seis de sus municipios. Se muestran en primer lugar los resultados del diagnóstico realizado a partir del análisis del estado de desarrollo que se presenta

Alejandro de Armas Suárez; José Raúl Rodríguez Ríos; Roberto de Armas Urquiza



Gobierno Corporativo en Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo se analizan las prácticas de conducción empresarial en Costa Rica. En primer lugar, se calculan las medidas de conducción empresarial constitutivas empleando datos específicos de 87 compañías costarricenses, y se analizan sus efectos en su desempeño; aquí, la media de la conducción empresarial constitutiva de compañías cotizadas en bolsa es igual a

Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C



Segmented spin-echo pulses to increase fMRI signal: Repeated intrinsic diffusional enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has seen rapid progress in the application to neurosci- ence. Common gradient-recalled acquisition methods are sus- ceptible to static field inhomogeneities, resulting in signal loss at the medial temporal area important for memory function or at the basal ganglia area for motor control. In addition, they are susceptible to the contaminating signals

Allen W. Song; Hui Mao; Raja Muthupillai; Frank Haist; W. Thomas Dixon



Research Priorities in Educational Technology: A Delphi Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the findings of a Delphi study conducted to determine research needs in educational technology over the next five years. The Delphi panel consisted of 30 educational technology experts from throughout the United States who participated in a three-round consen- sus building process via the Internet. The results of this e-research study provide a framework of eight

Constance Pollard; Richard Pollard



Estimating the availability of nutrients from processed swine lagoon solids through incubation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential environmental hazards from the excess accumulation of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure in eastern North Carolina and new state guidelines on treatment alternatives have necessitated the reevaluation of best management practices for disposal of swine waste (manure and effluent) as a fertilizer source on local crop land. Creation of a value-added product is one viable means of utilizing and

Miressa Duffera; W. P Robarge; R. L Mikkelsen



When Does the Responsibility of Our Care End: Bereavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital, founded the Kenneth B. Schwartz Center. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and sus- tenance to the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center



A mutation confers Monochoria vaginalis resistance to sulfonylureas that target acetolactate synthase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the target enzyme for four distinct families of compounds: sulfonylureas (SUs), imidazolinones, triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilides, and pyrimidinyl oxybenzoates. We cloned and sequenced the fragments encoding ALS genes from biotypes of Monochoria vaginalis susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to SU-herbicides. The nucleotide sequences of the 39bp Domain A region for R M. vaginalis biotype differed from that of

Guang-Xi Wang; Ying Lin; Wei Li; Misako Ito; Kazuyuki Itoh



Current Status and Developments in Cardiac Event Recorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac ECG event recorders and related devices are currently evolving rapidly. The distinction between the roles of different types of event recorders (looping ver- sus non-looping) is becoming blurred, with several manufacturers offering devices capable of functioning as either. More importantly, the development of afford- able high capacity solid state memory, further minia- turisation, and other technological advances are blur-

Johan E. P. Waktare



Seasonality and critical community size for infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endemicity of infectious diseases is investigated from a deterministic viewpoint. Sus- tained oscillation of infectives is often due to seasonal effects which may be related to climatic changes. For example the transmission of the measles virus by droplets is en- hanced in cooler, more humid seasons. In many countries the onset of cooler, more humid weather coincides with the

R. M. Cullen; A. Korobeinikov; W. J. Walker



Potential Application of Hairless Guinea Pigs as a Replacement for the Yucatan Mini-pig in Animal Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Yucatan mini-pig (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely used animal models for skin damage studies because it shares many of the same physical properties as human skin. While the Yucatan is ideal for laser exposure studies using a large spot size, its...

M. Imholte N. Jindra



Effect of Humic Acid and Sunlight on the Generation of aqu/C60  

EPA Science Inventory

Little is known about the effect of sunlight and natural organic matter, such as humic acid, on the aqueous suspension of fullerene C60. This knowledge gap limits our ability to determine the environmental impact of potential environmental releases of these materials. Aqueous sus...


Calorie restriction in nonhuman primates: effects on diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of calorie restriction (CR) on life span, disease, and aging in physiological systems have been documented extensively in rodent models. However, whether CR has similar effects in longer-lived species more closely related to humans remains un- known. Studies of CR and aging using nonhuman primates (rhe- sus monkeys) have been ongoing for several years at the National Institute

G. S. Roth



Severe Nutritional Deficiencies in Toddlers Resulting From Health Food Milk Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely appreciated that health food beverages are not appropriate for infants. Because of continued growth, children beyond infancy remain sus- ceptible to nutritional disorders. We report on 2 cases of severe nutritional deficiency caused by consumption of health food beverages. In both cases, the parents were well-educated, appeared conscientious, and their chil- dren received regular medical care. Diagnoses

Norman F. Carvalho; Richard D. Kenney; Paul H. Carrington; David E. Hall



Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo hace una revisión de las masas sólidas renales bilaterales en niños y sus diagnósticos diferenciales basados en la edad de presentación y en las características observadas en las imágenes diagnósticas. Las lesiones más frecuentes son el tumor de wilms, el linfoma no Hodgkin y la nefroblastomatosis. Conocerlas es importante para la planeación de los tratamientos médico y quirúrgico

Hugo Hernán Ferreira Traslaviña; Gustavo Triana; Jennifer León Martínez; Nelson Bedoya


Wetlands and Aquatic Processes Nutrient and Sediment Removal by a Restored Wetland Receiving Agricultural Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preserving or restoring wetlands may help reduce nonpoint-source pollution. Wetlands can act as filters Few studies have measured removal of pollutants by restored wet- removing particulate material, as sinks accumulating nu- lands that receive highly variable inflows. We used automated flow- proportional sampling to monitor the removal of nutrients and sus- trients, or as transformers converting nutrients to differ- pended

Thomas E. Jordan; Dennis F. Whigham; Kirsten H. Hofmockel; Mary A. Pittek


Factors Influencing Nondiscretionary Work Trips by Bicycle Determined from 1990 U.S. Census Metropolitan Statistical Area Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive range of factors that may have some influence on the selec- tion of the bicycle as the mode for work trips is explored using data from metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) extracted from the 1990 U.S. cen- sus. Only data extractable from the census were used for analysis. The sample included 100 percent of MSAs in the United States.




Experimental approaches and analytical technique for determining heavy metals in fallen dust at ferrosilicon production factory in Edfu, Aswan, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study aimed to evaluate the pollution extent of metals and nonmetals inside and outside the ferrosilicon pro- duction factory in Edfu, Aswan, Egypt, raw materials (quartz, cokes, iron oxides), ferrosilicon alloy, silica fume, dust and sus- pended dust (at different sites) samples were collected from the factory, and fallen dust samples were collected from outside the factory, horizontally



Microsoft Academic Search

El presente ensayo analiza las principales teorias evolutivas desde Darwin hasta la fecha, entre ellas la teoría de Lamark y la Teoría de la Quimiosintética, todas ellas con un sesgo fuertemente biologico, donde los cambios más decisivos en la homnización que se observan son: la adquisición de la postura erecta, que liberó sus extremidades anteriores y el desarrollo del cerebro,

Fredy Hardy Wompner Gallardo



Enamel microstructure and microstrain in the fracture of human and pig molar cusps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of microstructure in enamel strain and breakage was investigated in human molar cusps and those of the pig, Sus scrofa. Rosette strain gauges were affixed to cusp surfaces (buccal human M3, n=15, and lingual pig M1, n=13), and a compressive load was applied to individual cusps using an MTS materials testing machine. Load and strain data were recorded

T. E. Popowics; J. M. Rensberger; S. W. Herring



Vancomycin MICs for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Differ Based upon the Susceptibility Test Method Used  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have questioned treatment of serious methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections with vancomycin because of treatment failures, despite vancomycin MICs in the sus- ceptible category (MIC 2 g\\/ml) (2, 3, 5, 6, 7). Some of these studies have used broth microdilution for determining vancomycin MICs (5), while others have used the Etest commercial product (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden)

V. Prakash; J. S. Lewis; J. H. Jorgensen



New Zealand sheep with scrapie-susceptible PrP genotypes succumb to experimental challenge with a sheep-passaged scrapie isolate (SSBP\\/1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrapie does not occur in New Zealand (NZ), although PrP gene alleles associated with sus- ceptibility to the disease are found at relatively high frequencies in NZ sheep. The hypothesis that scrapie is a genetic disease of sheep is thus unlikely to be true. To confirm that NZ sheep are actually susceptible to scrapie infection, NZ sheep of various PrP

E. F. Houston; S. I. Halliday; M. Jeffrey; W. Goldmann; N. Hunter


Alejo Carpentier, y el descubrimiento de ‘Nuestra América’ en el corazón de España  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el año centenario del nacimiento del novelista cubano Alejo Carpentier (1904–1980) conviene hacer una recotización de su obra que ha sufrido cierta negligencia por parte de la crítica desde su muerte. Pàrte importante de esta revalorizati'n debería ser una investigación más profunda de la génesis de sus conceptos del barroco y de lo ‘real maravilloso americano’. En la siguiente

Steve Wakefield



Las fundaciones de ciudades y el pensamiento urbanístico hispano en la era del Descubrimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

La historia urbana referida al periodo histórico en torno a la fecha de 1492, con sus precedentes, desde la caída de Constantinopla (1452) y su evolución hasta la entronización y asentamiento de la monarquía del Emperador Carlos (~1530), es un periodo excepcional que requiere una reinterpretación a la luz de nuevos enfoques interdisciplinarios y de nuevos descubrimientos científicos. El periodo

María Isabel Navarro Segura



A low cost light diffuser made of metal coil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed a low cost flexible light diffuser made of metal coil to obtain an appropriate light dose against certain laser therapies in narrow bending organs. We investigated experimentally the diffusion light dose of prototype coils made of stainless steel (sus304). We measured the diffusion light intensity of the prototype coils along the irradiation direction and the circumferential direction with

Nozomi Morita; Tsunenori Arai



T Thhee E Euurrooppeeaann C Coommmmuunniittyy R Reessppiirraattoorryy H Heeaalltthh S Suurrvveeyy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was planned to answer specific questions about the distribution of asthma and health care given for asthma in the European Community. Specifically, the survey is designed to estimate variations in the prevalence of asthma, asthma-like symptoms and airway responsiveness; to estimate variations in exposures to known or sus- pected risk factors for asthma,

P. G. J. Burney; C. Luczynska; S. Chinn; D. Jarvis


A cross-layer protocol of spectrum mobility and handover in cognitive LTE networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radio technique is the next step toward efficient wireless bandwidth utilization. While some of the spectrum bands (unlicensed band) have been increasingly used, most of the other spectrum resources (licensed band) are underutilized. This drives the challenges of open spectrum and dynamic spectrum access concepts, which allows unlicensed users (or called secondary users, SUs) equipped with cognitive radios to

Yuh-Shyan Chen; Ching-Hsiung Cho; Ilsun You; Han-Chieh Chao



Rheology of Na-Rich Montmorillonite Suspension as Affected by Electrolyte Concentration and Shear Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheolo gical measurements were used to evaluate the particle-particle associations of Na-rich montmorillonite in suspensions, under various electrolyte concentrations. A 2% free electrolyte clay sus- pension showed pseudoplastic flow behavior and had a high apparent viscosity, attributed at low shear rates to the high volume fraction of the suspended clay platelets, the flexibility of the platelets, and the presence of

Hadar Heller; RAMI KEREN



Indicators of Success for University Transfer of Miami-Dade Community College Graduates in Business/Management, Computer Science, and Engineering. Research Report No. 93-03R.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While most associate in arts (AA) graduates who transfer to the Florida State University System (SUS) achieve satisfactory grade point averages, some do not. For Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) graduates, over 22% of the students in some disciplines have achieved grade point averages (GPA's) under 2.0. For the disciplines of…

Baldwin, Anne


A preliminary study of forensic entomology in Medell??n, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of an ongoing study of insect succession on carrion carried out in Medell??n, Colombia, using pigs (Sus scrofa) as a model to determine the insect sequence over 207 days. During this period, 2314 insects belonging to the following orders and families were collected: Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Piophilidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Otitidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae, Formicidae, Halictidae, Mutilidae,

Marta Wolff; Alejandro Uribe; Adriana Ortiz; Patricia Duque



Selection of optimum welding conditions and evaluation of friction welded joints: Study of optimisation of welding conditions and joint performance in friction welding (2nd Report)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the possibility of optimum friction welding conditions being selected through adoption of a joining evaluation equation derived from friction welding behaviour as determined by the response surface method in welding tests of 12 mm dia. SUS304 stainless steel. Through initial analysis of the relationship between the welding behaviour and tensile strength of friction-welded joints in a multiple

K. Ogawa; H. Yamaguchi; G. Kawai; T. Sawai



A study on stainless steel mirror surface polishing by using the electrophoretic deposition method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polishing wheels with homogeneously organized micro abrasive grains, uniformly dispersed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD), can be applied in mirror-like polishing process. This work studies the characteristics of EPD and mechanical polishing when SUS316LVV is polished. Abrasive grains with blunt edges are easily ablated from the polishing wheel by friction during polishing. The polishing wheel can be continuously refreshed by adding

Hai-Ping Tsui; Biing-Hwa Yan; Wei Te Wu; Sheng-Tsai Hsu



Winter Cover Crop and Management Effects on Summer and Annual Nutrient Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent from a swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) lagoon is often ap- plied repeatedly to nearby fields because of logistical constraints and costs of transportation. To minimize accumulation of soil nutrients and sustain use of spray field, best management practices must maximize the rates of removal of manure nutrients. Research determined sum- mer hay and nutrient yields of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon

Dennis E. Rowe; Timothy E. Fairbrother; Karamat A. Sistani



El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer lanza el sitio en la Internet

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en ingls) anunci hoy el lanzamiento de (, que ha sido mejorado significativamente, es muy fcil de navegar y brinda en un solo sitio toda la informacin sobre el cáncer


Complete Genome Sequences of Three Iberian Brucella suis Biovar 2 Strains Isolated from Wild Boars  

PubMed Central

Brucella suis biovar 2 is the most common biovar isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa) associated with transmission to outdoor-reared pigs in Europe. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequences of three strains isolated from wild boars in Portugal and Spain and belonging to the Iberian clone (haplotypes 2d and 2e).

Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Tenreiro, Rogerio; Correa de Sa, Maria Inacia



Evaluation of joint interface of friction stir welding between dissimilar metals using HTS-SQUID gradiometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated conductive properties of joint interfaces of friction stir welding (FSW) between dissimilar metals, stainless steel SUS304 and aluminum A6063, using a SQUID nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system. With current injection method, the current maps above the FSW specimens jointed under various conditions were measured by a HTS-SQUID gradiometer. The conductivities of the joint interfaces, which were

Y. Mashiko; Y. Hatsukade; T. Yasui; H. Takenaka; Y. Todaka; M. Fukumoto; S. Tanaka



How We Justify and Perpetuate the Wealthy, White, Male Academic Status Quo through the Use of Biased Admissions Requirements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prompted by some disturbing trends of reducing enrollment among females and minorities in an earlier study (Borman, Workman, Miller & Micceri, 2006), this study, using data from over 600,000 Florida State University System (SUS) applicants, demonstrates empirically how a trend that began during World War II helps ensure that males and society's…

Micceri, Theodore



La Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente artículo realizaré una descripción general del funcionamiento de la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (en adelante “Comisión Interamericana,” Comisión o “CIDH”), hacienda particular énfasis en el sistema de casos individuales. Inicialmente haré una breve reseña histórica del sistema interamericano y la CIDH, para luego describir los diferentes aspectos que caracterizan el trabajo de la Comisión, incluyendo sus

Diego Rodríguez-Pinzon



Niveles de andrógenos, estilos parentales y conducta agresiva en niños y niñas de 5-6 años de edad  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente estudio explora la relación entre los niveles de andrógenos, el estilo educativo parental y medidas de agresión física, verbal e indirecta en niños y niñas de 5-6 años. 129 niños (60 chicos y 69 chicas) fueron evaluados respecto a sus niveles de agresión a través de una técnica de estimación por pares. Los padres cumplimentaron el Parenting Styles

José Ramón Sánchez-Martín; Aitziber Azurmendi Imaz; Eduardo Fano Ardanaz; Francisco Braza Lloret