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El desafío de los desastres naturales en América Latina y el Caribe: Plan de acción del BID  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el siguiente informe, compuesto por cuatro partes, se analizan temas de desarrollo y de la prevención de desastres. En la primera parte, se presenta el panorama de la región en lo que atañe a sus amenazas naturales y los factores que contribuyen a su vulnerabilidad, y se ponen de relieve los recursos y la capacidad que posee para reducir

Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo



Medio ambiente, el enfoque global y sus implicaciones en la política ambiental colombiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A medida que la actividad humana aumenta y es modificada por la tecnología, sus efectos trascienden el ámbito local. Esta es una realidad cuyas unas consecuencias particulares en el medio ambiente han sido abordadas desde diversas ramas de la ciencia. La evidencia científica plantea entonces la cuestión de las “amenazas ambientales globales”; un término que agrupa un conjunto de variables

Blanca Llorente



Variabilidad en la realización de la espirometría y sus consecuencias en el tratamiento de la EPOC en Atención Primaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSeveral studies have approached the use of spirometry in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Primary Care (PC), but few have analysed its impact on the treatment of the patient with COPD.

Mònica Monteagudo; Teresa Rodriguez-Blanco; Judith Parcet; Núria Peñalver; Carles Rubio; Montserrat Ferrer; Marc Miravitlles



Sucrose synthase activity in the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 Arabidopsis mutant is sufficient to support normal cellulose and starch production  

PubMed Central

Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate-glucose and fructose. In Arabidopsis, a multigene family encodes six SUS (SUS1-6) isoforms. The involvement of SUS in the synthesis of UDP-glucose and ADP-glucose linked to Arabidopsis cellulose and starch biosynthesis, respectively, has been questioned by Barratt et al. [(2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:13124–13129], who showed that (i) SUS activity in wild type (WT) leaves is too low to account for normal rate of starch accumulation in Arabidopsis, and (ii) different organs of the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 SUS mutant impaired in SUS activity accumulate WT levels of ADP-glucose, UDP-glucose, cellulose and starch. However, these authors assayed SUS activity under unfavorable pH conditions for the reaction. By using favorable pH conditions for assaying SUS activity, in this work we show that SUS activity in the cleavage direction is sufficient to support normal rate of starch accumulation in WT leaves. We also demonstrate that sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 leaves display WT SUS5 and SUS6 expression levels, whereas leaves of the sus5/sus6 mutant display WT SUS1–4 expression levels. Furthermore, we show that SUS activity in leaves and stems of the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 and sus5/sus6 plants is ?85% of that of WT leaves, which can support normal cellulose and starch biosynthesis. The overall data disprove Barratt et al. (2009) claims, and are consistent with the possible involvement of SUS in cellulose and starch biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

Baroja-Fernandez, Edurne; Munoz, Francisco Jose; Li, Jun; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Almagro, Goizeder; Montero, Manuel; Etxeberria, Ed; Hidalgo, Maite; Sesma, Maria Teresa; Pozueta-Romero, Javier




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16) has been associated with reproduction in pigs (Blowe et al. 2004). The follistatin gene has been mapped to SSC16 and is a candidate gene for litter size. The pig map has relatively few markers on SSC16, and there are very few Type 1 markers on SSC16. The objective of...


Identification of the Site-Specific DNA Invertase Responsible for the Phase Variation of SusC/SusD Family Outer Membrane Proteins in Bacteroides fragilis? †  

PubMed Central

The human gut microbe Bacteroides fragilis can alter the expression of its surface molecules, such as capsular polysaccharides and SusC/SusD family outer membrane proteins, through reversible DNA inversions. We demonstrate here that DNA inversions at 12 invertible regions, including three gene clusters for SusC/SusD family proteins, were controlled by a single tyrosine site-specific recombinase (Tsr0667) encoded by BF0667 in B. fragilis strain YCH46. Genetic disruption of BF0667 diminished or attenuated shufflon-type DNA inversions at all three susC/susD genes clusters, as well as simple DNA inversions at nine other loci, most of which colocalized with susC/susD family genes. The inverted repeat sequences found within the Tsr0667-regulated invertible regions shared the consensus motif sequence AGTYYYN4GDACT. Tsr0667 specifically mediated the DNA inversions of 10 of the 12 regions, even under an Escherichia coli background when the invertible regions were exposed to BF0667 in E. coli cells. Thus, Tsr0667 is an additional globally acting DNA invertase in B. fragilis, which probably involves the selective expression of SusC/SusD family outer membrane proteins.

Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ichimura, Minoru; Wakimoto, Shin; Kuhara, Satoru; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Kuwahara, Tomomi



Mössbauer spectroscopic determination of magnetic transition temperature of SUS 304 foil at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the relation between the decreasing of Young's modulus at low temperatures and the magnetic transition for SUS 304 stainless steel, we measured the Neel temperature of SUS 304 foil with a thickness of 10 mum by a thermal scan method. It was 60 +\\/- 2 K. As a result, it was found that for SUS 304

A. Nakamura; T. Toriyama; T. Inamura; H. Iijima



Corrosion behaviour of HVOF sprayed SUS316L stainless steel in seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUS316L stainless steel was coated onto the SUS316L plate by the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray technique. Its corrosion behaviour in seawater was investigated by the electrochemical method and the microscopy. The coating had corrosion resistance inferior to the bulk plate. The corrosion of the HVOF sprayed SUS316L coating was related to both its porosity and its oxygen content. Depending

Jin Kawakita; Takeshi Fukushima; Seiji Kuroda; Toshiaki Kodama



Genome-wide analysis of the Sus gene family in cotton.  


Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose metabolism. In cotton, Sus (EC is the main enzyme that degrades sucrose imported into cotton fibers from the phloem of the seed coat. This study demonstrated that the genomes of Gossypium arboreum L., G. raimondii Ulbr., and G. hirsutum L., contained 8, 8, and 15 Sus genes, respectively. Their structural organizations, phylogenetic relationships, and expression profiles were characterized. Comparisons of genomic and coding sequences identified multiple introns, the number and positions of which were highly conserved between diploid and allotetraploid cotton species. Most of the phylogenetic clades contained sequences from all three species, suggesting that the Sus genes of tetraploid G. hirsutum derived from those of its diploid ancestors. One Sus group (Sus I) underwent expansion during cotton evolution. Expression analyses indicated that most Sus genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and had development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Members of the same orthologous group had very similar expression patterns in all three species. These results provide new insights into the evolution of the cotton Sus gene family, and insight into its members' physiological functions during fiber growth and development. PMID:23691964

Zou, Changsong; Lu, Cairui; Shang, Haihong; Jing, Xinrui; Cheng, Hailiang; Zhang, Youping; Song, Guoli




Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive phenology of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in the Cantabrian Mountains (Álava, North of Spain) In the present studio it is analysed the main parameters of reproductions belonging to the wild boar Sus scrofa L., in order to determinate a model of reproduction for the specie applicable to the Cantabrian Mountains. The analysis has its base in the information



Radiocesium Concentrations in Two Populations of Naturally Contaminated Feral Hogs (Sus Scrofa Domesticus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two populations of feral hogs (Sus scrofa domesticus) were studied during the summer and winter seasons from 1976 to 1978 in order to determine concentrations, distributional patterns, and predictability of cesium-137 in the whole body and various body co...

H. L. Stribling



Oxidation behavior of modified SUS316 (PNC316) stainless steel under low oxygen partial pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation behaviors of modified SUS316 (PNC316) and SUS316 stainless steels were investigated under the low oxygen partial pressure of 10?31?10?22 atm at 600–800 °C. Oxygen uptake by these materials parabolically increased with time, and the kinetic rate constants depended on both oxygen partial pressure and temperature. Thus, semi-empirical equations of the parabolic rate constants were obtained to be 2.70×104exp(?109\\/RT)PO20.279 for

I. Sato; M. Takaki; T. Arima; H. Furuya; K. Idemitsu; Y. Inagaki; M. Momoda; T. Namekawa



Design and microstructure of ZrO 2\\/SUS316 functionally graded materials by tape casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconia (ZrO2) and stainless steel 316 (SUS316) functionally graded materials (FGM) were fabricated by tape casting from an aqueous system. For the stable dispersion of ZrO2 and SUS316, we observed the zeta-potential (?) of each phase with pH variation and investigated the effect of organic additives on dispersion. Tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP) and monoclinic zirconia polycrystals (MZP), which was used

Jeong-Gu Yeo; Yeon-Gil Jung; Sung-Churl Choi



Sus1/ENY2: a multitasking protein in eukaryotic gene expression.  


The purpose of this review is to provide a complete overview on the functions of the transcription/export factor Sus1. Sus1 is a tiny conserved factor in sequence and functions through the eukaryotic kingdom. Although it was discovered recently, research done to address the role of Sus1/ENY2 has provided in deep description of different mechanisms influencing gene expression. Initially found to interact with the transcription and mRNA export machinery in yeast, it is now clear that it has a broad role in mRNA biogenesis. Sus1 is necessary for histone H2B deubiquitination, mRNA export and gene gating. Moreover, interesting observations also suggest a link with the cytoplasmatic mRNP fate. Although the role of Sus1 in human cells is largely unknown, preliminary results suggest interesting links to pathological states that range from rare diseases to diabetes. We will describe what is known about Sus1/ENY2 in yeast and other eukaryotes and discuss some exciting open questions to be solved in the future. PMID:23057668

Galán, Amparo; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana



Regulation of AtSUS2 and AtSUS3 by glucose and the transcription factor LEC2 in different tissues and at different stages of Arabidopsis seed development.  


Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme of carbon metabolism in heterotrophic tissues of plants. The Arabidopsis genome contains six SUS genes. Two members of this family, namely AtSUS2 (At5g49190) and AtSUS3 (At4g02280) are strongly and differentially expressed in Arabidopsis seed. Expression analysis was carried out using SUS:promoter-GUS fusion lines in a wild-type genetic background or in a mutant carrying a lesion in the transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON 2 (LEC2; At1g28300). The accumulation patterns of mRNA, protein, and SUS activity were altered in the lec2 mutant during seed development 9-18 days after flowering. This indicates that LEC2 acts epistatically on the expression of AtSUS2 and AtSUS3. It appears that LEC2 is required for cotyledon-specific expression of both SUS genes but it is not responsible for expression in the radicle tip during embryo development. The AtSUS2 promoter was induced in planta by feeding of glucose but less so by sucrose and trehalose. Non-phosphorylable glucose analogs such as 3-O-methyl-glucose and 2-deoxyglucose also caused an induction, suggesting that sugar signaling proceeds by a hexokinase-independent pathway, possibly involving hexose sensing. Analysis of transgenic lines carrying of truncated versions of the AtSUS2:promoter fused to Beta-glucuronidase activity revealed an internal 421 bp region that was responsible for expression in seeds. Bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed regulatory cis-elements putatively responsible for the spatio-temporal pattern of AtSUS2 expression such as the SEF3 (aaccca) and W-box (ttgact) motifs. These findings are discussed in relation to the roles played by AtSUS2, AtSUS3 and LEC2 in the biosynthesis of seed storage products in Arabidopsis. PMID:22228409

Angeles-Núñez, Juan Gabriel; Tiessen, Axel



An Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis Infection in Pygmy Hogs (Sus salvanius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of salmonellosis was recorded in captive pygmy hogs (Sus salvanius), a critically endangered species of mammal. Of 42 captive animals maintained for conservation breeding by the Pygmy Hog Conservation Programme, Guwahati, Assam, India, 7 (16.67%) died within 3 days. The organism associated with this outbreak was identified as Salmonella enteritidis. The organisms were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin,

H. Rahman; A. Chakraborty; P. J. Deka; G. Narayan; R. Prager




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sera collected from 507 hunter-killed wild pigs (Sus scrofa) between 1993 and 2004 from 5 geographic regions in northern Spain and 7 regions in southern Spain were assayed for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 185 (38.4...


The wheat ( T. aestivum ) sucrose synthase 2 gene ( TaSus2 ) active in endosperm development is associated with yield traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose synthase catalyzes the reaction sucrose?+?UDP???UDP-glucose?+?fructose, the first step in the conversion of sucrose\\u000a to starch in endosperm. Previous studies identified two tissue-specific, yet functionally redundant, sucrose synthase (SUS) genes, Sus1 and Sus2. In the present study, the wheat Sus2 orthologous gene (TaSus2) series was isolated and mapped on chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 2D. Based on sequencing in 61 wheat

Qiyan Jiang; Jian Hou; Chenyang Hao; Lanfen Wang; Hongmei Ge; Yushen Dong; Xueyong Zhang



Isolation and cloning of two variant papillomaviruses from domestic pigs: Sus scrofa papillomaviruses type 1 variants a and b  

Microsoft Academic Search

The healthy skin of two female domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) was sampled with cotton- tipped swabs. Total genomic DNA was extracted from the samples and subjected to PCR with degenerate papillomavirus (PV)-specific primers. Similarity searches performed with BLASTN showed that partial E1 and L1 sequences of two novel PVs were amplified. Subsequently, the complete genomes of these Sus scrofa

Hans Stevens; Annabel Rector; Kees Van Der Kroght; Marc Van Ranst



How does hunting influence activity and spatial usage in wild boar Sus scrofa L.?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) population densities all over Europe cause severe economic problems. In popular belief, the wild boar is a more or less\\u000a diurnal species, causing only minor problems when undisturbed, but is assumed to become nocturnal and wide-ranging when opposed\\u000a to hunting pressure. In our study, we investigated the impact of hunting and several environmental factors

Oliver Keuling; Norman Stier; Mechthild Roth



Fatigue Behavior of Welded Joints in a Ferritic Stainless Steel SUS444  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue behavior was studied on welded joints of a ferritic stainless steel, SUS444. Push-pull fatigue tests were conducted using plate specimens with the weld zone at the center of gauge section. Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) tests were also conducted using two types of CT-specimens with a starter notch in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and in the weld metal. The fatigue

Masaki NAKAJIMA; Masayuki AKITA; Keiro TOKAJI; Yousuke TAKAI


Elemental redistribution in coloured films on SUS304 stainless steel produced by current pulse method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coloured films are deposited on an SUS304 substrate by the square wave current pulse method in a 2.5 M CrO3 + 5 M H2SO4 solution at 75 °C. The absolute ratio of anodic to cathodic charge density and the corresponding final value of cathodic potential provide an easy and appropriate approach to the control of colour in the current pulse

C. J. Lin; J. G. Duh



[Evaluation of emergency services of the hospitals from the QualiSUS program].  


The aid lent by the emergency services is the object of this paper, which aims to assess the emergency service of the QualiSUS program. The study is descriptive with the application of a questionnaire to the responsible of the emergency services in eight hospitals. The emergency services were always overcrowded, and the causes pointed were the low resolutivity of basic attention and the precariousness of the hospital network. Contributing to this there is the primary care decreased resolutivity and the precariousness of the hospital network. Six hospitals do not manage the emergency service. The entrance system is not organized and only three hospitals work with risk classification. All of them refer difficulties with internal and external services. The hardest pathologies to refer to other services are the chronicles, neurological and social. The professionals do not have specific qualification and the precariousness job contracts do not contribute neither for the professional's fixation nor for his qualification. Clinical protocols are used by one service. It was noticed the influence of the QualiSUS in the hospitals. The failure of the health services network interferes with the emergency patient's profile. The investment of the QualiSUS cannot be restrained to the hospital. Emergency should be more integrated to the system and hospital. The qualification of human resources is indispensable as well as the bed's regulation. PMID:19851601

O'Dwyer, Gisele Oliveira; de Oliveira, Sergio Pacheco; de Seta, Marismary Horsth


Torque teno sus virus (TTV) detection in aborted and slaughterhouse collected foetuses.  


The aim of this study was to estimate the presence of Torque teno sus virus (TTV) species in pig foetuses in order to assess the possible relationship between swine TTV infection and abortion in swine. A total of 98 abortion cases and foetuses collected from 55 pregnant sows at slaughterhouse were analysed by PCR for the presence of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTV1) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTV2). All foetuses were necropsied and relevant tissues were collected, pooled, and submitted to DNA extraction. The overall prevalence of swine TTV1 and TTV2 in aborted foetuses (n = 98) was 17.0% and 29.6%, respectively. For slaughterhouse collected foetuses (n = 55), 10.9% were TTV1 PCR positive and 40.0% were positive for TTV2. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing prevalence of swine TTVs by type of sample (aborted versus slaughterhouse collected foetuses) or by gestation stage. The present work represents the first description of swine TTV infection in pig foetuses at different stages of gestation. Results obtained confirm that vertical transmission is an important route of TTVs dissemination. In addition, data obtained suggest that swine TTVs should not be considered as infectious agents responsible for abortion occurrence. PMID:20452011

Martínez-Guinó, L; Kekarainen, T; Maldonado, J; Aramouni, M; Llorens, A; Segalés, J



SCC behavior of SUS316L in the high temperature pressurized water environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of dissolved oxygen (DO:8 ppm) and hydrogen (DH:0.4 ppm and 1.4 ppm) on stress corrosion cracking (scc) of SUS316L were tested by slow strain rate test (SSRT) and crevice bent beam test (CBB) in high-temperature (288 °C) pressurized (7.8 MPa) water environment. Sensitized and non-sensitized SUS316L were cold-worked up to the rolling ratio of four patterns (0, 25, 50, and 75%). The SSRT tensile elongation of non-sensitized SUS316L was significantly reduced in hydrogen dissolved water environment, indicating hydrogen enhanced SCC. The fractured surface was mainly TGSCC, and the TGSCC increased with increasing dissolved hydrogen in the water. Also the TGSCC in the fractured surface was reduced by cold-work because of the shortage of test period for the cold-worked specimens broken in a small elongation in a ductile manner. The CBB test results indicate that susceptibility of TGSCC was increased by cold work.

Nono, Masahiro; Nakajima, Tetsuya; Iwama, Masahiro; Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko



SUS-BAR: a database of pig proteins with statistically validated structural and functional annotation  

PubMed Central

Given the relevance of the pig proteome in different studies, including human complex maladies, a statistical validation of the annotation is required for a better understanding of the role of specific genes and proteins in the complex networks underlying biological processes in the animal. Presently, approximately 80% of the pig proteome is still poorly annotated, and the existence of protein sequences is routinely inferred automatically by sequence alignment towards preexisting sequences. In this article, we introduce SUS-BAR, a database that derives information mainly from UniProt Knowledgebase and that includes 26 206 pig protein sequences. In SUS-BAR, 16 675 of the pig protein sequences are endowed with statistically validated functional and structural annotation. Our statistical validation is determined by adopting a cluster-centric annotation procedure that allows transfer of different types of annotation, including structure and function. Each sequence in the database can be associated with a set of statistically validated Gene Ontologies (GOs) of the three main sub-ontologies (Molecular Function, Biological Process and Cellular Component), with Pfam functional domains, and when possible, with a cluster Hidden Markov Model that allows modelling the 3D structure of the protein. A database search allows some statistics demonstrating the enrichment in both GO and Pfam annotations of the pig proteins as compared with UniProt Knowledgebase annotation. Searching in SUS-BAR allows retrieval of the pig protein annotation for further analysis. The search is also possible on the basis of specific GO terms and this allows retrieval of all the pig sequences participating into a given biological process, after annotation with our system. Alternatively, the search is possible on the basis of structural information, allowing retrieval of all the pig sequences with the same structural characteristics. Database URL:

Piovesan, Damiano; Profiti, Giuseppe; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fariselli, Piero; Fontanesi, Luca; Casadio, Rita



Environmental factors associated with the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa), France.  


Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite infecting humans and animals. Wild boars Sus scrofa are a potential source of human infection and an appropriate biological model for analyzing T. gondii dynamics in the environment. Here, we aimed to identify environmental factors explaining the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in French wild boar populations. Considering 938 individuals sampled from 377 'communes', overall seroprevalence was 23% (95% confidence interval: [22-24]). Using a Poisson regression, we found that the number of seropositive wild boars detected per 'commune' was positively associated with the presence of European wildcats (Felis silvestris) and moderate winter temperatures. PMID:22820902

Beral, Marina; Rossi, Sophie; Aubert, Dominique; Gasqui, Patrick; Terrier, Marie-Eve; Klein, Francois; Villena, Isabelle; Abrial, David; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Richomme, Céline; Hars, Jean; Jourdain, Elsa



'Scléroedème génito-sus-pubien' of the newborn: a forgotten disease?  


A 2-month-old boy with an important hardening of the skin in the pubic and genital regions is presented. He was born prematurely at 31 weeks of gestation, and required a respirator during the first 72 h. The analytical explorations and abdominal ultrasound images were normal. Histological study had not shown significant changes. The patient did not receive any treatment and gradually experienced remission. Because of the location and spontaneous regression in a few months, the picture is very similar to the one described by Degos as 'Scléroedème génito-sus-pubien' of the newborn. PMID:8993966

Hernández-Martín, A; Velasco, A; Armijo, M



Epidemiologic study of lung parasites (Metastrongylus spp.) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Spain.  


We analyzed 927 wild boars (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Spain during the hunting seasons of 2004/2005 to 2008/2009. Respiratory tracts were examined for lung nematodes (Metastrongylus spp.). The prevalence of Metastrongylus spp. was 41.1%. The most frequently isolated species were Metastrongylus apri (71.4%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus (28.0%), and Metastrongylus salmi (0.6%). Prevalence and infection intensity were greater in young animals (<1 yr old) than in older animals. There were no significant differences in prevalence between sexes. Prevalence and intensity of infection were higher in areas of high altitude and high rainfall. PMID:23307382

García-González, Ángela María; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Gamito-Santos, José Antonio; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Alcaide Alonso, María; Frontera Carrión, Eva María



Occurrence of osteochondromatosis (multiple cartilaginous exostoses) in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).  


Osteochondromatosis is a condition in which multiple benign, cartilage-capped tumors arise from the surface of bones formed by endochondral ossification. The current report describes the presence of 4 prominent exophytic masses, measuring between 4 and 13 cm in diameter, arising from the surface of the ribs, and located within the thoracic cavity, in a 2-year-old female domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). Histological studies revealed that masses were well-differentiated, cartilage-capped proliferations with an orderly pattern of endochondral mineralization toward deeper areas. The observed gross and microscopic findings are characteristic of osteochondromatosis. PMID:23847091

de Brot, Simone; Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Vidal, Enric; Segalés, Joaquim



Cytochrome b based genetic differentiation of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and its use in wildlife forensics.  


The Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) is a protected species and listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The wild pig is often hunted illegally and sold in market as meat warranting punishment under law. To avoid confusion in identification of these two subspecies during wildlife forensic examinations, we describe genetic differentiation of Indian wild and domestic pigs using a molecular technique. Analysis of sequence generated from the partial fragment (421bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene exhibited unambiguous (>3%) genetic variation between Indian wild and domestic pigs. We observed nine forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) variations between Indian wild and domestic pigs. The overall genetic variation described in this study is helpful in forensic identification of the biological samples of wild and domestic pigs. It also helped in differentiating the Indian wild pig from other wild pig races. This study indicates that domestic pigs in India are not descendent of the Indian wild pig, however; they are closer to the other wild pig races found in Asia and Europe. PMID:23601732

Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajit; Hussain, Syed Ainul; Vipin; Singh, Lalji



Presence of Torque teno sus virus in porcine circovirus type 2-associated disease in Croatia.  


Torque teno virus (TTV) is ubiquitous and species-specific, and two different TTV species, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2), have been described in domestic pigs and wild boars. Whether these two species are involved in clinical cases of porcine circovirus type 2-associated disease (PCVDs) remains unknown. This study investigates the presence of TTSuV in 85 fetuses, pigs and wild boars infected by PCV2 and affected by PCVDs other than postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome. It also explores the genetic diversity of identified strains using phylogenetic analysis. The presence or absence of TTSuV was determined in 85 samples of PCV2-containing organs from 85 infected animals using a specific, one-step PCR method. A nucleotide distance matrix between sequences was computed to infer phylogeny based on a median-joining (MJ) network. TTSuV2 showed high prevalence in animals affected by nephropathy and proliferative and necrotising pneumonia (PNP), and both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 showed high prevalence in wild boars affected by PMWS. TTSuV1 showed low prevalence in animals affected by nephropathy and PNP, and both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 showed low prevalence in animals with reproductive disorders. MJ network analysis revealed significant genetic diversity among Croatian isolates. PMID:23104589

Novosel, D; Cubric-Curik, V; Jungic, A; Lipej, Z



Martensitic transformation behaviour in sensitized SUS304 austenitic stainless steel during isothermal holding at low temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated martensitic transformation behaviour in sensitized SUS304 austenitic stainless steel to determine the stability of the austenitic phase at low temperatures. We found that a specimen that was sensitized at 973 K for 100 h exhibits an isothermal martensitic transformation when the specimen is held in the temperature range between 60 and 260 K. We constructed a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram corresponding to the formation of 0.5 vol. % ?'-martensite. A magnetization measurement was used to evaluate the volume fraction of a'-martensite. The TTT diagram shows a double-C curve with two noses located at about 100 and 200 K. In-situ optical microscope observations reveal that the double C-curve is due to two different transformation sequences. That is, the upper part of the C-curve is due to a direct ? ? ?' martensitic transformation and the lower part of the C-curve is due to a successive ? ? ? ? ?' martensitic transformation. The direct ? ? ?' transformation occurs in the vicinity of grain boundaries while the successive ? ? ?' ? ?' transformation occurs near the centre of grains. A scanning electron microscope observation reveals that carbide particles of M23C6 are formed in the grain boundaries. The concentration difference between the centre of the grains and regions near grain boundaries is the reason for the difference in the isothermal transformation sequence for the sensitized SUS304 stainless steel.

Lee, Jae-hwa; Fukuda, Takashi; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki



[Speech-language pathology formation in the city of Salvador and the consolidation of SUS].  


The Human Resources in Health (HRH) academic field is recognized as a critical area, which is part of the reorientation process in the health sector. The elaboration of the Unified Health System (SUS) represents challenges to the academic field process, especially regarding new careers such as speech-language pathology. This is related with the lack of awareness regarding collective health and the past history that strengthened the public health policies in Brazil. Yet, the powerful influence of the service model to the spontaneous demand and reabilitation therapy plays another key role in the aspect. The aim was to analyze the academic field of the speech-language pathology profile in the city of Salvador, Bahia State. Documental analysis and coordinator interviews were used to investigate how the public area is characterized in 3 modules. It was noticed little adhesion of the upper level institutions to the legislation of the field; lack of contact between graduating students and collective health, and a teaching-service disconnection. The graduation of the speech therapist was shown incipient regarding SUS's consolidation. Identifying challenges and opportunities of changes in HRH formation in upper level institutions may lead to better levels of aid to the population, quality of education and expansion of theoretical and practical models of knowledge. PMID:20802888

Lemos, Marcio; Bazzo, Leda Maria Fonseca



Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.  


From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

N?mejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Kv?to?ová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Pawe?; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kvá?, Martin



Histopathological investigation in porcine infected with torque teno sus virus type 2 by inoculation  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is a small icosahedral and non-enveloped virus which contains a single-stranded (ssDNA), circular and negative DNA genome and infects mainly vertebrates and is currently classified into the 'floating' genus Anellovirus of Circoviridae with two species. Viral DNA of both porcine TTSuV species has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased pigs worldwide and multiple infections of TTSuV with distinct genotypes or subtypes of the same species has been documented in the United States, Europe and Asia. However, there exists no information about histopathological lesions caused by infection with porcine TTSuV2. Methods Porcine liver tissue homogenate with 1 ml of 6.91 × 107genomic copies viral loads of porcine TTSuV2 that had positive result for torque teno sus virus type 2 and negative result for torque teno sus virus type 1 and porcine pseudorabies virus type 2 were used to inoculate specific pathogen-free piglets by intramuscular route and humanely killed at 3,7,10,14,17,21 and 24 days post inoculation (dpi), the control pigs were injected intramuscularly with 1 ml of sterile DMEM and humanely killed the end of the study for histopathological examination routinely processed, respectively. Results All porcine TTSuV2 inoculated piglets were clinic asymptomatic but developed myocardial fibroklasts and endocardium, interstitial pneumonia, membranous glomerular nephropathy, and modest inflammatory cells infiltration in portal areas in the liver, foci of hemorrhage in some pancreas islet, a tiny amount red blood cells in venule of muscularis mucosae and outer longitudinal muscle, rarely red blood cells in the microvasculation and infiltration of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and eosinophils) of tonsil and hilar lymph nodes, infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and necrosis or degeneration and focal gliosis of lymphocytes in the paracortical zone after inoculation with porcine TTSuV2-containing tissue homogenate. Conclusions Analysis of these presentations revealed that porcine TTSuV2 was readily transmitted to TTSuV-negative swine and that infection was associated with characteristic pathologic changes in specific pathogen-free piglets inoculated with porcine TTSuV2. Those results indicated no markedly histopathological changes happened in those parenchymatous organs, especially the digestive system and immune system when the specific pathogen-free pigs were infected with porcine TTSuV2, hence, to some extent, it was not remarkable pathological agent for domestic pigs at least. So, porcine TTSuV2 could be an unrecognized pathogenic viral infectious etiology of swine. This study indicated a directly related description of lesions responsible for TTSuV2 infection in swine.



[The Citizen Constitution and the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].  


This article, celebrating the 25th anniversary of Brazil's 1988 Constitution, aims to review the country's social policy development, discuss political projects, and analyze challenges for the sustainability of the Unified National Health System (SUS). Based on public policymaking studies, the article revisits the origins of liberal social policy, focused on social assistance, and analyzes the hegemony of U.S. policies targeting poverty and their repercussions for universal policies. After identifying the formulation of political projects in Brazil's democratic transition, it discusses their implications during the various Administrations since 1988, along with the difficulties faced by the National Health System. The article concludes that the political forces occupying government in the last two decades have failed to present a project for the country on the same level as those who drafted the Citizen Constitution. PMID:24127081

Paim, Jairnilson Silva



Fatal infection due to Haemophilus parasuis in a young wild boar (Sus scrofa).  


Haemophilus parasuis is a recognized pathogen in domestic pigs; the pathogen has been also isolated from healthy wild boar (Sus scrofa). In the current report, a case of fatal H. parasuis infection in a wild boar piglet from central Spain is described. The affected animal presented severe pneumonic lesions, inflammation in tarsal joints with presence of fibrinous deposits, and epidural hemorrhage in the atlanto-occipital joint. Pure growth of H. parasuis was obtained from lungs and tarsal joints. The current case illustrates the susceptibility of wild boar to this agent. The gross pathology results were similar to that described in domestic pigs, but there were no fibrinous deposits on serosal surfaces. PMID:23512924

Cuesta Gerveno, Jesus M; Risco Pérez, David; Gonçalves Blanco, Pilar; García Jiménez, Waldo L; Gil Molino, Maria; Fernandez-Llario, Pedro; Hermoso de Mendoza Salcedo, Javier; Gómez Gordo, Luis J



Microsatellite markers for identification and parentage analysis in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

Background The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is among the most widespread mammal species throughout the old world. Presently, studies concerning microsatellites in domestic pigs and wild boars have been carried out in order to investigate domestication, social behavior and general diversity patterns among either populations or breeds. The purpose of the current study is to develop a robust set of microsatellites markers for parentage analyses and individual identification. Findings A set of 14 previously reported microsatellites markers have been optimized and tested in three populations from Hungary, Portugal and Spain, in a total of 167 samples. The results indicate high probabilities of exclusion (0.99999), low probability of identity (2.0E-13 – 2.5E-9) and a parentage assignment of 100%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this set of markers is a useful and efficient tool for the individual identification and parentage assignment in wild boars.



Annotation of hypothetical proteins orthologous in Pongo abelii and Sus scrofa  

PubMed Central

A hypothetical protein is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame without known experimental evidence of translation. They constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes. Domain extraction from these hypothetical sequences helps to search for protein coding genes for protein structural and functional annotation. We describe the analysis of prediction data in a sequence dataset of hypothetical protein orthologs of Pongo abelii (orangutan) and Sus scrofa (pig). It should be noted that these orangutan-pig orthologs are also non-homologous to human proteins. These predicted data find application in the genome wide annotation of proteins in poorly understood genomes. Abbreviations PDB - Protein Data Bank, DEG - Database of Essential Genes, CDD - Conserved Domain Database, IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Jitendra, Singh; Narula, Ranjana; Agnihotri, Shefali; Singh, Maneet



Study on electron beam weld joints between pure vanadium and SUS316L stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical and metallographical properties of the electron beam weld joints between pure vanadium (V) and SUS316L austenitic stainless steel and the effect of post-welding heat treatment (PWHT) at 873 and 1273 K for 1 h on these properties were investigated. The electron beam was shifted by 0.2 mm (EB02S), 0.4 mm (EB04S), and 0.6 mm (EB06S) on the SUS316L side. No significant defects (e.g., pores, macro-cracks, or micro-cracks) were observed in the as-welded EB02S and EB04S joints, whereas a non-welded region was formed in the as-welded EB06S joint. Much higher hardness was observed in the weld metal (WM) of the as-welded EB02S and EB04S joints than in the base metals (BMs), which might be attributed to solution hardening. A significant increment in the hardness of the WM of EB02S joint occurred due to the PWHT at 873 and 1273 K, which might be attributed to solution hardening and formation of Ni2V3 and NiV3 precipitates. Almost no change in the hardness due to the PWHT at 873 and 1273 K occurred in the WM of the EB04S joint. The interlayer was formed at the edge of the WM of the V side only in the post-welding heat-treated EB04S joint. The interlayer showed much higher hardness than the BMs and WM, which might be attributable to solution hardening, formation of ? phase of the Fe-V system, and formation of Ni2V3 and NiV3 precipitates.

Nogami, Shuhei; Miyazaki, Jumpei; Hasegawa, Akira; Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo



Las consecuencias perceptuales de la audicion binaural  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binaural processing in normal hearing activities is based on the ability of listeners to use the information provided by the differences between the signals at the two ears. The most prominent differences are the interaural time difference and the interaural level difference, both of which depend on frequency. This paper describes the stages by which these differences are estimated by

H. Steven Colburn; Barbara Shinn-Cunningham; Gerald Kidd; Nat Durlach


Cali y las consecuencias económicas del narcotráfico  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the nineties, Cali went through a series of events that resulted into a crisis. In the same decade happened: the economic liberalization, the largest mortgage crisis over the past 30 years of the country, the crisis in public finances of the city and the upsurge of drug trafficking. These factors, jointly, had adverse consequences for the economic growth of

Andrea Otero



Structural basis for the interaction between yeast Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex components Sgf11 and Sus1.  


Sus1 is a central component of the yeast gene gating machinery, the process by which actively transcribing genes such as GAL1 become associated with nuclear pore complexes. Sus1 is a component of both the SAGA transcriptional co-activator complex and the TREX-2 complex that binds to nuclear pore complexes. TREX-2 contains two Sus1 chains that have an articulated helical hairpin fold, enabling them to wrap around an extended alpha-helix in Sac3, following a helical hydrophobic stripe. In SAGA, Sus1 binds to Sgf11 and has been proposed to provide a link between SAGA and TREX-2. We present here the crystal structure of the complex between Sus1 and the N-terminal region of Sgf11 that forms an extended alpha-helix around which Sus1 wraps in a manner that shares some similarities with the Sus1-Sac3 interface in TREX-2. However, the Sus1-binding site on Sgf11 is somewhat shorter than on Sac3 and is based on a narrower hydrophobic stripe. Engineered mutants that disrupt the Sgf11-Sus1 interaction in vitro confirm the importance of the hydrophobic helical stripe in molecular recognition. Helix alpha1 of the Sus1-articulated hairpin does not bind directly to Sgf11 and adopts a wide range of conformations within and between crystal forms, consistent with the presence of a flexible hinge and also with results from previous extensive mutagenesis studies (Klöckner, C., Schneider, M., Lutz, S., Jani, D., Kressler, D., Stewart, M., Hurt, E., and Köhler, A. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 12049-12056). A single Sus1 molecule cannot bind Sgf11 and Sac3 simultaneously and this, combined with the structure of the Sus1-Sgf11 complex, indicates that Sus1 forms separate subcomplexes within SAGA and TREX-2. PMID:20007317

Ellisdon, Andrew M; Jani, Divyang; Köhler, Alwin; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray



Structure of BT_3984, a member of the SusD/RagB family of nutrient-binding molecules  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron protein BT_3984 was determined to a resolution of 1.7?Å and was the first structure to be determined from the extensive SusD family of polysaccharide-binding proteins. SusD is an essential component of the sus operon that defines the paradigm for glycan utilization in dominant members of the human gut microbiota. Structural analysis of BT_3984 revealed an N-terminal region containing several tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), while the signature C-terminal region is less structured and contains extensive loop regions. Sequence and structure analysis of BT_3984 suggests the presence of binding interfaces for other proteins from the polysaccharide-utilization complex.

Bakolitsa, Constantina; Xu, Qingping; Rife, Christopher L.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.



Uso seguro de los medicamentos después de un desastre ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... El Centro para la Evaluación e Investigación de Medicamentos (CDER, por su sigla en inglés) y la FDA ofrecen la siguiente información sobre el ... More results from



Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters affect lives and property, devastating communities for extended periods. This paper shows how some knowledge based on experiences and progress of science biological, psychosocial and behavioural, are still helping us to understand the behaviour of the survivor. The ability to implement guidelines and aid operations, data and practices based on evidence and empirical studies in the field of

Raquel E. Cohen



Short communication Conservation action in the Gal apagos: feral pig (Sus scrofa) eradication from Santiago Island q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced mammals are major drivers of extinction and ecosystem change. As omnivores, feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are responsible for wholesale adverse effects on islands. Here, we report on the eradication of feral pigs from Santiago Island in the Gal apagos Archipelago, Ecuador, which is the largest insular pig removal to date. Using a combination of ground hunting and poisoning, over

Felipe Cruz; C. Josh Donlan; Karl Campbell; Victor Carrion


Occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. and other pathogens in lymph nodes of slaughtered swine and wild boars ( Sus scrofa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium spp. and other pathogens were investigated in 258 swine lymph nodes (129 with and 129 without apparent lesions), and 120 lymph nodes (60 with and 60 without lesions) from wild boars (Sus scrofa). A total of lymph nodes from swine and wild boars were collected of different animals. Submaxillar and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted to microbiological examination and

Gustavo Henrique Batista Lara; Márcio Garcia Ribeiro; Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite; Antonio Carlos Paes; Alessandro Guazzelli; Aristeu Vieira da Silva; Adolfo Carlos Barreto Santos; Fernando José Paganini Listoni



An Analysis of Recent Enrollment, Discipline and Graduation Trends among Females and Underrepresented Minorities at SUS Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increased numbers of minority students as well as increased numbers of Florida high school graduates entering higher education in Florida have influenced Florida SUS [State University System] enrollment and graduation characteristics. This study of 510,952 undergraduate students shows that between the years 1996 and 2003, the number of entering…

Micceri, Theodore; Borman, Kathy



Niveles de resistencia a insecticidas y sus mecanismos en una cepa de Aedes aegypti de Santiago de Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Producto del más reciente brote de dengue en el municipio Santiago de Cuba, se estudió una cepa de este vector para determinar sus niveles de susceptibilidad y\\/o resistencia a insecticidas organofosforados y piretroides. Los resultados de los bioensayos mostraron bajos niveles de resistencia a fentión, malatión y deltametrina, se obtuvieron moderados para temefos, metil- pirimifos y cipermetrina, y altos

Juan A. Bisset; Lorely H. Milá; Eric Calvo



Genetic characterization and phylogeography of the wild boar Sus scrofa introduced into Uruguay  

PubMed Central

The European wild boar Sus scrofa was first introduced into Uruguay, in southern South America during the early decades of the last century. Subsequently, and starting from founder populations, its range spread throughout the country and into the neighbouring Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul. Due to the subsequent negative impact, it was officially declared a national pest. The main aim in the present study was to provide a more comprehensive scenario of wild boar differentiation in Uruguay, by using mtDNA markers to access the genetic characterization of populations at present undergoing rapid expansion. A high level of haplotype diversity, intermediate levels of nucleotide diversity and considerable population differentiation, were detected among sampled localities throughout major watercourses and catchment dams countrywide. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two different phylogroups, thereby reflecting two deliberate introduction events forming distantly genetic lineages in local wild boar populations. Our analysis lends support to the hypothesis that the invasive potential of populations emerge from introgressive hybridization with domestic pigs. On taking into account the appreciable differentiation and reduced migration between locales in wild boar populations, management strategies could be effective if each population were to be considered as a single management unit.

Garcia, Graciela; Vergara, Julia; Lombardi, Raul



Hemodynamic and Histologic Characterization of a Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) Model of Chronic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to develop and characterize an aortopulmonary shunt model of chronic pulmonary hypertension in swine and provide sequential hemodynamic, angiographic, and histologic data by using an experimental endoarterial biopsy catheter. Nine Yucatan female microswine (Sus scrofa domestica) underwent surgical anastomosis of the left pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. Sequential hemodynamic, angiographic, and pulmonary vascular samples were obtained. Six pigs (mean weight, 22.4 ± 5.3 kg; mean age, 7.3 ± 2.7 mo at surgery) survived long-term (6 mo) and consistently developed marked pulmonary arterial hypertension. Angiography showed characteristic central pulmonary arterial enlargement and peripheral tortuosity and pruning. The biopsy catheter was safe and effective in obtaining pulmonary endoarterial samples for histologic studies, which showed neointimal and medial changes. Autopsy confirmed severe pulmonary vascular changes, including concentric obstructive neointimal and plexiform-like lesions. This swine model showed hemodynamic, angiographic, and histologic characteristics of chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension that mimicked the arterial pulmonary hypertension of systemic-to-pulmonary arterial shunts in humans. Experimental data obtained using this and other models and application of an in vivo endoarterial biopsy technique may aid in understanding mechanisms and developing therapies for experimental and human pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Rothman, Abraham; Wiencek, Robert G; Davidson, Stephanie; Evans, William N; Restrepo, Humberto; Sarukhanov, Valeri; Rivera-Begeman, Amanda; Mann, David



Expression profile and subcellular localization of Torque teno sus virus proteins.  


In the present study, the expression, generation and subcellular localization of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) proteins were characterized into two genetically distinct TTSuV species (TTSuV1 and TTSuV2). Following transfection of three TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 full-length ORF (ORF1, ORF2 and ORF3) expression constructs into porcine kidney cells, alternative splice variants encoding new TTSuV protein isoforms were identified for the first time. Proteins encoded from ORF1 and ORF3 were localized in the nucleoli of porcine kidney cells and that of ORF2 in the cytoplasm and nucleus excluding the nucleoli. The subcellular localization of the different protein isoforms was not only similar between distinct TTSuV species but also to the ones described in human Torque teno virus (TTV). Results of the present in vitro study were not based on full-length viral clones but suggested that alternative splicing strategy to generate TTSuV protein isoforms probably occurs in vivo. Obtained data provide new information on molecular biology of TTSuV and anelloviruses, which until now has been solely based on results obtained from human TTV. PMID:21715596

Martínez-Guinó, Laura; Ballester, Maria; Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija



Effect of Ultrasonic Shot Peening on the Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of SUS304  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shot peening is a mechanical surface modification technology, which can extend the fatigue life of materials by introducing work hardening, compressive stress, and/or some additional microstructural change in surface layer resulting in a restraint of crack initiation and propagation on the surface. In this study, SUS304, which has high formability and corrosion resistance, was shot peened and fatigued for the determination of their effect on the evolution of microstructures. The fatigue of the specimens were carried out at three different cycles, followed by second shot peening and finish fatigue of 106 cycles. The microstructures of the specimens were investigated using OM, EBSD, SED and EDS. The resulting mechanical property such as microhardness and residual stress was also investigated. Deformed layer of ~100?m and mechanical twins were observed after fatigue and shot peening test. The top surface layer of shot peened specimen showed the highest twin density and microhardness. The increase of the fatigue before shot peening caused increase and deepening of the compressive residual stress. However, the finish fatigue of 106 cycles decreased overall compressive residual stress.

Ahn, Deokgi; Shin, Keesam; Dong, Jiling; Jung, Jinesung; Kim, Doosoo



Developmental changes affecting lectin binding in the vomeronasal organ of domestic pigs, Sus scrofa.  


This study investigated the developmental changes of glycoconjugate patterns in the porcine vomeronasal organs (VNOs) and associated glands (Jacobson's glands) from prenatal (9 weeks of gestation) and postnatal (2 days after birth) to the sexually mature stage (6 months old). The VNO of pigs (Sus scrofa) was examined using the following: Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA). At the fetal stage, all lectins examined were detected mainly in the free border of the vomeronasal epithelium, but few (WGA and UEA-I) and or absent in the VNO cell bodies. At the postnatal and sexually mature stages, the reactivity of some lectins, including WGA, UEA-I, DBA and SBA, were shown to increase in the VNO sensory epithelium as well as the free border. The increased reactivity of lectins as development progressed was also observed in Jacobson's gland acini. These findings suggest that binding sites of lectins, including those of WGA, UEA-I, DBA, and SBA, increase during development from fetal to postnatal growth, possibly contributing to the increased ability of chemoreception in the pig. PMID:21376374

Park, Junwoo; Lee, Wonho; Jeong, Chanwoo; Kim, Hwangryong; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun



Non-Destructive Evaluation of Fatigue Damage for SUS316 by Using Electromagnetic Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some fatigue damage estimation methods for an austenitic stainless steel that uses martensitic transformation. For instance, those are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method using the differential pick-up coil, and so on. We are researching also those two methods in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relationship between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. In addition, the excitation method can be easily used at the job site because the special magnetizer is unnecessary. But, these methods have some disadvantages shown as follows. For instance, the former needs a special magnetizer and the latter's output signal is small. On the other hand, it is well known that the inductance of a pancake type coil put on the metallic specimen changes according to the electromagnetic properties of the metallic specimen. In this paper, the assessment method of fatigue of an austenitic stainless steel (SUS316) that uses the change by fatigue of the inductance of the pancake type coil measured with the LCR meter is shown. In addition, the fatigue evaluation performance of this method is described.

Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.



Estimation of Fatigue Damage for AN Austenitic Stainless Steel (SUS304) Using a Pancake Type Coil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some fatigue damage estimation methods of an austenitic stainless steel that uses martensitic transformation. For instance, those are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method, and so on. Those two methods are researched also in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relationship between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. However, this method has the disadvantage to need a special magnetizer. Then, this method cannot be easily used at the job site such as the factory. On the other hand, as the special magnetizer is unnecessary, the excitation method can be easily used at the job site. But, this method has some disadvantages shown as follows. For instance, the output signal of this method is small. And the surface state of the specimen strongly influences the noise component of the output signal. It is well known that the inductance of a pancake type coil put on the metallic specimen changes according to the electromagnetic properties of the metallic specimen. In this paper, the method of evaluation of fatigue damage of an austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) by using a change of an inductance of a pancake type coil is shown. In addition, the fatigue evaluation performance of this method is described.

Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Nagato, S.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.



Fatigue Properties of SUS304 Stainless Steel after Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (unsm)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changing of materials surface properties method always was taken into improving the fatigue strength. In this paper, an ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification(UNSM) technique was used on the SUS 304 stainless steel to form a nanostructured surface layer with different static load(70N, 90N, 110N, 130N) and the vibration strike number was about 20,000times/mm2. The untreated and different condition specimens fatigue strength was all tested by a dual-spindle rotating bending fatigue test machine. SPring-8(a large synchrotron radiation facility) was used to test the surface nanocrystallization components. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscope and a micro-Vickers hardness tester (MVK-E3, Akashi) were separately used to get the surface residual stresses, fracture surface after fatigue testing, metallographic structure and the microhardness of the nanostructured surface layer. The result showed that martensite transformation took place on the surface of specimens, the surface residual stresses had only a small increase and some cracks occurred between the martensite layer and the austenite layer, but the fatigue strength of 90N improved 81%.

Zhang, K. Y.; Pyoun, Y. S.; Cao, X. J.; Wu, B.; Murakami, R.


Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O



Immobilization of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa) with Telazol and xylazine.  


A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (100 mg of Telazol and 100 mg of xylazine per ml) was used to immobilize wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa); mean (+/-SD) intramuscular dosage rate was 4.73 +/- 0.86 mg/kg and 4.35 +/- 0.68 mg/kg for peccaries (n = 107) and hogs (n = 49), respectively. Mean (+/-SD) induction time (time from injection until complete immobilization) was 4.6 +/- 2.5 minutes for collared peccaries and 4.4 +/- 1.9 for hogs. Peccaries became conscious at 64 +/- 29 minutes and first stood at 92 +/- 33 minutes after initial injection. Hogs became conscious at 54 +/- 26 minutes and first stood at 78 +/- 38 minutes after initial injection. A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine provided an effective and safe method to immobilize both species and provided adequate analgesia and anesthesia for short surgical procedures. PMID:9027707

Gabor, T M; Hellgren, E C; Silvy, N J



Testis morphometry and kinetics of spermatogenesis in the feral pig (Sus scrofa).  


The feral pig (Sus scrofa sp) also known as Monteiro pig, originated from a domestic pig breed that was introduced into Pantanal region in Brazil in the eighteenth century. Although the feral pig has commercial potential, there are few reports in the literature concerning the reproductive biology of this species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further describe the feral pig testis parenchyma as well as characterize the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle by tubular morphology method, and to evaluate the number of differentiated spermatogonia generations in this species. Eight sexually mature feral pigs were analyzed. Fragments of testes were embedded in plastic resin and used to prepare slides for morphometrical studies. It was concluded that the feral pig has six generations of differentiated spermatogonials (A1, A2, A3, A4, In, B) and that the cellular composition in the eight stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle of these animals were very similar to those reported in species of suidae and tayssuidae already studied. PMID:24100067

Costa, Deiler S; Faria, Fábio J C; Fernandes, Carlos A C; Silva, Juliana C B; Auharek, Sarah A



Wild boar hair (Sus scrofa) as a non-invasive indicator of mercury pollution.  


This paper investigates the usefulness of wild boar (Sus scrofa) hair as a non-invasive indicator of mercury pollution. Samples were collected in two hunting seasons (1998/1999 and 1999/2000) by hunters from four differently polluted regions of Poland. Mercury content was determined by AAS methods. Different washing procedures were compared. De-ionised water was found to be suitable for the removal of exogenous mercury sources in hair analysis. Metal distribution along hair was analysed. It was found that problems arising from differences in distribution of metal along a single hair strand as well as differences in the hair colour can be eliminated through the careful homogenisation of the samples before analysis. The influences of physiological, ecological and environmental factors that might significantly affect the obtained results (age, gender, season, location of habitat and diet of the sampled animals) were estimated and taken into account. The present study revealed that female hair contained a higher amount of mercury than male hair. Moreover the highest mercury content was found in young individuals between 1 and 2 years of age. A positive correlation of the present results with environmental data taken from the State Offices showed an influence of environmental pollution on the mercury level in wild boar hair. PMID:15740760

Soba?ska, Marta A



Salmonellosis in pigmy hogs (Sus salvanius)--a critically endangered species of mammal.  


The pigmy hog (Sus salvanius) is the smallest and the rarest wild suid in the world. This species is on the verge of extinction and the World Conservation Union has rated it among the most endangered of all mammals. This paper reports the investigation into an outbreak of salmonellosis among captive pigmy hogs at the Research and Breeding Centre of the pigmy hog conservation programme, Guwahati, Assam, India. Of 75 pigmy hogs (38 males and 37 females) maintained at the Centre, seven (9.3%) died within five days. The causative organism associated with the outbreak was identified as Salmonella Typhimurium (syn. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium). All the isolates of S. Typhimurium belonged to phage type DT193. The isolates harboured multiple plasmids. Five isolates harboured four (65.0 MDa, 4.2 MDa, 3.0 MDa, 1.3 MDa), while two isolates carried three plasmids (65.0 MDa, 4.2 MDa, 3.0 MDa). All strains showed resistance to amikacin, ampicillin, streptomycin and sulfamerazin; five strains were resistant to oxytetracycline and trimethoprim. All the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and gentamicin. All seven isolates of S. Typhimurium were found to harbour stn, sopB and pefA genes. However, none of them was found to carry sefC and sopE genes. PMID:16642766

Rahman, H; Deka, P J; Chakraborty, A; Narayan, G



Digestible energy content of pasture species in growing European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.).  


The objectives were to determine the apparent energy digestibility of six pasture species frequently grazed by European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) and to estimate the digestible energy (DE) consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar. Seven diets were prepared; a base diet (BD) which did not contain any pasture species, diets D1 to D5 which included 75% of the BD and 25% of the dried pasture species Lolium perenne (D1), Festuca arundinacea (D2), Agrostis capillaris (D3), Bromus staminius (D4) or Trifolium repens (D5) and D6 which contained 85% BD and 15% dried Plantago lanceolata. Seven purebred European wild boar (initial liveweight 24.4 ± 0.8 kg, average ± SEM) were given access to the diets following a Latin Square design. The animals received each diet for eight days, with faecal sampling on days 6, 7 and 8. The total apparent DE consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar was estimated using previously collected pasture consumption data from wild boar. The digestibility coefficients and DE contents of the pasture species ranged from 0.29 to 0.65, and 5.8 to 12.6 MJ/kg DM respectively, with L. perenne and P. lanceolata having the greatest digestibility coefficients and DE contents. The wild boar were estimated to satisfy between 52% and 142% of their maintenance energy requirements through pasture consumption. Grazing wild boar are able to utilise an important proportion of the energy present in pasture species. PMID:21575078

Quijada, R P; Bitsch, N I; Hodgkinson, S M



Analysis of Muscle and Ovary Transcriptome of Sus scrofa: Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery  

PubMed Central

Pig (Sus scrofa) is an important organism for both agricultural and medical purpose. This study aims to investigate the S. scrofa transcriptome by the use of Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained a total of 558 743 and 528 260 reads for the back-leg muscle and ovary tissue each. The overall 1 087 003 reads give rise to 421 767 341 bp total residues averaging 388 bp per read. The de novo assemblies yielded 11 057 contigs and 60 270 singletons for the back-leg muscle, 12 204 contigs and 70 192 singletons for the ovary and 18 938 contigs and 102 361 singletons for combined tissues. The overall GC content of S. scrofa transcriptome is 42.3% for assembled contigs. Alternative splicing was found within 4394 contigs, giving rise to 1267 isogroups or genes. A total of 56 589 transcripts are involved in molecular function (40 916), biological process (38 563), cellular component (35 787) by further gene ontology analyses. Comparison analyses showed that 336 and 553 genes had significant higher expression in the back-leg muscle and ovary each. In addition, we obtained a total of 24 214 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 11 928 simple sequence repeats. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetic makeup of S. scrofa transcriptome and provide useful information for functional genomic research in future.

Nie, Qinghua; Fang, Meixia; Jia, Xinzheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoning; He, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiquan



The effects of continuous application of the TASER X26 waveform on Sus scrofa.  


This study investigated and evaluated the safety margins of the continuous long duration (up to 30 min) effect of the TASER X26 waveform, using a Sus scrofa model. Long duration continuous stimulus has not been evaluated on humans or human surrogates prior to this study. Swine were used as models due to similarities with humans in their skin and cardiovascular systems. Very long duration was used to determine both exposure dose and possible adverse physiological effects of dose. The trial began with an application of 10 min, and subsequent animals received increasing exposure time up to a survived maximum duration of 30 min. At the onset of this work, it was hypothesized that there would be a time limit after which most animals would not survive consistent with increased dose response. However, this hypothesis was not supported by the experimental results. All animals (10 of 10) survived up to 3 min. Seven of the 10 animals survived up to a 10-min exposure and 3 of 5 animals with a 30-min target exposure survived the full exposure. Surviving animals were recovered and observed for 24 h, with no postrecovery deaths. This suggests that swine (based on physiology) will not experience a fatal event when exposed to the TASER X26 for a continuous 3 min. Conclusions regarding longer duration (10-30 min) are not as certain due to the small sample sizes at these time intervals. PMID:23489132

Jenkins, David M; Murray, W Bosseau; Kennett, Mary J; Hughes, Edward L; Werner, Jacob R



The nuclear DNA longevity in cryopreserved boar spermatozoa assessed using the Sperm-Sus-Halomax.  


The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the dynamics of nuclear DNA fragmentation in frozen-thawed (FT) boar spermatozoa incubated over time. Using the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test (Sperm-Sus-Halomax), this study focused special attention on resolving the hypothesis that the original halo shapes around the sperm head could show dynamic changes over the postthawing incubation time. Twenty FT sperm samples from five boars (four per boar) were incubated at 37 °C during 168 hours and sperm motility (assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (evaluated using the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit), and nuclear DNA fragmentation were analyzed at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 168 hours. The percentages of motile and viable spermatozoa progressively decreased during incubation, with no motile and viable spermatozoa less than 10% in all boars at 24 hours of incubation. Four different halo shapes around the sperm head were considered in the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test: normal, small, large scattered (typical fragmented nuclear DNA), and absent halo, all of them coexisting at the same time in the boar FT semen samples. Sperm with a large scattered halo did not change during postthaw, consistently showing percentages less than 5% over time in all boars. In contrast, the other three sperm populations showed a dynamic evolution over incubation time, characterized by a gradual reduction of sperm with normal halo, proportional to the increment in the sperm showing a small halo, followed by a switch between the sperm with a small halo and sperm with no halo. These results suggest that three of these four sperm populations, those showing small, large scattered, and absent halo, represent spermatozoa with different degrees of nuclear DNA damage, which should be taken into consideration to indicate the percentage of sperm with fragmented nuclear DNA in boar FT semen samples. PMID:23602080

Alkmin, Diego V; Martinez-Alborcia, Maria J; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi



Age-related tissue distribution of swine Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2.  


Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular single-stranded DNA genome, belonging to the family Anelloviridae. In swine, two genetically distinct species have been identified, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2). The aim of the present work was to study the tissue distribution of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 in pigs of different ages, including foetuses at the second and last thirds of gestation, and animals at 5 days and 5, 15 and 24 weeks of age. Investigated tissues included brain, lung, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and bone marrow. Viral DNA from tissue extractions were tested by a comparative PCR for the presence of TTSuVs. Overall, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 species were found in all tissues tested, with variations depending on age, and following similar infection dynamics in all tissues, increasing progressively in prevalence and virus load over time. The highest prevalence was found at 5 weeks of age and maintained afterwards, and the highest loads of virus in the different tissues were seen in the oldest animals (15 and 24 weeks of age). No animals were negative to TTV, including foetuses. In conclusion, the present study indicated that swine TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 can be found virtually in all body tissues of the pig. Both swine TTV species were present in high levels in almost all older animals, while viral negative tissues were only found in 5-week-old and 5-day-old pigs, and foetuses. PMID:20646878

Aramouni, M; Segalés, J; Cortey, M; Kekarainen, T



Rescue of a Porcine Anellovirus (Torque Teno Sus Virus 2) from Cloned Genomic DNA in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Anelloviruses are a group of single-stranded circular DNA viruses infecting humans and other animal species. Animal models combined with reverse genetic systems of anellovirus have not been developed. We report here the construction and initial characterization of full-length DNA clones of a porcine anellovirus, torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2), in vitro and in vivo. We first demonstrated that five cell lines, including PK-15 cells, are free of TTSuV1 or TTSuV2 contamination, as determined by a real-time PCR and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using anti-TTSuV antibodies. Recombinant plasmids harboring monomeric or tandem-dimerized genomic DNA of TTSuV2 from the United States and Germany were constructed. Circular TTSuV2 genomic DNA with or without introduced genetic markers and tandem-dimerized TTSuV2 plasmids were transfected into PK-15 cells, respectively. Splicing of viral mRNAs was identified in transfected cells. Expression of TTSuV2-specific open reading frame 1 (ORF1) in cell nuclei, especially in nucleoli, was detected by IFA. However, evidence of productive TTSuV2 infection was not observed in 12 different cell lines transfected with the TTSuV2 DNA clones. Transfection with circular DNA from a TTSuV2 deletion mutant did not produce ORF1 protein, suggesting that the observed ORF1 expression is driven by TTSuV2 DNA replication in cells. Pigs inoculated with either the tandem-dimerized clones or circular genomic DNA of U.S. TTSuV2 developed viremia, and the introduced genetic markers were retained in viral DNA recovered from the sera of infected pigs. The availability of an infectious DNA clone of TTSuV2 will facilitate future study of porcine anellovirus pathogenesis and biology.

Huang, Yao-Wei; Patterson, Abby R.; Opriessnig, Tanja; Dryman, Barbara A.; Gallei, Andreas; Harrall, Kylie K.; Vaughn, Eric M.; Roof, Michael B.



Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals the origin of Sus scrofa from Rebun Island, Japan.  


The Kabukai A site (5 to 8C A.D.) of the Okhotsk cultural area is on Rebun Island, a small island near the coast, north-northwest of Hokkaido, Japan. Specimens of Sus scrofa, called the Sakhalin pig, were discovered in five cultural layers at the Kabukai A site. Ancient DNA was extracted from the remains of 42 Sakhalin pig bones. Thirty-nine nucleotide sequences of the 574-bp mitochondrial DNA control region, estimated to have originated from at least 21 individuals, were amplified and analyzed phylogenetically. Nine distinct haplotypes (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, and D2) from this site were classified into four haplotype groups (A, B, C, and D) by parsimonious network analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 9 ancient and 55 modern haplotypes indicated that the population of Sakhalin pigs at the Kabukai A site belonged to two distinct clusters; haplotype groups A and B formed a cluster comprised only of themselves, and haplotype groups C and D belonged to the cluster of one of the two genetic groups of Japanese wild boars uniquely distributed in the western part of Japan, including one northeast Mongolian wild boar. Analysis of the haplotype distribution among three archaeological sites and their historical transitions among the five layers reflecting the cultural periods at the Kabukai A site suggests that the Sakhalin pig populations were introduced from Sakhalin island and the Amur River basin in the northeastern Eurasian continent together with some cultural influences. PMID:11428465

Watanobe, T; Ishiguro, N; Okumura, N; Nakano, M; Matsui, A; Hongo, H; Ushiro, H



Clean Technique for Prolonged Nonsurvival Cardiothoracic Surgery in Swine (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

Laboratory animal regulations provide little guidance regarding duration of nonsurvival surgery requiring aseptic technique. We hypothesized that swine would experience no sepsis during nonsurvival cardiothoracic surgery accomplished by using clean technique and lasting 8 h or less. Incision sites of 5 male farm pigs (Sus scrofa) were shaved and then cleaned with alcohol and povidone–iodine. The surgeon wore sterile gloves, clean scrubs, and hair bonnet; assistants wore clean scrubs and nonsterile gloves; most instruments were autoclaved. A median sternotomy incision was used for thoracic cavity exposure, and the skull was exposed to allow induction of brain death. Heart rate, body temperature, and blood samples were obtained before surgery (0 h; baseline) and at 2, 4, 5 or 6, and 7 or 8 h thereafter. Statistical analysis by t tests showed that heart rate was unchanged and body temperature increased after the 0-h (baseline) time point. Aerobic blood cultures were negative except for 2 samples that were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. at 4 h. RBC, Hgb, and Hct levels were decreased at 2 and 4 h, but WBC and platelets were unchanged. Other alterations included decreased glucose (at 7 or 8 h), increased BUN (at 5 or 6 h and 7 or 8 h) and creatinine (at 5 or 6 h), decreased Na+ and Ca and increased K+ (most time points), decreased total protein and albumin (most time points), and decreased globulin (at 7 or 8 h). Liver enzymes and bilirubin typically were unchanged, and cholesterol consistently was decreased. Together our results indicate a lack of sepsis for 8 h or less in pigs undergoing cardiothoracic surgery by using clean technique. These findings provide new and specific data regarding the use of aseptic technique during prolonged nonsurvival surgeries.

Chan, Maia M; Rabkin, David G; Washington, Ida M



Análisis de las políticas públicas de comunicación o en las estrategias de comunicación de las instituciones públicas. Así como de los partidos políticos, que aunque formaciones privadas poseen un rol esencial en la formación de la opinión pública, en la manifestación de las demandas ciudadanas y en el reclutamiento de las élites políticas. * El papel de los medios de comunicación y sus consecuencias en la dinámica política. Siendo éste el principal motor de las investigaciones en comunicación política  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of political communication in the formation and expression of public opinion has been expounded upon by numerous researchers. In the context of political communication, there are three entities involved: the authorities, the media, and society itself. The classic studies of political communication deal with diverse aspects: * Analysis of public political communication or of the communication strategy of

Antonio Castillo Esparcia


The robust phylogeny of Korean wild boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus ) using partial D-loop sequence of mtDNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the precise phylogenetic relationships of Korean wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus), a partial mtDNA D-loop region (1,274 bp, NC_000845 nucleotide positions 16576-1236) was sequenced among 56 Korean wild\\u000a boars. In total, 25 haplotypes were identified and classified into four distinct subgroups (K1 to K4) based on Bayesian phylogenetic\\u000a analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. An

In-Cheol Cho; Sang-Hyun Han; Meiying Fang; Sung-Soo Lee; Moon-Suck Ko; Hang Lee; Hyun-Tae Lim; Chae-Kyoung Yoo; Jun-Heon Lee; Jin-Tae Jeon



The optimal cutting-parameter selection of heavy cutting process in side milling for SUS304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an optimal cutting-parameter design of heavy cutting in side milling for SUS304 stainless steel. The orthogonal\\u000a array with grey-fuzzy logics isapplied to optimize the side milling process with multiple performance characteristics. A grey-fuzzy\\u000a reasoning grade obtained from the grey-fuzzylogics analysis is used as a performance index to determine the optimal cutting\\u000a parameters. The selected cutting parameters are

Chang Ching-Kao; H. S. Lu



SusG: A Unique Cell-Membrane-Associated [alpha]-Amylase from a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Targets Complex Starch Molecules  

SciTech Connect

SusG is an {alpha}-amylase and part of a large protein complex on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and plays a major role in carbohydrate acquisition by the animal gut microbiota. Presented here, the atomic structure of SusG has an unusual extended, bilobed structure composed of amylase at one end and an unprecedented internal carbohydrate-binding motif at the other. Structural studies further demonstrate that the carbohydrate-binding motif binds maltooligosaccharide distal to, and on the opposite side of, the amylase catalytic site. SusG has an additional starch-binding site on the amylase domain immediately adjacent to the active cleft. Mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that these two additional starch-binding sites appear to play a role in catabolism of insoluble starch. However, elimination of these sites has only a limited effect, suggesting that they may have a more important role in product exchange with other Sus components.

Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)




PubMed Central

A study of the histogenesis of elastic tissue in the embryonic ductus arteriosus of Sus scrofa is in accord with the theory that elastic fibrils are directly differentiated in the outlying portion of the protoplasm of the early connective tissue cell. In the occlusion of the postfetal ductus arteriosus of Sus scrofa there is early a hypertrophy of the internal elastic membrane. Subsequently there takes place a marked delamination of the thickened internal elastic membrane in the production of new and independent elastic fibers and lamellæ. The formation of new elastic fibers from preformed elastic tissue is most abundant where the postfetal contraction of the ductus arteriosus is least marked. These new elastic fibers play an important part in the occlusion of the lumen of the postfetal ductus. Aside from the extensive formation of elastic fibers from preformed elastic tissue, in the occlusion of the lumen of the postfetal ductus arteriosus of Sus scrofa, there are also some elastic fibrils formed from non-elastic elements, apparently from connective tissue cells. In some recent preliminary work on ligations of the common carotid artery there was found, after an interval of from eight to twelve days, at some points between the ligatures, a slight but obvious cellular thickening of the so-called subendothelial stratum. Some of these connective tissue cells may have wandered from the other coats of the vessel, through the inner elastic membrane into the subendothelial stratum; others may have proliferated from cells in situ. Specific stains revealed near the periphery of some of these cells, i. e., in the outlying portion of the exoplasm, very delicate elastic fibrils, apparently the product of protoplasmic activity.

Schaeffer, J. Parsons



Analysis of 6-pyruvyl tetrahydropterin synthase, a target gene product of su(s) suppressor in Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

Of the 20 suppressor mutants listed in Drosophila, su(s){sup 2} has been studied for the biochemical characterization of the suppression. In su(s){sup 2} suppression, some mutants at vermilion (v, 1-33.0), sable (s, 1-43.0), speck (sp, 2-107.0), and purple (pr, 2-54.5) are suppressible by mutants at the suppressor of sable (su(s)) locus. There have been many reports of suppression mechanism studies in purple led to purple loci. The biochemical studies in purple led to in vitro demonstration of a su(s){sup +} gene product as a negative effector against suppressed purple PPH{sub 4} synthase, which has been also demonstrated in the gene product of vermilion more recently. Both studies led to a proposal for a posttranslational mechanism in which the su(s){sup +} gene produces a substance that interferes with the function of the target enzymes from the purple and vermilion mutant. In contrast to the transcriptional regulation of the su(s) locus the posttranslational mechanism is based on qualitative differences between wild and suppressed enzyme. Therefore this investigation was to determine if any quantitative or qualitative differences exist between the mutant and wild type target enzymes. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Yim, J.J.; Park, Y.S.; Kim, J.H.; Jacobson, K.B. (Seoul National Univ. (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Microbiology; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))



Sus1, Cdc31, and the Sac3 CID Region Form a Conserved Interaction Platform that Promotes Nuclear Pore Association and mRNA Export  

PubMed Central

Summary The yeast Sac3:Cdc31:Sus1:Thp1 (TREX-2) complex facilitates the repositioning and association of actively transcribing genes with nuclear pores (NPCs)—“gene gating”—that is central to integrating transcription, processing, and mRNA nuclear export. We present here the crystal structure of Sus1 and Cdc31 bound to a central region of Sac3 (the CID domain) that is crucial for its function. Sac3CID forms a long, gently undulating ? helix around which one Cdc31 and two Sus1 chains are wrapped. Sus1 has an articulated helical hairpin fold that facilitates its wrapping around Sac3. In vivo studies using engineered mutations that selectively disrupted binding of individual chains to Sac3 indicated that Sus1 and Cdc31 function synergistically to promote NPC association of TREX-2 and mRNA nuclear export. These data indicate Sac3CID provides a scaffold within TREX-2 to integrate interactions between protein complexes to facilitate the coupling of transcription and mRNA export during gene expression.

Jani, Divyang; Lutz, Sheila; Marshall, Neil J.; Fischer, Tamas; Kohler, Alwin; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray



Detection of Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 in tissues from stillborn piglets delivered by sows via natural farrowing  

PubMed Central

We detected Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 (TTSuV1 and TTSuV2) in tissue samples from 18 stillborn piglets using nested polymerase chain reaction. The detection rates of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 were 78% and 50%, respectively, with 83% of the stillborn piglets positive for TTSuV1 or TTSuV2. TTSuV1 was detected highest in the liver (72%) followed by heart (56%), spleen (38%) and tonsils (38%) while TTSuV2 was detected highest in the tonsils (38%) followed by liver (33%), spleen (25%), and heart (17%). These results indicate that TTSuVs are commonly present but not equally distributed among the tissues of stillborn piglets.

Tshering, Chenga; Takagi, Mitsuhiro



Spargana in a weasel, Mustela sibirica manchurica, and a wild boar, Sus scrofa, from Gangwon-do, Korea.  


To know the status of sparganum (plerocercoid of Spirometra erinacei) infection in the Korean wild life, several species of wild animals were captured in Gangwon-do and examined for their status of infection with spargana. From February to December 2011, a total of 62 wild boars, 5 badgers, 1 weasel, 1 Siberian chipmunk, and 53 wild rodents were captured, and their whole muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of spargana worms. From the weasel and 1 wild boar, a total of 5 spargana specimens were extracted. The weasel was for the first time recorded as an intermediate or paratenic/transport host of S. erinacei in Korea, and both the weasel (Mustela sibirica manchurica) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were added to the list of wild animals carrying spargana. PMID:23864753

Lee, Seung-Ha; Choe, Eun-Yoon; Shin, Hyun-Duk; Seo, Min



PIXE and RBS study of radiation-induced segregation in single crystal austenitic stainless steel SUS 304  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation-induced segregation in single crystal austenitic stainless steel SUS 304 induced by 140 MeV Ni10+ ion irradiation was studied. The fluences of Ni ions were 6.4 × 1014, 2.1 × 1015 and 8.4 × 1015 cm-2, respectively. The RBS and PIXE methods by 1.8 MeV 4He+ ion beams were applied to analyze the lattice location and displacement of the minor and major elements of the alloy, and the lattice disordering of the single crystal, by using the channeling technique. The xmin value of RBS from the single crystal is significantly decreased following the high energy Ni ion irradiation, due to the thermal annealing effect. The difference in the radiation effect and the thermal annealing effect is clearly distinguished during the high energy ion irradiation.

Kiyoshi, Kawatsura; Takanori, Nakae; Narutoshi, Shimatani; Kohji, Maeda; Shigeyoshi, Aral; Tohru, Mitamura; Mititaka, Terasawa; Hajime, Iwasaki; Hitoshi, Uchida; Keiji, Koterazawa; Horino, Yuji; Mokuno, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Kanenaga; Satou, Mamoru; Sataka, Masao; Imai, Makoto; Maeta, Hiroshi



The cap binding complex influences H2B ubiquitination by facilitating splicing of the SUS1 pre-mRNA  

PubMed Central

Pre-messenger RNA splicing is carried out by a large ribonucleoprotein complex called the spliceosome. Despite the striking evolutionary conservation of the spliceosomal components and their functions, controversy persists about the relative importance of splicing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae—particularly given the paucity of intron-containing genes in yeast. Here we show that splicing of one pre-messenger RNA, SUS1, a component of the histone H2B ubiquitin protease machinery, is essential for establishing the proper modification state of chromatin. One protein complex that is intimately involved in pre-mRNA splicing, the yeast cap-binding complex, appears to be particularly important, as evidenced by its extensive and unique genetic interactions with enzymes that catalyze histone H2B ubiquitination. Microarray studies show that cap binding complex (CBC) deletion has a global effect on gene expression, and for ?20% of these genes, this effect is suppressed when ubiquitination of histone H2B is eliminated. Consistent with this finding of histone H2B dependent effects on gene expression, deletion of the yeast cap binding complex leads to overubiquitination of histone H2B. A key component of the ubiquitin-protease module of the SAGA complex, Sus1, is encoded by a gene that contains two introns and is misspliced when the CBC is deleted, leading to destabilization of the ubiquitin protease complex and defective modulation of cellular H2B levels. These data demonstrate that pre-mRNA splicing plays a critical role in histone H2B ubiquitination and that the CBC in particular helps to establish the proper state of chromatin and proper expression of genes that are regulated at the level of histone H2B ubiquitination.

Hossain, Munshi Azad; Claggett, Julia M.; Nguyen, Tiffany; Johnson, Tracy L.



The wear properties and adhesion strength of the diamond-like carbon film coated on SUS, Ti and Ni-Ti with plasma pre-treatment.  


Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on stainless steel (SUS), titanium (Ti) and nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) substrates using a radiofrequency plasma chemical vapour deposition method. Prior to DLC coating, the substrates were exposed to O2 and N2 plasma to enhance the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the substrate. After the plasma pre-treatment, the chemical composition and the wettability of the substrate surface was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement, respectively. A pull-out test and a ball-on-disc test were carried out to evaluate the adhesion strength and the wear properties of the DLC-coated substrates. The XPS results showed that the N2 and O2 plasma pre-treatment produced nitride and oxide on the substrate surfaces, such as TiO2, TiO, Fe2O3, CrN and TiNO. In the pull-out test, the adhesion strengths of the DLC film to the SUS, Ti and Ni-Ti substrates were improved with the plasma pre-treatment. In the ball-on-disc test, the DLC coated SUS, Ti and Ni-Ti substrates without the plasma pre-treatment showed severe film failure following the test. The DLC coated SUS and Ni-Ti substrates with the N2 plasma pre-treatment showed good wear resistance, compared with that with the O2 plasma pre-treatment. PMID:20448301

Ozeki, K; Masuzawa, T; Hirakuri, K K



Clostridium perfringens type A beta2 toxin in elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) and pygmy hog (Sus salvanius) with haemorrhagic enteritis in Assam, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reported the investigation of haemorrhagic enteritis in female elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) and pygmy hog (Sus salvanius) at the Assam State Zoo, Guwahati, Assam, India. An eight year old female elephant and two and half year old female pygmy hog developed haemorrhagic enteritis of unknown cause maintained at the zoo died within four days. Bacteriological investigation revealed that

Arunava Das; Yahya Mazumder; Biman K. Dutta; Bibek R. Shome; Komal M. Bujarbaruah; Gauri D. Sharma



The Effect of the European Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on the Woody Vegetation of Gray Beach Forest in the Great Smoky Mountains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The European wild boar (Sus scrofa) was introduced into the mountains of North Carolina in 1912 and since has spread into the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Omnivorous feeding and rooting disturbance by this exotic species is a management problem in...

M. H. Huff



Spatial distribution of Trichinella britovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis of domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Hungary.  


Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of raw meat and raw meat-derived products from swine, horse and some game animals infected with nematode worms of the genus Trichinella. Between June 2006 and February 2011, 16 million domestic pigs and 0.22 million wild boars (Sus scrofa) were tested for Trichinella sp. in Hungary. Trichinella infection was not found in any pigs slaughtered for public consumption. Nevertheless, Trichinella spiralis was detected in four backyard pigs when trace back was done following a family outbreak. Trichinella infection was demonstrated in 17 wild boars (0.0077%). Larvae from wild boars were identified as Trichinella britovi (64.7%), T. spiralis (29.4%) and Trichinella pseudospiralis (5.9%). Although the prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in wild boars and domestic pigs is very low, the spatial analysis reveals that the level of risk differs by region in Hungary. Most of the T. britovi infected wild boars (63.6%) were shot in the north-eastern mountain area of Hungary; whereas domestic pigs and wild boars infected with T. spiralis were detected only in the southern counties bordering Croatia and Romania. In the north-western and central counties, the prevalence of Trichinella infection seems to be negligible. PMID:21852037

Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Ludovisi, A; Gómez-Morales, M A; Sréter, T; Pozio, E



Preliminary study of Porcine circovirus type 2 and Torque teno sus virus coinfection frequencies in Brazilian pig herds  

PubMed Central

Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is emergent in swine herds. Recent studies have shown an increased frequency of TTSuV2 in Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases (PCVAD), which are endemic in many swine-producing countries, including Brazil. Coinfection with several other viral and bacterial agents results in an increased incidence of more severe PCVAD. Given the limited information on TTSuV and PCV2 coinfection, especially in Brazilian swine herds, this study made a preliminary estimation of the occurrence of coinfection in swine herds by testing samples from different categories. Between 2008 and 2009, 111 samples of feces and 23 serum samples from 5 swine herds were tested for PCV2 and TTSuVs and the results analyzed for associations between these agents. No significant differences in coinfection frequency were observed for PCV2 + TTSuV1 or for PCV2 + TTSuV2 between nursery piglets (P = 0.730), growing pigs (P = 0.331), or sows (P = 0.472). However, a significant difference was observed for PCV2 + TTSuV1 + TTSuV2 between nursery piglets and growing pigs (P = 0.004; Fisher’s exact test). Phylogenetic studies agreed with the grouping of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 into 2 different clades, with no distinct pattern of clustering of these isolates with the animal categories.

de Castro, Alessandra Marnie Martins Gomes; Favero, Cintia Maria; Baldin, Cintia Manzatto; Borba, Mauro; de Castro, Fernando Gomes; Miyashiro, Simone; de Moura, Jose Carlos; Dias, Ricardo Arruda; Brandao, Paulo Eduardo; Richtzenhain, Leonardo Jose



Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) Mediate Large-Scale Edge Effects in a Lowland Tropical Rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects.

Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D.



Relative age of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus sequences in Sus scrofa based on the molecular clock hypothesis.  


Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation. PERV classes A, B, and C harbor different envelope proteins. Two different types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist, of which both are present only in PERV-A. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeatless, conferring a lower level of transcriptional activity. Since the different LTR structures are distributed unequally among the proviruses and, apparently, PERV is the only virus harboring two different LTR structures, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Replication-competent viruses can still be found today, suggesting an evolutionary recent origin. Our studies revealed that the age of PERV is at most 7.6 x 10(6) years, whereas the repeatless LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 x 10(6) years ago, being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age determined for PERV correlates with the time of separation between pigs (Suidae, Sus scrofa) and their closest relatives, American-born peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 x 10(6) years ago. PMID:14581574

Tönjes, Ralf R; Niebert, Marcus



Low temperature recrystallization and formation of an ultrafine ({gamma} + {sigma}) microduplex structure in SUS316L stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The high strain powder metallurgy (HS-PM) process is a novel powder metallurgy process combining mechanical milling (MM) or mechanical alloying (MA), heat treatment and sintering processes, and enables one to produce an ultra-fine grain structure. It has three remarkable features: (1) a non-equilibrium phase, (2) a nano grain microstructure, and (3) good workability. The extremely high strain energy given by the milling process at room temperature produces a large number of defects, and this enhances the diffusion of atoms at low temperature and contributes to the formation of a non-equilibrium phase such as a supersaturated solid solution or an amorphous phase. A nano grain structure is obtained from the non-equilibrium phases by controlling the heat treatment conditions, which influences the phase transformation, recovery, recrystallization, grain growth, etc. Grain refinement is very important to improve the mechanical properties of materials, and fine grained materials easily deform by superplasticity. Therefore, the HS-PM process is the most efficient and useful non-equilibrium powder metallurgy process because it permits simultaneous improvement of mechanical properties and workability by the control of microstructure. In this paper, the HS-PM process was applied to an SUS316L stainless steel, and the mechanical properties of the material at room temperature as well as the microstructural changes during the process are discussed.

Ameyama, K. [Ritsumeikan Univ., Shiga (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering



Occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. and other pathogens in lymph nodes of slaughtered swine and wild boars (Sus scrofa).  


Mycobacterium spp. and other pathogens were investigated in 258 swine lymph nodes (129 with and 129 without apparent lesions), and 120 lymph nodes (60 with and 60 without lesions) from wild boars (Sus scrofa). A total of lymph nodes from swine and wild boars were collected of different animals. Submaxillar and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted to microbiological examination and colonies suggestive of Mycobacterium spp. (alcohol-acid bacilli) were submitted to PCR Restriction Assay (PRA). In swine with lymphadenitis, Mycobacterium spp. (24.1%) and Rhodococcus equi (13.2%) were the most prevalent microorganisms, while in lymph nodes without lesions were identified a complex of microorganisms, including of environmental mycobacteria. In wild boars with lymphadenitis, ß-haemolytic Streptococcus (10.0%), Mycobacterium spp (8.4%) and R. equi (6.6%) were the most frequent. Among mycobacterias were identified predominantly Mycobacterium avium subspecies type 1 (48.3%) and M. avium subspecies type 2 (16.1%), followed by Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium szulgai,Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium simiae, Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum and Mycobacterium intracellulare type 2. PMID:20621319

Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Guazzelli, Alessandro; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Listoni, Fernando José Paganini



Relative Age of Proviral Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Sequences in Sus scrofa Based on the Molecular Clock Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation. PERV classes A, B, and C harbor different envelope proteins. Two different types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist, of which both are present only in PERV-A. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeatless, conferring a lower level of transcriptional activity. Since the different LTR structures are distributed unequally among the proviruses and, apparently, PERV is the only virus harboring two different LTR structures, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Replication-competent viruses can still be found today, suggesting an evolutionary recent origin. Our studies revealed that the age of PERV is at most 7.6 × 106 years, whereas the repeatless LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 × 106 years ago, being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age determined for PERV correlates with the time of separation between pigs (Suidae, Sus scrofa) and their closest relatives, American-born peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 × 106 years ago.

Tonjes, Ralf R.; Niebert, Marcus



Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Galicia (NW, Spain).  


Faecal samples from 224 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 381 wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot during the 2008-2009 hunting season (August-January) in Galicia (NW Spain) were examined to determine the presence and intensity of infection by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Analysis of a single sample from each of the roe deer revealed that the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis was 1.3% and 5.3% respectively. The prevalence of Giardia infection was significantly higher in juvenile female roe deer than in adult females, but no other significant differences were found in relation to age and sex. In wild boars, the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis was 7.6% and 1.3% respectively. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was significantly higher in juvenile male wild boars than in adult males, but no other significant differences were found in relation to age or sex. In both groups of wild animals, the number of Cryptosporidium oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) ranged from 5 to 200 and the number of Giardia cysts per gram of faeces (CPG) was between 5 and 47; there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to number of infections. This is the first large study of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in roe deer and wild boars in hunting areas in Spain and the results demonstrate a low, but widespread prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in these animals. PMID:21429669

Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes



[The profile of hospitalizations and associated factors among elderly users of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)].  


This article seeks to establish the causes of hospitalizations among the elderly and identify the prevalence and associated factors. It is a cross-sectional study with 418 elderly users of SUS selected by multistage proportional sampling in the nine Sanitary Districts of Goiânia. Hospitalization was defined as a positive response to the question: "Were you hospitalized in the past year?" The independent variables were collected on a standardized questionnaire. Associations were explored through the prevalence ratio and the respective 95% CI. Multivariate analysis was conducted using hierarchical Poisson regression. The prevalence of hospitalizations was 24.4% and the major causes were circulatory (28.4%), respiratory (9.8%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (9.8%). In multivariate analysis, the following variables continued to be associated with hospitalizations: A/B economic class, reports of five or more diseases and weight loss. The results revealed a high prevalence of hospitalizations and that factors involved are mainly related to socioeconomic issues and health status, which demonstrates that it is necessary to monitor these cases in primary health care to prevent unnecessary hospitalization. PMID:24061033

Pagotto, Valéria; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Velasco, Wisley Donizetti



Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo  

SciTech Connect

Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.



Response of pigmented porcine skin (Sus scrofa domestica) to single 3.8-micron laser radiation pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background and purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of melanin on skin response to single 3.8 micron, eight microsecond laser pulses and the difference in lesion formation thresholds for input into laser safety standards. Williams et al., performed a study examining laser tissue interaction from 3.8-micron lasers in lightly pigmented Yorkshire pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). However, studies performed by Eggleston et al comparing pigmented and lightly pigmented skin with human skin found that the Yucatan mini-pig is a superior model for laser skin exposures. Methods: Five Yucatan mini-pigs under general anesthesia were exposed to 3.8 micron laser pulses ranging from 0.8 J/cm2 to 93 J/cm2. Gross examinations were done acutely and 24 hours after laser exposure. Skin biopsies were then collected at various times post exposure, and histologic examinations were conducted. Results: The 24 hour ED50 was determined to be 4.5 J/cm2 with fiducial limits of 6.2 and 2.2 J/cm2. As deposited energy was increased, the lesion presentation ranged from whitening of the epidermis (4 J/cm2) to whitening with inflammatory centers (14 J/cm2), and at the highest energy levels inflammatory areas were replaced with an epidermal ulcerated central area (>21 J/cm2). Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest pigmentation or melanin may play a minor role in the mechanism of laser-tissue damage. The ED50 of Yorkshire pigs was 2.6 J/cm2. The ED50 of the Yucatan mini-pig was found to be 3.6 J/cm2, and although it was higher, it is still within the 95% fiducial limits.

Bostick, Anthony C.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Randolph, Donald Q.; Winston, Golda C. H.



Actitudes de madres adolescentes y adultas y su relación con la personalidad de sus hijos Attitudes of adolescent and adult mothers and their relation with their children's personality profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

La presente investigación tuvo el propósito de indagar si hay diferencias entre las actitudes de las madres adolescentes y adultas e identificar si existe una relación entre las actitudes de las madres y el perfil de personalidad de sus hijos. Participaron 35 mujeres con sus hijos, quienes cursaban el primer grado de primaria; 17 fueron madres siendo adolescentes y 18

Iris Xóchitl; Galicia Moyeda; Lucina Jiménez Vega; Susana Pavón Figueroa; Alejandra Sánchez Velasco



Estudio comparativo de las moléculas isovalentes de interés atmosférico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes halógenos aislados Cl y Br.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los últimos años un creciente interés entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas espectroscópicas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electrónicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorción que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atmósfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtención de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran interés. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las moléculas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas moléculas presentan idéntica estructura electrónica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la corrección de nuestros resultados en base a las analogías esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones análogas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado carácter atómico en el espectro correspondiente a estas moléculas, siendo muy similar a los de los átomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, además de establecer la comparación entre ambas moléculas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos halógenos. Los cálculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodología Molécular de Orbítales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los átomos de Cl y Br se empleó la versión relativista del método (RQDO) [3].

Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.


Friction and wear behavior of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel against Al 2O 3 ceramic ball under relative high load  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction and wear behaviors of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) disc against Al2O3 ceramic ball and GCr15 bearing steel ball, respectively, were studied using a Cameron-Plint TE67 pin-on-disc tester. The tests were performed under 5–50N loads and 0.06–0.19m\\/s sliding speed. Results showed that there was a gestating period before the friction coefficient increased rapidly as the normal load was

Meng Hua; Wei Xicheng; Li Jian



Corrosion behaviors of low carbon steel, SUS310 and Fe–Mn–Al alloy with hot-dipped aluminum coatings in NaCl-induced hot corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot corrosion behaviors of hot dip aluminized low carbon steel, SUS310 and Fe–Mn–Al–Cr–Si–C alloy with 9 mg cm?2 of NaCl deposition were studied at 900 °C for 1–144 h in dry air. A preoxidation of as-dipped specimens at 900 °C for 2 h was also conducted. The formation of an aluminized layer and self-healing potential are responsible for the

C. J Wang; J. W Lee; T. H Twu



Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.  


Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO(2) year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their range expands dramatically. PMID:20512594

Risch, Anita C; Wirthner, Sven; Busse, Matt D; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Schütz, Martin



Investigation on a focus of human trichinellosis revealed by an atypical clinical case: after wild-boar (Sus scrofa) pork consumption in northern Italy.  


Trichinellosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic zoonoses in Europe. Wild carnivorous and omnivorous hosts are the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. nematodes in nature. In the winter of 2008-2009, an atypical clinical case of trichinellosis occurred for the consumption of pork from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) hunted in southwestern Alps in Italy. The symptomatic individual showed delayed development of oedemas in the lower limbs and eosinophilia, which appeared three months after infection. Muscle samples harboured 3.8 larvae/g, which were identified as Trichinella britovi. During the epidemiological investigation, anti-Trichinella IgG were detected in five hunters. PMID:21395210

Romano, F; Motta, A; Melino, M; Negro, M; Gavotto, G; Decasteli, L; Careddu, E; Bianchi, C; Bianchi, D M; Pozio, E



Investigation on a focus of human trichinellosis revealed by an atypical clinical case after wild-boar (Sus scrofa) pork consumption in northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Trichinellosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic zoonoses in Europe. Wild carnivorous and omnivorous hosts are the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. nematodes in nature. In the winter of 2008-2009, an atypical clinical case of trichinellosis occurred for the consumption of pork from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) hunted in southwestern Alps in Italy. The symptomatic individual showed delayed development of oedemas in the lower limbs and eosinophilia, which appeared three months after infection. Muscle samples harboured 3.8 larvae/g, which were identified as Trichinella britovi. During the epidemiological investigation, anti-Trichinella IgG were detected in five hunters.

Romano, F.; Motta, A.; Melino, M.; Negro, M.; Gavotto, G.; Decastelli, L.; Careddu, E.; Bianchi, C.; Bianchi, D.M.; Pozio, E.



Effect of deposition temperature on the formation of the corrosion-protective SnOx:F coating layer on SUS 316 bipolar plates for PEMFC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnOx:F) films on SUS 316 were prepared as a function of substrate temperature using electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition (ECR-MOCVD) in order to achieve corrosion-resistant and low contact resistance bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The SnOx:F films coated on SUS 316 substrate in the heating range from 200 to 500 °C were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron microscopy (AES) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). To simulate the aggressive PEMFC environment, all electrochemical experiments were conducted in 1 M H2SO4+2 ppm HF solution at 70 °C. With increases in the heat treatment temperature from 300 to 500 °C, it was shown that both corrosion resistance and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) substantially increase. The AES data revealed that the amount of fluorine decreases with increasing temperature in our experimental range. The deposition temperature appears to be one of the critical process parameters on the formation of the corrosion-protective layer for PEMFC bipolar plates. It is probably caused by microstructural evolution before/after potentiodynamic corrosion tests under the PEMFC environment.

Park, Ji Hun; Chang, Wonyoung; Byun, Dongjin; Lee, Joong Kee



Preliminary epitope mapping of Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 putative capsid protein and serological detection of infection in pigs.  


The aim of this work is to identify antigenic regions within the ORF1 protein of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and Torque teno virus sus 2 (TTSuV2) that could be used as antigens to detect virus-specific antibodies following infection in pigs. Protein sequences of TTSuV ORF1 genes were analysed to predict linear antigenic epitopes. Synthesized peptides were analysed for serological reactivity with swine sera. Such an antigenic region was identified at the C terminus of the ORF1 protein of both viruses and showed serological reactivity with 78 % (TTSuV1) and 88 % (TTSuV2) of swine sera. An ELISA with an immunodominant peptide as antigen was used to examine the sera of piglets, aged 4-20 weeks, and adults. Results indicated that TTSuV1- and TTSuV2-specific antibodies were detectable at 4 weeks. Antibody titres increased from week 10 and peaked at week 20. A relatively high antibody titre persisted to adulthood. PMID:23407420

Jarosova, Veronika; Celer, Vladimír



Parasites of the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa (wild boar) from commercial breeder in southern Brazil and its relationship with Ascaris suum.  


This study aimed to identify the species of helminths infecting the respiratory tract of Sus scrofa scrofa from commercial breeding and check the existence of a possible antagonistic relationship of these species with Ascaris suum. Forty wild boars were analyzed, and the genus Metastrongylus was recorded in the bronchi and bronchioles of 60 % of these, with the occurrence of the species Metastrongylus apri, Metastrongylus salmi, and Metastrongylus pudendotectus. The highest prevalence found was in M. apri (52.5 %), followed by M. salmi (20 %), and M. pudendotectus (7.5 %), registering the highest prevalence of Metastrongylus in wild boars from commercial breeding so far. M. apri was first reported parasitizing wild boars bred in captivity. There was no observed significant influence of A. suum in the mean intensity of Metastrongylus. PMID:23224612

da Silva, Diego; Müller, Gertrud



[Education and competences for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): is it possible to find alternatives to the logic of late capitalism?].  


The transformations that have revolutionized the labor market in contemporary society make it necessary to think of new alternatives for training health care professionals, thereby establishing a new approach to the health problems of individuals and collectives. Based on these considerations, this paper sets out to discuss training in health--based on the concept of competence--with a focus on education for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), using attempts to analyze and propose an alternative to the system entrenched in the logic of late capitalism as a theoretical benchmark. It is thus a reflection on the subject, correlating theory and praxis, in constant and relentless movement of construction, deconstruction and (re)construction of propositions. PMID:23338506

Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Albuquerque, Verônica Santos; Cavalcanti, Felipe de Oliveira Lopes; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre



A Sealers Midden Provides Evidence a Live Pig ( Sus scrofa) was Taken Ashore at Heard Island During the "Elephanting" Industry (1855-1882)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.

van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry; Robins, Judith



The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis). In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease.

Pate, Mateja; Zolnir-Dovc, Manca; Kusar, Darja; Krt, Brane; Spicic, Silvio; Cvetnic, Zeljko; Ocepek, Matjaz



Identification of mtDNA lineages of Sus scrofa by multiplex single base extension for the authentication of processed food products.  


A genetic method to identify the breed of origin could serve as a useful tool for inspecting the authenticity of the increasing number of monobreed foodstuffs, such as those derived from small local European pig breeds. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is practically the only reliable genomic target for PCR in processed products, and its haploid nature and strict maternal inheritance greatly facilitate genetic analysis. As a result of strategies that sought to improve the production traits of European pigs, most industrial breeds presently show a high frequency of Asian alleles, while the absence or low frequency of such Asian alleles has been observed in small rustic breeds from which highly prized dry-cured and other traditional products are derived. Therefore, the detection of Asian ancestry would indicate nonconformity in Protected Denomination of Origin products. This study presents a single base extension assay based on 15 diagnostic mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Asian and European Sus scrofa lineages. The test was robust, sensitive and accurate in a wide range of processed foodstuffs and allowed accurate detection of pig genetic material and identification of maternal ancestry. A market survey suggested that nonconformity of products derived from Portuguese breeds is an unusual event at present, but regular surveys both in the local populations and in commercial products would be advisible. Taking into consideration the limitations presented by other methodologies, this mtDNA-based test probably attains the highest resolution for the direct genetic test for population of origin in Sus scrofa food products. PMID:21688854

van Asch, Barbara; Silva Santos, Liliana; Carneiro, Joao; Pereira, Filipe; Amorim, Antonio



Comparison of Proximal Tibia, Proximal Humerus and Distal Femur Infusion Rates of Blood Under High Pressure Using the EX IO Intraosseous Device in the Adult Swine (Sus scrofa) Hypovolemic Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PURPOSE: Compare flow rates of blood administered through intraosseous (10) needle in proximal tibia and humerus, and distal femur under high pressure(>300mmHg) in adult hypovolemic (sus scrofa). METHOD:3 groups of animals; 14 per group were intubated and...

J. Lairet V. Bebarta



Pseudoscardovia suis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Bifidobacteriaceae isolated from the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa).  


Seventeen fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive bacterial strains were isolated from the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa). Most of them were identified as Bifidobacterium boum according to sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Two strains isolated from the small intestine content had unusual morphology of cells in comparison with bifidobacteria. Cells growing in liquid anaerobic media were regular shaped rods arranged mostly in pairs. These isolates showed relatively low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (maximum identity of 94%) to members of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, hsp60 and xfp gene sequences revealed that these strains are more related to recently described Neoscardovia, Aeriscardovia and other scardovial genera, than to Bifidobacterium species. Partial gene sequences of other phylogenetic markers showed low (65.8-89.5%) similarities to genome sequences of bifidobacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis. The major fatty acids detected in cells of the representative strain DPTE4(T) were C(16:0), C(18:1), C(14:0). The peptidoglycan type of the DPTE4(T) strain was A3?l-Orn(l-Lys)-l-Ser(l-Ala)-l-Ala(2). Polar lipid analysis revealed two phosphoglycolipids and phospholipids, a glycolipid and diphosphatidylglycerol. The results of phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic analyses support the proposal of a novel taxa, Pseudoscardovia suis gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain=DPTE4(T)=DSM 24744(T)=CCM 7942(T)). PMID:23122702

Killer, J; Mrázek, J; Bunešová, V; Havlík, J; Koppová, I; Benada, O; Rada, V; Kope?ný, J; Vlková, E



Viral metagenomic analysis of bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) in Uganda identifies novel variants of Porcine parvovirus 4 and Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2  

PubMed Central

Background As a result of rapidly growing human populations, intensification of livestock production and increasing exploitation of wildlife habitats for animal agriculture, the interface between wildlife, livestock and humans is expanding, with potential impacts on both domestic animal and human health. Wild animals serve as reservoirs for many viruses, which may occasionally result in novel infections of domestic animals and/or the human population. Given this background, we used metagenomics to investigate the presence of viral pathogens in sera collected from bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), a nocturnal species of wild Suid known to move between national parks and farmland, in Uganda. Results Application of 454 pyrosequencing demonstrated the presence of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), a GB Hepatitis C–like virus, and a Sclerotinia hypovirulence-associated-like virus in sera from the bushpigs. PCR assays for each specific virus combined with Sanger sequencing revealed two TTSuV-1 variants, one TTSuV-2 variant as well as PPV4 in the serum samples and thereby confirming the findings from the 454 sequencing. Conclusions Using a viral metagenomic approach we have made an initial analysis of viruses present in bushpig sera and demonstrated for the first time the presence of PPV4 in a wild African Suid. In addition we identified novel variants of TTSuV-1 and 2 in bushpigs.



Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 viral loads in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) affected pigs.  


Torque teno viruses (TTV) are small, non-enveloped viruses with a circular single-stranded DNA genome, which are considered non-pathogenic. However, TTVs have been eventually linked to human diseases. TTVs infecting pigs, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2), have been recently associated to porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). To get more insights into such potential disease association, the aim of this study was to quantify TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral loads in serum of pigs affected by two PCVDs, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). Such study was carried out by means of a newly developed real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method. Both TTSuVs were highly prevalent among studied pigs. TTSuV2 viral loads were significantly higher in PMWS affected animals, further supporting the previously suggested association between TTSuV2 and PMWS. On the contrary, TTSuV1 prevalence and loads were not related with the studied PCVDs. PMID:21719215

Aramouni, M; Segalés, J; Sibila, M; Martin-Valls, G E; Nieto, D; Kekarainen, T



Genetic variability and phylogeny of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) based on complete genomes.  


Thirteen genomes of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) were obtained to examine the diversity and evolution of swine TTVs. Despite the low nucleotide identity reported, the genomic organization and transcriptional profiles of TTVs are similar. The nucleotide diversity for TTSuV1 was higher than TTSuV2, and the pattern of mutation among the ORFs was also different. Phylogenetic and genetic analyses support the proposed division of TTV into two species. TTSuV1 showed high levels of variability (>30%), with three different types (the third described for the first time) that may display a geographical structure. In contrast, TTSuV2 showed lower levels of variability (<15%), and no different types could be described. Larger values for the ratios of synonymous (dS) to non-synonymous (dN) base substitutions (dS/dN) were reported for the ORFs pointing to a certain level of selective constraint in TTV genomes. PMID:20833485

Cortey, Martí; Macera, Lisa; Segalés, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija



Effect of Plastic Strain Range on Prediction of the Onset of Crack Growth for Low-Cycle Fatigue of SUS316NG Studied using Ultrasonic Back-Reflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strain range controlled low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted using ultrasonic method in order to investigate the effect of plastic strain range on the remaining life of austenitic stainless steel SUS316NG before the onset of crack growth in its early stages of fatigue. It was found that the decrease in ultrasonic back-reflection intensity from the surface of the material, caused by the increase in average dislocation density with localized plastic deformation at persistent slip bands (PSBs), starts earlier with increase in the plastic strain range. The amount of decrease in ultrasonic back-reflection before the onset of crack growth increases for larger plastic strain range. The difference in the cumulative plastic strains at the onset of crack growth and at the onset of decrease in the ultrasonic back-reflection remained constant over the range of tested plastic strain. This result can be used to predict the remaining life before the onset of crack growth within the plastic strain range used in this study. In addition, we present and evaluate another method to predict damage evolution involving ultrasound attenuation caused by PSBs.

Nurul, Islam Md.; Arai, Yoshio; Araki, Wakako


Development of a two-parameter slit-scan flow cytometer for screening of normal and aberrant chromosomes: application to a karyotype of Sus scrofa domestica (pig)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser fluorescence activated slit-scan flow cytometry offers an approach to a fast, quantitative characterization of chromosomes due to morphological features. It can be applied for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. We give a preliminary report on the development of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer. Time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome passes perpendicularly through a narrowly focused laser beam combined by a detection slit in the image plane. So far automated data analysis has been performed off-line on a PC. In its final performance, the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer will achieve on-line data analysis that allows an electro-acoustical sorting of chromosomes of interest. Interest is high in the agriculture field to study chromosome aberrations that influence the size of litters in pig (Sus scrofa domestica) breeding. Slit-scan measurements have been performed to characterize chromosomes of pigs; we present results for chromosome 1 and a translocation chromosome 6/15.

Hausmann, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Arnold, Armin; Stepanow, Boris; Wickert, Burkhard; Boscher, Jeannine; Popescu, Paul C.; Cremer, Christoph



Development of a two-parameter slit-scan flow cytometer for screening of normal and aberrant chromosomes: application to a karyotype of Sus scrofa domestica (pig)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser fluorescence activated slit-scan flow cytometry offers an approach to a fast, quantitative characterization of chromosomes due to morphological features. It can be applied for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. We give a preliminary report on the development of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer. Time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome passes perpendicularly through a narrowly focused laser beam combined by a detection slit in the image plane. So far automated data analysis has been performed off-line on a PC. In its final performance, the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer will achieve on-line data analysis that allows an electro-acoustical sorting of chromosomes of interest. Interest is high in the agriculture field to study chromosome aberrations that influence the size of litters in pig (Sus scrofa domestica) breeding. Slit-scan measurements have been performed to characterize chromosomes of pigs; we present results for chromosome 1 and a translocation chromosome 6/15.

Hausmann, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Arnold, Armin; Stepanow, Boris; Wickert, Burkhard; Boscher, Jeannine; Popescu, Paul C.; Cremer, Christoph



Are juvenile domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) sensitive to the attentive states of humans?--The impact of impulsivity on choice behaviour.  


Previous studies have shown that apes, dogs and horses seem to be able to attribute attentive states to humans. Subjects had to choose between two persons: one who was able to see the animal and one who was not. Using a similar paradigm, we tested a species that does not rely strongly on visual cues, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica). Subjects could choose between two unfamiliar persons, with only one showing attention, in three different conditions (body, head away, body turned - head front). Subjects (n=16) only showed a tendency towards the attentive human in the head away condition. However, by pooling those two conditions where the position of the human head was the only salient cue, we found a significant preference for the attentive person. Moreover, two approach styles could be distinguished - an impulsive style with short response times and a non-impulsive style where response times were relatively long. With the second approach style, pigs chose the attentive person significantly more often than expected by chance level, which was not the case when subjects chose impulsively. These first results suggest that pigs are able to use head cues to discriminate between different attentive states of humans. PMID:23500190

Nawroth, Christian; Ebersbach, Mirjam; von Borell, Eberhard



Refinement of Pig Retroperfusion Technique: Global Retroperfusion with Ligation of the Azygos Connection Preserves Hemodynamic Function in an Acute Infarction Model in Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica)  

PubMed Central

In ischemic hearts, venous retroperfusion is a potential myocardial revascularization strategy. This study aimed to refine the technical and functional aspects of a pig model of acute myocardial infarction and retroperfusion with respect to the azygos connection. Global retroperfusion after ligation of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis (equivalent to the left anterior descending artery in humans) was performed in 16 Landrace pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). Coronary sinus perfusion was performed in 8 pigs (P+) but not in the other 8 (P–), and the azygos vein was ligated (L+) 4 of the 8 pigs in each of these groups but left open (L–) in the remaining animals. Hemodynamic performance (for example, cardiac output, stroke volume) was significantly better in P+L+ pigs that underwent coronary sinus perfusion with ligation of the azygos vein compared with all other animals. In addition, troponin I release was significant lower in P+L+ pigs (1.7 ± 1.3 ng/mL) than in P–L– (5.47 ± 2.1 ng/mL), P–L+ (6.63 ± 2.4 ng/mL), and P+L– (4.81 ± 2.3 ng/mL) pigs. Effective retrograde flow and thus hemodynamic stability was achieved by ligation of the azygos vein. Therefore, experiments focusing on global retroperfusion will benefit from effective inhibition of the blood flow through the azygos vein.

Harig, Frank; Hoyer, Evelyn; Labahn, Dirk; Schmidt, Joachim; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M



Survival of anesthetized Sus scrofa after cycling (7-second on/3-second off) exposures to an electronic control device for 3 minutes.  


Electronic control devices (ECDs) may eventually be deployed by the military in a manner resulting in longer exposures than those encountered during law-enforcement operations. In a previous study, 18 repeated cycling (5-second on/5-second off) exposures (within a 3-minute period) of anesthetized swine to an ECD (TASER International's Advanced TASER X26 device) resulted in leg muscle contraction, acidosis, and increases in blood electrolytes. In the current study, experiments were performed to examine effects of exposures to a different cycling rate (7-second on/3-second off), from a modified X26 ECD, on 10 swine (Sus scrofa), maintained on propofol anesthesia. In contrast with the previous study, a large number of animals (6/10) died immediately after the exposures. There were no major differences in pre-exposure blood factors from survivors versus nonsurvivors, with the exception of hematocrit and 2 isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase. It is doubtful that these factors would be useful in predicting survival after ECD exposure. Blood pH was significantly decreased after exposure, but (in animals that survived) subsequently returned to baseline levels. On the basis of the overall survival rate, further development of useful ECDs (for long-term incapacitation during military operations) may require consideration of longer pauses between repeated exposures over a 3-minute period. PMID:21464698

Jauchem, James R; Seaman, Ronald L; Fines, David A



First time molecular detection and phylogenetic relationships of torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 in domestic pigs in Uganda: further evidence for a global distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) are small, single-stranded circular DNA viruses belonging to the Anelloviridae family. Available studies clearly show that both viruses are widely distributed in the pig populations in America, Europe and Asia, although the impact of the infection is still unclear. Currently, the situation in domestic pig populations on the African continent is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible presence of the two viruses in domestic pigs in Uganda, and describe the phylogenetic relationships to those in the rest of the world. Results Ninety-five serum samples from six districts in Uganda were used, and PCR using TTSuV1 and 2 specific primers for the UTR region was run for viral nucleic acid detection. The positive samples were sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses performed in order to compare the Ugandan sequences with sequences from other parts of the world. The prevalence of TTSuV1 and 2 in the selected domestic pigs were estimated at 16.8% and 48.4% respectively, with co-infection found in 13.7%. The sequence identity was 90-100% between the Ugandan TTSuV1; and 63-100% between the Ugandan TTSuV2 sequences. Conclusion This is the first report on the presence of TTSuV1 and 2 in domestic pigs in Uganda. These results highlight the importance of screening for emerging viruses given the globalisation of human activities.



Linkage disequilibria and the site frequency spectra in the su(s) and su(w(a)) regions of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome.  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, surveys of DNA sequence variation in natural populations of several Drosophila species and other taxa have established that polymorphism is reduced in genomic regions characterized by low rates of crossing over per physical length. Parallel studies have also established that divergence between species is not reduced in these same genomic regions, thus eliminating explanations that rely on a correlation between the rates of mutation and crossing over. Several theoretical models (directional hitchhiking, background selection, and random environment) have been proposed as population genetic explanations. In this study samples from an African population (n = 50) and a European population (n = 51) were surveyed at the su(s) (1955 bp) and su(w(a)) (3213 bp) loci for DNA sequence polymorphism, utilizing a stratified SSCP/DNA sequencing protocol. These loci are located near the telomere of the X chromosome, in a region of reduced crossing over per physical length, and exhibit a significant reduction in DNA sequence polymorphism. Unlike most previously surveyed, these loci reveal substantial skews toward rare site frequencies, consistent with the predictions of directional hitchhiking and random environment models and inconsistent with the general predictions of the background selection model (or neutral theory). No evidence for excess geographic differentiation at these loci is observed. Although linkage disequilibrium is observed between closely linked sites within these loci, many recombination events in the genealogy of the sampled alleles can be inferred and the genomic scale of linkage disequilibrium, measured in base pairs between sites, is the same as that observed for loci in regions of normal crossing over. We conclude that gene conversion must be high in these regions of low crossing over.

Langley, C H; Lazzaro, B P; Phillips, W; Heikkinen, E; Braverman, J M



Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) in tissues of pigs and its relation with the occurrence of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.  


Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is a member of the recently created family Anelloviridae. Two distinct species of TTSuVs, 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) have been reported so far in domestic pigs and wild boars. Although TTSuVs have not been clearly linked to any specific disease of pigs, a relation between TTSuV infections and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) has been suggested. To examine further this possibility, the present study was conducted in search for TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 genomes in tissues of PMWS and non-PMWS-affected animals. PMWS diagnosis was established by clinical signs, characteristic macroscopic and histopathologic lesions and the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 DNA. Samples of five different tissues (lungs, kidneys, livers, spleens, and lymph nodes) from PMWS-affected and non-PMWS-affected pigs were examined with two specific PCR assays developed to amplify TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 genome segments. TTSuV1 DNA was detected in tissues of non-diseased animals to significantly higher levels than in tissues of PMWS-affected pigs (p ? 0.001). Regarding TTSuV2, viral genomes were detected in nearly all samples from both PMWS-affected (94.7 %) and non-affected pigs (100 %), with no significant differences in the frequencies of detection of TTSuV2 genomes in both groups. No significant differences were detected on the distribution of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 in the different tissues examined (p = 0.970). PMID:23783757

Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Dezen, Diogenes; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Varela, Ana Paula Muterle; Sheffer, Camila Mengue; Holz, Carine Lidiane; Dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel



Effects of a TASER® conducted energy weapon on the circulating red-blood-cell population and other factors in Sus scrofa.  


In previous studies hematocrit has been consistently increased in an anesthetized animal model after exposures to TASER(®) conducted energy weapons (CEWs). In the present study we analyzed changes in blood cell counts and red blood cell membrane proteins following two 30-s applications of a TASER C2 device (which is designed for civilian use). Hematocrit increased significantly from 33.2 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD) to 42.8 ± 4.6 % immediately after CEW exposure of eleven pigs (Sus scrofa). Red blood cell count increased significantly from 6.10 ± 0.55 × 10(12)/L to 7.45 ± 0.94 × 10(12)/L, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly from 54.5 ± 2.4 fl to 57.8 ± 2.6 fl. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly from 20.5 ± 0.7 to 18.5 ± 0.6 mM. Thirty protein spots (from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, selected for detailed comparison) exhibited greater densities 30-min post-exposure compared with pre-exposure values. A greater number of echinocytes were observed following CEW exposure. On the basis of these results it appears that, during the strong muscle contractions produced by TASER CEWs, a specific population of red blood cells (RBCs) may be released from the spleen or other reservoirs within the body. The total time of CEW exposure in the present study was relatively long compared with exposures in common law-enforcement scenarios. Despite statistically significant changes in red blood cell counts (and other measures directly related to RBCs), the alterations were short-lived. The transient nature of the changes would be likely to counteract any potentially detrimental effects. PMID:23543463

Jauchem, James R; Bernhard, Joshua A; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L; Tarango, Melissa



The prevalence of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is common and increases with the age of growing pigs in the United States.  


Infection with the Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is believed to be common yet limited information is available on the epidemiology of TTSuV. The objectives of this study were to develop novel and improve existing diagnostic methods for TTSuV infection and to investigate the prevalence of TTSuV species 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) in the USA. Three hundred and four blood or fetal thoracic fluid samples were collected from pigs on 40 US farms in 12 States. Samples were collected from fetuses and in pre-suckle neonates (n=73), suckling pigs (1-20 days of age; n=27), nursery pigs (21-55 days of age; n=60), finisher pigs (8-25 weeks of age; n=90) and adults (>25 weeks of age; n=54). Samples were tested by a new quantitative differential real-time PCR for TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 DNA and by ELISA for detection of anti-TTSuV2-antibodies. The prevalence of TTSuV1 DNA ranged from 8.2% (fetuses and neonates) to 81% (finisher pigs) and the prevalence of TTSuV2 DNA ranged from 3.7% (suckling pigs) to 67% (finisher pigs). Evidence of fetal TTSuV infection was minimal. Mixed infection of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 was seen in 6.7% of the nursery pigs, 52.2% of the finisher pigs, and 22.2% of the mature pigs. The prevalence of TTSuV1 was higher than that of TTSuV2. Anti-TTSuV2 antibodies were not detected in the fetuses and neonates and the seroprevalence of TTSuV2 was between 3.8% and 100% in growing pigs. The results of this study indicate that vertical transmission may not be a main route of TTSuV transmission in pigs in the USA. PMID:22484614

Xiao, Chao-Ting; Giménez-Lirola, Luis; Huang, Yao-Wei; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja



Generation of extremely high vacuum by ordinary procedures with a SUS304 vacuum chamber and total and partial pressure measurements by hot cathode ionization gauges and a quadrupole mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study generated an extremely high vacuum of 10-10 Pa by very common methods such as using SUS304 chamber material, electropolishing surface treatment and turbomolecular pumping technology. We examined the gas phase and electron-stimulated desorption ions of the ion gauges, the effect of ambient temperature, total pressure and H2 partial pressure. One of the results showed that, as is well known, most of the residual gas in the extremely high vacuum chamber was H2 but there was also a little F, which is not so well known.

Hong, S. S.; Chung, K. H.; Shin, Y. H.; Arakawa, I.




Microsoft Academic Search

Both natural and anthropic causes are very important to beach erosion. Beach erosion rate is highly variable in time and space. Hurricanes may give and immediate response to Beach erosion, while the polar ice melting and terrain subsidence due to tectonic causes may take longer time for wide reduction of littoral fringes. Industrial development activities may generate consequences highly vulnerable

Arturo Carranza-Edwards


Consecuencias de la restricción de peso impuesta por el deporte en la infancia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoActualmente, los competidores jóvenes emprenden programas de entrenamiento que se basan en un nivel elevado de actividad física desde una temprana edad. Este entrenamiento intensivo (volumen e intensidad) aumenta el gasto de energía, que tiene que ser compensado por una mayor ingesta nutricional. Los bailarines de ballet, los patinadores artísticos, los gimnastas o los gimnastas rítmicos comienzan a entrenar a

Nathalie Boisseau




Microsoft Academic Search

The models for studying the effects of the mass media have proven unable to explain with suf- ficient clarity how it affects and influences peoples' lives and their societies. The aim of this paper is to present a model for explaining the effects of the mass media while eschewing some weaknesses of the traditional models. To do so three complementary

Luciano H. Elizalde


CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO Y TURISMO Posibles consecuencias en los destinos turísticos de Bahía - Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: El calentamiento global está modificando el clima en todos los continentes. Grandes masas de hielo se están derritiendo y están aumentando el nivel medio del mar, amenazando las islas y las zonas costeras. Se están produciendo con frecuencia huracanes y ciclones intensos; las temperaturas mínimas han aumentado, así como las sequías e inundaciones en diversos destinos turísticos. En este

Gustavo da Cruz



Microsoft Academic Search

Especialmente en el caso de las cajas de ahorro, el capital social ha sido recurrentemente utilizado para explicar la aportación que ciertas entidades bancarias realizan al desarrollo económico y social de sus territorios de actuación. Las cooperativas de crédito, como organizaciones singulares en nuestro sistema financiero, poseen unos intangibles de características particulares. Así, la reputación corporativa, las relaciones sociales, con



Dynamics of Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) DNA loads in serum of healthy and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected pigs.  


Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are vertebrate infecting, small viruses with circular single stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In pigs, two different TTV species have been described so far, Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2). TTSuVs have lately been linked to postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In the present study, TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 prevalence and DNA loads in longitudinally collected serum samples of healthy and PMWS affected pigs from Spanish conventional, multi-site farms were analyzed. Serum samples were taken at 1, 3, 7, 11 and around 15 weeks of age (age of PMWS outbreak) and viral DNA loads determined by quantitative PCR. For both TTSuV species, percentage of viremic pigs increased progressively over time, with the highest prevalence in animals of about 15 weeks of age. TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 viral DNA loads in healthy and TTSuV1 loads in PMWS affected animals increased until 11 weeks of age declining afterwards. On the contrary, TTSuV2 DNA loads in PMWS affected pigs increased throughout the sampling period. It seems that TTSuV species differ in the in vivo infection dynamics in PMWS affected animals. PMID:21680113

Nieto, D; Aramouni, M; Grau-Roma, L; Segalés, J; Kekarainen, T



The role played by sympatric collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) as maintenance hosts for Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in a sylvatic area of Brazil.  


The Brazilian Pantanal has been considered one of the richest and most diverse wetland ecosystems in the world. It is occupied by cattle ranching, and a variety of wildlife species share the same habitats with domestic livestock. We investigated infections of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in the sympatric suiformes-collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) by parasitological, serological, and molecular tests. Additionally, we evaluated the health status of both positive and negative suiformes by hematological and biochemical parameters. The results show that peccaries and feral pigs play an important role on the maintenance of both T. evansi and T. cruzi in the Brazilian Pantanal. Health impairment was observed only in the white-lipped peccary infected with T. evansi. Despite presenting low T. evansi parasitemia, all infected white-lipped peccaries displayed low hematocrit values and marked leucopenia. The hematological values showed that the T. evansi infection is more severe in young white-lipped peccaries. The presented data show that feral pigs and peccaries are immersed in the transmission net of both trypanosome species, T. cruzi and T. evansi, in the Pantanal region. PMID:18493795

Herrera, H M; Abreu, U G P; Keuroghlian, A; Freitas, T P; Jansen, A M



Comparative chromosome painting between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) and two species of peccary, the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari): a phylogenetic perspective.  


The Suidae and the Dicotylidae (or Tayassuidae) are related mammalian families, both belonging to the artiodactyl suborder Suiformes, which diverged more than 37 million years ago. Cross-species chromosome painting was performed between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa; 2n = 38), a representative of the Suidae, and two species of the Dicotylidae: the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu; 2n = 30) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari; 2n = 26). G-banded metaphase chromosomes of the two peccaries were hybridized with whole chromosome painting probes derived from domestic pig chromosomes 1-18 and X. For both peccary species, a total of 31 autosomal segments that are conserved between pig and peccary could be identified. The painting results confirm conclusions inferred from G-band analyses that the karyotypes of the collared peccary and the white-lipped peccary are largely different. The karyotypic heterogeneity of the Dicotylidae contrasts with the relative homogeneity among the karyotypes of the Suidae. For this difference between the Dicotylidae and the Suidae, a number of explanations are being postulated: 1) the extant peccaries are phylogenetically less closely related than is usually assumed; 2) the peccary genome is less stable than the genome of the pigs; and 3) special (e.g. biogeographical or biosocial) circumstances have facilitated the fixation of chromosome rearrangements in ancestral dicotylid populations. PMID:15218266

Bosma, A A; de Haan, N A; Arkesteijn, G J A; Yang, F; Yerle, M; Zijlstra, C



Prevención de la carencia de hierro en la lactancia, la infancia y la adolescencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenLa carencia de hierro (CH) es frecuente en lactantes, niños y adolescentes de todo el mundo debido a sus elevadas necesidades de hierro durante el crecimiento, la precaria ingestión de hierro alimentario y la dieta con biodisponibilidad baja. El estado de hierro deficitario se asocia a consecuencias adversas para la salud durante toda la infancia. Las medidas preventivas deben iniciarse

Maria Andersson; Richard F. Hurrell




Microsoft Academic Search

La droga, psicofármacos y otras sustancias de similares efectos, han ido evolucionando a lo largo de la historia con sus características específicas, de acuerdo a las condiciones de la sociedad, pero en Cuba, este flagelo ha sido atendido y controlado especialmente por las diferentes instituciones de nuestro Estado, debido a las graves consecuencias que acarrea para la población, específicamente para

Yaniuska Pose Roselló



La reparación del daño como mecanismo de tutela de la persona. Del daño a la salud a los nuevos daños extrapatrimoniales  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad, el operador del Derecho se enfrenta a dos de los más importantes problemas del nuevo derecho de daños: por un lado, la clasificación del perjuicio y, por el otro, la reparación correspondiente a cada una de sus categorías, que debe estar informada por el principio de reparación integral, y que impone en consecuencia considerar más que las

Milagros Koteich Khatib


Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 3 de enero de 2012

Dra. Rachel Ballard-Barbash Nuevos indicios del papel de la obesidad en el cáncer A medida que ha aumentado la prevalencia de la obesidad alrededor del mundo, se ha incrementado también la preocupación sobre sus consecuencias en la salud pública. Los índices de obesidad se han más que duplicado desde 1980, según la Organización Mundial de la Salud.


Lymphome de Hodgkin: traitement des stades localisés sus-diaphragmatiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  The risk-adapted therapeutic strategy used for adult patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma is defined taking into account their\\u000a risk factors and includes standard first-line ABVD chemotherapy. In early-stage supradiaphragmatic disease, 3 chemotherapeutic\\u000a courses are applied for patients without risk factors while 4 courses are used for patients with risk factors, followed by\\u000a a radiation therapy targeting initially involved fields (IFRT) at

C. Fermé



Berilio. Sus minerales. Pte. 1. (Beryllium. Its minerals. Pt. 1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With this work a series of reports begins, under the generic name 'Beryllium', related to several aspects of beryllium technology. The target is to update, with critical sense, current bibliographic material in order to be used in further applications. So...

O. A. Lires C. A. Delfino J. Botbol



¿Está enfermo uno de sus hijos? No adivine. Lea las ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Si nota nuevos síntomas o efectos secundarios no esperados, o si la medicina parece que no está haciendo efecto, comuníquese con su médico o ... More results from


La pizarra digital y sus posibilidades en el mundo educativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuevos aprendizajes y nuevas mentes, llevan consigo la necesidad de profundizar en la metodología a la hora de innovar y de aplicar las nuevas tecnologías en el aula. La inquietud de un grupo cada vez más numeroso de profesores, junto a las tímidas aproximaciones de las diversas administraciones a la hora de dotar a los centros con nuevas tecnologías, hace

Ramón Domenech



Principles of Corporate Sus- tainability in Russian S&T  

Microsoft Academic Search

The share of hi-tech corporations in Russian S&T is not large. The substantial reason for the fact is that the Rus- sian R&D model created under the administrative econ- omy is very inert. The development of hi-tech corporations with modern management models inside has to be an important part of the elaboration of a multipurpose ap- proach to the R&D

Anguelina Goudkov; Liudmila Pipiya


¿Está enfermo uno de sus hijos? No adivine. Lea las ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... la dosis recomendada simplemente porque el niño/a parece ... solamente, no adivine — obtenga el dispositivo de ... la medicina a niños de menos de ... More results from


Serological Profile of Torque Teno Sus Virus Species 1 (TTSuV1) in Pigs and Antigenic Relationships between Two TTSuV1 Genotypes (1a and 1b), between Two Species (TTSuV1 and -2), and between Porcine and Human Anelloviruses  

PubMed Central

The family Anelloviridae includes human and animal torque teno viruses (TTVs) with extensive genetic diversity. The antigenic diversity among anelloviruses has never been assessed. Using torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) as a model, we describe here the first investigation of the antigenic relationships among different anelloviruses. Using a TTSuV genotype 1a (TTSuV1a) or TTSuV1b enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the respective putative ORF1 capsid antigen and TTSuV1-specific real-time PCR, the combined serological and virological profile of TTSuV1 infection in pigs was determined and compared with that of TTSuV2. TTSuV1 is likely not associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), because both the viral loads and antibody levels were not different between affected and unaffected pigs and because there was no synergistic effect of concurrent PCV2/TTSuV1 infections. We did observe a higher correlation of IgG antibody levels between anti-TTSuV1a and -TTSuV1b than between anti-TTSuV1a or -1b and anti-TTSuV2 antibodies in these sera, implying potential antigenic cross-reactivity. To confirm this, rabbit antisera against the putative capsid proteins of TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b, or TTSuV2 were generated, and the antigenic relationships among these TTSuVs were analyzed by an ELISA and by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using PK-15 cells transfected with one of the three TTSuV ORF1 constructs. The results demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity between the two genotypes TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b but not between the two species TTSuV1a or -1b and TTSuV2. Furthermore, an anti-genogroup 1 human TTV antiserum did not react with any of the three TTSuV antigens. These results have important implications for an understanding of the diversity of anelloviruses as well as for the classification and vaccine development of TTSuVs.

Huang, Yao-Wei; Harrall, Kylie K.; Dryman, Barbara A.; Opriessnig, Tanja; Vaughn, Eric M.; Roof, Michael B.



Serological profile of torque teno sus virus species 1 (TTSuV1) in pigs and antigenic relationships between two TTSuV1 genotypes (1a and 1b), between two species (TTSuV1 and -2), and between porcine and human anelloviruses.  


The family Anelloviridae includes human and animal torque teno viruses (TTVs) with extensive genetic diversity. The antigenic diversity among anelloviruses has never been assessed. Using torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) as a model, we describe here the first investigation of the antigenic relationships among different anelloviruses. Using a TTSuV genotype 1a (TTSuV1a) or TTSuV1b enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the respective putative ORF1 capsid antigen and TTSuV1-specific real-time PCR, the combined serological and virological profile of TTSuV1 infection in pigs was determined and compared with that of TTSuV2. TTSuV1 is likely not associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), because both the viral loads and antibody levels were not different between affected and unaffected pigs and because there was no synergistic effect of concurrent PCV2/TTSuV1 infections. We did observe a higher correlation of IgG antibody levels between anti-TTSuV1a and -TTSuV1b than between anti-TTSuV1a or -1b and anti-TTSuV2 antibodies in these sera, implying potential antigenic cross-reactivity. To confirm this, rabbit antisera against the putative capsid proteins of TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b, or TTSuV2 were generated, and the antigenic relationships among these TTSuVs were analyzed by an ELISA and by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using PK-15 cells transfected with one of the three TTSuV ORF1 constructs. The results demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity between the two genotypes TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b but not between the two species TTSuV1a or -1b and TTSuV2. Furthermore, an anti-genogroup 1 human TTV antiserum did not react with any of the three TTSuV antigens. These results have important implications for an understanding of the diversity of anelloviruses as well as for the classification and vaccine development of TTSuVs. PMID:22811540

Huang, Yao-Wei; Harrall, Kylie K; Dryman, Barbara A; Opriessnig, Tanja; Vaughn, Eric M; Roof, Michael B; Meng, Xiang-Jin



The impact of postwar immigration on the demographic and social structure of Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resumen  Desde el fin de la Segunda Guerra Munidial, Suiza ha recibido gran afluencia de trabajadores extranjeros. Actualmente, eerca\\u000a de un tercio del total de la población economicamente activa y un 38% del total de la fuerza de trabajo empleada en sus fábricas,\\u000a es extranjera.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Las autoridades suizas presumiendo inicialmente que la prosperidad del pais era transitoria, y en consecuencia que

Kurt B. Mayer



D?lais de prise en charge des syndromes coronariens aigus avec sus-d?calage du segment ST ? Ouagadougou et facteurs associ?s ? un allongement de ces d?lais: ?tude transversale ? propos de 43 cas collig?s au CHU-Yalgado Ou?draogo  

PubMed Central

La prise en charge de l'infarctus du myocarde est une course contre la montre et les trois premières heures constituent les « golden hours ». Les objectifs de ce travail étaient de déterminer le délai de prise en charge des infarctus du myocarde du myocarde au Burkina Faso, les facteurs liés à un allongement du délai et le pronostic des patients. Il s'agit d'une étude transversale descriptive menée de Septembre 2010 à Août 2011. Le critère d'inclusion était l'infarctus du myocarde dont le diagnostic était basé sur des critères clinique (douleur angineuse), électrocardiographique (sus-décalage persistant du segment ST dans au moins deux dérivations contiguës du même territoire coronaire, onde Q de nécrose) et biologique (élévation de la troponine). Les informations relatives au délai de prise en charge ont été recueillies: début du premier symptôme, contact avec le premier agent de santé et le cardiologue, nombre de centre de santé consulté avant le transfert en cardiologie, situation géographique des patients, moyen de transport utilisé. Les données ont été analysées grâce au logiciel SPSS version 17. Durant la période d’étude, 43 patients d’âge moyen de 56,51 ± 12,91 ans ont été admis pour infarctus du myocarde. Plus de la moitié des patients (72,0%) habitait Ouagadougou et sa banlieue. Le délai moyen entre le début de la douleur et la consultation dans la première structure sanitaire était de 48 ± 20,8 heures; celui entre le début de la douleur et la réalisation du premier ECG était en moyenne de 8,6 ±4,5 jours. Le délai entre la réalisation de l'ECG et l'admission dans le service de cardiologie était de 4,35 ±4,0 jours [00 heure et 13 jours]. Le délai entre l'admission dans le service de cardiologie et la thrombolyse était de 34 minutes. Enfin le délai entre le début de la douleur et le contact avec le cardiologue était de 9,6±3,5 jours. Il n'y avait pas de différence statiquement significative (P = 0,076) entre le délai de consultation des malades résidant en campagne et ceux résidant en ville. Le moyen de déplacement le plus utilisé était les transports en commun (67,4%). Aucun patient n’était référé par un transport médicalisé. Aucun patient n’était référé après la première consultation dans une structure sanitaire. Seuls 6 patients étaient référés avec le diagnostic de SCA ST+. L’âge de plus de 60 ans (P = 0,016), la prescription des antalgiques (p =0,021) et le niveau socioéconomique faible (P= 0,038) étaient également des facteurs associés à un allongement des délais de prise en charge. La reperfusion myocardique était constituée par la thrombolyse à la streptokinase qui a été réalisée chez 2 patients. La coronarographie n'a pas été réalisée. L’évolution a été marquée par 5 décès (11,6%). la prise en charge des infarctus du myocarde au Burkina Faso est caractérisée par de très longs délais. Elle n'est de ce fait pas optimale.

Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Samadoulougou, Andre; Millogo, Georges; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Kombassere, Karim; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice



Consecuencias de la Venta de Impresas Publicas en el Bienestar. Analisis Empirico. Resumen (Welfare Consequences of Selling Public Enterprises. An Empirical Analysis. Summary).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book presents an empirical study of public enterprise diverstiture. Through 12 comprehensive case studies in four countries, the authors measure the effects of divestiture on sellers, buyers, consumers, workers, and competitors. The enterprises analy...

A. Galal L. Jones P. Tandon I. Vogelsang



How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

National PTA, Chicago, IL.


Cámara CCD Directa con el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se efectuaron algunas pruebas con la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.

Cellone, S. A.


Irradiation-induced precipitation in a SUS316 stainless steel using three-dimensional atom probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation and segregation were investigated in a compositionally modified 316 austenitic stainless steel, neutron-irradiated at 862 K using a three-dimensional atom probe. In the solution-annealed specimen, Mo, Ti, Nb, C and P enrichment were observed in a silicide, with nominal composition Fe3Cr2Ni2Mo2Si2. In a Ti-rich carbide, nominaling Fe5Cr8Ni10Mo2Ti11Si2C6, enrichment of Mo, Si, O, and Nb was observed. Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) at the precipitate-matrix interface was also investigated at an atomic scale. RIS of Ni and P atoms, which are undersized in Fe, was also analyzed around the interface of the Ti-rich carbide and matrix. Results suggest that the carbide-matrix interface is a sink with an interstitial bias. In the cold-worked specimen, complex-precipitates consisting of silicide and carbide were formed.

Hatakeyama, M.; Yamagata, I.




Microsoft Academic Search

El siguiente ensayo (epistemológico) intenta responder a una pregunta que es crítica y ha sido poco estudiada ¿puede ser la musicología una disciplina independiente de las Ciencias sociales?. Por medio del manejo de autores clásicos como Ruiz y Pelinski, se entabla un debate teórico sobre las limitaciones y alcances que la musicología afronta como discurso ideológico o forma metodológica de

Maximiliano Korstanje



Development of a porcine (Sus scofa) embryo-specific microarray: array annotation and validation  

PubMed Central

Background The domestic pig is an important livestock species and there is strong interest in the factors that affect the development of viable embryos and offspring in this species. A limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in early embryonic development has inhibited our ability to fully elucidate these factors. Next generation deep sequencing and microarray technologies are powerful tools for delineation of molecular pathways involved in the developing embryo. Results Here we present the development of a porcine-embryo-specific microarray platform created from a large expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis generated by Roche/454 next-generation sequencing of cDNAs constructed from critical stages of in vivo or in vitro porcine preimplantation embryos. Two cDNA libraries constructed from in vitro and in vivo produced preimplantation porcine embryos were normalized and sequenced using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Over one million high-quality EST sequences were obtained and used to develop the EMbryogene Porcine Version 1 (EMPV1) microarray composed of 43,795 probes. Based on an initial probe sequence annotation, the EMPV1 features 17,409 protein-coding, 473 pseudogenes, 46 retrotransposed, 2,359 non-coding RNA, 4,121 splice variants in 2,862 genes and a total of 12,324 Novel Transcript Regions (NTR). After re-annotation, the total unique genes increased from 11,961 to 16,281 and 1.9% of them belonged to a large olfactory receptor (OR) gene family. Quality control on the EMPV1 was performed and revealed an even distribution of ten clusters of spiked-in control spots and array to array (dye-swap) correlation was 0.97. Conclusions Using next-generation deep sequencing we have produced a large EST dataset to allow for the selection of probe sequences for the development of the EMPV1 microarray platform. The quality of this embryo-specific array was confirmed with a high-level of reproducibility using current Agilent microarray technology. With more than an estimated 20,000 unique genes represented on the EMPV1, this platform will provide the foundation for future research into the in vivo and in vitro factors that affect the viability of porcine embryos, as well as the effects of these factors on the live offspring that result from these embryos.



Madres adultas y madres adolescentes. Un análisis comparativo de las interacciones que mantienen con sus bebés  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyzes the differences in the interactions of a group of adolescent mothers and another one of adult mothers with their babies of 8-12 months of age during feeding time. In this way, we studied 93 mother-baby dyads (41 adolescents and 52 adults) in 4 observational dimensions: (1) the emotional warm; (2) maternal sensitivity; (3) linguistic development and autonomy



La Experiencia de la TALIDOMIDA: Revisión de sus efectos al cumplirse 50 años de su descubrimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year is the 50th anniversary of the discovery that the drug thalidomide causes birth defects and should therefore be considered as a teratogen. However, despite the existence of several other drugs that are also human teratogens, thalidomide continues to cause concern among health professionals as well as the general population. The objectives of this article are to make a



The electrolytic polishing study of the stainless steel foil (SUS 304)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexible flat panel display (FPD) is considered to be one of the most optimal and flourishing display technologies in the 21st century, and the processing and exploitation of flexible substrate is one of the key techniques of flexible display. Until now there have been three choices of flexible substrate materials: (1) ultra-thin glass; (2) polymer materials; (3) metal foils. The flexible substrates of electroluminescence display must endure high-temperature annealing from 400°C to 700°C for doping activation, and have good flexibility and can obstruct oxygen and water penetration. Based on above considerations, to adopt the stainless steel foil for the FPD is the most suitable. In this paper, the electrolytic polishing process of stainless steel foil is investigated, and the results of the experiment show that the polishing time, current density, distance of cathode and anode panel, and other technical parameters affect the electrolytic polishing process, and then induce the best technical parameters. The surface roughness of stainless steel sheet decreases from 0.12?m to 0.044?m, but the dongas appear after the steel surface being polished. The dongas patterns are investigated, and this provides a more scientific basis for the experiments in the future.

Li, Yuqiong; Yu, Zhi-nong; Xue, Wei; Leng, Jian



Como Ayudar a sus Hijos a Aprender Ciencia (Helping Your Child Learn Science).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because most parents say they do not or cannot help their children with science, this booklet was designed to help them do so, easily and with pleasure for both parent and child. The introduction presents information on why and how parents should help their children and provides a general orientation to the ideas and activities offered in the…

Paulu, Nancy; Martin, Margery


Measurement of ninhydrin reactive nitrogen influx into gravesoil during aboveground and belowground carcass ( Sus domesticus) decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcass decomposition results in the release of nitrogenous compounds into associated soil. The current study investigated the release of ninhydrin reactive nitrogen (NRN) following burial (?40cm depth) and decomposition on the soil surface. Also investigated was the lateral extent of NRN in gravesoil. NRN concentration increased significantly in gravesoil collected from the center of graves (?20cm depth) during the initial

Lori E. Van Belle; David O. Carter; Shari L. Forbes




Microsoft Academic Search

Grecia es uno de los miembros de la comunidad económica europea que actualmente enfrenta una de las situaciones más cruciales que podría impactar no solamente a esta Unión sino también algunos de los países de América Latina, de todos los pertenecientes de la CEE, es el que se encuentra en peor situación económica y el más susceptible de caer en

Pedro Jesús López Montoya



El público femenino del Modernismo: la recepción imitativa y crítica de sus lectoras especializadas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of female readers for the development of Spanish Modernism, scholars have practically overlooked their existence and have rather focussed on other areas of Modernist readership, such as the mutual readings by Modernist poets and the reactions from official literary critics. To describe and analyze that female readership is a pending task since this one was perhaps the

José María Martínez



Galectin-3 immunohistochemistry in the vomeronasal organ of the domestic pig, Sus scrofa.  


The immunohistochemical localization of galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding protein, was studied in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of fetal, 1-day-old, and 6-month-old pigs. In all age groups, the porcine VNO consisted of vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VSE) located medially and non-sensory vomeronasal respiratory epithelium (VRE) located laterally. In the pig, the VNO epithelium increased in height with postnatal development from fetus to adult. In the VSE of all stages examined, galectin-3 immunostaining was seen in the supporting cells and free border, but not in receptor or basal cells. Galectin-3 immunostaining was seen in all layers of the VRE, and the intensity increased with postnatal development. In the lamina propria, galectin-3 was detected in some ductal epithelial cells and the vomeronasal nerve sheath, but not in the acini of the Jacobson glands in all age groups. In view of these observations, we postulate that galectin-3 plays a role in cell survival and cell adhesion in both the VSE and VRE of porcine VNO in all age groups. PMID:22240017

Park, Changnam; Choi, Sungyoung; Joo, Hong-Gu; Ahn, Meejung; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun



The GENETPIG database: a tool for comparative mapping in pig (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

The GENETPIG database has been established for storing and disseminating the results of the European project: ‘GENETPIG: identification of genes controlling economic traits in pig’. The partners of this project have mapped about 630 porcine and human ESTs onto the pig genome. The database collects the mapping results and links them to other sources of mapping data; this includes pig maps as well as available comparative mapping information. Functional annotation of the mapped ESTs is also given when a significant similarity to cognate genes was established. The database is accessible for consultation via the Internet at

Karsenty, Emmanuelle; Barillot, Emmanuel; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Lahbib-Mansais, Yvette; Milan, Denis; Hatey, Francois; Cirera, Susanna; Sawera, Milena; J?rgensen, Claus B.; Chowdhary, Bhanu; Fredholm, Merete; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Davoli, Roberta; Fontanesi, Luca; Braglia, Silvia; Zambonelli, Paolo; Bigi, Daniele; Neuenschwander, Stefan; Gellin, Joel



La mejora de la educación infantil desde el análisis del pensamiento práctico de sus educadores  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resumen  La mejora de la Educación Infantil ha de fundamentarse, entre otros elementos o referentes, en los docentes que la han de\\u000a implementar. Para ello, nuestro interés deberá centrarse no tanto en el qué (contenido) y en el cómo (modo) de su actuación\\u000a sino en lo relacionado con el por qué y el para qué de su acción pedagógica.\\u000a \\u000a De los

Javier Argos



Sistema Solar: de la observación de La Tierra a los planetas gigantes y sus lunas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La fotoquímica tiene un papel principal en la composición de las atmósferas planetarias. Se examinan diferentes procesos fotoquímicos tanto para atmósferas oxidadas como reductoras, poniendo un especial énfasis en los ciclos químicos más importantes. En este sentido, se presentan diferentes ciclos químicos capaces de producir hidrocarbonos y nitrilos en atmósferas reductoras, así como aquellos capaces de mantener las proporciones de mezcla de las moléculas que contienen oxígeno, tales como CO2, O2 y H2O. También se analizan otros procesos importantes tales como la condensación y procesos de sputtering y de sublimación que han de tenerse en cuenta cuando se realizan modelos sobre la composición atmosférica.

Rodrigo, R.


Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Chemical and Histological Analysis  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 ?g/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 ?g/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder.

Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira



Cómo enseñar a los padres a hablar con sus hijos acerca de ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... aprendieron cuántas calorías comían; aprendieron que su bolsa de papas favoritas tiene en realidad tres porciones y media; aprendieron que los ... More results from


Síndrome del cuidador de adultos mayores discapacitados y sus implicaciones psicosociales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia del síndrome del cuidador y las características psicosociales de los cuidadores de adultos mayores discapacitados. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio piloto de casos y controles en el Valle del Cauca durante el 2003-2004 para evaluar la funcionalidad familiar (APGAR familiar), la ansiedad y depresión (escala de Goldberg), la presencia de enfermedades (cuidadores y no





Microsoft Academic Search

In Chile there is a wide diversity of cetaceans species, 38 of the 76 recognized species of the world (50,0%), with the exception of the 5 species of freshwaters dolphins that live in the large rivers of the earth. The mysticetes species add 8 of the 12 recognized as baleen whales (66,7%), and the odontocetes are 30 of the 65

Anelio Aguayo-Lobo


Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrufa L.) and its impact on hardwood ...  


... L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland ... and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO2), temperature, and moisture on paired ...


Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A\\/A) for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA),

Henri CM Heuven; Rik H. J. van Wijk; Bert Dibbits; Tony A. van Kampen; Egbert F. Knol; Henk Bovenhuis



Alaria alata in wild boars (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758) in the eastern parts of Germany.  


Over the last decade, incidental findings of Alaria alata in stocks of German wild boar during the official Trichinella inspection have been increased. As early as 2006, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment pointed out the possible health risk to the consumer posed by this trematode. However, at that time, reliable data concerning the prevalence of the parasite in German wild boars and feral pigs were lacking especially because no appropriate detection method was available. The development of the A. alata mesocercariae technique (Riehn et al., Parasitol Res 107(1):213-220, 2010) now makes it possible to close the remaining gaps in knowledge in this field. Over a 2-year period, 286 retained samples of fresh meat from wild boars originating from different hunting areas in Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, which were tested negative for A. alata during the official Trichinella inspection in the competent veterinary inspection offices, were reexamined with the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT). In 33 out of 286 retained meat samples (11.5%) with a preliminary negative report, the trematode was demonstrated during the follow-up examination using AMT. This result especially in connection with the highly heterogeneous distribution of the parasite within the hosts' body (Riehn et al., Parasitol Res 107(1):213-220, 2010; Moehl et al., Parasitol Res 105(1):1-15, 2009) shows clearly that a high number of unreported cases of alariosis in wild boars have to be assumed. PMID:22562214

Riehn, Katharina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Grosse, Knut; Wüste, Tanja; Lücker, Ernst



First detection of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) from Bulgaria.  


The trematode Alaria alata, an intestinal parasite of different carnivore species is widely distributed throughout Europe. The mesocercarial stages of Alaria spp. may infect almost all vertebrate species, including humans, and, in particular, omnivorous scavengers such as wild boars serve as paratenic hosts for the parasite. The introduction of the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT) opened the way to a reliable detection of Alaria spp. mesocercariae in different body tissues of their paratenic hosts. For the first time, it was possible to detect vital A. alata mesocercariae from two Bulgarian wild boars by means of this new method. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination of the respective parasitic DNA allowed the unequivocal species identification of the parasites as A. alata. Isolation and molecular biological identification of the parasite's developmental stages make significant contributions to completion of data on both the distribution of Alaria spp. in stocks of European game and the relationship between different Eurasian Alaria spp. isolates. PMID:23374251

Riehn, K; Lalkovski, N; Hamedy, A; Lücker, Ernst



SusMiRPred: Ab Initio SVM Classification for Porcine MicroRNA Precursor Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNA (miRNA), which is short non-coding RNA, plays important roles in almost all biological processes examined. Several classifiers have been applied to predict humans, mice and rats precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs), but no classifier is applied to classify porcine pre-miRNAs only based on the porcine pre-miRNAs because of little known miRNA component in the porcine genome. Here, we developed a novel

Peng-Fang Zhou; Fei Zhang; Yang Zhang; Zhen-Hua Zhao; Wen-Qian Zhang; De-Li Zhang



Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella in European wild boar (Sus scrofa); Latium Region - Italy.  


The prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection was determined in 499 wild boars harvested during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 hunting seasons in the Latium Region of Italy. We conducted a microbiological assessment on faeces collected at slaughter and we examined serum samples for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella spp. by ELISA assay. Out of 383 serum samples examined, 255 (66.5%) were positive for Salmonella spp. antibodies. Overall, 10.8% (54/499) of the animals were positive by microbiological assessment. The Salmonellae most frequently isolated were S. enterica subsp. salamae II (24%), S. enterica subsp. Diarizonae III b (12.9%), S. enterica subsp. houtenae IV (11.1%) and S. Fischerhuette (7.4%); less common Salmonella isolates included S. Veneziana (5.5%), S. Napoli (5.5%), S. Kottbus (5.5%), S. Thompson (5.5%), S. enterica subsp. arizonae III a (3.7%), S. Toulon (3.7%), S. Burgas (1.8%), S. Tennelhone (1.8%), S. Ferruch (1.8%), S. choleraesuis (1.8%), S. Paratyphi (1.8%), S. Stanleyville (1.8%), S. Typhimurium (1.8%) and S. enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12:1:- (1.8%). These isolates were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents and exhibited resistance to sulphonamides (92.5%), sulphonamides and thrimetroprim (14.8%), colistin (14.8%), streptomycin (18.5%), gentamycin (5.5%), tetracycline (5.5%), ceftiofur (3.7%), cefazoline (1.8%), cefotaxime (1.8%), nalidixic acid (1.8%), amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (1.8%) and ampicillin (3.7%). Our data, the first collected on this species in Italy, suggest that European wild boars are frequent carriers of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonellae and are likely involved in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance throughout the environment. PMID:23253890

Zottola, T; Montagnaro, S; Magnapera, C; Sasso, S; De Martino, L; Bragagnolo, A; D'Amici, L; Condoleo, R; Pisanelli, G; Iovane, G; Pagnini, U



Exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxin among Danish livestock farmers: results from the SUS cohort study.  


Studies on personal dust and endotoxin concentrations among animal farmers have been either small or limited to a few sectors in their investigations. The present study aimed to provide comparable information on the levels and variability of exposure to personal dust and endotoxin in different types of animal farmers. 507 personal inhalable dust samples were collected from 327 farmers employed in 54 pig, 26 dairy, 3 poultry, and 3 mink farms in Denmark. Measurements in pig and dairy farmers were full-shift and performed during summer and winter, while poultry and mink farmers were monitored during 4 well-defined production stages. The collected samples were measured for dust gravimetrically and analyzed for endotoxin by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Simple statistics and random-effect analysis were used to describe the levels and the variability in measured dust and endotoxin exposure concentrations. Measured inhalable dust levels had an overall geometric mean of 2.5 mg m(-3) (range

Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben; Heederik, Dick; Takai, Hisamitsu; Omland, Øyvind; Andersen, Nils T; Wouters, Inge M; Bønløkke, Jakob H; Kromhout, Hans; Schlünssen, Vivi



Bunuel y la novela Hispana: Un estudio de sus transposiciones Mexicanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the juncture between three films by Luis Buñuel and the novels by Mercedes Pinto, Rodolfo Usigli and Miguel Alvarez Acosta. The primary approaches are narratological and comparative. While much of Buñuel's work has been studied from other perspectives, strict narratological and comparative analysis of the texts have been all but absent from the extensive critical work surrounding

Gerardo Tonatiuh Cummings




Microsoft Academic Search

It has been a recurrent questiontllatstructure and contentare different aspects. in moral reasoning, but not independent; there eXÍstsa relatipnship.between.certain structuresof moral judgment and certain values direction.· Moialpreconventionall~; \\



The electrolytic polishing study of the stainless steel foil (SUS 304)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible flat panel display (FPD) is considered to be one of the most optimal and flourishing display technologies in the 21st century, and the processing and exploitation of flexible substrate is one of the key techniques of flexible display. Until now there have been three choices of flexible substrate materials: (1) ultra-thin glass; (2) polymer materials; (3) metal foils. The

Yuqiong Li; Zhi-nong Yu; Wei Xue; Jian Leng



Los contaminantes ambientales bifenilos policlorinados (PCB) y sus efectos sobre el Sistema Nervioso y la salud  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Environmental pollution is a world-wide issue which is a matter for concern among the international community. Great industrialized cities are the most polluted and Mexico City is among them. However, pollution affects places which are far away from contaminated urban areas, thus damaging eco-systems. Environmental pollution is responsible for an alarming and increasing list of illnesses in humans, animals

Carolina Miller-Pérez; Eduardo Sánchez-Islas; Samuel Mucio-Ramírez; José Mendoza-Sotelo; Martha León-Olea



Light Microscopic, Electron Microscopic, and Immunohistochemical Comparison of Bama Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) and Human Skin  

PubMed Central

Here we sought to evaluate the possibility of using Chinese Bama miniature pig skin as a suitable animal model for human skin. Morphologic features of the skin of Bama miniature pigs resemble those of human skin, including skin layer thickness, development of a superficial vascular system, structure of the dermal–epidermal interface, and extracellular matrix. The characteristics and densities of Langerhans cells, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and mast cells were similar between Bama pig and human skin. Immunohistochemistry showed that miniature pigs and humans have the same antigenic determinants of human laminin, fibronectin, filaggrin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, and keratin but not CD34, ICAM1, or S100. In addition, collagen type I from Bama miniature pig skin exhibited physicochemical characteristics resembling those of human skin, in regard to HPLC chromatography, UV spectroscopy, amino-acid composition, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Given these results, we concluded that Bama miniature pigs have great potential as a human skin model and for developing dermal substitute materials in wound repair. However, we also observed some disparities between the skin of Bama miniature pigs and humans, including pigment cell distribution, sweat gland types, and others. Therefore, further studies are needed to completely evaluate the effects of these interspecies differences on the actual application of the model.

Liu, Yu; Chen, Jun-ying; Shang, Hai-tao; Liu, Chang-e; Wang, Yong; Niu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Wei, Hong



El consumo riesgoso y dañino de alcohol y sus factores predictivos en adolescentes estudiantes del bachillerato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Alcohol is commonly used among adolescents in Mexico. In a representative survey of Mexico's general population, 30% of the teenagers reported current drinking, whereas 8% incurred in binge drinking (5 or more drinks per occasion) at least once during the last year. In addition, 3% reported three or more alcohol dependence symptoms over the last 12 months. In this

L. Rosa; Díaz Martínez; Alejandro Díaz Martínez; Carlos A. Hernández-Ávila; Héctor Fernández Varela; Cuauhtemoc Solís Torres; José Narro Robles


Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the wild boar (Sus scrofa): chemical and histological analysis.  


Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 ?g/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 ?g/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder. PMID:23211797

Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira



Genetic imprinting of H19 and IGF2 in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).  


The genes insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19 express paternally and maternally, respectively, in humans, mice, sheep, and cattle. Additionally, IGF2 has been shown to be regulated by at least four promoters in a tissue- or development-specific manner. In the domestic pigs, the promoter- and tissue-specific imprinting pattern of IGF2 has not been well characterized, nor is the imprinting pattern of H19. In the present study, we identified two polymorphisms in each of IGF2 (exons 2 and 9) and H19 (exons 1 and 5) and determined the imprinting status of these two genes in 13 organs / tissues of week-old pigs. IGF2 P1 transcript is bi-allelically expressed (not imprinted) in all major organs studied, while the majority of IGF2 transcripts are expressed from promoters 2-4 and are imprinted. H19 is exclusively expressed from the maternal allele in all major organs, concurrent with observations in other species. PMID:18228173

Li, Chao; Bin, Yanfang; Curchoe, Carol; Yang, Lan; Feng, Dingyuan; Jiang, Qingyan; O'Neill, Michael; Tian, X Cindy; Zhang, Shouquan



Construya Usted Mismo sus Instrumentos para Mediciones Forestales (Make Your Own Instruments for Forest Measurements).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A forest technician working in rural areas sometimes misses some tools needed to make prompt measurements on-site. In these situations, some make-yourself tools are very helpful. This handbook shows how to make and use these kind of tools which measure tr...



Evaluation of fatigue damage in an austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) using the eddy current probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to prevent accidents, it is very important to evaluate fatigue damage in an austenitic stainless steel, which is widely used in structural components of industries. Some research groups have already proposed the evaluation method such as the residual magnetization method for this purpose. The residual magnetization method was effective to evaluate fatigue damage in austenitic stainless steels. However,

M. Oka; T. Yakushiji; Y. Tsuchida; M. Enokizono



Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis infections in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Korea.  


Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis are important zoonotic pathogens with worldwide distributions. In Korea, several outbreaks of human toxoplasmosis and trichinellosis due to the consumption of infected wild animals have been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and T. spiralis infections in wild boars killed in Korea from December 2009 to October 2011. A total of 521 wild boars hunted in eight provinces were examined for antibodies to T. gondii and T. spiralis by using commercial ELISA kits. Overall, 25.1% of serum samples from individual boars were seropositive for T. gondii and 1.7% were seropositive for T. spiralis. Seropositive for T. gondii was found in the boars in all the eight provinces investigated and for T. spiralis in four provinces. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of T. gondii and T. spiralis infections in wild boars in Korea. The consumption of undercooked wild boar meat may expose humans to a high risk of infection. PMID:24016595

Kang, Seung Won; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Choe, Se Eun; Yoo, Mi Sun; Kim, Young Ha; Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Dieu; Van Quyen, Dong; Nguyen, Lien Thi Kim; Kweon, Chang Hee; Jung, Suk Chan




Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost and operative strategies are necessary in order to reduce the congestion and pollutant levels in our towns. In this context the bike, that is a non - motorised private mean, could be a way to increase the accessibility of the public transport system and in particular of the urban railway. The principal aim of this study has been

S. Amoroso; M. Migliore; B. Lo Casto



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El tema de las adicciones ha sido abordado históric amente por la literatura desde múltiples puntos de vista, sin embargo en esta investigación bibliográfica nuestra intenci ón es dimensionar las teorías sobre el origen de la s adicciones, considerando la complementariedad teórica para la q ue se presta el tema, permitiendo un paralelo con l as terapias psicoanalíticas y

Alan Herzberg; Viviana Messina; Diego Moreno; Natalia Olmedo; Romina Pitronello; Francisca Roman


Colombia: aumento de las exportaciones y sus efectos sobre el crecimiento, empleo y pobreza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia reduced import protection along with explicit export promotion schemes in the early 1990s. Capital flows were liberalized although some restrictions on short-term inflows were retained to reduce volatility. Output growth was led by exports in the second half of the 1980s, but the rise in capital inflows and the related real exchange rate appreciation, triggered a domestic demand boom

Sánchez Fabio y Hernández Gustavo Adolfo



Enantiómeros puros partiendo de sus racémicos ¿Realmente se beneficia el paciente?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una revisión sobre los medicamentos enantiómeros puros que se han comercializado en nuestro país cuando ya existía el racémico y que sean usados desde atención primaria, centrando especial atención en aquellos estudios que comparen la eficacia y seguridad del racémico con el enantiómero puro en humanos con la enfermedad objeto de tratamiento.

E Carracedo Martínez


Vagal projections to the pylorus in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica).  


The goal of the present study was to examine the precise localization of the brainstem motor and primary sensory (nodose ganglion) vagal perikarya supplying the pylorus in the domestic pig. Using the Fast Blue retrograde tracing technique it has been established that all the vagal motor neurons projecting to the pylorus (about 337 ± 59 cells per animal) were localized bilaterally in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMX, 171 - left; 167 - right) and all other regions of the porcine brainstem were devoid of labeled neurons. The vagal perikarya supplying the porcine pylorus were dispersed throughout the whole rostro-caudal extent of the DMX and no somatotopic organization of these neurons was observed. The labeled neurons occurred individually or in groups up to five cell bodies per nuclear transverse cross section area (in the middle part of the nucleus). An immunocytochemical staining procedure disclosed that all Fast Blue labeled motor neurons were choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactive, however some differences in immunofluorescence intensity occurred. The primary sensory vagal neurons were observed within the left (215±37 cells/animal) and right (148±21 cells/animal) nodose ganglion. The traced neurons were dispersed throughout the ganglia and no characteristic arrangement of these neurons was observed. The present experiment precisely indicates the sources of origin of the vagal motor and primary sensory neurons supplying the pyloric region in the pig, the animal of an increasing significance in biomedical research. PMID:23103024

Zalecki, M; Podlasz, P; Pidsudko, Z; Wojtkiewicz, J; Kaleczyc, J



Laser Surface Alloying of SUS316 Stainless Steel with Al-Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of varying temperature of the type 316 stainless steel substrate on the structure and properties of laser alloyed layer was investigated. The material for alloying (Al-Si powder mixture) was placed on the surface of stainless steel substrate by pasting. The surface was scanned by a pulsed Nd: YAG laser beam to achieve surface alloying. The temperature of substrate continuously increased during laser treatment to about 830°C. The microstructure, chemical and phase composition and microhardness of the modified layer were studied then. It has been found that four different types of structure were formed in the alloyed zone depending on the temperature of the substrate. These structures differ from each other in phase composition, microhardness and relation to cracking. Based on the results, optimal parameters for the production of a uniform, crack-free layer with a high hardness were developed.

Zherebtsov, Sergey; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Terutake; Futakawa, Masatoshi


Promotores Comunitarios: sus aportes y difficultades (Community Facilitators: Their Contributions and Difficulties.) Occasional Paper No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Bernard van Leer Foundation sponsors nontraditional, nonschool programs designed to improve the chances that preschoolers will enroll in school. In these programs and other informal education efforts, the community facilitator plays an important role. Typically, the facilitator is a member of the community who works without remuneration as a…

Brouwer, Jani; Martinic, Sergio


Cadaveric volatile organic compounds released by decaying pig carcasses ( Sus domesticus L.) in different biotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology uses pig carcasses to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal colonization. Insects communicate with their environment through the use of chemical mediators, which in the case of necrophagous insects, may consist in the cadaveric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the corpse under decomposition. Previous studies have focused on cadaveric VOCs released from human corpses. Nevertheless,

J. Dekeirsschieter; F. J. Verheggen; M. Gohy; F. Hubrecht; L. Bourguignon; G. Lognay; E. Haubruge



Nueva Publicacion Habla de las Necesidades de los Sobrevivientes de cancer Latinos y sus Familias

Esta publicación gratuita combina la información más actual de los profesionales de la salud con anécdotas personales de sobrevivientes de cáncer latinos, sobre cómo enfrentarse a la vida después del tratamiento del cáncer


La violencia y sus repercusiones en la salud: reflexiones teóricas y magnitud del problema en México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of violence gains from perspectives con- tributed by several different disciplines. The differences among goals and points of view are often reflected in their vocabularies and interfere in to integrate the advances by each of them.Three big disciplines have been studies vio- lence, those are: Social Sciences, Criminal Justice and most rescentlly Public Health this paper present discuss





Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the effect of bank relationships on the interest rate and personaland real guarantees borne by a sample of small and medium-sized enterprises in theirindebtedness. The results of this paper indicate that the SMEs that work with fewer financialintermediaries obtain debt at a lower cost. This reflects that the advantages linked to debtconcentration are greater than the disadvantages.

Ginés Hernández Cánovas; Pedro Martínez Solano



Blood factors of Sus scrofa following a series of three TASER electronic control device exposures.  


In a previous study, 18 repeated exposures of anaesthetized swine to an electro-muscular incapacitating device (TASER International's ADVANCED TASER X26 electronic control device) resulted in acidosis and increases in blood electrolytes. In the current study, experiments were performed to investigate effects of a more typical scenario of repeated exposures of the device on muscle contraction and changes in blood factors. Ten swine were exposed for 5s, followed by a 5-s period of no exposure, three times. Selected blood factors were monitored for 3h following exposure. Transient increases in blood glucose, lactate, sodium, potassium, calcium, and pCO(2) were consistent with previous reports in the literature dealing with studies of muscle stimulation or exercise. Blood pH was decreased immediately following exposure, but subsequently returned toward a normal level. Oxygen saturation (measured by pulse oximetry) was not changed significantly. In conclusion, three repeated TASER device exposures had only transient effects on blood factors, which all returned to pre-exposure levels, with the exception of hematocrit (which remained elevated after 3h). Since the increase in this factor was less than that which may occur after short periods of exercise, it is unlikely that this would be an indicator of any serious harm. PMID:17630236

Jauchem, James R; Cook, Michael C; Beason, Charles W



Cadaveric volatile organic compounds released by decaying pig carcasses (Sus domesticus L.) in different biotopes.  


Forensic entomology uses pig carcasses to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal colonization. Insects communicate with their environment through the use of chemical mediators, which in the case of necrophagous insects, may consist in the cadaveric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the corpse under decomposition. Previous studies have focused on cadaveric VOCs released from human corpses. Nevertheless, studies on human corpses are restricted for many reasons, including ethics. Forensic entomologists use pig as animal model but very few information are available about the decompositional VOCs released by a decaying pig carcass. We here tested a passive sampling technique, the Radiello diffusive sampler, to monitor the cadaveric VOCs released by decomposing pig carcasses in three biotopes (crop field, forest, urban site). A total of 104 chemical compounds, exclusively produced by the decompositional process, were identified by thermal desorption interfaced with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Ninety, 85 and 57 cadaveric VOCs were identified on pig carcasses laying on the agricultural site, the forest biotope and in the urban site, respectively. The main cadaveric VOCs are acids, cyclic hydrocarbons, oxygenated compounds, sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A better knowledge of the smell of death and their volatile constituents may have many applications in forensic sciences. PMID:19423246

Dekeirsschieter, J; Verheggen, F J; Gohy, M; Hubrecht, F; Bourguignon, L; Lognay, G; Haubruge, E



Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).  


We describe the morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium pig genotype II and propose the species name Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. to reflect its prevalence in adult pigs worldwide. Oocysts of C. scrofarum are morphologically indistinguishable from C. parvum, measuring 4.81-5.96 ?m (mean=5.16)×4.23-5.29 ?m (mean=4.83) with a length to width ratio of 1.07±0.06 (n=400). Oocysts of C. scrofarum obtained from a naturally infected pig were infectious for 8-week-old pigs but not 4-week-old pigs. The prepatent period in 8-week-old Cryptosporidium-naive pigs was 4-6 days and the patent period was longer than 30 days. The infection intensity of C. scrofarum in pigs was generally low, in the range 250-4000 oocysts per gram of feces. Infected pigs showed no clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and no pathology was detected. Cryptosporidium scrofarum was not infectious for adult SCID mice, adult BALB/c mice, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), southern multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha), yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), or guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA, actin, and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences revealed that C. scrofarum is genetically distinct from all known Cryptosporidium species. PMID:23021264

Kvá?, Martin; Kest?ánová, Michaela; Pinková, Martina; Kv?to?ová, Dana; Kalinová, Jana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Vítovec, Ji?í; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, John; Stenger, Brianna; Sak, Bohumil



Advanced Laparoscopy Training for General Surgery Residents Using a Pig Model (Sus scrofa domestica).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This protocol is designed to be part of the surgical training of Air Force physicians during their General Surgical residency at Keesler Medical Center. It provides residents with the opportunity to practice laparoscopic operative techniques in order to i...

R. Cromer



Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci for Backfat Thichness and Intramuscular Fat content in Pigs (Sus scrofa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experimental cross between Meishan and Dutch Large White and Landrace lines, 619 F(2) animals and their parents were typed for molecular markers covering the entire porcine genome. Associations were studied between these markers and two fatness traits: intramuscular fat content and backfat thickness. Association analyses were performed using interval mapping by regression under two genetic models: (1) an

Koning de D. J; Luc L. G. Janss; Annemieke P. Rattink; Oers van P. A. M; Vries de B. J; Martien A. M. Groenen; Jan J. van der Poel; Groot de P. N; E. W. Brascamp; Arendonk van J. A. M



La Química y sus lenguajes: un aporte para interpretar errores de los estudiantes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 30 years research in Natural Science learning has shown that students make explanations and predictions different from what scientists accept. The present work analyzes wrong drawings made by secondary students (16 years old) during assessment of their learning about the topic \\

Lydia Galagovsky; Diana Bekerman



Promoting the Use of Life Cycle Assessment for a Sus-tainable Agri-Food Industry  

EPA Science Inventory

The number of studies that address the holistic human health and environmental impacts related to food, feed, and bio-based fuel roduction has steadily increased in recent years. Studies on agricultural systems have identified environmental issues ranging from greenhouse gas emis...


Salmonella serotypes in wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in northern Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic enteric bacteria able to infect humans, livestock and wildlife. However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour (omnivorous scavengers), wild boars may be a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in hunted wild boars and to determine the serotype the isolated strains. Findings Over three hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 1,313 boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 326 boars (24.82%). Thirty different serovars belonging to three different S. enterica spp. were found. Twenty-one serovars of S. enterica subsp. Enterica were found including the human pathogens S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. In addition, nine serovars belonging to S.enterica subsp. diarizonae and S. enterica subsp. houtenae were detected. Conclusions Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated. Wild boars may act as healthy carriers of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes.



Increased hematocrit after applications of conducted energy weapons (including TASER(®) devices) to Sus scrofa.  


Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) are used by law enforcement personnel to incapacitate individuals quickly and effectively, without intending to cause lethality. CEWs have been deployed for relatively long or repeated exposures in some cases. In laboratory animal models, central venous hematocrit has increased significantly after CEW exposure. Even limited applications (e.g., three 5-sec applications) resulted in statistically significant increases in hematocrit. Preexposure hematocrit was significantly higher in nonsurvivors versus survivors after more extreme CEW applications. The purpose of this technical note is to address specific questions that may be generated when examining these results. Comparisons among results of CEW applications, other electrical muscle stimulation, and exercise/voluntary muscle contraction are included. The anesthetized swine appears to be an acceptable animal model for studying changes in hematocrit and associated red blood cell changes. Potential detrimental effects of increased hematocrit, and considerations during law enforcement use, are discussed. PMID:21198623

Jauchem, James R



Blood factors of Sus scrofa following a series of three TASER ® electronic control device exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, 18 repeated exposures of anaesthetized swine to an electro-muscular incapacitating device (TASER International's ADVANCED TASER® X26 electronic control device) resulted in acidosis and increases in blood electrolytes. In the current study, experiments were performed to investigate effects of a more typical scenario of repeated exposures of the device on muscle contraction and changes in blood factors.

James R. Jauchem; Michael C. Cook; Charles W. Beason



Estimation of the energy costs of locomotion in the Iberian pig (Sus mediterraneus).  


The energy cost of locomotion of four Iberian pigs was measured in two experiments conducted when the animals averaged 41.3 (SE 0.1) kg (first experiment) and 84.1 (SE 0.1) kg (second experiment). The heat production of the pigs was determined when standing or walking at a speed of 0.555 m/s on a treadmill enclosed in a confinement-type respiration chamber, on different slopes (-10.5, 0, and +10.5% in the first experiment, and -5.25, 0 and +10.5% in the second experiment). The energy costs of locomotion, estimated from the coefficients of linear regressions of heat production per kg body weight (BW) on distance travelled, were in the first experiment 2.99, 3.31 and 5.88 J/kg BW per m for -10.5, 0, and +10.5% inclines respectively, and 2.56, 2.84 and 7.13 J/kg BW per m for -5.25, 0 and +10.5% inclines respectively, in the second experiment. The net energy cost of locomotion on the level appeared to be independent of live weight, attaining a value of 2.98 J/kg BW per m. Also, it was found that within experiments the net energy cost of walking on negative slopes was similar to that for locomotion on the level, indicating that no energy was recovered on vertical descent. Mean values were 3.11 and 2.72 kJ/kg BW per m for the light and heavy pigs respectively. The energy cost of raising 1 kg BW one vertical metre was found to be 27.1 J/kg BW per m in the first experiment and 40.0 J/kg BW per m in the second experiment. Correspondingly, the calculated efficiency for upslope locomotion appeared to decline with increasing BW, resulting in average values of 36.2 and 24.5%. PMID:10703462

Lachica, M; Aguilera, J F



Cómo enseñar a los padres a hablar con sus hijos acerca de ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

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Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras clave: campos de golf, España, turismo. SUMMARY Golf has been one of the fastest-growing sports in Spain over the last two decades: the number of courses has tripled and the number of registered golfers has increased almost 18 times. The courses are distributed all over the country although the highest concentration continues to be found near the Mediterranean coast

Francisco Feo Parrondo



Resident Training in General Surgery Using a Pig Model (Sus scrofa domestica).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This protocol is designed to be part of the surgical training of Air Force physicians during their General Surgery residency at Keesler Medical Center. It augments the clinical and didactic training provided to them within the residency program while prov...

R. Cromer



Consecuencias de la ruptura de mutualismos planta-animal para la distribución de especies vegetales en las Islas Baleares Consequences of the disruption of plant-animal mutualisms for the distribution of plant species in the Balearic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alteration of a habitat such as that caused by the introduction of exotic animal species that displace the native ones, reducing their populations or leading them to extinction, can result in the disruption of species interactions which may have evolved during millions of years. The insular ecosystems are especially vulnerable to such disturbances, as they are usually less complex



Methyl-?-cyclodextrin: an alternative carrier for intravenous infusion of palmitate during tracer studies in swine ( Sus scrofa domestica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid-free albumin has been the standard carrier for intravenous infusion of fatty acids to study in vivo lipid metabolism. However, subjects can have adverse reactions to infusion of albumin. We sought an alternative to albumin as a carrier for intravenous infusion of fatty acids, using the pig as a model. Cyclodextrins are naturally occurring water-soluble molecules that can serve

Diane Wray-Cahen; Thomas J Caperna; Norman C Steele



Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos) and pigs (Sus scrofa) from an endemic region in Peru.  


The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE) is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4) in Puno and pigs (8) in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru. PMID:22415269

Sánchez, Elizabeth; Cáceres, Omar; Náquira, César; Miranda, Eduardo; Samudio, Franklyn; Fernandes, Octavio



Can hair traps sample wild boar ( Sus scrofa ) randomly for the purpose of non-invasive population estimation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable estimation of population size remains a major challenge in wildlife ecology and management. Lately, genotyping of\\u000a non-invasively obtained tissue samples integrated in a modified capture–recapture approach provides new perspectives. Faeces,\\u000a moulted feathers, or hairs can be easily sampled in the field. However, an important assumption is homogeneity of sampling\\u000a across the population. In this pilot study, we tested the

Cornelia Ebert; Ditmar Huckschlag; Holger K. Schulz; Ulf Hohmann



Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER1 exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated exposure to electro-muscular incapacitating devices could result in repetitive, sustained muscle contraction, with little or no muscle recovery period. Therefore, rhabdomyolysis and other physiological responses, including acidosis, hyperkalaemia, and altered levels of muscle enzymes in the blood, would be likely to occur. Experiments were performed to investigate effects of repeated exposures of TASER1 International's Advanced TASER1 X26 on muscle

James R. Jauchem; Clifford J. Sherry; David A. Fines; Michael C. Cook



[Health care for aged victims of accidents and violence: analysis of SUS health services in Recife (PE, Brazil)].  


A situational diagnosis of the health services regarding the care of aged victims of accidents and violence (AVAV) was carried out in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The National Policy for Reducing Accident and Violence Related Morbidity and Mortality and the National Policy for the Aged People Health were used as references. The methodology was based on the triangulation method, with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Questionnaires and interviews were answered by managers and health staff of hospital, prehospital and rehabilitation services; and local aged health policy managers. In 2006, only the Family Health Program reported prehospital care for AVAV, 31 cases were due to violence and 18 to accidents. The hospital care for aged people was 7.2% of the total care, 27% from accidents and 10% from violence. In the same year, there was no record of rehabilitation care of AVAV. The directives of the policies studied are only partially followed. The health care is deficient in several aspects, such as: clinical protocols; notification devices; support to the aged, caregivers and aggressors; and also continuous training. This analysis can be such a contribution to the reorganization of the local health system, recognizing the aged person as vulnerable to accidents and violence. PMID:20922277

de Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Lima, Maria Luiza Lopes Timóteo; Barreira, Alice Kelly; Bezerra, Eduardo Duque; Acioli, Raquel Moura Lins



Development of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for the Anesthetics Halothane, Isoflurane, and Desflurane in the Pig (SUS SCROFA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pig has been commonly used in biomedical research studies because of similarities between humans and pigs in various aspects of structure and function. Under consideration is its use for studying the effects of long- term low-level exposure to organop...

A. Vinegar



Morphological Changes and Immunohistochemical Expression of RAGE and its Ligands in the Sciatic Nerve of Hyperglycemic Pig (Sus Scrofa)  

PubMed Central

The aim of our project was to study the effect of streptozotocin (STZ)—induced hyperglycemia on sciatic nerve morphology, blood plasma markers and immunohistochemical expression of RAGE (the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products), and its ligands—S100B and Carboxymethyl Lysine (CML)-advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) in the laboratory pig. Six months after STZ—injections, blood plasma measurements, morphometric analysis of sciatic nerve fiber density, immunofluorescent distribution of potential molecular neuropathy contributors, ELISA measurement of plasma AGE level and HPLC analysis of sciatic nerve levels of one of the pre-AGE and the glycolysis intermediate products—methyl-glyoxal (MG) were performed. The results of our study revealed that STZ—injected animals displayed elevated levels of plasma glucose, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and triglycerides. The sciatic nerve of STZ-injected pigs revealed significantly lower numbers of small-diameter myelinated fibers, higher immunoreactivity for RAGE and S100B and increased levels of MG as compared to control animals. Our results correspond to clinical findings in human patients with hyperglycemia/diabetes-evoked peripheral neuropathy and suggest that the domestic pig may be a suitable large animal model for the study of mechanisms underlying hyperglycemia-induced neurological complications in the peripheral nerve and may serve as a relevant model for the pre-clinical assessment of candidate drugs in neuropathy.

Juranek, Judyta K.; Aleshin, Alexey; Rattigan, Eileen M.; Johnson, Lynne; Qu, Wu; Song, Fei; Ananthakrishnan, Radha; Quadri, Nosirudeen; Yan, Shi Du; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Geddis, Matthew S.



In-Situ Observation of Growth Behavior of Niobium Carbide during Dual-Phase Rapid Solidification of SUS347H  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve solidification cracking susceptibility, the crystallization of a heterophase such as the niobium carbide in the brittle temperature range is one of the effective techniques. In such a system, not only the growth behavior of dendrites during the rapid cooling but also the crystallization behavior of heterophase is very important. Therefore, diffraction patterns of a dual-phase mode Nb-bearing stainless steel during rapid cooling were investigated by in-situ two-dimensional time-resolved X-ray diffraction for the first time in order to reveal the microstructure formation. We discuss the growth behavior of dendrites with crystallization of niobium carbides. Subsequently, the niobium carbide formed epitaxially to the dendrite of the preferred in-plane orientation, having a small distorted orientation. With undercooling of several degree Celsius, the coherent growth on the ?-ferrite was stable for niobium carbide.

Yonemura, Mitsuharu; Osuki, Takahiro; Hirata, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kazuhiro



Expression, immunolocalization and processing of fertilins ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 in the boar (sus domesticus) spermatozoa during epididymal maturation  

PubMed Central

Fertilin alpha (ADAM-1) and beta (ADAM-2) are integral membrane proteins of the ADAM family that form a fertilin complex involved in key steps of the sperm-oocyte membrane interaction. In the present work, we analyzed the presence of ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs, the spermatozoa proteins' processing and their sub-cellular localization in epididymal samples from adult boars. ADAM-1 and ADAM-2 mRNAs were highly produced in the testis, but also in the vas efferens and the epididymis. On immunoblots of sperm extracts, ADAM-1 subunit appeared as a main reactive band of ~50-55 kDa corresponding to occurrence of different isoforms throughout the epididymal duct, especially in the corpus region where isoforms ranged from acidic to basic pI. In contrast, ADAM-2 was detected as several bands of ~90 kDa, ~75 kDa, ~50-55 kDa and ~40 kDa. The intensity of high molecular mass bands decreased progressively in the distal corpus where lower bands were also transiently observed, and only the ~40 kDa was observed in the cauda. The presence of bands of different molecular weights likely results from a proteolytic processing occurring mainly in the testis for ADAM-1, and also throughout the caput epididymis for ADAM-2. Immunolocalization showed that fertilin migrates from the acrosomal region to the acrosomal ridge during the sperm transit from the distal corpus to the proximal cauda. This migration is accompanied by an important change in the extractability of a part of ADAM-1 from the sperm membrane. This suggests that the fertilin surface migration may be triggered by the biochemical changes induced by the epididymal post-translational processing of both ADAM1 and ADAM-2. Different patterns of fertilin immunolocalization then define several populations of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis. Characterization of such fertilin complex maturation patterns is an important step to develop fertility markers based on epididymal maturation of surface membrane proteins in domestic mammals.



Expression, immunolocalization and processing of fertilins ADAM1 and ADAM2 in the boar (sus domesticus) spermatozoa during epididymal maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilin alpha (ADAM-1) and beta (ADAM-2) are integral membrane proteins of the ADAM family that form a fertilin complex involved\\u000a in key steps of the sperm-oocyte membrane interaction. In the present work, we analyzed the presence of ADAM-1 and ADAM-2\\u000a mRNAs, the spermatozoa proteins' processing and their sub-cellular localization in epididymal samples from adult boars. ADAM-1\\u000a and ADAM-2 mRNAs were

Anna Fabrega; Benoit Guyonnet; Jean-Louis Dacheux; Jean-Luc Gatti; Marta Puigmule; Sergi Bonet; Elisabeth Pinart



Estimating wild boar ( Sus scrofa ) abundance and density using capture–resights in Canton of Geneva, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated wild boar abundance and density using capture–resight methods in the western part of the Canton of Geneva (Switzerland)\\u000a in the early summer from 2004 to 2006. Ear-tag numbers and transmitter frequencies enabled us to identify individuals during\\u000a each of the counting sessions. We used resights generated by self-triggered camera traps as recaptures. Program Noremark provided\\u000a Minta–Mangel and Bowden’s

C. Hebeisen; J. Fattebert; E. Baubet; C. Fischer



El crecimiento económico andaluz durante la década 1981-1991 y sus efectos sobre la distribución de la renta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence that the economic strategies, mainly aimed to obtain high NGP growth rate, has had on the well being of andalutian poulation is analized in this study. The work is focused on a distributive perspective. The analysis carried out, tries to establish a link between the way in which the regional growth model operates and the way in which

Juan Ortiz Molina



La política brasileña para los residuos sólidos urbanos. Los planteamientos de catadores y empresarios en sus páginas electrónicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

El gobierno brasileño señala la posibilidad de aprobar la política nacional para los residuos sólidos urbanos (PNRS). La propuesta del Proyecto de Ley 1991\\/07 está en trámite en la cámara de los diputados desde el año 1991. Los senadores mantuvieron una charla con los catadores, empresarios del reciclaje y empresarios de servicios de gestión de residuos sólidos urbanos para conocer

Fábio Fonseca Figueiredo



El Universo a Sus Pies: Actividades y Recursos para Astronomia (Universe at Your Fingertips: An Astronomy Activity and Resource Notebook).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this resource notebook is to provide activities selected by astronomers and classroom teachers, comprehensive resource lists and bibliographies, background material on astronomical topics, and teaching ideas from experienced astronomy educators. Activities are grouped into several major areas of study in astronomy including lunar…

Fraknoi, Andrew, Ed.; Schatz, Dennis, Ed.


Exactitud de los Fósiles y de sus Métodos de Medición  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article asserts that fossil dating is accurate because the method follows strict scientific guidelines: the age of rocks around a fossil can be considered, mathematical calculations are used, the state of decay, carbon-14, and isotopes figure in calculations, and tree of life relationships often help sort the dates.

Michael Benton (University of Bristol;)



La representación social que orienta las decisiones paternas al afrontar el consumo de drogas de sus hijos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To identify the social representation guiding decisions of parents of teenage drug users to face consumption of their children. Material and Methods. A qualitative study using free lists, characterization questionnaires, and in-depth interviews was performed among 60 systematically selected parents of young drug users who were receiving treatment in Centros de Integración Juvenil. Data analysis included correlations and interpretive

Bertha Lidia Nuño-Gutiérrez; Catalina González-Forteza



Plantas asociadas a la pesca y a sus recursos por los Indígenas Chorote del Chaco Semiarido (Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Plants associated to fishing and to their resources by Chorote indians from Chaco Semiarido (Argentine). Chorote indians belong to the Mataco-mataguayo linguistic family, they live in Argentina's Semiarid Chaco along the riverbanks of the Pilcomayo river in Salta province. Traditionally, they obtained their own living from hunting, gathering and fishing; being the latter of high cultural and economic value



La reforma del sector salud en Colombia y sus efectos en los programas de control de tuberculosis e inmunización  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effects of health reform in Colombia on public health pro- grams at the local level, particularly the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) and the tu- berculosis control program. The research was developed in three health districts in two States by analysis of documents, direct observation, and longitudinal follow-up of the transition process. The health districts were

Carlos Ayala Cerna; Axel Kroeger



Molecular and structural assessment of alveolar bone during tooth eruption and function in the miniature pig, sus scrofa.  


The development of alveolar bone adjacent to the tooth root during tooth eruption is not well understood. This study tested the hypothesis that predominantly woven bone forms adjacent to tooth roots during tooth eruption, but that this immature structure transitions to lamellar bone when the tooth comes into function. Additionally, bone resorption was predicted to play a key role in transitioning immature bone to more mature, load-bearing tissue. Miniature pigs were compared at two occlusal stages, 13 weeks (n = 3), corresponding with the mucosal penetration stage of M(1) tooth eruption, and 23 weeks (n = 3), corresponding with early occlusion of M(1) /M(1) . Bone samples for RNA extraction and qRT-PCR analysis were harvested from the diastema and adjacent to M(1) roots on one side. Following euthanasia, bone samples for haematoxylin and eosin and TRAP staining were harvested from these regions on the other side. In contrast to expectations, both erupting and functioning molars had reticular fibrolamellar structure in alveolar bone adjacent to M(1) . However, the woven bone matrix in older pigs was thicker and had denser primary osteons. Gene expression data and osteoclast cell counts showed a tendency for more bone resorptive activity near the molars than at distant sites, but no differences between eruptive stages. Thus, although resorption does occur, it is not a primary mechanism in the transition in alveolar bone from eruption to function. Incremental growth of existing woven bone and filling in of primary osteons within the mineralized scaffold generated the fortification necessary to support an erupted and functioning tooth. PMID:21434979

Yeh, Kuang-Dah; Popowics, Tracy



Prevalence of Rickettsia slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus ticks removed from wild boar (Sus scrofa) in northeastern Spain.  


Rickettsia slovaca, the causative agent of TIBOLA, is transmitted by Dermacentor ticks. Dermacentor marginatus is the most widely species distributed in northeastern Spain, and the wild boar constitutes the main host. D. marginatus ticks were collected from hunter-killed wild boar and were tested by PCR/RFLP. Rickettsial DNA-positive ticks were sequenced using the ompA PCR primers. The prevalence of R. slovaca in D. marginatus ticks was 17.7%. Other spotted fever group rickettsiae were detected in ticks, but these were not definitely identified. PMID:17114731

Ortuño, A; Quesada, M; López, S; Miret, J; Cardeñosa, N; Castellà, J; Anton, E; Segura, F



Maternal investment, sibling competition, and offspring survival with increasing litter size and parity in pigs ( Sus scrofa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of litter size and parity on sibling competition, piglet survival, and weight\\u000a gain. It was predicted that competition for teats would increase with increasing litter size, resulting in a higher mortality\\u000a due to maternal infanticide (i.e., crushing) and starvation, thus keeping the number of surviving piglets constant. We predicted\\u000a negative

Inger Lise Andersen; Eric Nævdal; Knut Egil Bøe




Microsoft Academic Search

The polyphagia is one of the more relevant characteristics that support the success of certain pests. Such is the case for several species of whitefly notable for the variety of crops and wild plants they eat. It follows that the phenology of the plants is of great importance for implementing an integrated pest management plan. Presently, plants in tracts of

Rosalía Servín; S. C. México


Host predilection and transmissibility of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus strains in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and swine (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB), and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly]) were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Results Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Conclusions Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.



Detection of Rickettsia tamurae DNA in ticks and wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) skins in Shimane Prefecture, Japan.  


We used 24 wild boars trapped from December 2009 to January 2010 and a further 65 from July 2010 to August 2010 in Misato Town, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. We collected blood, spleens, skins and ticks from the wild boars, which were examined for rickettsial infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the genes rickettsial 17-kDa antigen and citrate synthase (gltA). We amplified Rickettsia tamurae AT-1 DNA from the tick Amblyomma testudinarium and from wild boar skins where ticks attached. Antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in wild boar sera using immunofluorescence, whereas blood and spleen samples contained no rickettsial DNA. This study suggests that wild boars have a role as an amplifier and a transporter of A. testudinarium, which harbor R. tamurae. One case of R. tamurae infection in humans was reported in Shimane Prefecture. Therefore, R. tamurae infections in humans might increase, if wild boar populations and their habitats expand. PMID:23075922

Motoi, Yuta; Asano, Makoto; Inokuma, Hisashi; Ando, Shuji; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takano, Ai; Suzuki, Masatsugu




Microsoft Academic Search

One of the beneficial qualities of fruits and vegetables with high acceptation among consumers are their antioxidant properties. Basically, an antioxidant is defined as a compound that is able to neutralize and protect a biological system against free radicals, such as oxygen, nitrogen and lipidic radicals. In this work, the relationship between antioxidant activity of commercial orange juices and the

A. Cano



Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Foodborne Bacteria in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) and Wild Deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.  


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the role of wild boars and deer as reservoirs of foodborne bacteria. We investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26, and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from wild boars and deer in Japan, from July through December 2010. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 43.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.0-52.6) and 7.4% (95% CI: 2.8-12.1) of rectal content samples of wild boars, respectively, but not from wild deer. The most common Campylobacter species was C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis. The nine Salmonella serovars isolated were S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona (three isolates), S. Narashino (two), S. Enteritidis (one), S. Havana (one), S. Infantis (one), and S. Thompson (one). Five (16%) and 6 (29%) isolates of C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis, respectively, were resistant to enrofloxacin. STEC O157 and O26 and L. monocytogenes were isolated from 2.3% (95% CI: 0-5.0), 0.8% (95% CI: 0-2.3), and 6.1% (95% CI: 1.7-10.5) of the rectal content samples of wild deer, respectively, but not from wild boars. This first nationwide survey of the prevalence of foodborne bacteria in wild boars and wild deer in Japan suggests that consumption of meat from these animals is associated with the risk of causing infection with these bacteria in humans. Moreover, these animals are potential vehicles for distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria into their habitat. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of such foodborne bacteria in these wild animals should be monitored periodically. PMID:24161070

Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Goshima, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsuya; Murakami, Mariko; Haruna, Mika; Ito, Kazuo; Yamada, Yukiko



Characterization of oxide layers and interface layers of ferrite stainless steel (SUS430) by57Fe CEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxide layers on stainless steel formed by heating at various high temperatures and by dipping in LiF + BeF2 molten (Flibe) bath at 600 °C were characterized by CEMS. Hematite was a major iron product at 600 °C and fine oxides with paramagnetic Fe(III) species were produced at the higher temperatures than 700 °C. The interface of stainless steel beneath oxide films was characterized as the hyperfine field distributions. Paramagnetic Fe(III) species were produced on Cr depleted layers in the Flibe bath. CEMS is effective for simultaneous characterization of both oxide surface and interface layers of the ferritic stainless steel.

Nomura, K.; Hosoya, Y. H.; Nishimura, H.; Terai, T.



Acidosis, lactate, electrolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following repeated TASER ® exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated exposure to electro-muscular incapacitating devices could result in repetitive, sustained muscle contraction, with little or no muscle recovery period. Therefore, rhabdomyolysis and other physiological responses, including acidosis, hyperkalaemia, and altered levels of muscle enzymes in the blood, would be likely to occur. Experiments were performed to investigate effects of repeated exposures of TASER® International's Advanced TASER® X26 on muscle

James R. Jauchem; Clifford J. Sherry; David A. Fines; Michael C. Cook



Antioxidant and antiglycation potential of some Sudanese medicinal plants and their isolated compounds (Potencial antioxidante y antiglicosidación de algunas plantas medicinales sudanesas y de sus compuestos aislados)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to be associated with a number of human neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, diabetes, viral infections, autoimmune pathologies and digestive system disorders. In the present work twenty three ethanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases were investigated for their potential scavenging of superoxide free radicals. 14

Waleed S. KOKO; Elbadri E. OSMAN; Mohamed GALAL


A Family Guide to Systems of Care for Children with Mental Health Needs = Guia para la familia de "Systems of Care" para la salud mental de sus hijos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bilingual (English-Spanish) guide is intended to assist parents and caregivers in seeking help for children with mental health problems. As part of the system of care, parents and caregivers need to work together to help the child in need. Caregivers and counselors can help families define their strengths, determine the things they want to…

Dougherty, Janice; Harris, Pam; Hawes, Janet; Shepler, Rick; Tolin, Canice; Truman, Connie


Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs on I to , I Na , I sus , I K1 , and hERG: QT Prolongation, Structure Activity Relationship, and Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  To evaluate in vitro and computationally model the effects of selected antipsychotic drugs on several ionic currents that contribute to changes\\u000a in the action potential in cardiac tissue.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fourteen antipsychotic drugs or metabolites were examined to determine whether QT interval prolongation could be accounted\\u000a for by an effect on one or more myocardial ion channels [Ito, INa, Isus, IK1, and

William J. Crumb Jr; Sean Ekins; R. Dustan Sarazan; James H. Wikel; Steven A. Wrighton; Christopher Carlson; Charles M. Beasley Jr



Use of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in a Miniature Pig (Sus scrofa domestica) with Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

A 1-y-old male miniature pig housed in our laboratory facility was evaluated for weight loss and rough coat condition. CBC results revealed neutrophilia. Radiography of the thoracic area showed increased opacity throughout the thoracic cavity except for the right caudal lobe. 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography (FDG-PET–CT) revealed elevated standard uptake values in the area corresponding to the radiologic findings. Follow-up thoracic radiography taken 2 wk after FDG-PET–CT showed several interval changes, including markedly decreased opacity throughout the entire thoracic cavity. Necropsy revealed adhesions between the upper portion of the caudal lobe of the left lung and thoracic wall. ELISA for several closely related infectious species confirmed the presence of antibody to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar V.

Kim, Jong-In; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Jae Won; Jeong, Sang Min; Chung, Hyun Woo; Han, Jin Soo



Isolation of Campylobacter from feral swine (Sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak investigation in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the...


Comparison of male and female meiotic segregation patterns in translocation heterozygotes: a case study in an animal model (Sus scrofa domestica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The comparison of male and female meiotic segregation patterns for individuals carrying identi- cal reciprocal translocations has been rarely reported in mammalian species. The main comparative study invol- ving males and females with comparable genetic background has been performed in the mouse. Swine is another relevant animal model species for meiotic studies. Here we present the segregation patterns determined

A. Pinton; T. Faraut; M. Yerle; J. Gruand; F. Pellestor; A. Ducos



DNA extraction from skins of wild (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and Pecari tajacu) and domestic (Sus scrofa domestica) species using a novel protocol.  


Sometimes, commercial products obtained from wild animals are sold as if they were from domestic animals and vice versa. At this point of the productive chain, legal control of possible wildlife products is difficult. Common in the commerce of northern Argentina, skins of two wild species, the carpincho and the collared peccary, look very similar to each other and to those of the domestic pig; it is extremely difficult to differentiate them after they have been tanned. Because there was no an adequate methodology to discriminate between leather of these three species, we developed a new methodology of DNA extraction from skin and leather. This new method involves digesting a leather sample using proteinase K, followed by precipitation of proteins with 5 M NaCl, cleaning with absolute isopropanol and DNA precipitation with 70% ethanol. DNA is hydrated in Tris-EDTA buffer. This protocol provided good-quality DNA suitable for analysis with molecular markers. This new protocol has potential for use in identifying leather products of these species using molecular markers based on RAPDs. PMID:22535403

Ojeda, G N; Amavet, P S; Rueda, E C; Siroski, P A



Conservative E(y)2\\/Sus1 protein is the member of SAGA complex and new nuclear pore-associated complex in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SGA\\/TFC complex plays an important role in the regulation of transcription. We have examined the significance of the gene\\u000a positioning in the nucleus for its transcription and subsequent export of nascent mRNA. It was demonstrated that E(y)2 protein\\u000a was a subunit of the SAGA\\/TFTC histone acetyl transferase complex in Drosophila and that E(y)2 concentrated at the nuclear periphery. An

M. M. Kurshakova; D. V. Kopytova; E. N. Nabirochkina; Yu. V. Nikolenko; Yu. V. Shidlovskii; S. G. Georgieva; A. N. Krasnov



Efficacy of the blizzard blanket or blizzard blanket plus thermal angel in preventing hypothermia in a hemorrhagic shock victim (Sus scrofa) under operational conditions.  


The prevention of hypothermia in military casualties under field conditions is challenging. The efficacy of a baffled reflective Blanket (Blizzard Blanket), a portable intravenous fluid warmer (Thermal Angel), and wool Blankets (control) in preventing hypothermia was tested under military field conditions in a swine hemorrhagic shock model. Fifteen pigs were bled at 10 degrees C. After 45 minutes, Hextend was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 10 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel); groups 2 and 3 were encircled with a Blizzard Blanket. After 120 minutes, the pigs were moved to 21 degrees C to simulate a field hospital; group 1 was covered with Blankets. Blood was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 4 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel) with 180 minutes of monitoring. The core temperature was <35 degrees C in five of five control pigs, four of five Blizzard-only pigs, and one of five Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket pigs. The Blizzard Blanket limited but did not prevent hypothermia. The Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket combination prevented hypothermia. The Thermal Angel is useful for bolus administration when electricity is limited; its military field use is constrained by battery weight and battery life. PMID:17274259

Bridges, Elizabeth; Schmelz, Joseph; Evers, Karen



Ploidy assessment of porcine haploid and diploid parthenogenetic embryos by fluorescent in situ hybridization detecting a chromosome 1-specific sequence, Sus scrofa Mc1 satellite DNA.  


The aim of the present study was to examine the feasibility of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for detecting a chromosome 1-specific sequence as a means of assessing the ploidy of porcine parthenotes. In vitro-matured oocytes with the first polar body (PB) were electrically activated; some were treated with cytochalasin B to prevent second PB extrusion (1PB embryos), and the others extruded the second PB (2PB embryos). At the 2-cell stage, one and two FISH signals were detected in each nucleus of 2PB and 1PB embryos, respectively. Almost all cells of blastocysts derived from 1PB embryos retained two signals. In contrast, cells of blastocysts derived from 2PB embryos had two signals. These data demonstrate that FISH analysis allows precise ploidy assessment of porcine parthenogenetic embryos, hence providing a practical means of detecting ploidy transition during parthenogenetic embryogenesis. PMID:21157121

Sembon, Shoichiro; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Iwamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Shun-ichi; Onishi, Akira



Tissue deposition rates in relation to muscle fibre and fat cell characteristics in lean female pigs ( Sus scrofa) following treatment with porcine growth hormone (pGH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of porcine growth hormone (pGH) on performance, carcase composition, muscle and fat deposition rates, muscle fibre characteristics, and fat cell volume in pigs. In the first experiment, ten pairs of littermates were treated with vehicle (saline buffer) or 80 ?g pGH per kg live weight per day for 42 days starting at

Martin Tang Sørensen; Niels Oksbjerg; Niels Agergaard; Jette Søholm Petersen



Studies on Fatigue Crack Growth around Weldment in SUS304 Stainless Steel. Prediction of Crack Growth Behavior in Residual Stress Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many failures in welded structures are caused due to the initiation and propagation of cracks which are induced by the high welding residual stress. Up to now, it has been known that the welding residual stress has many influences on the crack initiation ...

K. Shibata R. Kawamura



Keep It Safe. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conozca sus Derechos. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module on one's rights as a consumer is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to become familiar with their…

Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.


Complete iarval development of hemigrap sus longitarsis (miers, 1879) (crustacea, decapoda, grapsidae), with a key to the known grapsid zbeas of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

One ovigerous crab of He mig raps us longitarsis (Miers, 1879) was collected in Jeju Island, Korea and their larvae were reared in the laboratory. Five zoeal and one megalopal stages are described and illustrated in detail. Morphology of the zoeas slightly differs from that in the previous record. Within the genus Hemigrapsus, H. longitarsis shows similarity closer to H.

Young Sook Park; Hyun Sook Ko



Bovine tuberculosis in wild boar ( Sus scrofa), red deer ( Cervus elaphus) and cattle ( Bos taurus) in a Mediterranean ecosystem (1992–2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 12 years, an increasing frequency in condemnation of hunted red deer and wild boar carcasses due to the presence of tubercle-like lesions has been observed in Extremadura (Western Spain). Before 1993, tuberculosis was a very rare finding in hunted animals. The current tuberculosis regional prevalence in cattle approaches 0.4% after years of expensive test and slaughter campaigns.

J. Hermoso de Mendoza; A. Parra; A. Tato; J. M. Alonso; J. M. Rey; J. Peña; A. García-Sánchez; J. Larrasa; J. Teixidó; G. Manzano; R. Cerrato; G. Pereira; P. Fernández-Llario; M. Hermoso de Mendoza




Microsoft Academic Search

A great number of highschool physics teachers of Caquetá Department were gathered in order to answer a questionnaire with questions about the motion of bodies according to Newton's laws. The idea was to discover how they keep in mind preconcepts and wrong concepts about the motion laws and their applications. The results are presented in this work and they show

M. A. Grizalez; D. Bermeo; J. M. Agudelo; N. Sánchez


Depresion Durante y Despues del Embarazo: Un Informe par Mujeres, Sus Familias y Amigas (Depression During and After Pregnancy: A Resource for Women, Their Families, and Friends).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Depression during or after pregnancy refers to a broad range of physical and emotional struggles that many women face. You may have heard this called the Baby Blues, Postpartum Depression, Maternal Depression, Prenatal Depression, Postnatal Depression, or...



Aglomerante puzolánico formado por cal y ceniza de paja de caña de azúcar: la influencia granulométrica de sus componentes en la actividad aglomerante  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study carried out a characterization of the components of a binary blend comprised of lime-cane sugar straw ash by means of the analytic techniques of ray-x diffraction, chemical, and granulometric analysis. The evolution of the setting process of this binary blend was assessed, and it appears as an alternative mineral active addition to cement. The statistical parameters of

Lesday Martínez Fernández; Rafael Quintana Puchol; José Fernando Martirena Hernández


Incidencias de la Economía China en la Demanda de Bienes Mundial Sus repercusiones en el Mercado Petrolero Su incidencia en los Precios del Petróleo  

Microsoft Academic Search

En los años 1978, 1984 y 1994, las autoridades chinas emprendieron etapas de liberalización que coincidieron con un conjunto de reformas económicas las cuales propiciaron una apertura progresiva de su economía. Las dos primeras reformas convirtieron el sector exportador en un poderoso motor del crecimiento, y la tercera dio vía libre a la creación de empresas nacionales. Adicionalmente las reformas

Luis Oliveros


Influencia de la formulación de la glutamina en sus efectos sobre los sistemas antioxidantes y de destoxificación hepática en la rata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Objetivos: El objeto de este estudio es valorar el efecto que la suplementación de dietas parenterales con L-gluta- mina o con L-alanil-L-glutamina ejerce sobre el equilibrio oxidante\\/antioxidante hepático y sobre los sistemas de des- toxificación mediados por el citocromo P-450 en ratas. Material y métodos: Los animales (n = 60) se cateteri- zaron centralmente y se asignaron aleatoriamente a

J. J. Ortiz de Urbina; F. Jorquera; J. Culebras; C. Villares; J. González-Gallego; M. J. Tuñón



DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) induced delay of blowfly landing and oviposition rates on treated pig carrion (Sus scrofa L.).  


The question of whether the insect repellent N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) affected fly attraction, oviposition, and larval development was investigated; in part, to determine whether the common habit of wearing DEET as a repellent could affect the rate of human decomposition. Experiments using pig surrogates of human decedents were carried out in a rural environment. Dead piglets were sprayed with DEET, and fly behavior, colonization levels, and maggot development were compared with those in nonsprayed controls. Piglets treated with DEET experienced significant delays in fly visitation and oviposition and delayed appearance of each larval instar, as well as reduced total larval numbers (p < 0.01 for all variables), with subsequently reduced decomposition (p < 0.05). Such changes in fly behavior and larval population development would significantly impact the estimation of the period following the death from entomological evidence in decedents wearing DEET at the time of their death. PMID:22515377

Shelomi, Matan; Matern, Leia M; Dinstell, Jenna M; Harris, Daren W; Kimsey, Robert B



Determination of coenzyme Q10 tissue status via high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in swine tissues (Sus scrofa domestica).  


Swine tissues were used as surrogates for human tissues with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as the primary endogenous quinoid to establish a reliable method for the analysis of total CoQ10 concentration and redox status using the reduced and oxidized forms of CoQ9 as internal standards. Specimens of frozen swine tissues were disrupted by bead milling using 2-propanol as the homogenization medium supplemented with the internal standards. After hexane extraction, CoQ10 was analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The method is linear (12-60 mg fresh muscle tissue/sample), sensitive (~200 pmol CoQ10/sample), and reproducible (coefficients of variation of 6.0 and 3.2% for total CoQ10 and 2.4 and 3.2% for the redox status of within-day and day-to-day precision, respectively), with analytic recoveries for ubiquinone-10, ubihydroquinone-10, and total Q10 of 91, 104, and 94%, respectively. The concentration and redox status were stable for at least 3 months at -84°C. The total CoQ10 concentrations (pmol/mg fresh tissue) in swine tissues were as follows: lung (17.4±1.42), skeletal muscle (26.7±2.57), brain (40.7±4.02), liver (62.1±31.0), kidney (111.7±37.08), and heart muscle (149.1±36.78). Significant tissue-specific variations were also found for the redox status (% oxidation of total): swine liver (~28), lung (~36), kidney (~37), heart muscle (~57), skeletal muscle (~61), and brain (~67). PMID:23467099

Niklowitz, Petra; Döring, Frank; Paulussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas




Microsoft Academic Search

During the hunting seasons of 1999\\/2000 (November to February) and 2000\\/2001 (October to February), wild boar shooting drives were studied in the Trás-os-Montes region of northern Portugal. All of the females were weighed and assigned to an age class based on tooth examinations. Uteri was extracted to confirm the presence of embryos or foetuses. Preliminary results show that female body



Encuadrar la inmigración en las noticias y sus efectos socio-cognitivos 1 Framing Immigration in the News and its Socio-Cognitive Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines the results of an experimental study on the socio-cognitive effects of the way immigration is framed in the news. The sample included 355 students at the University of Salamanca (Spain), who were distribu- ted at random among four treatments or versions of the news they received. The news in question, which offered information on the increase in

Juan-José Igartua; Lifen Cheng; Félix Moral; Iciar Fernández; Francisco J. Frutos; José Otero



Donnees Histologiques sur le Porc (Sus Scrofa) Utilisables en Radiobiologie. I. Histologie Normale de Certains Appareils. II. Etude des Lesions Consecutives a Une Irradiation gamma Totale (Histological Data Concerning the Pig (Sus Scrofa) for Use in Radiobiology. I. Normal Histology of Certain Systems. II. Injuries Caused by Total Irradiation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The domestic pig has lately become a laboratory whose anatomical and physiological characteristics appear to be appreciated for certain radiobiological studies. The report describes research which was carried out (in particular in the field of histology) ...

J. L. Guenet M. Vaiman P. Nizza



Learning & Growing Together: Understanding and Supporting Your Child's Development = Aprender y crecer juntos: Como comprender y fomentar el desarrollo de sus hijos [with] Tip Sheets: Ideas for Professionals in Programs That Serve Young Children and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the view that the primary caregivers for infants and toddlers are their own best resource for understanding and caring for their child and that parenting is a lifelong learning process, this book provides information and tools to help caregivers build a strong foundation for their child's development. The book, both in English and…

Lerner, Claire; Dombro, Amy Laura; Powers, Stefanie


Learning & Growing Together: Understanding and Supporting Your Child's Development = Aprender y crecer juntos: Como comprender y fomentar el desarrollo de sus hijos [with] Tip Sheets: Ideas for Professionals in Programs That Serve Young Children and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on the view that the primary caregivers for infants and toddlers are their own best resource for understanding and caring for their child and that parenting is a lifelong learning process, this book provides information and tools to help caregivers build a strong foundation for their child's development. The book, both in English and…

Lerner, Claire; Dombro, Amy Laura; Powers, Stefanie


Head Start Service Guide for Children and Families with HIV or AIDS = Guia de Servicios para Ninos con V.I.H. Positivo y con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (S.I.D.A.) y sus Familias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…

Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.



Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the effect of an hydro-alcoholic extract of cats claw Uncaria tomentosa (uG) over lipopolysaccharides - treated dendritic cells (DC) and HLA-DR and CD86 molecules expression of peripheral blood samples obtained from healthy individuals. Materials and methods. Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy individuals. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were isolated by centrifugation over density gradient, pre-treated

Iván Lozada-Requena; César Núñez; José Luis Aguilar


LA LEGITIMIDAD DE LOS TRIBUNALES SUPREMOS Y SUS ESTRATEGIAS COMUNICATIVAS. EL CASO DE LA CORTE SUPREMA DE EE.UU. The legitimacy of the supreme courts and communicative strategies. The case of the U.S. Supreme Court  

Microsoft Academic Search

Courts are acquiring greater power in the determination of important decisions in political systems. In order to hold that bigger intervention they only have, as pointed out in The Federalist, their power of conviction. This power makes possible that their decisions are obeyed and therefore, the way they build their political legitimacy gains an essential role. This capital is administered

Valentín Thury Cornejo



Un Acercamiento al Concepto de la Transferencia de Tecnología en las Universidades y sus Diferentes Manifestaciones1 An Approach to the Concept of Technology Transfer in Universities and their Different Manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras clave: Transferencia tecnológica, modelos de transferencia tecnológica, innovación. ABSTRACT. Historically, Society has formally given universities and research centers the almost exclusive mission of knowledge production; however, nowadays the trend is to expand this mission in order to meet the demands of the economically productive sectors and the society in general. This broadening of the purpose has, in turn, demanded

María del Socorro; Juan Carlos


Optimal Surgical Therapy in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model of Extra- Thoracic Penetrating Trauma Resulting in Hemorrhagic Shock: ED Thoracotomy vs. Immediate Trans-Abdominal Vascular Control. A Porcine Model for Evaluating the Management of Non-Compressible Torso Hemorrhage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report introduces a standardized large animal model of non- compressible torso hemorrhage which permits assessment of different management strategies for this relatively common and extremely challenging combat injury pattern. Class IV hemorrhagic sho...

A. Stannard H. Hancock J. M. White J. R. Spencer J. W. Cannon



Supportive Practices among Low-Income Parents of Academically Successful Elementary Students in Even Start Programs = Practicas Efectivas que Apoyan el Exito Academico en Ninos Hispanos a Traves de la Participacion de sus Padres.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study (reported in separate English and Spanish versions) used a qualitative approach to identify the supportive parental behaviors of academically successful children from low income families in Even Start programs, from the parents', teachers', and children's perspectives. The sample contained 12 low income parents who had one or more…

Ebener, Richard; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.


Head Start Service Guide for Children and Families with HIV or AIDS = Guia de Servicios para Ninos con V.I.H. Positivo y con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (S.I.D.A.) y sus Familias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…

Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.


Ex c hange Rat e or Wage Changes i n I nt er nat i onal Adj ust m ent ? J a pan and Chi na ver sus t he Uni t ed St at es  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the world dollar standard, a discrete appreciation by a dollar creditor country of the United States, such as China or Japan, has no predictable effect on its trade surplus. Currency appreciation by the creditor country will slow its economic growth and eventually cause deflation but cannot compensate for a saving-investment imbalance in the United States. Under a fixed exchange

Ronald McKinnon


Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la investigacion se utilizo una metodologia cuantitativa y la herramienta para lograrlo fue una encuesta. La encuesta se analizo estadisticamente mediante analisis de frecuencias y por cientos, prueba ANOVA, prueba t, pruebas Post Hoc de Tukey y de Levene. Tambien se realizo nuevamente una prueba de confiabilidad mediante el alfa de Cronbach. Los resultados reflejaron que los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion, Humanidades, Estudios Generales y el Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas tienen una percepcion muy positiva del concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos curriculares de Ciencias Biologicas y del nuevo bachillerato.

Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa


Quantitative determination of the boar taint compounds androstenone, skatole, indole, 3?-androstenol and 3?-androstenol in wild boars (Sus scrofa) reveals extremely low levels of the tryptophan-related degradation products.  


The major boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole as well as the minor compounds indole, 3?-androstenol and 3?-androstenol were determined in back fat samples of 23 male wild boars by applying a recently published SIDA-HS-SPME-GC/MS method. The boar pheromones androstenone, 3?-androstenol and 3?-androstenol were found in extraordinary high concentrations, resulting in mean values of 3329ng/g androstenone, 1273 ng/g 3?-androstenol and 545 ng/g 3?-androstenol. Interestingly, skatole was not detectable in about 50% of the boars and negligibly low in all other samples as expressed by a mean skatole value of only 14 ng/g. Indole was also found in every sample, but again in low concentrations with a mean value of 40 ng/g. Possible factors explaining this remarkably low skatole deposition in wild boars such as intestinal flora and anatomy, dietary composition, housing or genetic predisposition are discussed in this paper. PMID:22980780

Fischer, Jochen; Wüst, Matthias



You, Your Child and H.U.G.: For Parents of K-3 to High School Students = Usted, sus hijos y H.U.G.: Para padres de estudiantes de K-3 a preparatoria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is comprised of four booklets (in Spanish and English versions) providing Arizona parents with information on the Arizona Academic Standards and describing how parents can support their children's learning. The first booklet describes kindergarten as the readiness level during which parents help their children prepare to learn and…

Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.


A Guide for Reading: How Parents Can Help Their Children Be Ready To Read and Ready To Learn = Guia Para Leer: Como los padres pueden preparar a sus hijos a leer y aprender desde la infancia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, this brochure (in English and Spanish) provides a guide to assist parents in helping their children become ready to read and to learn. The suggestions include: (1) talking to infants/toddlers to help them learn to speak and understand the meaning of words; (2)…

White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Washington, DC.


Universidad de Puerto Rico Facultad de Educación Recinto de Río Piedras Centro de Investigaciones Educativas Cuaderno de Investigación en la Educación Num. 17, mayo 2002 LAS EDUCADORAS Y SUS METAFORAS EDUCATIVAS: DOS INVESTIGADORES EN ACCION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discuss two research-in-action projects that collect and analyze the educational metaphors of two groups of teachers engaged in the reflection of their own educational visions and practices. Both studies were qualitative in nature and the author was a participant researcher. Audiotapes, field notes, minutes and the participants' written reflections, documented a diversity of original metaphors produced in conversation

Angeles Molina Iturrondo


Sucrose synthase interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel suggests a potential role for the enzyme in inter-organellar signaling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism and uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. SUS is encoded by three genes in maize: sh1, sus1 and sus2 and the active enzyme is a homo or hetero-tetramer. Our...


En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

Department of Education, Washington, DC.


Expression of the putative ORF1 capsid protein of Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2) and development of Western blot and ELISA serodiagnostic assays: correlation between TTSuV2 viral load and IgG antibody level in pigs.  


Porcine Torque teno virus (TTV) has a single-stranded circular DNA genome and is currently classified into a new genus Iotatorquevirus with two species in a newly established family Anelloviridae. Viral DNA of both porcine TTV species (TTSuV1 and TTSuV2) has a high prevalence in both healthy and diseased pigs worldwide and multiple infections of TTSuV with distinct genotypes or subtypes of the same species has been documented in the United States and in Europe. However, the prevalence of specific TTSuV antibodies in pigs remains unknown. In this study, the putative ORF1 capsid protein from TTSuV2 isolate PTTV2c-VA was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant ORF1 protein was used as the antigen for the development of Western blot and indirect ELISA to detect TTSuV2-specific IgG antibodies in pig sera. The results revealed a relatively high rate of seropositivity to TTSuV2 in conventional pigs from different sources but not in gnotobiotic pigs. Overall, pigs with undetectable TTSuV2 viral load were more likely to have a lower anti-TTSuV2 antibody level. An analysis of 10 conventional pigs during a 2-month period showed that decreased viral loads or presumed virus clearance were associated with elevated anti-ORF1 IgG antibody levels. Interestingly, porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD)-affected pigs had a significantly lower level of TTSuV2 antibody than PCVAD-unaffected pigs (p<0.01). This is the first study to establish essential serodiagnostic tools for investigation of TTSuV seroprevalence and infection dynamics, which will help elucidate the potential pathogenicity of TTSuV infection in pigs. PMID:21439334

Huang, Y W; Harrall, K K; Dryman, B A; Beach, N M; Kenney, S P; Opriessnig, T; Vaughn, E M; Roof, M B; Meng, X J



The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene intron3-g.3072G>A polymorphism is not the only Sus scrofa chromosome 2p mutation affecting meat production and carcass traits in pigs: evidence from the effects of a cathepsin D (CTSD) gene polymorphism.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mutations in 2 genes [IGF2 and cathepsin D (CTSD)] that map on the telomeric end of the p arm of SSC2. In this region, an imprinted QTL affecting muscle mass and fat deposition was reported, and the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A substitution was identified as the causative mutation. In the same chromosome region, we assigned, by linkage mapping, the CTSD gene, a lysosomal proteinase, for which we previously identified an SNP in the 3'-untranslated region (AM933484, g.70G>A). We have already shown strong effects of this CTSD mutation on several production traits in Italian Large White pigs, suggesting a possible independent role of this marker in fatness and meat deposition in pigs. To evaluate this hypothesis, after having refined the map position of the CTSD gene by radiation hybrid mapping, we analyzed the IGF2 and the CTSD polymorphisms in 270 Italian Large White and 311 Italian Duroc pigs, for which EBV and random residuals from fixed models were calculated for several traits. Different association analyses were carried out to distinguish the effects of the 2 close markers. In the Italian Large White pigs, the results for IGF2 were highly significant for all traits when using either EBV or random residuals (e.g., using EBV: lean cuts, P = 2.2 x 10(-18); ADG, P = 2.6 x 10(-16); backfat thickness, P = 2.2 x 10(-9); feed:gain ratio, P = 2.3 x 10(-9); ham weight, P = 1.5 x 10(-6)). No effect was observed for meat quality traits. The IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A mutation did not show any association in the Italian Duroc pigs, probably because of the small variability at this polymorphic site for this breed. However, a significant association was evident for the CTSD marker (P < 0.001) with EBV of all carcass and production traits in Italian Duroc pigs (lean content, ADG, backfat thickness, feed:gain ratio) after excluding possible confounding effects of the IGF2 mutation. The effects of the CTSD g.70G>A mutation were also confirmed in a subset of Italian Large White animals carrying the homozygous genotype IGF2 intron3-g.3072GG, and by haplotype analysis between the markers of the 2 considered genes in the complete data set. Overall, these results indicate that the IGF2 intron3-g.3072G>A mutation is not the only polymorphism affecting fatness and muscle deposition on SSC2p. Therefore, the CTSD g.70G>A polymorphism could be used to increase selection efficiency in marker-assisted selection programs that already use the IGF2 mutation. However, for practical applications, because the CTSD gene should not be imprinted (we obtained this information from expression analysis in adult skeletal muscle), the different modes of inheritance of the 2 genes have to be considered. PMID:20382874

Fontanesi, L; Speroni, C; Buttazzoni, L; Scotti, E; Dall'Olio, S; Nanni Costa, L; Davoli, R; Russo, V



Cuidado de Ninos con Necesidades Especiales en el Hogar: Manual de Estrategias y Actividades para Proveedores que Cuidan Ninos en Sus Hogares (Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook of Approaches and Activities for Family Day Care Home Providers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Practical information and sample teaching activities for child caregivers who work with young developmentally disabled children in family day care settings are provided in this manual. Each chapter shares a typical experience a caregiver may have with a particular child. Chapter 1 focuses on getting to know a new child, initial expectations, and…

de la Brosse, Beatrice


La ciudad palatina de la Alhambra y las obras realizadas en el siglo XVI a la luz de sus libros de cuentas. (The palace city of the Alhambra and the building works made in the 16th century in the light of the accounting books)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente artículo, parte de mi tesis doctoral, aporta un singular estudio de la Alhambra elaborado desde la información obtenida de los libros de cuentas de las obras reales de este Real Sitio. Con el presente trabajo comprobaremos que este tipo de fuentes contienen valiosos datos para la Historia en general pero ante todo para la Historia Económica. En el

Matilde Casares López




Microsoft Academic Search

One of the beneficial qualities of fruits and vegetables with high acceptation among consumers are their antioxidant properties. Basically, an antioxidant is defined as a compound that is able to neutralize and protect a biological system against free radicals, such as oxygen, nitrogen and lipidic radicals. In this work, the relationship between antioxidant activity of commercial orange juices and the

A. Cano; M. B. Arnao



Arabidopsis sucrose synthase 2 and 3 modulate metabolic homeostasis and direct carbon towards starch synthesis in developing seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genes encoding sucrose synthase (SUS), namely SUS2 (At5g49190) and SUS3 (At4g02280), are strongly and differentially expressed in Arabidopsis seed. Detailed biochemical analysis was carried out\\u000a in developing seeds 9–21 days after flowering (DAF) of wild type and two knockouts. SUS2 and SUS3 are not redundant genes since single knockouts show a phenotype in developing seeds. The mutants had 30–50% less

Juan Gabriel Angeles-Núñez; Angeles-NunezAxel Tiessen




SciTech Connect

Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

Steven C. Huber



Comunicado de la FDA sobre la seguridad de los ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Suceso de embolismo sistémico (SEE por sus siglas en inglés), 0, 0. Accidente isquémico transitorio (TIA por sus siglas en inglés), 2 (1,3%), 2 (2,2% ... More results from


Effects of free-cutting additives on the machinability of austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments conducted to determine the effects of free-cutting additives on the machinability of austenitic stainless steel are described. Work materials were SUS303, SUS303Cu, SUS304 and SUS316, the contents of the additives, such as S, Ca, Cu and Bi, were varied and the steels were melted in furnaces of a commercial scale and a vacuum induction furnace were used. Machining tests

T. Akasawa; H. Sakurai; M. Nakamura; T. Tanaka; K. Takano



El consumo juvenil en la sociedad mediática  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los modos de vida de los jóvenes están cada día más afectados en el mundo globalizado por formas de comunicación mediadas por internet. El artículo analiza algunos efectos, retos y perspectivas, en particular aquellos que tienen relación con sus producciones de sentido y sus identi- dades en formación. Se exploran asuntos tales como las reconfiguraciones de sus espacios culturales; el

Germán Muñoz González


Derechos de propiedad intelectual y los OGM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tradicionalmente los agricultores han accedido a las semillas que usan en sus campos (ya sea porque la compran, la intercambian o la heredan de sus ante- pasados), y las guardan para sus siguientes cose- chas. Por eso es que ha sido difÌcil para las empresas transformarla en una mercancÌa, pues a diferencia de otras productos, la semilla es un ser

Por Elizabeth Bravo


'Everybody knows', but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara  

PubMed Central

Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del mundo: el caso de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en dromedarios transmitido por orugas y observado por pastores nómadas saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades locales de todo el mundo son una valiosa fuente de nuevas ideas e información para la ciencia. En este estudio, se utilizaron los conocimientos de etnoveterinaria de pastores saharauis del Sáhara Occidental con el fin de proponer una hipótesis científica sobre las interacciones competitivas entre los camellos y las orugas en el ecosistema del Sáhara. Métodos Entre los años 2005 y 2009, se realizaron 44 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a los pastores saharauis en los territorios administrados por la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática, Sáhara Occidental, mediante un diseño de muestreo por bola de nieve. Resultados Los pastores nómadas saharauis describieron un síndrome reproductivo transmitido por orugas, llamado duda, entre sus camellas. Sobre la base de los conocimientos saharauis sobre el duda y una revisión literaria exhaustiva, se propuso la siguiente hipótesis: 1) brotes esporádico de orugas de la familia Lasiocampidae (géneros Lasiocampa, Psilogaster o Streblote) en árboles de Acacia se pueden presentar después de fuertes lluvias en el ecosistema del Sáhara Occidental; 2) durante estos brotes, los camellos ingieren las orugas durante el pastoreo; 3) como consecuencia de esta ingestión, se producen abortos repentinos o partos de crías debilitadas. Apoyamos esta hipótesis mediante razonamiento inductivo basado en evidencia circunstancial y razonamiento analógico con síndromes similares en yeguas de los Estados Unidos y Australia. Conclusiones Este es el primer reporte de la posible existencia de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en camellos, transmitido por orugas. Se insinúa que estos síndromes son más comunes que lo que actualmente se conoce. Se sugieren investigaciones adicionales p



El flujo de materiales y el desarrollo económico en España: un análisis sobre desmaterialización (1980-2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El análisis de los flujos de materiales que circulan a través de un sistema económico es una forma de medir la dimensión física del consumo y la apropiación de recursos por parte de una sociedad y, en consecuencia, es una manera indirecta de medir su impacto ambiental. De esta manera, los indicadores de flujos de materiales pueden ser considerados como

Ana Citlalic González Martínez; Sílvia Cañellas Boltà; Ignasi Puig Ventosa; Daniela Russi; Cristina Sendra Sala; Amalia Sojo Benítez



Colera Morbus y cólera divina. Miedo a la muerte e imaginario religioso en Tucumán (Argentina) a fines del siglo XIX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio analiza las actitudes y los discursos en torno a la muerte que se suscitaron en Tucumán (Argentina) en 1886-1887, como consecuencia de la epidemia de cólera que impactó en esa provincia. La experiencia de la muerte anónima, despersonalizada, y el caos que ocasionó la peste provocaron una alteración de las relaciones humanas desestructurando el tejido social. A partir

Cynthia Folquer



The past and future of terrorism research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo destaca cinco áreas donde el análisis económico del terrorismo ha tenido mayor relevancia en las políticas de los últimos 30 años. Estas áreas son la evaluación de la efectividad de las acciones contra el terrorismo, la identificación de las causas del terrorismo, la medición de las consecuencias económicas del terrorismo, el análisis de la dinámica de las series

Todd Sandler



La agricultura en España y en la OCDE, 1900-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presentamos datos comparativos de la evolucion de la renta, los precios y el empleo agrario y no agrario en España, en la UE, USA, Japon y en otros paises de la OCDE durante el periodo 1900-2000. Realizamos un analisis de las causas y consecuencias de la importante revolucion tecnologica y economica experimentada por la Agricultura asi como de algunos importantes

M. Carmen Guisan; P Exposito



Microbiota intestinal, obesidad y diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenLa creciente epidemia de obesidad ya ha dejado de estar restringida sólo a los países desarrollados. En el 2005, la Organización Mundial de la Salud alertó que en todo el mundo había aproximadamente 400 millones de adultos obesos y que aproximadamente 20 millones de niños presentaban sobrepeso. La obesidad es un problema sanitario complejo y de consecuencias graves, como la

Rodrigo Bibiloni; Mathieu Membrez; Chieh Jason Chou



La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la

A. Brunini; T. Yokoyama



La iniciación al tabaquismo: aportaciones de la epidemiología, el laboratorio y las ciencias del comportamiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

El tabaquismo es la consecuencia de un proceso que co- mienza incluso antes de probar el primer cigarrillo, ya que en él intervienen factores sociales y conductuales, y que culmina con décadas de dependencia física y psicoló- gica al tabaco. Este artículo discute el proceso de iniciación al tabaquismo desde una perspectiva global, explicando los efectos fisiológicos de la nicotina,

F. Soto Mas; J. R. Villalbí; H. Balcázar; J. Valderrama Alberola



La iniciación al tabaquismo: aportaciones de la epidemiología, el laboratorio y las ciencias del comportamiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

El tabaquismo es la consecuencia de un proceso que co- mienza incluso antes de probar el primer cigarrillo, ya que en él intervienen factores sociales y conductuales, y que culmina con décadas de dependencia física y psicoló- gica al tabaco. Este artículo discute el proceso de iniciación al tabaquismo desde una perspectiva global, explicando los efectos fisiológicos de la nicotina,

F. Soto Mas; J. R. Villalbíb; J. Valderrama Alberola



Microsoft Academic Search

Este real decreto lei establece as medidas extraordinarias adoptadas para dar cumprimento ao compromiso do Goberno de acelerar, en 2010 e 2011, a redución do déficit inicialmente prevista. A dureza e a profundidade da crise económica levaron a todos os países industrializados a realizar un esforzo fiscal significativo para paliar as consecuencias da crise e preservar os niveis alcanzados de




Validity and reproducibility of the Spanish version of the sickness impact profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Perfil de las Consecuencias de la Enfermedad (PCE), the Spanish version of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), was administered to 352 individuals who were grouped into 4 subsamples according to type and severity of illness. Differences among scores in the subsamples were used for assessing the discriminating ability of the PCE and correlation of PCE scores with theoretically comparable

Xavier Badía; Jordi Alonso



La productivité des salariés âgés : une tentative d'estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] La productividad de los asalariados de más edad: un ensayo de estimación . . En un promedio, los salarios aumentan con la edad del asalariado. Lo natural es preguntarse si los salarios más altos de los trabajadores de más edad corresponden o no a una productividad más alta. La respuesta no carece de consecuencia sobre la empleabilidad de dichos

Patrick Aubert; Bruno Crépon




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El entendimiento que tiene el público sobre los problemas sociales está influenciado profundamente por los medios de comunicación. Desafortunadamente, los medios de comunicación en los EEUU no sirven con fidelidad a las personas que sufren de enfermedades psíquicas. Los medios de comunicación refuerzan las imágenes negativas de estas personas. Publican generalmente que son imprevisibles, violentas y peligrosas. Como consecuencia,



Efectos colaterales de un reparto insostenible de recursos  

Microsoft Academic Search

El ser humano, como cualquier otro organismo, posee la capacidad de modificar su entorno para su propio beneficio, especialmente de cara a asegurar su manutención y la de aquellos a su cargo. Con el desarrollo tecnológico esa capacidad ha adquirido dimensiones sin precedentes para el entorno que nos sustenta, con consecuencias difíciles de estimar y menos aun de predecir, que

Marta I. Saloña Bordas




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. Después del accidente minero de Aznalcóllar (25\\/04\\/98) se llevaron a cabo las labores de recuperación de los suelos, consistentes en: a) la remoción de los lodos depositados sobre la superficie de los mismos, así como de una capa de suelo contaminado de hasta 20 cm de profundidad, y b) la aplicación de enmiendas. Como consecuencia de estas labores, quedaron

F. Moreno; I. F. Girón; F. Cabrera


Actuaciones sobre el patrimonio minero-industrial de la provincia de Huelva. Cuenca minera de Riotinto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: El Patrimonio Industrial está constituido por los bienes muebles e inmuebles generados, en el transcurso histórico, por las actividades extractivas y productoras del hombre. Estos bienes patrimoniales se insertan en un paisaje o entorno determinado que también ha de ser objeto de protección debido a que la industria es una consecuencia directa del uso que la sociedad hace del

Juan M. Pérez López; Archivo Fundación Riotinto; Emilio M. Romero



El precio medio del metro cuadrado de la vivienda libre: Una aproximación metodológica desde la perspectiva de la Geoestadística  

Microsoft Academic Search

El precio medio del metro cuadrado de la vivienda libre y su evolución en los últimos años es una de las cuestiones que más preocupan a la ciudadanía de nuestro país y, en consecuencia, a las autoridades políticas y económicas con competencias en materia de política de vivienda. La única referencia oficial sobre la cuestión es la publicación trimestral de




Nuevas infecciones emergentes: importancia en la salud de los niños  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenUna interacción compleja entre factores ambientales y humanos, incluyendo factores ecológicos, genéticos, políticos y socioeconómicos, es responsable de la emergencia y la resurgencia de enfermedades infecciosas. Estos factores poseen a menudo un efecto claro sobre los niños y, en consecuencia, las infecciones emergentes pueden ejercer impactos únicos sobre las poblaciones más jóvenes en términos de salud física y mental, así

Jean M. van Seventer; Amanda DeLoureiro; Davidson H. Hamer



Modelización de problemas de ordenación forestal con múltiples criterios. Una aplicación a la economía forestal cubana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los bosques cubanos han sido objeto de un explotación indiscriminada durante muchos años, lo que ha provocado que se estén realizando grandes esfuerzos por el restablecimiento de los mismos y que se tienda a posiciones conservacionistas que provocan el envejecimiento de las masas. Como consecuencia de esta situación, tales bosques presentan una composición por edades desequilibrada. Así, en este trabajo




KIRCHNER y la cooptación de piqueteros,2003-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entre 1975 y 2003 la Argentina protagonizó la mayor involución de la historia económica mundial. Entre estos años, la masa de pobres creció de aproximadamente el 5% hasta el 50%. Como consecuencia, nacieron las organizaciones de la nueva pobreza. En diciembre de 2001, éstas derrocaron a dos presidentes constitucionales. A partir de esa crisis, las organizaciones populares adquirieron una suerte

Carlos Escudé



La virtualización del cuerpo a través del \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hablar de un cuerpo virtualizado es hablar de su problematización y consecuente actualización, una de las principales consecuencias de este proceso de transfiguración del cuerpo estaría marcada por una adjudicación actualizada de un cambio. El cuerpo es simultáneamente un cuerpo-materia prima, modelo físico para la conversión óptico-iconográfica digital, y un cuerpo interfaz, que permite el acceso a la morfogénesis del

Eduardo Castro Pinzón; José Luis Troncoso



Tratamientos de la colestasis crónica en niños  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenSe dispone de pocos tratamientos específicos para los niños con colestasis crónica. La mayoría de las estrategias terapéuticas alivian la retención de componentes de la bilis o aminoran algunas de las consecuencias de la colestasis crónica. El ácido ursodesoxicólico es el fármaco que con más frecuencia se utiliza en niños con colestasis crónica. Este ácido biliar se administra a la

Fernando Álvarez




Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen evolutivo del derecho como una consecuencia del desarrollo social de nuestra especie. Otras especies con sistemas sociales similares presentan varias reglas para la convivencia en grupo. Algunas de estas reglas son comunes en todas las especies con comportamiento social. El desarrollo de la sociobiología en las últimas décadas es una herramienta importante

Axel P. Retana-Salazar


Los efectos de la estructura monopolística de los mercados en la evaluación de las empresas privatizadas en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio pretende evaluar si las empresas que fueron privatizadas en Colombia durante los años noventa mejoraron sustancialmente su productividad y rentabilidad, como consecuencia de los cambios gerenciales que se debieron dar, o si por el contrario, continuaron en niveles similares, contrariando la hipótesis de que los nuevos dueños propiciarían cambios sustanciales en su estrategia, como lo demuestra la experiencia

Jaime Andrés Collazos R; Héctor Ochoa D



La evaluación del desempeño de las empresas privatizadas en Colombia: ¿Coincide con la experiencia internacional?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio pretende evaluar si las empresas que fueron privatizadas en Colombia durante los años 1990 mejoraron sustancialmente su productividad y rentabilidad, como consecuencia de los cambios gerenciales que se debieron dar, o si por el contrario, continuaron en niveles similares, contrariando la hipótesis de que los nuevos dueños propiciarían cambios sustanciales en su estrategia, como lo demuestra la experiencia

Héctor Ochoa Díaz; Jaime Andrés Collazos Rodríguez



El papel de la Universidad en el desarrollo y la innovación tecnológica: la experiencia catalana (Relación Universidad-Empresa-Gobierno)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo busca proporcionar algunos elementos que permitan valorar una de las facetas de la contribución de la Universidad a su nueva misión, aquella orientada al desarrollo tecnológico y, como consecuencia, al desarrollo económico. En la primera parte se plantea que la nueva misión de la Universidad, además de las funciones clásicas referidas a la formación de recurso humano y

Dolly Yazmín Camacho Corredor



Evaluación paramétrica y no paramétrica del desempleo pesquero en Marruecos: Una aplicación para el caso andaluz  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El principal objetivo es el análisis de las medidas que las diferentes administraciones pusieron en marcha para reducir las altas tasas de desempleo en la población andaluza afectada por la paralización de la actividad pesquera como consecuencia de la finalización del Acuerdo de Pesca entre la Unión Europea y Marruecos desde el 30 de noviembre de 1999. Mediante la

Encarnación Cordón Lagares; Félix García Ordaz



Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from…

Ferrero, Carmen Lopez



Les conséquences du chômage sur la consommation  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Las consecuencias del desempleo sobre el consumo . La disminuciôn de los ingresos, ocasionada por el desempleo, es responsable, en promedio, de una baja de cerca de un cuarto del consumo de los hogares. Disponiendo de recursos initiales relativamente escasos, debido al desempleo, los hogares estân mâs expuestos a la pobreza en el medio obrero que en otros :

Nicolas Herpin



Normal growth of Arabidopsis requires cytosolic invertase but not sucrose synthase  

PubMed Central

The entry of carbon from sucrose into cellular metabolism in plants can potentially be catalyzed by either sucrose synthase (SUS) or invertase (INV). These 2 routes have different implications for cellular metabolism in general and for the production of key metabolites, including the cell-wall precursor UDPglucose. To examine the importance of these 2 routes of sucrose catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.), we generated mutant plants that lack 4 of the 6 isoforms of SUS. These mutants (sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 mutants) lack SUS activity in all cell types except the phloem. Surprisingly, the mutant plants are normal with respect to starch and sugar content, seed weight and lipid content, cellulose content, and cell-wall structure. Plants lacking the remaining 2 isoforms of SUS (sus5/sus6 mutants), which are expressed specifically in the phloem, have reduced amounts of callose in the sieve plates of the sieve elements. To discover whether sucrose catabolism in Arabidopsis requires INVs rather than SUSs, we further generated plants deficient in 2 closely related isoforms of neutral INV predicted to be the main cytosolic forms in the root (cinv1/cinv2 mutants). The mutant plants have severely reduced growth rates. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of carbon supply to the nonphotosynthetic cells of plants.

Barratt, D. H. Paul; Derbyshire, Paul; Findlay, Kim; Pike, Marilyn; Wellner, Nikolaus; Lunn, John; Feil, Regina; Simpson, Clare; Maule, Andrew J.; Smith, Alison M.



Conception d'un processeur DSP faible nergie en logique ternaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with design and performance estima- tion of typical units blocks of a ternary DSP using SUS-LOC concepts. SUS-LOC enables the design of ternary logic cells and is based upon the use of enhanced and depleted MOS transistors. After the presentation of the basic con- cepts and of the transistor models required for SUS-LOC specific transistors, we show

O. Sentieys; E. Kinvi-Boh; M. Aline


Design and characterization of a low power ternary DSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with design and performance estimation of typical units blocks of a ternary DSP using SUS-LOC con- cepts. SUS-LOC enables the design of ternary logic cells and is based upon the use of enhanced and depleted MOS tran- sistors. After the presentation of the basic concepts and of the transistor models required for SUS-LOC speciflc tran- sistors, we

M. Aline; E. Kinvi-Boh; O. Sentieys; Edgar D. Olson


Nondestructive Evaluation of Strain Distribution and Fatigue Distribution from Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Magnetic Sensors  

SciTech Connect

Austenitic stainless steel transforms from austenitic crystal structure to martensitic crystal structure after applying strain or stress. Because martensitic crystal structures have magnetization, strain evaluation and fatigue evaluation can be performed by measuring magnetic properties. This paper describes the measurement of leakage magnetic flux density of remanent magnetization for the strain evaluation and the fatigue evaluation by a typical Hall element sensor for SUS 304 and SUS 304L and by a high-sensitivity thin-film flux-gate magnetic sensor for SUS 316 and SUS 316L.

Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T. [Department of Computer and Control Engineering, Oita National College of Technology, 1666 Maki, Oita 870-0152 (Japan)



Desarrollo rural con base en la innovación de las reformas organizativas de trabajo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al observar desde el medio académico, la crisis tanto social como económica que atraviesa Colombia, sobre todo en su área rural, siendo los más afectados los campesinos, segmento de población inveteradamente menos favorecido por el Estado, es necesario presentar hoy propues- tas de solución a sus problemas y por allí mismo a los del país y sus regiones. Lo que

Juan Guillermo Correa Jaramillo; Fabio Antonio Calle Correa; Diego Alonso Moreno; Sergio Andrés Martínez Jiménez



Más y mejores trenes: Cambiando la matriz de transporte en América Latina y el Caribe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta nota técnica aborda el tema de los ferrocarriles de América Latina y el Caribe en sus tres modelos de negocio (Transporte de cargas, de pasajeros urbanos y suburbanos -trenes de cercanías-, y de pasajeros de larga distancia) y su potencial papel en un cambio de matriz de transporte. Se analiza el estado actual del sector y se revisan sus

Jorge Kohon



Comunicación y participación política  

Microsoft Academic Search

El libro Comunicación y Participación Política, resultado de las actividades académicas desarrolladas por el Centro de Investigación en Comunicación Política de la Facultad de Comunicación Social del Externado en sus tres primeros años de funcionamiento, con el apoyo de la Universidad de Wisconsin-Madison y sus centros para la Comunicación y la Democracia y para el estudio de Latinoamérica, el Caribe

Irma B. Pérez; Dhavan V. Shah; Lewis A. Friedland; Ana María Miralles; Hernando Rojas; Eulàlia Puig-i-Abril



Microsoft Academic Search

Escuché con atención sus intervenciones en el programa 6,7,8 que se emite por Canal 7 con respecto al juicio llevado a cabo en Córdoba sobre varios ex funcionarios de facto. Luego de ver sus intervenciones, me siento en el deber de escribirle esta carta con el fin de redondear su explicación. El problema de los círculos castrenses y el poder

Korstanje E. Maximiliano



Sucrose Synthase: Expanding Protein Function  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose synthase (SUS: EC, a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism, is uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. Our research indicates that the biological function of SUS may extend beyond its catalytic activity. Th...


A metabolic flux analysis to study the role of sucrose synthase in the regulation of the carbon partitioning in central metabolsim in maize root tips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to understand the role of sucrose synthase in carbon partitioning, metabolic fluxes were analyzed in maize root tips of lineage-related genotypes of a double mutant (dm) of sucrose synthase genes, sh1 sus1 and the corresponding wild type, Sh1 Sus1, in W22 inbred background. Pulse labeling e...


The Three Maize Sucrose synthase Isoforms Differ in Distribution, Localization, and Phosphorylation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although sucrose synthase (SUS) is widely appreciated for its role in plant metabolism and growth, very little is known about the contribution of each of the SUS isoforms to these processes. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we evaluated the three known isoforms individually at the protein level. ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The reproductive dynamics of an acaricide-susceptible strain (SUS) of Boophilus microplus were compared to strains of ticks resistant to organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid (P), or formamidine (F) acaricides to determine whether the acquisition of resistance caused a reduction in fitness. The SUS stra...


Percepción del grado de conflicto en familias adoptivas y no adoptivas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo analiza el grado de conflicto entre padres e hijos\\/as teniendo en cuenta tanto la percepción de los propios padres como la de los adolescentes adoptados y no adoptados. 55 adolescentes adopta- dos y sus padres; y 402 adolescentes no adoptados y sus padres (n= 258) contestaron al Cuestionario de Conflictos de Motrico, Fuentes y Bersabé (2001). Los resultados

Isabel María; Bernedo Muñoz; María Jesús; Fuentes Rebollo; Milagros Fernández Molina


Experimental Study on Radiation Induced Boiling Enhancement for Stainless Steel Plate  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Induced Boiling Enhancement phenomena (RIBE) were confirmed using the SUS304 foil. The SUS304 with plasma oxidized surface shows higher CHF, i.e., about 20% improvement. While, the natural and mixed gas oxidized surface does not show the boiling enhancement. The RIBE has been highly related to the surface conditions. (authors)

Koji Okamoto; Hiroshi Akiyama; Haruki Madarame [University of Tokyo (Japan); Tomoji Takamasa [Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine, 2-1-6 Etchu-jima, Koto-Ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)



Establecimiento de metas, comportamiento y desempeño  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existen varios enfoques motivacionalesque se inclinan más hacia las causaspróximas del comportamiento que hacia las ecesidades y características (la suposición básica es que las personas se sienten más motivadas cuando sus valores, sus necesidades y su carácter se ajustan al contexto laboral y organizacional que cuando no lo están). Los enfoques de causas próximas al comportamiento se centran principalmente en

Henry Molina Mogollón



Performance analysis of a slotted multi-channel MAC protocols for cognitive radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radio has emerged as one of effective methods to enhance utilization of radio spectrum. Main principle of cognitive radio is that the secondary users (SUs) are allowed to use the spectrum not used by primary users (PUs) without interfering PU's transmission. In this paper, we consider network system where PUs use channels under super-slot time structure and SUs content

Kyung Jae Kim; Jin Soo Park; Yun Han Bae; Bong Dae Choi



Parallel vs. Sequential Belief Propagation Decoding of LDPC Codes over GF(q) and Markov Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential updating scheme (SUS) for belief propagation (BP) decoding of LDPC codes over Galois fields, GF(q), and correlated Markov sources is proposed, and com- pared with the standard parallel updating scheme (PUS). A thorough experimental study of various transmission settings indicates that the convergence rate, in iterations, of the BP algorithm (and subsequently its complexity) for the SUS is

Nadav Yacov; Hadar Efraim; Haggai Kfir; Ido Kanter; Ori Shental



Parallel vs. sequential belief propagation decoding of LDPC codes over GF ( q ) and Markov sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential updating scheme (SUS) for belief propagation (BP) decoding of LDPC codes over Galois fields, GF(q), and correlated Markov sources is proposed and compared with the standard parallel updating scheme (PUS). A thorough experimental study of various transmission settings indicates that the convergence rate, in iterations, of the BP algorithm for the SUS is about one half of that

Nadav Yacov; Hadar Efraim; Haggai Kfir; Ido Kanter; Ori Shental



Light and Metabolic Signals Control the Selective Degradation of Sucrose Synthase in Maize Leaves during Deetiolation1[OA  

PubMed Central

The content and activity of Suc (Suc) synthase (SUS) protein is high in sink organs but low in source organs. In this report, we examined light and metabolic signals regulating SUS protein degradation in maize (Zea mays) leaves during deetiolation. We found that SUS protein accumulated in etiolated leaves of the dark-grown seedlings but was rapidly degraded upon exposure to white, blue, or red light. This occurred concurrent with the accumulation of photosynthetic enzymes, such as Rubisco and Rubisco activase, and enzymes of Suc biosynthesis such as Suc-phosphate synthase. Deetiolation-induced SUS degradation was not inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, neither full-length nor truncated SUS phosphorylated at the serine-170 site was found in the crude 26S proteasome fraction (150,000g postmicrosomal pellet) isolated in the presence of MG132. However, SUS degradation was strongly inhibited by feeding cycloheximide or amino acids to detached leaves, while Suc feeding had no effect. Of the amino acids tested, exogenous glutamate had the greatest effect. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SUS protein degradation during deetiolation: (1) is selective; (2) can be triggered by either blue- or red light-mediated signaling pathways; (3) does not involve the 26S proteasome; and (4) is inhibited by free amino acids. These findings suggest that SUS degradation is important to supply residues for the synthesis of other proteins required for autotrophic metabolism.

Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Hardin, Shane C.; Mace, Jacob; Brutnell, Thomas P.; Huber, Steven C.



Two-way relaying with linear processing and power control for cognitive radio systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a cognitive radio (CR) system, where a secondary network shares spectrum with a primary network. In the secondary network, a relay station (RS) with multiple antennas performs two-way communications for multiple pairs of secondary users (SUs). In such a CR system, the main point is to provide the best system performance to SUs while protecting

Dongmei Jiang; Haixia Zhang; Dongfeng Yuan; Zhiquan Bai



Les revenus des indépendants et dirigeants : la valorisation du bagage personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Los independientes y los directivos de sociedades, asalariados o no, son un grupo socioeconomico homogéneo, sea la que sea su situacion juridica respecta a la legislacion social o fiscal. Pero sus rentas profesionales tienen formas muy diversas segun dicha situacion, y son diffciles de comparar a las de los asalariados no directivos. Sus rentas de actividad remuneran a veces

Dominique Rouault-Galdo



Los indicadores de insustentabilidad urbana como indicadores de conflicto social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las ciudades son ecológicamente insostenibles. Sus «huellas ecológicas» son muchos mayores que sus propios límites administrativos. Las ciudades procesan unas grandes cantidades de materiales y energía y excretan residuos de distintos tipos. Sin embargo, este artículo se pregunta de manera optimista si acaso no son las ciudades los lugares donde se producen las innovaciones tecnológicas ecoeficientes. Se pregunta también si

Joan Martínez Alier




Microsoft Academic Search

We have continued a systematic study on the field emission dark current under the high DC-field gradient by using a compact test apparatus at KEK. The dark current have been already measured for the several sample electrodes with same figures but made of different materials of stainless steel (SUS), copper (Cu), and titanium (Ti). For the SUS, the field gradient

F. Furuta; C. Suzuki; T. Nakanishi; S. Okumi; K. Wada; M. Yamamoto; T. Nishitani; M. Miyamoto; M. Kuwahara; T. Hirose; R. Mizuno; N. Yamamoto


A context-aware and Intelligent Dynamic Channel Selection scheme for cognitive radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous growth in ubiquitous low-cost wireless applications that utilize the unlicensed spectrum bands has laid increasing stress on the limited and scarce radio spectrum resources. Given that the licensed or Primary Users (PUs) are oblivious to the presence of unlicensed or Secondary Users (SUs), Cognitive Radio (CR) is a new paradigm in wireless communication that allows the SUs to

Kok-Lim Alvin Yau; Peter Komisarczuk; Paul D. Teal



Characterization and expression profile analysis of a sucrose synthase gene from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during seed development.  


A full-length cDNA encoding common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sucrose synthase (designated as Pv_BAT93 Sus), which catalyses the synthesis and cleavage of sucrose, was isolated from seeds at 15 days after pollination (DAP) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of Pv_BAT93 Sus had a 2,418 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 806 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison analysis showed that Pv_BAT93 Sus was very similar to several members of the sucrose synthase family of other plant species. Tissue expression pattern analysis showed that Pv_BAT93 Sus was expressed in leaves, flowers, stems, roots, cotyledons, and particularly during seed development. Expression studies using in situ hybridization revealed altered spatial and temporal patterns of Sus expression in the EMS mutant relative to wild-type and confirmed Sus expression in common bean developing seeds. The expression and accumulation of Sus mRNA was clearly shown in several tissues, such as the suspensor and embryo, but also in the transfer cells and endothelium. The results highlight the diverse roles that Sus might play during seed development in common bean. PMID:21573790

Abid, Ghassen; Muhovski, Yordan; Jacquemin, Jean-Marie; Mingeot, Dominique; Sassi, Khaled; Toussaint, André; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre



Familias Multiproblemáticas y en Riesgo Social: Características e Intervención Multiproblem Families at Social Risk: Characteristics and Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo comprende la familia multiproblemática como un sistema vulnerable de alto riesgo, tanto por la acción de sus mecanismos internos, como de fuerzas sociales que potencian su disfuncionalidad. Tras una extensa revisión bibliográfi ca, los autores proponen como sus características centrales la polisintomatología y crisis recurrentes, la desorganización, el abandono de las funciones parentales y el aislamiento, focalizando específi

Esteban Gómez; María Magdalena Muñoz; Ana María Ha


Aplicación de la teoría de valores extremos al gerenciamiento del riesgo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los activos en los mercados emergentes se caracterizan por una distribución de sus retornos más leptocúrtica que la de sus pares en mercados desarrollados. En este contexto se han aplicado diversas técnicas basadas en la Teoría de Valores Extremos (EVT) a un gran número de activos locales, a efectos de calcular su Valor a Riesgo (VaR). Estos resultaron ser mucho

Miguel T. Delfiner; Matías A. Gutiérrez Girault



Direct Activation of Epac by Sulfonylurea is Isoform Selective  

PubMed Central

Summary Commonly used as a treatment for Type II diabetes, sulfonylureas (SUs) stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic ? cells by binding to sulfonylurea receptors. Recently, SUs have been shown to also activate exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 2 (Epac2), however little is known about this molecular action. Using biosensor imaging and biochemical analysis, we show that SUs activate Epac2 and the downstream signaling via direct binding to Epac2. We further identify R447 of Epac2 to be critically involved in SU binding. This distinct binding site from cAMP points to a new mode of allosteric activation of Epac2. We also show that SUs selectively activate Epac2 isoform, but not the closely related Epac1, further establishing SUs as a new class of isoform-selective enzyme activators.

Herbst, Katie J.; Coltharp, Carla; Amzel, L. Mario; Zhang, Jin



Overexpression of a potato sucrose synthase gene in cotton accelerates leaf expansion, reduces seed abortion, and enhances fiber production.  


Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose and is considered a biochemical marker for sink strength, especially in crop species, based on mutational and gene suppression studies. It remains elusive, however, whether, or to what extent, increase in Sus activity may enhance sink development. We aimed to address this question by expressing a potato Sus gene in cotton where Sus expression has been previously shown to be critical for normal seed and fiber development. Segregation analyses at T1 generation followed by studies in homozygous progeny lines revealed that increased Sus activity in cotton (1) enhanced leaf expansion with the effect evident from young leaves emerging from shoot apex; (2) improved early seed development, which reduced seed abortion, hence enhanced seed set, and (3) promoted fiber elongation. In young leaves of Sus overexpressing lines, fructose concentrations were significantly increased whereas, in elongating fibers, both fructose and glucose levels were increased. Since hexoses contribute little to osmolality in leaves, in contrast to developing fibers, it is concluded that high Sus activity promotes leaf development independently of osmotic regulation, probably through sugar signaling. The analyses also showed that doubling the Sus activity in 0-d cotton seeds increased their fresh weight by about 30%. However, further increase in Sus activity did not lead to any further increase in seed weight, indicating an upper limit for the Sus overexpression effect. Finally, based on the observed additive effect on fiber yield from increased fiber length and seed number, a new strategy is proposed to increase cotton fiber yield by improving seed development as a whole, rather than solely focusing on manipulating fiber growth. PMID:22115917

Xu, Shou-Min; Brill, Elizabeth; Llewellyn, Danny J; Furbank, Robert T; Ruan, Yong-Ling



Suppressor of sable, a Putative RNA-Processing Protein, Functions at the Level of Transcription  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila melanogaster su(s) gene product negatively regulates the expression of mutant alleles with transposon insertions in the 5?-transcribed region by an unknown mechanism. We have investigated here su(s) function through in vivo structure-function analysis, heterologous reporter gene assays, and in vivo transcriptional induction experiments. We have shown that mutations of two arginine-rich motifs (ARMs), an acidic region, or two CCCH zinc fingers affect the ability of Su(s) to downregulate the expression of an insertion mutant allele and to autoregulate genomic su(s) transgenes. Using yeast and HeLa cell assays, we found that, when tethered to the promoter region, the N- and C-terminal regions of Su(s) can repress reporter gene expression, and all three motifs, but most significantly the ARMs, contribute to the repression activity. Finally, we showed that, in vivo, Su(s) inhibits the transcriptional induction of a transgene with an insertion in the first exon but does not affect induction of a similar transgene with a consensus 5? splice site near the upstream boundary of the insertion. Together, these results reveal a link between Su(s), transcription, and pre-mRNA processing.

Kuan, Yung-Shu; Brewer-Jensen, Paul; Searles, Lillie L.



[Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].  


The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system. PMID:23175305

Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori



Gene networks modified by sulphonylureas in beta cells: a pathway-based analysis of insulin secretion and cell death.  


Sulphonylureas (SUs) used in the treatment for type 2 diabetes have been shown to result in different clinical outcome. This study hypothesized that three widely used SUs, glibenclamide, glimepiride and gliclazide, may affect function and survival of insulin-producing cells differently. To evaluate differences between SUs, insulin secretion and cell death were measured, and genome-wide gene expression patterns were compared using a bioinformatics approach focusing on functional relationships between molecules. Insulin-producing INS-1E cells exposed to SUs for 6 and 24 hr were assayed using GeneChip. Cluster and pathway analyses were used to identify differentially expressed genes and patterns of potential biological functions associated with SU treatment. Cell death was measured using acridine orange/Hoechst 33342 staining. Short-term treatment (6 hr) yielded up-regulation of insulin secretion and genes associated with insulin secretion for all three SUs applied. While long-term treatment (24-72 hr) with gliclazide did not change gene expression or cell survival, treatment with glibenclamide or glimepiride up-regulated genes associated with oxidative stress and hypoxia, but did not induce cell death. Short-term treatment with SUs initiates gene regulation that can be attributed to insulin secretion with few differences between individual SUs. This regulation was temporal and returned to baseline after 24 hr. Individual differences observed after 24-72 hr indicate that glibenclamide and glimepiride induce potentially harmful cell signalling insufficient for triggering beta cell death. PMID:22642398

Magnusson, Nils E; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Grimm, Daniela; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Rungby, Jørgen



Fretting corrosion resistance and fretting corrosion product cytocompatibility of ferritic stainless steel.  


To avoid nickel ion release from SUS317L as an implant material, a new type of nickel, commercially free, of high purity, and high chromium ferritic stainless steel, was developed. The new stainless steel (FJ) was studied for aspects of fretting corrosion and cytocompatibility compared with SUS317L. A pin-on-plate fretting corrosion test in an artificial physiologic solution, and cell culture in media with the addition of the artificial physiologic solution used for fretting was conducted. Resistance to the fretting induced crevice corrosion of FJ was higher than that of SUS317L because of the favorable electrochemical stability of the FJ alloy. The amount of iron ion or colloidal fine particles released from FJ was about a quarter of that from SUS317L, although the weight loss of a pin of FJ was almost 5/3 that of SUS317L. The artificial physiologic solution used for SUS317L fretting was more harmful to the growth of L929 and MC3T3-E1 cells than that used for FJ fretting. FJ was therefore superior to SUS317L as a biomaterial, judging from the resistance to fretting-induced crevice corrosion, electrochemical stability, and the cytocompatibility of fretting corrosion products. PMID:8978647

Xulin, S; Ito, A; Tateishi, T; Hoshino, A



Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Puntos ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Eventos de otoño ¡Bienvenida al otoño, la época para celebrar la cosecha, Halloween, el Día de Acción de Gracias y sus eventos deportivos ... More results from


Effects of alloying elements on defect structures in the incubation period for void swelling in austenitic stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron lifetime measurements were used to study the effects of alloying elements on the defect structure during the incubation period for void swelling in several fcc model alloys. Pure Ni, four model alloys (Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Mn-Si and Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Mn-Si-Ti), and four commercial alloys (SUS316LSS, SUS316SS, SUS304SS and Ti added modified SUS316SS) were irradiated with electrons and neutrons. Even at 363 and 573 K to a dose of 0.2 dpa, an effect of alloying elements was observed. At 363 K irradiation, voids were formed only in Ni and Fe-Cr-Ni. At 573 K irradiation, voids were formed in Ni and all model alloys, though the concentration depended on the alloying elements. In commercial alloys, precipitates were formed instead of vacancy clusters, which prevented void growth.

Horiki, M.; Yoshiie, T.; Huang, S. S.; Sato, K.; Cao, X. Z.; Xu, Q.; Troev, T. D.



United States-Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations: Background and Potential Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Negotiations to launch a free trade agreement (FTA) between the United States and the five members of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland) began on June 3, 2003. In April 2006, negotiators sus...

D. Langton



United States-Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations: Background and Potential Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Negotiations to launch a free trade agreement (FTA) between the United States and the five members of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland) began on June 3, 2003. In April 2006, negotiators sus...

D. Langton





... lo -sus) is an intestinal infection caused by Shigella (pronounced: shih- geh -luh) bacteria. The bacteria produce ... diarrhea to bloody diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Shigella bacteria can contaminate food and water supplies, especially ...


Serving Up Safe Buffets  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text VersionPage 1. Porciones Si está preparando un bufé en su casa y no sabe cuán rápido sus invitados consumirán los alimentos ... More results from


Tomografía computarizada (TC) y exploraciones para cáncer

Hoja informativa que describe el procedimiento y la tecnología de exploraciones con tomografía computarizada así como sus usos para el diagnóstico, para exámenes de detección y para tratamiento del cáncer.


Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Process Rheology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to develop magnetic resonance imaging and numerical modeling methods which will provide for improved methods of flow analysis as well as an improved understanding of the flow behavior of solid particle filled polymeric sus...

D. T. Wadiac G. A. Lo J. C. Crowley R. Van De Griend S. W. Sinton



Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and the Health of Your Family  


... can make you and your children sick. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) EPA 402/F/09/004 | September 2009 | ... enfermarlo a usted y a sus niños. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) El humo de segunda mano es peligroso ...


Bovine Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier as Pump Prime for Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Reduced Systemic Lactic Acidosis and Improved Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism During Low-flow in a Porcine Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the final report for the research project 'Evaluation of Hemopure (HBOC-201) during cardiopulmonary bypass in domesticated swine (sus scrufa)' funded by AF Surgeon General. This final report will be published in the Journal of Thoracic an...

B. Propper J. Walker J. D. McNeil L. Evans L. Holguin



Planificación para la etapa final de la vida

Información para pacientes, sus familiares y amigos sobre el cuidado del paciente terminal, la planificación para el final de la vida, y la aflicción, el duelo y manejo de la pérdida de un ser querido.



Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Continúe leyendo y conozca unas sencillas indicaciones de seguridad alimentaria que le permitirán trasladar sus alimentos hacia el sitio del picnic ... More results from


La Importancia de la Vacunación para el Personal ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... de la gripe (la influenza o flu) en curso, la Administración de Drogas y Alimentos (FDA, por sus siglas en inglés) está instando a las organizaciones ... More results from


78 FR 59010 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...entry and for viewing historical records, but are routed seamlessly to the SUS module for invoice data entry referencing the ERP contract data. Dated: September 20, 2013. Aaron Siegel, Alternate OSD Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of...



Particulate Emissions from Residential Wood Combustion: Final Report: Norteast Regional Biomass Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total sus...



Using Medicines Wisely  


... of Medicine Sepa cómo tomar sus medicamentos - Use Medicines Wisely Medicines can treat health problems and help ... or foods should I avoid? 2. Keep a Medicine List Write down the important facts about each ...


Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle Perliminary Design Study Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a preliminary design for a Tracked Air Cusion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The proposed design meets performance, design, and test requirements prescribed by the OHSGT. The research program test requirements emphasize air cushion and sus...



Servicio de Salud Pública de los Estados Unidos  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... “Escherichia coli enterohemorrágica” (EHEC, por sus siglas en ingles) es la E. coli que causa la colitis hemorrágica, es decir, hemorragia intestinal. ... More results from


Biomedical Uses of Minature Swine. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Miniature swine (Sus scrofa) have been recognized as appropriate laboratory animals for the study of many disorders in the human population. Recently, some breeds also have gained popularity as pets; however, the majority of miniature pigs are sold as res...

L. M. Panepinto T. E. Bunton J. M. Frazier R. L. Ridgway S. C. Oaks



FDA Oysters bro. SP  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... El alcoholismo y las infecciones de la hepatitis pueden dañar al hígado y deteriorar sus años de funcionamiento antes de que una persona ... More results from


Boletín del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer - 27 de marzo de 2012

Le invitamos a que comparta esta publicación con sus amigos, familiares y colegas y nos ayude a continuar nuestra misión de difundir las investigaciones más recientes sobre la prevención, el tratamiento y la información del cáncer.


System-Wide Medium-Term Environment Programme for the Period 1990-1995: Strategies of the United Nations System for the Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Misuse of natural resources and degradation of the environment threaten human survival so long as they proceed unchecked. The environment program of the United Nations comprises a wide range of activities aimed at correcting these abuses and achieving sus...



Gene Environment Interactions in Women With Breast and Secondary Lung Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is significant evidence that indicates an increased risk for developing secondary lung cancer in women treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer and an additional risk for women who smoke. It is important to determine molecular markers for the sus...

M. A. Tennis P. G. Shields



Status of the European Wild Boar Project, Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Problem Analysis and Proposed Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate past research pertaining to an exotic species, the European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and to incorporate that information with management objectives of the National Park Service into a comprehensive, problem-solving ...

F. J. Singer



Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.


Model estimates of net primary productivity, evapotranspiration, and water use efficiency in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southern United States during 1895–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of global change on ecosystem productivity and water resources in the southern United States (SUS), a traditionally ‘water-rich’ region and the ‘timber basket’ of the country, are not well quantified. We carried out several simulation experiments to quantify ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE) (i.e., NPP\\/ET) in the SUS by employing an

Hanqin Tian; Guangsheng Chen; Mingliang Liu; Chi Zhang; Ge Sun; Chaoqun Lu; Xiaofeng Xu; Wei Ren; Shufen Pan; Arthur Chappelka



Link-Layer Resource Allocation for Voice Users in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) provide a so- lution for the spectrum scarcity problem facing the wireless communications community. To be able to utilize CRNs in practical applications, a certain level of quality-of-service (QoS) should be guaranteed to the secondary users (SUs) in such networks. In this paper, we propose a packet scheduling scheme that orders the SUs' transmissions according to

Khaled Ali; Weihua Zhuang



Responses to Propofol in Relation to GABA Functionality of Discrete Parts of the Brain of Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically-determined regional differences in the GABA-ergic make-up of the brain exist in two lines of Wistar rats viz.: apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) and apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) Wistar rats. Propofol is a GABA-mimetic general anesthetic. This study compared the responses to propofol in APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS rats. Propofol induced a higher incidence of involuntary muscular contractions and oral movements, but a lower incidence of

Ris Dirksen; Bart Ellenbroek; Jan van EGMOND; Alexander R. Cools



Joint optimization of power and decoding order in CDMA based cognitive radio systems with successive interference cancellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cognitive radio (CR) system, power control is a key enabling technique to ensure quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning for primary users (PUs) and secondary users (SUs). How to efficiently allocate power to SUs is not a trivial work, especially, in CDMA based CR systems with successive interference cancellation (SIC), the number of possible decoding orders grows factorially with the number

Zhaorong Zhou; Tao Jiang; Hua Bai; Sanshan Sun; Hong Long



Development and fabrication of improved power transistor switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of high-voltage power transistors was achieved by adapting present interdigitated thyristor processing techniques to the fabrication of npn Si transistors. Present devices are 2.3 cm in diameter and have V sub CEO (sus) in the range of 400 to 600V. V sub CEO (sus) = 450V devices were made with an (h sub FE)(I sub C) product

P. L. Hower; C. K. Chu



Sustained Metabolic Scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustained metabolic rates (SusMR) are time-averaged metabolic rates that are measured in free-ranging animals maintaining constant body mass over periods long enough that metabolism is fueled by food intake rather than by transient depletion of energy reserves. Many authors have suggested that SusMR of various wild animal species are only a few times resting (basal of standard) metabolic rates (RMR).

Charles C. Peterson; Kenneth A. Nagy; Jared Diamond



Preparation and characterization of SiO 2 composite membrane for purification of hydrogen from methanol steam reforming as an energy carrier system for PEMFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica\\/porous stainless steel (SUS) composite membranes were prepared for carbon monoxide (CO) removal from products of methanol steam reforming. A support was prepared by coating Ni powder with sub-micron level and SiO2 sols with particle size of 500 and 150 nm in turns on SUS. Silica top layer was coated on the modified support using colloidal sol with nanoparticle. As

Dong-Wook Lee; Yoon-Gyu Lee; Seong-Eun Nam; Bongkuk Sea; Kew-Ho Lee



Prestress design of stainless steel fibers\\/zirconia composite by tape casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prestressed SUS316 fibers\\/ZrO2 composite was fabricated using tape casting. Causes of cracks were analyzed by classical thermo-elastic theory and finite\\u000a element method in preparation process. An optimization design was carried out on SUS316 fibers’ arrangement modes by reducing\\u000a residual thermal stress. Interface topography and element distribution of composite were observed, and bending strengths were\\u000a tested. Results show that cracks are

Kang Zhao; Jun Li; Yufei Tang; Lei Xu



[An analysis of use of the health services by financing system: Brazil 1998-2008].  


This article analyzes the use of health services from the perspective of financing based on PNAD/IBGE micro-data related to 1998, 2003 and 2008. Among the main results, the following can be highlighted: 1) The Unified Health System (SUS) continues to be the major financing agent of most consultations and hospitalizations in Brazil; its participation increased significantly between 1998 and 2003 and remained almost stable between 2003 and 2008; 2) SUS participation in financing the use of the health services has been predominant in all Brazilian regions, especially in the North and North-East, which feature the most precarious socio-economic and health conditions; 3) SUS is the major financing agent of the two extreme levels of complexity of health care: primary care and high complexity services. 4) In spite of a significant rise in utilization rates of SUS services for consultations and hospitalizations, great inequities can still be observed between the population that exclusively uses SUS and that which has private health insurance; 5) There has been an increase in the use of SUS health services by part of the population with private health insurance plans. PMID:21987322

Porto, Silvia Marta; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Moreira, Rodrigo da Silva



[Forum: twenty years of experience and the challenge with the Unified National Health System. Introduction].  


This Introduction presents the Forum on the 20 years of experience with the Unified National Health System (SUS), consisting of 3 articles and a postscript. The first article provides a historical overview of the implementation of the SUS, in light of the Constitutional provisions pertaining to health. It discusses the context and main issues underlying the creation of the SUS in Brazil and proposes a renewed linkage between health sector policies and an expanded project for Brazilian society. The second article analyzes the SUS' dynamics; strides in access to and comprehensiveness of care; and challenges for the achievement of its objectives, in light of factors that are external to the system, involving the need for greater politicization of analyses on the issue. The third article approaches social and political processes that developed from 1988 to 2008. It mainly analyzes the history of two collegiate bodies under the SUS at the Federal level: the National Health Council and the Tripartite Inter-Managers' Commission. Despite the complexity identified by the authors and the important obstacles they identify, the reflections indicate that the SUS has been a successful social policy, besides contributing to the consolidation of democracy in Brazil. PMID:19578582

Maio, Marcos Chor; Lima, Nísia Trindade



Fretting fatigue behaviour of Ni-free high-nitrogen stainless steel in a simulated body fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fretting fatigue behaviour of Ni-free high-nitrogen steel (HNS) with a yield strength of about 800 MPa, which was prepared by nitrogen gas pressurized electroslag remelting, was studied in air and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS(-)). For comparison, fretting fatigue behaviour of cold-rolled SUS316L steel (SUS316L(CR)) with similar yield strength was examined. The plain fatigue limit of HNS was slightly lower than that of SUS316L(CR) although the former had a higher tensile strength than the latter. The fretting fatigue limit of HNS was higher than that of SUS316L(CR) both in air and in PBS(-). A decrease in fatigue limit of HNS by fretting was significantly smaller than that of SUS316L(CR) in both environments, indicating that HNS has better fretting fatigue resistance than SUS316L(CR). The decrease in fatigue limit by fretting is discussed taking into account the effect of friction stress due to fretting and the additional influences of wear, tribocorrosion and plastic deformation in the fretted area.

Maruyama, Norio; Hiromoto, Sachiko; Akiyama, Eiji; Nakamura, Morihiko



Treating diabetes today: a matter of selectivity of sulphonylureas.  


It is well known that sulphonylureas (SUs), commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, stimulate insulin secretion by closing ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP) ) channels in pancreatic ?-cells by binding to the SU receptor SUR1. SUs are now known also to activate cAMP sensor Epac2 (cAMP-GEFII) to Rap1 signalling, which promotes insulin granule exocytosis. For SUs to exert their full effects in insulin secretion, they are required to activate Epac2 as well as to inhibit the ?-cell K(ATP) channels. As Epac2 is also necessary for potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion by cAMP-increasing agents, such as incretin, Epac2 is a target of both cAMP and SUs. The distinct effects of various SUs appear to be because of their different actions on Epac2/Rap1 signalling as well as K(ATP) channels. Differently from other SUs, gliclazide is unique in that it is specific for ?-cell K(ATP) channel and does not activate Epac2. PMID:22118705

Seino, S; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Shibasaki, T



A Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron outer membrane protein that is essential for utilization of maltooligosaccharides and starch.  


Previous studies suggested that the first step in utilization of starch by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron was binding of the polysaccharide to the cell surface, followed by translocation of the polysaccharide across the outer membrane into the periplasm. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of a gene that encodes an outer membrane protein that is essential for utilization of both maltooligosaccharides and starch. The gene, susC, encoded a protein of 115.3 kDa. Antibodies were raised against SusC, and the outer membrane location of SusC could be confirmed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. SusC had a possible signal sequence of between 20 and 39 amino acids, depending on which N-terminal methionine initiates the start of the protein. It also had some features typical of well-characterized outer membrane proteins from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, such as a terminal phenylalanine residue and a region in the amino portion of the protein thought to be involved in stabilizing the protein in the outer membrane. The amino acid sequence, together with results of gene disruption experiments, suggested that SusC was not an amylolytic enzyme. Transcriptional fusion experiments, using beta-glucuronidase as a reporter group, showed that expression of susC was maltose regulated at the transcriptional level. This is the first molecular characterization of a B. thetaiotaomicron outer membrane protein involved in maltooligosaccharide and starch utilization. PMID:8550519

Reeves, A R; D'Elia, J N; Frias, J; Salyers, A A



A Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron outer membrane protein that is essential for utilization of maltooligosaccharides and starch.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggested that the first step in utilization of starch by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron was binding of the polysaccharide to the cell surface, followed by translocation of the polysaccharide across the outer membrane into the periplasm. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of a gene that encodes an outer membrane protein that is essential for utilization of both maltooligosaccharides and starch. The gene, susC, encoded a protein of 115.3 kDa. Antibodies were raised against SusC, and the outer membrane location of SusC could be confirmed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. SusC had a possible signal sequence of between 20 and 39 amino acids, depending on which N-terminal methionine initiates the start of the protein. It also had some features typical of well-characterized outer membrane proteins from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, such as a terminal phenylalanine residue and a region in the amino portion of the protein thought to be involved in stabilizing the protein in the outer membrane. The amino acid sequence, together with results of gene disruption experiments, suggested that SusC was not an amylolytic enzyme. Transcriptional fusion experiments, using beta-glucuronidase as a reporter group, showed that expression of susC was maltose regulated at the transcriptional level. This is the first molecular characterization of a B. thetaiotaomicron outer membrane protein involved in maltooligosaccharide and starch utilization.

Reeves, A R; D'Elia, J N; Frias, J; Salyers, A A



Soybean Yield and Heterodera glycines Responses to Liquid Swine Manure in Nematode Suppressive Soil and Conducive Soil.  


The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major factor limiting soybean yield. Experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 to determine the effects of liquid swine manure and chemical fertilizer PK on soybean and corn yields, and on SCN population in an SCN-suppressive field (S-Site) and an SCN-conducive field (C-Site) in Minnesota. The experiment was a split-plot design with crop sequences as main plots and fertilizer treatments as subplots. The 2-yr crop sequences were Sus-Sus, Res-Sus, and Corn-Sus, where Sus was SCN-susceptible soybean, and Res was SCN-resistant soybean. The fertilizer treatments were manure, PK, and a nonfertilizer as control. Manure did not reduce SCN egg population density but resulted in 31% lower SCN second-stage juvenile (J2) population density at the S-Site at 45 d after planting (DAP) in 2009. Manure also reduced spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus spp.) population density by 52% compared with PK and nonfertilizer treatments at S-Site at 45 DAP in 2009. The crop sequence of Corn-Sus and Res-Sus reduced the SCN egg and J2 but increased spiral nematode population density at both sites. An increase of 1.4 Mg/ha and 0.5 Mg/ha in yield of susceptible soybean was observed in manure and PK treatments, respectively, at the C-Site in 2009. Corn yield was 2.8 Mg/ha and 5.0 Mg/ha greater when treated with manure than nonfertilizer at the S-Site and C-Site, respectively. This study suggests that soil fertility management may be a useful strategy to alleviate the SCN damage to soybean. PMID:23589656

Bao, Yong; Chen, Senyu; Vetsch, Jeffery; Randall, Gyles



Effects of insulin and exercise on rat hindlimb muscles after simulated microgravity.  


This study was designed to examine insulin- and exercise-stimulated glucose uptake and metabolism in the hindlimb muscles of rats after conditions of simulated microgravity. To simulate microgravity, male Sprague-Dawley rats were suspended in a head-down (45 degrees) position with their hindlimbs non-weight bearing (SUS) for 14 days. In addition, rats were assigned to suspension followed by exercise (SUS-E), to cage control (CC), or to exercising control (CC-E) groups. Exercise consisted of five 10-min bouts of treadmill running at the same relative intensity for the CC-E and SUS-E rats (80-90% of maximum O2 consumption). Hindlimb perfusion results indicated that glucose uptake for the entire hindquarter at 24,000 microU/ml insulin (maximum stimulation) was significantly higher in the SUS (8.9 +/- 0.5 mumol.g-1.h-1) than in the CC (7.6 +/- 0.4 mumol.g-1.h-1) rats, signifying an increased insulin responsiveness. Glucose uptake at 90 microU/ml insulin was also significantly higher in the SUS (48 +/- 4; % of maximum stimulation over basal) than in the CC (21 +/- 4%) rats. In addition, exercise-induced increases in glucose uptake for the hindlimbs (133%) and glucose incorporation into glycogen for the plantaris (8.4-fold), extensor digitorum longus (5.4-fold), and white gastrocnemius (4.8-fold) muscles were greater for the SUS-E rats than for the CC-E rats (39% and 1.9-, 1.9-, and 3.0-fold, respectively). Therefore, suspension of the rat with hindlimbs non-weight bearing leads to enhanced muscle responses to insulin and exercise when they were applied separately. However, insulin action appeared to be impaired after exercise for the SUS-E rats, especially for the soleus muscle. PMID:1474084

Stump, C S; Balon, T W; Tipton, C M



A soluble adenylyl cyclase from sea urchin spermatozoa.  


A previously identified, calmodulin-binding, sea urchin sperm flagellar adenylyl cyclase (AC) was cloned and sequenced and found to be a homologue of mammalian sperm soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Compared to the mammalian sAC, the sea urchin sAC (susAC) has several long amino acid insertions, some of which contain protein kinase A phosphorylation sites. The enzymatic activity of susAC shows a steep pH dependency curve, the specific activity doubling when the pH is increased from 7.0 to 7.5. This suggests that like sperm dynein ATPase, the susAC is probably activated by increases in intracellular pH occurring upon spawning into seawater and also when sperm respond to contact with the egg jelly layer. The susAC is strongly activated by manganese, but has low activity in magnesium. Gene database searches identified sAC homologues in species known to have cyclic AMP-dependent sperm motility. This implies (as shown in mouse) that susAC has a role in sperm motility, most probably through axonemal protein phosphorylation or ion channel regulation. PMID:15978750

Nomura, Mamoru; Beltrán, Carmen; Darszon, Alberto; Vacquier, Victor D



Optimized Molecular Structure of Photoreactive Biocompatible Block Copolymers for Surface Modification of Metal Substrates.  


Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate-co-2-cinnamoyloxyethyl methacrylate) (PMPC-b-P(MPA/CMA)) was prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-controlled radical polymerization. The block copolymers were coated on stainless steel (SUS316L) and other metal substrates, and then the surface was subsequently irradiated with UV light. The wettability of a specimen surface treated with a block copolymer was improved in comparison with that of an untreated SUS316L plate. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, it was clear that the P(MPA/CMA) block worked as a binding site on the SUS316L surface. The surface density of the block copolymer-immobilized SUS316L surface was influenced by the molecular weight of the PMPC block. The stability of the immobilized layer was improved by UV irradiation, which induced intermolecular dimerization of the CMA. In addition to the SUS316L surface, various other metal surfaces could be modified by surface immobilization of block copolymers. Serum protein adsorption and fibroblast adhesion were effectively reduced by surface immobilization of block copolymers with optimal molecular weight of PMPC block. The nonfouling property was preserved after 1 week of cell cultivation. PMID:22639819

Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Akira; Yusa, Shin-Ichi



[Health regions and geographic scales].  


The present article aims to discuss how the so-called health regions have been organized in Brazil since the respective governing ruling was issued (NOAS - SUS 01/2001). In order to clarify this new context, the author emphasises such concepts as region and geographic scale. The regional division under this ruling is based on the regional planning concept underlying the country's territorial policies since the founding of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). However, the apportionment in health regions has been both a requirement for improving the Unified National Health System (SUS) and a qualitative change in the national health policy. It is necessary to move forward by relating the regional division to the issue of scale. What is at stake is whether the regionalization of health in Brazil represents an improvement in the mediations between the various scales in the SUS. PMID:16021239

Guimarães, Raul Borges



Deuterium retention in Fe2O3 under low-energy deuterium-plasma exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steel (SUS) is used as the structure material in nuclear fusion devices. Heating and O2 plasma discharge are considered for the removal of tritium. Oxide layer growth is anticipated on heating SUS at a high temperature in low-pressure residual O2 gas. When O2 plasma discharge is performed, oxygen plasma reaches the structure material and iron oxides such as Fe2O3 are formed. Thus, a knowledge of the retention behavior of hydrogen isotopes or deuterium (D) in the oxide layers is important in designing the devices. We investigated D retention in Fe2O3 films and the influence of Fe2O3 crystal structure on D retention and found that D retention in ?-Fe2O3 (cubic-maghemite) is larger than that in ?-Fe2O3 (hexagonal-hematite). The results for Fe2O3 are compared with those for SUS and Fe.

Matsunami, N.; Sogawa, T.; Sakuma, Y.; Ohno, N.; Tokitani, M.; Masuzaki, S.



Symbol Error Rate of Underlay Cognitive Relay Systems over Rayleigh Fading Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underlay cognitive systems allow secondary users (SUs) to access the licensed band allocated to primary users (PUs) for better spectrum utilization with the power constraint imposed on SUs such that their operation does not harm the normal communication of PUs. This constraint, which limits the coverage range of SUs, can be offset by relaying techniques that take advantage of shorter range communication for lower path loss. Symbol error rate (SER) analysis of underlay cognitive relay systems over fading channel has not been reported in the literature. This paper fills this gap. The derived SER expressions are validated by simulations and show that underlay cognitive relay systems suffer a high error floor for any modulation level.

Ho van, Khuong; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc


A nanostructured electrode of IrOx foil on the carbon nanotubes for supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IrOx nanofoils (IrOxNF) of high surface area are sputtered on multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the preparation of a structured electrode on a stainless steel (SUS) substrate for supercapacitor applications. This IrOx/CNT/SUS electrode is featured with intriguing IrOx curved foils of 2-3 nm in thickness and 400-500 nm in height, grown on top of the vertically aligned CNT film with a tube diameter of ~ 40 nm. These nanofoils are moderately oxidized during reactive sputtering and appeared translucent under the electron microscope. Detailed structural analysis shows that they are comprised of contiguous grains of iridium metal, iridium dioxide, and glassy iridium oxide. Considerable Raman line broadening is also evidenced for the attributed nanosized iridium oxides. Two capacitive properties of the electrode are significantly enhanced with addition of the curved IrOx foils. First, IrOxNF reduces the electrode Ohmic resistance, which was measured at 3.5 ? cm2 for the CNT/SUS and 2.5 ? cm2 for IrOxNF/CNT/SUS using impedance spectroscopy. Second, IrOxNF raises the electrode capacitance from 17.7 F g - 1 (CNT/SUS) to 317 F g - 1 (IrOx/CNT/SUS), measured with cyclic voltammetry. This notable increase is further confirmed by the galvanostatic charge/discharge experiment, measuring 370 F g - 1 after 2000 uninterrupted cycles between - 1.0 and 0.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl).

Chen, Yi-Min; Cai, Jhen-Hong; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Tiong, Kwong-Kau



Porosity reduction in Nd YAG laser welding of stainless steel and inconel alloy by using a pulsed wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the influence of the Nd-YAG laser power wave mode on the porosity and mechanical properties of SUS 304L and inconel 690 weldments. Initially, a rectangular laser power waveform is specified. The output is then progressively changed from a pulsed wave mode to a continuous wave mode by reducing the value of ?P (?P = Pp-Pb, where Pp is the peak power and Pb is the base power) to zero. Bead-on-plate (BOP) and butt welding are performed at a constant mean output power (1.7 kW). The BOP results demonstrate that the depth/width (D/W) ratio of both materials increases with ?P and attains a maximum value when full penetration just occurs. The D/W ratio and the travel speed for full penetration are higher for SUS 304L than for inconel 690. In butt-welds of inconel 690 and SUS 304L, the porosity ratio decreases from 7.1% to 0.5% and from 2.1% to 0.5%, respectively, as ?P increases from 0 to 2780 W. Therefore, the tensile strength and percentage elongation are enhanced significantly in inconel 690. The degree of porosity reduction in inconel 690 exceeds that of SUS 304L. This suggests that the viscosity of the molten inconel 690 metal is higher than that of SUS 304L. Consequently, the effect of porosity reduction due to the increase in molten metal fluidity caused by increasing ?P is greater for inconel 690 than for SUS 304L.

Kuo, T. Y.; Jeng, S. L.



Mechanical properties and composition of mesenteric small arteries of simulated microgravity rats with and without daily -G(x) gravitation.  


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the active and passive mechanical properties and wall collagen and elastin contents of mesenteric small arteries (MSAs) isolated from rats of 28-day simulated microgravity (SUS), countermeasure [S + D: SUS plus 1 h/d -G(x) to simulate intermittent artificial gravity (IAG)] and control (CON) groups. Three mechanical parameters were calculated: the overall stiffness (?), circumferential stress (?(?))-strain (?(?)) relationship and pressure-dependent incremental elastic modulus (E(inc,p)). Vessel wall collagen and elastin percentage were quantified by electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the active mechanical behavior of MSAs differs noticeably among the three groups: the active stress-strain curve of SUS vessels is very close to the passive curve, whereas the active ?(?)-?(?) curves of CON and S + D vessels are shifted leftward and display a parabolic shape, indicating that for MSAs isolated from S + D, but not those from SUS rats, the pressure-induced myogenic constriction can effectively stiffen the vessel wall as the CON vessels. The passive mechanical behavior of MSAs does not show significant differences among the three groups. However, the percentage of collagen is decreased in the wall of SUS and S + D compared with CON vessels in the following order: SUS < S + D < CON. Thus, the relationship between passive mechanical behavior and compositional changes may be complex and yet depends on factors other than the quantity of collagen and elastin. These findings have provided biomechanical data for the understanding of the mechanism of postflight orthostatic intolerance and its gravity-based countermeasure. PMID:22513459

Gao, Fang; Cheng, Jiu-Hua; Bai, Yun-Gang; Boscolo, Marco; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Li-Fan



Corrosion investigations of Al–Fe-coated steels, high Cr steels, refractory metals and ceramics in lead alloys at 700 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion tests of several types materials were carried out in lead–bismuth eutectic and lead at 700°C. Al–Fe-coated SUS316FR, and high Cr steels SUS430, Recloy10 and NTK04L were tested in molten lead–bismuth and Al–Fe-coated STBA26, high Cr steel STBA26, refractory metals tungsten and molybdenum and ceramics SiC and Ti3SiC2 were tested in molten lead. Oxygen concentrations were 5×10?6 and 4.5×10?7wt.% for

Abu Khalid Rivai; Minoru Takahashi



Metal elution from Ni- and Fe-based alloy reactors under hydrothermal conditions.  


Elution of metals from Ni- and Fe-based alloy (i.e. Inconel 625 and SUS 316) under hydrothermal conditions was investigated. Results showed that metals could be eluted even in a short contact time. At subcritical conditions, a significant amount of Cr was extracted from SUS 316, while only traces of Ni, Fe, Mo, and Mn were eluted. In contrast, Ni was removed in significant amounts compared to Cr when Inconel 625 was tested. Several factors including temperature and contact time were found to affect elution behavior. The presence of air in the fluid even promoted elution under subcritical conditions. PMID:15120875

Faisal, Muhammad; Quitain, Armando T; Urano, Shin-Ya; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi




PubMed Central

Argentina ha sido un campo fértil para los intentos de reforma del sector salud, en la búsqueda por mejorar la calidad de sus servicios y, consecuentemente, la accesibilidad y la equidad del mismo. Los resultados obtenidos no han sido proporcionales a los esfuerzos desarrollados. Aunque la bioética debería, como forma de reflexión interdisciplinaria, participar en la fundamentación de nuevas políticas sanitarias y sus efectos sobre los usuarios, parece haber permanecido ajena, en general, a los graves problemas derivados de la corrupción, prefiriendo enfocarse en cuestiones vinculadas a planteos abstractos de justicia y solidaridad, atribuyendo los fracasos a la imposición de modelos económicos foráneos.

Litewka, Sergio G.





Argentina ha sido un campo fértil para los intentos de reforma del sector salud, en la búsqueda por mejorar la calidad de sus servicios y, consecuentemente, la accesibilidad y la equidad del mismo. Los resultados obtenidos no han sido proporcionales a los esfuerzos desarrollados. Aunque la bioética debería, como forma de reflexión interdisciplinaria, participar en la fundamentación de nuevas políticas sanitarias y sus efectos sobre los usuarios, parece haber permanecido ajena, en general, a los graves problemas derivados de la corrupción, prefiriendo enfocarse en cuestiones vinculadas a planteos abstractos de justicia y solidaridad, atribuyendo los fracasos a la imposición de modelos económicos foráneos. PMID:21660255

Litewka, Sergio G



Characterization and expression profile analysis of a sucrose synthase gene from common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during seed development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA encoding common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sucrose synthase (designated as Pv_BAT93 Sus), which catalyses the synthesis and cleavage of sucrose, was isolated from\\u000a seeds at 15 days after pollination (DAP) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of Pv_BAT93 Sus\\u000a had a 2,418 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 806 amino acid residues.

Ghassen Abid; Yordan Muhovski; Jean-Marie Jacquemin; Dominique Mingeot; Khaled Sassi; André Toussaint; Jean-Pierre Baudoin


[Study on electrochemical mechanism of coronary stent used austenitic stainless steel in flowing artificial body fluid].  


The electrochemical mechanism of austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L and SUS317L) coronary stents in flowing artificial body fluid has been investigated with electrochemical technologies. The results indicated that the flowing medium coursed the samples' pitting potential Eb shift negatively, increased the pitting corrosion sensitivity, accelerated its anodic dissolution, but had little effects on repassivated potential. The flowing environment had great effects on cathodic process. The oxygen reaction on the samples' surface became faster as the cathodic process was not controlled by oxygen diffusion but by mixed diffusion and electrochemical process. With the increase of velocity of solution, the pitting corrosion becomes liable to occur under this circumstance. PMID:16156260

Liang, Chenghao; Guo, Liang; Chen, Wan; Wang, Hua



Maximum rates of sustained metabolic rate in cold-exposed Djungarian hamsters ( Phodopus sungorus ): the second wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) tolerate short-term exposure to ambient temperatures (T\\u000a as) down to ?70°C, but surprisingly, previously appeared to reach maximum sustainable metabolic rate (SusMR) when kept at T\\u000a as as high as ??2°C. We hypothesized that SusMR in Djungarian hamsters may be affected by the degree of prior cold acclimation\\u000a and temporal patterns of T\\u000a a changes experienced

Thomas Ruf; Beatrice Grafl



Dopamine characteristics in different rat genotypes: the relation to absence epilepsy.  


Dopaminergic neurotransmission has been shown to participate in the control of absence epilepsy. This type of epilepsy, a generalized non-convulsive form, is associated with bursts of bilateral synchronous spike wave discharges (SWDs) recorded in the EEG. In a previous study, it was suggested that two features of the apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rat genotype, a relatively low dopaminergic reactivity of the nigrostriatal system and relatively high dopaminergic reactivity of the mesolimbic system, contribute to the high incidence of SWDs. Indeed, apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rats, characterized by opposite dopaminergic features, show considerably less SWDs than APO-SUS rats. The first goal of the present study was to assess the baseline SWD incidence in four rat genotypes (WAG/Rij, ACI, APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS) in order to replicate previous findings. It was expected that both the APO-SUS and WAG/Rij rats would show a considerably higher SWD incidence in comparison to the APO-UNSUS and ACI rats. For this purpose, rats were registered for a 19 hour period. Assuming that haloperidol decreases dopaminergic transmission in the nigrostriatal system via inhibition of the dopamine receptors and enhances dopaminergic transmission in the mesolimbic system via inhibition of the noradrenergic receptors, it was postulated that haloperidol would enhance the difference in dopaminergic reactivity between both systems in favor of the accumbens. Therefore, the second purpose in the present study was to investigate whether haloperidol (2 mg/kg, IP) could further potentiate SWD incidence when injected in the APO-SUS rats, already characterized by a relatively low dopaminergic reactivity of the nigrostriatal system and relatively high dopaminergic reactivity of the mesolimbic system, in comparison to the APO-UNSUS rat genotype. Finally, the third aim was to study if another epileptic rat genotype, the WAG/Rij, would show similar increases in SWD incidence following an injection with haloperidol as expected for the APO-SUS. First, previous findings were replicated: the value of the hourly number of SWDs decreased in the following order: APO-SUS > WAG/Rij > APO-UNSUS and ACI. Secondly, earlier data were extended by the fact that the APO-SUS responded to a systemic injection of haloperidol with an increase in SWD number and duration, in contrast to the APO-UNSUS rats. The hypothesis that the SWD incidence would be mostly affected by haloperidol in the APO-SUS rats, was confirmed by these findings. It is suggested that haloperidol increases the SWD incidence in APO-SUS rats by enhancing the difference between the dopaminergic reactivity in the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic system. Finally, further research is required to provide evidence in favor of the hypothesis that the relative dominance of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system is smaller in WAG/Rij than in APO-SUS. PMID:11000443

de Bruin, N M; van Luijtelaar, E L; Jansen, S J; Cools, A R; Ellenbroek, B A



PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente descubierta, que va en contra de lo esperado en otros sistemas físicos y que consiste en que los altos estados Rydberg de átomos, moléculas y sus complejos de van der Waals (o de los iones) tienen tiempos de vida de centenas de ? s. En resumen, el experimento y la espectroscopía ZEKE consiste en excitar un átomo, molécula o cluster sucesivamente a dos estados excitados selectivos de manera que el final sea un estado Rydberg. A continuación se aplica un campo eléctrico variable que lo ioniza y después de un cierto retraso se aplica un campo eléctrico de extracción, tanto para el electrón como para el ión. El espectro de los iones, es un espectro ZEKE. Hay varias alternativas para hacer este último proceso. El estudio de la espectroscopía y propiedades de iones y sus clusters requiere el conocimiento detallado de la espectroscopía de la molécula neutra, los estados Rydberg, de los confórmeros y sus complejos. Todo ello implica el haber estudiado los sistemas por LIF, REMPI y doble resonancia (hole burning IR-UV, UV-UV). Además solo es posible interpretar los resultados y obtener la información contenida en los espectros con ayuda de cálculos cuánticos ab initio. Hasta el momento hemos aplicado tanto el ZEKE como el conjunto de técnicas mencionadas anteriormente, a varias molécula de interés químico general como anilina y sus derivados, así como sus complejos con agua y amoniaco. Sin embargo, el método es muy versátil y puede aplicarse a iones de átomos, iones múltiples, moléculas sencillas y sus clusters así como a sus semi-reacciones. Como ejemplo de uno de estos espectros PFI-ZEKE se presenta aquí el caso del amonibenzonitrilo, ABN y solamente en su estado fundamental. En la conferencia se presentarán espectros ZEKE del ABN y moléculas similares en estados vibracionales intermedios (islas de estabilidad), así como la determinación de potenciales de ionización precisos, energías de enlace de compuestos del ión con varios disolventes y otras propiedades de interés, discutiendo sus resultados.

Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.


La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.


Proteomic Analysis of the Systemic Immune Response of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics provide new tools to characterize proteins involved in a physiological proc- ess, such as the immune response of the insect model Drosophila melanogaster. Profiling of the proteins present in the hemolymph (insect blood) of noninfected flies ver- sus flies infected with bacteria or fungi was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, silver

Francine Levy; Philippe Bulet; Laurence Ehret-Sabatier



Detection of strain during phase transformation of welds by the laser speckle method: Application of laser speckle method for strain measurement in welding (3rd Report)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes application of the laser speckle method for in situ dynamic strain measurements during welding. The principal objective pursued in the present investigation is to detect the strain during the phase transformation of welds by this method.The specimens used were 4 mm thick 9%Ni steel and SUS304 stainless steel plate. The former undergoes martensitic phase transformation at around

Y. Muramatsu; S. Kuroda; H-G Gross



La representación de la solidaridad en Me ll amo Rigoberta Menchú y así me nació la conciencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

El testimonio de Rigoberta Menchú, en Me llamo Rigoberta Menchú y así me nació la conciencia de Elizabeth Burgos, retrata la lucha de supervivencia de los pueblos indígenas en Guatemala. Menchú describe con franqueza cómo la tortura y la opresión, que los grupos indígenas enfrentaron durante la guerra civil en Guatemala, resultó en silenciar sus voces y en un temor

Maria Barroso



Las Opciones Reales y su influencia en la valoración de empresas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las opciones reales son derechos que las empresas poseen sobre determinados activos y que les permiten adaptarse al entorno con mayor flexibilidad y soportando menores riesgos. Desde la perspectiva de las opciones reales, el activo total de la empresa se compone de las inversiones ejecutadas y en funcionamiento y de sus oportunidades futuras de inversión. Por tanto, se considera que

Manuel Espitia Escuer; Gema Pastor Agustín



Las Fuerzas Armadas y el Estado  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Argentina, como Nación, en el nuevo contexto internacional, de libre comercio y de interdependencia económica, no tiene aún una visión homogénea de su pasado. Cada corriente ideológica como así también cada grupo de interés, se inclina, inevitablemente, por aquellas personas o sucesos que sean afines con sus pensamientos, haciendo un análisis subjetivo del pasado para dar validez a su

Claudio Cuello


Alimentación de Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Pisces: Goodeidae) en el embalse La Goleta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. Girardinichthys multiradiatus es endémico de México y con categoría vulnerable. Se determinaron sus hábitos alimenticios en el embalse La Goleta, analizando el contenido estomacal de 600 ejemplares por los métodos numérico, de frecuencia y volumétrico. Observamos que G. multiradiatus utiliza gran variedad de alimentos. El análisis de frecuencia resalta al alga Fragilaria con la mayor presencia en las cuatro

Estado de México; Norma A. Navarrete-Salgado; Margarita L. Rojas-Bustamante; Gilberto Contreras-Rivero; Guillermo Elías-Fernández


Dinámica del Desempeño Académico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo se ocupa del progreso, luego del ingreso, de los estudiantes de la cohorte 2000 de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Si bien hay antecedentes de medición del rendimiento de los estudiantes de la Facultad y sus factores explicativos, se trata de estudios realizados en base a encuestas a alumnos regulares en

Luciano Di Gresia; Alberto Porto



Harvesting aware power management for sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy harvesting offers a promising alternative to solve the sus- tainability limitations arising from battery size constraints in sensor networks. Several considerations in using an environmental energy source are fundamentally different from using batteries. Rather than a limit on the total energy, harvesting transducers impose a limit on the instantaneous power available. Further, environmen- tal energy availability is often highly

Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Mani B. Srivastava; Vijay Raghunathan




Microsoft Academic Search

The pathiogenicity of a vaccimiia recombinant virus expressing the rabies glycoprotein (\\\\'VTGgRAB) was tested in several wild amiimal species which could compete with the natural rabies host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) ins comisuming vaccine baits in Europe. The following species were included in this study: wild boar (Sus scrofa), Eurasian badger (Meles meles), wood mouse (Apodenius sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse

Bernard Brochier; Jean Blancou; Isabelle Thomas; Bernard Languet; Marc Artois; Marie-Paule Kieny; Jean-Pierre Lecocq; Philippe Desmettre; Paul-Pierre Pastoret


Orígen del deterioro del medio ambiente en Taiwan: Desajuste entre el modelo de desarrollo y la dotación de recursos naturales  

Microsoft Academic Search

De igual modo que el análisis de los llamados nuevos países industriales asiáticos (NPIAs) abre interesantes matices en el campo de las teorías del desarrollo, poniendo en duda la capacidad explicativa de los enfoques tanto dependentista como neoclásico, el estudio del medio ambiente en esos países aporta visiones nuevas y enriquecidas en lo referente a sus modelos de desarrollo. En

Antonio Rodríguez Carmona



Problemas ambientales, agricultura y globalización en América Latina  

Microsoft Academic Search

La globalización y la progresiva liberalización de los mercados agropecuarios mundiales representarán un importante estímulo para que los países latinoamericanos intenten aumentar la productividad y la competitividad internacional de sus producciones agrícolas y ganaderas, en consonancia con un modelo de crecimiento económico basado en la búsqueda de beneficios a corto plazo. Esto conducirá sin duda alguna a la profundización de

José Antonio Segrelles Serrano



Realidad, concepciones y tareas económicas: Notas sueltas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La única constante de la posguerra es la del cambio; cambio que se intensifica notoriamente desde comienzos de la década de los ochenta y que abarca todos los órdenes de la vida social: las economías se alteran estructuralmente y en sus interrelaciones, se transforman los sistemas políticos, las metamorfosis en las relaciones económicas internacionales no tienen paralelo en décadas. Hasta

David Ibarra



Una transición en edades avanzadas: cambios en los arreglos residenciales de adultos mayores en siete ciudades latinoamericanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se presenta una visión preliminar y descriptiva de los cambios en los arreglos residenciales en la población de 60 años y más en siete ciudades latinoamerica- nas. Se exploran la intensidad del cambio, sus razones, la estructura familiar inicial, y el cambio de vivienda física. Los datos utilizados en este estudio provienen de las encues- tas de

Julieta Pérez Amador; Gilbert Brenes



Effect of Testosterone on Differential Muscle Growth and on Protein and Nucleic Acid Concentrations in Muscles of Growing Lambs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, nucleic acid, and protein concentrations were measured in three muscles of 20 rams, 20 wethers, and 20 wethers implanted with testosterone. Two lambs from each group were slaugh- tered at 14-d intervals from 49 to 133 d, and then at 28-d intervals until 217 d, for a total of 10 slaughter ages. Immediately after slaughter, the semitendino- sus, splenius,

A. M. Arnold; J. M. Peralta; M. L. Thonney



Is This Patient Having a Myocardial Infarction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When faced with a patient with acute chest pain, clinicians must distinguish myocardial infarction (MI) from all other causes of acute chest pain. If MI is sus- pected, current therapeutic practice includes deciding whether to administer thrombolysis or primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and whether to admit patients to a coronary care unit. The former decision is based on electrocardiographic

Akbar A. Panju; Brenda R. Hemmelgarn; Gordon H. Guyatt; David L. Simel



Post–Little Ice Age record of coarse and fine clastic sedimentation in an Alaskan proglacial lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many assessments of glacial sediment yield rely solely on mea- surements of fine-grained suspended sediment. We show that sus- pended sediment contributes ,20% of the total clastic sediment discharge into Iceberg Lake, an Alaskan proglacial lake. Drainage of this lake in 1999 exposed outcrops of varved lacustrine sediment that record suspended sediment deposition. Since a Little Ice Age highstand two

Michael G. Loso; Robert S. Anderson; Suzanne P. Anderson



Racionalidad limitada en la sociedad del riesgo mundial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durante muchas décadas se ha pretendido que la teoría económica de la elección racional es la teoría general del comportamiento humano de la que carecen las ciencias sociales. Este artículo señala algunas de sus limitaciones. La psicología cognitiva describe los sesgos cognitivos de las personas cuando evalúan la información y eligen entre opciones, los cuales ponen en cuestión la idea

Francisco Augusto Laca Arocena




Microsoft Academic Search

El presente artículo esboza consideraciones generales sobre la importancia del currículo en los procesos educativos, iniciando el diálogo sobre las diversas concepciones que existen para conceptualizar el currículo y las teorías curriculares que fundamentan los diseños y desarrollos curriculares. Cobra importancia además, poder compartir algunos elementos de la cuestión social presentes en el currículo en el contexto colombiano y sus

Martisela Bermudez Asprilla



Entre metrópolis y periferias. Análisis de los movimientos migratorios a partir del censo de población de 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Área de Demografía y Estudios de Población, del Centro de Investigaciones sobre Dinámica Social –CIDS– de la Universidad Externado de Colombia, definió como objetivo de una de sus Líneas estratégicas de investigación el análisis de los procesos migratorios en Colombia. Aunque la migración constituye un elemento central en la determinación del crecimiento, volumen y composición de la población, este

Alejandro González Pulido; Norma Rubiano


Las fundaciones de ciudades y el pensamiento urbanístico hispano en la era del Descubrimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

La historia urbana referida al periodo histórico en torno a la fecha de 1492, con sus precedentes, desde la caída de Constantinopla (1452) y su evolución hasta la entronización y asentamiento de la monarquía del Emperador Carlos (~1530), es un periodo excepcional que requiere una reinterpretación a la luz de nuevos enfoques interdisciplinarios y de nuevos descubrimientos científicos. El periodo

María Isabel Navarro Segura



Algunos tópicos econométricos de interés: Series de tiempo, pronósticos, no linealidad  

Microsoft Academic Search

La relación entre la teoría y la política económica con la práctica y el modelamiento empírico cada día cobra más importancia. El economista en sus investigaciones teóricas y\\/o empíricas ante todo debe clarificar y delimitar el contexto específico de análisis en el campo teórico económico y en el de las conceptualizaciones, técnicas y metodologías auxiliares cuyo conocimiento, adecuación e interpretación

Elsa M. Castro Franco




Microsoft Academic Search

La familia como agente educativo, tiene una alta responsabilidad en formar adecuadamente a sus hijos sobre la base de la transmisión de normas y valores socialmente valiosos; es por ello, que en estos momentos la dimensión de esta temática cobra una mayor fuerza y se hace necesario conocer las problemáticas familiares y a partir de ese conocimiento elevar la preparación

Náyade Caridad Reyes Palau



Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo analiza las tendencias globales y particulares de los aranceles en las distintas carreras e instituciones universitarias chilenas. El sistema de educación superior en Chile es complejo y diverso, no sólo por las actividades realizadas por las universidades (docencia, investigación y extensión), sino también por la estructura de precios (aranceles) que cada una de ellas cobra a sus estudiantes.

Vìctor Salas Opazo


Correlation of Human Olfactory Responses to Airborne Concentrations of Malodorous Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted from Swine Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

cades in an effort to improve animal production effi- ciency, reduce animal mortality, and provide safer, Direct multicomponent analysis of malodorous volatile organic higher quality animal products (Barker et al., 1996). compounds (VOCs) present in ambient air samples from 29 swine (Sus scrofa ) production facilities was used to develop a 19-component These improvements in production efficiency have artificial swine

J. A. Zahn; A. A. DiSpirito; B. E. Brooks; E. E. Cooper; J. L. Hatfield




Microsoft Academic Search

La pena privativa de libertad a través de la reclusión en el establecimiento carcelario, presentada como una opción alternativa y humanizante para el sistema punitivo vigente hasta el siglo XVII, que tenía como base las penas de muerte y corporales, desde su nacimiento se ha demostrado ineficiente para cumplir sus finalidades formalizadas por el ordenamiento, principalmente los que se refieren

Marcelo Nunes Apolinário




Microsoft Academic Search

The present article aims at to bring for reflection the theme that involves family and mental health. Pointing a discussion about the paper of the State, as a promoter of public policies, and the family function in the accomplish of the social protection, as a citizenship guarantee. This article identifies its entail to the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), to

Cinara Debastiani; Maria Isabel Barros Bellini



Microsoft Academic Search

Hasta aquí, hemos descrito los hechos lo más objetivamente como sucedieron. No obstante, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar los discursos acaecidos durante el lapso que la familia estuvo desparecida. Por regla general, la sociedad pone a disposición de sus ciudadanos todas las facilidades posibles en materia de seguridad para que éstos puedan desplazarse y circular (Foucault, 2006).

Korstanje Maximiliano E




Microsoft Academic Search

Luego del iluminismo, los pensadores, intelectuales y profesores universitarios han jugado un papel primordial en el ordenamiento del mundo capitalista (Berger, 1989) (Díez, 2001). Lo expuesto sugiere la idea que “la inteligentsia” de cualquier disciplina (científica o no) deriva de un orden económico que la fundamenta, condiciona y precede. En Roma antigua, eran los “filósofos” y sus diferentes ramificaciones quienes

Maximiliano Korstanje




Microsoft Academic Search

El salvaje metropolitano no es sólo un libro de antropología sino además un tratado hermenéutico sobre la filosofía del método que ayuda a los lectores más allá de su disciplina de base a hacer uso de la etnografía en sus trabajos de campo. En base a lo expuesto, Rosana Guber comienza su capítulo introductorio con un análisis sobre las limitaciones

Maximiliano Korstanje




Microsoft Academic Search

La fascinación del poder político por el heroísmo y la épica se da por varias razones, una de ellas y tal vez la de mayor peso es la búsqueda de legitimidad. Ya los gobernantes no son caballeros que celebran sus propias guerras, no están en el campo de batalla liberando u oprimiendo reinos, sino que simplemente se dedican a ubicarse

Maximiliano E. Korstanje




Microsoft Academic Search

Indudablemente, una de las cuestiones que hacen a la ciencia como tal es el principio de replicabilidad y publicidad. Ello sugiere que los investigadores deben hacer públicos sus hallazgos (lo más público posible lo cual indica que llegue a toda la comunidad científica). El principio de replicabilidad hace referencia expresa a la idea de poder llegar a los mismos resultados

Korstanje E. Maximiliano




Microsoft Academic Search

El origen de la teoría del apego se remonta a los trabajos etológicos de Lorenz con patos silvestres. Según la observación de este autor, se notaba en los patos cierto apego entre la madre y sus crías minutos después de los nacimientos; dicho lazo duraría gran parte de la vida biológica del animal (Bowlby, 1986; 1989). Con estas observaciones en

Maximiliano Korstanje




Microsoft Academic Search

Los grupos humanos basan sus solidaridades y reciprocidades en cuanto a valores fundantes que le dan su sentido de ser y estar. Estos valores conforman lo que nos hemos decidido en llamar “matriz identitaria” y es transmitida de generación en generación a través de los siglos. Dentro de este contexto, es que el cine de entretenimiento moderno estadounidense refleja ciertos

Maximiliano Korstanje




Microsoft Academic Search

Es que para Barthes, el viaje debe ser comprendido como una forma ordenadora del trabajo y de la lógica burguesa. En efecto, la creación de la guía Azul tiene sus orígenes en ese deseo profundo que sentía la burguesía al comprar el esfuerzo y conservar a la vez la imagen de ese esfuerzo. En este sentido, la humanidad da lugar

Maximiliano Korstanje




Microsoft Academic Search

Entre los gerentes modernos existen inquietudes sobre la forma de motivar a los empleados. En anteriores artículos nos hemos expedido sobre la posibilidad de que la motivación se torne algo negativo cuando es excesiva; en efecto los empleados quienes se comprometen en demasía con la estima de sus supervisores y jefes como también con su propia elaboración al respecto de

Maximiliano Korstanje



Herramientas de simulación de código abierto para l a mejora del aprendizaje en Ingeniería Eléctrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo describe una iniciativa para el uso d e herramientas de simulación como un procedimiento para mejorar el aprendizaje en los es tudios de ingeniería, concretamente en la asignatura de máquinas eléctricas. Estos métodos pe rmiten que los estudiantes mejoren la comprensión de los fenómenos físicos subyacentes y sus habilidades para resolver problemas con unos

A. Domínguez; M. Yusta



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tiff44 bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] was seeded with cool-season annuals in a 3-yr study of DM yield and N and P uptake in a swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) effluent spray field. Treatments were berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) and crimson (T. incarnatum L.) clovers, ryegrass (Lolium ...


Overseeding common bermudagrass with cool-season annuals to increase yield and nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in a hay field fertilized with swine effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cool-season annual forages were overseeded in common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] in a 3-yr study comparing DM yield and N and P uptake in a swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) effluent spray field. Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) and crimson (T. incarnatum L.) clovers, ryegrass (Lolium...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protein phosphorylation can affect enzymatic activity, protein localization and protein:protein interactions. With sucrose synthase (Sus), phosphorylation of a major site (Ser-15) affects the conformation of the N-terminus and may influence the association of this soluble, globular protein with cel...


Spatial patterns of visual cortical fast EEG during conditioned reflex in a rhesus monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary assay was made of the existence of time-space coherence patterns of fast EEG activity in the visual cortex of a Rhe- sus monkey. The primary intent of the present study was to evaluate the similarities and differences in relation to the olfactorybutb. where such eoherences have been described and have been demonstrated to be associated with behaviour. Segments

Walter J. Freeman; B VANDIJK



Florida Board of Governors Degree Planning and Projection Model for the State University System. Report of Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|North Highland conducted a six (6) week study with support from the Florida Department of Education, Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida (ICUF), Division of Community Colleges, and the Board of Governors (BOG) to forecast and analyze the State University System's (SUS) plans for degree production through 2013-2014. The primary goal…

Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2004



Integration of Instance-Based Learning and Text Mining for Identification of Potential Virus\\/Bacterium as Bioterrorism Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are some viruses and bacteria that have been identified as bioterrorism weapons. However, there are a lot other viruses and bacteria that can be potential bioterrorism weapons. A system that can automatically sug- gest potential bioterrorism weapons will help laypeople to discover these sus- picious viruses and bacteria. In this paper we apply instance-based learning & text mining approach

Xiaohua Hu; Xiaodan Zhang; Daniel Duanqing Wu; Xiaohua Zhou; Peter Rumm



DNA forensics and the poaching of wildlife in Italy: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA molecular techniques were used in a forensic investigation involving the poaching of wildlife in a national park of Italy. A poacher, after having snared a wild boar (Sus scrofa) sow, knifed it to death. The animal was retrieved by conservation officers at the scene before the poacher could remove the carcass. Subsequently, the suspect denied the charges. During a

Rita Lorenzini



Low Curie temperature material for induction heating self-temperature controlling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents low Curie temperature magnetic materials for induction heating. These materials are alloys based on SUS430. The magnetization decreases with increasing amount of additives. In order to increase the saturation magnetization, while keeping the Curie temperature constant, rare earth materials were added in this study. The compositions of alloys were investigated to realize a suitable Curie temperature. The

Takashi Todaka; Tomoyasu Kishino; Masato Enokizono



66. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. Historic American Buildings Survey M. James Slack, Photographer, April 12, 1934 BLOCK NO. 6 FROM SOUTHEAST SHOWING HOUSES NOS. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, AND 8. THREE KIVAS (LEFT - SUS - KATZ - HOUSE NO. 3, CENTER MAU-HA-ROTZ - HOUSE NO. 5, RIGHT - HY-ME-TA-TIES - HOUSE NO. 8) - Pueblo of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM


Response of neutrophils to stimulus infusion: differential sensitivity of cytoskeletal activation and oxidant production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of human neutrophils to N- formyl peptides were studied under conditions where ligand binding was controlled by infusing a cell sus- pension with the peptide over a time period compara- ble to the normal half-time for binding. Receptor occupancy was measured in real time with a fluores- cently labeled peptide using flow cytometry. This bind- ing was approximated

Geneva M. Omann; Larry A. Sklar



Reproduccion del ganado  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

La determination de prenez es una de las principales herramientas de manejo en el Ganado de came. Le habilidad de determiner prenez proporciona al productor un medio de tomar sus decsiones de seleccion y descartarte en momentos decisivos, enfocando los recursos de la operacion en reporductores confi...



Microsoft Academic Search

Epoxy resins are a well-known cause of occupa- tional contact dermatitis (OCD). A high index of sus- picion for allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in workers dealing with these agents should be main- tained. The cases presented below highlight some of the complexities of assessing skin reactions to epoxy resins. Contact dermatitis from epoxy resin exposure.

Tanusha Singh


La presencia de China en América Latina. Un tema controvertido  

Microsoft Academic Search

El autor analiza la presencia de la República Popular China en América Latina y sus repercusiones para la seguridad nacional de los Estados Unidos en la última década. Al sostener que actualmente la RPC no amenaza los intereses vitales de Estados Unidos en su patio trasero, el autor toma en cuenta el diálogo estratégico sino-estadounidense, la seguridad nacional de la

Peter M. Lewis



El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer publica nuevo atlas de mortalidad por cáncer

El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI, por sus siglas en inglés) ha publicado un nuevo atlas, el Atlas de Mortalidad por Cáncer en los Estados Unidos, 1950-94, que muestra los patrones geográficos de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer durante más de cuatro décadas, en más de 3.000 condados a lo largo del país.


Genetic analysis and identification of DNA markers linked to a novel Phytophthora sojae resistance gene in the Japanese soybean cultivar Waseshiroge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Waseshiroge is considered to be strongly resistant to several races of Phytophthora sojae in Japan. In order to characterize the inheritance of Waseshiroge resistance to P. sojae isolates, 42 F2 progeny plants and 94 F7:8 families were produced from crosses between the sus...


A decoupled cross-layer design for symbiotic cognitive relaying with time incentive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale of this work is that the incumbent primary user (PU) of a cognitive radio (CR) system relays its traffic through the secondary user (SU) network for an enhanced throughput. In return, it rewards the SUs with an incentive time during which they can use the complete licensed bandwidth to transmit their own data, without the need for spectrum

Vinay Thumar; Taskeen Nadkar; U. B. Desai; S. N. Merchant



Effects of acoustic modifications on perception of speaker characteristics for sustained vowels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interval scale for contribution of acoustic properties to perception of speaker identity was measured according to Thurstone paired-comparison methodology. In the experiments, several acoustic properties of sus- tained vowel \\/a\\/ uttered by 10 male speakers were modified and those effects on perception of closeness of speaker characteristics were investigated. An interval scale for sound quality of the stimuli was

Tatsuya KITAMURA; Takeshi SAITOU


Modelling time-since-death in Australian temperate conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of time-since-death (TSD) with respect to decomposition processes have been limited in scope. Most research has focused on qualitative descriptions of decomposition, which are too broad to be of use in recent death investigations. This study developed a degree of decomposition index (DDI) by quantifying stages of decomposition for individual body elements. Two Sus scrofa (White hybrid pigs) were

Catherine May Fitzgerald; Marc Oxenham




Microsoft Academic Search

1. Antecedentes El presente trabajo de investigación surge como respuesta a la inquietud de generar una perspectiva diferente que, además de explicar el fenómeno del sexoservicio y sus implicaciones en la salud, pueda determinar líneas de acción encauzadas al mejoramiento de las condiciones de vida y oportunidades objetivas en la obtención de servicios integrales de salud para las mujeres que

Manuel Enrique; Morales Santiago


Complementary, Alternative, Integrative, or Unconventional Medicine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded the Kenneth B. Schwartz Center. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and sus- tenance to the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz



Coalition Formation Games for Collaborative Spectrum Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative spectrum sensing (CSS) between sec- ondary users (SUs) in cognitive networks exhibits an inherent tradeoff between minimizing the probability of missing the de- tection of the primary user (PU) and maintaining a reasonable false alarm probability (e.g., for maintaining good spectrum uti- lization). In this paper, we study the impact of this tradeoff on the network structure and the

Walid Saad; Zhu Han; Tamer Basar; Mérouane Debbah; Are Hjorungnes



Common Knowledge and Consistent Simultaneous Coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Traditional problems in distributed systems include the Reliable Broadcast, Distributed Consen- sus ,a ndDistributed Firing Squad problems. These problems require coordination only among the processors that do not fail. In systems with benign processor failures, however, it is reason- able to require that a faulty processor’s actions are consistent with those of nonfaulty processors, assuming that it performs any

Gil Neiger; Mark R. Tuttle



The Influence of Vegetation in Riparian Filterstrips on Coliform Bacteria: II. Survival in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of total and fecal coliform bacteria was measured in the 0 to 5, 5 to 15, and 15 to 30 cm soil depths at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 90 to 120 d after swine (Sus scrofa) wastewater application to riparian fiiterstrips in southern Georgia during each season of the year. Vegeta- tive treatments evaluated were: (i) 20 m

James A. Entry; Robert K. Hubbard; Janice E. Thies; Jeffry J. Fuhrmann



The Influence of Vegetation in Riparian Filterstrips on Coliform Bacteria: I. Movement and Survival in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swine (Sus scrofa) wastewater was applied to three separate 4 m wide x 30 m long riparian filterstrips consisting of 20 m grass and 10 m forest, 10 m grass and 20 m forest, and 10 m grass and 20 m maidencane (Panicum hemitomon Schult.) in Southern Georgia dur- ing each season. Total and fecal coliform numbers in the applied

James A. Entry; Robert K. Hubbard; Janice E. Thies; Jeffry J. Fuhrmann



Design study of the JT-60SU device. No. 4. The vacuum vessel and cryostat of JT-60SU.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vacuum vessel and the cryostat for the JT-60 Super Upgrade (JT-60SU) have been designed. Two types of the complex materials for the vacuum vessel were chosen on the basis of the avoidance of tritium occlusion and the low irradiation, i.e. (1) SUS316 c...

K. Tobita K. Ushigusa Y. Neyatani



Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sus- tainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustain- ability in directionally changing social- ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming

F. Stuart Chapin III; Amy L. Lovecraft; Erika S. Zavaleta; Joanna Nelson; Martin D. Robards; Gary P. Kofinas; Sarah F. Trainor; Garry D. Peterson; Henry P. Huntington; Rosamond L. Naylor



Stroke-induced Immunodeficiency Promotes Spontaneous Bacterial Infections and Is Mediated by Sympathetic Activation Reversal by Poststroke T Helper Cell Type 1-like Immunostimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections are a leading cause of death in stroke patients. In a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia, we tested the hypothesis that a stroke-induced immunodeficiency increases the sus- ceptibility to bacterial infections. 3 d after ischemia, all animals developed spontaneous septicemia and pneumonia. Stroke induced an extensive apoptotic loss of lymphocytes and a shift from T helper cell (Th)1

Konstantin Prass; Christian Meisel; Conny Höflich; Johann Braun; Elke Halle; Tilo Wolf; Karsten Ruscher; Ilya V. Victorov; Josef Priller; Ulrich Dirnagl; Hans-Dieter Volk; Andreas Meisel


Remedios urbanos: más allá de los debates teóricos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los trabajos sobre globalización y espacio urbano se inscriben bajo dos corrientes. Una que apunta a mostrar las bondades de la globalización, y la necesidad de actuar sobre las ciudades para que se fortalezcan beneficiándose de sus efectos. Y otra que insiste en mostrar lo nocivo de este proceso, por ejemplo a través de crecientes indicadores de pobreza, exclusión y

Nubis Pulido; Delfina Trinca Fighera



Rompendo o silêncio e suas barreiras: um inquérito domiciliar sobre a violência doméstica contra idosos em área de abrangência do Programa Médico de Família de Niterói  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to study the prev- alence of domestic physical violence against the elderly in an area covered by the Family Health Program in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Using a household survey, 322 subjects 60 years or older were randomly selected from the cen- sus of seniors assigned to six health teams. Vio- lence

Claudia Leite de Moraes; Paulo Cavalcante Apratto Júnior; Michael Eduardo Reichenheim


Fundamental Study on Laser Spraying (Report 2) Thermal Spraying of Pure Titanium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal spraying of pure titanium was tried on SUS 430 stainless steel substrates by using laser beam in argon atmosphere. The CO2 laser beam was focused to melt the advancing titanium wire. The molten titanium was atomized by high pressure argon gas and ...

M. Yoneda A. Utsumi K. Nakagawa J. Matsuda M. Katsumura



Community-wide trophic cascades and other indirect interactions in an agricultural community  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current goal in ecology is to elucidate the relative roles of primary and secondary consumers ver- sus plant resources in determining community structure and dynamics. The complexity and diversi- ty of terrestrial communities has been hypothesized to strongly influence the strength of these top- down and bottom-up forces, and in turn, trophic interactions are predicted to have significant con-

Lee A. Dyer; John O. Stireman



Measurement of emittance of metal interface in molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for measuring the total normal emittance of a metal in a semi-transparent liquid has been proposed and this technique has been applied to measure the emittance of stainless steel (SUS304), nickel, and gold in molten potassium nitrate KNO3. Thes