Science.gov

Sample records for desastre sus consecuencias

  1. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  2. Outer membrane proteins related to SusC and SusD are not required for Cytophaga hutchinsonii cellulose utilization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongtao; Kwiatkowski, Kurt J; Yang, Tengteng; Kharade, Sampada S; Bahr, Constance M; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Liu, Weifeng; McBride, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Cytophaga hutchinsonii, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, employs a novel collection of cell-associated proteins to digest crystalline cellulose. Other Bacteroidetes rely on cell surface proteins related to the starch utilization system (Sus) proteins SusC and SusD to bind oligosaccharides and import them across the outer membrane for further digestion. These bacteria typically produce dozens of SusC-like porins and SusD-like oligosaccharide-binding proteins to facilitate utilization of diverse polysaccharides. C. hutchinsonii specializes in cellulose digestion and its genome has only two susC-like genes and two susD-like genes. Single and multiple gene deletions were constructed to determine if the susC-like and susD-like genes have roles in cellulose utilization. A mutant lacking all susC-like and all susD-like genes digested cellulose and grew on cellulose as well as wild-type cells. Further, recombinantly expressed SusD-like proteins CHU_0547 and CHU_0554 failed to bind cellulose or ?-glucan hemicellulosic polysaccharides. The results suggest that the Bacteroidetes Sus paradigm for polysaccharide utilization may not apply to the cellulolytic bacterium C. hutchinsonii. PMID:25846333

  3. SUCROSE SYNTHASE (SUS) OLIGOMERIZATION IS REGULATED BY SUCROSE LEVELS WITHIN PLANT CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) is an important plant metabolic enzyme as it cleaves sucrose in the cytoplasm of plant cells. There are three known isoforms of SUS within Zea mays: SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2 (formerly SUS3). It is thought that SUS is predominantly a hetero-tetramer composed of the three isoform...

  4. Identification and Characterization of the Duplicate Rice Sucrose Synthase Genes OsSUS5 and OsSUS7 Which Are Associated with the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung-Il; Kim, Hyun-Bi; Kim, Chi-Yeol; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2011-01-01

    Systematic searches using the complete genome sequence of rice (Oryza sativa) identified OsSUS7, a new member of the rice sucrose synthase (OsSUS) gene family, which shows only nine single nucleotide substitutions in the OsSUS5 coding sequence. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the synteny between OsSUS5 and OsSUS7 is conserved, and that significant numbers of transposable elements are scattered at both loci. In particular, a 17.6-kb genomic region containing transposable elements was identified in the 5′ upstream sequence of the OsSUS7 gene. GFP fusion experiments indicated that Os- SUS5 and OsSUS7 are largely associated with the plasma membrane and partly with the cytosol in maize mesophyll protoplasts. RT-PCR analysis and transient expression assays revealed that OsSUS5 and OsSUS7 exhibit similar expression patterns in rice tissues, with the highest expression evident in roots. These results suggest that two redundant genes, OsSUS5 and OsSUS7, evolved via duplication of a chromosome region and through the transposition of transposable elements. PMID:21533550

  5. The financing of SUS in a scenario of financialization.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Aquilas; Marques, Rosa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This article rebuilds the process of the institutionalization process of the financing of Unified Health System (SUS), impaired, initially, by the macroeconomic policy conditions, developed during the decades of 1990 and 2000, and, ultimately, by the effects caused by the present phase of capitalism, concerning financial capital supremacy. It also identifies, within the political and economic framework, conflicts existing with the economic area of the federal government, highlighting the conditions imposed to financing and the concept of health, being universal and an essential component of Social Security. PMID:19547783

  6. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  7. Astrovirus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Gábor; Nemes, Csaba; Boros, Ákos; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2012-01-01

    The family Astroviridae consists of two genera, Avastrovirus and Mamastrovirus whose members are associated with gastroenteritis in avian and mammalian hosts, respectively. In this study, we report the first detection of astrovirus from fecal specimens of wild boars (Sus scrofa) using viral metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. The wild boar astrovirus (WBAstV-1/2011/HUN, JQ340310) genome is 6707 nucleotide long and had 76%, 95% and 56% amino acid (aa) identity in the ORF1a (852aa), ORF1b (522aa) and ORF2 (845aa) regions, respectively, to porcine astrovirus 4 (PAstV-4, JF713713), the closest match. This study indicates that wild boar could be a reservoir for astroviruses. PMID:22398915

  8. Exome Capture with Heterologous Enrichment in Pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Guiatti, Denis; Pomari, Elena; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Stefanon, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of new protein-coding DNA variants related to carcass traits is very important for the Italian pig industry, which requires heavy pigs with higher thickness of subcutaneous fat for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) productions. Exome capture techniques offer the opportunity to focus on the regions of DNA potentially related to the gene and protein expression. In this research a human commercial target enrichment kit was used to evaluate its performances for pig exome capture and for the identification of DNA variants suitable for comparative analysis. Two pools of 30 pigs each, crosses of Italian Duroc X Large White (DU) and Commercial hybrid X Large White (HY), were used and NGS libraries were prepared with the SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System for Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Library (Agilent). A total of 140.2 M and 162.5 M of raw reads were generated for DU and HY, respectively. Average coverage of all the exonic regions for Sus scrofa (ENSEMBL Sus_scrofa.Sscrofa10.2.73.gtf) was 89.33X for DU and 97.56X for HY; and 35% of aligned bases uniquely mapped to off-target regions. Comparison of sequencing data with the Sscrofa10.2 reference genome, after applying hard filtering criteria, revealed a total of 232,530 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of which 20.6% mapped in exonic regions and 49.5% within intronic regions. The comparison of allele frequencies of 213 randomly selected SNVs from exome sequencing and the same SNVs analyzed with a Sequenom MassARRAY® system confirms that this “human-on-pig” approach offers new potentiality for the identification of DNA variants in protein-coding genes. PMID:26431395

  9. An intronic RNA structure modulates expression of the mRNA biogenesis factor Sus1.

    PubMed

    AbuQattam, Ali; Gallego, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. Unlike most yeast genes, the SUS1 pre-mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. Using in silico analyses together with NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and UV thermal denaturation experiments, we show that the downstream intron (I2) of SUS1 forms a weakly stable, 37-nucleotide stem-loop structure containing the branch site near its apical loop and the 3' splice site after the stem terminus. A cellular assay revealed that two of four mutants containing altered I2 structures had significantly impaired SUS1 expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that all mutants accumulated unspliced SUS1 pre-mRNA and/or induced distorted levels of fully spliced mRNA relative to wild type. Concomitantly, Sus1 cellular functions in histone H2B deubiquitination and mRNA export were affected in I2 hairpin mutants that inhibited splicing. This work demonstrates that I2 structure is relevant for SUS1 expression, and that this effect is likely exerted through modulation of splicing. PMID:26546116

  10. An intronic RNA structure modulates expression of the mRNA biogenesis factor Sus1

    PubMed Central

    AbuQattam, Ali; Gallego, José; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. Unlike most yeast genes, the SUS1 pre-mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. Using in silico analyses together with NMR spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and UV thermal denaturation experiments, we show that the downstream intron (I2) of SUS1 forms a weakly stable, 37-nucleotide stem–loop structure containing the branch site near its apical loop and the 3′ splice site after the stem terminus. A cellular assay revealed that two of four mutants containing altered I2 structures had significantly impaired SUS1 expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR experiments indicated that all mutants accumulated unspliced SUS1 pre-mRNA and/or induced distorted levels of fully spliced mRNA relative to wild type. Concomitantly, Sus1 cellular functions in histone H2B deubiquitination and mRNA export were affected in I2 hairpin mutants that inhibited splicing. This work demonstrates that I2 structure is relevant for SUS1 expression, and that this effect is likely exerted through modulation of splicing. PMID:26546116

  11. Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400/sup 0/C to a target fluence of 5 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel.

  12. Vascular-associated Lymphoid Tissue in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Langohr, Ingeborg M; HogenEsch, Harm; Stevenson, Gregory W; Sturek, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Focal accumulations of mononuclear cells in the arterial wall of healthy humans at predilection sites for atherosclerotic lesions have been described as ‘vascular-associated lymphoid tissue’ (VALT). Here we investigated whether pigs (Sus scrofa), a commonly used animal model for studying cardiovascular disease, have VALT. Samples of major arteries were collected from 10 conventional crossbred pigs (age, 2 to 24 mo) and processed for routine light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Single or small aggregates of mononuclear cells were noted in the intima and occasionally the inner portion of the tunica media and adventitia at branching sites. The infiltrating cells were primarily CD3+CD4+ T cells, with some macrophages. No CD8+ T cells were present. Infiltrating leukocytes and overlying endothelial cells frequently expressed major histocompatibility class II molecules. Two Ossabaw pigs on low-fat diet had similar leukocytic aggregates at locations where animals of the same breed but fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet developed atherosclerotic lesions. Further, the densities of CD3+ T lymphocytes and in these areas were decreased in 2 sedentary and 2 exercised Ossabaw pigs on an atherogenic diet compared with conventional crossbred and Ossabaw pigs on a normal diet. This study shows that focal aggregates of lymphocytes occur in the vasculature of pigs at locations predisposed to development of atherosclerotic lesions. These cellular aggregates are similar to the structures described as VALT in human arteries and reinforce the value of the pig as a model for the study of human cardiovascular disease. PMID:18524175

  13. [Analysis of the progressivity of Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) financing].

    PubMed

    Ugá, Maria Alicia Domínguez; Santos, Isabela Soares

    2006-08-01

    This article analyzes the level of progressivity in taxes financing the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). Distribution of the tax burden financing the SUS was calculated using micro-data from the Household Budgets Survey, 2002-2003. The Kakwani index, which shows a tax system's level of progressivity, was calculated. The Kakwani index of public financing was -0.008, and SUS financing was nearly proportional to income. From a social justice perspective this is highly undesirable in a society like Brazil, with a Gini index of 0.57. The system should be clearly progressive in order to counterbalance the country's extreme income concentration. PMID:16832531

  14. Identification and Characterization of the Sucrose Synthase 2 Gene (Sus2) in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Volpicella, Mariateresa; Fanizza, Immacolata; Leoni, Claudia; Gadaleta, Agata; Nigro, Domenica; Gattulli, Bruno; Mangini, Giacomo; Blanco, Antonio; Ceci, Luigi R.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS), which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for SUS in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo) is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur, and 5-BIL42). The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modeling approaches. The combined results of sucrose synthase 2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield. PMID:27014292

  15. Internal Stress Distribution Measurement of TIG Welded SUS304 Samples Using Neutron Diffraction Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslih, M. Refai; Sumirat, I.; Sairun; Purwanta

    2008-03-01

    The distribution of residual stress of SUS304 samples that were undergone TIG welding process with four different electric currents has been measured. The welding has been done in the middle part of the samples that was previously grooved by milling machine. Before they were welded the samples were annealed at 650 degree Celsius for one hour. The annealing process was done to eliminate residual stress generated by grooving process so that the residual stress within the samples was merely produced from welding process. The calculation of distribution of residual stress was carried out by measuring the strains within crystal planes of Fe(220) SUS304. Strain, Young modulus, and Poisson ratio of Fe(220) SUS304 were measured using DN1-M neutron diffractometer. Young modulus and Poisson ratio of Fe(220) SUS304 sample were measured in-situ. The result of calculations showed that distribution of residual stress of SUS304 in the vicinity of welded area is influenced both by treatments given at the samples-making process and by the electric current used during welding process.

  16. Defect structures in nickel and SUS304SS formed by the collapse of cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiie, T.; Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Komatsu, M.; Futakawa, M.; Naoe, T.; Kawai, M.

    2010-03-01

    A mercury target in high-power spallation neutron sources is subjected to pressure waves induced by a proton beam. The subsequent formation and collapse of cavitation bubbles lead to cavitation damage on the target vessel, especially the beam window. The cavitation damage in Ni and austenitic stainless steel SUS304SS were studied by using an electro-Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM) developed to simulate the damage. The existence of dislocations, stacking fault tetrahedra and vacancies was detected by positron annihilation lifetime measurements in Ni, and non-cellular dislocation structures were observed by transmission electron microscopy in Ni and SUS304SS. In addition, a high density of twins was observed in SUS304SS. These results were compared with those of high-speed compression tests using a high-speed projectile, proving that the cavitation damage caused by MIMTM corresponded to high-speed deformation.

  17. Development of nanostructured SUS316L-2%TiC with superior tensile properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Kurishita, H.; Matsuo, S.; Arakawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Tsuchida, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakai, K.; Terasawa, M.; Yamasaki, T.; Kawai, M.

    2015-11-01

    Structural materials used in radiation environments require radiation tolerance and sufficient mechanical properties in the controlled state. In order to offer SUS316L austenitic stainless steel with the assumed requirements, nanostructured SUS316L with TiC addition of 2% (SUS316L-2TiC) that is capable of exhibiting enhanced tensile ductility and flow strength sufficient for structural applications was fabricated by advanced powder metallurgical methods. The methods include MA (Mechanical Alloying), HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), GSMM (Grain boundary Sliding Microstructural Modification) for ductility enhancement, cold rolling at temperatures below Md (the temperature where the martensite phase occurs by plastic deformation) for phase transformation from austenite to martensite and heat treatment for reverse transformation from martensite to austenite. It is shown that the developed SUS316L-2TiC exhibits ultrafine grains with sizes of 90-270 nm, accompanied by TiC precipitates with 20-50 nm in grain interior and 70-110 nm at grain boundaries, yield strengths of 1850 to 900 MPa, tensile strengths of 1920 to 1100 MPa and uniform elongations of 0.6-21%, respectively, depending on the heat treatment temperature after rolling at -196 °C.

  18. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  19. A Study of Instructional Faculty Salaries at USF, SUS and National Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates 10-year trends in instructional faculty salaries by sex and rank for USF, five SUS Peers (UF, FSU, FIU, UCF, FAU) and eight National Peers (North Carolina State, Alabama-Birmingham, Illinois-Chicago, California-Irvine, SUNY-Stony Brook, SUNY-Buffalo, Cincinnati, Rutgers). Methods: Historical instructional faculty salary…

  20. Absence of bovine tuberculosis in feral swine (Sus scrofa) from the Southern Texas border region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-ranging wildlife, like feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are infectious to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is lacking regarding the exposure and infection rates for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis; bTB), and many othe...

  1. Effect of Pulse Current on the Tensile Deformation of SUS304 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Wang, Shen; Zhao, Shuangjun; Ding, Wei; Chen, Jun; Wu, Guohong

    2015-12-01

    The effect of pulse current on the mechanical properties of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless steel was studied by tension test with and without air-cooling under different current densities. The microstructural variations at different conditions were also studied by SEM, TEM, and Feritscope. A negative effect on the plasticity was observed when current pulse was applied without air-cooling. But when Joule heating resulting from current pulse was excluded by air-cooling, the elongation of SUS304 stainless steel was increased to 72.4% at a current density of 2.95 A/mm2, which is 23.3% higher than that tested without pulse current at room temperature. Pulse current can decrease the dislocation density and dislocation pile-ups. Furthermore, EP effect from pulse current can accelerate martensitic transformation and enhance TRIP effect. The mechanism of current-induced martensitic transformation was discussed from Gibbs free energy change.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of European wild boar, Sus scrofa scrofa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Di; Yang, Xiao-Tian; Yang, En

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the European wild boar, Sus scrofa scrofa for the first time. The genome is found to be 16,770 bp in length and has a base composition of A (34.63%), G (13.38%), C (26.21%), and T (25.78%), indicating that the percentage of A + T (60.41%) was higher than G + C (39.59%). Similar to other pigs, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were located on the H-strand except for the ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence provided here would add a new genetic resource and new study on the evolution of the genus Sus. PMID:25693697

  3. Residual stress and fracture characteristics of zirconia/metal(Ni, SUS304) functionally gradient materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yeon-Gil; Choi, Sung-Churl; Paik, Un-Gyu

    1995-09-01

    To analyze the residual stress and the fracture behavior of FGMs. disc-type TZP/Ni- and TZP/SUS304-FGM were hot passed, and compared with MM& The continuous interface and the microstructure of FGMs were characterized with EPMA, optical microscopy and SEM. The defect-like cracks in the FGMs induced by the preferential shear stress have been shown to cause fracture. This fact has well corresponded to the analysis of the residual stress distribution by FEM.

  4. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN*

    PubMed Central

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Materials and Methods Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type of service providers and outsourced services were retrieved and evaluated. Also, such data were compared with those from institutions certified by CNEN. Results The present study demonstrated that the system still lacks maturity in terms of correct data input, particularly regarding equipment available. It was possible to list the most common procedures and check the growth of the specialty along the study period. Private centers are responsible for most of the procedures covered and reimbursed by SUS. However, many healthcare facilities are not certified by CNEN. Conclusion Datasus provides relevant data for analysis as done in the present study, although some issues still require attention. The present study has quantitatively depicted the Brazilian reality regarding access to nuclear medicine procedures offered by/for SUS. PMID:25741070

  5. [The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) is universal, but quotas are the norm].

    PubMed

    Viegas, Selma Maria da Fonseca; Penna, Cláudia Maria de Mattos

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the Unified Health System (SUS), health actions and services constitute a social right to be guaranteed by the State and managed under the responsibility of three autonomous spheres of government. This is a holistic multiple case study with a qualitative approach based on the assumptions of Comprehensive Everyday Sociology, which originated from a PhD thesis. It sought to understand the construction of comprehensive health practices in the daily work of family health teams and managers of the cities in Vale do Jequitinhonha - Minas Gerais, Brazil. The individuals studied were professionals from the Family Health Teams, support staff and managers with a total of 48 participants. In order to reveal the construction of the whole, the data show that "SUS is universal, but quotas are the norm." Bearing in mind its limitations, it is difficult to ensure that SUS is a right for all. Thus, regulation is essential to order, guide, define and optimize the use of resources available for comprehensive care and also guarantee public access to actions and services in a timely and equitable manner. PMID:23338508

  6. [Integral care, a SUS (Brazilian Unified Health System) guideline for the sanitary surveillance].

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Gisele; Reis, Daniela Carla de Souza; da Silva, Luciana Leite Gonçalves

    2010-11-01

    The sanitary surveillance (Visa) performs several practices, on different objects and its actions are guided by principles and guidelines of the SUS. It was done a critical reflection on the interaction conditions of practice in Visa, with a constitutional proposition of the SUS: integral care. The analysis was based on the theory of structuration (Giddens) that considers mobilization of structural resources as dimensions of social interaction, which would justify the legitimacy exercised since the standards. Have been analyzed the following categories: Visa and its insertion within the SUS; the integral care and the Visa; and political impediments. The Visa has been organized by National Health Surveillance Agency. Nowadays it has as sanitary responsibilities, communication with society and health promotion. The proposal of the literature concerning integral care is based on the assistance issue. The organization of the services in the different federative entities is the sense of integral care most adopted by Visa. Political impediments focus on the institutional renewal, on the conflicts of interest arena, on the distance between formulated policies and established practices and gaps concerning work management and the insufficiency of financial support. PMID:21120323

  7. [Evaluation of emergency services of the hospitals from the QualiSUS program].

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Gisele Oliveira; de Oliveira, Sergio Pacheco; de Seta, Marismary Horsth

    2009-01-01

    The aid lent by the emergency services is the object of this paper, which aims to assess the emergency service of the QualiSUS program. The study is descriptive with the application of a questionnaire to the responsible of the emergency services in eight hospitals. The emergency services were always overcrowded, and the causes pointed were the low resolutivity of basic attention and the precariousness of the hospital network. Contributing to this there is the primary care decreased resolutivity and the precariousness of the hospital network. Six hospitals do not manage the emergency service. The entrance system is not organized and only three hospitals work with risk classification. All of them refer difficulties with internal and external services. The hardest pathologies to refer to other services are the chronicles, neurological and social. The professionals do not have specific qualification and the precariousness job contracts do not contribute neither for the professional's fixation nor for his qualification. Clinical protocols are used by one service. It was noticed the influence of the QualiSUS in the hospitals. The failure of the health services network interferes with the emergency patient's profile. The investment of the QualiSUS cannot be restrained to the hospital. Emergency should be more integrated to the system and hospital. The qualification of human resources is indispensable as well as the bed's regulation. PMID:19851601

  8. Surface modification of the patterned Al6061/SUS304 metal plates using the large electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Min; Kim, Jisu; Park, Sung Soo; Park, Hyung Wook; Ki, Hyungson

    2012-11-01

    Polishing is a finishing process used to improve surface integrity by reducing surface roughness and residual stress caused by other machining processes. The recently developed electron beam polishing method was used in this study to improve surface quality. In this process, an electron beam with a maximum diameter of 60 mm was applied for a few microseconds to melt and evaporate a metal surface. Al6061 and SUS304 metal plates were prepared with different geometric patterns and subjected to electron beam polishing. The surface roughness of the patterned SUS304 metal plate was significantly improved. However, the surface roughness of the patterned Al6061 metal plate became worse. Although the surface hardness decreased by approximately 10% on the re-solidified layers on both types of plates, the contact angle increased due to changes in surface morphology. The microstructure variation after the electron beam irradiation was also examined and compared with the thickness prediction of the re-solidified layer for Al6061 and SUS304 metal plates.

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of RcSUS1, a cytosolic sucrose synthase phosphorylated in vivo at serine 11 in developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Fedosejevs, Eric T; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M; Mullen, Robert T; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2014-11-28

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of (32)P(i) from [γ-(32)P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes. PMID:25313400

  10. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of RcSUS1, a Cytosolic Sucrose Synthase Phosphorylated in Vivo at Serine 11 in Developing Castor Oil Seeds*

    PubMed Central

    Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Ying, Sheng; Park, Joonho; Anderson, Erin M.; Mullen, Robert T.; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) catalyzes the UDP-dependent cleavage of sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose and has become an important target for improving seed crops via metabolic engineering. A UDP-specific SUS homotetramer composed of 93-kDa subunits was purified to homogeneity from the triacylglyceride-rich endosperm of developing castor oil seeds (COS) and identified as RcSUS1 by mass spectrometry. RcSUS1 transcripts peaked during early development, whereas levels of SUS activity and immunoreactive 93-kDa SUS polypeptides maximized during mid-development, becoming undetectable in fully mature COS. The cytosolic location of the enzyme was established following transient expression of RcSUS1-enhanced YFP in tobacco suspension cells and fluorescence microscopy. Immunological studies using anti-phosphosite-specific antibodies revealed dynamic and high stoichiometric in vivo phosphorylation of RcSUS1 at its conserved Ser-11 residue during COS development. Incorporation of 32Pi from [γ-32P]ATP into a RcSUS1 peptide substrate, alongside a phosphosite-specific ELISA assay, established the presence of calcium-dependent RcSUS1 (Ser-11) kinase activity. Approximately 10% of RcSUS1 was associated with COS microsomal membranes and was hypophosphorylated relative to the remainder of RcSUS1 that partitioned into the soluble, cytosolic fraction. Elimination of sucrose supply caused by excision of intact pods of developing COS abolished RcSUS1 transcription while triggering the progressive dephosphorylation of RcSUS1 in planta. This did not influence the proportion of RcSUS1 associated with microsomal membranes but instead correlated with a subsequent marked decline in SUS activity and immunoreactive RcSUS1 polypeptides. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 appears to protect RcSUS1 from proteolysis, rather than influence its kinetic properties or partitioning between the soluble cytosol and microsomal membranes. PMID:25313400

  11. Drosophila suppressor of sable protein [Su(s)] promotes degradation of aberrant and transposon-derived RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yung-Shu; Brewer-Jensen, Paul; Bai, Wen-Li; Hunter, Cedric; Wilson, Carrie B; Bass, Sarah; Abernethy, John; Wing, James S; Searles, Lillie L

    2009-10-01

    RNA-binding proteins act at various stages of gene expression to regulate and fine-tune patterns of mRNA accumulation. One protein in this class is Drosophila Su(s), a nuclear protein that has been previously shown to inhibit the accumulation of mutant transcripts by an unknown mechanism. Here, we have identified several additional RNAs that are downregulated by Su(s). These Su(s) targets include cryptic wild-type transcripts from the developmentally regulated Sgs4 and ng1 genes, noncoding RNAs derived from tandemly repeated alphabeta/alphagamma elements within an Hsp70 locus, and aberrant transcripts induced by Hsp70 promoter transgenes inserted at ectopic sites. We used the alphabeta RNAs to investigate the mechanism of Su(s) function and obtained evidence that these transcripts are degraded by the nuclear exosome and that Su(s) promotes this process. Furthermore, we showed that the RNA binding domains of Su(s) are important for this effect and mapped the sequences involved to a 267-nucleotide region of an alphabeta element. Taken together, these results suggest that Su(s) binds to certain nascent transcripts and stimulates their degradation by the nuclear exosome. PMID:19687295

  12. Sus1 is recruited to coding regions and functions during transcription elongation in association with SAGA and TREX2

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-García, Pau; Govind, Chhabi K.; Queralt, Ethel; Cuenca-Bono, Bernardo; Llopis, Ana; Chavez, Sebastián; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2008-01-01

    Gene transcription, RNA biogenesis, and mRNA transport constitute a complicated process essential for all eukaryotic cells. The transcription/export factor Sus1 plays a key role in coupling transcription activation with mRNA export, and it resides in both the SAGA and TREX2 complexes. Moreover, Sus1 is responsible for GAL1 gene gating at the nuclear periphery, which is important for its transcriptional status. Here, we show that Sus1 is required during transcription elongation and is associated with the elongating form of RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) phosphorylated on Ser5 and Ser2 of the C-terminal domain (CTD). In addition, Sus1 copurifies with the essential mRNA export factors Yra1 and Mex67, which bind to the mRNA cotranscriptionally. Consistently, ChIP analysis reveals that Sus1 is present at coding regions dependent on transcription in a manner stimulated by Kin28-dependent CTD phosphorylation. Strikingly, eliminating the TREX2 component Sac3 or the SAGA subunit Ubp8 partially impairs Sus1 targeting to coding sequences and upstream activating sequences (UAS). We found, unexpectedly, that Sgf73 is necessary for association of Sus1 with both SAGA and TREX2, and that its absence dramatically reduces Sus1 occupancy of UAS and ORF sequences. Our results reveal that Sus1 plays a key role in coordinating gene transcription and mRNA export by working at the interface between the SAGA and TREX2 complexes during transcription elongation. PMID:18923079

  13. [Methodology for construction of a panel of indicators for monitoring and evaluation of unified health system (SUS) management].

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi; Felisberto, Eronildo; Alves, Cinthia Kalyne de Almeida; Drumond Junior, Marcos; Bezerra, Luciana Caroline de Albuquerque; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino; Miranda, Alcides Silva de

    2012-04-01

    This study sought to develop methodology for the construction of a Panel for the Monitoring and Evaluation of Management of the Unified Health System (SUS). The participative process used in addition to the systematization conducted made it possible to identify an effective strategy for building management tools in partnership with researchers, academic institutions and managers of the SUS. The final systematization of the Panel selected indicators for the management of the SUS in terms of Demand, Inputs, Processes, Outputs and Outcomes in order to provide a simple, versatile and useful tool for evaluation at any level of management and more transparent and easier communication with all stakeholders in decision-making. Taking the management of the SUS as the scope of these processes and practices in all normative aspects enabled dialog between systemic theories and those which consider the centrality of the social actor in the decision-making process. PMID:22534839

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in South Korean wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooseog; Yoon, Hachung; Kim, Yong Kwan; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Kim, Do-Soon; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite and a commonly encountered pathogen in humans and animals. The wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus) is considered a good indicator when monitoring environmental contamination by T. gondii. We surveyed the prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in wild boars from South Korea. Blood samples were collected from 426 wild boars captured in eight provinces of South Korea during the hunting seasons in 2008-12. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in samples from 152 of boars, indicating an overall antibody prevalence of 36% (95% confidence interval=31-40%). PMID:25014905

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to porcine parvovirus in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Roić, Besi; Cajavec, Stanislav; Toncić, Josip; Madić, Josip; Lipej, Zoran; Jemersić, Lorena; Lojkić, Mirko; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko; Sostarić, Branko

    2005-10-01

    Serologic evidence of exposure to porcine parvovirus (PPV) in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Croatia was investigated. Serum samples from 219 wild boars captured during 2003 from 12 different locations in the Republic of Croatia were tested by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antibodies to PPV were detected in 91 (41.6%) of tested samples and positive results were detected in wild boar from all sample locations. Adults had a significantly higher prevalence (70%) than juveniles (31%; P < 0.01). Our results indicate that wild boar populations throughout the Republic of Croatia are exposed to PPV. PMID:16456171

  16. The Use of Genomics in Conservation Management of the Endangered Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons).

    PubMed

    Nuijten, Rascha J M; Bosse, Mirte; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Madsen, Ole; Schaftenaar, Willem; Ryder, Oliver A; Groenen, Martien A M; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The list of threatened and endangered species is growing rapidly, due to various anthropogenic causes. Many endangered species are present in captivity and actively managed in breeding programs in which often little is known about the founder individuals. Recent developments in genetic research techniques have made it possible to sequence and study whole genomes. In this study we used the critically endangered Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) as a case study to test the use of genomic information as a tool in conservation management. Two captive populations of S. cebifrons exist, which originated from two different Philippine islands. We found some evidence for a recent split between the two island populations; however all individuals that were sequenced show a similar demographic history. Evidence for both past and recent inbreeding indicated that the founders were at least to some extent related. Together with this, the low level of nucleotide diversity compared to other Sus species potentially poses a threat to the viability of the captive populations. In conclusion, genomic techniques answered some important questions about this critically endangered mammal and can be a valuable toolset to inform future conservation management in other species as well. PMID:27069913

  17. [Speech-language pathology formation in the city of Salvador and the consolidation of SUS].

    PubMed

    Lemos, Marcio; Bazzo, Leda Maria Fonseca

    2010-08-01

    The Human Resources in Health (HRH) academic field is recognized as a critical area, which is part of the reorientation process in the health sector. The elaboration of the Unified Health System (SUS) represents challenges to the academic field process, especially regarding new careers such as speech-language pathology. This is related with the lack of awareness regarding collective health and the past history that strengthened the public health policies in Brazil. Yet, the powerful influence of the service model to the spontaneous demand and reabilitation therapy plays another key role in the aspect. The aim was to analyze the academic field of the speech-language pathology profile in the city of Salvador, Bahia State. Documental analysis and coordinator interviews were used to investigate how the public area is characterized in 3 modules. It was noticed little adhesion of the upper level institutions to the legislation of the field; lack of contact between graduating students and collective health, and a teaching-service disconnection. The graduation of the speech therapist was shown incipient regarding SUS's consolidation. Identifying challenges and opportunities of changes in HRH formation in upper level institutions may lead to better levels of aid to the population, quality of education and expansion of theoretical and practical models of knowledge. PMID:20802888

  18. Comparison of two codon optimization strategies enhancing recombinant Sus scrofa lysozyme production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Cai, G; Wu, D; Lu, J

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme has played an important role in animal feed additive industry, food additive industry and biological engineering. For improving expression efficiency of recombinant lysozyme from Sus scrofa, two genes respectively designed by the most used codon optimization strategies, "one amino acid one codon" and "codon randomization", were synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris X—33. At shaking flask level, Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL) under two conditions had a highest activity of 153.33±10.41 and 538.33±15.18 U/mL after a 5 days induction of 1% methanol, with secreted protein concentration 80.03±1.94 and 239.60±4.16 mg/L, respectively. Compared with the original SSL gene, the expression of optimized SSL gene by the second strategy showed a 2.6 fold higher level, while the first method had no obvious improvement in production. In total secreted protein, the proportions of recombinant SSL encoded by the original gene, first method optimized gene and the second—strategy optimized one were 75.06±0.25%, 74.56±0.14% and 79.00±0.14%, respectively, with the same molecular weight about 18 kDa, optimum acidity pH 6.0 and optimum temperature 35degC. PMID:26025401

  19. The Use of Genomics in Conservation Management of the Endangered Visayan Warty Pig (Sus cebifrons)

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Mirte; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Madsen, Ole; Schaftenaar, Willem; Ryder, Oliver A.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The list of threatened and endangered species is growing rapidly, due to various anthropogenic causes. Many endangered species are present in captivity and actively managed in breeding programs in which often little is known about the founder individuals. Recent developments in genetic research techniques have made it possible to sequence and study whole genomes. In this study we used the critically endangered Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons) as a case study to test the use of genomic information as a tool in conservation management. Two captive populations of S. cebifrons exist, which originated from two different Philippine islands. We found some evidence for a recent split between the two island populations; however all individuals that were sequenced show a similar demographic history. Evidence for both past and recent inbreeding indicated that the founders were at least to some extent related. Together with this, the low level of nucleotide diversity compared to other Sus species potentially poses a threat to the viability of the captive populations. In conclusion, genomic techniques answered some important questions about this critically endangered mammal and can be a valuable toolset to inform future conservation management in other species as well. PMID:27069913

  20. Cell proliferation in the seminiferous and epididymal epithelia of Sus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Mañas, C M; Beltrán-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Seco-Rovira, V; Pinart, E; Briz, M D; Bonet, S; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2014-03-15

    It is important to understand the proliferative activity of the different structures of the male reproductive apparatus in livestock species, such as Sus domesticus, to ensure reproductive efficiency. The main aims of this study were (a) to evaluate the proliferative activity of the spermatogonia in the different stages of the seminiferous cycle and (b) to study the cell proliferation in the epididymal epithelium in each region, identifying the different cells involved. For this, the testes and epididymis of three healthy, sexually mature Sus domesticus boars were used. The organs were processed for light microscopy, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The cells immunostaining positively and negatively for proliferating cell nuclear antigen were counted and several parameters and indexes were calculated to evaluate the proliferation in both epithelia, taking into account the stage of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, and, in the case of the epididymal epithelium, the different regions and cells are the same. Finally, a contrast analysis of equality between pairs of means was carried out followed by a least significant differences test, in which differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. In the seminiferous epithelium, the greatest total number of spermatogonia and proliferating spermatogonia was observed in the postmeiotic stages (mainly VII and VIII). The proliferation index of the spermatogonia increased from the meiotic to postmeiotic stages. As regards the epididymal epithelium, the total proliferation index was higher in the caput. In each region, the clear and principal cells showed the highest proliferation index with respect to the total number of cells counted, whereas the proliferation index of each cell with respect to the same type was higher in the clear cells, followed by the narrow and principal cells. In conclusion, the proliferative activity of spermatogonia in the seminiferous epithelium of Sus domesticus is stage-dependent, and mainly occurs in the postmeiotic stages. In the epididymal epithelium, proliferative activity takes place in several cell types and is dependent on the anatomical region of the epididymis. We think that these results may be of importance for understanding the pathologic or reproductive processes in which cell proliferation is involved in the male reproductive system. PMID:24418529

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of bearded pig, Sus barbatus, and comparative mitochondrial genomics of Cetartiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-Chuan; Xu, Bao-Hua; Liu, Hong-Chen

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of bearded pig, Sus barbatus, with the total length of 16,480 bp, is determined for the first time. This mitogenome harbors 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and one control region (D-loop). The overall base composition is A (34.80%), C (26.07%), G (13.12%), and T (26.01%), so the slight A-T bias (60.81%) was detected. Most of the genes are distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. To obtain the phylogenetic relationship of the Cetartiodactyla, 11 mitochondrial genomes were used for phylogenetic analysis. The mitochondrial genome of S. barbatus presented here will contribute to a better understanding of the population genetics. PMID:26104157

  2. Structure of BT_3984, a member of the SusD/RagB family of nutrient-binding molecules

    PubMed Central

    Bakolitsa, Constantina; Xu, Qingping; Rife, Christopher L.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron protein BT_3984 was determined to a resolution of 1.7 Å and was the first structure to be determined from the extensive SusD family of polysaccharide-binding proteins. SusD is an essential component of the sus operon that defines the paradigm for glycan utilization in dominant members of the human gut microbiota. Structural analysis of BT_3984 revealed an N-terminal region containing several tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), while the signature C-terminal region is less structured and contains extensive loop regions. Sequence and structure analysis of BT_3984 suggests the presence of binding interfaces for other proteins from the polysaccharide-utilization complex. PMID:20944222

  3. An Analysis of Recent Enrollment, Discipline and Graduation Trends among Females and Underrepresented Minorities at SUS Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore; Borman, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    Increased numbers of minority students as well as increased numbers of Florida high school graduates entering higher education in Florida have influenced Florida SUS [State University System] enrollment and graduation characteristics. This study of 510,952 undergraduate students shows that between the years 1996 and 2003, the number of entering…

  4. Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens.

    PubMed

    Baroch, John A; Gagnon, Carl A; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed in the United States. In 2011 and 2012, serum samples and tonsils were recovered from 162 and 37 feral swine, respectively, in the US to evaluate exposure to important swine endemic pathogens. Antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were found in 2.5% and 25.3% of tested sera, respectively. Positive serological reactions against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have been detected in 19.7% and 69.7% of animals. More than 15% of animals presented antibodies against these 2 pathogens simultaneously. Most animals were also seropositive for Lawsonia intracellularis. Feral swine can also be involved in transmission of zoonotic agents. Almost 50% of animals possessed antibodies against Salmonella. In addition, 94.4% of animals were carriers of Streptococcus suis in their tonsils. In conclusion, feral swine may be considered as a potential reservoir for different endemic diseases in domestic pigs, as well as for important zoonotic agents. PMID:25673913

  5. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    PubMed

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between the treatments. The measured ecological diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, HꞋ; Simpson, D; and richness, S) of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene profiles also revealed differences between the treatments, with bacterial and fungal community dominance recorded in the presence of S. scrofa domesticus and grass trimming decomposition, respectively. In contrast, no statistically significant difference in evenness (p>0.05) was observed between the treatments. PMID:26654074

  6. [The contemporary relationship between work, qualification and recognition: repercussions on the Unified Health System (SUS) workers].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Monica; Chinelli, Filippina

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between work, qualification and recognition as it occurs in the field of health today, specifically considering the employability of technical workers in the Unified Health System, the way they perceive the employment relationship with respect to their self-esteem regarding their subjectivities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the subject is treated in the wider context of ongoing changes in the workplace, which are associated with intensification, flexibility and precariousness of labor relations, with repercussions on the specific aspects mentioned. An attempt is made to establish a critical dialogue with the analytical aspect that emphasizes daily work as a privileged forum for overcoming the contradictions that characterize the field of work and education in the SUS nowadays. The text emphasizes the following issues: analysis of the relationship between work and education from the perspective of the concept of skill; the broadening of the meaning of health work; and a critical evaluation of policies that end up making the workers liable for the quality of services rendered. PMID:23752526

  7. A Novel Bonding Method of Pure Aluminum and SUS304 Stainless Steel Using Barrel Nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jung Hyun; Okumiya, Masahiro; Tsunekawa, Yoshiki; Yun, Ky Youl; Kim, Sang Gweon; Yoshida, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    A great deal of research is being carried out on welding or bonding methods between iron and aluminum. However, it is not so easy to make Fe-Al bonding materials with both high strength and light weight. Recently, a new nitriding process has been proposed to produce aluminum nitride on an aluminum surface using a barrel. This study proposes a new concept in the production of a multilayer which has an AlN and Fe-Al intermetallic compound layer between the aluminum and steel using a barrel nitriding process. The bonding process was carried out from 893 K to 913 K (620 °C to 640 °C) for 18, 25.2, and 36 ks with Al2O3 powder and Al-Mg alloy powder. After the process, an aluminum nitride (AlN) layer and a Fe-Al intermetallic compound (Fe2Al5.4) layer were formed at the interface between the pure aluminum and SUS304 austenitic stainless steel. The thicknesses of the AlN layer and the intermetallic compound layer increased with increasing treatment temperature and time. The maximum hardnesses of the AlN layer and Fe2Al5.4 layers were found to be 377HV and 910HV, respectively, after barrel nitriding at 893 K (620 °C) for 18 ks.

  8. The effects of continuous application of the TASER X26 waveform on Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David M; Murray, W Bosseau; Kennett, Mary J; Hughes, Edward L; Werner, Jacob R

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated and evaluated the safety margins of the continuous long duration (up to 30 min) effect of the TASER X26 waveform, using a Sus scrofa model. Long duration continuous stimulus has not been evaluated on humans or human surrogates prior to this study. Swine were used as models due to similarities with humans in their skin and cardiovascular systems. Very long duration was used to determine both exposure dose and possible adverse physiological effects of dose. The trial began with an application of 10 min, and subsequent animals received increasing exposure time up to a survived maximum duration of 30 min. At the onset of this work, it was hypothesized that there would be a time limit after which most animals would not survive consistent with increased dose response. However, this hypothesis was not supported by the experimental results. All animals (10 of 10) survived up to 3 min. Seven of the 10 animals survived up to a 10-min exposure and 3 of 5 animals with a 30-min target exposure survived the full exposure. Surviving animals were recovered and observed for 24 h, with no postrecovery deaths. This suggests that swine (based on physiology) will not experience a fatal event when exposed to the TASER X26 for a continuous 3 min. Conclusions regarding longer duration (10-30 min) are not as certain due to the small sample sizes at these time intervals. PMID:23489132

  9. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Juema pig Sus scrofa (Suina: Suidae) from southern Gansu.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Yan; Tian, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Lei-Lei; Pan, Hong-Chun

    2016-09-01

    Juema pig is a kind of rare and special pig which is well adapted to high altitude, cold climate and harsh natural environment. The complete mitochondrial genome of Juema pig Sus scrofa is a circular molecule of 16 532 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 60.7% (T: 26.2%; C: 26.0%; A: 34.5%; G: 13.3%). ND4L gene begins with GTG as start codon, ND2, ND3, and ND5 genes begin with ATA as a start codon, and other nine protein-coding genes start with ATG. Cyt b gene is terminated with AGA as stop codon, ND1 and ND2 genes are terminated with TAG as stop codon, COII, COIII, ND3, and ND4 end with T, while ATP6, ATP8, COI, ND4L, ND5, and ND6 end with TAA. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships from neighbor-joining analyses based on the 13 concatenated PCGs indicated (Tylopoda (Suina (Ruminantia (Hippopotamidae, Cetacea)))). PMID:26359921

  11. Light-absorbing Aerosol Properties in the Kathmandu Valley during SusKat-ABC Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kim, J.; Cho, C.; Jung, J.

    2013-12-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), are major contributors to the atmospheric heating and the reduction of solar radiation reaching at the earth's surface. In this study, we investigate light-absorption and scattering properties of aerosols (i.e., BC mass concentration, aerosol solar-absorption/scattering efficiency) in the Kathmandu valley during Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu valley (SusKat)-ABC campaign, from December 2012 to February 2013. Kathmandu City is among the most polluted cities in the world. However, there are only few past studies that provide basic understanding of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, which is not sufficient for designing effective mitigation measures (e.g., technological, financial, regulatory, legal and political measures, planning strategies). A distinct diurnal variation of BC mass concentration with two high peaks observed during wintertime dry monsoon period. BC mass concentration was found to be maximum around 09:00 and 20:00 local standard time (LST). Increased cars and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to high BC concentration. Low BC concentrations during the daytime can be explain by reduced vehicular movement and cooking activities. Also, the developmements of the boundary layer height and mountain-valley winds in the Kathmandu Valley paly a crucial role in the temproal variation of BC mass concentrations. Detailed radiative effects of light-absorbing aerosols will be presented.

  12. Shigella infection as observed in the experimentally inoculated domestic pig, Sus scrofa domestica.

    PubMed

    Maurelli, A T; Routh, P R; Dillman, R C; Ficken, M D; Weinstock, D M; Almond, G W; Orndorff, P E

    1998-10-01

    The domestic pig, Sus scrofa domestica, was investigated as a potential animal model for shigellosis. We examined the effects of pig age, pig breed and antibiotic pretreatment upon Shigella infection. Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella flexneri (both virulent and avirulent strains) were utilized. Our results indicated that young (4-week-old), conventionally re ared, domestic pigs were routinely, but briefly, colonized (average=3.5+/-2.5 days) following oral or gavage administration ofS. flexneri, as determined by direct rectal cultures. The duration of S. dysenteriae colonization was significantly shorter. Inoculation of younger (2 days) or older (9 weeks) pigs with S. flexneri had no significant effect on infection duration. Similarly, infection of 4-week-old pigs with virulent and avirulent strains of S. flexneri had no effect upon the duration of infection, nor did the use of a swine-passaged S. flexneri isolate. Marked clinical, histopathological (gross and microscopic) and immunoIhistopathological signs of disease were absent in all infections. However, in instances where microscopic histopathological evidence was used to correctly identify infected pigs, tonsillar lesions were the consistently noted criteria. The tonsils are believed to be an important portal of entry for Salmonella choleraesuis, another member of the Enterobacteriaceae and a prevalent pig pathogen. Taken altogether, our results indicate that the domestic pig is unsuitable as a model for shigellosis. PMID:9817822

  13. Analysis of Muscle and Ovary Transcriptome of Sus scrofa: Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Qinghua; Fang, Meixia; Jia, Xinzheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoning; He, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiquan

    2011-01-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa) is an important organism for both agricultural and medical purpose. This study aims to investigate the S. scrofa transcriptome by the use of Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained a total of 558 743 and 528 260 reads for the back-leg muscle and ovary tissue each. The overall 1 087 003 reads give rise to 421 767 341 bp total residues averaging 388 bp per read. The de novo assemblies yielded 11 057 contigs and 60 270 singletons for the back-leg muscle, 12 204 contigs and 70 192 singletons for the ovary and 18 938 contigs and 102 361 singletons for combined tissues. The overall GC content of S. scrofa transcriptome is 42.3% for assembled contigs. Alternative splicing was found within 4394 contigs, giving rise to 1267 isogroups or genes. A total of 56 589 transcripts are involved in molecular function (40 916), biological process (38 563), cellular component (35 787) by further gene ontology analyses. Comparison analyses showed that 336 and 553 genes had significant higher expression in the back-leg muscle and ovary each. In addition, we obtained a total of 24 214 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 11 928 simple sequence repeats. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetic makeup of S. scrofa transcriptome and provide useful information for functional genomic research in future. PMID:21729922

  14. Prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Portugal: risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Faria, M C; Nunes-Pereira, M; Faria, A S; Veloso, O; Vieira, M L; Paiva-Cardoso, Md N

    2015-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by infection with pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. The wild boar (Sus scrofa), an important hunting species in Europe, seems to play a significant role in the epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis. A total of 101 serum samples from wild boar hunted in Northern Portugal were analysed for leptospiral antibodies detection by microscopic agglutination test. Sera were collected during hunting seasons (2011-2013) and tested with 17 different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Antibodies against nine serovars were detected in 66 (65·4%) of these sera. Serovars Tarassovi and Altodouro exhibited the highest seroreactivity rates (23·8% and 16·8%, respectively), followed by Autumnalis (7·9%) and Bratislava (6·9%). Age and district of origin were found to be risk factors for the presence of leptospiral antibodies in contrast to gender. From a One Health perspective, this study revealed that wild boar should be considered as a potential source of leptospirosis dissemination for humans and animal species (domestic and wild) in shared environments, particularly in the Trás-os-Montes region. PMID:25519057

  15. Laser desensitization treatment for inside surface of SUS304 stainless steel pipe welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Seiichiro; Kono, Wataru; Kawano, Syohei; Sumiya, Rie

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technology for preventing the occurrence of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) by irradiating a high power YAG laser beam onto the sensitized Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) surface of SUS304 stainless steel. By irradiating a laser beam of the appropriate power density, a laser de-sensitization heat treatment (LDT) process was realized that formed both a molten layer of approximately 0.2 mm depth and a solution heat treated layer. The results of a Creviced Bent Beam (CBB) test to evaluate IGSCC showed that no cracks had appeared on the surface of the LDT parts. Also, after LDT was applied at a width of 40 mm in the vicinity of welding joints in the inside surface of pipes (thickness: 8 mm), approximately 250 MPa of tensile stress was measured as a residual stress on this LDT- processed surface. On the other hand, the tensile stress on the outside surface of these pipes decreased to the compression stress.

  16. Establishing a DNA identification system for pigs (Sus scrofa) using a multiplex STR amplification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Lee, James Chun-I; Hsiao, Chung-Ting; Lin, Der-Yuh; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin

    2014-03-01

    In this study we establish a novel STR multiplex using 13 tetra-nucleotide STRs and the amelogenin marker for the forensic identification of pigs. The genotypes and allele frequency were generated based on 341 samples from 11 pig breeds in Taiwan. Genetic variation was tested including Na, Ne, Ho, He, F-statistics, PIC, Pm and PE for each STR locus and for each breed. Based upon the 341 samples in this study, the CPm and CPEtrio of the 13 STR loci were 1.31 E-11 and 0.9996 respectively. The CPItrio based on ten family sets ranged from 4.012 E+4 to 4.332 E+6 for paternity test. Validation of the multiplex included: determining the sensitivity of the test, where reproducible full DNA profiles were obtained using an initial template of between 0.25 and 1 ng; a comprehensive range of tissue types generated the same genotype; and the specificity was confirmed as no DNA full profile was generated for any species other than Sus scrofa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the European domestic breeds clustered separately from the Asian breeds, as expected, and their hybrids formed unique clades respectively between the clades of Asian and European breeds. Eleven test samples, acting as unknown samples, matched all expected breeds. We demonstrate that this novel 14-plex PCR system is valuable in pig individualization, parentage testing, breed assessment, phylogenetic study and forensic applications. PMID:24528574

  17. Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Juricová, Z; Hubálek, Z

    2009-10-01

    Sera of 642 wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot by hunters in ten administrative regions of the Czech Republic during 1995-2000, were tested by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) for the presence of anti-Borrelia IgG. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) were detected in serum samples from all 10 regions, and overall seroprevalence rate was 12.8%. Titres of antibodies ranged from 1:80 to 1:640. Borrelia antibodies were most frequent in the animals from three administrative regions of the Czech Republic: Moravskoslezsky (25.0%), Pardubicky (25.0%) and Královehradecky (24.1%), followed by the regions Plzen sky (16.7%), Olomoucky (13.3%), Jihomoravsky (12.8%), Vysoc ina (11.1%), Jihoc esky (11.1%), Zlínsky (10.3%), and Liberecky (8.9%). Seasonal seroprevalence rate increased in March and April, the peak was in May. The results suggest frequent exposure of wild boars to ixodid ticks infected with Bb, predominantly in rural and forested regions. The study also reviews the importance of wild boar in Lyme borreliosis (LB) ecology. Wild boar serology may provide another means of surveillance of endemic areas of LB. PMID:18973452

  18. Immobilization of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa) with Telazol and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Gabor, T M; Hellgren, E C; Silvy, N J

    1997-01-01

    A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (100 mg of Telazol and 100 mg of xylazine per ml) was used to immobilize wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa); mean (+/-SD) intramuscular dosage rate was 4.73 +/- 0.86 mg/kg and 4.35 +/- 0.68 mg/kg for peccaries (n = 107) and hogs (n = 49), respectively. Mean (+/-SD) induction time (time from injection until complete immobilization) was 4.6 +/- 2.5 minutes for collared peccaries and 4.4 +/- 1.9 for hogs. Peccaries became conscious at 64 +/- 29 minutes and first stood at 92 +/- 33 minutes after initial injection. Hogs became conscious at 54 +/- 26 minutes and first stood at 78 +/- 38 minutes after initial injection. A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine provided an effective and safe method to immobilize both species and provided adequate analgesia and anesthesia for short surgical procedures. PMID:9027707

  19. [The feral pig (Sus scrofa, Suidae) in Cocos Island, Costa Rica: Rootings, soil alterations and erosion].

    PubMed

    Sierra, C

    2001-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are of the most damaging exotic vertebrates, specially on oceanic island native communities. Feral pigs inhabit Cocos Island since 1793 and there are around 400-500 individuals. In order to quantify the impacts of the feral pigs at Cocos Island. I calculated the effect of the rooting activity and its influence on the natural erosion. During one year I walked, monthly, 15 km on trails estimating rooted area by transect and rooting recurrence. During eight months I compared erosion rates with and without rootings. I estimated the annual rooting rate between 10 and 20% of the total island surface. The rooted area was the only measured variable which correlated with the soil erosion rate. The erosion rate without rootings was 23.6 kg/ha/year and with rootings was 200.4 kg/ha/year (P < 0.01). The disturbances provoked by the rootings were not scattered homogeneously through the island. The rootings, together with the natural landslides, dominate the soil disturbance pattern at Cocos Island. This study suggests that the presence of feral pigs produces more erosion than the one that would naturally occur without feral pigs at Cocos Island. PMID:12189797

  20. Genome sequencing reveals fine scale diversification and reticulation history during speciation in Sus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating the process of speciation requires an in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the species in question. Studies that rely upon a limited number of genetic loci do not always reveal actual evolutionary history, and often confuse inferences related to phylogeny and speciation. Whole-genome data, however, can overcome this issue by providing a nearly unbiased window into the patterns and processes of speciation. In order to reveal the complexity of the speciation process, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 10 wild pigs, representing morphologically or geographically well-defined species and subspecies of the genus Sus from insular and mainland Southeast Asia, and one African common warthog. Results Our data highlight the importance of past cyclical climatic fluctuations in facilitating the dispersal and isolation of populations, thus leading to the diversification of suids in one of the most species-rich regions of the world. Moreover, admixture analyses revealed extensive, intra- and inter-specific gene-flow that explains previous conflicting results obtained from a limited number of loci. We show that these multiple episodes of gene-flow resulted from both natural and human-mediated dispersal. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the importance of past climatic fluctuations and human mediated translocations in driving and complicating the process of speciation in island Southeast Asia. This case study demonstrates that genomics is a powerful tool to decipher the evolutionary history of a genus, and reveals the complexity of the process of speciation. PMID:24070215

  1. Technological incorporation in the Unified Health System (SUS): the problem and ensuing challenges.

    PubMed

    Guimares, Reinaldo

    2014-12-01

    Technological incorporation is a central topic among the concerns regarding health care systems. This paper discusses the role of technology dynamics in health systems' cost increases, suggesting two different approaches - a 'pragmatic-economic' approach and a 'rational-defensive' approach - as guidelines to explain the reasons for this centrality. The paper shows how judicialization results from this situation and discusses two doctrinal views - 'reserve for contingencies' and 'rational use' - as the views that usually guide the debates in the courts and among health policy makers. The paper suggests that the attitude currently prevalent in the Brazilian judiciary system can prejudice the principle of equity by improperly evaluating the principle of integrality. We present a brief genealogy of HTA and a timeline of HTA in Brazil. We also discuss the relevance and the impact of Law 12401/2011, which regulates the principle of integrality in the Unified Health System (SUS) and propose three challenges to the development of HTA actions aiming at technology incorporation in Brazil. Finally, we discuss the entry and the role of private health insurance companies, emphasizing changes in the scenario and in their position. PMID:25388198

  2. Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nuno; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Källenius, Gunilla; Svenson, Stefan B; Almeida, Virgílio

    2009-10-01

    Tuberculosis has been diagnosed in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in several European countries during the last decade; however, almost no information has been reported to date for Portugal. This study aimed to investigate tuberculosis in wild boar in Portugal through characterization of Mycobacterium bovis infection and identification of disease risk factors. Tissue samples were obtained from hunted wild boar during the 2005 and 2006 hunting seasons. Samples were inspected for gross lesions and processed for culture. Acid-fast bacterial isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction and spoligotyping. Associations between tuberculosis in wild boar and several variables linked to wild ungulate diversity and relative abundance, livestock density, and cattle tuberculosis incidence were investigated. Mycobacterium bovis isolates were identified in 18 of 162 wild boars from three of eight study areas. Infection rates ranged from 6% (95% confidence interval [CI(P95%)] = 1-21%) to 46% (CI(P95%) = 27-67%) in the three infected study areas; females in our sample were at greater risk of being infected than males (odds ratio = 4.33; CI(P95%) = 3.31-5.68). Spoligotyping grouped the M. bovis isolates in three clusters and one isolate was a novel spoligotype not previously reported in international databases. Detection of M. bovis was most consistently associated with variables linked to wild ungulate relative abundance, suggesting that these species, particularly the wild boar, might act as maintenance hosts in Portugal. PMID:19901381

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan. PMID:26116524

  4. The morphology of the inner ear from the domestic pig (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Lovell, J M; Harper, G M

    2007-12-01

    The morphology of the hair cells of the inner ear end organs from the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) have been studied using a combination of Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM), revealing hair cells from the cochlea and vestibule using a novel surgical and technical approach. This is the first time that the inner ear hair cells from S. scrofa have been studied, thus providing useful anatomical information on the morphology of the hair cells from the cochlea, saccule and utricle from a large mammal. Anatomical information in relation to the morphology of the inner ear is of considerable importance, both in the pathological diagnosis of trauma and in the development of cochlea implants and other biotechnological systems associated with the enhancement of hearing. Standard fixation protocols using cardiac perfusion was not employed in this study as this method cannot always be applied, such as the pathological examination of the human ear, or the study of animals protected by endangered species legislation. With the exception of a very few countries, cetaceans cannot be killed for research purposes, yet physiological information on the inner ear from these species is urgently required for ecological assessment reasons. Supporting the use of S. scrofa as a model for cetacean hearing research is that this animal is a member of the order Artiodactyla, which includes both the hippopotamus and cetaceans. Being of a similar size, the pig is an ideal subject for developing protocols and surgical techniques required to investigate both the human and small cetacean auditory systems. PMID:18045329

  5. Rescue of a Porcine Anellovirus (Torque Teno Sus Virus 2) from Cloned Genomic DNA in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yao-Wei; Patterson, Abby R.; Opriessnig, Tanja; Dryman, Barbara A.; Gallei, Andreas; Harrall, Kylie K.; Vaughn, Eric M.; Roof, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Anelloviruses are a group of single-stranded circular DNA viruses infecting humans and other animal species. Animal models combined with reverse genetic systems of anellovirus have not been developed. We report here the construction and initial characterization of full-length DNA clones of a porcine anellovirus, torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV2), in vitro and in vivo. We first demonstrated that five cell lines, including PK-15 cells, are free of TTSuV1 or TTSuV2 contamination, as determined by a real-time PCR and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using anti-TTSuV antibodies. Recombinant plasmids harboring monomeric or tandem-dimerized genomic DNA of TTSuV2 from the United States and Germany were constructed. Circular TTSuV2 genomic DNA with or without introduced genetic markers and tandem-dimerized TTSuV2 plasmids were transfected into PK-15 cells, respectively. Splicing of viral mRNAs was identified in transfected cells. Expression of TTSuV2-specific open reading frame 1 (ORF1) in cell nuclei, especially in nucleoli, was detected by IFA. However, evidence of productive TTSuV2 infection was not observed in 12 different cell lines transfected with the TTSuV2 DNA clones. Transfection with circular DNA from a TTSuV2 deletion mutant did not produce ORF1 protein, suggesting that the observed ORF1 expression is driven by TTSuV2 DNA replication in cells. Pigs inoculated with either the tandem-dimerized clones or circular genomic DNA of U.S. TTSuV2 developed viremia, and the introduced genetic markers were retained in viral DNA recovered from the sera of infected pigs. The availability of an infectious DNA clone of TTSuV2 will facilitate future study of porcine anellovirus pathogenesis and biology. PMID:22491450

  6. Vaccination of pigs reduces Torque teno sus virus viremia during natural infection.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Melsió, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Fernando; Darji, Ayub; Segalés, Joaquim; Cornelissen-Keijsers, Vivian; van den Born, Erwin; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2015-07-01

    Anelloviruses are a group of single-stranded circular DNA viruses infecting several vertebrate species. Four species have been found to infect swine, namely Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) 1a and 1b (TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b; genus Iotatorquevirus), TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b (genus Kappatorquevirus). TTSuV infection in pigs is distributed worldwide, and is characterized by a persistent viremia. However, the real impact, if any, on the pig health is still under debate. In the present study, the impact of pig immunization on TTSuVk2a loads was evaluated. For this, three-week old conventional pigs were primed with DNA vaccines encoding the ORF2 gene and the ORF1-A, ORF1-B, and ORF1-C splicing variants and boosted with purified ORF1-A and ORF2 Escherichia coli proteins, while another group served as unvaccinated control animals, and the viral load dynamics during natural infection was observed. Immunization led to delayed onset of TTSuVk2a infection and at the end of the study when the animals were 15 weeks of age, a number of animals in the immunized group had cleared the TTSuVk2a viremia, which was not the case in the control group. This study demonstrated for the first time that TTSuV viremia can be controlled by a combined DNA and protein immunization, especially apparent two weeks after the first DNA immunization before seroconversion was observed. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms behind this and its impact for pig producers. PMID:26051513

  7. The Effects of Tooth Extraction on Alveolar Bone Biomechanics in the Miniature Pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, K.; Popowics, T.; Rafferty, K.; Herring, S.; Egbert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the role of occlusion in the development of biomechanical properties of alveolar bone in the miniature pig, Sus scrofa. The hypothesis tested was that the tissues supporting an occluding tooth would show greater stiffness and less strain than that of a non-occluding tooth. Design Maxillary teeth opposing the erupting lower first molar (M1) were extracted on one side. Occlusion developed on the contralateral side. Serially administered fluorochrome labels tracked bone mineralization apposition rate (MAR). A terminal experiment measured in vivo buccal alveolar bone strain on occluding and non-occluding sides during mastication. Ex vivo alveolar strains during occlusal loading were subsequently measured using a materials testing machine (MTS/Sintech). Whole specimen stiffness and principal strains were calculated. Results MAR tended to be higher on the extraction side during occlusion. In vivo buccal shear strains were higher in the alveolar bone of the occluding side vs. the extraction side (mean of 471με vs. 281με, respectively; p=0.04); however, ex vivo shear strains showed no significant differences between sides. Stiffness differed between extraction and occlusion side specimens, significantly so in the low load range (344 vs. 668MPa, respectively; p=0.04). Conclusions Greater in vivo shear strains may indicate more forceful chews on the occluding side, whereas the similarity in ex vivo bone strain magnitude suggests a similarity in alveolar bone structure and occlusal load transmission regardless of occlusal status. The big overall change in specimen stiffness that was observed was likely attributable to differences in the periodontal ligament rather than alveolar bone. PMID:20580345

  8. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  9. Characterization of Sus scrofa Small Non-Coding RNAs Present in Both Female and Male Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykiewicz, Dorota; Świercz, Aleksandra; Handschuh, Luiza; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Figlerowicz, Marek; Wrzesinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs) present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30–36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5′ uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent. PMID:25415416

  10. Residual stress in the cylindrical drawing cup of SUS304 stainless steel evaluated by split-ring test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang-Hong; Yuan, Dao-He; Xiang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Gang; Zhou, Yi-Chun

    2015-09-01

    The residual stresses in the wall of a SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup were evaluated by split-ring tests, and the influences of stamping die parameters on the residual stress were investigated. A new theoretical model of a split-ring test was developed to evaluate the residual stress in a ring, which was verified to be reasonable and reliable by numerical simulations with ABAQUS code and by nanoindentation tests. Seven groups of split-ring tests were completed, and the residual stresses were calculated according to the theoretical model. The split-ring test results showed that the circumferential residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup was very large and did not change with the different die corner radius. The circumferential residual stress first increased with the increase of drawing punch-die clearance, then was almost unchanged when the clearance increased greater than blank thickness 1 mm. Thus, a smaller clearance was suggested to be chosen to reduce the residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel drawing cup.

  11. Phylogeny and ancient DNA of Sus provides insights into neolithic expansion in Island Southeast Asia and Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Cucchi, Thomas; Fujita, Masakatsu; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Anderson, Atholl; Rolett, Barry; Spriggs, Matthew; Dolman, Gaynor; Kim, Tae-Hun; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Dieu; Randi, Ettore; Doherty, Moira; Due, Rokus Awe; Bollt, Robert; Djubiantono, Tony; Griffin, Bion; Intoh, Michiko; Keane, Emile; Kirch, Patrick; Li, Kuang-Ti; Morwood, Michael; Pedriña, Lolita M.; Piper, Philip J.; Rabett, Ryan J.; Shooter, Peter; Van den Bergh, Gert; West, Eric; Wickler, Stephen; Yuan, Jing; Cooper, Alan; Dobney, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Human settlement of Oceania marked the culmination of a global colonization process that began when humans first left Africa at least 90,000 years ago. The precise origins and dispersal routes of the Austronesian peoples and the associated Lapita culture remain contentious, and numerous disparate models of dispersal (based primarily on linguistic, genetic, and archeological data) have been proposed. Here, through the use of mtDNA from 781 modern and ancient Sus specimens, we provide evidence for an early human-mediated translocation of the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) to Flores and Timor and two later separate human-mediated dispersals of domestic pig (Sus scrofa) through Island Southeast Asia into Oceania. Of the later dispersal routes, one is unequivocally associated with the Neolithic (Lapita) and later Polynesian migrations and links modern and archeological Javan, Sumatran, Wallacean, and Oceanic pigs with mainland Southeast Asian S. scrofa. Archeological and genetic evidence shows these pigs were certainly introduced to islands east of the Wallace Line, including New Guinea, and that so-called “wild” pigs within this region are most likely feral descendants of domestic pigs introduced by early agriculturalists. The other later pig dispersal links mainland East Asian pigs to western Micronesia, Taiwan, and the Philippines. These results provide important data with which to test current models for human dispersal in the region. PMID:17360400

  12. Residual stress in the cylindrical drawing cup of SUS304 stainless steel evaluated by split-ring test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang-Hong; Yuan, Dao-He; Xiang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Gang; Zhou, Yi-Chun

    2016-02-01

    The residual stresses in the wall of a SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup were evaluated by split-ring tests, and the influences of stamping die parameters on the residual stress were investigated. A new theoretical model of a split-ring test was developed to evaluate the residual stress in a ring, which was verified to be reasonable and reliable by numerical simulations with ABAQUS code and by nanoindentation tests. Seven groups of split-ring tests were completed, and the residual stresses were calculated according to the theoretical model. The split-ring test results showed that the circumferential residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel cylindrical drawing cup was very large and did not change with the different die corner radius. The circumferential residual stress first increased with the increase of drawing punch-die clearance, then was almost unchanged when the clearance increased greater than blank thickness 1 mm. Thus, a smaller clearance was suggested to be chosen to reduce the residual stress in the wall of the SUS304 stainless steel drawing cup.

  13. Unveiling novel interactions of histone chaperone Asf1 linked to TREX-2 factors Sus1 and Thp1

    PubMed Central

    Pamblanco, Mercè; Oliete-Calvo, Paula; García-Oliver, Encar; Luz Valero, M; Sanchez del Pino, Manuel M; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1) is a conserved key eukaryotic histone H3/H4 chaperone that participates in a variety of DNA and chromatin-related processes. These include the assembly and disassembly of histones H3 and H4 from chromatin during replication, transcription, and DNA repair. In addition, Asf1 is required for H3K56 acetylation activity dependent on histone acetyltransferase Rtt109. Thus, Asf1 impacts on many aspects of DNA metabolism. To gain insights into the functional links of Asf1 with other cellular machineries, we employed mass spectrometry coupled to tandem affinity purification (TAP) to investigate novel physical interactions of Asf1. Under different TAP-MS analysis conditions, we describe a new repertoire of Asf1 physical interactions and novel Asf1 post-translational modifications as ubiquitination, methylation and acetylation that open up new ways to regulate Asf1 functions. Asf1 co-purifies with several subunits of the TREX-2, SAGA complexes, and with nucleoporins Nup2, Nup60, and Nup57, which are all involved in transcription coupled to mRNA export in eukaryotes. Reciprocally, Thp1 and Sus1 interact with Asf1. Albeit mRNA export and GAL1 transcription are not affected in asf1Δ a strong genetic interaction exists between ASF1 and SUS1. Notably, supporting a functional link between Asf1 and TREX-2, both Sus1 and Thp1 affect the levels of Asf1-dependent histone H3K56 acetylation and histone H3 and H4 incorporation onto chromatin. Additionally, we provide evidence for a role of Asf1 in histone H2B ubiquitination. This work proposes a functional link between Asf1 and TREX-2 components in histone metabolism at the vicinity of the nuclear pore complex. PMID:24824343

  14. SusG: A Unique Cell-Membrane-Associated [alpha]-Amylase from a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Targets Complex Starch Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-09-21

    SusG is an {alpha}-amylase and part of a large protein complex on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and plays a major role in carbohydrate acquisition by the animal gut microbiota. Presented here, the atomic structure of SusG has an unusual extended, bilobed structure composed of amylase at one end and an unprecedented internal carbohydrate-binding motif at the other. Structural studies further demonstrate that the carbohydrate-binding motif binds maltooligosaccharide distal to, and on the opposite side of, the amylase catalytic site. SusG has an additional starch-binding site on the amylase domain immediately adjacent to the active cleft. Mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that these two additional starch-binding sites appear to play a role in catabolism of insoluble starch. However, elimination of these sites has only a limited effect, suggesting that they may have a more important role in product exchange with other Sus components.

  15. New Middle Miocene Bryozoa from Gârbova de Sus (Romania) and their relationship to the sedimentary environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zágoršek, Kamil; Filipescu, Sorin; Holcová, Katarína

    2010-12-01

    The section of Gârbova de Sus contains diverse fossil groups and rich bryozoan assemblages, with 77 species altogether. Several taxa have been recognized as very important in the assemblage and two new taxa are described in detail: Poricella garbovensis sp. nov. and Therenia transylvanica sp. nov. Foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil assemblages were used for biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental interpretations. On the basis of sedimentological features and micropaleontological data, the sequence of paleoenvironments can be subdivided into two intervals indicating slightly different climatic conditions.

  16. Al2O3/SUS304 Brazing via AgCuTi-W Composite as Active Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Cherng-Yuh; Zhuang, Xie-Zongyang; Pan, Cheng-Tang

    2014-03-01

    Alumina ceramic (α-Al2O3) was brazed to stainless steel (SUS304) using an Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler and a traditional active brazing filler alloy (CuSil-ABA). Then, the effects of the presence of W particles and of the brazing parameters on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the brazed joints were investigated. The maximum tensile strength of the joints obtained using Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler was 13.2 MPa, which is similar to that obtained using CuSil-ABA filler (13.5 MPa). When the joint was brazed at 930 °C for 30 min, the tensile strengths decreased for both kinds of fillers, although the strength was slightly higher for the Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler than for the Ag-Cu-Ti filler. The interfacial microstructure results show that the Ti reacts with W to form a Ti-W-O compound in the brazing alloy. When there are more W particles in the brazing alloy, the thickness of the Ti X O Y reaction layer near the alumina ceramic decreases. Moreover, W particles added to the brazing alloy can reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion of the brazing alloy, which results in lower residual stress between the Al2O3 and SUS304 in the brazing joints and thus yields higher tensile strengths as compared to those obtained using the CuSil-ABA brazing alloy.

  17. Effect of metal priming agents on bonding characteristics of an acrylic resin joined to SUS XM27 steel.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yumi; Kawamoto, Yoshikazu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Furuchi, Mika; Matsumura, Hideo; Tanoue, Naomi

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of functional monomers contained in the primers on adhesive bonding of a steel alloy. SUS XM27 steel was primed with one of the following materials; Alloy Primer, Estenia Opaque Primer, and V-Primer. The functional monomers in the primers were a phosphate (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate; MDP) and a thione (6-(4-vinylbenzyl-n-propyl) amino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithione, -dithiol tautomer; VTD) for Alloy Primer, MDP alone for Estenia, and VTD alone for V-Primer. The steel disks were bonded with an acrylic resin (Unifast Trad), and bond strength was determined. Of the three primers, both the Alloy Primer (33.3 MPa) and Estenia Opaque Primer (33.9 MPa) materials exhibited far better post-thermocycling bond strength than V-Primer (0 MPa). It can be concluded that the phosphate MDP is effective, whereas the thione VTD is ineffective for bonding SUS XM27 steel. PMID:17220619

  18. Seroprevalence of Trichinella sp. in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Chung, Ok-Sik; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lee, Seung-Ha; Yoo, Young-Bok; Seo, Min

    2015-01-01

    A total 7 outbreaks of trichinellosis have occurred in Korea, mostly as a result of consumption of raw wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat. Since only 1 serological survey on wild boars had yet been performed in Korea, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and some species of rodents by artificial digestion and serological examinations in Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, the endemic area of trichinellosis. Both the wild boar and rodent muscle samples revealed no Trichinella larvae by direct examination and artificial digestion method. However, serological examinations revealed that 4 wild boar sera samples out of 118 (3.4%) were positive to Trichinella antigen. Although the recovery of Trichinella larvae ended in a failure, it is proved for the first time that the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella has been maintained in wild boars of Gangwon-do, Korea. PMID:25925185

  19. In-situ Stress Measurements on SUS316L Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water Simulated Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, A.; Terasawa, M.; Mitamura, T.; Yamada, T.; Liu, L.; Tsubakino, H.; Nakahigashi, S.; Akiniwa, Y.; Shobu, T.

    2007-01-19

    An in-situ straining device has been developed, which enables one to apply a load of 240 N to a specimen in hot water at 561 K and a pressure of 8 MPa, simulating the environment in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The device is equipped with sapphire glass windows for a light path, that is, the device can be used for dynamic measurements of stress induced in the specimen using a synchrotron radiation facility. In-situ stress measurements have been carried out at SPring-8 (BL02B1) on a specimen prepared from SUS316L stainless steel. Inhomogeneity in stress distribution and time-dependent changes in stress were successfully measured.

  20. Experiment and numerical simulation on cross-die forming of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless using a modified Johnson-Cook model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Ding, Wei; Ye, Liyan; Chen, Jun

    2013-12-01

    True stress-strain curves of SUS304 metastable austenitic stainless steel at various strain rates were fitted by a modified Johnson-Cook material model. The effect of blank-holder force on Cross-die forming of SUS304 stainless steel was studied. The forming process was also simulated by the software Marc based on this model. Major strain distribution, thickness distribution and load-displacement were compared between experiment and simulation. The results indicated the modified Johnson-Cook model could well predict the deformation behavior of SUS304 stainless steel. The martensitie volume fraction at different positions of the formed part was in good agreement with what can be expected.

  1. Two SusD-Like Proteins Encoded within a Polysaccharide Utilization Locus of an Uncultured Ruminant Bacteroidetes Phylotype Bind Strongly to Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, A. K.; Pedersen, H. L.; Gupta, R.; Morrison, M.; Willats, W. G. T.; Eijsink, V. G. H.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that two characteristic Sus-like proteins encoded within a polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) bind strongly to cellulosic substrates and interact with plant primary cell walls. This shows associations between uncultured Bacteroidetes-affiliated lineages and cellulose in the rumen and thus presents new PUL-derived targets to pursue regarding plant biomass degradation. PMID:22685144

  2. ¿Cómo puede usted contribuir a la investigación médica? Done su sangre, sus tejidos y otras muestras

    Cancer.gov

    Explica la importancia de la donación de tejidos, responde a posibles preocupaciones y anima a los pacientes a que hablen con sus proveedores de cuidados para la salud acerca de la donación de muestras biológicas.

  3. Investigating Characteristics that Typify Engineering, Computer and Biological Sciences Graduates, the Differences that Occur among and between these Disciplines and the General Population of SUS Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise was to determine whether any of the available demographic or academic variables show distinct trends in three specific discipline areas that differ from those of other areas: (1) Engineering, (2) Computer Sciences, and (3) Biological Sciences. Using data from 39,087 SUS graduates in 2002-03 and of 324,164 science…

  4. Mesenteric lymph node granulomatous lesions in naturally infected wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Portugal-Histological, immunohistochemical and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Matos, A C; Andrade, S; Figueira, L; Matos, M; Pires, M A; Coelho, A C; Pinto, M L

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that wildlife reservoirs of mycobacteria are responsible for the maintenance and spreading of the infection to livestock and wildlife counterparts. Recent data report the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis. This study was conducted to evaluate the chronic inflammatory response in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of wild boar with granulomatous lymphadenitis (n=30). Morphological parameters of the lesions were recorded. The expression of CD3 and CD79α molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Molecular genotyping and culture to identify mycobacteria were performed. The lesions consisted mainly of stage III and stage IV granulomas. CD3 and CD79α positive cells were observed in 15 (50%) and in 11 (36.6%) MLN, respectively. In these lesions, higher percentages of T lymphocytes were found and a limited number of animals exhibited a tendency for an increased percentage of B lymphocytes. Our results suggest that there are similar percentages and distribution patterns of CD3 and CD79α in the lesions, regardless of the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), M. bovis or Map-M. bovis co-infection, and confirm that wild boar is both susceptible and could be an important Map and M. bovis wild reservoir in the study area. PMID:27090622

  5. Novel Technique for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Willens, Scott; Cox, David M; Braue, Ernest H; Myers, Todd M; Wegner, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Telemetric monitoring of physiologic parameters in animal models is a critical component of chemical and biologic agent studies. The long-term collection of neurobehavioral and other physiologic data can require larger telemetry devices. Furthermore, such devices must be implanted in a location that is safe, well-tolerated, and functional. Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) present an ideal large animal model for chemical agent studies due to their relatively small size, characterized health status, and ease of training and handling. We report an effective approach to implanting a novel device to measure transthoracic impedance to approximate respiratory tidal volume and rate in Suidae. We tested the approach using 24 male Göttingen minipigs. A ventral midline abdominal incision extending from the umbilicus to the prepuce was followed by a paramedian incision of the parietal peritoneum and dorsal blunt dissection to create a retroperitoneal pocket. The device was anchored inside the pocket to the internal abdominal musculature with 3-0 nonabsorbable suture, biopotential leads were routed through the abdominal musculature, and the pocket was closed with 3-0 absorbable suture. Paired biopotential leads were anchored intermuscularly at the level of the seventh rib midway between spine and sternum bilaterally to provide surrogate data for respiratory function. Postoperative recovery and gross pathology findings at necropsy were used to assess safety and refine the surgical procedure. Results demonstrated that this procedure permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance, without negatively affecting the health and behavior of the animals. PMID:25527027

  6. Globalisation and global trade influence molecular viral population genetics of Torque Teno Sus Viruses 1 and 2 in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cortey, Mart; Pileri, Emanuela; Segals, Joaquim; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2012-04-23

    Globalisation, in terms of the rapid and free movement of people, animals and food, has created a new paradigm, increasing the range and rate of distribution of many pathogens. In the present study, Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) have been used as a model to evaluate the effects of global trade on viral heterogeneity, and how the movement of live pigs can affect the distribution and composition of virus populations. Seventeen countries from different parts of the world have been screened for TTSuV1 and TTSuvV2. High levels of genetic diversity have been found as well as two new TTSuV subtypes. A small fraction of this diversity (<5%) was related with spatial structure; however the majority (>50%) was best explained by the exchange of live pigs among countries, pointing to the direct relationship between the movement of hosts and the diversity of their accompanying viruses. Taking TTSuVs as sentinels, this study revealed that the distribution and diversity of comensal microflora in live animals subjected to global trade is shaped by the commercial movements among countries. In the case of TTSuVs, it appears that commercial movements of animals are eroding the genetic composition of the virus populations that may have been present in pig herds since their domestication. PMID:22101091

  7. Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) mediate large-scale edge effects in a lowland tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D

    2012-01-01

    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects. PMID:22615977

  8. [The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), State Public Policy: its institutionalized and future development and the search for solutions].

    PubMed

    Santos, Nelson Rodrigues Dos

    2013-01-01

    This paper redeems the significance of the health reform movement and the municipal healthcare movement in the context of the 1970s and 1980s, and its social, politic and innovative power in the democratic reconstruction of the day. It then notes that the implementation of the constitutional guidelines, regulated in 1990 by Laws 8080/90 and 8142/90, has been characterized in the last 22 years by four major and mounting obstacles imposed by State policy on all governments: federal underfunding; federal subsidies to the private health plan market; resistance to reform of the State management structure of service provision; and the handing over of administration of public facilities to private entities. The Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) included half the population that was once excluded in the public health system, though these obstacles keep the coverage of primary care focused below the poverty line and with poor resolution. The conclusion drawn is that the real policy of the state for healthcare in the past 22 years has prioritized the creation and expansion of the private health plan market for consumer rights, and relegated the effectiveness of constitutional guidelines for civic human rights to second place. PMID:23338517

  9. Effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting of molten multi-component oxides ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Matsuda, Nozomu; Shinozaki, Nobuya; Miyoshi, Noriko; Shiraishi, Takanobu

    2015-02-01

    A study on the effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting behavior of molten multi-component oxides ceramic was performed and aimed to contribute to the further understanding of the application of oxides ceramic in penetration treatment of stainless steel coatings and the deposition of stainless steel cermet coatings. The results show that at 1273 K, different surface pre-treatments (polishing and heating) had an important effect on the wetting behavior. The molten multi-component oxides showed good wettability on both stainless steel substrates, however, the wetting process on the polished substrate was significantly slower than that on the heated substrates. The mechanism of the interfacial reactions was discussed based on the microscopic and thermodynamic analysis, the substrates reacted with oxygen generated from the decomposition of the molten multi-component oxides and oxygen contained in the argon atmosphere, and the oxide film caused the molten multi-component oxides ceramic to spread on the substrates surfaces. For the polished substrate, more time was required for the surface oxidation to reach the surface composition of Heated-S, which resulted in relatively slow spreading and wetting rates. Moreover, the variance of the surface roughness drove the final contact angles to slightly different values following the sequence Polished-S > Heated-S.

  10. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs. PMID:25640718

  11. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys. PMID:26161723

  12. [The profile of hospitalizations and associated factors among elderly users of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Valéria; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Velasco, Wisley Donizetti

    2013-10-01

    This article seeks to establish the causes of hospitalizations among the elderly and identify the prevalence and associated factors. It is a cross-sectional study with 418 elderly users of SUS selected by multistage proportional sampling in the nine Sanitary Districts of Goiânia. Hospitalization was defined as a positive response to the question: "Were you hospitalized in the past year?" The independent variables were collected on a standardized questionnaire. Associations were explored through the prevalence ratio and the respective 95% CI. Multivariate analysis was conducted using hierarchical Poisson regression. The prevalence of hospitalizations was 24.4% and the major causes were circulatory (28.4%), respiratory (9.8%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (9.8%). In multivariate analysis, the following variables continued to be associated with hospitalizations: A/B economic class, reports of five or more diseases and weight loss. The results revealed a high prevalence of hospitalizations and that factors involved are mainly related to socioeconomic issues and health status, which demonstrates that it is necessary to monitor these cases in primary health care to prevent unnecessary hospitalization. PMID:24061033

  13. Pseudorabies Virus and Brucella abortus from an Expanding Wild Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Population in Southern Oklahoma, USA.

    PubMed

    Gaskamp, Joshua A; Gee, Kenneth L; Campbell, Tyler A; Silvy, Nova J; Webb, Stephen L

    2016-04-28

    Wild pigs ( Sus scrofa ) are causing increasing ecologic and economic damage at a global scale. Because wild pigs can carry ≥65 diseases that affect livestock, their widespread expansion threatens native wildlife and livestock. We screened wild pigs from south-central Oklahoma, US for antibodies against Brucella abortus , pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS). These pathogens were chosen because they are part of eradication programs in the US and could have large economic impacts on domestic livestock if transmitted from wild animals. We tested 282 serum samples during spring 2010 (n=149) and 2011 (n=133) and found an overall exposure rate to PRV of 24.1% (n=68); PRV was detected at two of three study sites. Two wild pigs had detectable antibody to B. abortus , and one had detectable antibody to PRRS. On average, 27% of wild pigs within a sounder were positive for PRV antibody, with 44% of the sounders (16/36) having at least one positive individual. These data highlight that wild pigs could carry pathogens that affect domestic livestock. Because the US is free of these pathogens in commercial livestock operations, continued surveillance and vaccination of domestic livestock are needed. Commercial livestock producers at the wildlife-livestock interface may benefit from spatial prioritization of risk zones to facilitate strategic control efforts. PMID:27124329

  14. Relative age of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus sequences in Sus scrofa based on the molecular clock hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Tönjes, Ralf R; Niebert, Marcus

    2003-11-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation. PERV classes A, B, and C harbor different envelope proteins. Two different types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist, of which both are present only in PERV-A. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeatless, conferring a lower level of transcriptional activity. Since the different LTR structures are distributed unequally among the proviruses and, apparently, PERV is the only virus harboring two different LTR structures, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Replication-competent viruses can still be found today, suggesting an evolutionary recent origin. Our studies revealed that the age of PERV is at most 7.6 x 10(6) years, whereas the repeatless LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 x 10(6) years ago, being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age determined for PERV correlates with the time of separation between pigs (Suidae, Sus scrofa) and their closest relatives, American-born peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 x 10(6) years ago. PMID:14581574

  15. Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax): Description and molecular identification of intradermal females.

    PubMed

    Uni, Shigehiko; Fukuda, Masako; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Bain, Odile; Otsuka, Yasushi; Nakatani, Jun; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Harada, Masashi; Omar, Hasmahzaiti; Ramli, Rosli; Hashim, Rosli; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Human zoonotic onchocercosis is caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica, parasitic in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) in Japan. Previously, microfilariae longer than those of Onchocerca dewittei japonica were observed in skin snips from wild boars during the study of O. dewittei japonica. Moreover, the third-stage larvae (L3) of these longer microfilariae were obtained from the blackfly Simulium bidentatum after experimental injections. Based on morphometric and molecular studies, similar L3 were found in blackflies during fieldwork in Oita, Japan. However, except for O. dewittei japonica, adult worms of Onchocerca have not been found in wild boars. In this study, we discovered adult females of a novel Onchocerca species in the skin of a wild boar in Oita, and named it Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. Females of this new species had longer microfilariae and differed from O. dewittei japonica in terms of their morphological characteristics and parasitic location. The molecular characteristics of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S rRNA genes of the new species were identical to those of the longer microfilariae and L3 previously detected, but they differed from those of O. dewittei japonica at the species level. However, both species indicated a close affinity among their congeners and Onchocerca ramachandrini, parasitic in the warthog in Africa, was basal in the Suidae cluster of the 12S rRNA tree. PMID:26165205

  16. Prevalence and diversity of Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Kotková, Michaela; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2014-02-01

    From 2011 to 2012, the occurrence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. was surveyed at 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across four Central European countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic. Isolates were genotyped by PCR amplification and characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region using Enterocytozoon and Encephalitozoon-specific protocols. PCR revealed 16 mono-infections of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, 33 mono-infections of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and 5 concurrent infections of both Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Enterocytozoon bieneusi out of 460 faecal samples. Two genotypes (I and II) were revealed by sequence analysis of the ITS region of Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Eleven genotypes, five previously found in other hosts including domestic pigs (D, EbpA, EbpC, G and Henan-I) and six novel (WildBoar1-6), were identified in Enterocytozoon bieneusi. No other microsporidia infection was found in the examined faecal samples. Prevalence of microsporidia at the locality level ranged from 0 to 58.8 %; the prevalence was less than 25 % at more than 86 % of localities. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was detected as a predominant species infecting Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). The present report is the most comprehensive survey of microsporidia infections in wild boars within the Czech Republic and selected Central European countries. PMID:24292543

  17. Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) Mediate Large-Scale Edge Effects in a Lowland Tropical Rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Fujinuma, Junichi; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2012-01-01

    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects. PMID:22615977

  18. Response of pigmented porcine skin (Sus scrofa domestica) to single 3.8-micron laser radiation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, Anthony C.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Randolph, Donald Q.; Winston, Golda C. H.

    2005-04-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of melanin on skin response to single 3.8 micron, eight microsecond laser pulses and the difference in lesion formation thresholds for input into laser safety standards. Williams et al., performed a study examining laser tissue interaction from 3.8-micron lasers in lightly pigmented Yorkshire pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). However, studies performed by Eggleston et al comparing pigmented and lightly pigmented skin with human skin found that the Yucatan mini-pig is a superior model for laser skin exposures. Methods: Five Yucatan mini-pigs under general anesthesia were exposed to 3.8 micron laser pulses ranging from 0.8 J/cm2 to 93 J/cm2. Gross examinations were done acutely and 24 hours after laser exposure. Skin biopsies were then collected at various times post exposure, and histologic examinations were conducted. Results: The 24 hour ED50 was determined to be 4.5 J/cm2 with fiducial limits of 6.2 and 2.2 J/cm2. As deposited energy was increased, the lesion presentation ranged from whitening of the epidermis (4 J/cm2) to whitening with inflammatory centers (14 J/cm2), and at the highest energy levels inflammatory areas were replaced with an epidermal ulcerated central area (>21 J/cm2). Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest pigmentation or melanin may play a minor role in the mechanism of laser-tissue damage. The ED50 of Yorkshire pigs was 2.6 J/cm2. The ED50 of the Yucatan mini-pig was found to be 3.6 J/cm2, and although it was higher, it is still within the 95% fiducial limits.

  19. [The feral pig (Sus scrofa, Suidae) in Cocos Island, Costa Rica: composition of its diet, reproductive state and genetics].

    PubMed

    Sierra, C

    2001-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) cause different kinds of damage specially on oceanic islands. Pigs were introduced at Cocos Island, Costa Rica, during 1793 and bred successfully. I analyzed feral pigs diet, reproductive state, genetics and the effects of predation, in order to gather data on their ecology and impact on certain Cocos Island communities. The diet was studied, during a dry and a wet period, through stomach contents. The genetic variability was determined through PCR analysis on tissue samples which were taken from feral (Cocos Island) and domestic (mainland) pig ear-lobes. Pigs at Cocos were omnivorous, the most important diet category in both seasons was fruits. More pigs consumed fruits during the wet season but the fruits did occupy more somuch volume during the dry season. Feral pigs did not disperse exotic seeds nor prey on animal endemic species. 56% of the hunted pigs were males and 44% were females. From females in reproductive age, 46% were pregnant or suckling, and the average number of fetuses in a litter was 4.4. I confirmed a reproductive peak during January/February but could not demonstrate a reproductive peak during June/July. The low fetuses number per litter could be related with some levels of stress. The genetic variability for all the evaluated parameters within the feral population was low but not as low as expected. I suggest a compensatory mechanism were the inbreeding depression reduces consanguinity and a species susceptible to stocastic, demographic or environmental factors turns to be an adapted species with high resilience. PMID:12189796

  20. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study. PMID:26537041

  1. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km2 large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172-377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria. PMID:27049756

  2. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    PubMed

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. PMID:27093497

  3. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth

    PubMed Central

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W.; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km2 large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172–377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria. PMID:27049756

  4. The stress response and exploratory behaviour in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa): Relations to sex and social rank.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Sarah J J; Martin, Gerard M; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2015-12-01

    According to the coping styles hypothesis, an individual demonstrates an integrated behavioural and physiological response to environmental challenge that is consistent over time and across situations. Individual consistency in behavioural responses to challenge has been documented across the animal kingdom. Comparatively few studies, however, have examined inter-individual variation in the physiological response, namely glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels, the stress hormones secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. Variation in coping styles between individuals may be explained in part by differences in social rank and sex. Using 20 Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) we: (1) investigated the existence of consistent inter-individual variation in exploratory behaviour and the hormonal stress response, and tested for correlations as predicted by the coping styles hypothesis; and (2) evaluated whether inter-individual behavioural and hormonal variation is related to social rank and sex. Salivary stress biomarkers (cortisol, alpha-amylase, chromogranin A) were assessed in the presence and absence of a stressor consisting of social isolation in a crate for 10 min. Principal components analysis on a set of behavioural variables revealed two traits, which we labelled exploratory tendency and neophobia. Neither exploratory tendency nor neophobia predicted the physiological stress response. Subordinate pigs exhibited higher catecholamine levels compared to dominant conspecifics. We observed sex differences in the repeatability of salivary stress markers and reactivity of the stress systems. The results do not provide support for the existence of behavioural-physiological coping styles in pigs. Sex is an important determinant of the physiological stress response and warrants consideration in research addressing behavioural and hormonal variation. PMID:26450148

  5. Long-Term Evaluation of a Selective Retrograde Coronary Venous Perfusion Model in Pigs (Sus Scrofa Domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Harig, Frank; Schmidt, Joachim; Hoyer, Evelyn; Eckl, Sebastian; Adamek, Edytha; Ertel, Dirk; Nooh, Ehab; Amann, Kerstin; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M

    2011-01-01

    The lack of suitable target vessels remains a challenge for aortocoronary bypass grafting in end-stage coronary heart disease. This study aimed to investigate the arterialization of cardiac veins as an alternative myocardial revascularization strategy in an experimental long-term model in pigs. Selective retrograde perfusion of a coronary vein (aorta to coronary vein bypass, retrobypass) before ligation of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis (equivalent to the left anterior descending artery in humans) was performed in 20 German Landrace pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). Retroperfusion of the left anterior descending vein was performed in 10 pigs (RP+) but not in the other 10 (RP), and the vena cordis magna was ligated (L+) in 5 pigs in each of these groups but left open (L) in the remaining animals. Hemodynamic performance (for example, cardiac output) was significantly better in the group that underwent selective retroperfusion with proximal ligation of vena cordis magna (RP+L+; 4.1 L/min) compared with the other groups (RP+L, 2.5 L/min; RPL+, 2.2 L/min; RPL, 1.9 L/min). Long-term survival was significantly better in RP+L+ pigs (112 16 d) than in all other groups. Histologic follow-up studies showed significantly less necrosis in the RP+L+ group compared with all other groups. Venous retroperfusion is an effective technique to achieve long-term survival after acute occlusion of the left anterior descending artery in a pig model. In this model, proximal ligation of vena cordis magna is essential. PMID:21535926

  6. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models. [Ovis aries; Capra hircus; Sus scrofa; Gallus domesticus; Meleagris gallopavo

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed.

  7. Long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Sierra Nevada National Park, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; López-Olvera, Jorge; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E

    2014-11-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the Iberian Peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. In this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (Aujeszky's disease virus - ADV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus - PRRSV, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp., Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar population in Sierra Nevada National Park (SNNP), an open unfenced area, is reported, taking into account wild boar population abundance variation in space and time in an open unfenced environment. A total of 1103 wild boar were sampled in 141 hunting events randomly carried out for sampling in seven hunting seasons (October to February from 2002-2003 to 2009-2010 (except 2007-2008). Prevalence was overall lower than those previously reported for fenced wild boar populations in Spain, but all the pathogens analyzed except PRRSV were considered endemic in the SNNP. ADV, E. rhusiopathiae and total pathogen prevalence were positively correlated to wild boar density. Prevalence in the positive areas was significantly higher in females for ADV, E. rhusiopathiae, L. pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp. and Salmonella sp., and in males for M. bovis. This longitudinal study provides the first data on the health status of the relatively unmanaged and low density wild boar population of SNNP. It is concluded that non-intensively managed wild boar populations are able to maintain the circulation of several pathogens, even in low prevalences and in open unfenced areas with natural density variation both in time and space. PMID:25261921

  8. Technical note: adipose tissue blood flow in miniature swine (Sus scrofa) using the 133xenon washout technique.

    PubMed

    Moher, H E; Carey, G B

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the 133xenon washout technique as a viable method for measuring adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) in swine. Using a total of 32 female Yucatan miniature swine (Sus scrofa), the partition coefficient for 133xenon in swine subcutaneous adipose tissue was determined and ATBF was measured at rest and under various physiological conditions. These conditions included feeding, anesthesia, epinephrine infusion, and acute exercise. The effects of epinephrine and acute exercise were examined in both sedentary and exercise-trained swine. The partition coefficient value for 133xenon in swine subcutaneous adipose tissue was 9.23+/-0.26 mL/g (mean +/- SD, n = 10). The average value for resting ATBF in swine was 3.98+/-2.72 mL/(100 g tissue-min) (n = 19). Feeding increased ATBF by approximately fivefold over fasting values, and isoflurane anesthesia significantly decreased ATBF compared to rest (1.64+/-1.12 vs 3.92+/-4.22 mL/[100 g x min], n = 10). A 30-min epinephrine infusion (1 microg/[kg BW x min]) significantly increased ATBF from a resting value of 3.13+/-2.61 to 10.35+/-5.31 mL/(100 g x min) (n = 12). Epinephrine infusion into exercise-trained swine increased ATBF to the same extent as when infused into sedentary swine. An acute, 20-min bout of exercise significantly increased ATBF in swine, and the sedentary swine showed a larger increase in ATBF than their exercise-trained littermates relative to rest: 7.83 vs 2.98 mL/(100 g x min). In conclusion, the 133xenon washout technique appears to be a viable method for measuring ATBF in swine; our findings are comparable to swine ATBF values reported using the microsphere method and are consistent with values reported in animal and human studies. PMID:12019618

  9. Numerical Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Friction Welding of Two Similar Materials of S25C or SUS304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isshiki, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kawai, Gosaku; Ochi, Hiizu; Ogawa, Koichi

    An approach to combine a friction heat input model with a non-steady heat conduction analysis has enabled a numerical simulation of a heat input and a transient temperature distribution in friction welding processes. This report describes the result obtained by applying this approach to the friction welding process of two similar materials of S25C carbon steel or SUS304 stainless steel. When base metals are different, the friction heat input model and the thermophysical property data are changed depending on a quality of base metal. Comparison between a calculated result and an experimental result was carried out, and appropriateness of this approach was examined. Furthermore, a difference of temperature distribution in friction welding region with the difference of thermophysical property of base metal was examined, and also the heat-affected zone was investigated. As a result, it was verified that this approach could simulate a characteristic of a welding process in brake-type friction welding. And the calculated results agreed with the experimental results on a difference of quantity of heat input to be caused by a difference of a friction welding condition. A difference of a temperature history caused in a different base metal appeared to be estimated from a calculated result, and it was confirmed that this approach was appropriate. The width of heat-affected zone was estimated by an calculated result of the maximum temperature distribution in the vicinity of friction surface by using this approach combining a friction heat input model with a non-steady heat conduction analysis.

  10. Effects of beam offset on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Alloy 690-SUS 304L EBW joints for nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Ding; Lee, Hwa-Teng; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Jeng, Sheng-Long; Wu, Jia-Lin

    2010-06-01

    The current study investigates the effect of the beam offset (BOF) on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and the corrosion resistance of the fusion zone (FZ) of Alloy 690-SUS 304L stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal butt joints formed by electron beam welding (EBW). The experimental results showed that as the value of the BOF increased from 0 to 0.30 mm, i.e. the electron beam shifted progressively toward the Alloy 690 base metal (BM), the tensile strength of the FZ fell from 582.1 to 541.2 MPa. However, the modified Huey test results indicated that the interdendritic corrosion resistance of the FZ was significantly enhanced. Pit nucleation potential value ( Enp) was raised from 385 to 1050 mV. An offset of 0.30 mm appears to be the optimal BOF setting when fabricating Alloy 690-SUS 304L SS dissimilar metal butt joints using the EBW technique.

  11. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Mezo, Mercedes; Gonzlez-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, Jos Antonio; Manga-Gonzlez, M Yolanda; Peixoto, Raquel; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, M Adela

    2013-12-01

    Fasciolosis is an emerging or reemerging human and animal disease in numerous parts of the world. In Galicia (NW, Spain), the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild ungulate in terms of abundance and distribution. Its population has continuously increased over the past decades and this population growth has been accompanied by a reduction of habitats, so that the wild boar populations encroach more and more frequently onto agricultural lands. The increase of the interface area between livestock and the wild boars frequently involves the sharing of pastures and water sources, so that the circulation of common pathogens is propitiated. This is the first report concerning the importance of the wild boar as a possible reservoir of Fasciola hepatica infection in Spain. Livers from 358 hunted wild boars were analyzed showing that 11.2% were parasitized by F. hepatica, with burdens ranging from 1 to 14 flukes (mean=2.3). Fecal analysis demonstrated that 40.0% of parasitized animals shed F. hepatica eggs with a mean excretion of 6.1 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The presence of coproantigens analyzed by MM3-COPRO ELISA was positive in 62.9% of infected wild boars. After incubation, the percentage of hatched eggs ranged between 41.0% and 90.0% suggesting that the wild boar is very likely to contribute to the environmental contamination with viable parasite eggs. Comparative morphometric data were obtained using a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements. F. hepatica from cattle, sheep and wild boars from the same geographical area presents a similar body development and gravidity. Our study shows for the first time that the F. hepatica uterus from the wild boar presents an intermediate size between that found in primary reservoir hosts such as cattle and sheep, i.e., the individual potential egg output capacity of the wild boar does not greatly differ from that detected in Galician livestock. These results show that F. hepatica in Galicia has a normal development in wild boars, presenting its own characteristics in shape and size in comparison with other host species. The high prevalence of infection detected in the wild boar, the normal fluke development in the liver, and the possibility of shedding F. hepatica eggs capable of embryonating and giving rise to viable miracidia with the potential to infect intermediate hosts suggest a possible role of this species as a secondary reservoir in this Spanish region. PMID:24103736

  12. Reduced spillover transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to feral pigs (Sus scofa) following population control of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Nugent, G; Whitford, J; Yockney, I J; Cross, M L

    2012-06-01

    In New Zealand, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is present in domestic cattle and deer herds primarily as the result of on-going disease transmission from the primary wildlife host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). However, bTB is also present in other introduced free-ranging mammalian species. Between 1996 and 2007, we conducted a series of studies to determine whether poison control of possum populations would have any effect on the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in sympatric feral pigs (Sus scrofa). We compared trends in the prevalence of bTB infection in feral pigs in six study areas: possum numbers were reduced in three areas, but not in the other three, effectively providing a thrice-replicated before-after-control-intervention design. Before possum control, the overall prevalence of culture-confirmed M. bovis infection in feral pigs was 16.7-94.4%, depending on area. Infection prevalence varied little between genders but did vary with age, increasing during the first 2-3 years of life but then declining in older pigs. In the areas in which possum control was applied, M. bovis prevalence in feral pigs fell to near zero within 2-3 years, provided control was applied successfully at the whole-landscape scale. In contrast, prevalence changed much less or not at all in the areas with no possum control. We conclude that feral pigs in New Zealand acquire M. bovis infection mainly by inter-species transmission from possums, but then rarely pass the disease on to other pigs and are end hosts. This is in contrast to the purported role of pigs as bTB maintenance hosts in other countries, and we suggest the difference in host status may reflect differences in the relative importance of the oral route of infection in different environments. Despite harbouring M. bovis infection for a number of years, pigs in New Zealand do not sustain bTB independently, but are good sentinels for disease prevalence in possum populations. PMID:21849098

  13. Reduced spillover transmission of Mycobacterium bovis to feral pigs (Sus scofa) following population control of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Nugent G; Whitford J; Yockney IJ; Cross ML

    2012-06-01

    In New Zealand, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is present in domestic cattle and deer herds primarily as the result of on-going disease transmission from the primary wildlife host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). However, bTB is also present in other introduced free-ranging mammalian species. Between 1996 and 2007, we conducted a series of studies to determine whether poison control of possum populations would have any effect on the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in sympatric feral pigs (Sus scrofa). We compared trends in the prevalence of bTB infection in feral pigs in six study areas: possum numbers were reduced in three areas, but not in the other three, effectively providing a thrice-replicated before-after-control-intervention design. Before possum control, the overall prevalence of culture-confirmed M. bovis infection in feral pigs was 16.7-94.4%, depending on area. Infection prevalence varied little between genders but did vary with age, increasing during the first 2-3 years of life but then declining in older pigs. In the areas in which possum control was applied, M. bovis prevalence in feral pigs fell to near zero within 2-3 years, provided control was applied successfully at the whole-landscape scale. In contrast, prevalence changed much less or not at all in the areas with no possum control. We conclude that feral pigs in New Zealand acquire M. bovis infection mainly by inter-species transmission from possums, but then rarely pass the disease on to other pigs and are end hosts. This is in contrast to the purported role of pigs as bTB maintenance hosts in other countries, and we suggest the difference in host status may reflect differences in the relative importance of the oral route of infection in different environments. Despite harbouring M. bovis infection for a number of years, pigs in New Zealand do not sustain bTB independently, but are good sentinels for disease prevalence in possum populations.

  14. An RNA-based analysis of changes in biodiversity indices in response to Sus scrofa domesticus decomposition.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, R C; Ralebitso-Senior, T K; Thompson, T J U

    2014-08-01

    Despite emergent research initiatives, significant knowledge gaps remain of soil microbiology-associated cadaver decomposition. Nevertheless, preliminary studies have shown that the vast diversity and complex interactions of soil microbial communities have great potential for forensic applications such as clandestine grave location and postmortem interval estimation. This study investigated changes in soil bacterial communities during pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) leg decomposition. 16S rRNA, instead of the usually applied 16S rDNA marker, was used to compare the metabolically active bacteria. Total bacterial RNA was extracted from soil samples of three different layers on day 3, 28 and 77 after the shallow burial of a pig leg. The V3 region of the 16S rRNA was amplified, analysed by RT-PCR DGGE, and compared with control soil bacterial community profiles. Statistically significant differences in soil bacterial biodiversity were observed. For the control, bacterial diversity (H') and species richness (S) of the three layers averaged 2.48±0.14 (H') and 18.8±2.5 (S), respectively, while for the test soil increases (p=0.027) were recorded between day 3 (H'=2.71±0.02; S=21.3±2.0) and 28 (H'=3.46±0.32; S=60.3±16.9), particularly in the middle (10-20 cm) and bottom (20-30 cm) soil layers. Between day 28 and 77 the diversity and richness then decreased on average for all three layers (H'=3.43±0.20; S=60.0±17.3) but remained higher than on day 3. Thus, responses in soil bacterial profiles and activity to carcass decomposition, detected and characterised by RNA-based DGGE, could be used together with RNA sequencing data, changes in physico-chemical variables (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, temperature, redox potential, water activity and pH) and conventional macroecology markers (e.g. insects and vegetation), to develop a suite of analytical protocols for different forensic scenarios. PMID:24967869

  15. Structure of a SusD Homologue, BT1043, Involved in Mucin O-Glycan Utilization in a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2009-05-21

    Mammalian distal gut bacteria have an expanded capacity to utilize glycans. In the absence of dietary sources, some species rely on host-derived mucosal glycans. The ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent human gut symbiont, to forage host glycans contributes to both its ability to persist within an individual host and its ability to be transmitted naturally to new hosts at birth. The molecular basis of host glycan recognition by this species is still unknown but likely occurs through an expanded suite of outermembrane glycan-binding proteins that are the primary interface between B. thetaiotaomicron and its environment. Presented here is the atomic structure of the B. thetaiotaomicron protein BT1043, an outer membrane lipoprotein involved in host glycan metabolism. Despite a lack of detectable amino acid sequence similarity, BT1043 is a structural homologue of the B. thetaiotaomicron starch-binding protein SusD. Both structures are dominated by tetratrico peptide repeats that may facilitate association with outer membrane {beta}-barrel transporters required for glycan uptake. The structure of BT1043 complexed with N-acetyllactosamine reveals that recognition is mediated via hydrogen bonding interactions with the reducing end of {beta}-N-acetylglucosamine, suggesting a role in binding glycans liberated from the mucin polypeptide. This is in contrast to CBM 32 family members that target the terminal nonreducing galactose residue of mucin glycans. The highly articulated glycan-binding pocket of BT1043 suggests that binding of ligands to BT1043 relies more upon interactions with the composite sugar residues than upon overall ligand conformation as previously observed for SusD. The diversity in amino acid sequence level likely reflects early divergence from a common ancestor, while the unique and conserved {alpha}-helical fold the SusD family suggests a similar function in glycan uptake.

  16. Alloimmunisation fœto-maternelle Rhésus grave à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Zineb, Benkerroum; Boutaina, Lachiri; Ikram, Lazrak; Driss, Moussaoui Rahali; Mohammed, Dehayni

    2015-01-01

    L'incompatibilité fœto-maternelle Rhésus peut être à l'origine d'un syndrome hémolytique dont l'expression clinique est l′anémie fœtale éventuellement compliquée par une anasarque fœto-placentaire ou à l'extrême une mort fœtale in utéro. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un cas d'allo immunisation Rhésus à 34 SA ayant aboutit un hydrops foetalis, l'extraction fœtale par césarienne en vue d'une exsanguino-transfusion a été réalisée, mais le nouveau né est décédé au cours de l'exsanguino-transfusion. Le dépistage des femmes à risque et l'utilisation d'Immunoglobulines anti D ont permis une réduction importante de l′incidence des accidents d'incompatibilité. La mesure du pic systolique de vélocité dans l'artère cérébrale moyenne a bouleversé la surveillance et la prise en charge prénatale des anémies fœtales secondaires à une allo-immunisation Rhésus. Son utilisation dans la surveillance des cas d'allo-immunisation Rhésus permettrait ainsi de réserver les procédures invasives (cordocentèse) comme geste thérapeutique qui permet la transfusion fœtale in utéro. Grâce à une collaboration multidisciplinaire cohérente, l'extraction fœtale peut être programmée, ce qui permet une prise en charge adéquate et rigoureuse, même des nouveaux nés avec atteinte sévère. PMID:26889318

  17. SusHi: A program for the calculation of Higgs production in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the Standard Model and the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlander, Robert V.; Liebler, Stefan; Mantler, Hendrik

    2013-06-01

    This article describes the code SusHi (for "Supersymmetric Higgs") [108] which calculates the cross sections pp/pp ¯ →ϕ+X in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the SM and the MSSM, where ϕ is any of the neutral Higgs bosons within these models. Apart from inclusive cross sections up to NNLO QCD, differential cross sections with respect to the Higgs transverse momentum pT and (pseudo-)rapidity y(η) can be calculated through NLO QCD. In the case of gluon fusion, SusHi contains NLO QCD contributions from the third family of quarks and squarks, NNLO corrections due to top-quarks, approximate NNLO corrections due to top-squarks, and electro-weak effects. It supports various renormalization schemes for the sbottom sector and the bottom Yukawa coupling, as well as resummation effects of higher order tanβ-enhanced sbottom contributions. SusHi provides a link to FeynHiggs for the calculation of the Higgs masses. Program SummaryProgram title: SusHi Catalogue identifier: AEOY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 47725 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 338380 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Unix/Linux, Mac OS. RAM: A few 100 MB Classification: 11.1. External routines: LHAPDF (http://lhapdf.hepforge.org), FeynHiggs (http://www.feynhiggs.de) Nature of problem: Calculation of inclusive and exclusive Higgs production cross sections in gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the Standard Model and the MSSM through next-to-leading order QCD, includes next-to-next-to-leading order top-(s)quark contributions and electro-weak effects Solution method: Numerical Monte Carlo integration Additional comments: Code includes ggh@nnlo (http://www.robert-harlander.de/software/ggh@nnlo), bbh@nnlo (http://www.robert-harlander.de/software/bbh@nnlo) and evalcsusy.f (http://www.robert-harlander.de/software) Running time: All the examples provided take a minute or less to run.

  18. Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island South-East Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Groenen, Martien A M; Lohse, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, we investigate this issue using genome sequences of three pig (Sus) species, two of which are found on islands of the Sunda-shelf shallow seas in Island South-East Asia (ISEA). A previous study revealed signatures of interspecific admixture between these Sus species (Genome biology,14, 2013, R107). However, the timing, directionality and extent of this admixture remain unknown. Here, we use a likelihood-based model comparison to more finely resolve this admixture history and test whether it was mediated by humans or occurred naturally. Our analyses suggest that interspecific admixture between Sunda-shelf species was most likely asymmetric and occurred long before the arrival of humans in the region. More precisely, we show that these species diverged during the late Pliocene but around 23% of their genomes have been affected by admixture during the later Pleistocene climatic transition. In addition, we show that our method provides a significant improvement over D-statistics which are uninformative about the direction of admixture. PMID:25294645

  19. Effects of alumina air-abrasion and acidic priming agents on bonding between SUS XM27 steel and auto-polymerizing acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yumi; Ohashi, Norihisa; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Tanoue, Naomi; Nishiyama, Norihiro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional monomers contained in the primers, as well as alumina particle abrasion on bonding between stainless steel and acrylic resin. SUS XM27 steel was primed with one of the following materials; Alloy Primer, Estenia Opaque Primer, M. L. Primer, and Super-Bond Liquid. Steel disks were either ground flat or alumina-blasted, primed with one of the four agents, and bonded with an acrylic resin (Unifast Trad). Bond strength was determined both before and after thermocycling (2,000 or 20,000 cycles). Among the four priming agents, the Alloy Primer and Estenia Opaque Primer, both of which contain 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP), exhibited better bonding performance than the others. Alumina air-borne particle abrasion considerably improved the durability of bonding between the steel and the resin material. It can be concluded that alumina blasting followed by priming with an MDP agent is recommended for bonding the resin and SUS XM27 steel. PMID:17928724

  20. A Sealers Midden Provides Evidence a Live Pig ( Sus scrofa) was Taken Ashore at Heard Island During the "Elephanting" Industry (1855-1882)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoff, John; Burton, Harry; Robins, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Livestock was often released onto remote Southern Ocean islands as a food source for shipwreck survivors during the industrial whaling and sealing era. Although animals were put ashore at nearby Isles Kerguelen and Crozet, the historical records make no mention of domesticated livestock ever being set ashore at Heard Island between 1855 and 1882. Here we report a pig ( Sus scrofa) mandible discovered amongst other bones and artefacts in an `elephanters' midden found at Spit Bay, Heard Island. The find provides very strong evidence a live pig was shipped ashore and eaten as part of the sealers meagre provisions. Archaeological investigations of middens at other sealing locations could produce new insights into the dietary habits of these men.

  1. [Education and competences for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): is it possible to find alternatives to the logic of late capitalism?].

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Albuquerque, Verônica Santos; Cavalcanti, Felipe de Oliveira Lopes; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre

    2013-01-01

    The transformations that have revolutionized the labor market in contemporary society make it necessary to think of new alternatives for training health care professionals, thereby establishing a new approach to the health problems of individuals and collectives. Based on these considerations, this paper sets out to discuss training in health--based on the concept of competence--with a focus on education for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), using attempts to analyze and propose an alternative to the system entrenched in the logic of late capitalism as a theoretical benchmark. It is thus a reflection on the subject, correlating theory and praxis, in constant and relentless movement of construction, deconstruction and (re)construction of propositions. PMID:23338506

  2. Influence of the particle size and phase type of ZrO{sub 2} on the fabrication and residual stress of ZrO{sub 2}SUS304 FGM

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yeon-Gil; Choi, Sung-Churl; Paik, U.

    1997-12-31

    TZP/SUS304- and ZT/SUS304-FGM were fabricated by pressureless sintering. The defects originating from the different shrinkage and sintering behavior of ceramic and metal could be controlled by the adjustments in terms of the particle size and phase type of ZrO{sub 2}. The residual stresses in TZP/SUS304-FGM have irregular patterns resulting from sintering defects and thermal expansion mismatch. In ZT/SUS304-FGM, compressive stress is induced on the ceramic regions by the volume expansion of MZP. Also, compressive stress is induced on the metal regions by the constraint of warping and frustum formation which must be created to the metal direction caused by the difference of CTEs. As a consequence, it has been verified that the residual stresses generated on FGM are dominantly influenced by the thickness and number of compositional gradient layers, and the sintering defects and residual stress can be controlled by the decrease of the difference of the shrinkage and sintering behavior of each component.

  3. Comparative landscape genetic analyses show a Belgian motorway to be a gene flow barrier for red deer (Cervus elaphus), but not wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Frantz, A C; Bertouille, S; Eloy, M C; Licoppe, A; Chaumont, F; Flamand, M C

    2012-07-01

    While motorways are often assumed to influence the movement behaviour of large mammals, there are surprisingly few studies that show an influence of these linear structures on the genetic make-up of wild ungulate populations. Here, we analyse the spatial genetic structure of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) along a stretch of motorway in the Walloon part of Belgium. Altogether, 876 red deer were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci, and 325 wild boars at 14 loci. In the case of the red deer, different genetic clustering tools identified two genetic subpopulations whose borders matched the motorway well. Conversely, no genetic structure was identified in the case of the wild boar. Analysis of isolation-by-distance patterns of pairs of individuals on the same side and on different sides of the motorway also suggested that the road was a barrier to red deer, but not to wild boar movement. While telemetry studies seem to confirm that red deer are more affected by motorways than wild boar, the red deer sample size was also much larger than that of the wild boars. We therefore repeated the analysis of genetic structure in the red deer with randomly sub-sampled data sets of decreasing size. The power to detect the genetic structure using clustering methods decreased with decreasing sample size. PMID:22607276

  4. Exposures of Sus scrofa to a TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon: no effects on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    In an earlier study, we found significant changes in red-blood-cell, leukocyte, and platelet counts, and in red-blood-cell membrane proteins, following exposures of anesthetized pigs to a conducted electrical weapon. In the current study, we examined potential changes in plasma proteins [analyzed via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE)] following two 30 s exposures of anesthetized pigs (Sus scrofa) to a TASER (®) C2 conducted electrical weapon. Patterns of proteins, separated by 2-DGE, were consistent and reproducible between animals and between times of sampling. We determined that the blood plasma collection, handling, storage, and processing techniques we used are suitable for swine blood. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma proteins following the conducted-electrical-weapon exposures. Overall gel patterns of fibrinogen were similar to results of other studies of both pigs and humans (in control settings, not exposed to conducted electrical weapons). The lack of significant changes in plasma proteins may be added to the body of evidence regarding relative safety of TASER C2 device exposures. PMID:25319243

  5. Are juvenile domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) sensitive to the attentive states of humans?--The impact of impulsivity on choice behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; Ebersbach, Mirjam; von Borell, Eberhard

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that apes, dogs and horses seem to be able to attribute attentive states to humans. Subjects had to choose between two persons: one who was able to see the animal and one who was not. Using a similar paradigm, we tested a species that does not rely strongly on visual cues, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica). Subjects could choose between two unfamiliar persons, with only one showing attention, in three different conditions (body, head away, body turned - head front). Subjects (n=16) only showed a tendency towards the attentive human in the head away condition. However, by pooling those two conditions where the position of the human head was the only salient cue, we found a significant preference for the attentive person. Moreover, two approach styles could be distinguished - an impulsive style with short response times and a non-impulsive style where response times were relatively long. With the second approach style, pigs chose the attentive person significantly more often than expected by chance level, which was not the case when subjects chose impulsively. These first results suggest that pigs are able to use head cues to discriminate between different attentive states of humans. PMID:23500190

  6. Lung parasites of the genus Metastrongylus Molin, 1861 (Nematoda: Metastrongilidae) in wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) in Central-Italy: An eco-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Poglayen, Giovanni; Marchesi, Barbara; Dall'Oglio, Giulia; Barlozzari, Giulia; Galuppi, Roberta; Morandi, Benedetto

    2016-02-15

    The respiratory tracts of 57 wild boars (Sus scrofa L. 1758) hunted in central Italy during the 2011/2012 hunting season were examined to detect the presence of lung worms. Fifty-five out of 57 animals (96,5%) were positive. Five species of Metastrongylus were detected and their prevalence was as follows: Metastrongylus asymmetricus Noda, 1973 (91.2%), Metastrongylus confusus Jansen, 1964 and Metastrongylus salmi Gedoelst, 1923 (87.7%), Metastrongylus apri Gmelin, 1790 (80.7%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus Vostokov, 1905 (70.2%). In most cases multi-species infection was observed. The highest parasite load was found in young animals (<1 year old). The Metastrongylus genus sex ratio (M/F) had a range from 1:4.8 to 1:1.5 in favor of females. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices showed a moderate uniformity in parasite community composition. The Fager index highlighted a high degree of affinity among all pairs of selected parasites. The whole parasite population showed an aggregate distribution. Our findings confirm that these parasites are widespread in the wild boar population. The establishment of outdoor domestic pig farming in the same area of the game preserve could pose the risk of infection to domestic animals. Further studies will be needed to understand the factors involved in the presence and prevalence of the intermediate host as well as the population dynamics of Metastrongylus spp. PMID:26827860

  7. The Care management Information system for the home Care Network (SI GESCAD): support for care coordination and continuity of care in the Brazilian Unified health system (SUS).

    PubMed

    Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Gottems, Leila Bernarda Donato; Vasconcelos Filho, José Eurico; Silva, Kênia Lara; Gamarski, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The present article describes the development of the initial version of the Brazilian Care Management Information System for the Home Care Network (SI GESCAD). This system was created to enhance comprehensive care, care coordination and the continuity of care provided to the patients, family and caretakers of the Home Care (HC) program. We also present a reflection on the contributions, limitations and possibilities of the SI GESCAD within the scope of the Home Care Network of the Brazilian Unified Health System (RAS-AD). This was a study on technology production based on a multi-method protocol. It discussed software engineering and human-computer interaction (HCI) based on user-centered design, as well as evolutionary and interactive software process (prototyping and spiral). A functional prototype of the GESCAD was finalized, which allowed for the management of HC to take into consideration the patient's social context, family and caretakers. The system also proved to help in the management of activities of daily living (ADLs), clinical care and the monitoring of variables associated with type 2 HC. The SI GESCAD allowed for a more horizontal work process for HC teams at the RAS-AD/SUS level of care, with positive repercussions on care coordination and continuity of care. PMID:26060958

  8. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  9. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47 g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182 mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100 BAEE unit/mg) than a commercial product (9500 BAEE unit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up. PMID:26318238

  10. Serum antibodies directed against classical swine fever virus and other pestiviruses in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Roic, B; Depner, K R; Jemersic, L; Lipej, Z; Cajavec, S; Toncic, J; Lojkic, M; Mihauevic, Z

    2007-04-01

    The presence of serum antibodies directed against classical swine fever (CSF) virus and other pestiviruses among the wild boar (Sus scrofa) population in Croatia was investigated. During 2003, serum samples from 214 wild boars were collected in 10 hunting areas in the continental part of the country. The sera were examined by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) and in the virus neutralization test (VNT). Out of 214 sera tested 111 (51.87 %) were positive by ELISA and regarding neutralising antibodies, against CSFV 75 (35.05 %) samples were positive. In the VNT with the C-strain (conventional live vaccine strain China) and the strain Uelzen were used. Samples were also tested for neutralizing antibodies against border disease virus (BDV) using the strain 137/4 and against bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) using the NADL strain. Neutralizing antibodies against the C-strain were detected in 36 sera (16.82 %), against strain Uelzen in 17 sera (7.94 %) and in 22 sera (10.28 %) against both strains. In five sera (2.33 %) neutralizing antibodies against BVDV and BDV were found. PMID:17484502

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral pathogens in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia in 2005-06 and 2009-10.

    PubMed

    Roic, Besi; Jemersic, Lorena; Terzic, Svjetlana; Keros, Tomislav; Balatinec, Jelena; Florijancic, Tihomir

    2012-01-01

    We determined prevalence of antibody to selected viral pathogens important for domestic pigs and livestock in 556 wild boar (Sus scrofa) sera collected during 2005-06 and 2009-10 in four counties in Croatia. These counties account for an important part of the Croatian commercial pig production and have a high density of wild boars. Samples were tested for antibodies to porcine parvovirus (PPV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Antibodies to all of the infectious pathogens except SVDV were detected. There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence between the two periods for PPV, ADV, PCV2, PRRSV, and PRCV, with a higher prevalence of PPV and ADV in the 2009-10 period (P<0.05). During the same period, the prevalence of PCV2, PRRSV, and PRCV was lower (P<0.05). Our results provide information on the current disease exposure and health status of wild boars in Croatia and suggest that wild boars may act as a reservoir for several pathogens and a source of infection for domestic pigs and other livestock as well as humans, especially for ADV. PMID:22247381

  12. Determining the persistence of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish in select tissues of orally vaccinated feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.).

    PubMed

    Nol, Pauline; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Rhyan, Jack C; McCollum, Matt P; Triantis, Joni M; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Salman, Mo D

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is being considered for vaccination of feral swine (Sus scrofa ssp.). Since BCG is a live bacterium, evaluation of its safety and persistence in tissues is important. Fifteen feral swine received approximately 4.5×10(6) colony forming units of BCG Danish via oral bait. Four animals received bait without BCG. At 1, 3, 6, and 9months post-vaccination, four vaccinates were euthanized. Non-vaccinates were euthanized at 9months. Clinical signs were not noted in vaccinated pigs at any time. Tissues from all 20 pigs were culture-negative for mycobacteria. Based on our data, BCG is safe and appears not to persist in feral swine tissues after one month post-oral vaccination. However, further work must be performed at higher doses, and on a larger number of animals representing the target population, and further evaluation of persistence in tissues within the first month post-vaccination is needed. PMID:26850536

  13. Low-energy EDX--a novel approach to study stress corrosion cracking in SUS304 stainless steel via scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Meisnar, Martina; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Moody, Michael; Holland, James

    2014-11-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in type SUS304 stainless steels, tested under pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water conditions, has been characterized with unprecedented spatial resolution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and novel low-energy (∼3 kV) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). An advancement of the large area silicon drift detector (SDD) has enhanced its sensitivity for X-rays in the low-energy part of the atomic spectrum. Therefore, it was possible to operate the SEM at lower accelerating voltages in order to reduce the interaction volume of the beam with the material and achieve higher spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise ratio. In addition to studying the oxide chemistry at the surface of intergranular stress corrosion cracks, the technique has proven capable of resolving Ni enrichment ahead of some crack tips. Active cracks could be distinguished from inactive ones due to the presence of oxides in the open crack and Ni-rich regions ahead of the crack tip. Furthermore, it has been established that SCC features can be better resolved with low-energy (3 kV) than high-energy (12 kV) EDX. The low effort in sample preparation, execution and data analysis makes SEM the ideal tool for initial characterization and selection of the most important SCC features such as dominant cracks and interesting crack tips, later to be studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). PMID:25080272

  14. Development of a two-parameter slit-scan flow cytometer for screening of normal and aberrant chromosomes: application to a karyotype of Sus scrofa domestica (pig)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Arnold, Armin; Stepanow, Boris; Wickert, Burkhard; Boscher, Jeannine; Popescu, Paul C.; Cremer, Christoph

    1992-07-01

    Laser fluorescence activated slit-scan flow cytometry offers an approach to a fast, quantitative characterization of chromosomes due to morphological features. It can be applied for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. We give a preliminary report on the development of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer. Time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome passes perpendicularly through a narrowly focused laser beam combined by a detection slit in the image plane. So far automated data analysis has been performed off-line on a PC. In its final performance, the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer will achieve on-line data analysis that allows an electro-acoustical sorting of chromosomes of interest. Interest is high in the agriculture field to study chromosome aberrations that influence the size of litters in pig (Sus scrofa domestica) breeding. Slit-scan measurements have been performed to characterize chromosomes of pigs; we present results for chromosome 1 and a translocation chromosome 6/15.

  15. Low wear rate of UHMWPE against zirconia ceramic (Y-PSZ) in comparison to alumina ceramic and SUS 316L alloy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Oka, M; Ikeuchi, K; Shimizu, K; Yamamuro, T; Okumura, H; Kotoura, Y

    1991-07-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia ceramic is being recognized among ceramics for its high strength and toughness. With this ceramic, is possible to manufacture a 22-mm-size femoral head for low friction arthroplasty of the hip joint in association with an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene socket. Wear-resistant properties of zirconia ceramic were screened on two principally different wear devices. Sterile calf bovine serum, physiological saline, and distilled water were chosen as the lubricant fluid media. Depending on the lubricant medium, the wear factor of polyethylene against zirconia ceramic counterfaces was 40 to 60% less than that against alumina ceramic counterfaces, and 5 to 10 times lower than with the SUS316L metal counterfaces. Polyethylene wear against metal was more susceptible in saline in which it had 2 to 3 times higher wear rate than with serum. On the other hand, different fluid media had little effect on polyethylene wear against ceramic counterfaces. In each set of tests, the wear factor obtained on an unidirectional wear device showed 10 to 15 times higher values, in comparison to the wear factor estimated on a reciprocating wear device. PMID:1918102

  16. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    PubMed

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days. PMID:22953853

  17. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    PubMed

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite. PMID:26002310

  18. [Primary health care--the "apple of the eye" of SUS: about social representations of the protagonists of the Unified Health System].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Cotta, Rosngela Minardi Mitre; Arajo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cherchiglia, Maringela Leal; Martins, Tatiana de Castro Pereira

    2011-01-01

    The Primary Health Care (PHC) is the first contact level with the health system. In Brazil, the Family Health Program (PSF) is the main implementation and organization strategy of the PHC. The objective of this study is to evaluate the actions and services of health offered by the PSF, starting from the social representations of the interviewee on the exclusive dimensions of PHC - attention to the first contact, longitudinality, integrality and coordination. It is a quali-quantitative research, accomplished in Cajuri, Minas Gerais State. Municipal managers, PSF professionals and pregnant women assisted by PSF were interviewed. Regarding social representations on SUS, it was observed an inadequate level of apprehension and knowledge of their principles and guidelines. As for PSF, several positive connotations were expressed and the set of perceptions of the protagonists identified it as a restructuring strategy of PHC in the municipality. In spite of this, strong influences of the biomedical model and the challenge of the integration with the other levels of attention were noticed, indicating the need of investments in the professional's training and in the organization of the other levels of attention to health. PMID:21503436

  19. Utilization of Sugarcane Habitat by Feral Pig (Sus scrofa) in Northern Tropical Queensland: Evidence from the Stable Isotope Composition of Hair

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, Christopher M.; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A.; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally ‘crop raid’ into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ13C and δ15N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  20. Effects of a TASER® conducted energy weapon on the circulating red-blood-cell population and other factors in Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Bernhard, Joshua A; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L; Tarango, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    In previous studies hematocrit has been consistently increased in an anesthetized animal model after exposures to TASER(®) conducted energy weapons (CEWs). In the present study we analyzed changes in blood cell counts and red blood cell membrane proteins following two 30-s applications of a TASER C2 device (which is designed for civilian use). Hematocrit increased significantly from 33.2 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD) to 42.8 ± 4.6 % immediately after CEW exposure of eleven pigs (Sus scrofa). Red blood cell count increased significantly from 6.10 ± 0.55 × 10(12)/L to 7.45 ± 0.94 × 10(12)/L, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly from 54.5 ± 2.4 fl to 57.8 ± 2.6 fl. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly from 20.5 ± 0.7 to 18.5 ± 0.6 mM. Thirty protein spots (from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, selected for detailed comparison) exhibited greater densities 30-min post-exposure compared with pre-exposure values. A greater number of echinocytes were observed following CEW exposure. On the basis of these results it appears that, during the strong muscle contractions produced by TASER CEWs, a specific population of red blood cells (RBCs) may be released from the spleen or other reservoirs within the body. The total time of CEW exposure in the present study was relatively long compared with exposures in common law-enforcement scenarios. Despite statistically significant changes in red blood cell counts (and other measures directly related to RBCs), the alterations were short-lived. The transient nature of the changes would be likely to counteract any potentially detrimental effects. PMID:23543463

  1. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  2. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa) in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christopher M; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. Strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. Strain GCS4, Shinella sp. Strain GWS1, and Shinella sp. Strain SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katy J; Moore, Karen; Sambles, Christine; Love, John; Studholme, David J; Aves, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. strain GCS4, and Shinella sp. strains GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B.braunii, race B, strain Guadeloupe. PMID:26769927

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. Strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. Strain GCS4, Shinella sp. Strain GWS1, and Shinella sp. Strain SUS2 Isolated from Consortium with the Hydrocarbon-Producing Alga Botryococcus braunii

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katy J.; Moore, Karen; Love, John

    2016-01-01

    A variety of bacteria associate with the hydrocarbon-producing microalga Botryococcus braunii, some of which may influence its growth. We report here the genome sequences for Achromobacter piechaudii GCS2, Agrobacterium sp. strain SUL3, Microbacterium sp. strain GCS4, and Shinella sp. strains GWS1 and SUS2, isolated from a laboratory culture of B. braunii, race B, strain Guadeloupe. PMID:26769927

  5. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Christopher L; Kraus, Brian R; Garza, Sarah J; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of agricultural systems including epidemiological studies, food safety, biosecurity issues, emergency-response planning, and conflicts between livestock and other natural resources. PMID:26571497

  6. The pathogenic role of torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 and their correlations with various viral pathogens and host immunocytes in wasting pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao; Lin, Chun-Ming; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Hui-Wen; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Pang, Victor Fei

    2015-11-18

    The pathogenic role of torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) in swine is controversial among different studies. The present study intended to evaluate the potential pathogenicity of TTSuV based on its correlations with the histopathological changes, various common concurrently infected viral pathogens including porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV), as well as changes in the distribution and population of host immunocytes such as B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and macrophages by using the superficial inguinal lymph nodes (siLNs) of wasting pigs. A tissue microarray consisting of 270 available siLNs collected from 262 clinically wasting and 8 healthy pigs, respectively, were used for the detection of TTSuV1, TTSuV2, PCV2, PRRSV, and PPV by either in situ hybridization (ISH) or immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, and for the detection of various subsets of immunocytes by IHC staining with monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD79a, and lysozyme. The slides were then subject to digital scanning followed by a semi-quantitative positive pixel evaluation for further statistical analysis. Although a high prevalence of TTSuV1 and/or TTSuV2 infection was noted in both wasting and healthy pigs, the wasting pigs had a significantly higher intensity in both TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 ISH-positive signals than healthy ones did. In the wasting pigs, a significant positive correlation in the tissue viral load was noted between TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 and between TTSuV2 and PCV2, but not between TTSuV1 and PCV2. Conversely, a significant negative correlation in the tissue viral load was revealed between TTSuV2, but not TTSuV1, and PRRSV. The tissue viral load of TTSuV1 was significantly correlated with B cell hyperplasia, while the tissue viral load of TTSuV2 was significantly correlated with increased macrophage population. The ISH positivity of TTSuV2 was significantly correlated with lymphoid depletion and granulomatous inflammation, which are the characteristic histopathological findings in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome-affected pigs. These findings suggest that both TTSuV species may have the potential involving the development of porcine circovirus-associated lymphoid lesions via alternating the host immune system. PMID:26390821

  7. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Sarah J.; Miller, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of agricultural systems including epidemiological studies, food safety, biosecurity issues, emergency-response planning, and conflicts between livestock and other natural resources. PMID:26571497

  8. Accumulation and distribution of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of (137)Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone - 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone - 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of (137)Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The (137)Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg - animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3-10.6 kBq/kg - animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of (137)Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of (90)Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that (90)Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of (90)Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg - animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained (90)Sr - 30.0-110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0-30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone. PMID:23871249

  9. Estudio comparativo de las moléculas isovalentes de interés atmosférico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes halógenos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los últimos años un creciente interés entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas espectroscópicas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electrónicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorción que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atmósfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtención de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran interés. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las moléculas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas moléculas presentan idéntica estructura electrónica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la corrección de nuestros resultados en base a las analogías esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones análogas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado carácter atómico en el espectro correspondiente a estas moléculas, siendo muy similar a los de los átomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, además de establecer la comparación entre ambas moléculas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos halógenos. Los cálculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodología Molécular de Orbítales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los átomos de Cl y Br se empleó la versión relativista del método (RQDO) [3].

  10. Measurement of hydrogen permeation through SUS 316L for pressures from 0.8 to 2.0 bar and thicknesses from 1 to 3 mm at 800°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. K.; Noh, S. J.; In, S. R.

    2012-07-01

    A detailed understanding of the permeation of hydrogen isotopes through structural materials is an important issue concerning the reliability, safety, fuelling and environmental impact of fusion power reactors. The permeation of hydrogen through SUS 316L stainless steel, which will be used in various parts of fusion power reactors, was investigated at an elevated temperature of 800 °C. From experiments at different hydrogen feed pressures of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 bar with a 3-mm-thick membrane coupon, the hydrogen pressure exponent was determined, and the rate-limiting step for the permeation was determined to be bulk diffusion. From experiments using membranes of various thicknesses of 1, 2, and 3 mm at 1 bar, the effect of the membrane thickness on the hydrogen permeation was studied and discussed in relation to the bulk diffusion process. The results and the discussions for the hydrogen permeation experiments are presented here.

  11. Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) viral loads in serum of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected and healthy pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Wendlant, Adriéli; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; Schmidt, Candice; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2015-08-01

    Associations between Torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) and the occurrence of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) have been reported with controversial results. Currently, no studies have been performed comparing simultaneously viral loads of TTSuVs and PCV2. To examine the role for TTSuVs in PMWS-affected animals, a SYBR Green-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) was designed to detect and quantify TTSuV1, TTSuV2 and PCV2 genomes in swine sera. TTSuV1 genome loads were significantly higher in healthy adults than in young and SPF animals (p<0.05) suggesting that the prevalence of TTSuV1 infection increases with age and bears no association with PMWS. Regarding TTSuV2, no significant variation was detected in viral loads within any of the groups. As expected, PCV2 genome loads were higher in PMWS-affected swine than in healthy or SPF animals (p<0.001). These findings provide clear evidence to indicate that neither TTSuV1 nor TTSuV2 viral loads have any correlation with the occurrence of PMWS. PMID:26267087

  12. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population. PMID:23490145

  13. Comparative chromosome painting between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) and two species of peccary, the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari): a phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bosma, A A; de Haan, N A; Arkesteijn, G J A; Yang, F; Yerle, M; Zijlstra, C

    2004-01-01

    The Suidae and the Dicotylidae (or Tayassuidae) are related mammalian families, both belonging to the artiodactyl suborder Suiformes, which diverged more than 37 million years ago. Cross-species chromosome painting was performed between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa; 2n = 38), a representative of the Suidae, and two species of the Dicotylidae: the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu; 2n = 30) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari; 2n = 26). G-banded metaphase chromosomes of the two peccaries were hybridized with whole chromosome painting probes derived from domestic pig chromosomes 1-18 and X. For both peccary species, a total of 31 autosomal segments that are conserved between pig and peccary could be identified. The painting results confirm conclusions inferred from G-band analyses that the karyotypes of the collared peccary and the white-lipped peccary are largely different. The karyotypic heterogeneity of the Dicotylidae contrasts with the relative homogeneity among the karyotypes of the Suidae. For this difference between the Dicotylidae and the Suidae, a number of explanations are being postulated: 1) the extant peccaries are phylogenetically less closely related than is usually assumed; 2) the peccary genome is less stable than the genome of the pigs; and 3) special (e.g. biogeographical or biosocial) circumstances have facilitated the fixation of chromosome rearrangements in ancestral dicotylid populations. PMID:15218266

  14. The role played by sympatric collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) as maintenance hosts for Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in a sylvatic area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Herrera, H M; Abreu, U G P; Keuroghlian, A; Freitas, T P; Jansen, A M

    2008-08-01

    The Brazilian Pantanal has been considered one of the richest and most diverse wetland ecosystems in the world. It is occupied by cattle ranching, and a variety of wildlife species share the same habitats with domestic livestock. We investigated infections of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma cruzi in the sympatric suiformes-collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), and feral pig (Sus scrofa) by parasitological, serological, and molecular tests. Additionally, we evaluated the health status of both positive and negative suiformes by hematological and biochemical parameters. The results show that peccaries and feral pigs play an important role on the maintenance of both T. evansi and T. cruzi in the Brazilian Pantanal. Health impairment was observed only in the white-lipped peccary infected with T. evansi. Despite presenting low T. evansi parasitemia, all infected white-lipped peccaries displayed low hematocrit values and marked leucopenia. The hematological values showed that the T. evansi infection is more severe in young white-lipped peccaries. The presented data show that feral pigs and peccaries are immersed in the transmission net of both trypanosome species, T. cruzi and T. evansi, in the Pantanal region. PMID:18493795

  15. Availability of hospital dental care services under sedation or general anesthesia for individuals with special needs in the Unified Health System for the State of Minas Gerais (SUS-MG), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jacqueline Silva; Valle, Déborah Andrade; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; do Amaral, João Henrique Lara; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2015-02-01

    This study identified the demographic characteristics of individuals and dental treatment care under sedation/general anesthesia in a hospital environment in the Unified Health System in the State of Minas Gerais (SUS-MG). All Hospitalization Authorizations (AIHs) for Dental Treatment for Patients with Special Needs procedures were evaluated between July 2011 and June 2012. Demographic and health care variables for treatment were also assessed. Hospitalization rates per 10,000 inhabitants, and health care coverage provided in the state of Minas Gerais and in each of the Broader Health Regions were calculated. Descriptive analysis of data was carried out by calculating the central trend and variability frequency and measurements. All 1,063 AIHs paid during the study period were evaluated, which is equivalent to a rate of 0.54 hospitalizations per 10,000 individuals. The majority of the patients were adult, male, diagnosed with mental or behavioral disorders and resident in 27.7% of the municipalities in Minas Gerais. The procedures were performed in 39 municipalities and the care coverage was equal to 1.58%. The study reveals a classic demographic and clinical profile of patient attendance. Difficulties in establishing a network of dental care were identified. PMID:25715145

  16. Chromosomal profile of indigenous pig (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, P. Guru; Punyakumari, B.; Ekambaram, B.; Prakash, M. Gnana; Subramanyam, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n) in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05) on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7), subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12) and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18), while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature. PMID:27047069

  17. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  18. Investigating the Role of Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in the Re-Emergence of Enzootic Pneumonia in Domestic Pig Herds: A Pathological, Prevalence and Risk-Factor Study

    PubMed Central

    Batista Linhares, Mainity; Belloy, Luc; Origgi, Francesco C.; Lechner, Isabel; Segner, Helmut; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3–29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs. PMID:25747151

  19. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, C.; Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Rupakheti, M.; Panday, A.; Mahata, K. S.; Rupakheti, D.; Kathayat, B.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2015-09-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the Valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs by deploying a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS)-the first such deployment in South Asia. 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2 σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the Valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m/Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The highest average VOC mixing ratios during the measurement period were (in rank order): acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb), methanol (7.4 ppb), acetone (4.2 ppb), benzene (2.7 ppb), toluene (1.5 ppb), isoprene (1.1 ppb), acetonitrile (1.1 ppb), C8-aromatics (~ 1 ppb), furan (~ 0.5 ppb), and C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m/z = 69.070) and furan (m/z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde (~ 9 ppb), acetonitrile (~ 1 ppb) and isoprene (~ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported till date. Two "new" ambient compounds namely, formamide (m/z = 46.029) and acetamide (m/z = 60.051), which can photochemically produce isocyanic acid in the atmosphere, are reported in this study along with nitromethane (a tracer for diesel exhaust) which has only recently been detected in ambient studies. Two distinct periods were selected during the campaign for detailed analysis: the first was associated with high wintertime emissions of biogenic isoprene, and the second with elevated levels of ambient acetonitrile, benzene and isocyanic acid from biomass burning activities. Emissions from biomass burning and biomass co-fired brick kilns were found to be the dominant sources for compounds such as propyne, propene, benzene and propanenitrile which correlated strongly with acetonitrile (r2 > 0.7), a chemical tracer for biomass burning. The calculated total VOC OH reactivity was dominated by acetaldehyde (24.0 %), isoprene (20.2 %) and propene (18.7 %), while oxygenated VOCs and isoprene collectively contributed to more than 68 % of the total ozone production potential. Based on known SOA yields and measured ambient concentrations in the Kathmandu Valley, the relative SOA production potential of VOCs were: benzene > naphthalene > toluene > xylenes > monoterpenes > trimethyl-benzenes > styrene > isoprene. The first ambient measurements from any site in South Asia of compounds with significant health effects such as isocyanic acid, formamide, acetamide, naphthalene and nitromethane have been reported in this study. Our results suggest that mitigation of intense wintertime biomass burning activities, in particular point sources such biomass co-fired brick kilns, would be important to reduce the emission and formation of toxic VOCs (such as benzene and isocyanic acid) in the Kathmandu Valley and improve its air quality.

  20. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Kumar, Vinod; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico; Mahata, Khadak S.; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterise the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs, by deploying a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) - the first such deployment in South Asia. In the study, 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m / Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The concentration ranking in the average VOC mixing ratios during our wintertime deployment was acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb) > methanol (7.4 ppb) > acetone + propanal (4.2 ppb) > benzene (2.7 ppb) > toluene (1.5 ppb) > isoprene (1.1 ppb) > acetonitrile (1.1 ppb) > C8-aromatics ( ˜ 1 ppb) > furan ( ˜ 0.5 ppb) > C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m / z = 69.070) and furan (m / z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde ( ˜ 9 ppb), acetonitrile ( ˜ 1 ppb) and isoprene ( ˜ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported to date. Two "new" ambient compounds, namely formamide (m / z = 46.029) and acetamide (m / z = 60.051), which can photochemically produce isocyanic acid in the atmosphere, are reported in this study along with nitromethane (a tracer for diesel exhaust), which has only recently been detected in ambient studies. Two distinct periods were selected during the campaign for detailed analysis: the first was associated with high wintertime emissions of biogenic isoprene and the second with elevated levels of ambient acetonitrile, benzene and isocyanic acid from biomass burning activities. Emissions from biomass burning and biomass co-fired brick kilns were found to be the dominant sources for compounds such as propyne, propene, benzene and propanenitrile, which correlated strongly with acetonitrile (r2 > 0.7), a chemical tracer for biomass burning. The calculated total VOC OH reactivity was dominated by acetaldehyde (24.0 %), isoprene (20.2 %) and propene (18.7 %), while oxygenated VOCs and isoprene collectively contributed to more than 68 % of the total ozone production potential. Based on known secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields and measured ambient concentrations in the Kathmandu Valley, the relative SOA production potential of VOCs were benzene > naphthalene > toluene > xylenes > monoterpenes > trimethylbenzenes > styrene > isoprene. The first ambient measurements from any site in South Asia of compounds with significant health effects such as isocyanic acid, formamide, acetamide, naphthalene and nitromethane have been reported in this study. Our results suggest that mitigation of intense wintertime biomass burning activities, in particular point sources such biomass co-fired brick kilns, would be important to reduce the emission and formation of toxic VOCs (such as benzene and isocyanic acid) in the Kathmandu Valley.

  1. Informe del NCI y los CDC sobre el tabaco sin humo

    Cancer.gov

    El primer informe sobre el consumo mundial del tabaco sin humo y sus consecuencias en la salud pública reveló que más de 300 millones de personas en al menos 70 países usan estos productos dañinos.

  2. Normal Electrocardiogram of Bama Miniature Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Bin; Guo, Ke-Nan; Xie, Fei; Liu, Yu; Shang, Hai-Tao; Wei, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the normal ECG patterns and values for Bama miniature pigs. Standard limb-lead ECG were recorded from 120 clinically healthy, unanesthetized piglets (age, 2 to 4 mo). The values for the ECG parameters (mean ± 1 SD) were: heart rate, 125.56 ± 18.80 bpm; P amplitude, 0.11 ± 0.03 mV; QRS amplitude, 0.63 ± 0.31 mV; P duration, 43.99 ± 5.98 ms; QRS complex, 55.27 ± 7.02 ms; RR interval, 487.55 ± 77.32 ms; PR interval, 90.72 ± 11.94 ms; QT interval, 244.72 ± 25.27 ms; and mean electrical axis, 22.2 ± 80.3°. The P waves were predominantly positive in leads I and II and in the augmented unipolar limb aVF lead; by comparison, the QRS patterns were less uniform. The T waves were slightly positive in leads II, III, and aVF. The determination and publication of the normal ECG patterns and values of Bama minipigs facilitates understanding of the electrocardiographic changes that arise under experimental conditions. PMID:27025805

  3. Characterisation of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Briones, Víctor; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Vela, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Wild boar are widely distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and can carry potentially virulent strains of Streptococcus suis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. suis in wild boars from two large geographical regions of Spain. Serotypes 1, 2, 7 and 9 identified were further genetically characterised by virulence-associated genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the population structure of S. suis carried by these animals. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 39.1% of the wild boars examined: serotype 9 was the most frequently isolated (12.5%), followed by serotype 1 (2.5%). Serotype 2 was rarely isolated (0.3%). Eighteen additional serotypes were identified indicating wide diversity of this pathogen within the wild boar population. This heterogeneity was confirmed by PFGE and MLST analyses and the majority of isolates exhibited the virulence-associated genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-. The results of this study highlight that the carriage of S. suis by wild boars is commonplace. However, MLST data indicate that these isolates are not related to prevalent clonal complexes ST1, ST16, ST61 and ST87 typically associated with infection of pigs or humans in Europe. PMID:24726078

  4. Heritability estimate of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Huang, S Y; Tsou, H L; Chiu, Y T; Shyu, J J; Wu, J J; Lin, J H; Liu, S K

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heritability of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in pigs and the relation between HCM and heart measurements, pathologic features, and growth to provide references for HCM line development. A total of 353 on-farm tested gilts (females) and boars (males) from 74 sire families were randomly selected from a single breeding farm where HCM was prevalent. Hearts were collected after animals were slaughtered. Heart length, width, and weight, heart-to-body weight ratio, and thickness of the cranial, middle, and caudal portions of the ventricular septum, left and right ventricles, and apex were measured. Cardiac hypertrophy and myocyte disorganization, myocardial and endocardial fibrosis, and intramural coronary arterial occlusion were used as criteria for HCM. Growth traits were evaluated from average daily body weight gain, ultrasonically determined backfat thickness, loin-eye area, and performance selection index. Heritability of the disease was estimated by treating it as a threshold trait. The prevalence of HCM in three studied breeds was 5.26 in Duroc, 22.98 in Landrace, and 5.56% in Yorkshire pigs. The value in Landrace pigs was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that in the other pigs. There was no significant difference between sexes. In general the heart of pigs with HCM was heavier, wider, longer, and thicker than that of clinically normal pigs. Backfat was the only growth trait with a difference (P < 0.05) among pig breeds. The HCM pigs were leaner than normal pigs. Leaner pigs may have a higher risk of HCM. Heritability of HCM was > 0.30 for all three breeds, but the standard errors of these estimates were high because of limited sample size, in particular for the Yorkshire and Duroc breeds. The preliminary results of this study indicate that HCM in pigs is moderately heritable; thus development of a high-HCM incidence line by selection is possible. PMID:8799938

  5. Como reembolsar sus prestamos para estudiantes (Repaying Your Student Loans).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This guide, written in Spanish, discusses how to repay student loans. Following a general introduction, the guide discusses the grace period before repayment and repayment requirements. Repayment plans are described for Perkins Loans, Direct Loans, and Federal Family Education Loans. Repayment options are discussed, including consolidation,…

  6. 78 FR 62643 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Disaster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...), Solicitud en Papel/Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre;...

  7. Serological Profile of Torque Teno Sus Virus Species 1 (TTSuV1) in Pigs and Antigenic Relationships between Two TTSuV1 Genotypes (1a and 1b), between Two Species (TTSuV1 and -2), and between Porcine and Human Anelloviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yao-Wei; Harrall, Kylie K.; Dryman, Barbara A.; Opriessnig, Tanja; Vaughn, Eric M.; Roof, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    The family Anelloviridae includes human and animal torque teno viruses (TTVs) with extensive genetic diversity. The antigenic diversity among anelloviruses has never been assessed. Using torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) as a model, we describe here the first investigation of the antigenic relationships among different anelloviruses. Using a TTSuV genotype 1a (TTSuV1a) or TTSuV1b enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the respective putative ORF1 capsid antigen and TTSuV1-specific real-time PCR, the combined serological and virological profile of TTSuV1 infection in pigs was determined and compared with that of TTSuV2. TTSuV1 is likely not associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), because both the viral loads and antibody levels were not different between affected and unaffected pigs and because there was no synergistic effect of concurrent PCV2/TTSuV1 infections. We did observe a higher correlation of IgG antibody levels between anti-TTSuV1a and -TTSuV1b than between anti-TTSuV1a or -1b and anti-TTSuV2 antibodies in these sera, implying potential antigenic cross-reactivity. To confirm this, rabbit antisera against the putative capsid proteins of TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b, or TTSuV2 were generated, and the antigenic relationships among these TTSuVs were analyzed by an ELISA and by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using PK-15 cells transfected with one of the three TTSuV ORF1 constructs. The results demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity between the two genotypes TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b but not between the two species TTSuV1a or -1b and TTSuV2. Furthermore, an anti-genogroup 1 human TTV antiserum did not react with any of the three TTSuV antigens. These results have important implications for an understanding of the diversity of anelloviruses as well as for the classification and vaccine development of TTSuVs. PMID:22811540

  8. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educación en Astronomía y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educação em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando

    2014-12-01

    This paper is a reflection about the use of History of Science in the curriculum of formal education, through the discussion concerning cultural elements of several ethnic groups in Brazil, in actions related to astronomy education. The work was developed in the framework of an extension course and the analysis undertaken here refers to a meeting that discussed didactic sequences relating to that theme, based on the Brazilian law 11.645/2008, which states the obligation to present the subject "African-brazilian and indigenous History and Culture" in the official curriculum. The extension action was developed with teachers who teach Natural Sciences, in São Paulo state, discussing issues related to the use of History of Science and the relationship with cosmogonies from Iorubá and Tupi peoples, highlighting how they can enhance the work with Astronomy(ies) in the classroom. It was observed that the participants had not yet presented these themes in their classes and also did not participate in training courses that discussed these subjects. Este artículo presenta una reflexión sobre el uso de la historia de la ciencia en el currículo de la educación formal, a través de la discusión sobre el uso de los elementos culturales de los grupos étnicos en Brasil, en acciones relacionadas con la educación en astronomía. El trabajo se desarrolló en el marco de un curso de extensión y el análisis realizado aquí se refiere a un encuentro en el cual se abordaron secuencias didácticas relacionadas con ese tema, sobre la base de la ley brasilera 11.645/2008 que dispone la obligatoriedad del tema "Historia y Cultura africana e indígena en el Brasil" en el currículo oficial. La acción de extensión se desarrolló con los profesores de ciencias naturales en el interior del estado de São Paulo, discutiendo temas relacionados con el uso de la historia de la ciencia y la relación con las cosmogonías de los pueblos Iorubá y Tupi, que muestra cómo se puede mejorar el trabajo con Astronomía(s) en la clase. Se observó que los participantes todavía no habían presentado estos temas en sus clases y tampoco habían participado en cursos de formación que abordaran estos temas. O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflexão acerca da utilização da História da Ciência no currículo da educação formal, por meio da discussão relativa ao emprego de elementos culturais de grupos étnicos em ações voltadas à educação em Astronomia. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no âmbito de um curso de extensão e a análise aqui empreendida refere-se a um encontro que abordou sequências didáticas relativas àquele tema, com fundamento na lei 11.645/2008 e a obrigatoriedade de abordagem da temática "História e Cultura Afro-Brasileira e Indígena" no currículo oficial. A ação de extensão ocorreu junto a professores que ensinam Ciências da Natureza, no interior do estado de São Paulo, discutindo-se temas relativos ao uso de História da Ciência e o relacionamento com cosmogonias oriundas dos povos Iorubá e Tupi, evidenciando como podem enriquecer o trabalho com a(s) Astronomia(s) em sala de aula. Observou-se que os participantes ainda não haviam apresentado estes temas em suas aulas e, igualmente, não participaram de cursos de formação que contemplassem a referida temática.

  9. Délais de prise en charge des syndromes coronariens aigus avec sus-décalage du segment ST à Ouagadougou et facteurs associés à un allongement de ces délais: étude transversale à propos de 43 cas colligés au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo

    PubMed Central

    Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Samadoulougou, André; Millogo, Georges; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Kombassere, Karim; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    La prise en charge de l'infarctus du myocarde est une course contre la montre et les trois premières heures constituent les « golden hours ». Les objectifs de ce travail étaient de déterminer le délai de prise en charge des infarctus du myocarde du myocarde au Burkina Faso, les facteurs liés à un allongement du délai et le pronostic des patients. Il s'agit d'une étude transversale descriptive menée de Septembre 2010 à Août 2011. Le critère d'inclusion était l'infarctus du myocarde dont le diagnostic était basé sur des critères clinique (douleur angineuse), électrocardiographique (sus-décalage persistant du segment ST dans au moins deux dérivations contiguës du même territoire coronaire, onde Q de nécrose) et biologique (élévation de la troponine). Les informations relatives au délai de prise en charge ont été recueillies: début du premier symptôme, contact avec le premier agent de santé et le cardiologue, nombre de centre de santé consulté avant le transfert en cardiologie, situation géographique des patients, moyen de transport utilisé. Les données ont été analysées grâce au logiciel SPSS version 17. Durant la période d’étude, 43 patients d’âge moyen de 56,51 ± 12,91 ans ont été admis pour infarctus du myocarde. Plus de la moitié des patients (72,0%) habitait Ouagadougou et sa banlieue. Le délai moyen entre le début de la douleur et la consultation dans la première structure sanitaire était de 48 ± 20,8 heures; celui entre le début de la douleur et la réalisation du premier ECG était en moyenne de 8,6 ±4,5 jours. Le délai entre la réalisation de l'ECG et l'admission dans le service de cardiologie était de 4,35 ±4,0 jours [00 heure et 13 jours]. Le délai entre l'admission dans le service de cardiologie et la thrombolyse était de 34 minutes. Enfin le délai entre le début de la douleur et le contact avec le cardiologue était de 9,6±3,5 jours. Il n'y avait pas de différence statiquement significative (P = 0,076) entre le délai de consultation des malades résidant en campagne et ceux résidant en ville. Le moyen de déplacement le plus utilisé était les transports en commun (67,4%). Aucun patient n’était référé par un transport médicalisé. Aucun patient n’était référé après la première consultation dans une structure sanitaire. Seuls 6 patients étaient référés avec le diagnostic de SCA ST+. L’âge de plus de 60 ans (P = 0,016), la prescription des antalgiques (p =0,021) et le niveau socioéconomique faible (P= 0,038) étaient également des facteurs associés à un allongement des délais de prise en charge. La reperfusion myocardique était constituée par la thrombolyse à la streptokinase qui a été réalisée chez 2 patients. La coronarographie n'a pas été réalisée. L’évolution a été marquée par 5 décès (11,6%). la prise en charge des infarctus du myocarde au Burkina Faso est caractérisée par de très longs délais. Elle n'est de ce fait pas optimale. PMID:23396976

  10. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  11. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has

  12. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden and evaluation of ELISA test performance.

    PubMed

    Wallander, C; Frössling, J; Vågsholm, I; Uggla, A; Lundén, A

    2015-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite, infecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals. The Swedish wild boar population is expanding and increased hunting provides its meat to a growing group of consumers. We performed a spatio-temporal investigation of T. gondii seroprevalence in Swedish wild boars. An ELISA was set up and evaluated against a commercial direct agglutination test, using Bayesian latent class analysis. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were estimated to 79% and 85%, respectively. Of 1327 serum samples, 50% were positive. Thirty-four per cent of young wild boars and 55% of adults were positive (P < 0.001). The total seroprevalence ranged from 72% in 2005 to 38% in 2011 (P < 0.001), suggesting a declining trend. The highest seroprevalence, 65%, was recorded in South Sweden. In other regions it varied from 29% in Stockholm to 46% in East Middle Sweden. PMID:25373497

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diannan small-ear pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Yu; Xu, Dong; Xiao, Ding-Fu; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diannan small-ear pig in Yunnan Province was firstly reported, which was determined through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The total length of mitochondrial genome of Diannan small-ear pig was 16720 bp, including 34.77% A, 26.18% C, 25.81% T and 13.24% G, and in the order A > C > T > G. Mitochondrial genome contained a major non-coding control region (D-Loop region), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 22 transfer RNA genes. The mitochondrial genome of Diannan small-ear pig provides an important data set for the study on genetic mechanism. PMID:25090388

  14. The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of Laiwu Black pig (Sus Scrofa).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hu; Xu, Xing-Li; Ma, Hai-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the ear tissue of an adult Laiwu Black pig is from the Shandong province of China. The complete mitochondrial genome of Laiwu Black pig was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,710 bp, and it contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a control region (D-loop), with the genome organization and gene order being identical to that of the typical vertebrates. PMID:24960570

  15. Como ayudar a sus hijos a usar la biblioteca (Helping Your Child Use the Library).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkinson, Kathryn

    Focusing on the cooperative role of parents and public libraries in stimulating reading interests in children of all ages, this booklet addresses the following issues: (1) getting children interested in reading (reading aloud to children; encouraging children to read to you; starting a home library; showing children that you enjoy reading;…

  16. Complex Glycan Catabolism by the Human Gut Microbiota: The Bacteroidetes Sus-like Paradigm*

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Eric C.; Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Smith, Thomas J.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2009-01-01

    Trillions of microbes inhabit the distal gut of adult humans. They have evolved to compete efficiently for nutrients, including a wide array of chemically diverse, complex glycans present in our diets, secreted by our intestinal mucosa, and displayed on the surfaces of other gut microbes. Here, we review how members of the Bacteroidetes, one of two dominant gut-associated bacterial phyla, process complex glycans using a series of similarly patterned, cell envelope-associated multiprotein systems. These systems provide insights into how gut, as well as terrestrial and aquatic, Bacteroidetes survive in highly competitive ecosystems. PMID:19553672

  17. Genetic diversity in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region of global swine (Sus scrofa) populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junxia; Jiao, Ting; Zhao, Shengguo

    2016-05-13

    Increased global use of highly productive commercial breeds has reduced genetic diversity in indigenous breeds. It is necessary to protect local porcine breeds. We therefore assessed the level of genetic diversity in global swine populations. In this study, the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region was examined in 1010 sequences from indigenous pigs and commercial swine as well as 3424 publicly available sequences We identified 334 haplotypes and 136 polymorphic sites. Genetic diversity was analyzed based on basic parameters, including haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity and the average number of nucleotide differences, and also assessed by principal component analysis. A comparison of nucleotide diversity and the average number of nucleotide differences between indigenous breeds and commercial breeds showed that indigenous pigs had a lower level of diversity than commercial breeds. The principle component analysis result also showed the genetic diversity of the indigenous breeds was lower than that of commercial breeds. Collectively, our results reveal the Southeast Asian porcine population exhibited the higher nucleotide diversity, whereas Chinese population appeared consistently lower level in Asia. European, American and Oceanian pigs had a relatively higher degree of genetic diversity compared with that of Asian pigs. In conclusion, our findings indicated that the introgression of commercial into indigenous breeds decreased indigenous breeds' genetic diversity. PMID:27060545

  18. La historia de la Literatura: sus problemas y methodos (The History of Literature: Problems and Methods)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopico, Blanca

    1975-01-01

    In order to achieve its goals, the study of literary history should follow a "programmed process." Such a process would help solve problems in the following areas: bibliography, text criticism, interpretation and explanation, dates and chronology, authenticity, source and origin etc. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  19. Crystal Structure of Sus scrofa Quinolinate Phosphoribosyltransferase in Complex with Nicotinate Mononucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Mun-Kyoung; Kang, Gil Bu; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lee, Jung-Gyu; An, Jun Yop; Park, Kyoung Ryoung; Lee, Youngjin; Kang, Jung Youn; Song, Hye-Eun; Park, Inju; Cho, Chunghee; Fukuoka, Shin-Ichi; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of porcine quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QAPRTase) in complex with nicotinate mononucleotide (NAMN), which is the first crystal structure of a mammalian QAPRTase with its reaction product. The structure was determined from protein obtained from the porcine kidney. Because the full protein sequence of porcine QAPRTase was not available in either protein or nucleotide databases, cDNA was synthesized using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to determine the porcine QAPRTase amino acid sequence. The crystal structure revealed that porcine QAPRTases have a hexameric structure that is similar to other eukaryotic QAPRTases, such as the human and yeast enzymes. However, the interaction between NAMN and porcine QAPRTase was different from the interaction found in prokaryotic enzymes, such as those of Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The crystal structure of porcine QAPRTase in complex with NAMN provides a structural framework for understanding the unique properties of the mammalian QAPRTase active site and designing new antibiotics that are selective for the QAPRTases of pathogenic bacteria, such as H. pylori and M. tuberculosis. PMID:23626766

  20. Cooperation improves the access of wild boars (Sus scrofa) to food sources.

    PubMed

    Focardi, S; Morimando, F; Capriotti, S; Ahmed, A; Genov, P

    2015-12-01

    Wild boar is a highly polycotous ungulate species, characterized by a complex and dynamical social organization based on the maintenance of long-term bonds between mother and daughters. The roots of this social organization have to be researched at the individual level, considering adaptations that improve fitness in hostile environments. We used information collected by camera-traps at artificial feeding sites, in two contrasting environments in Bulgaria (mountain habitat) and Italy (sub-Mediterranean habitat). We recorded 417 and 885 distinct groups on 7 and 11 foraging sites in Bulgaria and Italy, respectively. We computed (controlling for time range, study area and supplementary feeding site) an index of effective foraging time of the different social groups. We observed a positive and significant effect of the number of conspecifics of the same social group on the effective foraging time. The impact of the other social classes on effective foraging time is also positive, and males, yearlings, and juveniles benefited more from the presence of other social classes, while females were less affected. The access of the different social groups to foraging sites is not random. Males and yearlings play producers (i.e., search for food) and are prone to attend foraging sites before adult females and subadults, so attaining a larger foraging efficiency with respect to a situation where other groups are already present on the feeding site. Wild boars exhibit a more complex social organisation than previously believed, where cooperation prevails largely on competition. A rough division of labour is also present: yearlings, males, and juveniles use to play producers and assume a significant amount of risk determined by the presence of predators or hunters. PMID:26522932

  1. [Integrality, health professional education, health education and sus proposals: a conceptual review].

    PubMed

    Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles; Queiroz, Danielle Teixeira; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha; Barroso, Maria Graziela Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    We understand the integrality in people's care, groups and collectivity having the client as a historical, social and political subject, integrated to his family context, to the environment and the society in which he is inserted. In this scenery the importance of education actions in health is highlighted as an integrating strategy of a collective knowledge that translates in the individual his autonomy and emancipation. Based on this comprehension the study aims to reflect on the principle of the integrality as an axis director of the education actions in health. The education in health as a pedagogical and political process requests the development of a critical and reflexive thinking, allowing to reveal the reality and to propose transforming actions, while historical and social subject able to propose and to give opinions in the decisions of health for his own care, of his family and of the collectivity. PMID:17680088

  2. Promotores Comunitarios: sus aportes y difficultades (Community Facilitators: Their Contributions and Difficulties.) Occasional Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Jani; Martinic, Sergio

    The Bernard van Leer Foundation sponsors nontraditional, nonschool programs designed to improve the chances that preschoolers will enroll in school. In these programs and other informal education efforts, the community facilitator plays an important role. Typically, the facilitator is a member of the community who works without remuneration as a

  3. Single nucleotide markers of D-loop for identification of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Gaurav Kumar; Rajput, Nidhi; Jadav, Kajal Kumar; Shrivastav, Avadh Bihari; Joshi, Himanshu R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Partial fragment of D-loop region extending from 35 to 770 were compared with corresponding sequences of 16 wild pigs and 9 domestic pig breeds from different parts of the world for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the region. The paper also reappraises SNP markers from two fragments of cytochrome b gene and a fragment 12S rRNA gene distinguishing the Indian wild pig from other pig species of the world. Materials and Methods: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from 14 and 12 tissue samples of Indian wild and domestic pigs, respectively, collected from Central India for characterization of the D-loop DNA sequences using universal primers. The sequences obtained were aligned along with the retrieved sequences to analyze species-specific SNP marker. Results: A total of 58 mitochondrial D-loop gene sequences of pig races were aligned to identify 1349 polymorphic sites in the fragment from nucleotide positions 35-770 bp and four SNP markers were identified to differentiate Indian wild pig from all the sequences investigated in this study. With the inclusion of cytochrome b gene and 12S rRNA gene fragments, the present study contributes to the total 15 SNP markers, which have been identified in the mitochondrial fragment of 1936 bp for identification of Indian wild pig. Conclusion: SNP markers have advantages over other marker types and do not require subsequent standardization to compare data across studies or laboratories. PMID:27047129

  4. Evidence for a link between tail biting and central monoamine metabolism in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Valros, Anna; Palander, Pälvi; Heinonen, Mari; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Brunberg, Emma; Keeling, Linda; Piepponen, Petteri

    2015-05-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a major welfare problem within the swine industry. Even though there is plenty of information on housing and management-related risk factors, the biological bases of this behavioral problem are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between tail biting, based on behavioral recordings of pigs during an ongoing outbreak, and certain neurotransmitters in different brain regions of these pigs. We used a total of 33 pigs at a farm with a long-standing problem of tail biting. Three equally big behavioral phenotypic groups, balanced for gender and age were selected, the data thus consisting of 11 trios of pigs. Two of the pigs in each trio originated from the same pen: one tail biter (TB) and one tail biting victim (V). A control (C) pig was selected from a pen without significant tail biting in the same farm room. We found an effect of tail biting behavioral phenotype on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, with a tendency for a higher 5-HIAA level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of TB compared to the other groups, while V pigs showed changes in both serotonin and dopamine metabolism in the striatum (ST) and limbic cortex (LC). Trp:BCAA and Trp:LNAA correlated positively with serotonin and 5-HIAA in the PFC, but only in TB pigs. Furthermore, in both ST and LC, several of the neurotransmitters and their metabolites correlated positively with the frequency of bites received by the pig. This is the first study indicating a link between brain neurotransmission and tail biting behavior in pigs with TB pigs showing a tendency for increased PFC serotonin metabolism and V pigs showing several changes in central dopamine and serotonin metabolism in their ST and LC, possibly due to the acute stress caused by being bitten. PMID:25728243

  5. Glycocalyx characterisation and glycoprotein expression of Sus domesticus epididymal sperm surface samples.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Anna; Puigmulé, Marta; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Bonet, Sergi; Pinart, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The sperm surface is covered with a dense coating of carbohydrate-rich molecules. Many of these molecules are involved in the acquisition of fertilising ability. In the present study, eight lectins (i.e. Arachis hypogae (peanut) agglutinin (PNA), Lens culimaris (lentil) agglutinin-A (LCA), Pisum sativum (pea) agglutin (PSA), Triticum vulgari (wheat) germ agglutinin (WGA), Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney bean) leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Glycine max (soybean) agglutinin (SBA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I)) were investigated to identify changes in the nature and localisation of glycoproteins in boar spermatozoa migrating along the epididymal duct. Complementary procedures included measurement of global lectin binding over the surface of the viable sperm population by flow cytometry, analysis of lectin localisation on the membrane of individual spermatozoa using fluorescence microscopy and the electrophoretic characterisation of the major sperm surface glycoprotein receptors involved in lectin binding. A significant increase was found in sperm galactose, glucose/mannose and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine residues distally in the epididymis. Moreover, the sperm head, cytoplasmic droplet and midpiece were recognised by most of the lectins tested, whereas only HPA and WGA bound to the principal piece and end piece of the sperm tail. Fourteen sperm surface proteins were observed with different patterns of lectin expression between epididymal regions. The sperm glycocalyx modifications observed in the present study provide an insight into the molecular modifications associated with epididymal maturation, which may be correlated with the degree of maturation of ejaculated spermatozoa. PMID:22541550

  6. Salmonella serotypes in wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic enteric bacteria able to infect humans, livestock and wildlife. However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour (omnivorous scavengers), wild boars may be a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in hunted wild boars and to determine the serotype the isolated strains. Findings Over three hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 1,313 boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 326 boars (24.82%). Thirty different serovars belonging to three different S. enterica spp. were found. Twenty-one serovars of S. enterica subsp. Enterica were found including the human pathogens S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. In addition, nine serovars belonging to S.enterica subsp. diarizonae and S. enterica subsp. houtenae were detected. Conclusions Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated. Wild boars may act as healthy carriers of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes. PMID:23692883

  7. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis. PMID:27044164

  8. Microstructure analysis for chemical interaction between cesium and SUS 316 steel in fast breeder reactor application

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, K.; Fukumoto, K. I.; Oshima, T.; Tanigaki, T.; Masayoshi, U.

    2012-07-01

    In this study the corrosion products on a surface after cesium corrosion examination at 650 deg. C for 100 hrs were characterized by TEM observation around the corroded area on the surface in order to understand the corrosion mechanism of cesium fission product for cladding materials in fast reactor. The experimental results suggest the main corrosion mechanism occurred in the process of the separation of cesium chromate and metal (Fe, Ni). The main reaction of corrosion process was considered to be equation, 2Cs + 7/2 O{sub 2} + 2Cr {yields} Cs{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}(L). (authors)

  9. Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, Michaela; Pinková, Martina; Květoňová, Dana; Kalinová, Jana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Vítovec, Jiří; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, John; Stenger, Brianna; Sak, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    We describe the morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium pig genotype II and propose the species name Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. to reflect its prevalence in adult pigs worldwide. Oocysts of C. scrofarum are morphologically indistinguishable from C. parvum, measuring 4.81–5.96 µm (mean = 5.16) × 4.23–5.29 µm (mean = 4.83) with a length to width ratio of 1.07 ± 0.06 (n = 400). Oocysts of C. scrofarum obtained from a naturally infected pig were infectious for 8-week-old pigs but not 4-week-old pigs. The prepatent period in 8-week-old Cryptosporidium-naive pigs was 4–6 days and the patent period was longer than 30 days. The infection intensity of C. scrofarum in pigs was generally low, in the range 250-4000 oocysts per gram of faeces. Infected pigs showed no clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and no pathology was detected. Cryptosporidium scrofarum was not infectious for adult SCID mice, adult BALB c mice, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), southern multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha), yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), or guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Phylogenetic analyses based on Small subunit rRNA, actin, and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences revealed that C. scrofarum is genetically distinct from all known Cryptosporidium species. PMID:23021264

  10. Innate Immunity Correlates with Host Fitness in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Exposed to Classical Swine Fever

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Sophie; Doucelin, Anaïs; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Eraud, Cyril; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive humoral immunity (CHI) is thought to be a first-line of protection against pathogens invading vertebrate hosts. However, clear evidence that CHI correlates with host fitness in natural conditions is still lacking. This study explores the relationship between CHI, measured using a haemagglutination-haemolysis assay (HAHL), and resistance to classical swine fever virus (CSFV) among wild boar piglets. The individual dynamics of HAHL during piglet growth was analysed, using 423 serum samples from 92 piglets repeatedly captured in the absence of CSFV (in 2006) within two areas showing contrasting food availability. Natural antibody levels increased with age, but, in the youngest piglets antibody levels were higher in individuals from areas with the highest food availability. Complement activity depended on natural antibody levels and piglets' body condition. In the presence of CSFV (i.e., in 2005 within one area), serum samples from piglets that were repeatedly captured were used to assess whether piglet HAHL levels affected CSFV status at a later capture. The correlation between CHI and resistance to CSFV was tested using 79 HAHL measures from 23 piglets captured during a CSFV outbreak. Both natural antibodies and complement activity levels measured at a given time correlated negatively to the subsequent probability of becoming viremic. Finally, capture-mark-recapture models showed that piglets with medium/high average complement activity, independently of their age, were significantly less at risk of becoming viremic and more likely to develop a specific immune response than piglets with low complement activity. Additionally, piglets with high average complement activity showed the highest survival prospects. This study provides evidence linking CHI to individual fitness within a natural mammal population. The results also highlight the potential of HAHL assays to explore the dynamics and co-evolution between wildlife mammal hosts and blood-borne parasites interacting with the CHI. PMID:24260286

  11. [Basic values of blood coagulation parameters in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    PubMed

    Hahn, N; Popov-Cenic, S; Dorer, A

    1996-01-01

    On 23 clinical healthy pigs (2-4 months of age, body weight 13-42 kg) under ketamin-pentobarbital anaesthesia blood plasma coagulation parameters have been investigated. To obtain basic values 26 parameters were measured: number of thrombocytes, parameters of thrombelastogram and resonance-thrombogram, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, reptilase time, factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, X, antithrombin III, plasminogen, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, fibrin degradation products D and E and euglobulin lysis-time. Parameters calculated in percent should be measured against a pig plasma pool. Measurement against a human plasma pool are hardly valid in values higher than 100%. In comparison to man the results indicate modifications of fibrinogenesis and fibrinolysis in pigs. PMID:8593155

  12. Como Ayudar a sus Hijos a Aprender Ciencia (Helping Your Child Learn Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy; Martin, Margery

    Because most parents say they do not or cannot help their children with science, this booklet was designed to help them do so, easily and with pleasure for both parent and child. The introduction presents information on why and how parents should help their children and provides a general orientation to the ideas and activities offered in the…

  13. Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) as an Animal Model for Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.

    PubMed

    Yauri, Verónica; Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E; Verastegui, Manuela; Angulo, Noelia; Recuenco, Fernando; Cabello, Ines; Malaga, Edith; Bern, Caryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Pigs were infected with a Bolivian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (genotype I) and evaluated up to 150 days postinoculation (dpi) to determine the use of pigs as an animal model of Chagas disease. Parasitemia was observed in the infected pigs during the acute phase (15-40 dpi). Anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulin M was detected during 15-75 dpi; high levels of anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulin G were detected in all infected pigs from 75 to 150 dpi. Parasitic DNA was observed by western blot (58%, 28/48) and polymerase chain reaction (27%, 13/48) in urine samples, and in the brain (75%, 3/4), spleen (50%, 2/4), and duodenum (25%, 1/4), but no parasitic DNA was found in the heart, colon, and kidney. Parasites were not observed microscopically in tissues samples, but mild inflammation, vasculitis, and congestion was observed in heart, brain, kidney, and spleen. This pig model was useful for the standardization of the urine test because of the higher volume that can be obtained as compared with other small animal models. However, further experiments are required to observe pathological changes characteristic of Chagas disease in humans. PMID:26928841

  14. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-06-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals. PMID:27078648

  15. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus orígenes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Sustained-Release and Transdermal Buprenorphine in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Allison J; Garcia, Kelly D; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Jenkins, Gary J; Nunamaker, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The opioid buprenorphine has been shown to provide adequate postoperative analgesia in both companion and laboratory animals. However, its use is still hindered by the need for multiple parenteral injections to achieve continuous analgesia. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a pharmacokinetic analysis of 2 new long-acting formulations of buprenorphine—an injectable sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and a transdermal buprenorphine (TDB) patch—in healthy Göttingen minipigs by using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of 0.18 mg/kg SC SRB and 30 μg/h TDB achieved AUC0-Tlast of 221.6 ± 26.8 and 25.2 ± 3.9 ng × h/mL, respectively, compared with 9.7 ± 1.4 ng*h/mL for 0.02 mg/kg IV buprenorphine. By using a hypothesized therapeutic plasma buprenorphine concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL, therapeutic concentrations were achieved at the first study time point (5 to 30 min) and lasted an average of 8.0 ± 1.3 h for intravenous buprenorphine and 264.0 ± 32.2 h for SRB. TDB achieved therapeutic concentrations in 12 to 24 h after patch application, which lasted until the patch was removed at 72 h. The results of this study suggest that SRB and TDB are long-acting alternatives for pain management, and their use could decrease animal handling and stress, thereby simplifying pain management and improving welfare in laboratory swine. PMID:25650977

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ranucci, David; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Moretti, Annabella; Branciari, Raffaella; Miraglia, Dino; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Piergili Fioretti, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Wild and farmed game meat consumption has been highlighted as an emerging risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans. In Central Italy wild boar is widely distributed and is also one of the most popular game species. The main goal of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies through a serological survey conducted on 400 hunted wild boars (250 males and 150 females) during three subsequent hunting seasons (2009–2011), using an Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay. The animals were sorted by age, determined on the evaluation of the dental table; 101 were <1 year old, 175 from 1 to 3 years, and 124 > 3 years. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 56 (14%) serum samples with titers ranging from 40 to ≥160; a significant association (p < 0.05) was found between seropositivity and age, but not gender, hunting districts, or year of sampling. PMID:24280567

  18. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Chemical and Histological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder. PMID:23211797

  19. Epidemiological Significance of the Domestic Black Pig (Sus scrofa) in Maintenance of Bovine Tuberculosis in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Piera; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Aronica, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Fiasconaro, Michele; Cifani, Noemi; Corneli, Sara; Biasibetti, Elena; Biagetti, Massimo; Pacciarini, Maria Lodovica; Cagiola, Monica; Pasquali, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an emerging disease among wild animals in many parts of the world. Wildlife reservoir hosts may thus represent a potential source of infection for livestock and humans. We investigated the role played by the Sicilian black pig, an autochthonous free- or semi-free-ranging domestic pig breed, as a potential source of bTB infection in an area where bTB prevalence in cattle is high. We initially performed a preliminary field study to assess the occurrence of bTB in such animals. We sampled 119 pigs at abattoir and found 6.7% and 3.4% of them to be affected by gross tuberculous-like lesions (TBL) and Mycobacterium bovis culture positive, respectively. We then proceeded to investigate the dissemination and characteristics of lesions in a second field study performed on 100 animals sampled from infected herds. Here, tissues collected at the abattoir were examined macroscopically, microscopically, and by culture tests. Most pigs with TBL showed generalized lesions in both gross and histological examinations (53% and 65.5%, respectively). Head lymph nodes were the most frequently affected in both localized and generalized TB cases observed macroscopically and microscopically. M. bovis was the most frequently isolated etiologic agent. The molecular characterization of isolates from both field studies by spoligotyping and analysis of 12 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci, followed by their comparison to isolates of cattle origin, suggested a potential transmission of mycobacteria from domestic animals to black pigs and vice versa. Our findings, along with ethological, ecological, and management considerations, suggest that the black pig might act as a bTB reservoir in the ecosystem under study. However, additional studies will be necessary to establish the true epidemiological significance of the Sicilian black pig. PMID:22322347

  20. First detection of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Haas, C; Origgi, F C; Akdesir, E; Batista Linhares, M; Giovannini, S; Mavrot, F; Casaubon, J; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2015-05-01

    In Switzerland sarcoptic mange is frequent in free-ranging wild carnivores but until recent years no cases had been recorded in wild ungulates. Since 2010, cases have been observed in wild boar in the cantons of Solothurn, Tessin and Thurgau. Here, we report the detection of mange-like skin lesions in wild boars by photo-trapping and the post-mortem findings in 6 culled animals presenting different stages of the disease. Potential sources of infection include mangy red foxes, outdoor domestic pigs and wild boars from surrounding countries. Disease spread in the wild boar population may become relevant not only for wildlife but also for domestic pig health in the future if piggeries' biosecurity is insufficient to prevent interactions with wild boar. PMID:26753342

  1. Las ideologias, las ciencias naturales y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada Roldan, Sandra

    Este estudio ausculto las concepciones epistemologicas de los docentes de ciencia del nivel secundario con relacion a las ideologias y las ciencias naturales. Tambien examino las posiciones de los docentes ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Para propositos de este estudio se diseno y se valido el cuestionario con el cual se obtuvieron los resultados. La investigacion es de tipo cuantitativa y se utilizo como diseno la encuesta. El cuestionario se administro en varias actividades de desarrollo profesional para maestros de ciencia. Un total de 78 maestros del nivel secundario respondieron el cuestionario. Para analizar los datos obtenidos se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas como la distribucion de frecuencia y el porciento. Ademas se establecieron codigos y categorias para describir las posiciones de los maestros ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Los analisis demostraron que entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la filosofia materialista de las ciencias naturales, b) la naturaleza tentativa y constructivista del conocimiento cientifico, c) el uso de una metodologia que garantiza cierto grado de objetividad y con el que se justifican y validan los enunciados cientificos y d) la funcion instrumental del conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas erroneas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) tendencia inductivista en el que las teorias cientificas comienzan con observaciones que establecen generalizaciones, b) secuencia jerarquica de la metodologia cientifica. Ademas, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ideologias, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la funcion de las ideologias y b) la ausencia de validez ante el conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, en cuanto a considerar las ciencias naturales como una ideologia mas conocida como cientificismo, no hubo consistencia en las respuestas de los participantes por lo que no es posible afirmarlo o negarlo. Los hallazgos tambien revelaron que entre los docentes participantes hubo posiciones a favor y en contra para las dos situaciones sobre asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia que se presentaron. Estas posiciones fueron justificadas con argumentos cientificos y argumentos ideologicos, entre estos, los morales y los economicos. Con este dato se puede afirmar el uso de las ideologias en asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia.

  2. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation

    PubMed Central

    Oja, Ragne; Zilmer, Karoline; Valdmann, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of ungulates, being widely used in game management, may have unwanted consequences. Its role in agricultural damage is well-studied, but few studies have considered the potential for the practice to attract ground nest predators. Our goal was to identify the factors influencing ground nest predation in the vicinity of year-round supplementary feeding sites for wild boar and to characterise their spatiotemporal scope. We conducted two separate artificial ground nest experiments in five different hunting districts in south-eastern Estonia. The quantity of food provided and distance of a nest from the feeding site were the most important factors determining predation risk. Larger quantities of food resulted in higher predation risk, while predation risk responded in a non-linear fashion to distance from the feeding site. Although predation risk eventually decreases if supplementary feeding is ceased for at least four years, recently abandoned feeding sites still pose a high predation risk. PMID:26244659

  3. SUS users’ knowledge of and attitude to HPV virus and vaccines available in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Osis, Maria José Duarte; Duarte, Graciana Alves; de Sousa, Maria Helena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccines in men and women, users of the Brazilian Unified Health System, and the intention to get themselves and their teenage children vaccinated. METHODS A descriptive, cross-sectional study with 286 women (18-49 years old) and 252 men (18-60 years old), users of five primary health units and two polyclinics in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil, was carried out. Participants were interviewed in 2011 using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and Poisson regression analysis were performed to identify variables associated with knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccines, and participants vaccination intentions. RESULTS Almost 40.0% of the participants reported having heard of HPV and 28.9% mentioned adequate information. The main information source was the media (41.7%). Only 8.6% of the participants had heard of the HPV vaccines. Once the participants were informed of the existence of HPV vaccines about 94% of them said they would get vaccinated and/or vaccinate their teenage children, if the vaccines were available in the public health system. Schooling of over 8 years and being female were the variables independently associated with having heard of HPV, the vaccines and having adequate knowledge of the virus. Advanced age was associated with having heard of HPV vaccines. There were no variables associated with the vaccination intentions. CONCLUSIONS These results reinforce the need for educational activities that provide the population with adequate information on HPV and preventive measures. PMID:24789645

  4. Meiotic Recombination Analyses of Individual Chromosomes in Male Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Nicolas; Barasc, Harmonie; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Billon, Yvon; Meslier, Frédéric; Robelin, David; Calgaro, Anne; Loustau-Dudez, Anne-Marie; Bonnet, Nathalie; Yerle, Martine; Acloque, Hervé; Ducos, Alain; Pinton, Alain

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in the domestic pig, meiotic recombination along the 18 porcine autosomes was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein. In total, 7,848 synaptonemal complexes from 436 spermatocytes were analyzed, and 13,969 recombination sites were mapped. Individual chromosomes for 113 of the 436 cells (representing 2,034 synaptonemal complexes) were identified by immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The average total length of autosomal synaptonemal complexes per cell was 190.3 µm, with 32.0 recombination sites (crossovers), on average, per cell. The number of crossovers and the lengths of the autosomal synaptonemal complexes showed significant intra- (i.e. between cells) and inter-individual variations. The distributions of recombination sites within each chromosomal category were similar: crossovers in metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes were concentrated in the telomeric regions of the p- and q-arms, whereas two hotspots were located near the centromere and in the telomeric region of acrocentrics. Lack of MLH1 foci was mainly observed in the smaller chromosomes, particularly chromosome 18 (SSC18) and the sex chromosomes. All autosomes displayed positive interference, with a large variability between the chromosomes. PMID:24919066

  5. Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, Michaela; Pinková, Martina; Květoňová, Dana; Kalinová, Jana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Vítovec, Jiří; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, John; Stenger, Brianna; Sak, Bohumil

    2013-01-31

    We describe the morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium pig genotype II and propose the species name Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. to reflect its prevalence in adult pigs worldwide. Oocysts of C. scrofarum are morphologically indistinguishable from C. parvum, measuring 4.81-5.96 μm (mean=5.16)×4.23-5.29 μm (mean=4.83) with a length to width ratio of 1.07±0.06 (n=400). Oocysts of C. scrofarum obtained from a naturally infected pig were infectious for 8-week-old pigs but not 4-week-old pigs. The prepatent period in 8-week-old Cryptosporidium-naive pigs was 4-6 days and the patent period was longer than 30 days. The infection intensity of C. scrofarum in pigs was generally low, in the range 250-4000 oocysts per gram of feces. Infected pigs showed no clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and no pathology was detected. Cryptosporidium scrofarum was not infectious for adult SCID mice, adult BALB/c mice, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), southern multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha), yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), or guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA, actin, and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences revealed that C. scrofarum is genetically distinct from all known Cryptosporidium species. PMID:23021264

  6. Evaluation on management of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) population in Bolu-Sazakici hunting ground.

    PubMed

    Beskardes, Vedat; Yilmaz, Ersel; Oymen, Tamer

    2010-01-01

    Bolu-sazakiçi sample hunting ground covered 9132 ha divided into 360 sample areas of 25 ha each. 50 of them were sampled by means of the simple random sampling method. In the sample areas "Point Counts" was applied and the population of wild boar density and numbers were determined. As a result, it was estimated that 734 wild boars inhabit the area. Of these individuals, 79 were males, 238 were females and 417 were piglets. The wild boar density in the area was determined as 8.03 individual 100 ha(-1). In this paper, first of all, the density of wild boar population was determined by the point counts method, then it was tried to evaluate its management for Bolu-sazakiçi sample hunting ground. PMID:20648834

  7. La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah

    2011-12-01

    En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion por quienes promueven estas practicas. A partir de los resultados, la investigadora concluye que la problematica sobre la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia esta influenciada por unos procesos de ensenanza enfocados en una vision distorsionada de la ciencia, producto de la no integracion de los aspectos filosoficos, historicos y sociales de la misma.

  8. Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

  9. [HELMINTH FAUNA OF WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA L.1758) IN AZERBAIJAN].

    PubMed

    Fataliev, Q H

    2015-01-01

    A total of 41 wild boar specimens, including 19, 10, 10, and 2 specimens from the Lesser-Caucasus, the Greater Caucasus, the Kura-Araks lowland, and Lankaran natural region were studied. On the whole, 16 helminth species were revealed, including 2, 2, 1, and 11 species of trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes. The distribution of helminths in landscape-ecological zones of Azerbaijan is analyzed. PMID:27055329

  10. Selenium serum and urine is associated to mild asthma and atopy. The SUS study.

    PubMed

    Omland, Øyvind; Deguchi, Yoji; Sigsgaard, Torben; Hansen, Jens Carl

    2002-01-01

    To examine the associations between selenium (Se) status, asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and atopy in 154 male subjects (72 with mild asthma, 41 with BHR and 41 with no respiratory symptoms) aged 18 (range 17-22) years. Each subject underwent a medical interview and FEV1 and FVC were recorded. Histamine bronchial reactivity (Yan method) was measured, skin prick test (inhalant allergens) was performed and Se in urine and serum was analysed (AOAC modified fluometric method). Se in serum 74.04 (10.58) micrograms/L (mean (SD)) was lower in subjects with asthma and the logarithm of the ratio of Se in serum (microgram/L) and urine standardised to creatinine excretion (ng/mg creatinine) 0.748 (0.096) (mean (SD)) was lower in subjects with asthma and atopy compared to subjects with no allergic symptoms 77.79 (10.16) micrograms/L and 0.808 (0.111) respectively (p < 0.05). In subjects with asthma atopy was significantly associated to urine Se 0.24 (0.73) (beta (SE)) (p < 0.05). Subjects with BHR had the same Se status as subjects with no respiratory symptoms and heavy smokers had a lower concentration of Se in serum 73.80 (9.56) micrograms/L than non-smokers 78.16 (10.74) micrograms/L (p < 0.05), Se status was associated to asthma and smoking. Measuring Se in urine might add further information to possible relations between Se status, atopy and asthma. PMID:12195727

  11. Promoting the Use of Life Cycle Assessment for a Sus-tainable Agri-Food Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies that address the holistic human health and environmental impacts related to food, feed, and bio-based fuel roduction has steadily increased in recent years. Studies on agricultural systems have identified environmental issues ranging from greenhouse gas emis...

  12. [On the ultrastructure of the lacrimal gland in pigs (Sus scropha L.) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kühnel, W; Scheele, G

    1979-01-01

    The lacrimal gland of pigs has been investigated light- and electron microscopically. Among others the results are as follows: 1. The lacrimal gland of pigs is a tubuloacinar or compound acinar gland. Acini often are elongated. Tubuli and acini are enclosed in a basal lamina with some myoepithelial cells. 2. Tubuli and acini consist of mucoserous, mucous and serous cells. Mucoserous cells predominate and show secretory granules with a typical bipartite structure. 3. Like salivary glands, the lacrimal gland of pigs has a prominent duct system. Intercalated ducts have a stratified cuboidal epithelium. The cells of the proximal part contain secretory granules. The intercalated duct continues into the striated duct. Cells here are tall or columnar in shape and show basal striation, which by electron microscopy is resolved as basal invaginations of the plasma membrane with numerous elongated mitochondria in the pockets of cytoplasm so formed. Excretory ducts commence with pseudostratified columnar epithelium. 4. Terminal nerve fibres penetrate the basal lamina and make contakt with the glandular cells, the myoepithelial cells and the duct cells. The terminal axons contain abundantly synaptic vesicles, sporadic dense cored vesicles and mitochondria. Until now, we could not find any specialized presynaptic or postsynaptic membranes. PMID:434482

  13. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  14. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE1

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  15. Como Trabajar y Vivir en la Realidad: Pasos Basicos Para Jovenes con Incapacidades, sus Padres y sus Profesores (How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia L.; And Others

    This Spanish version of "How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers" is for young people with handicaps who are getting ready to graduate from high school and begin working and living in the adult world. The booklet places a special focus on individuals with cultural differences. It…

  16. Different distributions of preproMCH and hypocretin/orexin in the forebrain of the pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Chometton, S; Franchi, G; Houdayer, C; Mariot, A; Poncet, F; Fellmann, D; Tillet, Y; Risold, P Y

    2014-11-01

    Neurons producing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) have been implicated in the sleep/wake cycle and feeding behavior. Sleep and feeding habits vary greatly among mammalian species, depending in part of the prey/predatory status of animals. However, the distribution of both peptides has been described in only a limited number of species. In this work, we describe the distribution of MCH neurons in the brain of the domestic pig. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, their cell bodies are shown to be located in the posterior lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), as expected. They form a dense cluster ventro-lateral to the fornix while only scattered cells are present dorsal to this tract. By comparison, Hcrt cell bodies are located mainly dorsal to the fornix. Therefore, the two populations of neurons display complementary distributions in the posterior LHA. MCH projections are, as indicated by MCH-positive axons, very abundant in all cortical fields ventral to the rhinal sulcus, as well as in the lateral, basolateral and basomedial amygdala. In contrast, most of the isocortex is sparsely innervated. To conclude, the distribution of MCH cell bodies and projections shows some very specific features in the pig brain, that are clearly different of that described in the rat, mouse or human. In contrast, the Hcrt pattern seems more similar to that in these species, i.e. more conserved. These results suggest that the LHA anatomic organization shows some very significant interspecies differences, which may be related to the different behavioral repertoires of animals with regard to feeding and sleep/wake cycles. PMID:25124772

  17. Closed-loop glycaemic control using an implantable artificial pancreas in diabetic domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Gregory, R; Tomlins, P; Jacob, D; Hubble, J; Sahota, T S

    2016-03-16

    The performance of a completely implantable peritoneal artificial pancreas (AP) has been demonstrated in principle in a live diabetic domestic pig. The device consists of a smart glucose-sensitive gel that forms a gateway to an insulin reservoir and is designed to both sense glucose and deliver insulin in the peritoneal cavity. It can be refilled with insulin via subcutaneous ports and surgery was developed to insert the AP. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ), the device filled with insulin (Humulin(®) R U-500) in situ and the animal observed for several weeks, during which time there was normal access to food and water and several oral glucose challenges. Blood glucose (BG) levels were brought down from >30mmol/L (540mg/dL) to non-fasted values between 7 and 13mmol/L (126-234mg/dL) about five days after filling the device. Glucose challenge responses improved ultimately so that, starting at 10mmol/L (180mg/dL), the BG peak was 18mmol/L (324mg/dL) and fell to 7mmol/L (126mg/dL) after 30min, contrasting with intravenous attempts. The reservoir solution was removed after 8days of blood glucose levels during which they had been increasingly better controlled. A rapid return to diabetic BG levels (30mmol/L) occurred only after a further 24days implying some insulin had remained in the device after removal of the reservoir solution. Thus, the closed loop system appeared to have particular influence on the basal and bolus needs for the 8days in which the reservoir solution was in place and substantial impact for a further 3 weeks. No additional insulin manual adjustment was given during this period. PMID:26691655

  18. Modulation of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) carbonyl reducing enzymes by anthelmintic therapy with flubendazole.

    PubMed

    Szotáková, Barbora; Nobilis, Milan; Lamka, Jirí; Krízová, Veronika; Savlík, Michal; Skálová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) is a widely administered benzimidazole anthelmintic indicated for the control of parasitic diseases in farm animals including pigs and pheasants. This study was designed to test the biotransformation of FLU in control animals and animals treated with FLU in recommended therapeutic doses. The activities of several pheasant and porcine hepatic and intestinal carbonyl reducing enzymes and their modulation by FLU were also studied. Twelve adult pheasant hens, approximately 1 year old, were divided into two groups and treated for 7 days with placebo or 6 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Eight male hog weaners, approximately 3 month old, were divided into two groups and treated for 5 days with placebo or 1.57 mg of FLU/kg of body weight. Subcellular fractions, prepared from livers and small intestines of control and FLU treated animals, were incubated with FLU. In vitro formation of two main FLU metabolites, reduced FLU, and hydrolyzed FLU were analyzed using HPLC. While FLU was reduced significantly more intensively in FLU-treated pheasants than in control animals, no differences were observed in pigs. These results were confirmed by measuring the enzyme activities: carbonyl reducing enzyme activities were increased in pheasants treated by FLU, whereas FLU did not affect these enzymes in pigs. PMID:19356067

  19. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A F; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-08-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya, and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes, both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future. PMID:24863459

  20. College Choices Guide for Migrant Students and Parents = Guia de Elecciones de Universidades para Estudiantes Migrantes y sus Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy/Northeast Health, Troy, NY.

    This brief guide is a planning outline to help migrant students and parents prepare for, choose, and apply to college. The first section, "Thinking About College," offers specific tips for each grade from 9-12; discusses high school graduation requirements and college admission requirements, using Johnston County (North Carolina) schools and the…

  1. "En Sus Proprias Palabras" ("In Their Own Words"): Latina Women's Perspectives on Enablers of HIV Testing Using Freelisting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Sharon D.; Sudha, S.; Herrera, Samantha; Ruiz, Carolina; Thomas, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive information on the facilitators of HIV testing in Latino women (Latinas) in the Southeastern USA is lacking. Efforts to rectify this should include Latina perspectives on the issue. This study aimed to (1) solicit Latina perspectives using qualitative methodology and (2) characterise enablers of HIV testing follow-through.…

  2. Brain growth of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) from 2 to 24 weeks of age: A longitudinal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Matthew S.; Dilger, Ryan N.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2013-01-01

    An animal model with brain growth similar to humans, that can be used in MRI studies to investigate brain development, would be valuable. Our lab has developed and validated MRI methods for regional brain volume quantification in the neonatal piglet. The aim of this study was to utilize the MRI-based volume quantification technique in a longitudinal study to determine brain growth in domestic pigs from 2 to 24 wks of age. MRI data were acquired from pigs 2 to 24 wks of age using a three-dimensional MPRAGE sequence on a MAGNETOM Trio 3T imager. Manual segmentation was performed for volume estimates of total brain, cortical, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellar, and hippocampal regions. Logistic modeling procedures were used to characterize brain growth. Total brain volume increased 130% (± 12%) and 121% (± 7%) from 2 to 24 wks in males and females, respectively. The maximum increase in total brain volume occurred about age 4 wks and 95% of whole brain growth occurred by age 21–23 wks. Logistical modeling suggests there are sexually dimorphic effects on brain growth. For example, in females, cortex was smaller (P = 0.04). Furthermore, the maximum growth of the hippocampus occurred about 5 wks earlier in females than males, and the window for hippocampal growth was significantly shorter in females than males (P = 0.02, P = 0.002 respectively). These sexual dimorphisms are similar to what is seen in humans. In addition to providing important data on brain growth for pigs, this study shows pigs can be used to obtain longitudinal MRI data. The large increase in brain volume in the postnatal period is similar to human neonates and suggests pigs can be used to investigate brain development. PMID:22777003

  3. An Effective and Reproducible Model of Ventricular Fibrillation in Crossbred Yorkshire Swine (Sus scrofa) for Use in Physiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Burgert, James M; Johnson, Arthur D; Garcia-Blanco, Jose C; Craig, W John; O'Sullivan, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical induction (TCEI) has been used to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in laboratory swine for physiologic and resuscitation research. Many studies do not describe the method of TCEI in detail, thus making replication by future investigators difficult. Here we describe a detailed method of electrically inducing VF that was used successfully in a prospective, experimental resuscitation study. Specifically, an electrical current was passed through the heart to induce VF in crossbred Yorkshire swine (n = 30); the current was generated by using two 22-gauge spinal needles, with one placed above and one below the heart, and three 9V batteries connected in series. VF developed in 28 of the 30 pigs (93%) within 10 s of beginning the procedure. In the remaining 2 swine, VF was induced successfully after medial redirection of the superior parasternal needle. The TCEI method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective. TCEI may be especially valuable to researchers with limited access to funding, sophisticated equipment, or colleagues experienced in interventional cardiology techniques. The TCEI method might be most appropriate for pharmacologic studies requiring VF, VF resulting from the R-on-T phenomenon (as in prolonged QT syndrome), and VF arising from other ectopic or reentrant causes. However, the TCEI method does not accurately model the most common cause of VF, acute coronary occlusive disease. Researchers must consider the limitations of TCEI that may affect internal and external validity of collected data, when designing experiments using this model of VF. PMID:26473349

  4. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health. PMID:25608621

  5. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A.F.; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.; Groenen, Martien A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future. PMID:24863459

  6. Sistema Solar: de la observación de La Tierra a los planetas gigantes y sus lunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, R.

    La fotoquímica tiene un papel principal en la composición de las atmósferas planetarias. Se examinan diferentes procesos fotoquímicos tanto para atmósferas oxidadas como reductoras, poniendo un especial énfasis en los ciclos químicos más importantes. En este sentido, se presentan diferentes ciclos químicos capaces de producir hidrocarbonos y nitrilos en atmósferas reductoras, así como aquellos capaces de mantener las proporciones de mezcla de las moléculas que contienen oxígeno, tales como CO2, O2 y H2O. También se analizan otros procesos importantes tales como la condensación y procesos de sputtering y de sublimación que han de tenerse en cuenta cuando se realizan modelos sobre la composición atmosférica.

  7. "En Sus Proprias Palabras" ("In Their Own Words"): Latina Women's Perspectives on Enablers of HIV Testing Using Freelisting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Sharon D.; Sudha, S.; Herrera, Samantha; Ruiz, Carolina; Thomas, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive information on the facilitators of HIV testing in Latino women (Latinas) in the Southeastern USA is lacking. Efforts to rectify this should include Latina perspectives on the issue. This study aimed to (1) solicit Latina perspectives using qualitative methodology and (2) characterise enablers of HIV testing follow-through.

  8. Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boar (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758) in south regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Forejtek, P; Hutarova, Z; Vodnansky, M

    2013-10-18

    From March 2012 to February 2013, 221 wild boar carcasses obtained from regular hunts in the Czech Republic were tested for Alaria alata mesocercariae using the Alaria-migration-technique. Most samples originated from South Moravia (173), and all 15 positive samples were found in this region, in particular in Tvrdonice (3/10) and Lanžhot (12/28), close to the site of the first description of this parasitic stage in wild boars in the territory of former ČSSR. These hunting grounds are located between the rivers March and Thaya, and rich in floodplains. Among the 38 carcasses tested in this area, higher carcass weights were associated with higher frequency of positive carcasses (P<0.05). Overall frequency of positive carcasses was 15/221 (6.8%). In positive samples (adipose and glandular tissue and muscle), the median number of mesocercariae was 14.3 per 100 g (range 3-69). PMID:23806746

  9. Molecular and structural assessment of alveolar bone during tooth eruption and function in the miniature pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuang-Dah; Popowics, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Summary The development of alveolar bone adjacent to the tooth root during tooth eruption is not well understood. This study tested the hypothesis that predominantly woven bone forms adjacent to tooth roots during tooth eruption, but that this immature structure transitions to lamellar bone when the tooth comes into function. Additionally, bone resorption was predicted to play a key role in transitioning immature bone to more mature, load-bearing tissue. Miniature pigs were compared at two occlusal stages, 13 weeks (n=3), corresponding with the mucosal penetration stage of M1 tooth eruption, and 23 weeks (n=3), corresponding with early occlusion of M1/M1. Bone samples for RNA extraction and qRT-PCR analysis were harvested from the diastema and adjacent to M1 roots on one side. Following euthanasia, bone samples for hematoxylin and eosin and TRAP staining were harvested from these regions on the other side. In contrast to expectations, both erupting and functioning molars had reticular fibrolamellar structure in alveolar bone adjacent to M1. However, the woven bone matrix in older pigs was thicker and had denser primary osteons. Gene expression data and osteoclast cell counts showed a tendency for more bone resorptive activity near the molars than at distant sites, but no differences between eruptive stages. Thus, although resorption does occur, it is not a primary mechanism in the transition in alveolar bone from eruption to function. Incremental growth of existing woven bone and filling in of primary osteons within the mineralized scaffold generated the fortification necessary to support an erupted and functioning tooth. PMID:21434979

  10. Origen social de los estudiantes y sus posibilidades de exito (The Social Origin of Students and Their Chances for Success).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The recommendation contained in this document is a product of the 1971 International Conference on Education sponsored by UNESCO and calls for an interdisciplinary study of social, economic, political, cultural, geographic, demographic, and scholastic factors that contribute to unequal educational opportunities. The report suggests steps that…

  11. [Social representations of municipal counselors regarding social control in health in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Pereira, Marcio Florentino; Cardoso, Antonio José Costa; Bermudez, Ximena Pamela Claudia Dias

    2013-08-01

    This study seeks to analyze the social representations of municipal health counselors regarding social control in health. Sixty interviews were conducted with counselors of nineteen counties within the Integrated Federal District Region and Surrounding Areas (RIDE-DF). Data analysis was conducted with the use of French Alceste software, which included two thematic groups. The first dealt with the weaknesses of health councils, consisting of four categories: limitations in decision-making powers, bureaucratization of everyday practices, weaknesses in social participation and limitations in the practice of representation. The second dealt with the health system in RIDE-DF, consisting of only one category that expresses the precarious organization of health care in RIDE-DF. Social representation of social control, with a focus on social participation appears to be constrained by a ritual, namely the bureaucratization of policies and practices in the councils. This form of hierarchical and bureaucratic organization and operation of the council, based on a centralizing management model, has distanced the counselors from discussing health needs geared to the construction of public Health Projects. PMID:23896909

  12. Impact of Changing Population, School Enrollment, and High School Graduate Projections on SUS Enrollments. Information Brief. Volume 4, Issue 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Because of lower-than-expected current year public school enrollments, the Department of Education and the Legislature's Office of Economic and Demographic Research have revised downward the projections of public school enrollments and high school graduates. The new high school standard diploma projection is lower by 7,000 graduates annually, or…

  13. 137Cs concentration in meat of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Croatia a decade and half after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Vilic, M; Barisic, D; Kraljevic, P; Lulic, S

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-spectrometric measurements of 137Cs activities in meat of wild boars collected in Croatia at several locations with different levels of 137Cs contamination are presented. Samples were collected during the period between 2000 and 2002, about 15 years after the Chernobyl accident. 137Cs concentrations ranged over three orders of magnitude: 0.4-611.5 Bq kg(-1). On the basis of these results, 137Cs concentrations at researched areas could be categorized into three groups: (i) the area of Slavonski Brod, Lipik and Slunj with 137Cs concentrations in meat of only a few Bq kg(-1); (ii) the area of Vrbovsko and Sirac with 137Cs concentrations of a few tens of Bq kg(-1); and (iii) the Fuzine area with 137Cs values in wild boar meat of a few hundreds of Bq kg(-1). In areas with approximately equal contamination level, 137Cs concentrations in wild boar meat varied over two orders of magnitude. This fact suggests that the main reason for high 137Cs values in wild boar meat could be due to food consumed by wild boars, and only secondarily in contamination level of area where they live. Intensive mushroom consumption during autumn months could be one of the factors responsible for high 137Cs values in wild boar meat. An average dose arising from 137Cs due to ingestion of wild boar meat in Croatia is below radiological health concern except in the area of Fuzine, and only in cases of high annual wild boar meat intake, probably by hunters or members of their families. PMID:15748661

  14. Como los colegios asignan y utilizan sus recursos? (How Schools Allocate and Use Their Resources). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    School finance has traditionally concentrated on the distribution of resources to school districts, focusing primarily on the equitable distribution of funds within a state. In recent years, more attention has been paid to the issue of productivity--how effectively school districts use the funds they receive to provide education to students. This…

  15. El Universo a Sus Pies: Actividades y Recursos para Astronomia (Universe at Your Fingertips: An Astronomy Activity and Resource Notebook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew, Ed.; Schatz, Dennis, Ed.

    The goal of this resource notebook is to provide activities selected by astronomers and classroom teachers, comprehensive resource lists and bibliographies, background material on astronomical topics, and teaching ideas from experienced astronomy educators. Activities are grouped into several major areas of study in astronomy including lunar…

  16. Familias Latinas: Participando en la educacion de sus hijos (Latino Families: Getting Involved in Your Children's Education). Early Childhood Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Eliot

    Noting that many Latino parents have questions about parent participation in their children's education and how to go about getting involved, this Spanish-language early childhood digest answers some of those questions by providing suggestions for ways parents can involve themselves in a child's education both at school and at home. Following a…

  17. Maternal investment, sibling competition, and offspring survival with increasing litter size and parity in pigs (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Inger Lise; Nævdal, Eric; Bøe, Knut Egil

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of litter size and parity on sibling competition, piglet survival, and weight gain. It was predicted that competition for teats would increase with increasing litter size, resulting in a higher mortality due to maternal infanticide (i.e., crushing) and starvation, thus keeping the number of surviving piglets constant. We predicted negative effects on weight gain with increasing litter size. Based on maternal investment theory, we also predicted that piglet mortality would be higher for litters born late in a sow's life and thus that the number of surviving piglets would be higher in early litters. As predicted, piglet mortality increased with increasing litter size both due to an increased proportion of crushed piglets, where most of them failed in the teat competition, and due to starvation caused by increased sibling competition, resulting in a constant number of survivors. Piglet weight at day 1 and growth until weaning also declined with increasing litter size. Sows in parity four had higher piglet mortality due to starvation, but the number of surviving piglets was not affected by parity. In conclusion, piglet mortality caused by maternal crushing of piglets, many of which had no teat success, and starvation caused by sibling competition, increased with increasing litter size for most sow parities. The constant number of surviving piglets at the time of weaning suggests that 10 to 11 piglets could be close to the upper limit that the domestic sow is capable of taking care of. PMID:21743767

  18. Consentimiento informado: una praxis dialogica para la investigacion

    PubMed Central

    Mondragon-Barrios, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    El consentimiento informado es un proceso, en el que una persona acepta participar en una investigation, conociendo los riesgos, beneficios, consecuencias o problemas que se puedan presenter durante el desarrollo de la misma. El objetivo de este trabajo es reunir las caracteristicas del proceso de consentimiento informado (PCI) pare que su discernimiento y cumplimiento posibilite el ejercicio etc° dialogico, reflexivo y responsable del investigador. Se presentan los resultados de una extensa revision de les elementos del PCI, desde sus cornponentes hasta su fundamento etico y legal, incluyendo los mites y realidades que existen sobre el formato de consentimiento informado come recurso legal de protection. El consentimiento informado no es un formato establecido que los investigadores repliquen, se trata de que la praxis del PCI sea una tarea cotidiana dentro de la investigation con seres humanos, como comunicaciOn deliberative y critica, responsable y comprometida entre dos agentes morales, investigador-investigado. PMID:19507477

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Pig (Sus scrofa) Olfactory Soluble Proteome Reveals O-Linked-N-Acetylglucosaminylation of Secreted Odorant-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nagnan-Le Meillour, Patricia; Vercoutter-Edouart, Anne-Sophie; Hilliou, Frédérique; Le Danvic, Chrystelle; Lévy, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of olfactory binding proteins (OBPs) is a key point to understand their role in molecular olfaction. Since only few different sequences were characterized in each mammalian species, they have been considered as passive carriers of odors and pheromones. We have explored the soluble proteome of pig nasal mucus, taking benefit of the powerful tools of proteomics. Combining two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and western-blot with specific antibodies, our analyses revealed for the first time that the pig nasal mucus is mainly composed of secreted OBP isoforms, some of them being potentially modified by O-GlcNAcylation. An ortholog gene of the glycosyltransferase responsible of the O-GlcNAc linking on extracellular proteins in Drosophila and Mouse (EOGT) was amplified from tissues of pigs of different ages and sex. The sequence was used in a phylogenetic analysis, which evidenced conservation of EOGT in insect and mammalian models studied in molecular olfaction. Extracellular O-GlcNAcylation of secreted OBPs could finely modulate their binding specificities to odors and pheromones. This constitutes a new mechanism for extracellular signaling by OBPs, suggesting that they act as the first step of odor discrimination. PMID:25538681

  20. Tissue concentrations of sulfamethazine and tetracycline hydrochloride of swine (Sus scrofa domestica) as it relates to withdrawal methods for international export.

    PubMed

    Mason, Sharon E; Wu, Huali; Yeatts, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-04-01

    The use of water medications is a common practice in the US swine industry to treat and prevent infections in swine herds with minimal labor and without risk of needle breakage. There are concerns that FDA-approved withdrawal times (WDT) may be inadequate for several water medications when exporting pork products to countries where MRLs (maximum residue limits) are lower than US tolerance levels. In this study, withdrawal intervals (WDI) were estimated for pigs when dosed with tetracycline and sulfamethazine in water. The WDI were calculated using the FDA tolerance method (TLM) and a population-based pharmacokinetic method (PopPK). The estimated WDIs (14-16 days using TLM) were similar to the approved WDT of 15 days for sulfamethazine. However, the PopPK method extended WDIs for both sulfamethazine (19-20 days) and tetracycline (12 days) compared to the currently approved WDTs in the U.S. This study also identified potential differences in WDI between weanling and finisher pigs. In conclusion, the TLM may not always provide adequate WDT for foreign export markets especially when MRLs differ from tolerance levels approved for US markets. However, PopPK methods can provide conservative WDIs in situations with considerable variability in medication exposure such as with administration in water. PMID:25707857

  1. Estudiantes con discapacidades preparandose para la educacion postsecundaria: Conozca sus derechos y responsabilidades (Students with Disabilities Preparing for Postsecondary Education: Know Your Rights and Responsibilities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet, in Spanish, intended for postsecondary students with disabilities, explains the rights and responsibilities of these students and the obligations of a postsecondary school to provide academic adjustments. The federal legislation on which the information is based is described. Information for students is presented in question and…

  2. The Influence of Antral Ulcers on Intramural Gastric Nerve Projections Supplying the Pyloric Sphincter in the Pig (Sus scrofa domestica)—Neuronal Tracing Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zalecki, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric ulcerations in the region of antrum pylori represent a serious medical problem in humans and animals. Such localization of ulcers can influence the intrinsic descending nerve supply to the pyloric sphincter. The pyloric function is precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. Impaired neural regulation could result in pyloric sphincter dysfunction and gastric emptying malfunction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of gastric antral ulcerations on the density and distribution of intramural gastric descending neurons supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings The experiment was performed on 2 groups of pigs: healthy gilts (n=6) and gilts with experimentally induced peptic ulcers in the region of antrum pylori (n=6). Gastric neurons supplying pyloric sphincter were labeled using the retrograde neuronal tracing technique (20μl of Fast Blue tracer injected into the pyloric sphincter muscle). After a week survival period the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were collected. Then, the stomach wall was cross-cut into 0.5cm thick sections taken in specified intervals (section I - 1.5cm; section II - 3.5cm; section III - 5.5cm; section IV – 7.5cm) starting from the sphincter. Consecutive microscopic slices prepared from each section were analyzed under fluorescent microscope to count traced neurons. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The total number of FB-positive perikarya observed within all studied sections significantly decreased from 903.3 ± 130.7 in control to 243.8 ± 67.3 in experimental animals. In healthy pigs 76.1 ± 6.7% of labeled neurons were observed within the section I, 23.53 ± 6.5% in section II and only occasional cells in section III. In experimental animals, as many as 93.8 ± 2.1% of labeled cells were observed within the section I and only 6.2 ± 2.2% in section II, while section III was devoid of such neurons. There were no traced perikarya in section IV observed in both groups of pigs. Conclusions/Significance Obtained results revealed for the first time significant impact of antral ulcerations on intramural descending nerve pathways supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs, animals of increasing value in biomedical research and great economic importance. PMID:25962176

  3. The influence of environmental and physiological factors on the litter size of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in an agriculture dominated area in Germany.

    PubMed

    Frauendorf, Magali; Gethöffer, Friederike; Siebert, Ursula; Keuling, Oliver

    2016-01-15

    The wild boar population has increased enormously in all of Europe over the last decades and caused problems like crop damage, transmission of diseases, and vehicle accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the underlying causes of this increase in order to be able to manage populations effectively. The purpose of this study was to analyse how environmental (food and climate) and physiological factors (maternal weight and age) as well as hunting and population density influence the litter size of wild boar populations in Northern Germany. The mean litter size in the studied population for the whole period was 6.6 (range 1–12), which is one of the highest in all of Europe. Litter size was positively influenced by maternal body weight, higher mast yield of oak as well as higher temperature in combination with higher precipitation in summer. Only higher temperature or only higher precipitation in summer however had a negative effect on litter size production. Probably,weather and food conditions act via maternal bodyweight on the litter size variation in wild boar. Hunting as well a s population density did not affect the litter size variation in this study which might indicate that wild boar population did not reach carrying capacity yet. PMID:26437356

  4. Effect of Cattle on Salmonella Carriage, Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance in Free-Ranging Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Porrero, Concepción M.; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mateos, Ana; López-Martín, José M.; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is distributed worldwide and is a pathogen of economic and public health importance. As a multi-host pathogen with a long environmental persistence, it is a suitable model for the study of wildlife-livestock interactions. In this work, we aim to explore the spill-over of Salmonella between free-ranging wild boar and livestock in a protected natural area in NE Spain and the presence of antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella prevalence, serotypes and diversity were compared between wild boars, sympatric cattle and wild boars from cattle-free areas. The effect of age, sex, cattle presence and cattle herd size on Salmonella probability of infection in wild boars was explored by means of Generalized Linear Models and a model selection based on the Akaike’s Information Criterion. Prevalence was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle (35.67%, CI 95% 28.19–43.70) than in wild boar from cattle-free areas (17.54%, CI 95% 8.74–29.91). Probability of a wild boar being a Salmonella carrier increased with cattle herd size but decreased with the host age. Serotypes Meleagridis, Anatum and Othmarschen were isolated concurrently from cattle and sympatric wild boars. Apart from serotypes shared with cattle, wild boars appear to have their own serotypes, which are also found in wild boars from cattle-free areas (Enteritidis, Mikawasima, 4:b:- and 35:r:z35). Serotype richness (diversity) was higher in wild boars co-habiting with cattle, but evenness was not altered by the introduction of serotypes from cattle. The finding of a S. Mbandaka strain resistant to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and a S. Enteritidis strain resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in wild boars is cause for public health concern. PMID:23284725

  5. Galanin is Co-Expressed with Substance P, Calbindin and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) in The Enteric Nervous System of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Czujkowska, A; Arciszewski, M B

    2016-04-01

    Galanin is a neuropeptide widely present in the enteric nervous system of numerous animal species and exhibiting neurotransmittery/neuromodulatory roles. Colocalization patterns of galanin with substance P (SP), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and calbindin were studied in the small intestine of the wild boar using immunofluorescence technique. We demonstrated the presence of SP in substantial populations of galanin-immunoreactive (IR) submucous neurons. Additionally, different amounts of nerve fibres exhibiting simultaneous presence of galanin and SP were noted in the small intestinal smooth musculature, submucous ganglia, lamina muscularis mucosae and mucosa. In the wild boar duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the co-expression of galanin and calbindin was limited to minor populations of submucous neurons only. Single galanin-/CRF-IR nerve fibres were exclusively present in the duodenal and jejunal (but not ileal) mucosa. These results strongly suggest that galanin participates in neuronal control of the wild boar small intestine also by functional co-operation with other biologically active neuropeptides. PMID:25907507

  6. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  7. Serological Survey of Porcine circovirus-2 in Captive Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Registered Farms of South and South-east Regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, C N; Martins, N R S; Freitas, T R P; Lobato, Z I P

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to survey captive wild boars for antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in registered farms. Serum samples (n = 1305) were collected from 90-day-old wild boars from 118 farms of the Brazilian South-east region, including the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and South region, including the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. All herds (100%) presented reactive animals, in varying numbers and from low-to-high antibody titres, with the occurrence ranging from 82 to 89%. Considering farms, the average prevalence was of 84.9% (P < 0.05) and ranged from 54.1 to 94.95%. Regarding the geographic regions studied, the prevalence was of 100%, with PCV2 antibodies detected in wild boars of all regions. This study provides the first evidence of PCV2 antibodies in captive wild boars in Brazil. PMID:25056836

  8. Immunoexpression of Steroid Hormone Receptors and Proliferation Markers in Uterine Leiomyoma and Normal Myometrial Tissues from the Miniature Pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Mozzachio, Kristie; Moore, Alicia B; Kissling, Grace E; Dixon, Darlene

    2016-04-01

    Uterine leiomyomas in miniature pet pigs occur similarly to those in women with regard to frequency, age, parity, and cycling. Clinical signs, gross, and histologic features of the porcine tumors closely resemble uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) in women. Although fibroids are hormonally responsive in women, the roles of estrogen and progesterone have not been fully elucidated. In this study, immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of the steroid hormone receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α), estrogen receptor beta (ER-β) and progesterone receptor (PR), and cell proliferation markers, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 in tumor and matched myometrial tissues sampled from miniature pigs. A "quickscore" method was used to determine receptor expression and labeling indices were calculated for the markers. ER-α/β and PR were localized to the nuclei of smooth muscle cells in both tissues. PR expression was intense and diffuse throughout all tissues, with correlation between tumors and matched myometria. Conversely, ER-α expression was variable between the myometrial and tumor tissues, as well as between animals. ER-β expression was low. PCNA and Ki-67 were localized to the nucleus and expression varied among tumors; however, normal tissues were overall negative. These findings support further investigation into the use of the miniature pig as a model of fibroids in women. PMID:26692562

  9. Hable con sus hijos: Antes de que lo hagan todos los demas (Talk with Your Kids...before Everyone Else Does: Talking with Kids about Tough Issues).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, Oakland, CA.

    Parents are challenged daily with a wide range of disturbing issues that are difficult for children to understand and for adults to explain. This Spanish-language booklet offers practical, concrete tips and techniques for talking easily and openly with 8- to 12-year-olds about sex, HIV/AIDS, violence, drugs, and alcohol. The book is divided into…

  10. A Family Guide to Systems of Care for Children with Mental Health Needs = Guia para la familia de "Systems of Care" para la salud mental de sus hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Janice; Harris, Pam; Hawes, Janet; Shepler, Rick; Tolin, Canice; Truman, Connie

    This bilingual (English-Spanish) guide is intended to assist parents and caregivers in seeking help for children with mental health problems. As part of the system of care, parents and caregivers need to work together to help the child in need. Caregivers and counselors can help families define their strengths, determine the things they want to…

  11. Prepare Your Child For Reading Tests: Tips for Parents = Prepare a sus hijos para tomar pruebas de lectura: Ideas para padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Tori Mello

    Parents can help their children prepare for reading tests in a number of ways, not only just before the test, but also with everyday activities. There are generally two types of reading tests given to students: tests given by teachers throughout the year to see what information students have retained, and more formal, often standardized, tests…

  12. DNA extraction from skins of wild (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and Pecari tajacu) and domestic (Sus scrofa domestica) species using a novel protocol.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, G N; Amavet, P S; Rueda, E C; Siroski, P A

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes, commercial products obtained from wild animals are sold as if they were from domestic animals and vice versa. At this point of the productive chain, legal control of possible wildlife products is difficult. Common in the commerce of northern Argentina, skins of two wild species, the carpincho and the collared peccary, look very similar to each other and to those of the domestic pig; it is extremely difficult to differentiate them after they have been tanned. Because there was no an adequate methodology to discriminate between leather of these three species, we developed a new methodology of DNA extraction from skin and leather. This new method involves digesting a leather sample using proteinase K, followed by precipitation of proteins with 5 M NaCl, cleaning with absolute isopropanol and DNA precipitation with 70% ethanol. DNA is hydrated in Tris-EDTA buffer. This protocol provided good-quality DNA suitable for analysis with molecular markers. This new protocol has potential for use in identifying leather products of these species using molecular markers based on RAPDs. PMID:22535403

  13. Let's Read! 101 Ideas To Help Your Child Learn To Read and Write. Bilingual Edition = Leamos! Prepare a sus hijos a leer y escribir: 101 ideas. Texto bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Based on the idea that parents are the first and most important teachers of their children's literacy, this bilingual (Spanish/English) booklet offers 101 practical and fun-to-do activities that children and parents can do together. The activities in the booklet are organized to fit the way parents tend to think about their time with their…

  14. Diffusion bonding/superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn/SUS 304 stainless steel/Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, J.S.; Chuang, T.H.

    1996-02-01

    The superplasticity of the Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloy for different temperatures was evaluated by single-sheet free blowing. The optimal superplastic temperature for the Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloy was found to be 850 C. Diffusion bonding of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn and 304 stainless steel was carried out in a vacuum. The interface of both bonded alloys was examined by EPMA. The concentration profile of Ni exhibited a peak at the interlayer and a valley adjacent it, whereas that of Cr exhibited a peak where Ni showed the valley. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the Fe{sub 2}Ti, NiTi, and CrMn intermetallic compounds and the Cr element formed at the interface. The thickness profiles of the blown specimens were measured and compared with theoretical calculations.

  15. Diffusion bonding/superplastic forming of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn/SUS 304 stainless steel/Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, J. S.; Chuang, T. H.

    1996-02-01

    The superplasticity of the Ti- 6Al- 6V- 2Sn alloy for different temperatures was evaluated by single-sheet free blowing. The optimal superplastic temperature for the Ti- 6Al- 6V- 2Sn alloy was found to be 850 °C. Diffusion bonding of Ti- 6Al- 6V- 2Sn and 304 stainless steel was carried out in a vacuum. The interface of both bonded alloys was examined by EPMA. The concentration profile of Ni exhibited a peak at the interlayer and a valley adjacent it, whereas that of Cr exhibited a peak where Ni showed the valley. X- ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the Fe 2 Ti, NiTi, and CrMn Intermetallic compounds and the Cr element formed at the interface. The thickness profiles of the blown specimens were measured and compared with theoretical calculations.

  16. Measurement methods for surface oxides on SUS 316L in simulated light water reactor coolant environments using synchrotron XRD and XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masashi; Yonezawa, Toshio; Shobu, Takahisa; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescent (XRF) measurement techniques have been used for non-destructive characterization of surface oxide films on Type 316L austenitic stainless steels that were exposed to simulated primary water environments of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The layer structures of the surface spinel oxides were revealed ex situ after oxidation by measurements made as a function of depth. The layer structure of spinel oxides formed in simulated PWR primary water should normally be different from that formed in simulated BWR water. After oxidation in the simulated BWR environment, the spinel oxide was observed to contain NiFe2O4 at shallow depths, and FeCr2O4 and Fe3O4 at deeper depths. By contrast, after oxidation in the simulated PWR primary water environment, a Fe3O4 type spinel was observed near the surface and FeCr2O4 type spinel near the interface with the metal substrate. Furthermore, by in situ measurements during oxidation in the simulated BWR environment, it was also demonstrated that the ratio between spinel and hematite Fe2O3 can be changed depending on the water condition such as BWR normal water chemistry or BWR hydrogen water chemistry.

  17. First description of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Croatia and phylogenetic analysis of partial PCV2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Lipej, Z; Segalés, J; Jemersić, Lorena; Olvera, A; Roić, Besi; Novosel, D; Mihaljević, Z; Manojlović, L

    2007-09-01

    This report describes the first case of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in wild boar in Croatia. During the winter season of 2004, eight wild young piglets (of approximately 2 to 5 months of age) were found dead in a fenced hunting area. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on mesenteric lymph nodes and all animals yielded positive results. In one of these animals diagnosis of PMWS was established based on the three key diagnostic criteria including the clinical manifestation, moderate lymphoid lesions consisting of lymphocyte depletion and granulomatous inflammation, and detection of the presence of PCV2 genome within the lymphoid lesions by in situ hybridisation (ISH). Three additional wild piglets had also mild PMWS-like lesions and a low amount of PCV2 was also found. No PMWS-like lesions or PCV2 genome were detected in the rest of the wild piglets studied. Three PCR-positive isolates were partially sequenced, which confirmed the diagnosis of PCV2 and demonstrated that the three sequences were genetically identical. The phylogenetic analysis of a representative PCV2 isolate indicated that its sequence (DQ875444) is grouped in a separate branch with Hungarian isolate (AY256460) and differs from any of the annotated sequences. PMID:17867466

  18. Humans (Homo sapiens) judge the emotional content of piglet (Sus scrofa domestica) calls based on simple acoustic parameters, not personality, empathy, nor attitude toward animals.

    PubMed

    Maruščáková, Iva L; Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Tallet, Céline; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-05-01

    The vocal expression of emotion is likely driven by shared physiological principles among species. However, which acoustic features promote decoding of emotional state and how the decoding is affected by their listener's psychology remain poorly understood. Here we tested how acoustic features of piglet vocalizations interact with psychological profiles of human listeners to affect judgments of emotional content of heterospecific vocalizations. We played back 48 piglet call sequences recorded in four different contexts (castration, isolation, reunion, nursing) to 60 listeners. Listeners judged the emotional intensity and valence of the recordings and were further asked to attribute a context of emission from four proposed contexts. Furthermore, listeners completed a series of questionnaires assessing their personality (NEO-FFI personality inventory), empathy [Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)] and attitudes to animals (Animal Attitudes Scale). None of the listeners' psychological traits affected the judgments. On the contrary, acoustic properties of recordings had a substantial effect on ratings. Recordings were rated as more intense with increasing pitch (mean fundamental frequency) and increasing proportion of vocalized sound within each stimulus recording and more negative with increasing pitch and increasing duration of the calls within the recording. More complex acoustic properties (jitter, harmonic-to-noise ratio, and presence of subharmonics) did not seem to affect the judgments. The probability of correct context recognition correlated positively with the assessed emotion intensity for castration and reunion calls, and negatively for nursing calls. In conclusion, listeners judged emotions from pig calls using simple acoustic properties and the perceived emotional intensity might guide the identification of the context. PMID:25798794

  19. Isolation of Campylobacter from feral swine (Sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak investigation in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the...

  20. 101 ideas para ayudar a sus hijos a aprender a leer y escribir (101 Ideas To Help Your Child Learn To Read and Write).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Based on the idea that parents are the first and most important teachers of their children's literacy, this booklet offers 101 practical and fun-to-do activities that children and parents can do together. The activities in the booklet are organized to fit the way parents tend to think about their time with their children: in the nursery; at…

  1. Como los padres ocupados pueden ayudar a sus hijos a aprender y desarrollarse (How Busy Parents Can Help Their Children Learn and Develop). Early Childhood Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Ellen; Kreider, Holly; Vaughan, Peggy

    Although parents are often very busy with work and family responsibilities, there are many things they can do to help their school-age children learn and develop. This Spanish-language early childhood digest for parents provides tips obtained from parents of first and second graders in the School Transition Study on creative ways to stay involved…

  2. Manejando las burlas: Como los padres pueden ayudar a sus hijos (Easing the Teasing: How Parents Can Help Their Children). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Judy S.

    Children who are teased on a school bus, in class, or during recess often do not want to return to school. Unfortunately, teasing can occur anywhere, and it is difficult to prevent--despite the best efforts of parents, teachers, and school administrators to create a more cooperative atmosphere. This Spanish-language Digest discusses different…

  3. Implication of cortisol and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in the development of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) ovarian follicles and cysts.

    PubMed

    Sunak, Neera; Green, Daphne F; Abeydeera, Lalantha R; Thurston, Lisa M; Michael, Anthony E

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated cortisol inactivation by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta HSD) enzymes in porcine granulosa cells from antral follicles at different developmental stages and in ovarian cysts. In granulosa cells, cortisol oxidation increased threefold with antral follicle diameter (P < 0.001). This trend was paralleled by a threefold increase in NADP(+)-dependent 11beta-dehydrogenase activity in granulosa cell homogenates with follicle diameter. Intact granulosa cells from ovarian cysts exhibited significantly lower enzyme activities than cells from large antral follicles. Neither intact cells norcell homogenates displayed net 11-ketosteroid reductase activities. Since porcine follicular fluid (FF) from large antral follicles and ovarian cysts contains hydrophobic inhibitors of glucocorticoid metabolism by type 1 11beta HSD, this studyalso investigated whether levels of 11beta HSD inhibitors changed during follicle growth and could affect cortisol metabolism in granulosa cells. The extent of inhibition of 11beta HSD1 activity in rat kidney homogenates decreased progressively from 50 +/- 8% inhibition by FF from small antral follicles (P < 0.001) to 23 +/- 6% by large antral FF (P < 0.05). Cyst fluid inhibited 11beta HSD1 activity by 59 +/- 4% (P < 0.001). Likewise, net cortisol oxidation in granulosa cells was significantly decreased by large antral FF (35-48% inhibition, P < 0.05) and cyst fluid (45-75% inhibition, P < 0.01). We conclude that inactivation of cortisol by 11beta HSD enzymes in porcine granulosa cells increases with follicle development but is significantly decreased in ovarian cysts. Moreover, changes in ovarian cortisol metabolism are accompanied by corresponding changes in the levels of paracrine inhibitors of 11beta HSD1 within growing ovarian follicles and cysts, implicating cortisol in follicle growth and cyst development. PMID:17636169

  4. How to survey classical swine fever in wild boar (Sus scrofa) after the completion of oral vaccination? Chasing away the ghost of infection at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Saubusse, Thibault; Masson, Jean-Daniel; Le Dimma, Mireille; Abrial, David; Marcé, Clara; Martin-Schaller, Regine; Dupire, Anne; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Rossi, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Oral mass vaccination (OMV) is considered as an efficient strategy for controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar. After the completion of vaccination, the presence of antibodies in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars was expected to reflect a recent CSF circulation. Nevertheless, antibodies could also correspond to the long-lasting of maternal antibodies. This paper relates an experience of surveillance which lasted 4 years after the completion of OMV in a formerly vaccinated area, in north-eastern France (2010-2014). First, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the serological data collected in 6-12 month-old hunted wild boars from 2010 up to 2013, using a spatial Bayesian model accounting for hunting data autocorrelation and heterogeneity. At the level of the whole area, seroprevalence in juvenile boars decreased from 28% in 2010-2011 down to 1% in 2012-2013, but remained locally high (above 5%). The model revealed the existence of one particular seroprevalence hot-spot where a longitudinal survey of marked animals was conducted in 2013-2014, for deciphering the origin of antibodies. Eleven out of 107 captured piglets were seropositive when 3-4 months-old, but their antibody titres progressively decreased until 6-7 months of age. These results suggest piglets were carrying maternal antibodies, few of them carrying maternal antibodies lasting until the hunting season. Our study shows that OMV may generate confusion in the CSF surveillance several years after the completion of vaccination. We recommend using quantitative serological tools, hunting data modelling and capture approaches for better interpreting serological results after vaccination completion. Surveillance perspectives are further discussed. PMID:26810218

  5. [Conceptions and typology of conflicts between workers and managers in the context of primary healthcare in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Peduzzi, Marina; Ayres, José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze perceptions of conflict between workers and managers in primary healthcare units and to present a typology of conflicts on the job. This was a comprehensive interpretive case study with a critical hermeneutic approach. Data collection techniques included: focus group with managers, workplace observation, and worker interviews, conducted from April to November 2011. The results were triangulated and indicated the coexistence of distinct concepts of conflict, typified in six modalities: lack of collaboration at work; disrespect resulting from asymmetrical relations between workers; problematic employee behavior; personal problems; asymmetry with other management levels; and inadequate work infrastructure. The relevance of (non)mutual recognition, as proposed by Axel Honneth, stood out in the interpretation of the causes and practical implications of these conflicts. PMID:25166942

  6. Keep It Safe. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conozca sus Derechos. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on one's rights as a consumer is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to become familiar with their…

  7. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) y de sus parasitoides sobre dietas artificiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the mass rearing system of the coffee berry borer, cbb, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and its African parasitoids: the ectoparasitoids Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Betrem) and Prorops nasuta ((Waterston) (Hymenop...

  8. The Interface between Primary Care and Emergency Dental Services (SOU) in the SUS: the interface between levels of care in oral health.

    PubMed

    Austregésilo, Silvia Carréra; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Figueiredo, Nilcema; de Góes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras

    2015-10-01

    Considering that emergency dental services include the referral network and the counter-referral network, interacting at the intersection between primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare, this study aims to describe the interface between primary healthcare (APS - Atenção Primária a Saúde), particularly of the Family Health Strategy, and secondary care in oral health, using the Emergency Dental Services (SOU), in the municipality of Recife. It is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive case study. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Classical ALCESTE analysis was used based on the Descending Hierarchical Classification Dendrogram, making it possible to understand the expressions and each one of the words spoken by the dental health professionals, analyzing them using their social places and contexts as a starting point. What we found was only a fragile degree of integration, and little capacity for solution, between the levels of care - a partially disconnected network. Undoubtedly the problems with the interface between primary care and the emergency services in oral health are multiple and complex. The individual solutions have low efficacy, and are complex in their operation. PMID:26465853

  9. Prepare Your Child For Reading Tests: Tips for Parents = Prepare a sus hijos para tomar pruebas de lectura: Ideas para padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Tori Mello

    Parents can help their children prepare for reading tests in a number of ways, not only just before the test, but also with everyday activities. There are generally two types of reading tests given to students: tests given by teachers throughout the year to see what information students have retained, and more formal, often standardized, tests

  10. Novice Non-Native English Teachers' Reflections on Their Teacher Education Programmes and Their First Years of Teaching (Reflexiones de profesores novatos y no nativos del inglés sobre sus programas de formación y sus primeros años de instrucción)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcan, Sumru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates novice non-native English teachers' opinions about the effectiveness of their teacher education programme and the challenges during their initial years of teaching. The results of a survey administered to fifty-five novice teachers and follow-up interviews identify strengths and weaknesses in their teacher education…

  11. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  12. Mapa de Vulnerabilidad en Honduras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Dado que Honduras geográficamente se encuentra en una zona que esta expuesta a diferentes fenómenos sísmicos y climatológicos. Investigamos cuales son las zonas mas propensas a desastres naturales, la vulnerabilidad y el factor de resiliencia de la población de acuerdo a diferentes parámetros de estudio.

  13. 77 FR 2306 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Disaster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... (Spanish), Solicitud en Papel/Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De... and Spanish), FEMA Forms 009-0-1 and 009-0-2, 18 minutes; Smartphone Application for...

  14. 76 FR 62429 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, OMB No. 1660-0002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... 009-0-1S (English) Smartphone, Disaster Assistance Registration; FEMA Form 009-0-2S (Spanish) Smartphone, Registro Para Asistencia De Desastre; FEMA Form 009-0-3 (English), Declaration and Release; FEMA... 009-0-1 and 009-0-2. Individuals or Households Smartphone Application for 192,447.20 1 192,447.20...

  15. Del sujeto que ha intentado suicidarse y el Otro: la Institución Psiquiátrica

    PubMed Central

    Liliana, Mondragón B.; Miguel Ángel, Caballero G.

    2009-01-01

    El hospital psiquiátrico se ha constituido como un lugar donde se posibilita legitimar la exclusión y la radicalidad de ese otro “que no es igual”, como es el caso del sujeto que atenta contra su propia vida. En consecuencia, el intento de suicidio desde el pensamiento foucaultiano, es una resistencia que desmantela la estructura de dominación a través de un acto de poder, el cual se ejerce sobre el propio cuerpo. Así, la intención de este texto es mostrar que la relación Otro-otro es un lugar en la estructura subjetiva, que se deposita en la institución psiquiátrica, la cual representa el poder, la ley, y es aquello a lo que se le quiere agredir, resistir, abatir con un intento de suicidio. Para demostrar como se materializan estos hechos, se exponen los testimonios de tres adolescentes atendidas en un hospital psiquiátrico por intentos suicidas, en los cuales se señalan los diferentes significados que le atribuyen a la institución psiquiátrica en tanto que representa un Otro en sus actos autoinfligidos. PMID:25400324

  16. Investigacion educativa. El sistema escolar en sus diferentes niveles, factores que favorecen o frenan su eficacia y medidas de superacion (Educational Research. The Educational System at Different Levels; Factors Promoting or Hindering Its Efficiency; Possible Improvements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Lozano, Blanca; And Others

    This document is an English-language abstract (Approximately 1,500 words) of a study on educational research in Mexico. Chapter one discusses the importance of educational research, in terms of its role both in scientific and technical development; it should use scientific methods so that it will have solid foundations. Chapter two is a survey of…

  17. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  18. Supportive Practices among Low-Income Parents of Academically Successful Elementary Students in Even Start Programs = Practicas Efectivas que Apoyan el Exito Academico en Ninos Hispanos a Traves de la Participacion de sus Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebener, Richard; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.

    This study (reported in separate English and Spanish versions) used a qualitative approach to identify the supportive parental behaviors of academically successful children from low income families in Even Start programs, from the parents', teachers', and children's perspectives. The sample contained 12 low income parents who had one or more…

  19. Un Manual para Padres y Madres Immigrantes. Proteja los Derechos de Educacion para Sus Hijos e Hijas (A Handbook for Immigrant Parents: Protect the Educational Rights of Your Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy (META), Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    This handbook for Spanish-speaking immigrant parents outlines the legal rights of immigrant children to educational services. All children in the United States have a right to attend school. Schools may require proof of residency and vaccination before enrollment, but a signed sworn statement attesting to the child's age may be substituted for a…

  20. Cuidado de ninos con necesidades especiales en el hogar: Manual de referencia para las personas que cuidan ninos en sus hogares (Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook for Family Day Care Home Providers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Brosse, Beatrice

    The Spanish translation of this guide offers information to Spanish-speaking family day care providers who desire to expand their knowledge of early childhood development in order to work with infants and young children with special needs in their day care settings. The first of four chapters answers common questions and concerns of day care…

  1. The Science Teachers and Their way of Thinking about Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Los Profesores de Ciencias y Sus Formas de Pensar la Astronomía.) Os Professores de Ciências e Suas Formas de Pensar a Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Cristina; Hosoume, Yassuko

    2007-12-01

    The research presented in this article is about the way science teachers from Elementary School think about astronomical elements. Its methodology is based on semi-structured interviews, which were video recorded. The research is centered in a three-dimensional perspective of astronomical Earth, the Sun, the Moon, the planets and the stars, and also the conceptions about sky and Universe. The esults indicate a Universe that contains: Sun, stars, planets and Moon; where the Solar System is a little part of the whole. Sometimes they think that the Solar System is the Universe. The objects are in the sky or in the Universe, which, for many of them, is only the space above the Earth. The flat shape of astronomical objects and the spatial structure of the Universe are striking features. Many of them think that Sun and stars are different: the Sun is a hot object and the stars are cold ones. These results worry us and they certainly indicate how urgent it is to plan Professional Development in Astronomy for teachers, after all the PCN's emphasize that this subject is important to be taught. El objeto de investigación de este artículo es la manera de pensar sobre los elementos de la Astronomía de los profesores de Ciencias en la enseñanza fundamental. La metodología consiste en entrevistas semi-estructuradas, filmadas en video y centradas en la tridimensionalidad de los elementos astronómicos, para posibilitar un mapeamiento de las concepciones sobre las formas y dimensiones de la Tierra, del Sol, de la Luna, de los planetas y de las estrellas, como también de la concepción de cielo y de Universo en su totalidad. Los resultados indican un Universo conteniendo: Sol, estrellas, planetas y Luna, donde el Sistema Solar se ubica como parte. Algunas veces, el Universo es concebido como el propio Sistema Solar. Los objetos están en el cielo o en el Universo, que, para muchos, se restringe al espacio que está arriba de la Tierra. La forma plana de los objetos astronómicos y la estructura espacial del montaje del Universo son características fundamentales. Muchos indican Sol y estrellas como cosas distintas: el Sol es un objeto caliente y las estrellas son frías. Esos resultados nos preocupan y ciertamente señalan una urgencia de programas de formación continuada para profesores en el contenido de astronomía, pues los PCN's (Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales) recomiendan con énfasis la enseñanza de este contenido. O modo de pensar dos professores de Ciências do ensino fundamental sobre os elementos da Astronomia é o objeto de pesquisa presente neste artigo, cuja metodologia consiste em entrevistas semiestruturadas, filmadas em vídeo e centradas numa perspectiva tridimensional dos elementos astronômicos, possibilitando um mapeamento das concepções das formas e das dimensões da Terra, do Sol, da Lua, dos planetas e das estrelas, bem como da concepção de céu e de Universo como um todo. Os resultados indicam um Universo contendo: Sol, estrelas, planetas e Lua, onde o Sistema Solar é parte do todo. Algumas vezes o Universo é concebido como o próprio Sistema Solar. Os objetos estão no céu ou no Universo o qual, para muitos, se restringe ao espaço que está acima da Terra. A forma plana dos objetos astronômicos e a estrutura espacial da montagem do Universo são características marcantes. Muitos indicam Sol e estrelas como coisas diferentes: Sol é um objeto quente e as estrelas são frias. Esses resultados nos preocupam e certamente sinalizam uma urgência de programas de formação continuada para professores no conteúdo de astronomia, uma vez que os PCN's indicam fortemente o ensino desse conteúdo.

  2. Learning & Growing Together: Understanding and Supporting Your Child's Development = Aprender y crecer juntos: Como comprender y fomentar el desarrollo de sus hijos [with] Tip Sheets: Ideas for Professionals in Programs That Serve Young Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Dombro, Amy Laura; Powers, Stefanie

    Based on the view that the primary caregivers for infants and toddlers are their own best resource for understanding and caring for their child and that parenting is a lifelong learning process, this book provides information and tools to help caregivers build a strong foundation for their child's development. The book, both in English and

  3. La Exploracion Del Contexto Social y Sus Efectos en el Programa de Espanol en Mexico Rural. (Exploring the Social Context Affecting a Pre-School Spanish Program in Rural Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lynda

    A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The…

  4. Vamos juntos a la escuela: Consejos para ayudar a los padres a asegurar el exito academico de sus hijos (Let's Go to School Together: Tips To Help Parents Ensure Their Children's Educational Success). [Videotape Kit].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Resource Center (ED), Washington, DC.

    Noting research showing that when parents are involved in their children's learning, students achieve more and are less likely to drop out of school, this videotape kit offers Spanish-speaking parents tips to help them become involved in their children's learning, from infancy through adolescence. The kit is intended for use in schools,…

  5. Head Start Service Guide for Children and Families with HIV or AIDS = Guia de Servicios para Ninos con V.I.H. Positivo y con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (S.I.D.A.) y sus Familias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.

    This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…

  6. Heart to Heart: Parents of Blind and Partially Sighted Children Talk about Their Feelings = De Corazon a Corazon: Padres de Ninos Ciegos y Parcialmente Ciegos Hablan acerca de Sus Sentimientos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blind Childrens Center, Los Angeles, CA.

    English and Spanish versions of this booklet describe typical feelings experienced by parents of blind and partially sighted children. Experiences are cited including first feelings of shock and confusion, days of dramatic ups and downs, need to find a reason for the blindness, self doubts and anxiety, and reactions from strangers. In closing, the…

  7. Let's Read! 101 Ideas To Help Your Child Learn To Read and Write. Bilingual Edition. Revised Edition = Leamos! 101 ideas para ayudar a sus hijos a apprender a leer y escribir. Texto Bilingue. Texto refundido.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Based on the idea that parents are the first and most important teachers, this bilingual (Spanish/English) book offers 101 practical and fun-to-do activities that children and parents can do together. This edition provides a preface by Professor Josefina Villamil Tinajero and additional information of particular interest to Latino parents. The…

  8. Let's Read! 101 Ideas To Help Your Child Learn To Read and Write. Bilingual Edition. Revised Edition = Leamos! Prepare a sus hijos a leer y escribir: 101 Ideas. Texto Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Based on the idea that parents are the first and most important teachers, this bilingual (Spanish/English) book offers 101 practical and fun-to-do activities that children and parents can do together. The revised edition provides a preface by Professor Josefina Villamil Tinajero and additional information of particular interest to Latino parents.…

  9. [Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) and notification of infant-juvenile violence in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in Feira de Santana in the state of Bahia].

    PubMed

    Souza, Camila dos Santos; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Musse, Jamilly de Oliveira; Sobrinho, Carlito Nascimento; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis

    2014-03-01

    The scope of the study is to analyze data of children and adolescents who are the victims of different forms of violence, registered in the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA/MS) in Feira de Santana in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The total number of records, since the implementation of VIVA in the city (01/2009 to 01/2011) was used and the analyses sought associations between characteristics of violence and profiles of victims and perpetrators. The results showed that children and adolescents were molested using different types of violence, including the use of physical force, verbal threats and weapons and sundry cases of personal injury. Approximately 35% were hospitalized and 15% died. Physical violence was more common among males during adolescence in the home environment and perpetrated by a family member. Sexual violence occurred with greater frequency among females during childhood and 55.5% of the cases occurred in the home environment and more frequently perpetrated by a family member or acquaintances. The results highlight the importance of investments in policies and programs for harm prevention and reduction, seeking to broaden coverage in the care and the enhancement of the information system and surveys of these indicators. PMID:24714892

  10. La columna, el circulo y sus variantes en la poesia primera de Pedro Salinas (The Vertical Line, the Circle, and other Geometric Varieties in the Early Poetry of Pedro Salinas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Armas, Jose R.

    1970-01-01

    Interprets Salinas' use of geometric figures for depicting concepts of time and infinity, and for portraying idealism and realism (the vertical line is idealism, perfection; the circle stands for reality and imperfection). (DS)

  11. La lectura literaria como arte de "performance": la teoria transaccional de Louise Rosenblatt y sus implicaciones pedagogicas (The Use of Literature as Performance Art: The Transactional Theory of Louise Rosenblatt and Its Pedagogical Implications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper focuses on the work that Louise Rosenblatt and her followers in the United States have done to improve the teaching and learning of literature at all educational levels. Although these researchers have focused almost exclusively on the use of literature in the native language, the paper uses transactional theory as a basis for teaching…

  12. Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa

    El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la investigacion se utilizo una metodologia cuantitativa y la herramienta para lograrlo fue una encuesta. La encuesta se analizo estadisticamente mediante analisis de frecuencias y por cientos, prueba ANOVA, prueba t, pruebas Post Hoc de Tukey y de Levene. Tambien se realizo nuevamente una prueba de confiabilidad mediante el alfa de Cronbach. Los resultados reflejaron que los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion, Humanidades, Estudios Generales y el Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas tienen una percepcion muy positiva del concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos curriculares de Ciencias Biologicas y del nuevo bachillerato.

  13. La Exploracion Del Contexto Social y Sus Efectos en el Programa de Espanol en Mexico Rural. (Exploring the Social Context Affecting a Pre-School Spanish Program in Rural Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lynda

    A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The

  14. A Guide for Reading: How Parents Can Help Their Children Be Ready To Read and Ready To Learn = Guia Para Leer: Como los padres pueden preparar a sus hijos a leer y aprender desde la infancia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Washington, DC.

    As part of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, this brochure (in English and Spanish) provides a guide to assist parents in helping their children become ready to read and to learn. The suggestions include: (1) talking to infants/toddlers to help them learn to speak and understand the meaning of words; (2)…

  15. Learning & Growing Together: Understanding and Supporting Your Child's Development = Aprender y crecer juntos: Como comprender y fomentar el desarrollo de sus hijos [with] Tip Sheets: Ideas for Professionals in Programs That Serve Young Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Dombro, Amy Laura; Powers, Stefanie

    Based on the view that the primary caregivers for infants and toddlers are their own best resource for understanding and caring for their child and that parenting is a lifelong learning process, this book provides information and tools to help caregivers build a strong foundation for their child's development. The book, both in English and…

  16. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  17. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. PMID:26005913

  18. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  19. La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argos, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

  20. Investigacion educativa. El sistema escolar en sus diferentes niveles, factores que favorecen o frenan su eficacia y medidas de superacion (Educational Research. The Educational System at Different Levels; Factors Promoting or Hindering Its Efficiency; Possible Improvements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Lozano, Blanca; And Others

    This document is an English-language abstract (Approximately 1,500 words) of a study on educational research in Mexico. Chapter one discusses the importance of educational research, in terms of its role both in scientific and technical development; it should use scientific methods so that it will have solid foundations. Chapter two is a survey of

  1. Retrograde and destination transfer of sex steroid hormones in the spermatic cord vessels of the mature boar (Sus scrofa) in short-daylight and long-daylight periods, as well as vernal and autumnal equinox.

    PubMed

    Tabęcka-Łonczyńska, Anna; Kulpa, Magdalena; Grzesiak, Małgorzata; Koziorowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal changes in concentration of steroid hormones in the spermatic cord vessels of the mature boar. Cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) was also localized in the arteries and veins of the spermatic cord. Arterial blood was collected from the common carotid artery and from two branches of the testicular artery supplying the testis and epididymis to determine progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A2), testosterone (T2) and estradiol (E2) plasma concentrations. The greatest concentration of P4 was found in testicular artery during December (P<0.001), when compared with other periods and vessels. In contrast, the greatest A2 concentration was observed in the epididymal artery during the same season (P<0.001). Greater T2 concentrations were found in both testis and epididymal arteries than in common artery in March (P<0.001, P<0.001; respectively) and in September (P<0.01, P<0.001; respectively). The E2 concentration was weakly affected by seasonal periods, but greater E2 concentrations were found within vessels in the testis and epididymis than in the common artery. The P450arom was immunolocalized in all layers of the arteries and veins of the testicular spermatic cord. The intensity of P450arom staining was greater in December than in June (P<0.001). There were greater steroid concentrations in arterial vessels during December in comparison to June and this may explain the summer infertility in boars and may be related to the local retrograde and destination transfer into the spermatic cord area. The P450arom gene expression in this area seems to be involved in the conversion of T2 into E2 to enrich the testes and epididymis. PMID:26608934

  2. Attention Immigrant Parents: Send Your Children to School = Atencion Padres Immigrantes: Manden sus Ninos a la Esucela = Nhung Cha Me Di Dan De Y: Dem Con Ban Toi Truong Hoc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy (META), Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    This one page notice to parents, printed on separate pages in English, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Chinese, emphasizes that all children have the legal right to a free public education, regardless of their immigration status. Immigrant children do not need a green card, visa, passport, or any other proof of citizenship or immigration status in order…

  3. First detection of Echinococcus granulosus G1 and G7 in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Romania using PCR and PCR-RFLP techniques.

    PubMed

    Onac, D; Győrke, A; Oltean, M; Gavrea, R; Cozma, V

    2013-03-31

    The epidemiological status of CE in our country places Romania into the top of the European countries and among the first countries worldwide. Two hundred ninety wild animals (267 wild boars, 21 red deer and 2 mouflons) hunted in a private ground from Bihor county from western Romania were the subject of the necropsy in January 2012.Out of 290 wild animals, 35 were positive during necropsy for hydatic cysts and from these, 33 wild boars and 2 red deer had hydatic cystsonly in the liver parenchyma. This paper presents the first identification of Echinococcus granulosus G1 in cervids (100%). In wild boars it were identified G1 (45.5%) and G7 genotypes (39.4%). The mouflons were free of hydatic cysts. Our resultsconfirmthat the sheep strain (G1) is the predominant Echinococcus genotype, which occurs, followed closely by the pig strain (G7) and that wildlife reservoirs should be taken in consideration for the management of the disease. PMID:23332123

  4. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  5. Sucrose synthase interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel suggests a potential role for the enzyme in inter-organellar signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism and uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. SUS is encoded by three genes in maize: sh1, sus1 and sus2 and the active enzyme is a homo or hetero-tetramer. Our...

  6. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde el conjunto de conocimientos y habilidades es predominantemente escolar. Estudia la interfase entre los conocimientos terrestres y los celestes, dándoles un significado geográfico. Analiza las relaciones humanas y naturales con el Espacio Sideral y sus consecuencias para la sociedad y la naturaleza.

  7. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para los cuidadores de ninos pequenos: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Caregivers: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for caregivers, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth chart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that caregivers (family child care providers and the teachers, staff, and volunteers in child development programs) can use to help young children…

  8. En sus marcas--Listos--A leer! Para las familias: Actividades de lenguaje para la primera infancia y ninez entre el nacimiento y los 5 anos. El reto: A leer, America! (Ready--Set--Read! For Families: Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close friend) can use to…

  9. Cuidado de Ninos con Necesidades Especiales en el Hogar: Manual de Estrategias y Actividades para Proveedores que Cuidan Ninos en Sus Hogares (Children with Special Needs in Family Day Care Homes: A Handbook of Approaches and Activities for Family Day Care Home Providers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Brosse, Beatrice

    Practical information and sample teaching activities for child caregivers who work with young developmentally disabled children in family day care settings are provided in this manual. Each chapter shares a typical experience a caregiver may have with a particular child. Chapter 1 focuses on getting to know a new child, initial expectations, and…

  10. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  11. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 7th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Septimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  12. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 9th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Noveno Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  13. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 5th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 5to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  14. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 10th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Decimo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  15. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 6th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 6to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  16. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 11th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 11 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  17. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 12th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Grado 12 Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Education Oversight Committee, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  18. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 4th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 4to Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  19. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 8th Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Octavo Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  20. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 3rd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 3er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new

  1. [Protomedicato and pharmacy in Castile at the end of the sixteenth century: "Catálogo de las Cosas que los Boticarios han de tener en sus Boticas" (Catalogue of the things that apothecaries must have in their shops), by Andrés Zamudio de Alfaro, Protomédico General (1592-1599)].

    PubMed

    Davis, Charles; Terrada, María Luz López

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a catalogue of medicinal products preserved in a manuscript copy among the papers of a druggist who died in Madrid in 1599. This catalogue, whose title expresses its normative character, contains 423 entries and is signed by Andrés Zamudio de Alfaro, Protomédico General of Castile from 1592 until his death in 1599. It was presumably issued by the Real Tribunal del Protomedicato during the last decade of the sixteenth century for the use of the protomédicos and examiners who carried out official visits to apothecaries under the aegis of the Tribunal, in accordance with the royal decrees of 1588 and 1593, and was also distributed among the apothecaries themselves and their suppliers, such as the druggist who possessed the copy edited here. The document offers valuable evidence of the policy of normalization of medical, and specifically pharmaceutical, practice imposed during this period by the State through the Protomedicato. PMID:21309192

  2. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth

  3. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 1st Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 1er Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  4. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your 2nd Grader Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de 2do Grado Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  5. A Guide for Parents and Families about What Your Kindergartner Should Be Learning in School This Year. Don't Fail Your Children = Una Guia para los Padres y Familias Acerca de Lo Que Su Hijo de Jardin Infantil (Kindergarten) Debe Aprender en la Escuela Este Ano. No Le Falle a Sus Hijos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, shares with parents information about the South Carolina Curriculum Standards. The standards outline state requirements for children's learning and what students across the state should be able to do in certain subjects. The guide lists seven key reasons parents should be aware of the new…

  6. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family. PMID:26440085

  7. SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven C. Huber

    2009-05-12

    Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

  8. A Novel Isoform of Sucrose Synthase Is Targeted to the Cell Wall during Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis in Cotton Fiber[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Elizabeth; van Thournout, Michel; White, Rosemary G.; Llewellyn, Danny; Campbell, Peter M.; Engelen, Steven; Ruan, Yong-Ling; Arioli, Tony; Furbank, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) synthase (Sus) is the major enzyme of Suc breakdown for cellulose biosynthesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber, an important source of fiber for the textile industry. This study examines the tissue-specific expression, relative abundance, and temporal expression of various Sus transcripts and proteins present in cotton. A novel isoform of Sus (SusC) is identified that is expressed at high levels during secondary cell wall synthesis in fiber and is present in the cell wall fraction. The phylogenetic relationships of the deduced amino acid sequences indicate two ancestral groups of Sus proteins predating the divergence of monocots and dicots and that SusC sequences form a distinct branch in the phylogeny within the dicot-specific clade. The subcellular location of the Sus isoforms is determined, and it is proposed that cell wall-localized SusC may provide UDP-glucose for cellulose and callose synthesis from extracellular sugars. PMID:21757635

  9. Sucrose metabolism contributes to in vivo fitness of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Camilli, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Summary We characterized two sucrose-metabolizing systems – sus and scr – and describe their roles in the physiology and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in murine models of carriage and pneumonia. The sus and scr systems are regulated by LacI family repressors SusR and ScrR respectively. SusR regulates an adjacent ABC transporter (susT1/susT2/susX) and sucrose-6-phosphate (S-6-P) hydrolase (susH). ScrR controls an adjacent PTS transporter (scrT), fructokinase (scrK) and second S-6-P hydrolase (scrH). sus and scr play niche-specific roles in virulence. The susH and sus locus mutants are attenuated in the lung, but dispensable in nasopharyngeal carriage. Conversely, the scrH and scr locus mutants, while dispensable in the lung, are attenuated for nasopharyngeal colonization. The scrH/susH double mutant is more attenuated than scrH in the nasopharynx, indicating SusH can substitute in this niche. Both systems are sucrose-inducible, with ScrH being the major in vitro hydrolase. The scrH/susH mutant does not grow on sucrose indicating that sus and scr are the only sucrose-metabolizing systems in S. pneumoniae. We propose a model describing hierarchical regulation of the scr and sus systems by the putative inducer, S-6-P. The transport and metabolism of sucrose or a related disaccharide thus contributes to S. pneumoniae colonization and disease. PMID:17880421

  10. Sucrose synthase oligomerization and F-actin association are regulated by sucrose concentration and phosphorylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme in plant metabolism, as it serves to cleave the photosynthetic end product sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose. SUS is generally assumed to be a tetrameric protein, but results in the present study suggest that SUS can form dimers as well as tetramers and th...

  11. Metabolic signals control the selective degradation of sucrose synthase in maize leaves during de-etiolation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The content and activity of sucrose (Suc) synthase (SUS) protein is high in sink organs but low in source organs. In the present report, we examined light and metabolic signals regulating SUS protein degradation in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves during de-etiolation. We found that SUS protein accumulate...

  12. Determination of structural requirements and probable regulatory effectors for membrane association of maize sucrose synthase 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) cleaves sucrose to form UDP-glucose and fructose, and exists in soluble (s-SUS) and membrane-associated (m-SUS) forms, with the latter proposed to channel UDP-glucose to the cellulose synthase complex on the plasma membrane of plant cells during synthesis of cellulose. However...

  13. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. Mejoría de la Alimentación Suplementaria en la Conservación de Especies Resumen La alimentación suplementaria con frecuencia es una reacción instintiva a la declinación de poblaciones y su aplicación no se evalúa críticamente, lo que lleva a opiniones polarizadas sobre su uso entre los manejadores. Aquí abogamos por una estrategia más decisiva para la alimentación suplementaria para que la opción de usarla esté claramente justificada sobre, o en combinación con, otras acciones de manejo y las consecuencias pronosticadas sean entonces evaluadas críticamente después de su implementación. Proponemos combinar métodos de otro conjunto de disciplinas especialistas que permitirán la evaluación crítica de la necesidad, el beneficio y los riesgos de la alimentación suplementaria. Por medio del uso de la ecología nutricional, la ecología de poblaciones y la toma de decisiones estructuradas, quienes manejan la conservación pueden tomar mejores decisiones sobre qué y cómo alimentar al estimar las consecuencias de la recuperación poblacional a través de un rango de acciones posibles. Esta estrategia estructurada también informa al monitoreo enfocado y permite con mayor claridad la integración de la alimentación suplementaria a los planes de recuperación y reduce el riesgo de decisiones ineficientes. En Nueva Zelanda, los manejadores del hihi (Notiomystis cincta) que se encuentra en peligro de extinción, con frecuencia dependen de la alimentación suplementaria para apoyar a las poblaciones reintroducidas. En la isla de Kapiti, la población reintroducida de hihis ha respondido de buena manera a la alimentación suplementaria, pero la logística de proporcionar a una demanda en crecimiento recientemente sobrepasó la capacidad de manejo. Para decidir si el régimen alimentario debería revisarse y cómo hacerlo, los manejadores usaron una estrategia estructurada de toma de decisiones con información sobre las respuestas de la población a regímenes alternativos de alimentación. La decisión se hizo para reducir la distribución espacial de los comederos e invertir el tiempo ahorrado en incrementar el volumen de alimento que se lleva a una zona núcleo más pequeña. La estrategia usada permitió una decisión de manejo transparente y defendible con respecto a la alimentación suplementaria, lo que refleja los objetivos múltiples de los manejadores y sus prioridades. PMID:25354808

  14. Condiciones Físicas en Nebulosas Gaseosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luridiana, V.

    1999-03-01

    El presente trabajo se ha enfocado a determinar y entender las condiciones físicas en una variedad de objetos nebulares, prestando particular atención al problema de la determinación de las abundancias químicas. Para este fin, hemos utilizado métodos analíticos en algunos casos, y modelos numéricos de fotoionización en otros. El objetivo general del trabajo es proveer de una visión amplia de las herramientas teórico-observacionales que se utilizan para la determinación de la estructura de temperatura y densidad de las regiones fotoionizadas, poniendo en evidencia posibles fuentes de errores sistemáticos y sus consecuencias para la determinación de las abundancias químicas, y proponiendo métodos para corregirlos. Los resultados principales de este trabajo est´n listados a continuación: a) Se discute el problema de la discrepancia entre T(C III) y T(O III) en las nebulosas planetarias, y se muestra como tal discrepancia implica probablemente la presencia de fluctuaciones de temperatura. Debido a que la temperatura de O++ es muy afectada por fluctuaciones de temperatura, se recomienda usar la temperatura de C++ para determinar la abundancia de carbono. b) Presentamos dos nuevos métodos para determinar la temperatura electrónica en nebulosas planetarias, basados en la medición de las intensidades de las líneas de He I. Las temperaturas que se obtienen a partir de estos métodos son menores que aquellas que se obtienen a partir de las líneas de [O III], implicando la presencia de fluctuaciones espaciales de temperatura. Despreciando las fluctuaciones de temperatura, se obtienen valores sesgados de las abundancias químicas. Determinamos las abundancias en las nebulosas planetarias de tipo I de algunos de los elementos más importantes, tomando en cuenta las fluctuaciones de temperatura. c) Presentamos modelos numéricos de las dos regiones H II extragalácticas gigantes NGC 2363 y NGC 5461. Con el modelaje numérico, pretendemos acotar las carácteristicas principales de las nubes ionizadas (distribución espacial del gas, estructura de ionización y de temperatura) y de los cúmulos ionizantes (función inicial de masa, historia de formación estelar, edad). En ambos casos, mostramos que con modelos numéricos calculados para el valor de metalicidad que se determina a partir de la temperatura de [O III], no es posible reproducir el espectro de emisión observado, y que para reproducir las restricciones más robustas es necesario subir la metalicidad de los modelos por un factor de 2. Esto constituye una fuerte indicación en favor de la presencia de fluctuaciones de temperatura. d) Para poder comparar los modelos numéricos con los datos observacionales. mostramos la importancia de corregir las predicciones de los modelos por el sesgo introducido por el tamaío finito de la rendija.

  15. Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, Carmen Lopez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from…

  16. Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, Carmen Lopez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from

  17. Sink- and vascular-associated sucrose synthase functions are encoded by different gene classes in potato.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, H; Park, W D

    1995-01-01

    Two differentially regulated classes of sucrose synthase genes, Sus3 and Sus4, were identified in potato. They cannot be classified as Sus1 and Sus2 types based on sequence homology and appear to have evolved after the divergence of the major families of dicotyledonous plants but before the divergence of tomato and potato. The potato sucrose synthase clones Sus3-65 and Sus4-16 share an 87% nucleotide identity in the coding regions, and both are interrupted by 13 introns, including a long leader intron. Potato Sus3 genes are expressed at the highest levels in stems and roots and appear to provide the vascular function of sucrose synthase. In contrast, Sus4 genes are expressed primarily in the storage and vascular tissue of tubers and appear to facilitate sink function. The genes are differentially regulated in root tips, with Sus3 expressed at high levels in the cell division zone and Sus4 expressed at high levels in the meristem and cap. PMID:8589622

  18. A Spectrum Access Based on Quality of Service (QoS) in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Linbo; Wang, Hua; Gao, Chuangen

    2016-01-01

    The quality of service (QoS) is important issue for cognitive radio networks. In the cognitive radio system, the licensed users, also called primary users (PUs), are authorized to utilize the wireless spectrum, while unlicensed users, also called secondary users (SUs), are not authorized to use the wireless spectrum. SUs access the wireless spectrum opportunistically when the spectrum is idle. While SUs use an idle channel, the instance that PUs come back makes SUs terminate their communications and leave the current channel. Therefore, quality of service (QoS) is difficult to be ensured for SUs. In this paper, we first propose an analysis model to obtain QoS for cognitive radio networks such as blocking probability, completed traffic and termination probability of SUs. When the primary users use the channels frequently, QoS of SUs is difficult to be ensured, especially the termination probability. Then, we propose a channel reservation scheme to improve QoS of SUs. The scheme makes the terminated SUs move to the reserved channels and keep on communications. Simulation results show that our scheme can improve QoS of SUs especially the termination probability with a little cost of blocking probability in dynamic environment. PMID:27171196

  19. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Geographic range size is often conceptualized as a fixed attribute of a species and treated as such for the purposes of quantification of extinction risk; species occupying smaller geographic ranges are assumed to have a higher risk of extinction, all else being equal. However many species are mobile, and their movements range from relatively predictable to-and-fro migrations to complex irregular movements shown by nomadic species. These movements can lead to substantial temporary expansion and contraction of geographic ranges, potentially to levels which may pose an extinction risk. By linking occurrence data with environmental conditions at the time of observations of nomadic species, we modeled the dynamic distributions of 43 arid-zone nomadic bird species across the Australian continent for each month over 11 years and calculated minimum range size and extent of fluctuation in geographic range size from these models. There was enormous variability in predicted spatial distribution over time; 10 species varied in estimated geographic range size by more than an order of magnitude, and 2 species varied by >2 orders of magnitude. During times of poor environmental conditions, several species not currently classified as globally threatened contracted their ranges to very small areas, despite their normally large geographic range size. This finding raises questions about the adequacy of conventional assessments of extinction risk based on static geographic range size (e.g., IUCN Red Listing). Climate change is predicted to affect the pattern of resource fluctuations across much of the southern hemisphere, where nomadism is the dominant form of animal movement, so it is critical we begin to understand the consequences of this for accurate threat assessment of nomadic species. Our approach provides a tool for discovering spatial dynamics in highly mobile species and can be used to unlock valuable information for improved extinction risk assessment and conservation planning. Tamaño de Extensión Geográfica y Evaluación de Riesgo de Extinción en Especies Nómadas Resumen El tamaño de extensión geográfica se conceptualiza frecuentemente como un atributo fijo de las especies y se trata como tal para los propósitos de cuantificación de riesgo de extinción; se asume que las especies que ocupan extensiones geográficas más pequeñas tienen un riesgo de extinción más alto, cuando todo lo demás es igual. Sin embargo, muchas especies son móviles y sus movimientos varían desde migraciones de ida y vuelta relativamente predecibles hasta movimientos irregulares complejos, como los que muestran las especies nómadas. Estos movimientos pueden llevar a expansiones sustanciales temporales y a una reducción de las extensiones geográficas, todo esto con el potencial de llegar a niveles que pueden presentar un riesgo de extinción. Al enlazar los datos de presencia con las condiciones ambientales al momento de la observación de las especies nómadas pudimos modelar las distribuciones dinámicas de 43 especies de aves de zonas áridas a lo largo de la isla de Australia durante cada mes a lo largo de once años y calculamos el tamaño de extensión mínima y el alcance de las fluctuaciones en el tamaño de extensión geográfica a partir de estos modelos. Hubo una enorme variabilidad en la distribución espacial pronosticada a lo largo del tiempo: diez especies variaron en el tamaño de extensión geográfica por más de una orden de magnitud y dos especies variaron por más de dos órdenes de magnitud. Durante situaciones de condiciones ambientales pobres, varias especies que actualmente no se encuentran clasificadas como amenazadas a nivel global redujeron sus extensiones a áreas muy pequeñas, esto a pesar de su gran tamaño de extensión geográfica normal. Este hallazgo genera preguntas sobre lo idóneo de las evaluaciones convencionales del riesgo de extinción con base en el tamaño estático de extensión geográfica (p. ej.: la Lista Roja de la UICN). Se pronostica que el cambio climático afectará los patrones de las fluctuaciones de recursos en casi todo el hemisferio sur, donde el nomadismo es la forma dominante de movimiento de animales, así que es crítico que comencemos a entender las consecuencias de esto para tener una evaluación certera del riesgo de extinción de especies nómadas. Nuestra estrategia proporciona una herramienta para descubrir las dinámicas espaciales de especies con movilidad alta y puede usarse para liberar información valiosa para una mejor evaluación de riesgo de extinción y planeación de la conservación. PMID:25580637

  20. The Idealized Brazilian Health System versus the real one: contributions from the nursing field1

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Dirce Stein; de Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira; Marchiori, Mara Teixeira Caino; Colomé, Juliana Silveira; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Lunardi, Wilson Danilo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the perceptions of professionals working in a facility connected with the Brazilian Unified Health System - SUS in regard to what they know, think and talk about public health policy. METHOD: this exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative nature was conducted with 28 professionals working in a facility connected with the SUS. Data were collected through interviews with guiding questions and analyzed through the thematic content analysis technique. RESULTS: coded and interpreted data resulted in three thematic axes: The SUS - perfect web that does not work in practice; The recurrent habit of complaining about the SUS; The need to rethink the way of thinking about, acting in and managing the SUS. CONCLUSION: the professionals working for the SUS are aware of the principles and guidelines that govern the Brazilian health system, however, they reproduce a dichotomous and linear model of conception and practice strongly linked to the thinking of society in general. PMID:25591099

  1. El pronóstico del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Tres pacientes con cáncer y su médico, el doctor Anthony L. Back, un oncólogo quien también es experto a nivel nacional en la comunicación entre médicos y pacientes, comparten sus puntos de vista sobre sus pronósticos de cáncer.

  2. Mensaje para alumnos y padres - Duration: 3 minutes, 1 second.

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  3. How We Justify and Maintain the White, Male Academic Status Quo through the Use of Biased College Admissions Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Prompted by a puzzling recent growth in the proportions of minority entrants from Community Colleges (CCTs) into the Florida State University System (SUS), the current study analyzed over one million SUS applicants to determine whether any biases in entrance test scores tended to favor either whites over minorities, or males over females. Today,…

  4. Sucrose Synthase: Expanding Protein Function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS: EC 2.4.1.13), a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism, is uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. Our research indicates that the biological function of SUS may extend beyond its catalytic activity. Th...

  5. A metabolic flux analysis to study the role of sucrose synthase in the regulation of the carbon partitioning in central metabolsim in maize root tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand the role of sucrose synthase in carbon partitioning, metabolic fluxes were analyzed in maize root tips of lineage-related genotypes of a double mutant (dm) of sucrose synthase genes, sh1 sus1 and the corresponding wild type, Sh1 Sus1, in W22 inbred background. Pulse labeling e...

  6. The Three Maize Sucrose synthase Isoforms Differ in Distribution, Localization, and Phosphorylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although sucrose synthase (SUS) is widely appreciated for its role in plant metabolism and growth, very little is known about the contribution of each of the SUS isoforms to these processes. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we evaluated the three known isoforms individually at the protein level. ...

  7. Hacer frente - La adaptación al cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información para ayudarle a usted y a su familia a enfrentar los desafíos que representa el cáncer en su vida. Incluye temas sobre cómo hablar con sus médicos, sugerencias para hablar con sus hijos, cambios en su familia e información sobre grupos de apoy

  8. Impact of Projected State University System Retirements. Information Brief. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The likely retirement age of "baby boomers" among the tenured faculty in the State University System (SUS) will coincide with a steep increase in the population of traditional college-age students over the next ten years. The majority (53.5%) of SUS faculty were born in the baby boom years between 1943 and 1959. This group is already beginning to…

  9. SUCROSE SYNTHASE INTERACTION WITH THE VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT ANION CHANNEL SUGGESTS A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR THE ENZYME IN INTER-ORGANELLAR SIGNALING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose catabolism and uniquely able to mobilize sucrose into multiple pathways involved in metabolic, structural, and storage functions. Our recent work indicates that the biological function of SUS extends beyond its biochemical activity. This infere...

  10. Drought in the Southern United States over the 20th century: Variability and its impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity and carbon storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is one of the most devastating natural hazards faced by the Southern United States (SUS) today. Although precipitation in the SUS as a whole has been found to increase during 1895-2007, drought events and their adverse impacts on the economy, society and environment have been extensively rep...

  11. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa stem vascular tissue by a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: sucrose synthase construct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important role of sucrose synthase (SUS, EC 2.4.1.13) in plants is to provide UDP-glucose needed for cellulose synthesis in cell walls. We examined if over-expressing SUS in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) would increase cellulose content of stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with two ...

  12. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  13. Perceived Usability Evaluation of Learning Management Systems: Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…

  14. Ten-years of bariatric surgery in Brazil: in-hospital mortality rates for patients assisted by universal health system or a health maintenance organization

    PubMed Central

    KELLES, Silvana Márcia Bruschi; MACHADO, Carla Jorge; BARRETO, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is an option for sustained weight loss for the morbidly obese patient. In Brazil coexists the Unified Health System (SUS) with universal coverage and from which depend 150 million Brazilians and supplemental health security, predominantly private, with 50 million beneficiaries. Aim To compare access, in-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs for patients undergoing bariatric surgery, assisted in one or another system. Methods Data from DATASUS and IBGE were used for SUS patients' and database from one health plan of southeastern Brazil for the health insurance patients. Results Between 2001 and 2010 there were 24,342 and 4,356 surgeries performed in SUS and in the health insurance company, respectively. The coverage rates for surgeries performed in 2010 were 5.3 and 91/100.000 individuals in SUS and health insurance respectively. The rate of in-hospital mortality in SUS, considering the entire country, was 0.55 %, 0.44 % considering SUS Southeast, and 0.30 % for the health insurance. The costs of surgery in the SUS and in the health insurance trend to equalization over the years. Conclusion Despite differences in access and characteristics that may compromise the outcome of bariatric surgery, patients treated at the Southeast SUS had similar rate of in-hospital mortality compared to the health insurance patients. PMID:25626935

  15. Influence of high pressure hydrogen environment on tensile and fatigue properties of stainless steels at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, T.

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) of stainless steels in the environment of high pressure and low temperature hydrogen gas was evaluated using a very simple mechanical properties testing procedure. In the method, the high-pressure hydrogen environment is produced just inside the hole in the specimen. In this work, the effects of HEE on fatigue properties for austenitic stainless steels SUS304L and SUS316L were evaluated at 298 and 190 K. The effects of HEE on the tensile properties of higher strength stainless steels, such as strain-hardened 316, SUS630, and other alloys, SUH660 and Alloy 718 were also examined. The less effect of HEE on fatigue properties of SUS316L and tensile properties of strain-hardened 316 were observed compared with SUS304L and other steels at room temperature and 190 K.

  16. Transformation of sulfonylurea herbicides in simulated drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binnan; Kong, Deyang; Lu, Junhe; Zhou, Quansuo

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs) were detected in natural waters and could be potentially exposed to human beings via portable use. Thus, the removal of five representative SUs in simulated water treatment processes including coagulation, activated carbon adsorption, and chlorination disinfection was systematically investigated. Results showed that coagulation had little effect on the removal of the herbicides with the average removal less than 10 %. Powder-activated carbon adsorption was apparently more effective with removal rates of 50 ~ 70 %. SUs were also partially removed in chlorination process. A complete removal was achieved when the three treatments were performed in series. However, it was found that parts of the SUs were transformed into certain stable products with triazine/pyrimidine structures which might be of potential health risks in chlorination process. Thus, current drinking water treatment processes are not likely to provide sufficient protection for human population from exposure to SUs. PMID:25269843

  17. Structural and Functional Analysis of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 97 Enzyme from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron*

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Momoyo; Okuyama, Masayuki; Tanzawa, Fumiko; Mori, Haruhide; Kitago, Yu; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Atsuo; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2008-01-01

    SusB, an 84-kDa α-glucoside hydrolase involved in the starch utilization system (sus) of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 97. We have determined the enzymatic characteristics and the crystal structures in free and acarbose-bound form at 1.6Å resolution. SusB hydrolyzes the α-glucosidic linkage, with inversion of anomeric configuration liberating the β-anomer of glucose as the reaction product. The substrate specificity of SusB, hydrolyzing not only α-1,4-glucosidic linkages but also α-1,6-, α-1,3-, and α-1,2-glucosidic linkages, is clearly different from other well known glucoamylases belonging to GH15. The structure of SusB was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method with sulfur atoms as anomalous scatterers using an in-house x-ray source. SusB includes three domains as follows: the N-terminal, catalytic, and C-terminal domains. The structure of the SusB-acarbose complex shows a constellation of carboxyl groups at the catalytic center; Glu532 is positioned to provide protonic assistance to leaving group departure, with Glu439 and Glu508 both positioned to provide base-catalyzed assistance for inverting nucleophilic attack by water. A structural comparison with other glycoside hydrolases revealed significant similarity between the catalytic domain of SusB and those of α-retaining glycoside hydrolases belonging to GH27, -36, and -31 despite the differences in catalytic mechanism. SusB and the other retaining enzymes appear to have diverged from a common ancestor and individually acquired the functional carboxyl groups during the process of evolution. Furthermore, sequence comparison of the active site based on the structure of SusB indicated that GH97 included both retaining and inverting enzymes. PMID:18981178

  18. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate smoking patterns in an elderly, low-income population and to identify predictors of smoking cessation, in addition to analyzing the importance of smoking in relation to other risk factors for hospitalization. DESIGN The data were part of an urban health study conducted among 740 individuals aged ≥60 years in three suburban communities of low socio-economic status in Beirut, one of them a refugee camp. A detailed interview schedule was administered that included comprehensive social and health information. RESULTS The overall prevalence of current smokers was 28.1%. Almost half of the group were ever smokers, of whom 44% had quit smoking when they experienced negative health effects. Having at least one chronic illness and having a functional disability significantly increased the odds of smoking cessation. In addition, being a former smoker increased the likelihood of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS This study is of particular importance, as it has implications for similar low-income and refugee communities in the region and elsewhere. There is a need for more concerted efforts by public health officials to target elderly individuals as a group for smoking cessation interventions, particularly now that mortality and health benefits have been well documented. RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Investiguer les types de tabagisme dans une population âgée à faibles revenus et identifier les facteurs prédictifs de l’arrêt du tabagisme, tout en analysant l’importance du tabagisme par rapport aux autres facteurs de risque d’hospitalisation. SCHÉMA Les données constituent une fraction de l’étude de santé urbaine menée chez 740 personnes âgées de ≥60 ans à Beyrouth dans trois collectivités suburbaines à faible statut socio-économique dont une des trois se situe dans un camp de réfugiés. Un schéma détaillé d’interview a été utilisé comportant des informations complètes sur le plan social et celui de la santé. RÉSULTATS La prévalence globale des fumeurs actuels est de 28,1%. Près de la moitié des personnes âgées ont fumé à un moment quelconque dans leur vie et parmi celles-ci, 44% ont cessé de fumer. Les personnes âgées ont cessé de fumer lorsqu’elles en ont perçu les effets négatifs sur la santé. Le fait d’avoir au moins une maladie chronique et de souffrir d’une incapacité fonctionnelle ont augmenté d’une façon significative les chances d’arrêt du tabagisme. De plus, le fait d’être un ancien fumeur a augmenté le risque d’admission hospitalière. CONCLUSIONS Cette étude est d’une importance particulière car ses implications s’élargissent à des collectivités à faibles revenus similaires et chez les réfugiés dans la région ainsi qu’ailleurs. Il est nécessaire que les responsables de la santé publique fassent un effort plus concerté pour cibler les personnes âgées comme groupe en vue d’interventions d’arrêt du tabagisme, d’autant plus que les avantages en matière de mortalité et de santé ont aujourd’hui été bien documentés. RESUMEN OBJETIVOS Investigar los tipos de hábito tabáquico en una población de personas ancianas, de bajos ingresos y determinar los factores pronósticos del abandono del hábito. Asimismo, se analizó la importancia del tabaquismo en relación con otros factores de riesgo de hospitalización. DISEÑO Los datos formaban parte de un estudio de salud urbana de 740 personas de ≥60 años de edad, en tres comunidades suburbanas de bajo estrato socioeconómico en Beirut, una de las cuales era un campo de refugiados. Se administró una entrevista estructurada que aportaba amplia información social y sanitaria. RESULTADOS La prevalencia global de fumadores fue de 28,1%. Casi la mitad de las personas ancianas había sido fumadora en algún momento y 44% habían abandonado el tabaquismo. Estas personas abandonaron el hábito tabáquico cuando tuvieron repercusiones negativas sobre su salud. La presencia de por lo menos una enfermedad crónica y de discapacidad funcional aumentó en forma significativa las probabilidades de abandono del tabaquismo. Además, el antecedente de tabaquismo aumentó el riesgo de hospitalización. CONCLUSIÓN El presente estudio reviste una importancia particular, pues sus implicaciones son amplias para comunidades similares de escasos ingresos y de refugiados en esta y otras regiones. Pone en evidencia la necesidad de iniciativas más coordinadas por parte de los funcionarios de salud pública, destinadas a enfocar las campañas de abandono del tabaquismo en la población de edad mayor ; aún más hoy, cuando se ha demostrado la utilidad del abandono en términos de disminución de la mortalidad y consecuencias positivas para la salud. PMID:16898378

  19. Los manuales de quimica en Espana (1788--1845): Protagonistas, terminologia, clasificaciones y orden pedagogico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Bello, Maria Rosa

    La presente tesis doctoral es una investigacion sobre los manuales de quimica utilizados en Espana de 1788 a 1845. Este trabajo proporciona una perspectiva general de un tema relevante en las ultimas decadas en Historia de la Ciencia, el estudio de los libros de texto. De acuerdo con las ultimas investigaciones realizadas en este terreno, el acto pedagogico es considerado como un proceso creativo, como espacio de encuentro de actores e intereses muy diversos, matizando las ideas defendidas por Thomas S. Kuhn. Recordemos que segun Kuhn, los libros de texto ofrecen una vision consensuada y normalizada del estado de la ciencia de su epoca, por lo que sus autores eliminan deliberadamente toda controversia y presentan asi una imagen distorsionada de la actividad cientifica. En cambio, se ha mostrado, por ejemplo, que en la ensenanza participan no solamente profesores y alumnos sino tambien otros muchos actores y todos ellos no unicamente con intereses puramente pedagogicos sino tambien con diversos intereses politicos y economicos que pueden conocerse a traves del estudio de los manuales. En esta tesis se pretende analizar los manuales de quimica en Espana desde 1788 hasta 1845. Para poder llevar a cabo la investigacion ha sido necesario precisar el objeto de estudio (libro de texto de quimica) durante el periodo estudiado (1788-1845) ya que no es adecuado adoptar la imagen actual de una disciplina que sufrio sustanciales cambios durante la epoca estudiada. Esta investigacion se centra en un momento especialmente importante para la quimica y que algunos historiadores han llegado a considerar "revolucionario". Durante estos anos se produjo un cambio importante en las teorias quimicas sobre la combustion y el concepto de elemento, asi como una reforma terminologica que originaron la aparicion de importantes controversias. Ademas, debido a la relacion de la quimica con otras disciplinas como la historia natural o la fisica ha sido necesario restringir el objeto de estudio para poder llegar a conclusiones validas. Por ello, se ha adoptado como nucleo de este trabajo la definicion de libro de texto basada en su destino y no en su funcion, es decir, los libros que de forma explicita expresan su finalidad didactica, tanto en el titulo o como en las declaraciones del autor reflejadas en el prologo de la obra, en los que ademas aparezca la palabra quimica en su titulo. El estudio comienza en 1788 con la publicacion de algunos de los primeros manuales de quimica modernos, y acaba con la reforma educativa de 1845, que tuvo importantes consecuencias en el mercado de libros de texto en Espana. Esta reforma separaba la ensenanza media de la propiamente universitaria y, de este modo, fue impulsora de la creacion de institutos provinciales de segunda ensenanza, algunos de los cuales habian comenzado su andadura en los anos anteriores. Las regulaciones introducidas suponian una fuerte limitacion para los profesores en la eleccion de los manuales de ensenanza que debian ser aprobados cada tres anos por el Consejo de Instruccion Publica. Ademas supuso una reglamentacion clara de los estudios de filosofia y su division en los estudios elementales y superiores. La investigacion se ha distribuido a lo largo de seis capitulos: Introduccion, los protagonista, el vocabulario de la quimica, poniendo orden: las clasificaciones quimicas, conclusiones y apendice. En primer lugar, se ha elaborado un repertorio bibliografico, incluido en el apendice, constituido por 76 obras de quimica publicadas en Espana desde 1788 hasta 1845 que permite realizar un analisis estadistico de su produccion. Posteriormente, se intenta conocer los principales protagonistas en la creacion del libro: editores, impresores, autores, traductores y lectores. Tradicionalmente los historiadores de la ciencia han dado mas importancia a los laboratorios y a los personajes de la investigacion cientifica, frente a las aulas y a los protagonistas de la ensenanza. La situacion ha cambiado en las ultimas decadas pues los trabajos mas recientes han mostrado la labor creativa que se desarrolla en las aulas de ciencias, su importante influencia en la configuracion de las sucesivas generaciones de cientificos y, por ello, la necesidad de prestar atencion a los profesores y estudiantes de ciencias, a los autores, impresores y editores de los libros de texto y otros personajes poco conocidos. Siguiendo estas tendencias, se revisa los principales protagonistas de la edicion de los libros de texto: (1) Los editores, impresores y libreros (incluyendo tambien la regulacion del mercado editorial), (2) Los autores y los traductores de las obras, (3) Los publicos destinatarios. Se ofrece una descripcion general de las principales tendencias y retratos colectivos que se combinan con detalles de algunos de los protagonistas y situaciones particulares que pueden ser reveladoras de cuestiones importantes que no pueden ser abordadas mediante graficas o estadisticas. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del mundo: el caso de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en dromedarios transmitido por orugas y observado por pastores nómadas saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades locales de todo el mundo son una valiosa fuente de nuevas ideas e información para la ciencia. En este estudio, se utilizaron los conocimientos de etnoveterinaria de pastores saharauis del Sáhara Occidental con el fin de proponer una hipótesis científica sobre las interacciones competitivas entre los camellos y las orugas en el ecosistema del Sáhara. Métodos Entre los años 2005 y 2009, se realizaron 44 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a los pastores saharauis en los territorios administrados por la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática, Sáhara Occidental, mediante un diseño de muestreo por bola de nieve. Resultados Los pastores nómadas saharauis describieron un síndrome reproductivo transmitido por orugas, llamado duda, entre sus camellas. Sobre la base de los conocimientos saharauis sobre el duda y una revisión literaria exhaustiva, se propuso la siguiente hipótesis: 1) brotes esporádico de orugas de la familia Lasiocampidae (géneros Lasiocampa, Psilogaster o Streblote) en árboles de Acacia se pueden presentar después de fuertes lluvias en el ecosistema del Sáhara Occidental; 2) durante estos brotes, los camellos ingieren las orugas durante el pastoreo; 3) como consecuencia de esta ingestión, se producen abortos repentinos o partos de crías debilitadas. Apoyamos esta hipótesis mediante razonamiento inductivo basado en evidencia circunstancial y razonamiento analógico con síndromes similares en yeguas de los Estados Unidos y Australia. Conclusiones Este es el primer reporte de la posible existencia de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en camellos, transmitido por orugas. Se insinúa que estos síndromes son más comunes que lo que actualmente se conoce. Se sugieren investigaciones adicionales para poner a prueba nuestra hipótesis. Finalmente, se destaca la importancia de estudios de las enfermedades del ganado en pueblos de pastores nómadas porque pueden revelar fenómenos biológicos aún desconocidos y merecen ser investigados. PMID:23305273

  1. UHV-Bonding and Reversible Interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoda, Naoe; Suga, Tadatomo; Obara, Shingo; Imagawa, Kichiro

    Adhesion between two clean surfaces was investigated using a surface-activated bonding method in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) at room temperature. Adhesion was observed in all combinations of SUS440C/Ti-6Al-4V, INCONEL718/Ti-6Al-4V, A7075/SUS440C, SUS304/Al and INCONEL718/SUS440C. To understand the basic problems of UHV bonding, the influence of the surface roughness on bonding strength and interface structure has been studied. The surface roughness at the nanometer scale strongly influenced the bonding strength. In the case of SUS304 and Al, surfaces with less than l nm (RMS) had a high bonding strength of over 80 MPa. The interface does not have a thick reaction layer, only an amorphous layer on the order of several nanometers. Separation of the SUS304/Al interface by heat treatment has been also studied. A specimen heated at 823 K for 2 hr in a vacuum separated spontaneously without any external mechanical force. Separation occurred at the interface between the Al and the layer of the reaction products. This separation occurred only if the specimen was heated in a vacuum or argon atmosphere. The specimen did not separate when it was heated in air, nitrogen or oxygen atmospheres. The separated SUS304 could be re-bonded to Al at room temperature.

  2. [Market and public policy network failures: challenges and possibilities for the Brazilian Unified Health System].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro Filho, Francisco Percival; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2012-11-01

    The principles and guidelines of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) impose a healthcare service structure based on public policy networks which, combined with the financing model adopted, leads to market failings. This imposes barriers to the management of the public health system and the enactment of SUS objectives. The institutional characteristics and the heterogeneity of players, allied to the existence of different healthcare approaches, generate analytical complexity in the study of the global dynamics of the SUS network. There are limitations in the use of quantitative methods based on static analysis of retrospective SUS data. Thus, an approach taking SUS as a complex system using innovative quantitative methodology based on computational simulation is proposed. This paper sought to analyze challenges and possibilities of the combined application of cellular automata modeling and agent-based modeling for simulation of the evolution of the SUS healthcare service network. This approach should permit better understanding of the organization, heterogeneity and structural dynamics of the SUS service network and a minimization of the effects of market failings on the Brazilian health system. PMID:23175305

  3. Fretting corrosion resistance and fretting corrosion product cytocompatibility of ferritic stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Xulin, S; Ito, A; Tateishi, T; Hoshino, A

    1997-01-01

    To avoid nickel ion release from SUS317L as an implant material, a new type of nickel, commercially free, of high purity, and high chromium ferritic stainless steel, was developed. The new stainless steel (FJ) was studied for aspects of fretting corrosion and cytocompatibility compared with SUS317L. A pin-on-plate fretting corrosion test in an artificial physiologic solution, and cell culture in media with the addition of the artificial physiologic solution used for fretting was conducted. Resistance to the fretting induced crevice corrosion of FJ was higher than that of SUS317L because of the favorable electrochemical stability of the FJ alloy. The amount of iron ion or colloidal fine particles released from FJ was about a quarter of that from SUS317L, although the weight loss of a pin of FJ was almost 5/3 that of SUS317L. The artificial physiologic solution used for SUS317L fretting was more harmful to the growth of L929 and MC3T3-E1 cells than that used for FJ fretting. FJ was therefore superior to SUS317L as a biomaterial, judging from the resistance to fretting-induced crevice corrosion, electrochemical stability, and the cytocompatibility of fretting corrosion products. PMID:8978647

  4. A reassessment of the role of sucrose synthase in the hypoxic sucrose-ethanol transition in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Santaniello, Antonietta; Loreti, Elena; Gonzali, Silvia; Novi, Giacomo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2014-10-01

    Plants under low-oxygen availability adapt their metabolism to compensate for the lower ATP production that arises from the limited respiratory activity in mitochondria. Anaerobic glycolysis requires continuous fuelling of carbon units, also provided from sucrose. The anaerobic catabolism of sucrose is thought to require the activity of sucrose synthase, being this enzymatic reaction more energetically favourable than that of invertase. The role of sucrose synthases (SUS) for aerobic sucrose catabolism in Arabidopsis has been recently questioned since SUS mutants fail to show altered phenotype or metabolic profile. In the present paper, we analysed the role of SUS1 and SUS4, both induced by low oxygen, in plant survival and ethanol production. The results showed that mutants lacking both SUS were as tolerant to low oxygen as the wild type in most of the experimental conditions tested. Only under conditions of limiting sugar availability the requirement of SUS1 and SUS4 for ethanol production was evident, although partly compensated by invertase activities, as revealed by the use of a double mutant lacking the two major cytosolic invertases. We conclude that, contrary to general belief, the sucrose synthase pathway is not the preferential route for sucrose metabolism under hypoxia. PMID:24810896

  5. Dissimilar Materials Micro Welding between Stainless Steel and Plastics by Using Pulse YAG Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Yukio; Takahashi, Masaru; Takemi, Masashi; Oyama, Kosei; Mutoh, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Hironori

    Direct joint of dissimilar materials between SUS304 stainless steel and plastics, PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) or PC (Polycarbonate), was studied by using pulse YAG laser. Welding configuration was lap joint. Weldability and shear-tensile strength were investigated for the joints. It was possible to make a joint for both combination of materials, SUS304/PET and SUS304/PC. Weldable condition range was wider in case of SUS304/PET joint compared to that in case of SUS304/PC joint. The difference in the weldability may be due to difference in glass transition temperature of the plastics. Pores were observed in plastics near the interface of the joint for both combinations of the materials when the joint welded with higher heat input. Sear-tensile test was carried out for the joints. SUS304/PET joint shows higher strength compared to SUS304/PC joint. Higher strength was observed for the joint which includes pores near the interface in plastics. However, if large size and number of pores are existing near the interface in plastics, the pores play as a defect and causes degradation of the strength.

  6. Multifunctional Nutrient-Binding Proteins Adapt Human Symbiotic Bacteria for Glycan Competition in the Gut by Separately Promoting Enhanced Sensing and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Elizabeth A.; Kwiatkowski, Kurt J.; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Koropatkin, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To compete for the dynamic stream of nutrients flowing into their ecosystem, colonic bacteria must respond rapidly to new resources and then catabolize them efficiently once they are detected. The Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron starch utilization system (Sus) is a model for nutrient acquisition by symbiotic gut bacteria, which harbor thousands of related Sus-like systems. Structural investigation of the four Sus outer membrane proteins (SusD, -E, -F, and -G) revealed that they contain a total of eight starch-binding sites that we demonstrated, using genetic and biochemical approaches, to play distinct roles in starch metabolism in vitro and in vivo in gnotobiotic mice. SusD, whose homologs are abundant in the human microbiome, is critical for the initial sensing of available starch, allowing sus transcriptional activation at much lower concentrations than without this function. In contrast, seven additional binding sites across SusE, -F, and -G are dispensable for sus activation. However, they optimize the rate of growth on starch in a manner dependent on the expression of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule, suggesting that they have evolved to offset the diffusion barrier created by this structure. These findings demonstrate how proteins with similar biochemical behavior can serve orthogonal functions during different stages of cellular adaptation to nutrients. Finally, we demonstrated in gnotobiotic mice fed a starch-rich diet that the Sus binding sites confer a competitive advantage to B. thetaiotaomicron in vivo in a manner that is dependent on other colonizing microbes. This study reveals how numerically dominant families of carbohydrate-binding proteins in the human microbiome fulfill separate and sometimes cooperative roles to optimize gut commensal bacteria for nutrient acquisition. PMID:25205092

  7. Effects of simulated weightlessness on the intestinal mucosal barrier of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Chun-min; Mao, Gao-ping; Liu, Qing-sen; Guo, Ming-zhou

    2011-07-01

    This study employed a rat tail-suspension model to investigate the effects of simulated weightlessness on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (CON), 14-day tail-suspension (SUS-14d), and 21-day tail-suspension (SUS-21d) groups ( n = 8 per group). Expression of occludin and zonula occludins-1 (ZO-1), proteins of the tight junction (TJ), in the intestinal mucosa was measured by immunohistochemical analysis, Western blotting, and mRNA fluorescent quantitation PCR. Plasma concentrations of diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate were determined using an enzymatic spectrophotometric assay. Expression of occludin and ZO-1 was reduced in the SUS-14d and SUS-21d groups as compared to the CON group, with lowest expression observed in the SUS-21d group ( P < 0.01). Examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the jejunal epithelium revealed increased intercellular space, decreased TJ and desmosome densities, and destruction of microvilli in the SUS-14d and SUS-21d groups. Plasma DAO and D-lactate concentrations in the SUS-21d group were higher than those in SUS-14d group and significantly higher than those in the CON group ( P < 0.01). In all three groups, the expression of occludin and ZO-1 was found to correlate negatively with DAO ( P < 0.01) and D-lactate ( P < 0.01) concentrations. It is concluded that simulated weightless results in down-regulation of expression of TJ proteins in the rat intestinal mucosa. Simulated weightlessness is proposed to increase intestinal permeability through damage to the TJ.

  8. Effects of insulin and exercise on rat hindlimb muscles after simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Craig S.; Balon, Thomas W.; Tipton, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the insulin- and exercise-stimulated glucose uptake and metabolism in the hindlimb muscles of rats was investigated using three groups of rats suspended at 45 head-down tilt (SUS) for 14 days: (1) cage control, (2) exercising (treadmill running) control, and (3) rats subjected to suspension followed by exercise (SUS-E). It was found that the suspension of rats with hindlimbs non-weight bearing led to enhanced muscle responses to insulin and exercise, when these stimuli were applied separately. However, the insulin affect appeared to be impaired after exercise for the SUS-E rats, especially for the soleus muscle.

  9. [Public policy and rights of Single Health System's users with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Santos, Ellen Cristina Barbosa dos; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Pereira, Marta Cristiane Alves

    2011-01-01

    This study approaches the relationship between public policies and the rights of SUS (Single Health System) users with diabetes mellitus regarding the supplies used in the treatment of diabetes, under the view of legal rules and procedures for support of this population. Health professionals should be a link between users and current health model, actively assuming a role of defending the rights of SUS users with diabetes mellitus. This posture is an ideal to be achieved and consolidated in daily practices. The educational process needs to be strengthened, including the ethical-political dimension during actions implemented with SUS users. PMID:22460500

  10. Explore medicamentos | Smokefree Espaol

    Cancer.gov

    Aprenda sobre los medicamentos que lo ayudarn a dejar de fumar, incluso el tratamiento de reemplazo de la nicotina. El uso de estos medicamentos puede duplicar sus probabilidades de dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  11. Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker sus...

  12. Explore medicamentos | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Aprenda sobre los medicamentos que lo ayudarán a dejar de fumar, incluso el tratamiento de reemplazo de la nicotina. El uso de estos medicamentos puede duplicar sus probabilidades de dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  13. COMPARISON OF SCANNING ELECTRON AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OF SURFACE FINISHES ON STAINLESS STEEL THAT REDUCE BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria adhere to food products and processing surfaces that can cross-contaminate other products and work surfaces (Arnold, 1998). Using materials for food processing surfaces that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety. Stainless steel, although sus...

  14. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot - Duration: 102 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  15. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass of plantaris and soleus of a rats in hindlimb suspension, and on the isomyosin expression in these muscles, was investigated in young female rats divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal steroid (NS), normal suspension (N-sus), and suspension steroid (sus-S). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (sus-S vs N-sus) was found to partially spare body weight and muscle weight, as well as myofibril content of plantaris (but not soleus), but did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs NC), steroid treatment did enhance body weight and plantaris muscle weight; the treatment did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type.

  16. [An automated registry program for nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Polanco-González, Carlos; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales presentan un gran reto para la medicina hospitalaria, en general, y para las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en particular. Su elevada prevalencia, la gran morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, el incremento de la estancia hospitalaria y, en consecuencia, los costos de la atención médica han hecho que los programas de vigilancia, control y prevención de infecciones nosocomiales sean una parte toral de los protocolos de seguridad para el paciente y un indicador de calidad de la atención médica. PMID:25643679

  17. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  18. Superresolution Imaging Captures Carbohydrate Utilization Dynamics in Human Gut Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S.; Cameron, Elizabeth A.; Martens, Eric C.; Koropatkin, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gut microbes play a key role in human health and nutrition by catabolizing a wide variety of glycans via enzymatic activities that are not encoded in the human genome. The ability to recognize and process carbohydrates strongly influences the structure of the gut microbial community. While the effects of diet on the microbiota are well documented, little is known about the molecular processes driving metabolism. To provide mechanistic insight into carbohydrate catabolism in gut symbionts, we studied starch processing in real time in the model Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron starch utilization system (Sus) by single-molecule fluorescence. Although previous studies have explored Sus protein structure and function, the transient interactions, assembly, and collaboration of these outer membrane proteins have not yet been elucidated in live cells. Our live-cell superresolution imaging reveals that the polymeric starch substrate dynamically recruits Sus proteins, serving as an external scaffold for bacterial membrane assembly of the Sus complex, which may promote efficient capturing and degradation of starch. Furthermore, by simultaneously localizing multiple Sus outer membrane proteins on the B. thetaiotaomicron cell surface, we have characterized the dynamics and stoichiometry of starch-induced Sus complex assembly on the molecular scale. Finally, based on Sus protein knockout strains, we have discerned the mechanism of starch-induced Sus complex assembly in live anaerobic cells with nanometer-scale resolution. Our insights into the starch-induced outer membrane protein assembly central to this conserved nutrient uptake mechanism pave the way for the development of dietary or pharmaceutical therapies to control Bacteroidetes in the intestinal tract to enhance human health and treat disease. PMID:25389179

  19. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsika, R W; Herrick, R E; Baldwin, K M

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether anabolic steroids act synergistically with functional overload in terms of increasing muscle weight and subcellular protein content of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded rodent plantaris muscle. Female rats were randomly assigned to six groups (7 rats/group) for 6 wk: 1) normal control (NC), 2) overload (OV), 3) overload steroid (OV-S), 4) normal suspended (N-SUS), 5) overload suspended (OV-SUS), and 6) overload suspended steroid (OV-SUS-S). Rats receiving anabolic steroid were administered 0.3 mg nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) per day. Relative to control values, overload induced 1) sparing of muscle weight of the OV-SUS group as well as larger absolute and normalized (mg muscle/g body wt) muscle weight of the OV group (P less than 0.05), 2) greater protein content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05), and 3) an increased relative expression of slow myosin in both the OV and OV-SUS groups (P less than 0.05). Although anabolic steroid treatment of overload animals (OV-S) did not alter further the pattern of response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, it did induce larger absolute and normalized muscle weight (P less than 0.05) as well as a greater protein content (mg/muscle, P less than 0.05) of the OV-SUS-S group compared with control values. However, anabolic steroid treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the overload (OV-S vs. OV) or overload suspended (OV-SUS-S vs. OV-SUS) groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3693242

  20. Sex determination of porcine embryos using a new developed duplex polymerase chain reaction procedure based on the amplification of repetitive sequences.

    PubMed

    Torner, Eva; Bussalleu, Eva; Briz, M Dolors; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Bonet, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays have become increasingly prevalent for sexing embryos. The aim of the present study was to develop a suitable duplex PCR procedure based on the amplification of porcine repetitive sequences for sexing porcine tissues, embryos and single cells. Primers were designed targeting the X12696 Y chromosome-specific repeat sequence (SUSYa and SUSYb; sex-related primer sets), the multicopy porcine-specific mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene (SUS12S; control primer set) and the X51555 1 chromosome repeat sequence (SUS1; control primer set). The specificity of the primer sets was established and the technique was optimised by testing combinations of two specific primer sets (SUSYa/SUS12S; SUSYb/SUS12S), different primer concentrations, two sources of DNA polymerase, different melting temperatures and different numbers of amplification cycles using genomic DNA from porcine ovarian and testicular tissue. The optimised SUSYa/SUS12S- and SUSYb/SUS12S-based duplex PCR procedures were applied to porcine in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts, cell-stage embryos and oocytes. The SUSYb/SUS12S primer-based procedure successfully sexed porcine single cells and IVP cell-stage embryos (100% efficiency), as well as blastocysts (96.6% accuracy; 96.7% efficiency). This is the first report to demonstrate the applicability of these repetitive sequences for this purpose. In conclusion, the SUSYb/SUS12S primer-based duplex PCR procedure is highly reliable and sensitive for sexing porcine IVP embryos. PMID:23445818

  1. Towards a National Hazard Map of Landslides: Juan de Grijalva, Chiapas, and Mitlatongo, Oaxaca, two catastrophic landslides on southeastern of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-M, L.; Castañeda, A.; Ramirez, A.; González, A. E.

    2013-05-01

    One of the most catastrophic events, with economical losses and deaths, in Mexico and Latin America, is the landslide event. The Juan de Grijalva landslide, which blocked one of the largest rivers in the Chiapas state of Mexico, on November 4, 2007, is considered one of the greatest that have occurred in the world in the last 100 years (Dominguez, 2008) and it could be the one with the largest economic impact in the history of Mexico. This landslide occurred four days after a period of very heavy rains that caused, in the peak of the emergency, flooding in almost 62% of the area of the state of Tabasco (CENAPRED, 2009) and is also one of the most serious disasters that were faced by the Mexican government in the past 10 years. The Juan de Grijalva landslide mobilized the entire government apparatus and required an investment of just over 0.1 billions of US Dollars (CENAPRED, 2009) for the rehabilitation of the river runway and additional works in order to prevent further damages if another landslide occurs in the vicinity. A similar case of interest for Mexican researchers and specialists in earth sciences is the big landslide occurred in the communities of Santa Cruz Mitlatongo, municipality of Magdalena Jaltepec, and Santiago Mitlatongo, municipality of Nochixtlan, both in the state of Oaxaca (Dominguez, 2011). This landslide has dimensions of just over 2,500 m long and 900 m wide, and it remains active from September 2011. Since then, the landslide has moved just over 230 m in length and has destroyed about 850 houses. Given the geological and geotechnical characteristics of these landslides and the economic and social impact caused, the National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) has initiated a research project in order to learn the main factors (constraints and triggers) that influenced both landslides. In relation with the National Hazard Landslide Map, developed by CENAPRED, these events are an important task of the National Inventory of Landslides and represent two of the most outstanding and representative events in southeastern Mexico. Domínguez L., 2008 "El deslizamiento del 4 de noviembre de 2007 en la comunidad Juan de Grijalva, municipio de Ostuacán, Chiapas, y su relación con el Frente Frio no. 4" Report prepared to the General Coordination of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres, 2009 "Características e impacto socioeconómico de los principales desastres ocurridos en la República Mexicana en el año 2007" Socieconomic Impact by Disasters in Mexico Serie, National System of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico. Domínguez L., 2011 "Deslizamiento de suelos y rocas en las comunidades de Santiago Mitlatongo, municipio de Nochixtlán, y Santa Cruz Mitlatongo, municipio de Magdalena Jaltepec, Oaxaca" Report prepared to the General Coordination of Civil Protection, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico.

  2. Fretting fatigue behaviour of Ni-free high-nitrogen stainless steel in a simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Norio; Hiromoto, Sachiko; Akiyama, Eiji; Nakamura, Morihiko

    2013-04-01

    Fretting fatigue behaviour of Ni-free high-nitrogen steel (HNS) with a yield strength of about 800 MPa, which was prepared by nitrogen gas pressurized electroslag remelting, was studied in air and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS(-)). For comparison, fretting fatigue behaviour of cold-rolled SUS316L steel (SUS316L(CR)) with similar yield strength was examined. The plain fatigue limit of HNS was slightly lower than that of SUS316L(CR) although the former had a higher tensile strength than the latter. The fretting fatigue limit of HNS was higher than that of SUS316L(CR) both in air and in PBS(-). A decrease in fatigue limit of HNS by fretting was significantly smaller than that of SUS316L(CR) in both environments, indicating that HNS has better fretting fatigue resistance than SUS316L(CR). The decrease in fatigue limit by fretting is discussed taking into account the effect of friction stress due to fretting and the additional influences of wear, tribocorrosion and plastic deformation in the fretted area.

  3. Enhanced production of β-glucosides by in-situ UDP-glucose regeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fong-Chin; Hinkelmann, Jens; Hermenau, Alexandra; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-04-20

    Glycosyltransferase (GT)-mediated methodology is recognized as one of the most practical approaches for large-scale production of glycosides. However, GT enzymes require a sugar nucleotide as donor substrate that must be generated in situ for preparative applications by recycling of the nucleotide moiety, e.g. by sucrose synthase (SUS). Three plant GT genes CaUGT2, VvGT14a, and VvGT15c and the fungal SbUGTA1 were successfully co-expressed with GmSUS from soybean in Escherichia coli BL21 and W cells. In vitro, the crude protein extracts prepared from four GT genes and GmSUS co-expressing cells were able to convert several small molecules to the corresponding glucosides, when sucrose and UDP were supplied. In addition, GmSUS was able to enhance the glucosylation efficiency and reduced the amount of supplying UDP-glucose. In the biotransformation system, co-expression of VvGT15c with GmSUS also improved the glucosylation of geraniol and enhanced the resistance of the cells against the toxic terpenol. GT-EcW and GTSUS-EcW cells tolerated up to 2mM geraniol and converted more than 99% of the substrate into the glucoside at production rates exceeding 40μgml(-1)h(-1). The results confirm that co-expression of SUS allows in situ regeneration of UDP-sugars and avoids product inhibition by UDP. PMID:26912290

  4. Nitric Oxide Protects L-Type Calcium Channel of Cardiomyocyte during Long-Term Isoproterenol Stimulation in Tail-Suspended Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhi-Jie; Xu, Peng-Tao; Jiao, Bo; Chang, Hui; Song, Zhen; Xie, Man-Jiang; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on L-type calcium channel (LTCC) gating properties of cardiomyocytes during long-term isoproterenol (ISO) stimulation. Expression and activity of nNOS as well as S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit significantly decreased in the myocardium of SUS rats. Long-term ISO stimulation increased ROS in cardiomyocytes of SUS rats. ISO-enhanced calcium current (ICa,L) in the SUS group was less than that in the CON group. The maximal ICa,L decreased to about 80% or 60% of initial value at the 50th minute of ISO treatment in CON or SUS group, respectively. Specific inhibitor NAAN of nNOS reduced maximal ICa,L to 50% of initial value in the CON group; in contrast, NO donor SNAP maintained maximal ICa,L in SUS group to similar extent of CON group after 50 min of ISO treatment. Long-term ISO stimulation also changed steady-state activation (P < 0.01), inactivation (P < 0.01), and recovery (P < 0.05) characteristics of LTCC in SUS group. In conclusion, NO-induced S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit may competitively prevent oxidation from ROS at the same sites. Furthermore, LTCC can be protected by NO during long-term ISO stimulation. PMID:26167497

  5. Nitric Oxide Protects L-Type Calcium Channel of Cardiomyocyte during Long-Term Isoproterenol Stimulation in Tail-Suspended Rats.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhi-Jie; Xu, Peng-Tao; Jiao, Bo; Chang, Hui; Song, Zhen; Xie, Man-Jiang; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on L-type calcium channel (LTCC) gating properties of cardiomyocytes during long-term isoproterenol (ISO) stimulation. Expression and activity of nNOS as well as S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit significantly decreased in the myocardium of SUS rats. Long-term ISO stimulation increased ROS in cardiomyocytes of SUS rats. ISO-enhanced calcium current (I Ca,L) in the SUS group was less than that in the CON group. The maximal I Ca,L decreased to about 80% or 60% of initial value at the 50th minute of ISO treatment in CON or SUS group, respectively. Specific inhibitor NAAN of nNOS reduced maximal I Ca,L to 50% of initial value in the CON group; in contrast, NO donor SNAP maintained maximal I Ca,L in SUS group to similar extent of CON group after 50 min of ISO treatment. Long-term ISO stimulation also changed steady-state activation (P < 0.01), inactivation (P < 0.01), and recovery (P < 0.05) characteristics of LTCC in SUS group. In conclusion, NO-induced S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit may competitively prevent oxidation from ROS at the same sites. Furthermore, LTCC can be protected by NO during long-term ISO stimulation. PMID:26167497

  6. Evolving Hazard Monitoring and Communication at San Vicente Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    El Salvador has 20 potentially active volcanoes, four of which have erupted in the last 100 years. Since San Vicente Volcano has had no historic eruptions, monitoring is not a high priority; especially given the current eruptive crisis at San Miguel Volcano. Though probability of eruptive hazards remains low at San Vicente, it is arguably one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the country due to rainfall-induced landslides and debris-flow risk. At least 250 deaths occurred in November 2009 from landslides and debris flows triggered by Hurricane Ida. This disaster caused the Universidad de El Salvador - Facultad Multidisciplinaria Paracentral (UES-FMP, San Vicente, El Salvador) to partner with governmental and nongovernmental organizations (including the U.S. Peace Corps, U.S. Fulbright Program, Korean International Cooperation Agency, Protección Civil and the Centro de Protección para Desastres (CEPRODE)) to focus its faculty and student research toward hazard monitoring and risk studies. Newly established monitoring efforts include: measurement of surface cracks and localized rainfall by Protección Civil and local residents using crude extensometers and rain gauges; installation of six weather stations that operate within the most at-risk municipalities; seismic refraction surveys to better characterize stratigraphy and seasonal water table changes; and most recently, a USAID/NSF-funded initiative partnered with the UES-FMP to monitor seasonal hydrologic conditions related to flooding and groundwater recharge. The information from these initiatives is now used to communicate current conditions and warnings through a network of two-way radios established by CEPRODE and Protección Civil. Representatives from the multi-institutional team also communicate the data to authorities who make better-informed decisions regarding warnings and evacuations, as well as determine suitable areas for population relocation in the event of a crisis. Data will eventually be used to model and forecast potential hazard events.

  7. Enhancing Diversity In The Geosciences; Intensive Field Experience In USA And Mexico For Middle And High School Teachers Serving Large Hispanic Populations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Kitts, K. B.; Velazquez Oliman, G.; Perry, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    To encourage Hispanic participation and enrolment in the geosciences and ultimately enhance diversity within the discipline, we recruited ten middle and high school science teachers serving large Hispanic populations (60-97%) for a paid three-week field experience supported by an NSF Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences grant. In 2006, the field experiences focused on volcanic events and the water problems of the Central part of Mexico. In 2008, the field experiences focused on karstic and hydrogeological conditions of the Yucatan Peninsula. In addition to the geological aspects of the fieldwork experience, the trip to Mexico exposed the teachers to a social environment outside of their community where they interacted with a diverse group of scientists from the Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY) and Centro Nacional de Desastres (CENAPRED). A key part of this project was the encounter between American and Mexican teachers that included a day of presentations, panel discussion and some class-room activities. Direct interaction between the cooperating teachers and the American and Mexican geoscientists provided actual scientific research experiences to educate and to help dispel misconceptions the teachers themselves may have had about who geoscientists really are and what they do. Teachers of the 2006 group produced educational materials from their field experiences and presented these materials at professional conferences. We measured the efficacy of these activities quantitatively via pre- and post-tests assessing confidence levels, preconceptions and biases, NIU staff observations of participants in their home institutions, and evaluations of participants' field books and pedagogical materials. We present these data here and identify specific activities that are both effective and efficient in changing teacher behaviours and attitudes enabling them to better connect with their Hispanic students in their Geoscience classrooms. Post experience activities of the 2008 group will build on these results.

  8. Reprint of: Locus coeruleus neuronal activity determines proclivity to consume alcohol in a selectively-bred line of rats that readily consumes alcohol.

    PubMed

    West, Charles H K; Boss-Williams, Katherine A; Ritchie, James C; Weiss, Jay M

    2016-02-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats selectively-bred for susceptibility to stress in our laboratory (Susceptible, or SUS rats) voluntarily consume large amounts of alcohol, and amounts that have, as shown here, pharmacological effects, which normal rats will not do. In this paper, we explore neural events in the brain that underlie this propensity to readily consume alcohol. Activity of locus coeruleus neurons (LC), the major noradrenergic cell body concentration in the brain, influences firing of ventral tegmentum dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic system (VTA-DA neurons), which mediate rewarding aspects of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that in SUS rats alcohol potently suppresses LC activity to markedly diminish LC-mediated inhibition of VTA-DA neurons, which permits alcohol to greatly increase VTA-DA activity and rewarding aspects of alcohol. Electrophysiological single-unit recording of LC and VTA-DA activity showed that in SUS rats alcohol decreased LC burst firing much more than in normal rats and as a result markedly increased VTA-DA activity in SUS rats while having no such effect in normal rats. Consistent with this, in a behavioral test for reward using conditioned place preference (CPP), SUS rats showed alcohol, given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, to be rewarding. Next, manipulation of LC activity by microinfusion of drugs into the LC region of SUS rats showed that (a) decreasing LC activity increased alcohol intake and increasing LC activity decreased alcohol intake in accord with the formulation described above, and (b) increasing LC activity blocked both the rewarding effect of alcohol in the CPP test and the usual alcohol-induced increase in VTA-DA single-unit activity seen in SUS rats. An important ancillary finding in the CPP test was that an increase in LC activity was rewarding by itself, while a decrease in LC activity was aversive; consequently, effects of LC manipulations on alcohol-related reward in the CPP test were perhaps even larger than evident in the test. Finally, when increased LC activity was associated with (i.e., conditioned to) i.p. alcohol, subsequent alcohol consumption by SUS rats was markedly reduced, indicating that SUS rats consume large amounts of alcohol because of rewarding physiological consequences requiring increased VTA-DA activity. The findings reported here are consistent with the view that the influence of alcohol on LC activity leading to changes in VTA-DA activity strongly affects alcohol-mediated reward, and may well be the basis of the proclivity of SUS rats to avidly consume alcohol. PMID:26873226

  9. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  10. Thermal Behavior of the Reactor Vessel Penetration Under External Vessel Cooling During a Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Rae-Joon; Kim, Jong-Tae; Min, Byung-Tae; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Sang-Baik

    2004-01-15

    Experimental and analytical studies on the thermal behavior of reactor vessel penetration have been performed under external vessel cooling during a severe accident in the Korean next-generation reactor APR1400. Two types of tests, SUS-EXT and SUS-DRY with and without external vessel cooling, respectively, have been performed using sustained heating by an induction heater. Three tests have been carried out varying the cooling conditions at the vessel outer surface in the SUS-EXT tests. The experimental results have been thermally estimated using the LILAC computer code. The experimental results indicate that the inner surface of the vessel was ablated by the 45-mm thickness in the SUS-DRY test. Despite the total ablation of the welding material, the penetration was not ejected outside the vessel, which could be attributed to the thermal expansion of the penetration. Unlike the SUS-DRY test, the thickness of the ablation was {approx}15 to 20 mm at most, so the welding was preserved in the SUS-EXT tests. It is concluded from the experimental results that the external vessel cooling highly affected the ablation configuration and the thermal behaviors of the vessel and the penetration. An increase in coolant mass flow rate from 0.047 to 0.152 kg/s had effects on the thermal behavior of the lower head vessel and penetration in the SUS-EXT tests. The LILAC analytical results on temperature distribution and ablation depth in the lower head vessel and penetration were very similar to the experimental results.

  11. Altered hippocampal function before emotional trauma in rats susceptible to PTSD-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nalloor, Rebecca; Bunting, Kristopher M; Vazdarjanova, Almira

    2014-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs after experiencing a traumatic event. Susceptibility to PTSD exists, as only some trauma-exposed individuals develop this condition. Investigating susceptibilities in animal models can contribute to understanding the etiology of the disorder. We previously reported an animal model which allows reliable pre-classification of rats as susceptible (Sus) or resistant (Res) to developing a PTSD-like phenotype after a later trauma. Here we report that Sus, compared to Res, rats have altered hippocampal function, along the septo-temporal axis, prior to experiencing a traumatic event. In Experiment I, Res and Sus rats explored a novel box twice. Using a cellular imaging method for assessing plasticity-related immediate-early gene expression in large neuronal ensembles, Arc/Homer1a catFISH, we show that Sus rats have smaller vCA3 ensembles during the second exploration. This suppressed vCA3 activation in Sus rats was not due to a difference in exploratory behavior, or to a difference in Arc/Homer1a expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). BLA is a main source of inputs to vCA3, but both the ensemble size and overlap of BLA ensembles activated during the two explorations was similar to that of Res rats. Additionally, Sus rats had significant 'infidelity' in their dorsal hippocampal representations of the second event: a lower overlap, compared to Res rats, of Arc/Homer1a-expressing ensembles activated during the two explorations (the size of the ensembles were similar to those of Res rats). These differences were revealed only in conditions of relatively low stress, because they were not observed when Sus and Res rats experienced fear conditioning (Experiment II). Combined, the findings show that altered hippocampal function exists before experiencing emotional trauma in susceptible rats and suggest that this is a risk factor for PTSD. PMID:24583372

  12. Adaptive Evolution of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in the Family Suidae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Members of the family Suidae have diverged over extended evolutionary periods in diverse environments, suggesting that adaptation in response to endemic infectious agents may have occurred. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a multigene family that acts as the first line of defense against infectious microbes at the host-environment interface. We hypothesized that across the Suidae, positive selection mediated by infectious agents has contributed to the evolution of TLR diversity. Thus, we analyzed Sus scrofa, Sus barbatus, Sus verrucosus, Sus celebensis, Sus scebifrons, Babyrousa babyrussa, Potamochoerus larvatus, Potamochoerus porcus and Phacochoerus africanus genomes. Specifically, analyses were performed to identify evidence of positive selection using Maximum likelihood (ML) methods within a phylogenetic framework for bacterial and viral sensing Suidae TLR extracellular domains. Our analyses did not reveal evidence of positive selection for TLR3 and TLR7, suggesting strong functional conservation among these two genes for members of the Suidae. Positive selection was inferred for Suidae TLR1, TLR2, TLR6 and TLR8 evolution. ML methods identified amino acid sites of the bacterial sensing TLR1, TLR2, TLR6 and the viral sensing TLR8 to be under persistent positive selection. Some of these sites are in close proximity to functionally relevant sites, further strengthening the case for pathogen mediated selection for these sites. The branch leading to the genus Sus demonstrated evidence of episodic positive selection for TLR1, indicating selection mediated by infectious agents encountered within the specific geographic origin of the Sus. These results indicate that species of the Suidae have positively selected residues within functional domains of TLRs reflective of prior infections. Thus, TLR genes represent candidates for experimental validation to determine their functional role in antibacterial and antiviral activity within members of the Suidae. PMID:25894218

  13. Development of 18Cr-9Ni-W-Nb-V-N Austenitic Stainless Steel Tube for Thermal Power Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, Tetsuo; Mimura, Hiroyuki

    An 18Cr-9Ni-W-Nb-V-N austenitic stainless steel tube for thermal power boilers has been newly developed. The high temperature mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the steel were investigated. The creep rupture strength of the developed steel is about 1.5 times as high as that of SUS347HTB, and is almost the same as that of Ka-SUS310J2TB at 650°C. This excellent creep strength of the steel is mainly due to solid solution strengthening by tungsten and nitrogen, and precipitation strengthening by nitrides of niobium and vanadium. The carbon content of the steel is reduced to 0.03% to improve intergranular corrosion resistance. The steam oxidation resistance and the high temperature corrosion resistance of the tube are almost the same as those of SUS347HTB. Weldability of the developed steel is superior to that of SUS304HTB and SUS310TB. Thus the developed steel is suitable for use as a material for superheater and reheater tubes of thermal power boilers.

  14. [The evolution of the Brazilian National Health System, strategic courses of action and strategies to understand these actions].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Nelson Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    The author has the intention to propose to the Brazilian health care management and sanitary reform managers an examination and positioning on the course of action in the implementation of SUS (Brazilian National Health System). The findings underscore two non-convergent set of policies that have affected the course of action in the implementation of the SUS in the 1990s: the first and 'main' course of action derives from policies created in 1988 in the so-called Citizen Constitution, of which the SUS is the most important achievement. The second and "additional" course of action derives from the prevailing macro-economic model and its related policies, implemented since the 1990s, besides advocating a social inclusion measure while leaving out all the related improvements of SUS such as Universality, Integrity and Equity. In addition, the second course of action is in opposition to the model based on social protection, besides raising the importance of market-based individualistic values and actions in general, it carries them into the health care system. The author suggests that a clarification on the desirable and on the deviant courses of action of SUS may be a vital contribution to guaranteeing social rights in health care, while preserving its integrity, equity and universal nature. PMID:17680098

  15. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  16. Place of sulfonylureas in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Asia: A consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Aamir, A. H.; Raza, Abbas; Das, A. K.; Azad Khan, A. K.; Shrestha, Dina; Qureshi, Md Faisal; Md Fariduddin; Pathan, Md Faruque; Jawad, Fatema; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Tandon, Nikhil; Somasundaram, Noel; Katulanda, Prasad; Sahay, Rakesh; Dhungel, Sanjib; Bajaj, Sarita; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ghosh, Sujoy; Madhu, S. V.; Ahmed, Tofail; Bulughapitiya, Uditha

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction in clinical practice in the 1950's, Sulfonylureas (SUs) have remained the main-stay of pharmacotherapy in the management of type 2 diabetes. Despite their well-established benefits, their place in therapy is inappropriately being overshadowed by newer therapies. Many of the clinical issues associated with the use of SUs are agent-specific, and do not pertain to the class as such. Modern SUs (glimepiride, gliclazide MR) are backed by a large body of evidence, experience, and most importantly, outcome data, which supports their role in managing patients with diabetes. Person-centred care, i.e., careful choice of SU, appropriate dosage, timing of administration, and adequate patient counseling, will ensure that deserving patients are not deprived of the advantages of this well-established class of anti-diabetic agents. Considering their efficacy, safety, pleiotropic benefits, and low cost of therapy, SUs should be considered as recommended therapy for the treatment of diabetes in South Asia. This initiative by SAFES aims to encourage rational, safe and smart prescription of SUs, and includes appropriate medication counseling. PMID:26425465

  17. Graphene grown on stainless steel as a high-performance and ecofriendly anti-corrosion coating for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Nen-Wen; Shi, Gia-Nan; Liu, Yih-Ming; Sun, Xueliang; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Sun, Chia-Liang; Ger, Ming-Der; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wang, Po-Chiang; Peng, You-Yu; Wu, Chia-Hung; Lawes, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on SUS304 stainless steel and on a catalyzing Ni/SUS304 double-layered structure was investigated. The results indicated that a thin and multilayered graphene film can be continuously grown across the metal grain boundaries of the Ni/SUS304 stainless steel and significantly enhance its corrosion resistance. A 3.5 wt% saline polarization test demonstrated that the corrosion currents in graphene-covered SUS304 were improved fivefold relative to the corrosion currents in non-graphene-covered SUS304. In addition to enhancing the corrosion resistance of stainless steel, a graphene coating also ameliorates another shortcoming of stainless steel in a corrosive environment: the formation of a passive oxidation layer on the stainless steel surface that decreases conductivity. After a corrosion test, the graphene-covered stainless steel continued to exhibit not only an excellent low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of 36 mΩ cm2 but also outstanding drainage characteristics. The above results suggest that an extremely thin, lightweight protective coating of graphene on stainless steel can act as the next-generation bipolar plates of fuel cells.

  18. Effectiveness of nateglinide on in vitro insulin secretion from rat pancreatic islets desensitized to sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Hu, S; Wang, S; Dunning, B E

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure of pancreatic islets to sulfonylureas (SUs) is known to impair the ability of islets to respond to subsequent acute stimulation by SUs or glucose. Nateglinide (NAT) is a novel insulinotropic agent with a primarily site of action at beta-cell K(ATP) channels, which is common to the structurally diverse drugs like repaglinide (REP) and the SUs. Earlier studies on the kinetics, glucose-dependence and sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors of the interaction between NAT and K(ATP) channels suggested a distinct signaling pathways with NAT compared to REP, glyburide (GLY) or glimepiride (GLI). To obtain further evidence for this concept, the present study compared the insulin secretion in vitro from rat islets stimulated acutely by NAT, GLY, GLI or REP at equipotent concentrations during 1-hr static incubation following overnight treatment with GLY or tolbutamide (TOL). The islets fully retained the responsiveness to NAT stimulation after prolonged pretreatment with both SUs, while their acute response to REP, GLY, and GLI was markedly attenuated, confirming the desensitization of islets. The insulinotropic efficacy of NAT in islets desensitized to SUs may result from a distinct receptor/effector mechanism, which contributes to the unique pharmacological profile of NAT. PMID:12369729

  19. Scanning ultrasound removes amyloid-β and restores memory in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Leinenga, Gerhard; Götz, Jürgen

    2015-03-11

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We present a nonpharmacological approach for removing Aβ and restoring memory function in a mouse model of AD in which Aβ is deposited in the brain. We used repeated scanning ultrasound (SUS) treatments of the mouse brain to remove Aβ, without the need for any additional therapeutic agent such as anti-Aβ antibody. Spinning disk confocal microscopy and high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction revealed extensive internalization of Aβ into the lysosomes of activated microglia in mouse brains subjected to SUS, with no concomitant increase observed in the number of microglia. Plaque burden was reduced in SUS-treated AD mice compared to sham-treated animals, and cleared plaques were observed in 75% of SUS-treated mice. Treated AD mice also displayed improved performance on three memory tasks: the Y-maze, the novel object recognition test, and the active place avoidance task. Our findings suggest that repeated SUS is useful for removing Aβ in the mouse brain without causing overt damage, and should be explored further as a noninvasive method with therapeutic potential in AD. PMID:25761889

  20. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle C; Albar, Salwa A; Morris, Michelle A; Mulla, Umme Z; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E; Alwan, Nisreen A; Greenwood, Darren C; Hardie, Laura J; Frost, Gary S; Wark, Petra A; Cade, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11-18 years) (n = 28), adults (19-64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥ 65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0-100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  1. Optimized molecular structure of photoreactive biocompatible block copolymers for surface modification of metal substrates.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Akira; Yusa, Shin-ichi

    2012-06-27

    Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate-co-2-cinnamoyloxyethyl methacrylate) (PMPC-b-P(MPA/CMA)) was prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-controlled radical polymerization. The block copolymers were coated on stainless steel (SUS316L) and other metal substrates, and then the surface was subsequently irradiated with UV light. The wettability of a specimen surface treated with a block copolymer was improved in comparison with that of an untreated SUS316L plate. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, it was clear that the P(MPA/CMA) block worked as a binding site on the SUS316L surface. The surface density of the block copolymer-immobilized SUS316L surface was influenced by the molecular weight of the PMPC block. The stability of the immobilized layer was improved by UV irradiation, which induced intermolecular dimerization of the CMA. In addition to the SUS316L surface, various other metal surfaces could be modified by surface immobilization of block copolymers. Serum protein adsorption and fibroblast adhesion were effectively reduced by surface immobilization of block copolymers with optimal molecular weight of PMPC block. The nonfouling property was preserved after 1 week of cell cultivation. PMID:22639819

  2. Polar-axis-oriented crystal growth of tetragonal PZT films on stainless steel substrate using pseudo-perovskite nanosheet buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minemura, Yoshiki; Ichinose, Daichi; Nagasaka, Kohei; Kim, Jin Woon; Shima, Hiromi; Nishida, Ken; Kiguchi, Takanori; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Oshima, Naoya; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film with polar axis orientation was grown on a SUS 316L stainless steel substrate with the help of a Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheet (ns-CN) layer that had a pseudo-perovskite-type crystal structure. The ns-CN buffer layer was supported on a platinized SUS 316L (Pt/SUS) substrate, followed by chemical solution deposition (CSD) of the PZT films with tetragonal symmetry (Zr/Ti =40/60). The PZT films consisting of c-domain, with [001]-axis orientation of the perovskite unit cell, were deposited on the ns-CN/Pt/SUS substrate owing to (i) epitaxial lattice matching between the unit cell of PZT and substrate surface and (ii) in-plane thermal stress applied to the PZT film during cooling-down step of CSD procedure. The c-domain-oriented PZT film on ns-CN/Pt/SUS substrate exhibited enhanced remanent polarization of approximately 52 μC/cm2 and lowered dielectric permittivity of approximately 230, which are superior to those of conventional PZT films with random crystal orientation and comparable to those of epitaxial PZT films grown on (100)SrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 substrates.

  3. Absolute absorption on the potassium D lines: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Ryan K.; Gregory, Philip D.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Cornish, Simon L.

    2015-10-01

    We present a detailed study of the absolute Doppler-broadened absorption of a probe beam scanned across the potassium D lines in a thermal vapour. Spectra using a weak probe were measured on the 4S \\to 4P transition and compared to the theoretical model of the electric susceptibility detailed by Zentile et al (2015 Comput. Phys. Commun. 189 162-74) in the code named ElecSus. Comparisons were also made on the 4S \\to 5P transition with an adapted version of ElecSus. This is the first experimental test of ElecSus on an atom with a ground state hyperfine splitting smaller than that of the Doppler width. An excellent agreement was found between ElecSus and experimental measurements at a variety of temperatures with rms errors ˜ {10}-3. We have also demonstrated the use of ElecSus as an atomic vapour thermometry tool, and present a possible new measurement technique of transition decay rates which we predict to have a precision of ˜3 {kHz}.

  4. Guard cell-specific upregulation of sucrose synthase 3 reveals that the role of sucrose in stomatal function is primarily energetic.

    PubMed

    Daloso, Danilo M; Williams, Thomas C R; Antunes, Werner C; Pinheiro, Daniela P; Müller, Caroline; Loureiro, Marcelo E; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-03-01

    Isoform 3 of sucrose synthase (SUS3) is highly expressed in guard cells; however, the precise function of SUS3 in this cell type remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterized transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants overexpressing SUS3 under the control of the stomatal-specific KST1 promoter, and investigated the changes in guard cell metabolism during the dark to light transition. Guard cell-specific SUS3 overexpression led to increased SUS activity, stomatal aperture, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate and growth. Although only minor changes were observed in the metabolite profile in whole leaves, an increased fructose level and decreased organic acid levels and sucrose to fructose ratio were observed in guard cells of transgenic lines. Furthermore, guard cell sucrose content was lower during light-induced stomatal opening. In a complementary approach, we incubated guard cell-enriched epidermal fragments in (13) C-NaHCO3 and followed the redistribution of label during dark to light transitions; this revealed increased labeling in metabolites of, or associated with, the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The results suggest that sucrose breakdown is a mechanism to provide substrate for the provision of organic acids for respiration, and imply that manipulation of guard cell metabolism may represent an effective strategy for plant growth improvement. PMID:26467445

  5. Nickel-free stainless steel avoids neointima formation following coronary stent implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiu, Katsuhito; Manabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Inoue, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroshi; Hasumi, Eriko; Komuro, Issei; Katada, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2012-12-01

    SUS316L stainless steel and cobalt-chromium and platinum-chromium alloys are widely used platforms for coronary stents. These alloys also contain nickel (Ni), which reportedly induces allergic reactions in some subjects and is known to have various cellular effects. The effects of Ni on neointima formation after stent implantation remain unknown, however. We developed coronary stents made of Ni-free high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel prepared using a N2-gas pressurized electroslag remelting (P-ESR) process. Neointima formation and inflammatory responses following stent implantation in porcine coronary arteries were then compared between the Ni-free and SUS316L stainless steel stents. We found significantly less neointima formation and inflammation in arteries implanted with Ni-free stents, as compared to SUS316L stents. Notably, Ni2+ was eluted into the medium from SUS316L but not from Ni-free stainless steel. Mechanistically, Ni2+ increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor protein-1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes in cultured smooth muscle cells. HIF-1α and their target gene levels were also increased in the vascular wall at SUS316L stent sites but not at Ni-free stent sites. The Ni-free stainless steel coronary stent reduces neointima formation, in part by avoiding activation of inflammatory processes via the Ni-HIF pathway. The Ni-free-stainless steel stent is a promising new coronary stent platform.

  6. A robust cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation in cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Feng, Shuo; Wu, Qihui; Zheng, Xueqiang; Xu, Yuhua; Ding, Guoru

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology that brings about remarkable improvement in spectrum utilization. To tackle the hidden terminal problem, cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) which benefits from the spatial diversity has been studied extensively. Since CSS is vulnerable to the attacks initiated by malicious secondary users (SUs), several secure CSS schemes based on Dempster-Shafer theory have been proposed. However, the existing works only utilize the current difference of SUs, such as the difference in SNR or similarity degree, to evaluate the trustworthiness of each SU. As the current difference is only one-sided and sometimes inaccurate, the statistical information contained in each SU's historical behavior should not be overlooked. In this article, we propose a robust CSS scheme based on Dempster-Shafer theory and trustworthiness degree calculation. It is carried out in four successive steps, which are basic probability assignment (BPA), trustworthiness degree calculation, selection and adjustment of BPA, and combination by Dempster-Shafer rule, respectively. Our proposed scheme evaluates the trustworthiness degree of SUs from both current difference aspect and historical behavior aspect and exploits Dempster-Shafer theory's potential to establish a `soft update' approach for the reputation value maintenance. It can not only differentiate malicious SUs from honest ones based on their historical behaviors but also reserve the current difference for each SU to achieve a better real-time performance. Abundant simulation results have validated that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing ones under the impact of different attack patterns and different number of malicious SUs.

  7. Symbol Error Rate of Underlay Cognitive Relay Systems over Rayleigh Fading Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho van, Khuong; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc

    Underlay cognitive systems allow secondary users (SUs) to access the licensed band allocated to primary users (PUs) for better spectrum utilization with the power constraint imposed on SUs such that their operation does not harm the normal communication of PUs. This constraint, which limits the coverage range of SUs, can be offset by relaying techniques that take advantage of shorter range communication for lower path loss. Symbol error rate (SER) analysis of underlay cognitive relay systems over fading channel has not been reported in the literature. This paper fills this gap. The derived SER expressions are validated by simulations and show that underlay cognitive relay systems suffer a high error floor for any modulation level.

  8. Starch Catabolism by a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Is Directed by the Recognition of Amylose Helices

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2009-01-12

    The human gut microbiota performs functions that are not encoded in our Homo sapiens genome, including the processing of otherwise undigestible dietary polysaccharides. Defining the structures of proteins involved in the import and degradation of specific glycans by saccharolytic bacteria complements genomic analysis of the nutrient-processing capabilities of gut communities. Here, we describe the atomic structure of one such protein, SusD, required for starch binding and utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent adaptive forager of glycans in the distal human gut microbiota. The binding pocket of this unique {alpha}-helical protein contains an arc of aromatic residues that complements the natural helical structure of starch and imposes this conformation on bound maltoheptaose. Furthermore, SusD binds cyclic oligosaccharides with higher affinity than linear forms. The structures of several SusD/oligosaccharide complexes reveal an inherent ligand recognition plasticity dominated by the three-dimensional conformation of the oligosaccharides rather than specific interactions with the composite sugars.

  9. [Management characteristics in charity hospitals in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Portela, Margareth C; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat; Gerschman, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the management characteristics of charity hospitals in Brazil, based on data from a national survey developed in 2001. The sample accounted for the random inclusion of 66 Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) inpatient care providers with less than 599 beds and all 26 hospitals with at least 599 beds. It also included 10 institutions assumed as non-providers of services to the SUS. The analyses are descriptive, focusing on the classification of the hospitals according to their managerial development level, as well as selected issues regarding the utilization of specific managerial technologies, human resources, technical services, and services contracting. Distinct managerial levels were identified, but it is important to note that 83% of the SUS providers with less than 599 beds were classified as having incipient management. The authors discuss implications of the findings for inpatient care policies, considering the importance of charity hospitals for the Brazilian Health System. PMID:15486668

  10. Tensile Properties, Ferrite Contents, and Specimen Heating of Stainless Steels in Cryogenic Gas Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, T.; Yuri, T.; Ono, Y.

    2006-03-01

    We performed tensile tests at cryogenic temperatures below 77 K and in helium gas environment for SUS 304L and SUS 316L in order to obtain basic data of mechanical properties of the materials for liquid hydrogen tank service. We evaluate tensile curves, tensile properties, ferrite contents, mode of deformation and/or fracture, and specimen heating during the testing at 4 to 77 K. For both SUS 304L and 316L, tensile strength shows a small peak around 10 K, and specimen heating decreases above 30 K. The volume fraction of α-phase increases continuously up to 70 % with plastic strain, at approximately 15 % plastic strain for 304L and up to 35 % for 316L. There was almost no clear influence of testing temperature on strain-induced martensitic transformation at the cryogenic temperatures.

  11. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Varela, N; Guillén Grima, F; Pérez Cajaraville, J J; Pérez Hernández, C; Monedero, P

    2016-01-01

                Fundamento. Los instrumentos de medida de salud son esenciales en la actividad clínica diaria. Sin embargo, es necesario un proceso de validación para poder certificar la validez y fiabilidad de los mismos. En la actualidad no existe ninguno que permita evaluar la repercusión del dolor en la productividad laboral de los pacientes. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es validar un cuestionario para evaluar las consecuencias del dolor en dicha productividad.             Método. En base al Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire - General Health" hemos creado una versión modificada denominada WPAI:Pain con el fin obtener un cuestionario que pudiera medir las consecuencias del dolor en la productividad laboral. El estudio se realizó siguiendo las pautas habituales de validación de pruebas, omitiéndose las fases de redacción y validez de contenido ya que se modificaba un cuestionario existente.             Resultados. Se obtuvieron 577 cuestionarios en dos hospitales universitarios españoles. Se comprobó la capacidad discriminante del cuestionario mediante prueba de U de Mann-Whitney. Se realizaron los test de fiabilidad obteniéndose un alfa de Cronbach de 0,896 con un test de dos mitades de Guttman de 0,921. Se comprobó la estabilidad con un test-retest estadísticamente significativo. La validez de constructo se estableció mediante correlación de Pearson comparando los resultados del cuestionario con el dolor en escala visual analógica, que resultó estadísticamente significativa para todos los valores.             Conclusiones. El cuestionario WPAI:Pain es un instrumento de medida válido para determinar las consecuencias del dolor en la productividad laboral de los pacientes, siendo el único validado en español. Sin embargo, se requieren estudios de mayor envergadura para poder confirmar una validez universal.             Palabras clave. Dolor. Diseño de cuestionario. Validación. Fiabilidad. PMID:27125620

  12. Biochemical and genomic analysis of sucrose metabolism during coffee (Coffea arabica) fruit development.

    PubMed

    Geromel, Clara; Ferreira, Lúcia Pires; Guerreiro, Sandra Maria Carmelo; Cavalari, Aline Andréia; Pot, David; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protásio; Leroy, Thierry; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Mazzafera, Paulo; Marraccini, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Sucrose metabolism and the role of sucrose synthase were investigated in the fruit tissues (pericarp, perisperm, and endosperm) of Coffea arabica during development. Acid invertase, sucrose phosphate synthase, and sucrose synthase activities were monitored and compared with the levels of sucrose and reducing sugars. Among these enzymes, sucrose synthase showed the highest activities during the last stage of endosperm and pericarp development and this activity paralleled closely the accumulation of sucrose in these tissues at this stage. Carbon partitioning in fruits was studied by pulse-chase experiments with (14)C-sugars and revealed high rates of sucrose turnover in perisperm and endosperm tissues. Additional feeding experiments with (14)CO(2) showed that leaf photosynthesis contributed more to seed development than the pericarp in terms of photosynthate supply to the endosperm. Sugar analysis, feeding experiments, and histological studies indicated that the perisperm plays an important role in this downloading process. It was observed that the perisperm presents a transient accumulation of starch which is degraded as the seed develops. Two full-length cDNAs (CaSUS1 and CaSUS2) and the complete gene sequence of the latter were also isolated. They encode sucrose synthase isoforms that are phylogenetically distinct, indicating their involvement in different physiological functions during cherry development. Contrasting expression patterns were observed for CaSUS1 and CaSUS2 in perisperm, endosperm, and pericarp tissues: CaSUS1 mRNAs accumulated mainly during the early development of perisperm and endosperm, as well as during pericarp growing phases, whereas those of CaSUS2 paralleled sucrose synthase activity in the last weeks of pericarp and endosperm development. Taken together, these results indicate that sucrose synthase plays an important role in sugar metabolism during sucrose accumulation in the coffee fruit. PMID:16926239

  13. Global selection on sucrose synthase haplotypes during a century of wheat breeding.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jian; Jiang, Qiyan; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Zhang, Hongna; Zhang, Xueyong

    2014-04-01

    Spike number per unit area, number of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weight (TKW) are important yield components. In China, increases in wheat (Triticum aestivum) yields are mainly due to increases in grain number per spike and TKW. TKW mainly depends on starch content, as starch accounts for about 70% of the grain endosperm. Sucrose synthase catalysis is the first step in the conversion of sucrose to starch, that is, the conversion of sucrose to fructose and UDP-glucose by the wheat sucrose synthase genes (TaSus1 and TaSus2) that are located on chromosomes 7A/7B/7D and 2A/2B/2D, respectively. A total of 1,520 wheat accessions were genotyped at the six loci. Two, two, five, and two haplotypes were identified at the TaSus2-2A, TaSus2-2B, TaSus1-7A, and TaSus1-7B loci, respectively. Their main variations were detected within the introns. Significant differences between the haplotypes correlated with TKW differences among 348 modern Chinese cultivars from the core collection. Frequency changes for favored haplotypes showed gradual increases in cultivars released since beginning of the last century in China, Europe, and North America. Geographic distributions and time changes of favored haplotypes were characterized in six major wheat production regions worldwide. Strong selection bottlenecks to haplotype variations occurred at polyploidization and domestication and during breeding of wheat. Genetic-effect differences between haplotypes at the same locus influence the selection time and intensity. This work shows that the endosperm starch synthesis pathway is a major target of indirect selection in global wheat breeding for higher yield. PMID:24402050

  14. Mechanical properties and composition of mesenteric small arteries of simulated microgravity rats with and without daily -G(x) gravitation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Cheng, Jiu-Hua; Bai, Yun-Gang; Boscolo, Marco; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Li-Fan

    2012-04-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the active and passive mechanical properties and wall collagen and elastin contents of mesenteric small arteries (MSAs) isolated from rats of 28-day simulated microgravity (SUS), countermeasure [S + D: SUS plus 1 h/d -G(x) to simulate intermittent artificial gravity (IAG)] and control (CON) groups. Three mechanical parameters were calculated: the overall stiffness (β), circumferential stress (σ(θ))-strain (ε(θ)) relationship and pressure-dependent incremental elastic modulus (E(inc,p)). Vessel wall collagen and elastin percentage were quantified by electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that the active mechanical behavior of MSAs differs noticeably among the three groups: the active stress-strain curve of SUS vessels is very close to the passive curve, whereas the active σ(θ)-ε(θ) curves of CON and S + D vessels are shifted leftward and display a parabolic shape, indicating that for MSAs isolated from S + D, but not those from SUS rats, the pressure-induced myogenic constriction can effectively stiffen the vessel wall as the CON vessels. The passive mechanical behavior of MSAs does not show significant differences among the three groups. However, the percentage of collagen is decreased in the wall of SUS and S + D compared with CON vessels in the following order: SUS < S + D < CON. Thus, the relationship between passive mechanical behavior and compositional changes may be complex and yet depends on factors other than the quantity of collagen and elastin. These findings have provided biomechanical data for the understanding of the mechanism of postflight orthostatic intolerance and its gravity-based countermeasure. PMID:22513459

  15. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) do not exhibit a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed and minimum cost of transport.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Jon C; Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A; Steffensen, John F

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3) there is a trade-off between maximum sustained swimming speed (U sus) and minimum cost of transport (COTmin); and (4) variation in U sus correlates positively with optimum swimming speed (U opt; i.e., the speed that minimizes energy expenditure per unit of distance traveled). Data collection involved swimming respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer, suggesting that the metabolic cost of burst swimming is similar across various types of locomotion. There was no correlation between U crit and MS or anaerobic capacity in S. aurata indicating that other factors, including morphological or biomechanical traits, influenced U crit. We found no evidence of a trade-off between U sus and COTmin. In fact, data revealed significant negative correlations between U sus and COTmin, suggesting that individuals with high U sus also exhibit low COTmin. Finally, there were positive correlations between U sus and U opt. Our study demonstrates the energetic importance of anaerobic metabolism during unsteady swimming, and provides intraspecific evidence that superior maximum sustained swimming speed is associated with superior swimming economy and optimum speed. PMID:25741285

  16. Fasiglifam/TAK-875, a Selective GPR40 Agonist, Improves Hyperglycemia in Rats Unresponsive to Sulfonylureas and Acts Additively with Sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryo; Tsujihata, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Masami; Miyawaki, Kazumasa; Matsuda, Kae; Takeuchi, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Sulfonylureas (SUs) are widely used insulin secretagogues, but they have adverse effects including hypoglycemia and secondary failure. Fasiglifam/TAK-875, a selective GPR40 agonist, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improves hyperglycemia. In the present study, we compared the in vivo glucose-lowering effects of fasiglifam with SUs. The risk of secondary failure of fasiglifam and the efficacy in rats desensitized to SUs were also evaluated. Moreover, we assessed whether fasiglifam was effective when combined with SUs. In diabetic neonatally streptozotocin-induced rats 1.5 days after birth (N-STZ-1.5), oral administrations of fasiglifam (3-30 mg/kg) dose dependently improved glucose tolerance; the effect was greater than that of glibenclamide at maximal effective doses (glucose AUC: fasiglifam, -37.6%; glibenclamide, -12.3%). Although the glucose-lowering effects of glibenclamide (10 mg/kg/day) were completely diminished in N-STZ-1.5 rats after 4 weeks of treatment, effects were maintained in rats receiving fasiglifam (10 mg/kg/day), even after 15 weeks. Fasiglifam (3-10 mg/kg) was still effective in two models desensitized to SUs: 15-week glibenclamide-treated N-STZ-1.5 rats and aged Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Acute administration of fasiglifam (3 mg/kg) and glimepiride (10 mg/kg) in combination additively decreased glucose AUC (fasiglifam, -25.3%; glimepiride, -20.0%; combination, -43.1%). Although glimepiride (10 mg/kg) decreased plasma glucose below normal in nonfasted control rats, fasiglifam (3 mg/kg) maintained normoglycemia, and no further exaggeration of hypoglycemia was observed with combination treatment. These results indicate that GPR40 agonists could be more effective and durable than SUs. Our results also provide new insights into GPR40 pharmacology and rationale for the use of GPR40 agonists in diabetic patients with SU failure. PMID:26813930

  17. [Four-week simulated weightlessness increases the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide in the myocardium].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Huai-Zhang; Xu, Peng-Tao; Chang, Hui; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-04-25

    One of the major circulatory changes that occur in human during space flight and simulated weightlessness is a cerebral redistribution of body fluids, which is accompanied by an increase of blood volume in the upper body. Therefore, atrial myocardium should increase the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), but the researches lack common conclusion until now. The present study was to investigate the expression level of ANP in simulated weightlessness rats, and to confirm the changes of ANP by observing the associated proteins of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). The tail-suspended rat model was used to simulate weightlessness. Western blots were carried out to examine the expression levels of ANP and SNARE proteins in atrial and left ventricular myocardium. The results showed that ANP expression in atrial myocardium showed an increase in 4-week tail-suspended rats (SUS) compared with that in the synchronous control rats (CON). We only detected a trace amount of ANP in the left ventricular myocardium of the CON, but found an enhanced expression of ANP in left ventricular myocardium of the SUS. Expression of VAMP-1/2 (vesicle associated SNARE) increased significantly in both atrial and left ventricular myocardium in the SUS compared with that in the CON. There was no difference of the expression of syntaxin-4 (target compartment associated SNARE) between the CON and SUS, but the expression of SNAP-23 showed an increase in atrial myocardium of the SUS compared with that in the CON. Synip and Munc-18c as regulators of SNAREs did not show significant difference between the CON and SUS. These results suggest that the expression of ANP shows an increase in atrial and left ventricular myocardium of 4-week tail-suspended rats. Enhanced expression of VAMP-1/2 associated with ANP vesicles confirms the increased expression of ANP in atrial and left ventricular myocardium. PMID:23598869

  18. [Community Health Agent: status adapted with Family Health Program reality?].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karina Tonini; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Arcieri, Renato Moreira; Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the status and work reality of Community Health Agents, with the purpose of contributing to the improvement of the Brazilian Health System (SUS) in small cities. It was discussed aspects related to their participation in the team of the Family Health Program (PSF) and their interaction with the community. It was observed a lack of motivation and experience, which compromises the quality of Agents performance in the community. It is known that these findings are reflex and consequence of an established context. It is necessary the team rethink their practice, specially the managers, having always as a fundament the principles that guide the SUS and PSF. PMID:21503451

  19. The Effect of Hygiene-Based Lymphedema Management in Lymphatic Filariasis-Endemic Areas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stocks, Meredith E.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Addiss, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphedema of the leg and its advanced form, known as elephantiasis, are significant causes of disability and morbidity in areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), with an estimated 14 million persons affected worldwide. The twin goals of the World Health Organization’s Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis include interrupting transmission of the parasitic worms that cause LF and providing care to persons who suffer from its clinical manifestations, including lymphedema—so-called morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP). Scaling up of MMDP has been slow, in part because of a lack of consensus about the effectiveness of recommended hygiene-based interventions for clinical lymphedema. Methods and Findings We conducted a systemic review and meta-analyses to estimate the effectiveness of hygiene-based interventions on LF-related lymphedema. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, MedCarib, Lilacs, REPIDISCA, DESASTRES, and African Index Medicus databases through March 23, 2015 with no restriction on year of publication. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they (1) were conducted in an area endemic for LF, (2) involved hygiene-based interventions to manage lymphedema, and (3) assessed lymphedema-related morbidity. For clinical outcomes for which three or more studies assessed comparable interventions for lymphedema, we conducted random-effects meta-analyses. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and two meta-analyses were possible. To evaluate study quality, we developed a set of criteria derived from the GRADE methodology. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Participation in hygiene-based lymphedema management was associated with a lower incidence of acute dermatolymphagioadenitis (ADLA), (Odds Ratio 0.32, 95% CI 0.25–0.40), as well as with a decreased percentage of patients reporting at least one episode of ADLA during follow-up (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.12–0.47). Limitations included high heterogeneity across studies and variation in components of lymphedema management. Conclusions Available evidence strongly supports the effectiveness of hygiene-based lymphedema management in LF-endemic areas. Despite the aforementioned limitations, these findings highlight the potential to significantly reduce LF-associated morbidity and disability as well as the need to develop standardized approaches to MMDP in LF-endemic areas. PMID:26496129

  20. Fenómenos solares que afectan la atmósfera terrestre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M.

    Se describen los principales fenómenos solares como fulguraciones, prominencias eruptivas, viento solar y eyecciones de masa coronal (CME) que tienen consecuencias en la atmósfera terrestre. En algunos casos el material es eyectado a velocidades superiores a los 900 km/seg y tarda menos de 48 horas en llegar a la Tierra. En general, estos CME no son peligrosos ya que el campo magnético terrestre actúa como protector siendo un aislante efectivo. Si el viento solar es muy intenso puede comprimir la magnetósfera y producir una tormenta geomagnética. En casos extremos, puede interferir la transmisión de potencia eléctrica, perturbar los satélites y producir auroras polares.

  1. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  2. Forage soybean yield and quality response to water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forages could be used to diversify reduced and no-till dryland cropping systems from the traditional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system in the semiarid central Great Plains. Forages present an attractive alternative to grain and seed crops because of greater water use efficiency and less sus...

  3. Deciding oral drugs after metformin in type 2 diabetes: An evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The most commonly used oral drug in treating type 2 diabetes (T2DM) after metformin are sufonylureas (SUs) based on the confidence gained over the several decades and because of its cheaper cost. Unfortunately, SUs are associated with secondary failure and sometimes associated with therapy related severe hypoglycaemia limiting its compliance and wider utility in current clinical practice. Although large randomised trials could not associate SUs with any obvious increase in cardiovascular (CV) mortality, some recent larger databases showing divergent results suggesting increasingly CV signals and this might put SUs in difficulty given the availability of other safer alternatives. In recent years, incretin-based therapies like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist (GLP-1A) are gaining popularity primarily because of their advantage of weight reduction/neutrality and minimal hypoglycemia along with the perception of possible pleiotropic CV benefit mainly derived from pooled CV data of their trials. Sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are another new promising molecule currently looking for its space in the management of T2DM. Insulin could be utilized at any place when required and in this regard outcomes reduction with an initial glargine intervention (ORIGIN) study also suggested that basal insulin glargine could be safely used even in early stage. This review will discuss what could be possibly be the best option as a second line oral agent, once metformin monotherapy becomes ineffective. PMID:25285276

  4. Divergent metabolic responses of Apostichopus japonicus suffered from skin ulceration syndrome and pathogen challenge.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Ou, Changrong; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Yali; Su, Xiurong; Li, Ye; Li, Taiwu

    2013-11-13

    Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is the main limitation in the development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries, in which Vibrio splendidus has been well documented as one of the major pathogens. However, the intrinsic mechanisms toward pathogen challenge and disease outbreak remain largely unknown at the metabolic level. In this work, the metabolic responses were investigated in muscles of sea cucumber among natural SUS-diseased and V. splendidus-challenged samples. The pathogen did not induce obvious biological effects in A. japonicus samples after infection for the first 24 h. An enhanced energy storage (or reduced energy demand) and immune responses were observed in V. splendidus-challenged A. japonicus samples at 48 h, as marked by increased glucose and branched chain amino acids, respectively. Afterward, infection of V. splendidus induced significant increases in energy demand in A. japonicus samples at both 72 and 96 h, confirmed by decreased glucose and glycogen, and increased ATP. Surprisingly, high levels of glycogen and glucose and low levels of threonine, alanine, arginine, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and ATP were founded in natural SUS-diseased sea cucumber. Our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interaction for sea cucumber, and informed that the metabolic biomarkers induced by V. splendidus were not usable for the prediction of SUS disease in practice. PMID:24127639

  5. [The Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified National Health System: a performance evaluation for auditing maternal near miss].

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Mendes-Silva, Wallace; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Reichenheim, Michael E; Lobato, Gustavo

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the performance of the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SIH-SUS) in identifying cases of maternal near miss in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2008. Cases were identified by reviewing medical records of pregnant and postpartum women admitted to the hospital. The search for potential near miss events in the SIH-SUS database relied on a list of procedures and codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) that were consistent with this diagnosis. The patient chart review identified 27 cases, while 70 potential occurrences of near miss were detected in the SIH-SUS database. However, only 5 of 70 were "true cases" of near miss according to the chart review, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 18.5% (95%CI: 6.3-38.1), specificity of 94.3% (95%CI: 92.8-95.6), area under the ROC of 0.56 (95%CI: 0.48-0.63), and positive predictive value of 10.1% (IC95%: 4.7-20.3). These findings suggest that SIH-SUS does not appear appropriate for monitoring maternal near miss. PMID:23843001

  6. Importance and Update of Direct Seed Certification Programs in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) and agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming. As part of no-regret strategies, practices that sequester soil C help reduce soil erosion and improve water quality and are consistent with more sus...

  7. A Methodology for Sustainability Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Ana C.; Carravilla, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Jose F.; Costa, Carlos A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that allows higher education institutions (HEIs) to promote, to evaluate and to report on sustainability. The ultimate goal of the afore-mentioned methodology is to help HEIs achieve sustainability. First, a model entitled Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (SusHEI) that generally

  8. Se pone en marcha el programa NCORP

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) ha otorgado 53 subvenciones nuevas de 5 años a investigadores de todo el país para realizar estudios clínicos multicéntricos e investigaciones sobre la prestación de cuidados oncológicos en sus comunidades.

  9. Early and late maturing grain sorghum under variable climatic conditions in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains, variable climatic conditions prevail between and within growing seasons. As this area continues to experience drought conditions, and water resources for irrigation become more limited, sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production may become a more popular choice to sus...

  10. Molecular and metabolic changes of cherelle wilt of cacao and its effect on Moniliophthora roreri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seeds of Theobroma cacao L. pods are processed into cocoa products. Cherelle wilt is physiological thinning of young pods that result in loss of potential pods. Cherelle wilt first occurs 50 days after pollination (DAP) and a second thinning occurs around 70 DAP. Cherelles are also highly sus...

  11. A Methodology for Sustainability Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Ana C.; Carravilla, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Jose F.; Costa, Carlos A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that allows higher education institutions (HEIs) to promote, to evaluate and to report on sustainability. The ultimate goal of the afore-mentioned methodology is to help HEIs achieve sustainability. First, a model entitled Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (SusHEI) that generally…

  12. New iron acquisition system in Bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Pablo; Lauber, Frédéric; Renzi, Francesco; Hack, Katrin; Hess, Estelle; Cornelis, Guy R

    2015-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a dog mouth commensal and a member of the Bacteroidetes phylum, causes rare but often fatal septicemia in humans that have been in contact with a dog. Here, we show that C. canimorsus strains isolated from human infections grow readily in heat-inactivated human serum and that this property depends on a typical polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL), namely, PUL3 in strain Cc5. PUL are a hallmark of Bacteroidetes, and they encode various products, including surface protein complexes that capture and process polysaccharides or glycoproteins. The archetype system is the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Sus system, devoted to starch utilization. Unexpectedly, PUL3 conferred the capacity to acquire iron from serotransferrin (STF), and this capacity required each of the seven encoded proteins, indicating that a whole Sus-like machinery is acting as an iron capture system (ICS), a new and unexpected function for Sus-like machinery. No siderophore could be detected in the culture supernatant of C. canimorsus, suggesting that the Sus-like machinery captures iron directly from transferrin, but this could not be formally demonstrated. The seven genes of the ICS were found in the genomes of several opportunistic pathogens from the Capnocytophaga and Prevotella genera, in different isolates of the severe poultry pathogen Riemerella anatipestifer, and in strains of Bacteroides fragilis and Odoribacter splanchnicus isolated from human infections. Thus, this study describes a new type of ICS that evolved in Bacteroidetes from a polysaccharide utilization system and most likely represents an important virulence factor in this group. PMID:25368114

  13. Agriculture in the U.S. Corn Belt: Past, Present, and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past 50 years, agriculture in the U.S. Corn Belt has changed from diversified farms that included forage, grain, and livestock operations to larger management units that separated grain and animal production. Swine (Sus scrofa L.), chicken (Gallus Domesticus), turkey (Meleagris gallopava)...

  14. Los mejores ejemplos - Duration: 93 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández nos cuenta cómo cambió su vida cuando oyó en una entrevista radial a Franklin Chang Díaz, el primer astronauta hispano de la NASA. Chang-Díaz contaba sus via...

  15. [Use and sources of medicines: a population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Karen Sarmento; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicines is influenced by different factors. This study aimed to analyze the use of medicines and identify the sources for obtaining them and associated factors, using a population-based cross-sectional design with two-stage cluster sampling in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2008. Prevalence of use of at least one drug in the 3 previous days was 57.2% and prevalence of obtaining the drug from the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) was 30%. 47.8% of individuals with no health insurance had to pay out-of-pocket for their medication, and 10.9% of individuals with insurance nevertheless obtained their medication from the SUS. Use of medicines obtained from the SUS was associated with older age, widowhood, black or brown skin color, lower schooling and income, and lack of insurance. Only 2.1% reported not being able to obtain the prescribed medication, and the main reasons were lack of availability in the public system and lack of money for out-of-pocket purchases. The study identified the subgroups that obtained most of their medicines in the SUS and showed that these were the subgroups with the lowest use of medicines in the system. PMID:26886184

  16. Effect of welding structure and δ-ferrite on fatigue properties for TIG welded austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, Tetsumi; Ogata, Toshio; Saito, Masahiro; Hirayama, Yoshiaki

    2000-04-01

    High-cycle and low-cycle fatigue properties of base and weld metals for SUS304L and SUS316L and the effects of welding structure and δ-ferrite on fatigue properties were investigated at cryogenic temperatures in order to evaluate the long-life reliability of the structural materials to be used in liquid hydrogen supertankers and storage tanks and to develop a welding process for these applications. The S-N curves of the base and weld metals shifted towards higher levels, i.e., the longer life side, with decreasing test temperatures. High-cycle fatigue tests demonstrated the ratios of fatigue strength at 10 6 cycles to tensile strength of the weld metals to be 0.35-0.7, falling below those of base metals with decreasing test temperatures. Fatigue crack initiation sites in SUS304L weld metals were mostly at blowholes with diameters of 200-700 μm, and those of SUS316L weld metals were at weld pass interface boundaries. Low-cycle fatigue tests revealed the fatigue lives of the weld metals to be somewhat lower than those of the base metals. Although δ-ferrite reduces the toughness of austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures, the effects of δ-ferrite on high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue properties are not clear or significant.

  17. State-and-transition model archetypes: a global taxonomy of rangeland change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    State and transition models (STMs) synthesize science-based and local knowledge to formally represent the dynamics of rangeland and other ecosystems. Mental models or concepts of ecosystem dynamics implicitly underlie all management decisions in rangelands and thus how people influence rangeland sus...

  18. Golden rice: Development, Nutritional Assessment, and Potential for Alleviating Vitamin A Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice (GR) is a transgenic product engineered to produce beta-carotene in the rice endosperm. It has been developed as a means to combat vitamin A malnutrition, which exists throughout much of the developing world (especially in rice eating populations) and can lead to blindness, increased sus...

  19. Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sus­tainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...

  20. Effects of ?-ferrite and welding structure on high-cycle fatigue properties of austenitic stainless steels weld metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, T.; Ogata, T.; Saito, M.; Hirayama, Y.

    2002-05-01

    We studied the effects of ?-ferrite and welding structure on high-cycle fatigue properties for austenitic stainless steel weld metals at cryogenic temperatures. SUS304L and SUS316L weld metals contained 0% ?-ferrite (0% material) and 10% ?-ferrite (10% material) were prepared. High-cycle fatigue tests were carried out at 293, 77 and 4 K. The S-N curves of those weld metals shifted towards higher stress levels, i.e., the longer life side, with decreasing test temperature. The ratios of 106-cycles fatigue strength (FS) to tensile strength (TS) of 0% material decreased from 0.8 to 0.45 and those of 10% material decreased between 0.35 to 0.65 with decreasing test temperature. Fatigue crack initiation sites of SUS304L 10% material were almost at blowholes, and those of SUS316L 10% material were at weld pass interface boundaries. On the other hand, those of 0% materials were considered to be due to the interface of the solidification structure. Although ?-ferrite reduces toughness at cryogenic temperatures in austenitic stainless steel weld metals, the effects of ?-ferrite on high-cycle fatigue properties are not significant.

  1. RESISTANCE TO COUMAPHOS AND DIAZINON IN BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (ACARI: IXODIDAE) AND EVIDENCE FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF AN OXIDATIVE DETOXIFICATION MECHANISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The levels of resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in several Mexican strains of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were evaluated using the FAO larval packet test. Metabolic mechanisms of resistance were investigated with synergist bioassays. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) reduced coumaphos toxicity in sus...

  2. Parks, Recreation, Leisure, and Fitness Studies. Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. System of Florida, Tallahassee. Board of Regents.

    This review of parks, recreation, leisure, and fitness studies programs within the State University System (SUS) of Florida examined the quality of curricula, characteristics of students and faculty, nature and adequacy of facilities and resources, responses to previous program review recommendations, and program progress. Six programs at four…

  3. Los Sentimientos, Luchas, y Esperanzas de Cinco Familias Mexicana: The Sentiments, Struggles, and Hopes of Five Mexican Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dueñas, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Within the everyday space of their modest trailer homes, I observed compelling environments in the households of 5 Mexican families. In their homes, there existed "los padres con sus hijos" (parents with their children) who intuitively expressed "cariño," or love, for one another, conversed in multiple languages, practiced…

  4. Temporal flux and spatial dynamics of nutrients, fecal indicators, and zoonotic pathogens in anaerobic swine manure lagoon water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure management in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the Mid-South US involves anaerobic lagoons. Lagoon effluent is used to irrigate and fertilize crops. Nutrients and bacteria in effluent have been sporadically characterized, but annual temporal changes...

  5. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of candidate structural materials in supercritical pressurized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, Hwanil; Kimura, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in supercritical pressurized water (SCPW) was investigated for the candidate structural steels of advanced fusion and fission nuclear system, which are SUS316L austenitic steel, F82H ferritic-martensitic steel and SOC-16 oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel. In order to evaluate the susceptibility to SCC with those materials, slow strain rate test (SSRT) was carried out at 773 K, under a pressure of 25 MPa of SCPW with deaerated condition. High temperature tensile test in vacuum at 773 K was also performed to compare the deformation and fracture behavior between corrosive environment of SCPW and non-corrosive environment. Although SUS316L showed a change in the fracture mode in the deaerated SCPW from an entire ductile fracture at higher strain rate to a mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture at lower one, the fracture mode of ODS steel and F82H was not changed in the tested strain rate range. Both the IGSCC and TGSCC were observed in SUS316L. And F82H steel suffered from much severer oxidation than SUS316L and SOC-16.

  6. Labor Market Experiences after Postsecondary Education: Earnings and Other Outcomes of Florida's Postsecondary Graduates and Completers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This report results from a partnership between the State of Florida and College Measures. It focuses on the median first-year earnings of recent graduates and completers from Florida's public postsecondary educational institutions: SUS, FCS, and DTCs. The report documents the variation in first-year earnings for completers who earned degrees or…

  7. The Complex Route to Success: Complex Problem-Solving Skills in the Prediction of University Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Matthias J.; Becker, Nicolas; Greiff, Samuel; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Successful completion of a university degree is a complex matter. Based on considerations regarding the demands of acquiring a university degree, the aim of this paper was to investigate the utility of complex problem-solving (CPS) skills in the prediction of objective and subjective university success (SUS). The key finding of this study was that…

  8. Comparison of selected nutrients and bacteria from common contiguous soils inside and outside swine lagoon effluent spray fields after long-term use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) lagoon effluent is a valuable fertilizer. In the Mid-South US it is applied to grass hay in spray-irrigated fields from April to September. Lagoon levels of nutrients and bacteria, and soil levels of nutrients, were known, but little was known of effluent bacterial level...

  9. Planificar la transición a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  10. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem vascular tissue suggests a role for invertase in cell wall cellulose synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants were transformed with two constructs: (1) a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase promoter isolated from alfalfa nodules (PEPC-4) fused to GUS; and (2) PEPC-4 fused with sucrose synthase (SUS) isolated from alfalfa nodules. Histochemical staining for GUS in st...

  11. Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...

  12. Soil nutrient evaluation from swine effluent application to five forage-system practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to investigate the impact of forage double-cropping on nutrient accumulation and leaching in Mantachie fine loam soil fertilized with swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) waste lagoon effluent as the sole source of plant nutrients. Plots of Tifton 44 bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylo...

  13. Coupling Manure Injection with Cover Crops to Enhance Nutrient Cycling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale hog (Sus scrofa) production is a major agricultural enterprise in the Midwest. Large numbers of confined hogs produce about 50 million tons per year of swine manure in Iowa alone. Rapid expansion of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased concentrations o...

  14. Corrosion characteristics of materials in Pb-Bi under transient temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivai, Abu Khalid; Takahashi, Minoru

    2010-03-01

    Corrosion characteristics of materials in Pb-Bi under transient temperature conditions in the range 550-800 °C have been investigated. Two cases of transient temperature conditions were carried out. For the case-1, the specimens were immersed in Pb-Bi at 550 °C for 12 h and then the temperature was increased up to 800 °C and kept there for 12 h. For the case-2, the specimens were immersed in Pb-Bi at 550 °C for around 500 h and then the temperature was increased up to 800 °C and kept there for 15 h. The tested materials were surface coated steels of Al-SUS304-sputtering-coated HCM12A and SUS316, high chromium steels of HCM12A, Recloy10 and SUS430, a refractory metal of molybdenum, and ceramics of SiC and Ti 3SiC 2. The results showed that there was no trace of any corrosion attack mechanisms of Pb-Bi into the Al-SUS304-sputtering-coated steels, the refractory metal, and the ceramics found, for all transient temperature conditions cases. On the other hand, corrosion attack mechanism of Pb-Bi was found for high chromium steels specimens in all cases.

  15. 78 FR 78947 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... required input by vendors that manually enter invoice data into Wide Area Workflow (WAWF) (not those utilizing Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). By pre- populating fields with accurate and up-to-date contract information, vendors are required to input significantly less data. Additionally, SUS simultaneously...

  16. Environmental and economic comparisons of manure application methods in farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative methods for applying livestock manure to no-till soils involve environmental and economic trade-offs. A process-level farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to evaluate methods for applying liquid dairy (Bos taurus L.) and swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure including no...

  17. Are we ready for the (range)land revolution?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland scientists have a tremendous amount of knowledge that could ensure that the transition from livestock production to other land uses is as sustainable as possible, while maintaining livestock production systems where they are the most biophysically, socially, culturally and economically sus...

  18. Design of Higher Education Teaching Models and Carbon Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caird, Sally; Lane, Andy; Swithenby, Ed; Roy, Robin; Potter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the main findings of the SusTEACH study of the carbon-based environmental impacts of 30 higher education (HE) courses in 15 UK institutions, based on an analysis of the likely energy consumption and carbon emissions of a range of face-to-face, distance, online and information and communication technology…

  19. Effect of Humic Acid and Sunlight on the Generation of aqu/C60

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the effect of sunlight and natural organic matter, such as humic acid, on the aqueous suspension of fullerene C60. This knowledge gap limits our ability to determine the environmental impact of potential environmental releases of these materials. Aqueous sus...

  20. Planificar la transición en la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  1. Identifiction and Characterization of Huanglongbing Bacterium in Pummelo [citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] from Multiple Locations in Guangdong, P.R. China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease, caused by Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is highly destructive to citrus production in Asia, Africa, and South America. The disease has recently been found in North America (Florida). While primarily affecting sweet orange and mandarin, HLB has been sus...

  2. New Iron Acquisition System in Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Manfredi, Pablo; Lauber, Frédéric; Renzi, Francesco; Hack, Katrin; Hess, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus, a dog mouth commensal and a member of the Bacteroidetes phylum, causes rare but often fatal septicemia in humans that have been in contact with a dog. Here, we show that C. canimorsus strains isolated from human infections grow readily in heat-inactivated human serum and that this property depends on a typical polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL), namely, PUL3 in strain Cc5. PUL are a hallmark of Bacteroidetes, and they encode various products, including surface protein complexes that capture and process polysaccharides or glycoproteins. The archetype system is the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Sus system, devoted to starch utilization. Unexpectedly, PUL3 conferred the capacity to acquire iron from serotransferrin (STF), and this capacity required each of the seven encoded proteins, indicating that a whole Sus-like machinery is acting as an iron capture system (ICS), a new and unexpected function for Sus-like machinery. No siderophore could be detected in the culture supernatant of C. canimorsus, suggesting that the Sus-like machinery captures iron directly from transferrin, but this could not be formally demonstrated. The seven genes of the ICS were found in the genomes of several opportunistic pathogens from the Capnocytophaga and Prevotella genera, in different isolates of the severe poultry pathogen Riemerella anatipestifer, and in strains of Bacteroides fragilis and Odoribacter splanchnicus isolated from human infections. Thus, this study describes a new type of ICS that evolved in Bacteroidetes from a polysaccharide utilization system and most likely represents an important virulence factor in this group. PMID:25368114

  3. Runoff Losses of N and P After Low Phosphorus Swine Slurry Application to No-Tillage Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine (Sus scrofa) manure can serve as a fertilizer source for crop production. Manure typically contains more P relative to N than the crop requires. This imbalance often results in accumulation of soil P creating the potential for negative environmental impacts due to P losses in runoff. Low phyta...

  4. Corn response to long-term applications of cattle manure, swine effluent, and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) manure and swine (Sus scrofa) effluent are applied to cropland to recycle nutrients, build soil quality, and increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of land application of cattle manure and swine effluent using the Kansas Nut...

  5. Sucrose Synthesis in the Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 Is Controlled by the Two-Component Response Regulator OrrA

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Shogo; Ohmori, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 accumulates sucrose as a compatible solute against salt stress. Sucrose-phosphate synthase activity, which is responsible for the sucrose synthesis, is increased by salt stress, but the mechanism underlying the regulation of sucrose synthesis remains unknown. In the present study, a response regulator, OrrA, was shown to control sucrose synthesis. Expression of spsA, which encodes a sucrose-phosphate synthase, and susA and susB, which encode sucrose synthases, was induced by salt stress. In the orrA disruptant, salt induction of these genes was completely abolished. The cellular sucrose level of the orrA disruptant was reduced to 40% of that in the wild type under salt stress conditions. Moreover, overexpression of orrA resulted in enhanced expression of spsA, susA, and susB, followed by accumulation of sucrose, without the addition of NaCl. We also found that SigB2, a group 2 sigma factor of RNA polymerase, regulated the early response to salt stress under the control of OrrA. It is concluded that OrrA controls sucrose synthesis in collaboration with SigB2. PMID:25002430

  6. Los Sentimientos, Luchas, y Esperanzas de Cinco Familias Mexicana: The Sentiments, Struggles, and Hopes of Five Mexican Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dueas, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Within the everyday space of their modest trailer homes, I observed compelling environments in the households of 5 Mexican families. In their homes, there existed "los padres con sus hijos" (parents with their children) who intuitively expressed "cario," or love, for one another, conversed in multiple languages, practiced

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Language Version of the System Usability Scale

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Iman; Ghanbari, Zahra; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a widely used selfadministered instrument for evaluating the usability of a wide range of products and services. The aims of this descriptive-methodological study were to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the SUS. Methods: The study was conducted among 202 university students from the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Content validity was evaluated by a panel of 10 experts. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed by Cronbachs alpha and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), respectively. Additionally the feasibility of the measure was judged by ceiling and floor effect. Results: Content validity of the short form of Iranian SUS was established. Factor analyses supported the conceptual uni-dimensionality, and thus confirmed the construct validity of the measure. The internal consistency (? = 0.79) and test retest reliability (ICC = 0.96) were both approved and there was also no ceiling nor floor effect. Conclusions: The findings support the use of SUS for both practical and research settings in Iranian population. PMID:25097841

  8. Preguntas y respuestas acerca del Estudio del

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en ingls) es un estudio clnico (un estudio de investigacin conducido con voluntarios) diseado para ver cómo el medicamento raloxifeno (Evista) se compara con el medicamento tamoxifeno (Nolvadex)

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance in Indicator Escherichia coli Isolates from Free-Ranging Livestock and Sympatric Wild Ungulates in a Natural Environment (Northeastern Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Porrero, M. C.; Mentaberre, G.; Serrano, E.; Mateos, A.; Domínguez, L.; Lavín, S.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected. PMID:23892753

  10. Comparison of characteristics of fluorine doped zinc and gallium tin oxide composite thin films deposited on stainless steel 316 bipolar plate by electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihun; Hudaya, Chairul; Lee, Joong Kee

    2011-09-01

    In order to replace the brittle graphite bipolar plates currently used for the PEMFC stack, coated SUS 316 was employed. As a metallic bipolar plate, coated SUS 316 can provide higher mechanical strength, better durability to shocks and vibration, less permeability, improved thermal and bulk electrical conductivity, as well as being thinner and lighter. To enhance the interfacial contact resistance and corrosion resistance of SUS 316, the deposition of GTO:F and ZTO:F composite films was carried out by ECR-MOCVD. The surface morphology of the films consisted of tiny elliptically shaped grains with a thickness of 1 microm. The corrosion current for GTO:F was 0.13 Acm(-2) which was much lower than that of bare SUS 316 (50.16 Acm(-2)). The GTO:F coated film had the smallest corrosion current due to the formation of a tight surface morphology with very few pin-holes. The GTO:F coated film exhibited the highest cell voltage and power density due to its lower ICR values. PMID:22097519

  11. Sustained metabolic scope.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, C C; Nagy, K A; Diamond, J

    1990-01-01

    Sustained metabolic rates (SusMR) are time-averaged metabolic rates that are measured in free-ranging animals maintaining constant body mass over periods long enough that metabolism is fueled by food intake rather than by transient depletion of energy reserves. Many authors have suggested that SusMR of various wild animal species are only a few times resting (basal or standard) metabolic rates (RMR). We test this conclusion by analyzing all 37 species (humans, 31 other endothermic vertebrates, and 5 ectothermic vertebrates) for which SusMR and RMR had both been measured. For all species, the ratio of SusMR to RMR, which we term sustained metabolic scope, is less than 7; most values fall between 1.5 and 5. Some of these values, such as those for Tour de France cyclists and breeding birds, are surely close to sustainable metabolic ceilings for the species studied. That is, metabolic rates higher than 7 times RMR apparently cannot be sustained indefinitely. These observations pose several questions: whether the proximate physiological causes of metabolic ceilings reside in the digestive tract's ability to process food or in each tissue's metabolic capacity; whether ceiling values are independent of the mode of energy expenditure; whether ceilings are set by single limiting physiological capacities or by coadjusted clusters of capacities (symmorphosis); what the ultimate evolutionary causes of metabolic ceilings are; and how metabolic ceilings may limit animals' reproductive effort, foraging behavior, and geographic distribution. PMID:2315323

  12. Excluding feral swine, javelina and raccoons from deer bait stations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present a design and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to administer acaricide treatm...

  13. UC DAVIS CENTER FOR CHILDRENS ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the CCEH in the next five years are to: (1) better understand the mechanisms by which environmental, immunologic, and molecular factors interact to influence the risk and severity of autism; (2) identify early immunologic, environmental, and genomic markers of sus...

  14. Industry-University Research in Florida: Incentives, Barriers, and Prospects. A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Steven K.; And Others

    A project to assess the range of incentives and programs to establish more extensive research relationships between business firms and the Florida State University System (SUS) is described. The focus was research and development in the high-technology areas. Information was sought on incentives and barriers affecting business-university research…

  15. Sustainable Manure Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability of modern manure management is far from certain, with many demonstrating significant limitations from the stand point of efficient use of manure resources and protection of environmental quality and human health. As demonstrated through this review, for manure management to be sus...

  16. A Sensitive Secondary Users Selection Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aohan; Han, Guangjie; Wan, Liangtian; Shu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Secondary Users (SUs) are allowed to use the temporarily unused licensed spectrum without disturbing Primary Users (PUs) in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs). Existing architectures for CRAHNs impose energy-consuming Cognitive Radios (CRs) on SUs. However, the advanced CRs will increase energy cost for their cognitive functionalities, which is undesirable for the battery powered devices. A new architecture referred to as spectral Requirement-based CRAHN (RCRAHN) is proposed to enhance energy efficiency for CRAHNs in this paper. In RCRAHNs, only parts of SUs are equipped with CRs. SUs equipped with CRs are referred to as Cognitive Radio Users (CRUs). To further enhance energy efficiency of CRAHNs, we aim to select minimum CRUs to sense available spectrum. A non-linear programming problem is mathematically formulated under the constraints of energy efficiency and real-time. Considering the NP-hardness of the problem, a framework of a heuristic algorithm referred to as Sensitive Secondary Users Selection (SSUS) was designed to compute the near-optimal solutions. The simulation results demonstrate that SSUS not only improves the energy efficiency, but also achieves satisfied performances in end-to-end delay and communication reliability. PMID:27023562

  17. Resultados de pruebas de laboratorio

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe la función de las pruebas de laboratorio en la detección y diagnóstico de enfermedades. Incluye una lista de las pruebas regulares que se usan en oncologïa y trata brevemente de cómo se interpretan sus resultados.

  18. Liamocin oil from Aureobasidium pullulans has antibacterial activity with specificity for species of Streptococcus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liamocin oil from Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 50380 was tested for antibacterial activity. Liamocins inhibited growth of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. uberis, S. mitis, S. infantarius, and S. mutans, with minimum inhibitory concentrations from 20 'g/ml to 78 'g/ml. Enterococcus faecalis was less sus...

  19. [The social value of teeth and access to dental health services].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Luciara Leão Viana; Nehmy, Rosa Maria Quadros; Mota, Joaquim Antônio César

    2015-10-01

    Oral healthcare provided by the Unified Health System (SUS) faces the challenge of attending the epidemiological profile of Brazil's adult population. Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews was conducted to understand the experiences, expectations and perception of SUS users to services in Diamantina, State of Minas Gerais, and content analysis was used to assess the data. Discussion of the results was based on dialogue between the symbolic interactionism of Goffman and Bourdieu's concept of habitus. The results show that the users did not give importance to dental care during childhood and adolescence because care was unknown to them. There was no offer of treatment besides dental extraction. Today, they value teeth and suffer the embarrassment caused by rotten teeth. However, access to dental restoration via SUS is not possible. For their children, they perceive better access to information and care, but for specialized procedures there are barriers. They express resignation both in relation to the poor state of the teeth and the difficulties of access to dental care, which can be understood by the constant exclusion experienced by them in the past, shaping their actions in the present. It was concluded that oral health in SUS should incorporate the social value and the aesthetic dimension of teeth as a social right. PMID:26465855

  20. Genome-wide association of porcine lung lesions using DNA pooling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease in swine is a primary health concern for producers. Pleuropneumonia and enzootic pneumonia occur at a high incidence on most farms and have a negative effect on feed efficiency, growth, and animal welfare. Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important because it increases sus...

  1. Corn Stover Feedstock Trial Update and Future Integrative Visioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Second-generation biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstocks rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed, but to be sustainable, production of these feedstocks must not degrade soil, water, or air resources. Simulation models can be useful for designing sus...

  2. DEVELOPING SEASONAL AMMONIA EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH AN INVERSE MODELING TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant uncertainty exists in magnitude and variability of ammonia (NH3) emissions, which are needed for air quality modeling of aerosols and deposition of nitrogen compounds. Approximately 85% of NH3 emissions are estimated to come from agricultural non-point sources. We sus...

  3. Cystic Fibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Cystic Fibrosis KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis Print A A A Text Size What's in ... with a condition she's known all her life — cystic fibrosis (say: SIS-tik fi-BRO-sus). Her parents ...

  4. Genetic analysis and identification of DNA markers linked to a novel Phytophthora sojae resistance gene in the Japanese soybean cultivar Waseshiroge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Waseshiroge is considered to be strongly resistant to several races of Phytophthora sojae in Japan. In order to characterize the inheritance of Waseshiroge resistance to P. sojae isolates, 42 F2 progeny plants and 94 F7:8 families were produced from crosses between the sus...

  5. Excluding feral swine, javelina, and raccoons from deer bait stations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a design, list of materials, and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to adm...

  6. Spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks--an auction-based approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinbing; Li, Zheng; Xu, Pengchao; Xu, Youyun; Gao, Xinbo; Chen, Hsiao-Hwa

    2010-06-01

    Cognitive radio is emerging as a promising technique to improve the utilization of the radio frequency spectrum. In this paper, we consider the problem of spectrum sharing among primary (or "licensed") users (PUs) and secondary (or "unlicensed") users (SUs). We formulate the problem based on bandwidth auction, in which each SU makes a bid for the amount of spectrum and each PU may assign the spectrum among the SUs by itself according to the information from the SUs without degrading its own performance. We show that the auction is a noncooperative game and that Nash equilibrium (NE) can be its solution. We first consider a single-PU network to investigate the existence and uniqueness of the NE and further discuss the fairness among the SUs under given conditions. Then, we present a dynamic updating algorithm in which each SU achieves NE in a distributed manner. The stability condition of the dynamic behavior for this spectrum-sharing scheme is studied. The discussion is generalized to the case in which there are multiple PUs in the network, where the properties of the NE are shown under appropriate conditions. Simulations were used to evaluate the system performance and verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:20007053

  7. A Sensitive Secondary Users Selection Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Aohan; Han, Guangjie; Wan, Liangtian; Shu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Secondary Users (SUs) are allowed to use the temporarily unused licensed spectrum without disturbing Primary Users (PUs) in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs). Existing architectures for CRAHNs impose energy-consuming Cognitive Radios (CRs) on SUs. However, the advanced CRs will increase energy cost for their cognitive functionalities, which is undesirable for the battery powered devices. A new architecture referred to as spectral Requirement-based CRAHN (RCRAHN) is proposed to enhance energy efficiency for CRAHNs in this paper. In RCRAHNs, only parts of SUs are equipped with CRs. SUs equipped with CRs are referred to as Cognitive Radio Users (CRUs). To further enhance energy efficiency of CRAHNs, we aim to select minimum CRUs to sense available spectrum. A non-linear programming problem is mathematically formulated under the constraints of energy efficiency and real-time. Considering the NP-hardness of the problem, a framework of a heuristic algorithm referred to as Sensitive Secondary Users Selection (SSUS) was designed to compute the near-optimal solutions. The simulation results demonstrate that SSUS not only improves the energy efficiency, but also achieves satisfied performances in end-to-end delay and communication reliability. PMID:27023562

  8. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies for Education: An Analysis of Planning, Implementation, and Diffusion in Florida's Eleven State University System Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand and appreciate the methodologies and procedures used in determining the extent to which an information technology (IT) organization within the eleven member State University Systems (SUS) of Florida planned, implemented, and diffused emerging educational technologies. Key findings found how critical it…

  9. Soil N and P availability for field applied slurry from swine fed traditional and low phytate corn diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine (Sus scrofa) slurry contains nutrients essential for crop production but usually contains more P relative to N than is required by most crops. Land application at rates to meet the crop N needs results in accumulation of excess P creating the potential for negative environmental impacts. Diet ...

  10. Validation of a major quantitative trait locus associated with host response to experimental infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious diseases are costly to the swine industry and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most devastating. In earlier work, a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV was identified on Sus scrofa chromosome 4 (SSC4) using ~560 exp...

  11. Design of Higher Education Teaching Models and Carbon Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caird, Sally; Lane, Andy; Swithenby, Ed; Roy, Robin; Potter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the main findings of the SusTEACH study of the carbon-based environmental impacts of 30 higher education (HE) courses in 15 UK institutions, based on an analysis of the likely energy consumption and carbon emissions of a range of face-to-face, distance, online and information and communication technology

  12. Tuition Trends at High and Very High Public Research Universities, 1999-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Historically, Florida has emphasized access for citizens in setting undergraduate resident tuition for the State University System (SUS). Figure 3 and Figure 6 depict the long-term effects of this, as Florida's undergraduate resident tuition and required fees, among high (RUH) and very high (RUVH) public research universities, have remained second…

  13. Fact Book 1984-1985. State University System of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Regents, Tallahassee.

    Data on the State University System (SUS) of Florida are presented in the form of tabular displays, charts, graphs, and a glossary. Preliminary sections list members of the State Board of Education and the Florida Board of Regents, provide a description of the State University System of Florida, and list measures used for reporting Florida…

  14. An Integrated Systems Toxicology Approach to Assess and Predict the Health Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials and Their Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of nanotechnology on the US EPA and related research needs has been described in the Agency’s Nanotechnology White Paper1,2 and ORD’s Research Strategy3. The US EPA’s NMs environmental, health and ecological effects research is conducted in its Chemical Safety for Sus...

  15. How We Justify and Perpetuate the Wealthy, White, Male Academic Status Quo through the Use of Biased Admissions Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Prompted by some disturbing trends of reducing enrollment among females and minorities in an earlier study (Borman, Workman, Miller & Micceri, 2006), this study, using data from over 600,000 Florida State University System (SUS) applicants, demonstrates empirically how a trend that began during World War II helps ensure that males and society's…

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of Three Iberian Brucella suis Biovar 2 Strains Isolated from Wild Boars

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Tenreiro, Rogrio; Corra de S, Maria Incia

    2014-01-01

    Brucella suis biovar 2 is the most common biovar isolated from wild boars (Sus scrofa) associated with transmission to outdoor-reared pigs in Europe. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequences of three strains isolated from wild boars in Portugal and Spain and belonging to the Iberian clone (haplotypes 2d and 2e). PMID:24994794

  17. New host and distribution record of Amblyomma javanense (Acari: Ixodidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kollars, T M; Sithiprasasna, R

    2000-07-01

    Amblyomma javanense (Supino) was collected from a Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica Desmarest) and a wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Tak province on the western boundary of Thailand along the Myanmar (Burma) border. To date, this tick species has not been recorded from this area and from a wild boar. PMID:10916309

  18. Upper Extremity Radiography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bolsas de arena u otros elementos para mostrar cómo se ve la zona en estudio cuando levanta ... a sus preguntas. El técnico radiólogo, también conocido como tecnólogo radiológico, es un profesional médico altamente capacitado ...

  19. UC DAVIS CENTER FOR CHILDREN’S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the CCEH in the next five years are to: (1) better understand the mechanisms by which environmental, immunologic, and molecular factors interact to influence the risk and severity of autism; (2) identify early immunologic, environmental, and genomic markers of sus...

  20. TRACI 2.0 - The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI 2.0, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts 2.0, has been expanded and developed for sustainability metrics, life cycle impact assessment, industrial ecology, and process design impact assessment for developing increasingly sus...