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Sample records for descriptive sensory analysis

  1. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  2. Sensory characterization of a ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal by descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Dansby, M A; Bovell-Benjamin, A C

    2003-03-01

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], an important industry in the United States, has been selected as a candidate crop to be grown on future long-duration space missions by NASA. Raw sweetpotato roots were processed into flour, which was used to formulate ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC). Twelve trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of the extruded RTEBC using descriptive analysis. The samples were significantly different (P<0.05) for all attributes. Twelve perceived sensory attributes, which could be used to differentiate the appearance, texture, and flavor of sweetpotato RTEBC, were described. The data could be used to optimize the RTEBC and for designing studies to test its consumer acceptance. PMID:14974490

  3. Sensory characterization of a ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal by descriptive analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dansby, M. A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], an important industry in the United States, has been selected as a candidate crop to be grown on future long-duration space missions by NASA. Raw sweetpotato roots were processed into flour, which was used to formulate ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC). Twelve trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of the extruded RTEBC using descriptive analysis. The samples were significantly different (P<0.05) for all attributes. Twelve perceived sensory attributes, which could be used to differentiate the appearance, texture, and flavor of sweetpotato RTEBC, were described. The data could be used to optimize the RTEBC and for designing studies to test its consumer acceptance.

  4. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  5. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  6. Quantitative descriptive analysis and principal component analysis for sensory characterization of Indian milk product cham-cham.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ritika; Khamrui, Kaushik; Khetra, Yogesh; Malhotra, Ravinder; Devraja, H C

    2016-02-01

    Promising development and expansion in the market of cham-cham, a traditional Indian dairy product is expected in the coming future with the organized production of this milk product by some large dairies. The objective of this study was to document the extent of variation in sensory properties of market samples of cham-cham collected from four different locations known for their excellence in cham-cham production and to find out the attributes that govern much of variation in sensory scores of this product using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and principal component analysis (PCA). QDA revealed significant (p < 0.05) difference in sensory attributes of cham-cham among the market samples. PCA identified four significant principal components that accounted for 72.4 % of the variation in the sensory data. Factor scores of each of the four principal components which primarily correspond to sweetness/shape/dryness of interior, surface appearance/surface dryness, rancid and firmness attributes specify the location of each market sample along each of the axes in 3-D graphs. These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring attributes of cham-cham that contribute most to its sensory acceptability. PMID:27162404

  7. Sensory descriptive quantitative analysis of unpasteurized and pasteurized juçara pulp (Euterpe edulis) during long-term storage

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Casemiro, Renata Cristina; Zillo, Rafaela Rebessi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Prospero, Evanilda Teresinha Perissinotto; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pasteurization followed by storage under different conditions on the sensory attributes of frozen juçara pulp using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Pasteurization of packed frozen pulp was performed by its immersion in stainless steel tank containing water (80°C) for 5 min, followed by storage under refrigerated and frozen conditions. A trained sensory panel evaluated the samples (6°C) on day 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90. Sensory attributes were separated as follows: appearance (foamy, heterogeneous, purple, brown, oily, and creamy), aroma (sweet and fermented), taste (astringent, bitter, and sweet), and texture (oily and consistent), and compared to a reference material. In general, unpasteurized frozen pulp showed the highest score for foamy appearance, and pasteurized samples showed highest scores to creamy appearance. Pasteurized samples remained stable regarding brown color development while unpasteurized counterparts presented increase. Color is an important attribute related to the product identity. All attributes related to taste and texture remained constant during storage for all samples. Pasteurization followed by storage under frozen conditions has shown to be the best conservation method as samples submitted to such process received the best sensory evaluation, described as foamy, slightly heterogeneous, slightly bitter, and slightly astringent. PMID:25473489

  8. Sensory analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensory evaluation can answer questions about a product that instruments cannot. The human subject is the instrument, and data can provide a wealth of information for a product developer, or results can be very variable and erroneous if all the precautions to minimize bias and external noise are no...

  9. Chemometric models for the quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of Arabica coffee beverages using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J S; Ferreira, M M C; Salva, T J G

    2011-02-15

    Mathematical models based on chemometric analyses of the coffee beverage sensory data and NIR spectra of 51 Arabica roasted coffee samples were generated aiming to predict the scores of acidity, bitterness, flavour, cleanliness, body and overall quality of coffee beverage. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to construct the models. The ordered predictor selection (OPS) algorithm was applied to select the wavelengths for the regression model of each sensory attribute in order to take only significant regions into account. The regions of the spectrum defined as important for sensory quality were closely related to the NIR spectra of pure caffeine, trigonelline, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, cellulose, coffee lipids, sucrose and casein. The NIR analyses sustained that the relationship between the sensory characteristics of the beverage and the chemical composition of the roasted grain were as listed below: 1 - the lipids and proteins were closely related to the attribute body; 2 - the caffeine and chlorogenic acids were related to bitterness; 3 - the chlorogenic acids were related to acidity and flavour; 4 - the cleanliness and overall quality were related to caffeine, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, polysaccharides, sucrose and protein. PMID:21238720

  10. Sensory analysis of lipstick.

    PubMed

    Yap, K C S; Aminah, A

    2011-06-01

    Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained. PMID:21272038

  11. Descriptive sensory analysis in different classes of orange juice by a robust free-choice profile method.

    PubMed

    Pérez Aparicio, Jesús; Toledano Medina, M Angeles; Lafuente Rosales, Victoria

    2007-07-01

    Free-choice profile (FCP), developed in the 1980s, is a sensory analysis method that can be carried out by untrained panels. The participants need only to be able to use a scale and be consumers of the product under evaluation. The data are analysed by sophisticated statistical methodologies like Generalized Procrustean Analysis (GPA) or STATIS. To facilitate a wider use of the free-choice profiling procedure, different authors have advocated simpler methods based on principal components analysis (PCA) of merged data sets. The purpose of this work was to apply another easy procedure to this type of data by means of a robust PCA. The most important characteristic of the proposed method is that quality responsible managers could use this methodology without any scale evaluation. Only the free terms generated by the assessors are necessary to apply the script, thus avoiding the error associated with scale utilization by inexpert assessors. Also, it is possible to use the application with missing data and with differences in the assessors' attendance at sessions. An example was performed to generate the descriptors from different orange juice types. The results were compared with the STATIS method and with the PCA on the merged data sets. The samples evaluated were fresh orange juices with differences in storage days and pasteurized, concentrated and orange nectar drinks from different brands. Eighteen assessors with a low-level training program were used in a six-session free-choice profile framework. The results proved that this script could be of use in marketing decisions and product quality program development. PMID:17606006

  12. Sensory interaction and descriptions of fabric hand.

    PubMed

    Burns, L D; Chandler, J; Brown, D M; Cameron, B; Dallas, M J

    1995-08-01

    82 subjects who viewed and felt fabrics (sensory interaction group) used different categories of terms to describe fabric hand than did 38 subjects who only felt the fabrics. Therefore, the methods used to measure fabric hand that isolate the senses may not accurately assess the way in which subjects describe fabric hand in nonlaboratory settings. PMID:8532445

  13. Effect of preservative addition on sensory and dynamic profile of Lucanian dry-sausages as assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis and temporal dominance of sensations.

    PubMed

    Braghieri, Ada; Piazzolla, Nicoletta; Galgano, Fernanda; Condelli, Nicola; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    The quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was combined with temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) to assess the sensory properties of Lucanian dry-sausages either added with nitrate, nitrite and l-ascorbic acid (NS), or not (NNS). Both QDA and TDS differentiated the two groups of sausages. NNS products were perceived with higher intensity of hardness (P<0.05) and tended to be perceived with higher intensities of flavor (P<0.10), pepper (P<0.20), and oiliness (P<0.20), while resulting lower in chewiness (P<0.20). TDS showed that in all the sausages hardness was the first dominant attribute; then, in NNS products flavor remained dominant until the end of tasting, whereas in NS products oiliness prevailed. In conclusion, TDS showed that the perception of some textural parameters, such as oiliness, during mastication was more dominant in NS products, whereas using conventional QDA this attribute appeared higher in sausages manufactured without preservatives. Therefore, TDS provided additional information for the description and differentiation of Lucanian sausages. PMID:27486959

  14. Sensory description of sweet wines obtained by the winemaking procedures of raisining, botrytisation and fortification.

    PubMed

    González-Álvarez, Mariana; Noguerol-Pato, Raquel; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-15

    The effect of winemaking procedures on the sensory modification of sweet wines was investigated. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines were obtained by two different processes: by using raisins for vinification to obtain a naturally sweet wine and by using freshly harvested grapes with the stoppage of the fermentation by the addition of alcohol. Eight international sweet wines were also subjected to sensory analysis for comparative description purposes. Wines were described with a sensory profile by 12 trained panellists on 70 sensory attributes by employing the frequency of citation method. Analysis of variance of the descriptive data confirmed the existence of subtle sensory differences among Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines depending on the procedure used for their production. Cluster analysis emphasised discriminated attributes between the Garnacha Tintorera-based and the commercial groups of sweet wines for both those obtained by raisining and by fortification. Several kinds of discriminant functions were used to separate groups of sweet wines--obtained by botrytisation, raisining and fortification--to show the key descriptors that contribute to their separation and define the sensory perception of each type of wine. PMID:24128579

  15. Effect of a Combi Oven Cooking Method on Results of Sensory Descriptive Analyses of Boneless Skinless Chicken Breast Fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensory flavor and texture descriptive analysis of test products has become a common analytical method for scientific studies. Descriptive profiles of meat can be affected by cooking techniques. A Combi Oven is a relatively new cooking technology in the U.S. market. It uses both moist and dry hea...

  16. Deboning time effect on sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profiling sensory texture characteristics of cooked chicken pectoralis major (breast fillets) deboned at different postmortem (PM) times has been research interests for decades. However, there is lack of peer-reviewed studies to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of hot-deboned versus 2-h c...

  17. Relationship between sensory descriptive juiciness measurements and functionality parameters of broiler breast fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationships between Sensory Descriptive Juiciness Measurements and Functionality Parameters of Broiler Breast Fillets H. Zhuang and E. M. Savage Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, Russell Research Center, P. O. Box 5677, Athens, GA 30604-5677 Sensory moisture characteristics...

  18. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications. PMID:26259923

  19. Effects of fillet weight on sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of broiler breast meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets categorized by fillet (pectoralis major) weight. In each trial, 20 heavy fillets, 20 medium fillets and 20 light fillets (deboned at 6-8h postmortem from 6-week old birds) were obtained from a commer...

  20. Effects of Broiler Pectoralis Major Size on Sensory Descriptive Flavor and Texture Profiles of Cooked Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets categorized by fillet (pectoralis major) size. In each trial, 20 large fillets, 20 medium fillets and 20 small fillets (deboned at 6-8h postmortem from 6-week old birds) were obtained from a commercia...

  1. Sensory-specific anomic aphasia following left occipital lesions: Data from free oral descriptions of concrete word meanings

    PubMed Central

    Mårtensson, F.; Roll, M.; Lindgren, M.; Apt, P.; Horne, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated hierarchical lexical semantic structure in oral descriptions of concrete word meanings produced by a subject (ZZ) diagnosed with anomic aphasia due to left occipital lesions. The focus of the analysis was production of a) nouns at different levels of semantic specificity (e.g., “robin”–“bird”–“animal”) and b) words describing sensory or motor experiences (e.g., “blue,” “soft,” “fly”). Results show that in contrast to healthy and aphasic controls, who produced words at all levels of specificity and mainly vision-related sensory information, ZZ produced almost exclusively nouns at the most non-specific levels and words associated with sound and movement. PMID:23425233

  2. Measuring information acquisition from sensory input using automated scoring of natural-language descriptions.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Daniel R; Bex, Peter J; Rose, Dylan J; Woods, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a "wisdom of crowds" approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85 y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66 y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N = 15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled. PMID:24695546

  3. Measuring Information Acquisition from Sensory Input Using Automated Scoring of Natural-Language Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Daniel R.; Bex, Peter J.; Rose, Dylan J.; Woods, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a “wisdom of crowds” approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N = 15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled. PMID:24695546

  4. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability. PMID:23729852

  5. Effect of postmortem deboning time on sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of cooked boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to investigate the effect of deboning time on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked boneless skinless thigh meat (iliotibialis, iliofibularis and the femoritibialis). Carcasses (42-d old birds) were obtained from a commercial processing plant. Thighs were hot-b...

  6. Comparison of sensory descriptive flavor profiles between cooked hot-boned and cold-deboned broiler breast fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) that were either hot-boned or cold-deboned. Broiler carcasses (42-d old birds) were hot-boned (about 45 min postmortem), and cold-deboned 2 h postmortem (2h) and 2...

  7. Comparisons of sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets categorized by raw meat color lightness values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets categorized by raw meat color lightness or CIELAB L* values (L*). In each trial, 20 light, 20 dark and 30 random fillets (42d old birds and deboned at 6-8h postmortem) were obtained from a...

  8. Discrimination of honeys using colorimetric sensor arrays, sensory analysis and gas chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Jiyong, Shi; Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam

    2016-09-01

    Aroma profiles of six honey varieties of different botanical origins were investigated using colorimetric sensor array, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis. Fifty-eight aroma compounds were identified, including 2 norisoprenoids, 5 hydrocarbons, 4 terpenes, 6 phenols, 7 ketones, 9 acids, 12 aldehydes and 13 alcohols. Twenty abundant or active compounds were chosen as key compounds to characterize honey aroma. Discrimination of the honeys was subsequently implemented using multivariate analysis, including hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Honeys of the same botanical origin were grouped together in the PCA score plot and HCA dendrogram. SPME-GC/MS and colorimetric sensor array were able to discriminate the honeys effectively with the advantages of being rapid, simple and low-cost. Moreover, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to indicate the relationship between sensory descriptors and aroma compounds. PMID:27041295

  9. Sensory characterization of doda burfi (Indian milk cake) using Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rekha; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Traditional sweetmeats of various countries hold a great and promising scope in their improvement and in order to tap the potential of the same, several companies and co-operative federations have started their organized production. Doda burfi, a heat desiccated and popular sweetmeat of northern India, is one of the regional specific, unfamiliarized products of India. The typical sweetmeat is characterized by caramelized and nutty flavour and granular texture. The purpose of this study was to determine the close relationship among various sensory attributes of the product collected from renowned manufacturers located in four different cities and to characterize an overall acceptable product. Individuals from academia participated in a round table discussion to generate descriptive terms related to colour and appearance, flavour and texture. Prior to sensory evaluation, sensory panel was trained and briefed about the terminology used to judge the product involving a descriptive intensity scale of 100 points for describing major sensory attributes. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and principal component analysis. Correlation table indicated a good degree of positive association between the attributes such as glossy appearance, dark colour, caramelized and nutty flavour and cohesive and chewy texture with the overall acceptability of the product. PMID:24587532

  10. Effects of Broiler Pectoralis Major Size on Sensory Descriptive Flavor and Texture Profiles of Cooked Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing breast muscle mass has been the focus of chicken genetic selection in meat line for decades. The practice results in the investigation of effects of growth rates or body weight on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast meat. The objective of the present study was to compare sensory desc...

  11. Correlation of Descriptive Analysis and Instrumental Puncture Testing of Watermelon Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shiu, J W; Slaughter, D C; Boyden, L E; Barrett, D M

    2016-06-01

    The textural properties of 5 seedless watermelon cultivars were assessed by descriptive analysis and the standard puncture test using a hollow probe with increased shearing properties. The use of descriptive analysis methodology was an effective means of quantifying watermelon sensory texture profiles for characterizing specific cultivars' characteristics. Of the 10 cultivars screened, 71% of the variation in the sensory attributes was measured using the 1st 2 principal components. Pairwise correlation of the hollow puncture probe and sensory parameters determined that initial slope, maximum force, and work after maximum force measurements all correlated well to the sensory attributes crisp and firm. These findings confirm that maximum force correlates well with not only firmness in watermelon, but crispness as well. The initial slope parameter also captures the sensory crispness of watermelon, but is not as practical to measure in the field as maximum force. The work after maximum force parameter is thought to reflect cellular arrangement and membrane integrity that in turn impact sensory firmness and crispness. Watermelon cultivar types were correctly predicted by puncture test measurements in heart tissue 87% of the time, although descriptive analysis was correct 54% of the time. PMID:27105291

  12. Multivariate analysis of the sensory changes in the dehydrated cowpea leaves.

    PubMed

    Nyambaka, Hudson; Ryley, Janice

    2004-09-01

    Processing of foods, especially dehydration is known to result in alteration of sensory and nutritional qualities. Cowpea leaves is one of the common leafy vegetables consumed in Kenya that contain high levels of pro-vitamin A compounds and has good carotene retention during processing. A tasting panel was trained using a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) test that was developed and used to characterize the sensory properties of dehydrated cowpea leaves. The panel identified sensory attributes in dehydrated cowpea leaves that were important in discriminating the dehydrated samples from the fresh material. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the QDA scores. The first principal component (PC1) which accounted for 85% of the variance was an index of the interrelationship among variables in differentiating the samples while PC2, which accounted for the remaining variance measured the attributes influence in discriminating samples. The results of the sensory attributes mean scores showed that aroma, texture and appearance had high influence in discriminating between the fresh, the sun-dried and the solar-dried samples. The solar dried products were close to the fresh material, which was characterized, as soft and tender with an appealing dark green color, than the sun dried product. The sun dried products differed from the other products more on appearance. PMID:18969564

  13. Large data analysis of different sensory modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    We exam the historical remote digital video and in situ analog acoustic data analyses from the modern Large Data Analysis standpoint. We discussed a potential automation from traditional search engine to modern one. We exam the mathematic theory to answer where the nonlinear dimensional analysis assume a local flat space where linear eigenvalue provided the independent components, then the component is extrapolated to original nonlinear space and assume the local flat reduction remains meaningful at global nonlinear domain.

  14. Sensory Subtypes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Latent Profile Transition Analysis using a National Survey of Sensory Features

    PubMed Central

    Ausderau, Karla K.; Furlong, Melissa; Sideris, John; Bulluck, John; Little, Lauren M.; Watson, Linda R.; Boyd, Brian A.; Belger, Aysenil; Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e., sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Methods Sensory subtypes and their stability over one year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD. Data were collected from caregivers of children with ASD ages 2-12 years at two time points (Time 1 N=1294; Time 2 N=884). Results Four sensory subtypes (Mild; Sensitive-Distressed; Attenuated-Preoccupied; Extreme-Mixed) were identified, which were supported by fit indices from the LPTA as well as current theoretical models that inform clinical practice. The Mild and Extreme-Mixed subtypes reflected quantitatively different sensory profiles, while the Sensitive-Distressed and Attenuated-Preoccupied subtypes reflected qualitatively different profiles. Further, subtypes reflected differential child (i.e., gender, developmental age, chronological age, autism severity) and family (i.e., income, mother's education) characteristics. Ninety-one percent of participants remained stable in their subtypes over one year. Conclusions Characterizing the nature of homogenous sensory subtypes may facilitate assessment and intervention, as well as potentially inform biological mechanisms. PMID:25039572

  15. Description, Recognition and Analysis of Biological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Donggang; Jin, Jesse S.; Luo Suhuai; Pham, Tuan D.; Lai Wei

    2010-01-25

    Description, recognition and analysis biological images plays an important role for human to describe and understand the related biological information. The color images are separated by color reduction. A new and efficient linearization algorithm is introduced based on some criteria of difference chain code. A series of critical points is got based on the linearized lines. The series of curvature angle, linearity, maximum linearity, convexity, concavity and bend angle of linearized lines are calculated from the starting line to the end line along all smoothed contours. The useful method can be used for shape description and recognition. The analysis, decision, classification of the biological images are based on the description of morphological structures, color information and prior knowledge, which are associated each other. The efficiency of the algorithms is described based on two applications. One application is the description, recognition and analysis of color flower images. Another one is related to the dynamic description, recognition and analysis of cell-cycle images.

  16. Sensory descriptive Profiles of Air and Water Chilled Broiler Breast Fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air chilled chicken products are gaining popularity in the USA. It has been claimed that air chilling (AC) results in improved tenderness and flavor of broiler meat compared with water chilling (WC). However, there was lack of published sensory study results to support the claims. The objective of...

  17. Improving the sensory quality of flavored liquid milk by engaging sensory analysis and consumer preference.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Shi, Jingye

    2016-07-01

    Developing innovative products that satisfy various groups of consumers helps a company maintain a leading market share. The hedonic scale and just-about-right (JAR) scale are 2 popular methods for hedonic assessment and product diagnostics. In this paper, we chose to study flavored liquid milk because it is one of the most necessary nutrient sources in China. The hedonic scale and JAR scale methods were combined to provide directional information for flavored liquid milk optimization. Two methods of analysis (penalty analysis and partial least squares regression on dummy variables) were used and the results were compared. This paper had 2 aims: (1) to investigate consumer preferences of basic flavor attributes of milk from various cities in China; and (2) to determine the improvement direction for specific products and the ideal overall liking for consumers in various cities. The results showed that consumers in China have local-specific requirements for characteristics of flavored liquid milk. Furthermore, we provide a consumer-oriented product design method to improve sensory quality according to the preference of particular consumers. PMID:27108179

  18. Nutrition, sensory evaluation, and performance analysis of hydrogenated frying oils.

    PubMed

    Hack, Danielle M; Bordi, Peter L; Hessert, S William

    2009-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration now requires labeling of trans fats on nutrition labels, a decision that has created a push to reformulate deep-fat frying oils. Prior to the passage of this law, frying oils contained trans fats because trans fats made the oils more stable and thus allowing for longer frying usage. In the present study, oil performance, sensory evaluation and nutritional analysis was conducted on trans fat-free oils through a 10-day degradation process using French fries to break down the oil. The goal of the study was to test oil stability and nutrition analysis and to learn consumer preference between trans fat and trans fat-free oils. Sensory evaluation indicated a preference for fries composed from trans fat-free oil mixtures. The most stable oils were also combination oils. Based on these findings, industry representatives considering using the trans fat-free frying oils should consider using blended oils instead, which met customers' taste preference and minimized oil rancidity and usage. PMID:19919512

  19. Evaluating thermophysiological comfort using the principles of sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cubrić, Ivana Salopek; Skenderi, Zenun

    2013-03-01

    Thermophysiological comfort applies to the way in which clothing lets through or retains heat and moisture and helps the body retain heat balance in rest position or at various levels of activities. In this paper, the principles of sensory analysis are used to define the protocol of new method for the evaluation of thermophysiological comfort wearing different garments. Sensory analysis was chosen because as a scientific discipline that applies experiment principles using human senses is used for the evaluation of consumer goods. Test protocol using assessors described in this paper consists of the following steps: defining the interview content, finding potential assessors and making an interview, creating a survey, conducting a survey, group discussion, test and group discussion scoring, selection of assessors, assessment preparation and subjective assessment. On average the most distinctive increase in the sensation of warmth was recorded for the polyester clothing ensemble, and the lowest one for the cotton clothing ensemble. Concerning the average grades of comfort given by assesors, the most comfortable clothing ensemble is the one made of viscose. It was also found out that the method is especially suitable if a representative group of assessors is formed. PMID:23697251

  20. A Sensory 3D Map of the Odor Description Space Derived from a Comparison of Numeric Odor Profile Databases.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Many authors have proposed different schemes of odor classification, which are useful to aid the complex task of describing smells. However, reaching a consensus on a particular classification seems difficult because our psychophysical space of odor description is a continuum and is not clustered into well-defined categories. An alternative approach is to describe the perceptual space of odors as a low-dimensional coordinate system. This idea was first proposed by Crocker and Henderson in 1927, who suggested using numeric profiles based on 4 dimensions: "fragrant," "acid," "burnt," and "caprylic." In the present work, the odor profiles of 144 aroma chemicals were compared by means of statistical regression with comparable numeric odor profiles obtained from 2 databases, enabling a plausible interpretation of the 4 dimensions. Based on the results and taking into account comparable 2D sensory maps of odor descriptors from the literature, a 3D sensory map (odor cube) has been drawn up to improve understanding of the similarities and dissimilarities of the odor descriptors most frequently used in fragrance chemistry. PMID:25847969

  1. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    PubMed

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. PMID:24996334

  2. BUENA VISTA HIGH SCHOOL--DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EGBERT, ROBERT L.

    A DETAILED SYSTEM DESCRIPTION OF THE 11TH-GRADE ENGLISH COURSE WHICH COMBINES TEAM TEACHING WITH CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION AT THE BUENA VISTA HIGH SCHOOL IN SAGINAW, MICHIGAN, WAS PRESENTED. THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF THREE REPORTS, THIS REPORT PRESENTED AN ANALYSIS OF (1) COURSE OPERATING PROCEDURES, (2) TIME SPENT IN VARIOUS GROUPINGS AND…

  3. Analysis of HSV viral reactivation in explants of sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Anne-Marie W.; Kristie, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    As with all Herpesviruses, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has both a lytic replication phase and a latency-reactivation cycle. During lytic replication, there is an ordered cascade of viral gene expression that leads to the synthesis of infectious viral progeny. In contrast, latency is characterized by the lack of significant lytic gene expression and the absence of infectious virus. Reactivation from latency is characterized by the re-entry of the virus into the lytic replication cycle and the production of recurrent disease. This unit describes the establishment of the mouse sensory neuron model of HSV-1 latency-reactivation as a useful in vivo system for the analysis of mechanisms involved in latency and reactivation. Assays including the determination of viral yields, immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent detection of viral antigens, and mRNA quantitation are used in experiments designed to investigate the network of cellular and viral proteins regulating HSV-1 lytic infection, latency, and reactivation. PMID:25367271

  4. Consumer palatability scores, sensory descriptive attributes, and volatile compounds of grilled beef steaks from three USDA Quality Grades.

    PubMed

    Legako, J F; Dinh, T T N; Miller, M F; Adhikari, K; Brooks, J C

    2016-02-01

    Consumer palatability scores, sensory descriptive attributes, and volatile compounds were assessed for beef Longissimus lumborum steaks of USDA Prime, Low Choice, and Standard grades. Overall and flavor liking was greater (P<0.05) for Prime and Low Choice. Initial flavor impact and fat-like attributes were greater (P<0.05) among Prime and Low Choice. Prime had greater (P<0.05) brown/roasted, beef identity, overall sweetness, and umami. Cardboard was greater (P<0.05) in Standard. Volatile compounds representing flavor development pathways were varied with quality grade. Standard had greater (P<0.05) abundances of n-aldehydes. Phenylacetaldehyde was greater (P<0.05) in Prime and Low Choice. Both 2,3-butanedione and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were greatest (P<0.05) in Prime. Overall liking was positively correlated with many descriptive attributes, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and phenylacetaldehyde, and negatively correlated with cardboard, green, and n-aldehydes. While the measured attributes and volatiles may not be causative of flavor, this data indicates potential for prediction of flavor through their measurement. PMID:26555563

  5. Descriptive analysis of flavor characteristics for black walnut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley E; Chambers, Delores H

    2013-06-01

    Seven black walnut cultivars, Brown Nugget, Davidson, Emma K, Football, Sparks 127, Sparrow, and Tomboy, were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis. Seven trained panelists developed a lexicon for the black walnuts and scored the intensities of the samples for 22 flavor attributes. Results showed that the 7 samples differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) on 13 of the attributes. For the majority of the attributes, only Emma K differed from the rest of the cultivars by being characterized with lower scores for black walnut ID, overall nutty, nutty-grain-like, nutty-buttery, floral/fruity, oily, and overall sweet. That sample also was higher in acrid, burnt, fruity-dark, musty/earthy, rancid, and bitter attributes. The remaining 6 cultivars showed few differences in individual attribute ratings, but did show some differences when mapped using multivariate techniques. Future studies should include descriptive analysis of other black walnut varieties, both wild and commercial, that could be grown and harvested for production. PMID:23627833

  6. Lexical References to Sensory Modalities in Verbal Descriptions of People and Objects by Congenitally Blind, Late Blind and Sighted Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chauvey, Valérie; Hatwell, Yvette; Verine, Bertrand; Kaminski, Gwenael; Gentaz, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Background Some previous studies have revealed that while congenitally blind people have a tendency to refer to visual attributes (‘verbalism’), references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it derives. Verbal productions by the blind could therefore differ from those of the sighted because of their specific perceptual experience. The relative weight of each sense in oral descriptions was compared in three groups with different visual experience Congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB) and blindfolded sighted (BS) adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were asked to give an oral description of their mother and their father, and of four familiar manually-explored objects. The number of visual references obtained when describing people was relatively high, and was the same in the CB and BS groups (“verbalism” in the CB). While references to touch were scarce in all groups, the CB referred to audition more frequently than the LB and the BS groups. There were, by contrast, no differences between groups in descriptions of objects, and references to touch dominated the other modalities. Conclusion/Significance The relative weight of each modality varies according to the cognitive processes involved in each task. Long term memory, internal representations and information acquired through social communication, are at work in the People task, seem to favour visual references in both the blind and the sighted, whereas the congenitally blind also refer often to audition. By contrast, the perceptual encoding and working memory at work in the Objects task enhance sensory references to touch in a similar way in all groups. These results attenuate the impact of verbalism in blindness, and support (albeit moderately) the idea that the perceptual experience of the congenitally blind is to some extent reflected in

  7. Comparative Analysis of Sensory Extinction Treatments for Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.

    1988-01-01

    In this case study, a six-year-old, multihandicapped child was treated for self-injurious arm-biting using two response contingent deceleration procedures and two forms of sensory extinction. Only the sensory extinction procedure with protective cuffs reduced arm-biting to manageable levels. (Author/DB)

  8. Flavour Profiling of 'Marion' and Thornless Blackberries by Instrumental and Sensory Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flavour of thornless blackberries grown in Pacific Northwest including 'Thornless Evergreen', 'Black Diamond', 'Black Pearl', 'Nightfall', ORUS 1843-3, 'Waldo', NZ 9351-4, and 'Chester Thornless' as well as 'Marion' was profiled by sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Sensory results sh...

  9. Sensory properties and instrumental texture analysis of chevon patties from intact male Boer and Kiko goats harvested at four endpoints.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Behrends, J M; Solaiman, S G; Broadway, P R; Min, B R; Mikel, W B; Williams, J B; Schilling, M W

    2012-07-01

    Intact male Boer and Kiko goats (n=48) were harvested after 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks on a 16% crude protein concentrate diet. Boneless goat carcass left sides were ground and formed into patties to evaluate cook loss, texture profile analysis, and descriptive sensory characteristics. Increasing feeding duration increased percent fat and decreased moisture in raw ground meat (P<0.05). Boer ground meat had more fat and less moisture than Kiko meat (P<0.05). Breed and feeding duration did not affect cook loss (P>0.05). Increased feeding duration increased aroma intensity and goaty, bloody, musty, and liver/organy aromas; salty, bitter, umami, grassy, goaty, fat, liver/organy, metallic, earthy, and chemical flavors; and juiciness and oiliness, while decreasing chewiness and crumbliness (P<0.05). Boer and Kiko patties had similar sensory properties after 0 and 4weeks on feed, but breeds were more distinguishable after 8 or 12 weeks on feed. PMID:22417728

  10. Where are the sensory organs of Nybelinia surmenicola (Trypanorhyncha)? A comparative analysis with Parachristianella sp. and other trypanorhynchean cestodes.

    PubMed

    Biserova, Natalia M; Gordeev, Ilya I; Korneva, Janetta V

    2016-01-01

    The sensory organs in tegument of two trypanorhynchean species--Nybelinia surmenicola (plerocercoid) and adult Parachristianella sp. (Cestoda, Trypanorhyncha)--were studied with the aim of ultrastructural description and a comparative analysis. The Nybelinia surmenicola plerocercoid lacks papillae with sensory cilia on the bothria adhesive surface. We found an unciliated sensory organ within the median bothria fold. This unciliated free nerve ending contains the central electron-dense disc, three dense supporting rings, and broad root. The nerve ending locates in the basal matrix under the tegument. The tegument of N. surmenicola has a number of ultrastructural features which make it significantly different from other Trypanorhyncha: (i) the tegumental cytoplasm has a plicated constitution in a form of high apical and deep basal folds, (ii) numerous layers of the basal matrix are presented in the subtegument, and (iii) the squamiform and bristlelike microtriches N. surmenicola lack the base and the basal plate. In contrast, numerous ciliated and unciliated receptors were found in Parachristianella sp.: six types on the bothria and one type in the strobila tegument. Ultrastructural constitution of sensory organs in the form of ciliated free nerve endings as well as unciliated basal nerve endings of Parachristianella sp. has many common features inside Eucestoda. In comparison with other Trypanorhyncha, all Nybelinia species studied have less quantity of the bothrial sensory organs. This fact may reflect behavioral patterns of Nybelinia as well as phylogenetic position into Trypanorhyncha. Our observations of living animals conventionally demonstrate the ability of N. surmenicola plerocercoids to locomote in forward direction on the Petri dish surface. The participation of the bothrial microtriches in a parasite movement has been discussed. PMID:26443684

  11. Effects of Acupuncture on Sensory Perception: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baeumler, Petra I.; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Takayama, Shin; Simang, Michael; Seki, Takashi; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of acupuncture on sensory perception has never been systematically reviewed; although, studies on acupuncture mechanisms are frequently based on the idea that changes in sensory thresholds reflect its effect on the nervous system. Methods Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus were screened for studies investigating the effect of acupuncture on thermal or mechanical detection or pain thresholds in humans published in English or German. A meta-analysis of high quality studies was performed. Results Out of 3007 identified articles 85 were included. Sixty five studies showed that acupuncture affects at least one sensory threshold. Most studies assessed the pressure pain threshold of which 80% reported an increase after acupuncture. Significant short- and long-term effects on the pressure pain threshold in pain patients were revealed by two meta-analyses including four and two high quality studies, respectively. In over 60% of studies, acupuncture reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli, but measuring methods might influence results. Few but consistent data indicate that acupuncture reduces pin-prick like pain but not mechanical detection. Results on thermal detection are heterogeneous. Sensory threshold changes were equally frequent reported after manual acupuncture as after electroacupuncture. Among 48 sham-controlled studies, 25 showed stronger effects on sensory thresholds through verum than through sham acupuncture, but in 9 studies significant threshold changes were also observed after sham acupuncture. Overall, there is a lack of high quality acupuncture studies applying comprehensive assessments of sensory perception. Conclusions Our findings indicate that acupuncture affects sensory perception. Results are most compelling for the pressure pain threshold, especially in pain conditions associated with tenderness. Sham acupuncture can also cause such effects. Future studies should incorporate comprehensive, standardized assessments of sensory

  12. Involvement of Sensory Regions in Affective Experience: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Kang, Jian; Bickart, Kevin C.; Yardley, Helena; Wager, Tor D.; Barrett, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that sensory processes may also contribute to affective experience. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of affective experiences driven through visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory stimulus modalities including study contrasts that compared affective stimuli to matched neutral control stimuli. We found, first, that limbic and paralimbic regions, including the amygdala, anterior insula, pre-supplementary motor area, and portions of orbitofrontal cortex were consistently engaged across two or more modalities. Second, early sensory input regions in occipital, temporal, piriform, mid-insular, and primary sensory cortex were frequently engaged during affective experiences driven by visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory inputs. A classification analysis demonstrated that the pattern of neural activity across a contrast map diagnosed the stimulus modality driving the affective experience. These findings suggest that affective experiences are constructed from activity that is distributed across limbic and paralimbic brain regions and also activity in sensory cortical regions. PMID:26696928

  13. Analysis and modeling of neural processes underlying sensory preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Hirashima, Daisuke; Mizunami, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    Sensory preconditioning (SPC) is a procedure to demonstrate learning to associate between relatively neutral sensory stimuli in the absence of an external reinforcing stimulus, the underlying neural mechanisms of which have remained obscure. We address basic questions about neural processes underlying SPC, including whether neurons that mediate reward or punishment signals in reinforcement learning participate in association between neutral sensory stimuli. In crickets, we have suggested that octopaminergic (OA-ergic) or dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons participate in memory acquisition and retrieval in appetitive or aversive conditioning, respectively. Crickets that had been trained to associate an odor (CS2) with a visual pattern (CS1) (phase 1) and then to associate CS1 with water reward or quinine punishment (phase 2) exhibited a significantly increased or decreased preference for CS2 that had never been paired with the US, demonstrating successful SPC. Injection of an OA or DA receptor antagonist at different phases of the SPC training and testing showed that OA-ergic or DA-ergic neurons do not participate in learning of CS2-CS1 association in phase 1, but that OA-ergic neurons participate in learning in phase 2 and memory retrieval after appetitive SPC training. We also obtained evidence suggesting that association between CS2 and US, which should underlie conditioned response of crickets to CS2, is formed in phase 2, contrary to the standard theory of SPC assuming that it occurs in the final test. We propose models of SPC to account for these findings, by extending our model of classical conditioning. PMID:23380289

  14. Effect of dry-air chilling on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast meat deboned four hours after the initiation of chilling.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M; Smith, D P; Berrang, M E

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dry air-chilling (AC) method on sensory texture and flavor descriptive profiles of broiler pectoralis major (fillet) and pectoralis minor (tender). The profiles of the muscles immersion-chilled and deboned at the same postmortem time and the profiles of the muscles hot-boned (or no chill) were used for the comparison. A total of 108 eviscerated carcasses (6-wk-old broilers) were obtained from a commercial processing line before the chillers. Carcasses were transported to a laboratory facility where they were either i) chilled by a dry AC method (0.7 degrees C, 150 min in a cold room), ii) chilled by immersion chilling (IC; 0.3 degrees C, 50 min in a chiller), or iii) not chilled (9 birds per treatment per replication). Both IC and AC fillets and tenders were removed from the bone at 4 h after the initiation of chilling (approximately 4.75 h postmortem) in a processing area (18 degrees C). The no-chill muscles were removed immediately upon arrival. The sensory properties (21 attributes) of cooked broiler breast meat were evaluated by trained panelists using 0- to 15-point universal intensity scales. The average intensity scores of the 9 flavor attributes analyzed ranged from 0.9 to 4.0. Regardless of breast muscle type, there were no significant differences in sensory flavor descriptive profiles between the 3 treatments. The average intensity scores of the 12 texture attributes ranged from 1.5 to 7.5 and there were no significant differences between the AC and IC samples. The average intensity scores of the texture attributes, cohesiveness, hardness, cohesiveness of mass, rate of breakdown, and chewiness of the no chill fillets and tenders were significantly higher than those of either of the chilled samples. These results demonstrate that chicken breast meat from AC retains sensory flavor profile characteristics but AC results in sensory texture profile differences when compared with no-chill meat. Sensory

  15. THE EFFECTS OF DIET AND FEED WITHDRAWAL ON THE SENSORY DESCRIPTIVE AND INSTRUMENTAL PROFILES OF BROILER BREAST FILLETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of diet and feed withdrawal times on the sensory and physical characteristics of broiler breast meat were determined. Feeds formulated with three dietary carbohydrate sources (corn, milo, wheat) were fed to broilers starting at 28 d of age. Birds (n=192) were processed between 42 and 52 d...

  16. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used. PMID:26923040

  17. Flavor characterization of ripened cod roe by gas chromatography, sensory analysis, and electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Rosa; Olafsdottir, Gudrun; Martinsdottir, Emilia; Stefansson, Gudmundur

    2004-10-01

    Characterization of the flavors of ripened roe products is of importance to establish a basis for a standardized product. Flavor profiles of commercially processed ripened roe from Iceland and Norway were studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and an electronic nose to characterize the headspace of ripened roe. Sensory analysis showed that ripened roe odor and flavor in combination with caviar flavor and whey/caramel-like odor give the overall positive effect of the complex characteristic roe flavor. Analysis of volatiles by GC-MS and electronic nose confirmed the presence of aroma compounds contributing to the typical ripening and spoilage flavors detected by the sensory analysis. Methional, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2,6-nonadienal were the most important compounds contributing to ripened roe odor. Spoilage flavors were partly contributed by 3-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methylbutanal, which can be measured by the electronic nose and are suggested as quality indicators for objectively assessing the ripening of roe. Principal component analysis of the overall data showed that GC-O correlated well with sensory evaluation and the electronic nose measurements. PMID:15453695

  18. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  19. The sensory experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ashley E; David R Simmons, R

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that individuals with autism spectrum disorder report unusual experiences with sensory stimuli compared with typically developing individuals. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the nature of such experiences. A focus group was conducted with six adults with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger syndrome. Data were coded and analysed using an inductive, qualitative thematic analysis. Four main themes encompassing both positive and negative sensory experiences emerged from these data: (a) the importance of particular aspects of stimuli in their perception, (b) the importance of having control over stimuli, (c) how emotions/mental states could impact/be impacted by sensory stimuli, and (d) physical responses to stimuli. These data are discussed alongside extant literature. Limitations, possible implications, and potential directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:26422904

  20. Information theoretic analysis of dynamical encoding in the cricket cercal sensory system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John

    1996-03-01

    The stimulus/response properties of mechanosensory receptor neurons and primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal system were studied using electrophysiological techniques. We characterized the quantity and quality of information encoded in the cells elicited responses about the dynamics of stimulus waveforms. This characterization was achieved through the application of stochastic systems analysis and information theory. The information transfer rates ranged from about 100 to 250 bits per second for the sensory receptors and between 10 to 60 bits per second for the primary sensory interneurons. Scaled to the mean spike rates of the cells, these rates correspond to between 1 and 3 bits per spike for both the receptors and the interneurons. These results will be discussed within the general context of the neural encoding problem.

  1. Exploiting spatial descriptions in visual scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Leon; Johannsen, Katrin; Swadzba, Agnes; De Ruiter, Jan P; Wachsmuth, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The reliable automatic visual recognition of indoor scenes with complex object constellations using only sensor data is a nontrivial problem. In order to improve the construction of an accurate semantic 3D model of an indoor scene, we exploit human-produced verbal descriptions of the relative location of pairs of objects. This requires the ability to deal with different spatial reference frames (RF) that humans use interchangeably. In German, both the intrinsic and relative RF are used frequently, which often leads to ambiguities in referential communication. We assume that there are certain regularities that help in specific contexts. In a first experiment, we investigated how speakers of German describe spatial relationships between different pieces of furniture. This gave us important information about the distribution of the RFs used for furniture-predicate combinations, and by implication also about the preferred spatial predicate. The results of this experiment are compiled into a computational model that extracts partial orderings of spatial arrangements between furniture items from verbal descriptions. In the implemented system, the visual scene is initially scanned by a 3D camera system. From the 3D point cloud, we extract point clusters that suggest the presence of certain furniture objects. We then integrate the partial orderings extracted from the verbal utterances incrementally and cumulatively with the estimated probabilities about the identity and location of objects in the scene, and also estimate the probable orientation of the objects. This allows the system to significantly improve both the accuracy and richness of its visual scene representation. PMID:22806654

  2. Consumer preference for mandarins: Implications of a sensory analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While consumption of mandarins has grown steadily in the United States, mandarin cultivars being produced and consumed have been changing. The goal of this research is to identify factors that impact consumer choice of mandarins. In this analysis, consumers were presented with multiple mandarins for...

  3. Description of MSFC engineering photographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, Jim; Williams, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Utilizing a background that includes development of basic launch and test photographic coverage and analysis procedures, the MSFC Photographic Evaluation Group has built a body of experience that enables it to effectively satisfy MSFC's engineering photographic analysis needs. Combining the basic soundness of reliable, proven techniques of the past with the newer technical advances of computers and computer-related devices, the MSFC Photo Evaluation Group is in a position to continue to provide photo and video analysis service center-wide and NASA-wide to supply an improving photo analysis product to meet the photo evaluation needs of the future; and to provide new standards in the state-of-the-art of photo analysis of dynamic events.

  4. Screening Analysis : Volume 1, Description and Conclusions.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville Power Administration; Corps of Engineers; Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-08-01

    The SOR consists of three analytical phases leading to a Draft EIS. The first phase Pilot Analysis, was performed for the purpose of testing the decision analysis methodology being used in the SOR. The Pilot Analysis is described later in this chapter. The second phase, Screening Analysis, examines all possible operating alternatives using a simplified analytical approach. It is described in detail in this and the next chapter. This document also presents the results of screening. The final phase, Full-Scale Analysis, will be documented in the Draft EIS and is intended to evaluate comprehensively the few, best alternatives arising from the screening analysis. The purpose of screening is to analyze a wide variety of differing ways of operating the Columbia River system to test the reaction of the system to change. The many alternatives considered reflect the range of needs and requirements of the various river users and interests in the Columbia River Basin. While some of the alternatives might be viewed as extreme, the information gained from the analysis is useful in highlighting issues and conflicts in meeting operating objectives. Screening is also intended to develop a broad technical basis for evaluation including regional experts and to begin developing an evaluation capability for each river use that will support full-scale analysis. Finally, screening provides a logical method for examining all possible options and reaching a decision on a few alternatives worthy of full-scale analysis. An organizational structure was developed and staffed to manage and execute the SOR, specifically during the screening phase and the upcoming full-scale analysis phase. The organization involves ten technical work groups, each representing a particular river use. Several other groups exist to oversee or support the efforts of the work groups.

  5. Health leaders of tomorrow: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Levey, L M; Lane, M S; Baretich, M; Levey, S

    1989-01-01

    The dramatically changing environment of the health care executive prompted the current survey of graduate students in health administration. The survey examined the types of attitudes and values that may influence students' future leadership style and ethical decision making. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to provide descriptive information as well as to allow comparisons with recent surveys of practitioners and peers and with other research. Respondents to the survey, conducted in the fall of 1986, included nearly half of the full-time students in 56 participating AUPHA graduate programs and one-quarter of the part-time students (N = 1,764). Students' characteristics such as age, sex, religious preference, work experience, and career aspirations were assessed in relation to their social philosophy on health issues, instrumental and terminal values, attitudes toward achievement, and degree of idealism versus relativism in moral reasoning. The typical student was a twenty-seven-year-old white female with a stated religious preference who expected in ten years to be associated with a multi-institutional system or consulting firm. Her social philosophy showed concern for the rising cost of health care on the consumer and an emphasis on self-help. Self-respect and honesty are her highest values; her ethical ideology had components of high idealism and relativism, which is indicative of a situational decision-making style. Work orientation and mastery were both above average sources of achievement motivation for her, whereas competitiveness was about average. When group differences in attitudes and values were evaluated, however, sex was the highest predictor, followed by age, expectation of becoming a CEO, and self-assessed potential for success. Although there was substantial agreement between students' and practitioners' attitudes and values, some differences were found. Implications for future research are discussed, as well as issues relating to

  6. Aircraft sensor analysis package system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the capabilities of the Aircraft Sensor Analysis Package (ASAP) is presented. The approach is non-technical, and several output products are illustrated. The major features of the system are described in more detail than is found in the User's Guide to a potential user, or to a user looking for a specific capability to be incorporated in another system.

  7. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation. PMID:26954174

  8. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)—hardness, gumminess, and chewiness—were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation. PMID:26954174

  9. Sensorial analysis evaluation in cereal bars preserved by ionizing radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Rela, P. R.; Mancini-Filho, J.

    2007-11-01

    Gamma-rays utilized as a food-processing treatment to eliminate insect contamination is well established in food industries. Recent troubles in Brazilian cereal bars commercialization require a special consumer's attention because some products were contaminated by insects. To solve the problem, food-irradiation treatment was utilized as a safe and effective solution. The final product was free of insect contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the best radiation dose processing utilized to disinfestations and detect some change on sensorial characteristic by sensorial analysis in cereal bars. In this study, three different kinds of cereal bars were purchased in São Paulo (Brazil) in supermarkets and irradiated with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy at "Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares" (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The samples were treated with ionizing radiation using a 60Co gamma-ray facility (Gammacell 220, A.E.C.L.). That radiation doses were used successfully as an anti-insect treatment in the cereal bars, since in some food industries doses up to 3.0 kGy are used to guarantee at least a dose of 1.0 kGy in internal cereal bars package. Sensorial analysis was necessary since cereal bars contain ingredients very sensitive to ionizing radiation process.

  10. Identification of olive oil sensory defects by multivariate analysis of mid infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Calvo, Angels

    2015-11-15

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectra (4000-600 cm(-1)) of olive oils were analyzed using chemometric methods to identify the four main sensorial defects, musty, winey, fusty and rancid, previously evaluated by an expert sensory panel. Classification models were developed using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to distinguish between extra-virgin olive oils (defect absent) and lower quality olive oils (defect present). The most important spectral ranges responsible for the discrimination were identified. PLS-DA models were able to discriminate between defective and high quality oils with predictive abilities around 87% for the musty defect and around 77% for winey, fusty and rancid defects. This methodology advances instrumental determination of results previously only achievable with a human test panel. PMID:25977016

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Chemically-Induced Sensory Neuron Ablation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jane A.; Zhang, Bo; Pope, Holly M.; Voigt, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral glia are known to have a critical role in the initial response to axon damage and degeneration. However, little is known about the cellular responses of non-myelinating glia to nerve injury. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of wild-type and mutant (lacking peripheral glia) zebrafish larvae that were treated with metronidazole. This treatment allowed us to conditionally and selectively ablate cranial sensory neurons whose axons are ensheathed only by non-myelinating glia. While transcripts representing over 27,000 genes were detected by RNAseq, only a small fraction (~1% of genes) were found to be differentially expressed in response to neuronal degeneration in either line at either 2 hrs or 5 hrs of metronidazole treatment. Analysis revealed that most expression changes (332 out of the total of 458 differentially expressed genes) occurred over a continuous period (from 2 to 5 hrs of metronidazole exposure), with a small number of genes showing changes limited to only the 2 hr (55 genes) or 5 hr (71 genes) time points. For genes with continuous alterations in expression, some of the most meaningful sets of enriched categories in the wild-type line were those involving the inflammatory TNF-alpha and IL6 signaling pathways, oxidoreductase activities and response to stress. Intriguingly, these changes were not observed in the mutant line. Indeed, cluster analysis indicated that the effects of metronidazole treatment on gene expression was heavily influenced by the presence or absence of glia, indicating that the peripheral non-myelinating glia play a significant role in the transcriptional response to sensory neuron degeneration. This is the first transcriptome study of metronidazole-induced neuronal death in zebrafish and the response of non-myelinating glia to sensory neuron degeneration. We believe this study provides important insight into the mechanisms by which non-myelinating glia react to neuronal death and degeneration in sensory

  12. Job Analysis, Job Descriptions, and Performance Appraisal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Johnnie M.; Foxley, Cecelia H.

    1980-01-01

    Job analysis, job descriptions, and performance appraisal can benefit student services administration in many ways. Involving staff members in the development and implementation of these techniques can increase commitment to and understanding of the overall objectives of the office, as well as communication and cooperation among colleagues.…

  13. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. PMID:26113454

  14. Analysis of the Sensory Profile in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Hanna L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and…

  15. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products. PMID:27343459

  16. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... PDF Open All Close All Description Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is a condition characterized by nerve ...

  17. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Mauro H.; Magalhães, Fabrício A.; Peixoto, Gustavo H. C.; Pereira, Beatriz M.; Andrade, André G. P.; Menzel, Hans-Joachim K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX), ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM), peak torque (torqueMAX), passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories) have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises. PMID:27437715

  18. Physicochemical Characterization and Sensory Analysis of Yeast-leavened and Sourdough Soy Breads

    PubMed Central

    Yezbick, Gabrielle; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Schwartz, Steven J.; Vodovotz, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Sourdough fermentation has been shown to have numerous beneficial effects on bread quality, and nutritionally enhance soy-supplemented bread by altering isoflavone chemical forms. Given this, the objective of this study was to compare the loaf quality and shelf life of sourdough and yeast-leavened soy breads by various physical, thermal, and sensorial methods, and to assess the effects of fermentation by various microorganisms on isoflavone profile in dough and breads using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Sourdough fermentation yielded a less extensible dough compared to yeast-leavened soy dough (P < 0.001), and resulted in a harder bread crumb (P < 0.05) and lighter crust color (P < 0.001), compared to yeast-leavened soy bread (Y-B). Sensory analysis revealed a significantly higher overall liking of Y-B compared to sourdough soy bread (SD-B) (P < 0.001). Segmentation analysis of the cohort suggests that overall liking and bread consumption frequency may be determinants of Y-B or SD-B preference. SD-B and Y-B exhibited similar shelf-life properties. Despite significantly different enthalpies associated with the melting of amylose-lipid complexes, thermal analysis of the 2 soy breads stored for 10 d (ambient conditions) demonstrated no significant difference in water distribution and starch retrogradation (P < 0.05). Lastly, SD-B was determined to have 32% of total isoflavones occurring in the aglycone form compared to 17% in Y-B. These findings warrant further investigation of sourdough fermentation as a processing technique for quality and nutritional enhancement of soy-based baked goods. PMID:24024975

  19. Metabolite profiling of soy sauce using gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of correlation with quantitative descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Bamba, Takeshi; Sano, Atsushi; Kodama, Yukako; Imamura, Miho; Obata, Akio; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauces, produced from different ingredients and brewing processes, have variations in components and quality. Therefore, it is extremely important to comprehend the relationship between components and the sensory attributes of soy sauces. The current study sought to perform metabolite profiling in order to devise a method of assessing the attributes of soy sauces. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) data for 24 soy sauce samples were obtained from well selected sensory panelists. Metabolite profiles primarily concerning low-molecular-weight hydrophilic components were based on gas chromatography with time-of-flightmass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS). QDA data for soy sauces were accurately predicted by projection to latent structure (PLS), with metabolite profiles serving as explanatory variables and QDA data set serving as a response variable. Moreover, analysis of correlation between matrices of metabolite profiles and QDA data indicated contributing compounds that were highly correlated with QDA data. Especially, it was indicated that sugars are important components of the tastes of soy sauces. This new approach which combines metabolite profiling with QDA is applicable to analysis of sensory attributes of food as a result of the complex interaction between its components. This approach is effective to search important compounds that contribute to the attributes. PMID:22608993

  20. Multi-Sensory Aerosol Data and the NRL NAAPS model for Regulatory Exceptional Event Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, R. B.; Hoijarvi, K.; Westphal, D. L.; Haynes, J.; Omar, A. H.; Frank, N. H.

    2013-12-01

    Beyond scientific exploration and analysis, multi-sensory observations along with models are finding increasing applications for operational air quality management. EPA's Exceptional Event (EE) Rule allows the exclusion of data strongly influenced by impacts from "exceptional events," such as smoke from wildfires or dust from abnormally high winds. The EE Rule encourages the use of satellite observations and other non-standard data along with models as evidence for formal documentation of EE samples for exclusion. Thus, the implementation of the EE Rule is uniquely suited for the direct application of integrated multi-sensory observations and indirectly through the assimilation into an aerosol simulation model. Here we report the results of a project: NASA and NAAPS Products for Air Quality Decision Making. The project uses of observations from multiple satellite sensors, surface-based aerosol measurements and the NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) model that assimilates key satellite observations. The satellite sensor data for detecting and documenting smoke and dust events include: MODIS AOD and Images; OMI Aerosol Index, Tropospheric NO2; AIRS, CO. The surface observations include the EPA regulatory PM2.5 network; the IMPROVE/STN aerosol chemical network; AIRNOW PM2.5 mass network, and surface met. data. Within this application, crucial role is assigned to the NAAPS model for estimating the surface concentration of windblown dust and biomass smoke. The operational model assimilates quality-assured daily MODIS data and 2DVAR to adjust the model concentrations and CALIOP-based climatology to adjust the vertical profiles at 6-hour intervals. The assimilation of satellite data from multiple satellites significantly contributes to the usefulness of NAAPS for EE analysis. The NAAPS smoke and dust simulations were evaluated using the IMPROVE/STN chemical data. The multi-sensory observations along with the model simulations are integrated into a web

  1. The efficacy of molecular markers analysis with integration of sensory methods in detection of aroma in rice.

    PubMed

    Yeap, H Y; Faruq, G; Zakaria, H P; Harikrishna, J A

    2013-01-01

    Allele Specific Amplification with four primers (External Antisense Primer, External Sense Primer, Internal Nonfragrant Sense Primer, and Internal Fragrant Antisense Primer) and sensory evaluation with leaves and grains were executed to identify aromatic rice genotypes and their F1 individuals derived from different crosses of 2 Malaysian varieties with 4 popular land races and 3 advance lines. Homozygous aromatic (fgr/fgr) F1 individuals demonstrated better aroma scores compared to both heterozygous nonaromatic (FGR/fgr) and homozygous nonaromatic (FGR/FGR) individuals, while, some F1 individuals expressed aroma in both leaf and grain aromatic tests without possessing the fgr allele. Genotypic analysis of F1 individuals for the fgr gene represented homozygous aromatic, heterozygous nonaromatic and homozygous nonaromatic genotypes in the ratio 20:19:3. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis revealed that aroma in F1 individuals was successfully inherited from the parents, but either molecular analysis or sensory evaluation alone could not determine aromatic condition completely. The integration of molecular analysis with sensory methods was observed as rapid and reliable for the screening of aromatic genotypes because molecular analysis could distinguish aromatic homozygous, nonaromatic homozygous and nonaromatic heterozygous individuals, whilst the sensory method facilitated the evaluation of aroma emitted from leaf and grain during flowering to maturity stages. PMID:24222741

  2. Sensory Correlations in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

  3. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed. PMID:20492260

  4. Genome analysis and signature discovery for diving and sensory properties of the endangered Chinese alligator

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiu-Hong; Pan, Sheng-Kai; Hu, Li; Zhu, Ying; Xu, Peng-Wei; Xia, Jin-Quan; Chen, Hui; He, Gen-Yun; He, Jing; Ni, Xiao-Wei; Hou, Hao-Long; Liao, Sheng-Guang; Yang, Hai-Qiong; Chen, Ying; Gao, Shu-Kun; Ge, Yun-Fa; Cao, Chang-Chang; Li, Peng-Fei; Fang, Li-Ming; Liao, Li; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Meng-Zhen; Dong, Wei; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Crocodilians are diving reptiles that can hold their breath under water for long periods of time and are crepuscular animals with excellent sensory abilities. They comprise a sister lineage of birds and have no sex chromosome. Here we report the genome sequence of the endangered Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) and describe its unique features. The next-generation sequencing generated 314 Gb of raw sequence, yielding a genome size of 2.3 Gb. A total of 22 200 genes were predicted in Alligator sinensis using a de novo, homology- and RNA-based combined model. The genetic basis of long-diving behavior includes duplication of the bicarbonate-binding hemoglobin gene, co-functioning of routine phosphate-binding and special bicarbonate-binding oxygen transport, and positively selected energy metabolism, ammonium bicarbonate excretion and cardiac muscle contraction. Further, we elucidated the robust Alligator sinensis sensory system, including a significantly expanded olfactory receptor repertoire, rapidly evolving nerve-related cellular components and visual perception, and positive selection of the night vision-related opsin and sound detection-associated otopetrin. We also discovered a well-developed immune system with a considerable number of lineage-specific antigen-presentation genes for adaptive immunity as well as expansion of the tripartite motif-containing C-type lectin and butyrophilin genes for innate immunity and expression of antibacterial peptides. Multifluorescence in situ hybridization showed that alligator chromosome 3, which encodes DMRT1, exhibits significant synteny with chicken chromosome Z. Finally, population history analysis indicated population admixture 0.60-1.05 million years ago, when the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was uplifted. PMID:23917531

  5. Is Sensory Over-Responsivity Distinguishable from Childhood Behavior Problems? A Phenotypic and Genetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hulle, Carol A.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although impaired sensory processing accompanies various clinical conditions, the question of its status as an independent disorder remains open. Our goal was to delineate the comorbidity (or lack thereof) between childhood psychopathology and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in middle childhood using phenotypic and behavior-genetic…

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Sensory Modulation Symptoms in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Hen, Liat; Fluss, Ronen; Cermak, Sharon A.; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gal, Eynat

    2009-01-01

    Sensory modulation symptoms are common in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however have a heterogeneous presentation. Results from 14 studies indicated a significant high difference between ASD and typical groups in the presence/frequency of sensory symptoms, with the greatest difference in under-responsivity, followed by…

  7. A quantitative sensory analysis of peripheral neuropathy in colorectal cancer and its exacerbation by oxaliplatin chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Barbosa, Mariana; Kosturakis, Alyssa K; Eng, Cathy; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R; Simone, Donald A; Wang, Xin S; Cleeland, Charles S; Dougherty, Patrick M

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy, especially platins and taxanes, is a widespread problem among cancer survivors that is likely to continue to expand in the future. However, little work to date has focused on understanding this challenge. The goal in this study was to determine the impact of colorectal cancer and cumulative chemotherapeutic dose on sensory function to gain mechanistic insight into the subtypes of primary afferent fibers damaged by chemotherapy. Patients with colorectal cancer underwent quantitative sensory testing before and then prior to each cycle of oxaliplatin. These data were compared with those from 47 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Patients showed significant subclinical deficits in sensory function before any therapy compared with healthy volunteers, and they became more pronounced in patients who received chemotherapy. Sensory modalities that involved large Aβ myelinated fibers and unmyelinated C fibers were most affected by chemotherapy, whereas sensory modalities conveyed by thinly myelinated Aδ fibers were less sensitive to chemotherapy. Patients with baseline sensory deficits went on to develop more symptom complaints during chemotherapy than those who had no baseline deficit. Patients who were tested again 6 to 12 months after chemotherapy presented with the most numbness and pain and also the most pronounced sensory deficits. Our results illuminate a mechanistic connection between the pattern of effects on sensory function and the nerve fiber types that appear to be most vulnerable to chemotherapy-induced toxicity, with implications for how to focus future work to ameloirate risks of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25183707

  8. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  9. Characterisation of volatile profile and sensory analysis of fresh-cut "Radicchio di Chioggia" stored in air or modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Martignetti, Antonella; Pellicano, Mario Paolo; Stocchero, Matteo; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    The volatile profile of two hybrids of "Radicchio di Chioggia", Corelli and Botticelli, stored in air or passive modified atmosphere (MAP) during 12 days of cold storage, was monitored by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS. Botticelli samples were also subjected to sensory analysis. Totally, 61 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the headspace of radicchio samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fresh product possessed a metabolic content similar to that of the MAP samples after 5 and 8 days of storage. Projection to latent structures by partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis showed the volatiles content of the samples varied depending only on the packaging conditions. Specifically, 12 metabolites describing the time evolution and explaining the effects of the different storage conditions were highlighted. Finally, a PCA analysis revealed that VOCs profile significantly correlated with sensory attributes. PMID:26304389

  10. Pathway Analysis of Smoking Quantity in Multiple GWAS Identifies Cholinergic and Sensory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Oscar; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Bucholz, Kathleen; Edenberg, Howard J.; Heath, Andrew; Martin, Nicholas G.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Montgomery, Grant; Schrage, Andrew; Bierut, Laura J.; Madden, Pamela F.; Goate, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a common addiction that increases the risk for many diseases, including lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified and validated several susceptibility loci for nicotine consumption and dependence. However, the trait variance explained by these genes is only a small fraction of the estimated genetic risk. Pathway analysis complements single marker methods by including biological knowledge into the evaluation of GWAS, under the assumption that causal variants lie in functionally related genes, enabling the evaluation of a broad range of signals. Our approach to the identification of pathways enriched for multiple genes associated with smoking quantity includes the analysis of two studies and the replication of common findings in a third dataset. This study identified pathways for the cholinergic receptors, which included SNPs known to be genome-wide significant; as well as novel pathways, such as genes involved in the sensory perception of smell, that do not contain any single SNP that achieves that stringent threshold. PMID:23227220

  11. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of broiler breast fillets cooked from a frozen state and cooked after freeze/thaw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality profiles of cooked broiler breast meat (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state and prepared after freeze/thaw. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carca...

  12. Effect of dry-air chilling on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast meat deboned four hours after the initiation of chilling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air chilled chicken products are gaining popularity in the USA. It has been claimed that air chilling (AC) results in improved tenderness and flavor of broiler meat compared with immersion chilling (IC). However, there is a lack of published sensory study results to support the claims. The objecti...

  13. Finite Element Analysis Applied to Dentoalveolar Trauma: Methodology Description

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, B. R.; Moreira Neto, J. J. S.; da Silva, F. I.; de Aguiar, A. S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated. PMID:21991463

  14. Developing hexanal as an odor reference standard for sensory analysis of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Omür-Ozbek, Pinar; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2008-05-01

    There are many analytical and sensory methods to analyze drinking water for flavor and off-flavors before it reaches consumers. Flavor profile analysis (FPA) is one of the most comprehensive methods. A well-trained panel is essential for FPA and although taste standards are well established, FPA training lacks an odor reference standard. In search of an odor reference standard, four different panel groups were trained and tested for n-hexanal at various concentrations (1-1000 microg/L) over 14 months. The Weber-Fechner plots for n-hexanal showed a linear and overlapping relationship for all panels. Analytical measurements demonstrated that the headspace concentration of n-hexanal was constant after 5 sniffs at 45 degrees C and it remained constant during FPA sessions for up to 4 h. The panelists liked the grassy odor of n-hexanal, which did not result in fatigue, and testing demonstrated that approximately 95% of the population can detect n-hexanal's odor. n-Hexanal is proposed as an odor reference standard for FPA training to define odor intensities because it is chemically stable, follows Weber-Fechner law, mimics grassy odors found in drinking water, and was acceptable to the human panelists. PMID:18280533

  15. Source analysis of electrophysiological correlates of beat induction as sensory-guided action

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil P. M.; Lee, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a reanalysis of electrophysiological data originally collected to test a sensory-motor theory of beat induction (Todd et al., 2002; Todd and Seiss, 2004; Todd and Lee, 2015). The reanalysis is conducted in the light of more recent findings and in particular the demonstration that auditory evoked potentials contain a vestibular dependency. At the core of the analysis is a model which predicts brain dipole source current activity over time in temporal and frontal lobe areas during passive listening to a rhythm, or active synchronization, where it dissociates the frontal activity into distinct sources which can be identified as respectively pre-motor and motor in origin. The model successfully captures the main features of the rhythm in showing that the metrical structure is manifest in an increase in source current activity during strong compared to weak beats. In addition the outcomes of modeling suggest that: (1) activity in both temporal and frontal areas contribute to the metrical percept and that this activity is distributed over time; (2) transient, time-locked activity associated with anticipated beats is increased when a temporal expectation is confirmed following a previous violation, such as a syncopation; (3) two distinct processes are involved in auditory cortex, corresponding to tangential and radial (possibly vestibular dependent) current sources. We discuss the implications of these outcomes for the insights they give into the origin of metrical structure and the power of syncopation to induce movement and create a sense of groove. PMID:26321991

  16. The Sensory Environment and Participation of Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Piller, Aimee; Pfeiffer, Beth

    2016-07-01

    Sensory processing is recognized as impacting participation for preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Little research exists to examine the impact of the sensory environment on the participation patterns of children with ASD, specifically from a contextual standpoint. The researchers in this study examined the viewpoint of teachers and occupational therapists on the sensory-related environmental barriers to participation within the preschool context. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used for data collection and analysis. Thirteen preschool teachers and occupational therapists were interviewed. Sensory aspects of the environment both inhibited and enhanced participation. Physical and temporal components of the environment are identified as being the most influential. Modifications of the environment are identified as increasing participation. It is important to consider the sensory aspects of the environment, in addition to the sensory processing patterns of the person in assessment and intervention planning within the preschool environment. PMID:27618846

  17. Sensory mononeuropathies.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W

    1998-01-01

    The clinical neurologist frequently encounters patients with a variety of focal sensory symptoms and signs. This article reviews the clinical features, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management of the common sensory mononeuropathies including meralgia paresthetica, cheiralgia paresthetica, notalgia paresthetica, gonyalgia paresthetica, digitalgia paresthetica, intercostal neuropathy, and mental neuropathy. PMID:9608615

  18. Descriptive Quantitative Analysis of Rearfoot Alignment Radiographic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Meyr, Andrew J; Wagoner, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Although the radiographic parameters of the transverse talocalcaneal angle (tTCA), calcaneocuboid angle (CCA), talar head uncovering (THU), calcaneal inclination angle (CIA), talar declination angle (TDA), lateral talar-first metatarsal angle (lTFA), and lateral talocalcaneal angle (lTCA) form the basis of the preoperative evaluation and procedure selection for pes planovalgus deformity, the so-called normal values of these measurements are not well-established. The objectives of the present study were to retrospectively evaluate the descriptive statistics of these radiographic parameters (tTCA, CCA, THU, CIA, TDA, lTFA, and lTCA) in a large population, and, second, to determine an objective basis for defining "normal" versus "abnormal" measurements. As a secondary outcome, the relationship of these variables to the body mass index was assessed. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiographs from 250 consecutive patients without a history of previous foot and ankle surgery and/or trauma were evaluated. The results revealed a mean measurement of 24.12°, 13.20°, 74.32%, 16.41°, 26.64°, 8.37°, and 43.41° for the tTCA, CCA, THU, CIA, TDA, lTFA, and lTCA, respectively. These were generally in line with the reported historical normal values. Descriptive statistical analysis demonstrated that the tTCA, THU, and TDA met the standards to be considered normally distributed but that the CCA, CIA, lTFA, and lTCA demonstrated data characteristics of both parametric and nonparametric distributions. Furthermore, only the CIA (R = -0.2428) and lTCA (R = -0.2449) demonstrated substantial correlation with the body mass index. No differentiations in deformity progression were observed when the radiographic parameters were plotted against each other to lead to a quantitative basis for defining "normal" versus "abnormal" measurements. PMID:26002682

  19. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  20. A molecular analysis of neurogenic placode and cranial sensory ganglion development in the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, P; McCole, R B; Baker, C V H

    2007-04-01

    In order to gain insight into the evolution of the genetic control of the development of cranial neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in vertebrates, we cloned and analysed the spatiotemporal expression pattern of six transcription factor genes in a chondrichthyan, the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (lesser-spotted dogfish/catshark). As in other vertebrates, NeuroD is expressed in all cranial sensory ganglia. We show that Pax3 is expressed in the profundal placode and ganglion, strongly supporting homology between the separate profundal ganglion of elasmobranchs and basal actinopterygians and the ophthalmic trigeminal placode-derived neurons of the fused amniote trigeminal ganglion. We show that Pax2 is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial and otic placodes, and confirm that Phox2b is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial placode-derived neurons. We identify Eya4 as a novel marker for the lateral line system throughout its development, expressed in lateral line placodes, sensory ridges and migrating primordia, neuromasts and electroreceptors. We also identify Tbx3 as a specific marker for lateral line ganglia in shark embryos. We use the spatiotemporal expression pattern of these genes to characterise the development of neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in the dogfish, with a focus on the epibranchial and lateral line placodes. Our findings demonstrate the evolutionary conservation across all gnathostomes of at least some of the transcription factor networks underlying neurogenic placode development. PMID:17234174

  1. Analysis and Measurement of the Sympathetic and Sensory Innervation of White and Brown Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Cheryl H.; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well. PMID:24480348

  2. A molecular analysis of neurogenic placode and cranial sensory ganglion development in the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, P.; McCole, R. B.; Baker, C. V. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the evolution of the genetic control of the development of cranial neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in vertebrates, we cloned and analysed the spatiotemporal expression pattern of six transcription factor genes in a chondrichthyan, the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (lesser-spotted dogfish/catshark). As in other vertebrates, NeuroD is expressed in all cranial sensory ganglia. We show that Pax3 is expressed in the profundal placode and ganglion, strongly supporting homology between the separate profundal ganglion of elasmobranchs and basal actinopterygians and the ophthalmic trigeminal placode-derived neurons of the fused amniote trigeminal ganglion. We show that Pax2 is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial and otic placodes, and confirm that Phox2b is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial placode-derived neurons. We identify Eya4 as a novel marker for the lateral line system throughout its development, expressed in lateral line placodes, sensory ridges and migrating primordia, neuromasts and electroreceptors. We also identify Tbx3 as a specific marker for lateral line ganglia in shark embryos. We use the spatiotemporal expression pattern of these genes to characterise the development of neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in the dogfish, with a focus on the epibranchial and lateral line placodes. Our findings demonstrate the evolutionary conservation across all gnathostomes of at least some of the transcription factor networks underlying neurogenic placode development. PMID:17234174

  3. Residual Sensory Capacities of the Deaf: A Signal Detection Analysis of a Visual Discrimination Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bross, Michael

    1979-01-01

    The experiment compared the visual sensory sensitivity of six deaf and six hearing Ss (mean age 11.2 years) in a signal detection paradigm. Ss were required to give forced-choice responses to a brightness discrimination task under three stimulus probability conditions. (Author/PHR)

  4. ACTS Aeronautical Terminal Experiment System Description and Link Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip; Raquet, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Nakamura, Dan

    1996-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, the performance of an experimental mobile satellite communication system was demonstrated to industry and government representatives by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The system was based on the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) and consisted of a K-/Ka-band active monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array antenna system, ACTS mobile terminal (AMT) and link evaluation terminal (LET). A LeRC research aircraft, Learjet model 25, was outfitted with the active MMIC phased array antenna system and AMT and served as the experimental 20/30 Ghz aeronautical terminal. The LET at LeRC in Cleveland, OH, was interfaced with portions of fixed-AMT equipment and together provided the gateway station functions including ACTS interface and public service telephone network (PSTN) interface. The ACTS was operated in its microwave switch matrix (MSM) mode with a spot beam for the Learjet and another spot beam dedicated to the LET. The Learjet was flown over several major cities across the US and demonstrated the feasibility of a full-duplex compressed voice links for an aeronautical terminal through the 20/30 Ghz ACTS channel. This paper presents a technical description of the system including the MMIC phased array antenna system, AMT, Learjet, LET, and ACTS. The array antenna system consists of a 30 Ghz transmit array (LeRc/Texas Instruments) and two 20 Ghz receive arrays (USAF Rome Lab., Boeing, and Martin Marietta), each one very small with sufficient performance for a satellite voice link. The AMT consists of 2.4/4.8/9.6 Kbps voice coder/decoder, modem, PSTN interface and RF/IF converters. Link analysis is presented and compared to the actual performance data collected during the demonstration flights.

  5. ACTS aeronautical terminal experiment: System description and link analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip; Raquet, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Nakamura, Dan

    1995-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, the performance of an experimental mobile satellite communication system was demonstrated to the industry and government representatives by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The system was based on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and consisted of an K-/Ka-band active MMIC phased array antenna system, ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) and Link Evaluation Terminal (LET). A LeRC research aircraft, Learjet Model 25, was outfitted with the active MMIC phased array antenna system and AMT and served as the experimental 20/30 Ghz aeronautical terminal. The LET at LeRC in Cleveland, OH was interfaced with portions of fixed-AMT equipment and together provided the gateway station functions including ACTS satellite interface and Public Service Telephone Network (PSTN) interface. The ACTS was operated in its Microwave Switch Matrix (MSM) mode with a spot beam for the Learjet and another spot beam dedicated to the LET. The Learjet was flown over several major cities across the US and demonstrated the feasibility of full-duplex compressed voice link for an aeronautical terminal through the 20/30 Ghz ACTS satellite channel. This paper will present a technical description of the system including the MMIC phased array antenna system, AMT, Learjet, LET and ACTS satellite. The array antenna system consists of a 30 Ghz transmit array (LeRC/Texas Instruments) and two 20 Ghz receive arrays (USAF Rome Lab/Boeing and Martin Marietta), each one very small with sufficient performance for satellite voice link. The AMT consists of 2.4/4.8/9.6 Kbps voice coder/decoder, modem, PSTN interface and RF/IF converters. Link analysis will be presented and compared to the actual performance data collected during the demonstration flights.

  6. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils. PMID:26948620

  7. Effects of Flavor and Texture on the Sensory Perception of Gouda-Type Cheese Varieties during Ripening Using Multivariate Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Makoto; Iwasawa, Ai; Suzuki-Iwashima, Ai; Iida, Fumiko

    2015-12-01

    The impact of flavor composition, texture, and other factors on desirability of different commercial sources of Gouda-type cheese using multivariate analyses on the basis of sensory and instrumental analyses were investigated. Volatile aroma compounds were measured using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and steam distillation extraction (SDE)-GC/MS, and fatty acid composition, low-molecular-weight compounds, including amino acids, and organic acids, as well pH, texture, and color were measured to determine their relationship with sensory perception. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was performed to discriminate between 2 different ripening periods in 7 sample sets, revealing that ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid increased with increasing sensory attribute scores for sweetness, fruity, and sulfurous. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was constructed to predict the desirability of cheese using these parameters. We showed that texture and buttery flavors are important factors affecting the desirability of Gouda-type cheeses for Japanese consumers using these multivariate analyses. PMID:26551333

  8. Cortical gating of oropharyngeal sensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials provide a measure of cortical neuronal activation in response to various types of sensory stimuli. In order to prevent flooding of the cortex with redundant information various sensory stimuli are gated cortically such that response to stimulus 2 (S2) is significantly reduced in amplitude compared to stimulus 1 (S1). Upper airway protective mechanisms, such as swallowing and cough, are dependent on sensory input for triggering and modifying their motor output. Thus, it was hypothesized that central neural gating would be absent for paired-air puff stimuli applied to the oropharynx. Twenty-three healthy adults (18-35 years) served as research participants. Pharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEPs) were measured via 32-electrode cap (10-20 system) connected to SynAmps(2) Neuroscan EEG System. Paired-pulse air puffs were delivered with an inter-stimulus interval of 500 ms to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences found for the amplitudes S1 and S2 for any of the four component PSEP peaks. Mean gating ratios were above 0.90 for each peak. Results supports our hypothesis that sensory central neural gating would be absent for component PSEP peaks with paired-pulse stimuli delivered to the oropharynx. This may be related to the need for constant sensory monitoring necessary for adequate airway protection associated with swallowing and coughing. PMID:21423402

  9. A Framework for Establishing Standard Reference Scale of Texture by Multivariate Statistical Analysis Based on Instrumental Measurement and Sensory Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Xie, Nan; Wang, Houyin; Shi, Bolin; Shi, Jingye

    2016-01-13

    A framework of establishing standard reference scale (texture) is proposed by multivariate statistical analysis according to instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation. Multivariate statistical analysis is conducted to rapidly select typical reference samples with characteristics of universality, representativeness, stability, substitutability, and traceability. The reasonableness of the framework method is verified by establishing standard reference scale of texture attribute (hardness) with Chinese well-known food. More than 100 food products in 16 categories were tested using instrumental measurement (TPA test), and the result was analyzed with clustering analysis, principal component analysis, relative standard deviation, and analysis of variance. As a result, nine kinds of foods were determined to construct the hardness standard reference scale. The results indicate that the regression coefficient between the estimated sensory value and the instrumentally measured value is significant (R(2) = 0.9765), which fits well with Stevens's theory. The research provides reliable a theoretical basis and practical guide for quantitative standard reference scale establishment on food texture characteristics. PMID:26630554

  10. Behavior Life Style Analysis for Mobile Sensory Data in Cloud Computing through MapReduce

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Shujaat; Bang, Jae Hun; Han, Manhyung; Ahmed, Muhammad Idris; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Lee, Sungyoung; Nugent, Chris; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Parr, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today's world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user's activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends. PMID:25420151

  11. Behavior life style analysis for mobile sensory data in cloud computing through MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shujaat; Bang, Jae Hun; Han, Manhyung; Ahmed, Muhammad Idris; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Lee, Sungyoung; Nugent, Chris; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Parr, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today's world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user's activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends. PMID:25420151

  12. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    PubMed Central

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were screened for Schwann cells, granuloma, and necrosis. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained smears were searched for lepra bacilli and globi. Morphological index was calculated in multibacillary lesions. Result: Twenty-nine sensory cutaneous nerves were aspirated in 23 patients. While 15 cases showed skin and nerve involvement, 8 cases showed only nerve involvement. Terminal cutaneous branch of the radial nerve was most often aspirated. No motor loss was observed after aspiration. Five cytologic pictures were seen — Epithelioid cell granuloma only in 6 cases, epithelioid cell granuloma with necrosis in 1 case, epithelioid cell granuloma with lepra bacilli in 3 cases, necrosis with lepra bacilli in 1 case, and only lepra bacilli in 12 cases. Morphological index ranged from 20% to 80%. Conclusion: Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a feasible, viable, effective, and safe procedure. It adds to diagnostic FNA yield in patients with concomitant skin involvement and offers a way to evaluate patients with only nerve involvement. Calculation of morphological index allows prognostication and may have a role in assessing response to therapy and/or relapse. PMID:26729977

  13. Genetics Home Reference: myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions MEMSA myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia Enable Javascript to view the ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia , commonly called MEMSA , is part ...

  14. Analysis of Sensory/Active Piezoelectric Composite Structures in Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1996-01-01

    Although there has been extensive development of analytical methods for modeling the behavior of piezoelectric structures, only a limited amount of research has been performed concerning the implications of thermal effects on both the active and sensory response of smart structures. Thermal effects become important when the piezoelectric structure has to operate in either extremely hot or cold temperature environments. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to extend the previously developed discrete layer formulation of Saravanos and Heyliger to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response in modern smart composite beams. The mechanics accounts for thermal effects which may arise in the elastic and piezoelectric media at the material level through the constitutive equations. The displacements, electric potentials, and temperatures are introduced as state variables, allowing them to be modeled as variable fields through the laminate thickness. This unified representation leads to an inherent capability to model both the active compensation of thermal distortions in smart structures and the resultant sensory voltage when thermal loads are applied. The corresponding finite element formulation is developed and numerical results demonstrate the ability to model both the active and sensory modes of composite beams with heterogeneous plies with attached piezoelectric layers under thermal loadings.

  15. Website Sharing in Online Health Communities: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Chinmoy; Huh, Jina; Adupa, Abhishek Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of people visit online health communities to seek health information. In these communities, people share experiences and information with others, often complemented with links to different websites. Understanding how people share websites can help us understand patients’ needs in online health communities and improve how peer patients share health information online. Objective Our goal was to understand (1) what kinds of websites are shared, (2) information quality of the shared websites, (3) who shares websites, (4) community differences in website-sharing behavior, and (5) the contexts in which patients share websites. We aimed to find practical applications and implications of website-sharing practices in online health communities. Methods We used regular expressions to extract URLs from 10 WebMD online health communities. We then categorized the URLs based on their top-level domains. We counted the number of trust codes (eg, accredited agencies’ formal evaluation and PubMed authors’ institutions) for each website to assess information quality. We used descriptive statistics to determine website-sharing activities. To understand the context of the URL being discussed, we conducted a simple random selection of 5 threads that contained at least one post with URLs from each community. Gathering all other posts in these threads resulted in 387 posts for open coding analysis with the goal of understanding motivations and situations in which website sharing occurred. Results We extracted a total of 25,448 websites. The majority of the shared websites were .com (59.16%, 15,056/25,448) and WebMD internal (23.2%, 5905/25,448) websites; the least shared websites were social media websites (0.15%, 39/25,448). High-posting community members and moderators posted more websites with trust codes than low-posting community members did. The heart disease community had the highest percentage of websites containing trust codes compared to

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of High School Student Motivators for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Janet Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative descriptive study was to gain an understanding of the motivating factors leading high school students from rural and urban schools to receive a diploma. A revised version of the High School Motivation Scale (Close, 2001; Solberg et al., 2007) generated from SurveyMonkey.com was administered to high school graduates…

  17. Sensory and instrumental analysis of medium and long shelf-life Charentais cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L.) harvested at different maturities

    PubMed Central

    Lignou, Stella; Parker, Jane K.; Baxter, Charles; Mottram, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    The flavour profiles of two genotypes of Charentais cantaloupe melons (medium shelf-life and long shelf-life), harvested at two distinct maturities (immature and mature fruit), were investigated. Dynamic headspace extraction (DHE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and gas chromatography–olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC–O/MS) were used to determine volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to assess the organoleptic impact of the different melons and the sensory data were correlated with the chemical analysis. There were significant, consistent and substantial differences between the mature and immature fruit for the medium shelf-life genotype, the less mature giving a green, cucumber character and lacking the sweet, fruity character of the mature fruit. However, maturity at harvest had a much smaller impact on the long shelf-life melons and fewer differences were detected. These long shelf-life melons tasted sweet, but lacked fruity flavours, instead exhibiting a musty, earthy character. PMID:24262549

  18. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    PubMed

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries. PMID:25569122

  19. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program: FY2011 Project Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2012-02-03

    This document provides brief descriptions of research topics for consideration by the IDCA for potential funding in funding in FY 2011. The topics include the utilization of the results from the Proficiency Test developed during FY 2010 to start populating the small-scale safety and thermal testing (SSST) Testing Compendium and revising results from methods modifications. Other research topics were also developed for FY 2011 from issues that arose in the Proficiency Test.

  20. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Web version Sensory Dysfunction Overview Why are smell and taste important? Your senses of smell and taste let you fully enjoy the scents ... bitter and sour. Flavor involves both taste and smell. For example, because a person is able to ...

  1. Tapping into the Spirit of the Sensitive Child: A Foundation for Understanding and Bringing the Joy of Music to Children Who Have Sensory Integration Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Presents an article on understanding and introducing music to sensory-sensitive children. Description of a child with Sensory Integrity Dysfunction; Problems experienced by sensory-sensitive students; Potential of sensory-sensitive children to excel in musical aptitude tests.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of Active and Sensory Thermopiezoelectric Composite Materials. Degree awarded by Northwestern Univ., Dec. 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    2001-01-01

    Analytical formulations are developed to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of piezoelectric composite materials. The coupled response is captured at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations and leads to the inherent capability to model both the sensory and active responses of piezoelectric materials. A layerwise laminate theory is incorporated to provide more accurate analysis of the displacements, strains, stresses, electric fields, and thermal fields through-the-thickness. Thermal effects which arise from coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, pyroelectric effects, and temperature dependent material properties are explicitly accounted for in the formulation. Corresponding finite element formulations are developed for piezoelectric beam, plate, and shell elements to provide a more generalized capability for the analysis of arbitrary piezoelectric composite structures. The accuracy of the current formulation is verified with comparisons from published experimental data and other analytical models. Additional numerical studies are also conducted to demonstrate additional capabilities of the formulation to represent the sensory and active behaviors. A future plan of experimental studies is provided to characterize the high temperature dynamic response of piezoelectric composite materials.

  3. Can Raters with Reduced Job Descriptive Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Ratings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Lee; Harvey, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Job-naive raters provided with job descriptive information made Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) ratings which were validated against ratings of job analysts who were also job content experts. None of the reduced job descriptive information conditions enabled job-naive raters to obtain either acceptable levels of convergent validity with…

  4. Structural Analysis of the Phenol-Responsive Sensory Domain of the Transcription Activator PoxR.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vinod Vikas; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Goo; Woo, Euijeon

    2016-04-01

    Positive phenol-degradative gene regulator (PoxR) is a σ(54)-dependent AAA+ ATPase transcription activator that regulates the catabolism of phenols. The PoxR sensory domain detects phenols and relays signals for the activation of transcription. Here we report the first structure of the phenol sensory domain bound to phenol and five derivatives. It exists as a tightly intertwined homodimer with a phenol-binding pocket buried inside, placing two C termini on the same side of the dimer. His102 and Trp130 interact with the hydroxyl group of the phenol in a cavity surrounded by rigid hydrophobic residues on one side and a flexible region on the other. Each monomer has a V4R fold with a unique zinc-binding site. A shift at the C-terminal helix suggests that there is a possible conformational change upon ligand binding. The results provide a structural basis of chemical effector binding for transcriptional regulation with broad implications for protein engineering. PMID:27050690

  5. Genetic analysis of vertebrate sensory hair cell mechanosensation: the zebrafish circler mutants.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, T; Rüsch, A; Friedrich, R W; Granato, M; Ruppersberg, J P; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1998-02-01

    The molecular basis of sensory hair cell mechanotransduction is largely unknown. In order to identify genes that are essential for mechanosensory hair cell function, we characterized a group of recently isolated zebrafish motility mutants. These mutants are defective in balance and swim in circles but have no obvious morphological defects. We examined the mutants using calcium imaging of acoustic-vibrational and tactile escape responses, high resolution microscopy of sensory neuroepithelia in live larvae, and recordings of extracellular hair cell potentials (microphonics). Based on the analyses, we have identified several classes of genes. Mutations in sputnik and mariner affect hair bundle integrity. Mutant astronaut and cosmonaut hair cells have relatively normal microphonics and thus appear to affect events downstream of mechanotransduction. Mutant orbiter, mercury, and gemini larvae have normal hair cell morphology and yet do not respond to acoustic-vibrational stimuli. The microphonics of lateral line hair cells of orbiter, mercury, and gemini larvae are absent or strongly reduced. Therefore, these genes may encode components of the transduction apparatus. PMID:9491988

  6. Prevalence of sensory modulation disorder among Puerto Rican preschoolers: an analysis focused on socioeconomic status variables.

    PubMed

    Román-Oyola, Rosa; Reynolds, Stacey

    2013-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of sensory modulation disorder (SMD) in a sample of Puerto Rican preschoolers and to examine differences in the prevalence of SMD based on socioeconomic status (SES) variables. Caregivers of children from Head Start programs and private preschools were recruited from three regions in Puerto Rico (PR) to participate in the study. Each caregiver completed a Short Sensory Profile (SSP) and a demographic data sheet. Total scores on the SSP were used to establish diagnosis of SMD. The total sample included 141 participants (response rate of 64%). Prevalence of SMD among the total PR sample (19.9%) was higher than previously reported estimates on the US mainland (5-16%). Statistical results indicated no difference in the overall prevalence of SMD based on SES. However, significant differences in scores based on caregivers' educational degree were found on the SSP sub-domain of Movement sensitivity and Under-responsive/seeks sensation; differences in scores based on caregiver household income were also found for the SSP sub-domain of Under-responsive/seeks. Although SMD appears to be prevalent in preschoolers in PR, variables associated with SES do not appear to contribute to an overall SMD diagnosis. However, additional research linking specific sub-domains of SMD to SES variables may be warranted. PMID:23696328

  7. Analysis of Graph Invariants in Functional Neocortical Circuitry Reveals Generalized Features Common to Three Areas of Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gururangan, Suchin S.; Sadovsky, Alexander J.; MacLean, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in local neocortical spiking activity can provide insight into the underlying organization of cortical microcircuitry. However, identifying structure in patterned multi-neuronal spiking remains a daunting task due to the high dimensionality of the activity. Using two-photon imaging, we monitored spontaneous circuit dynamics in large, densely sampled neuronal populations within slices of mouse primary auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortex. Using the lagged correlation of spiking activity between neurons, we generated functional wiring diagrams to gain insight into the underlying neocortical circuitry. By establishing the presence of graph invariants, which are label-independent characteristics common to all circuit topologies, our study revealed organizational features that generalized across functionally distinct cortical regions. Regardless of sensory area, random and -nearest neighbors null graphs failed to capture the structure of experimentally derived functional circuitry. These null models indicated that despite a bias in the data towards spatially proximal functional connections, functional circuit structure is best described by non-random and occasionally distal connections. Eigenvector centrality, which quantifies the importance of a neuron in the temporal flow of circuit activity, was highly related to feedforwardness in all functional circuits. The number of nodes participating in a functional circuit did not scale with the number of neurons imaged regardless of sensory area, indicating that circuit size is not tied to the sampling of neocortex. Local circuit flow comprehensively covered angular space regardless of the spatial scale that we tested, demonstrating that circuitry itself does not bias activity flow toward pia. Finally, analysis revealed that a minimal numerical sample size of neurons was necessary to capture at least 90 percent of functional circuit topology. These data and analyses indicated that functional circuitry

  8. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M; Xie, S; Cederwall, RT; Yio, JJ

    2001-06-01

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process data collected from the ARM intensive operational periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes 1964; O’Brien 1970; Lin and Johnson 1994) the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  9. The effectiveness of external sensory cues in improving functional performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cassimatis, Constantine; Liu, Karen P Y; Fahey, Paul; Bissett, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect external sensory cued therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) performance that include walking and daily tasks such as dressing for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). A detailed computer-aided search of the literature was applied to MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE and PubMed. Studies investigating the effects of external sensory cued therapy on ADL performance for individuals with PD in all stages of disease progression were collected. Relevant articles were critically reviewed and study results were synthesized by two independent researchers. A data-analysis method was used to extract data from selected articles. A meta-analysis was carried out for all randomized-controlled trials. Six studies with 243 individuals with PD were included in this review. All six studies yielded positive findings in favour of external sensory cues. The meta-analysis showed that external sensory cued therapy improved statistically after treatment (P=0.011) and at follow-up (P<0.001) for ADL performance. The results of this review provided evidence of an improvement in ADL performance in general in individuals with PD. It is recommended that clinicians incorporate external sensory into a training programme focused on improving daily task performance. PMID:27119224

  10. Sensory Recovery Outcome after Digital Nerve Repair in Relation to Different Reconstructive Techniques: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Petra; Harder, Yves; Kern, Yasmin; Paprottka, Philipp M.; Machens, Hans-Günther; Lohmeyer, Jörn A.

    2013-01-01

    Good clinical outcome after digital nerve repair is highly relevant for proper hand function and has a significant socioeconomic impact. However, level of evidence for competing surgical techniques is low. The aim is to summarize and compare the outcomes of digital nerve repair with different methods (end-to-end and end-to-side coaptations, nerve grafts, artificial conduit-, vein-, muscle, and muscle-in-vein reconstructions, and replantations) to provide an aid for choosing an individual technique of nerve reconstruction and to create reference values of standard repair for nonrandomized clinical studies. 87 publications including 2,997 nerve repairs were suitable for a precise evaluation. For digital nerve repairs there was practically no particular technique superior to another. Only end-to-side coaptation had an inferior two-point discrimination in comparison to end-to-end coaptation or nerve grafting. Furthermore, this meta-analysis showed that youth was associated with an improved sensory recovery outcome in patients who underwent digital replantation. For end-to-end coaptations, recent publications had significantly better sensory recovery outcomes than older ones. Given minor differences in outcome, the main criteria in choosing an adequate surgical technique should be gap length and donor site morbidity caused by graft material harvesting. Our clinical experience was used to provide a decision tree for digital nerve repair. PMID:23984064

  11. A system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 3: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program documentation for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations is presented. Schematics and block diagrams of the major program structure, together with subroutine descriptions for each module are included.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Murine Olfactory Sensory Neurons during Development Using Single Cell RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Paul; Kalbe, Benjamin; Jansen, Fabian; Altmueller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Mohrhardt, Julia; Schreiner, Benjamin; Gisselmann, Guenter; Hatt, Hanns; Osterloh, Sabrina

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian odor reception is achieved by highly specialized olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located in the nasal cavity. Despite their importance for the daily survival of most mammals, the gene expression and regulatory profiles of these single neurons are poorly understood. Here, we report the isolation of individual GFP-labeled OSNs from Olfr73-GFP mice at different developmental stages followed by Next Generation Sequencing, thereby analyzing the detailed transcriptome for the first time. We characterized the repertoire of olfactory receptors (ORs) and found that in addition to the highly and predominant detectable Olfr73, 20 additional ORs were stably detectable at lower transcript levels in adult mice. Additionally, OSNs collected from mice of earlier developmental stages did not show any stable OR patterns. However, more than one predominant OR per OSN was detectable. PMID:26839357

  13. Geometry Description Markup Language for Physics Simulation And Analysis Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Chytracek, R.; McCormick, J.; Pokorski, W.; Santin, G.; /European Space Agency

    2007-01-23

    The Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) is a specialized XML-based language designed as an application-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors associated with physics measurements. It serves to implement ''geometry trees'' which correspond to the hierarchy of volumes a detector geometry can be composed of, and to allow to identify the position of individual solids, as well as to describe the materials they are made of. Being pure XML, GDML can be universally used, and in particular it can be considered as the format for interchanging geometries among different applications. In this paper we will present the current status of the development of GDML. After having discussed the contents of the latest GDML schema, which is the basic definition of the format, we will concentrate on the GDML processors. We will present the latest implementation of the GDML ''writers'' as well as ''readers'' for either Geant4 [2], [3] or ROOT [4], [10].

  14. Description of the ARM Operational Objective Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Xie, S.; Cederwall, R.T.; Yio, J.J.

    2001-06-19

    This report describes the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) operational variational objective analysis system. It is currently used to process the data collected from the ARM Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) for driving and evaluating physical parameterizations in climate models. The analysis system was originally developed by Zhang and Lin (1997) at State University of New York at Stony Brook and was migrated to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as the ARM operational objective analysis system in May 1999. In contrast with previous objective analysis (e.g., Barnes, 1964; O'Brien, 1970; Lin and Johnson, 1996), the ARM objective analysis used the constrained variational analysis method developed by Zhang and Lin (1997), in which the atmospheric state variables are forced to satisfy the conservation of mass, heat, moisture, and momentum through a variational technique. The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the constrained variational analysis method, the architecture of the objective analysis system, along with in-depth information on running the variational analysis codes.

  15. The Training of Music Teachers in Colombia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayibe Cárdenas Soler, Ruth; Lorenzo Quiles, Oswaldo; Hargreaves, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluative analysis of 13 Music Education programs in Colombia that provide training for secondary school music teachers for 6th to 11th grade in the Colombian education system. The study utilized an analysis matrix from the International Research Project ALFA II-0448-A, which developed a similar study with Latin American and…

  16. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  17. Descriptive analysis and early-stage consumer acceptance of yogurts fermented with carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Cliff, M A; Fan, L; Sanford, K; Stanich, K; Doucette, C; Raymond, N

    2013-07-01

    This research explored the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of novel probiotic unsweetened yogurts. Yogurts were made with 4 carrot juice levels (8, 16, 24, and 32%), 2 firmness levels (regular, 45g/L milk solids; firm, 90g/L milk solids), and 2 starter cultures (C1, C2). The sensory profile characterized the color intensity (before and after stirring), carrot flavor, sourness, and 7 texture/mouth-feel attributes (astringency, chalkiness, mouth-coating, thickness, smoothness, creaminess, and graininess). The influence of carrot juice level and firmness level were evaluated using ANOVA, polynomial contrasts, and principal component analysis. Mean scores and standard errors were calculated. Consumer acceptance panels in Wolfville, Nova Scotia (n=56), and in Vancouver, British Columbia (Asian n=72, non-Asian n=72), evaluated the hedonic responses to the C1 and C2 formulations, respectively. We observed increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, and chalkiness with increasing carrot juice levels, as well as increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, thickness, and astringency with increasing milk solids concentrations of the C1 and C2 yogurts. Mean hedonic scores for color, appearance, and texture/mouth-feel were greater than hedonic scores for aroma, flavor/taste, and overall liking. This research identified the sensory qualities that need further development and demonstrated the importance of early-stage consumer acceptance research for directing new product development. PMID:23664338

  18. Nuclear reactor descriptions for space power systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, E. W.; Brown, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    For the small, high performance reactors required for space electric applications, adequate neutronic analysis is of crucial importance, but in terms of computational time consumed, nuclear calculations probably yield the least amount of detail for mission analysis study. It has been found possible, after generation of only a few designs of a reactor family in elaborate thermomechanical and nuclear detail to use simple curve fitting techniques to assure desired neutronic performance while still performing the thermomechanical analysis in explicit detail. The resulting speed-up in computation time permits a broad detailed examination of constraints by the mission analyst.

  19. Novel vinegar-derived product enriched with dietary fiber: effect on polyphenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Dodero, M Carmen; Natera-Marín, Ramón; Castro-Mejías, Remedios; García-Barroso, Carmelo; Durán-Guerrero, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Dietary fiber derived from citrus fruits was added to vinegar. Different sources and quantities of fiber and storage conditions have been scrutinized. Formulated vinegars were evaluated on the basis of their phenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis. The addition of citrus fiber enhanced the phenolic and volatile profile of the resulted vinegars. Whereas lemon fiber contributed mostly to the enrichment of the polyphenolic composition, orange fiber was that which increased in a higher way the volatile composition of the vinegars. Moreover, the content of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and the majority of volatile compounds decreased as the dose of fiber increased. Furthermore, the judges preferred fiber-enriched vinegars, but in different quantities depending of the fiber source. This preference was mainly based on citric attribute, contributing several terpenes and ketones derived from them. The addition of citrus fiber to vinegar did not result in a marked storage-dependence. PMID:26604338

  20. Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranek, Grace T.

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates the scientific basis (primarily gained through uncontrolled, descriptive studies) of various sensory and motor interventions for children with autism and concludes that most categories of interventions, including sensory integration, sensory stimulation approaches, auditory integration training, and prism lenses, have shown…

  1. Kymographic Analysis of Transport in an Individual Neuronal Sensory Cilium in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Robert; Barr, Maureen M

    2016-01-01

    Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) is driven by molecular motors that travel upon microtubule-based ciliary axonemes. In the single-celled alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, movement of a single anterograde IFT motor, heterotrimeric kinesin-II, is required to generate two identical motile flagella. The function of this canonical anterograde IFT motor is conserved among all eukaryotes, yet multicellular organisms can generate cilia of diverse structures and functions, ranging from simple threadlike non-motile primary cilia to the elaborate cilia that make up rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. An emerging theme is that additional molecular motors modulate the canonical IFT machinery to give rise to differing ciliary morphologies. Therefore, a complete understanding of the trafficking of ciliary receptors, as well as the biogenesis, maintenance, specialization, and function of cilia, requires the characterization of motor molecules.Here, we describe in detail our method for measuring the motility of proteins in cilia or dendrites of C. elegans male-specific CEM ciliated sensory neurons using time-lapse microscopy and kymography of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged motors, receptors, and cargos. We describe, as a specific example, OSM-3::GFP puncta moving in cilia, but also include (Fig. 1) with settings that have worked well for us measuring movement of heterotrimeric kinesin-II, IFT particles, and the polycystin TRP channel PKD-2. PMID:27514919

  2. Laminar Analysis of Excitatory Local Circuits in Vibrissal Motor and Sensory Cortical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hooks, B. M.; Hires, S. Andrew; Zhang, Ying-Xin; Huber, Daniel; Petreanu, Leopoldo; Svoboda, Karel; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.

    2011-01-01

    Rodents move their whiskers to locate and identify objects. Cortical areas involved in vibrissal somatosensation and sensorimotor integration include the vibrissal area of the primary motor cortex (vM1), primary somatosensory cortex (vS1; barrel cortex), and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). We mapped local excitatory pathways in each area across all cortical layers using glutamate uncaging and laser scanning photostimulation. We analyzed these maps to derive laminar connectivity matrices describing the average strengths of pathways between individual neurons in different layers and between entire cortical layers. In vM1, the strongest projection was L2/3→L5. In vS1, strong projections were L2/3→L5 and L4→L3. L6 input and output were weak in both areas. In S2, L2/3→L5 exceeded the strength of the ascending L4→L3 projection, and local input to L6 was prominent. The most conserved pathways were L2/3→L5, and the most variable were L4→L2/3 and pathways involving L6. Local excitatory circuits in different cortical areas are organized around a prominent descending pathway from L2/3→L5, suggesting that sensory cortices are elaborations on a basic motor cortex-like plan. PMID:21245906

  3. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  4. Functional description of the Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, G.; Southworth, F.; Sexton, A.; Hilliard, M.; Kraemer, R. ); Russell, D.L.; Holcomb, M.; Wood, T.S.; Brenner, H.; Jacobi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    The Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) is an automated system that will provide Headquarters Military Airlift Command (HQMAC) and the Numbered Air Forces (NAFs) with planning, scheduling, and analytical tools for peacetime and contingency airlift operations. ADANS will consist of an algorithms subsystem for airlift planning, scheduling, and analysis; a relational database management system (RDBMS); a user friendly front-end subsystem; and communications software. ADANS will be completed by October 1992. It will be developed in three increments to provide an initial operating capability as quickly as possible. At the end of each increment, an operational airlift planning, scheduling, and analysis system will be installed. ADANS will provide automated tools for MAC mission support allocation, airlift scheduling, load allocation, and analysis of the airlift system. The ADANS scheduling algorithms and database will operate on the Deployment Flow Computer System (DFCS) at HQMAC, Scott Air Force Base. The DFCS will consist of Honeywell DPS 90/92 Tandem and Honeywell DPS 90/92 mainframe computers. User workstations will interface with the DFCS through two local area networks, one classified and one unclassified. The classified DFCS will be connected via a high-speed bus to HQMAC's System 1'' computer, a node on the Worldwide Military Command and Control System Intercomputer Network for communications with the Joint Deployment System and the Joint Operations Planning System. Systems currently under development that will interface with ADANS include the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System and the Global Decision Support System (GDSS). MAC Command and Control Information Processing System data will be available through GDSS. This command and control information will be accessed by ADANS so that analysts will have data on resources used within MAC's airlift system during plan and schedule development. 80 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of volatiles from two subtropical strawberry cultivars using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS odor activity values, and sensory analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavor profiles of two Florida strawberry cultivars were determined using GC-olfactometry,GC-MS, odor activity values (OAVs) and sensory analysis. Thirty-six aroma active compounds were detected using GC-O. Thirty-four were identified. The major odor-active compounds in decreasing intensity were: me...

  6. Application of sensory and microbial analysis to assess quality of fish in Siliguri city of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Prithwiraj; Roy, Rudra Prasad; Barat, S

    2010-09-01

    Sensory and certain microbial analyses were applied to assess the quality of raw fish sold at a market in Siliguri cityof West Bengal, India. In regular surveys undertaken during June to August 2008, a particular fish species was randomly selected, its source was noted and a sensory analysis, the quality index method (QIM) was applied to assess its quality Raw fish samples were also collected and a small quantity (about 1 g) of scales oran upper layer of the skin surface (forscale-less fish samples), gill, liverand a portion of gut with gut-contents were aseptically removed for enumeration of the total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and coliform counts. Oreochromis mossambicus and Tenulosa ilisha recorded significantly higher QIM scores, compared to other species (p<0.05). Riverine fish, Lepidocephalichthys guntea and Channa punctatus scored the lowest QIM scores (0) while scores for Puntius ticto and Mystus vittatus and pond cultured species like Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Labeo bata and Cyprinus carpio were very marginal (p<0.05). Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from all the studied species while Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from only seven species. Among the tissues examined, the lowest counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and total coliforms were recorded from the skin in every fish species. Highest counts of pathogenic bacteria (except Pseudomonas spp.) were recorded in Tenulosa ilisha for all the tissues except liver. Since fish are properly cooked in Bengali households, the risk of disease from fish consumption is relatively less. However, some tribes residing in the region are known to consume undercooked fish and proper cooking methods should be followed in view of the present findings to avoid health risks. Besides, utmost care should be taken while handling fish. PMID:21387907

  7. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Sensory Ganglia with a Focus on Ion Channels and GPCRs in Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Manteniotis, Stavros; Lehmann, Ramona; Flegel, Caroline; Vogel, Felix; Hofreuter, Adrian; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Schöbel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2013-01-01

    The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain. PMID:24260241

  8. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Ala I; Daroub, Hamza; Georges, Camille; Shayto, Rani; Nader, Ralph; Chalhoub, Jean; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations. METHODS Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate (SPS), and oral sodium sulfate (OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted (n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand® sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing (n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right (JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products. RESULTS Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes (P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showed significant differences between the various samples (P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel (P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results. CONCLUSION Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions

  9. Using Linear versus Quadratic Rules in Predictive and Descriptive Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Jennifer

    Both predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) require a decision to pool group covariance matrices, or alternatively, to retain separate group covariance matrices when the group covariance matrices are too dissimilar to pool. Pooling the group covariance matrices involves the so-called "linear" rule,…

  10. THE ORGANIZATION OF A BIOLOGY COURSE FOR INDIVIDUAL PROGRESS AT THEODORE HIGH SCHOOL--DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRATTEN, JACK E.

    SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNIQUES WERE APPLIED IN DESCRIBING THE BIOLOGY COURSE AT THE THEODORE HIGH SCHOOL, THEODORE, ALABAMA, WHICH WAS SELECTED AS THE UNIT OF STUDY BECAUSE OF ITS ORGANIZATION OF COURSES FOR INDIVIDUAL PROGRESS. A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BIOLOGY COURSE WAS PRESENTED IN TERMS OF THE (1) INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA,…

  11. Integrated Annotation and Analysis of In Situ Hybridization Images Using the ImAnno System: Application to the Ear and Sensory Organs of the Fetal Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Romand, Raymond; Ripp, Raymond; Poidevin, Laetitia; Boeglin, Marcel; Geffers, Lars; Dollé, Pascal; Poch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) study was performed on 2000 murine genes representing around 10% of the protein-coding genes present in the mouse genome using data generated by the EURExpress consortium. This study was carried out in 25 tissues of late gestation embryos (E14.5), with a special emphasis on the developing ear and on five distinct developing sensory organs, including the cochlea, the vestibular receptors, the sensory retina, the olfactory organ, and the vibrissae follicles. The results obtained from an analysis of more than 11,000 micrographs have been integrated in a newly developed knowledgebase, called ImAnno. In addition to managing the multilevel micrograph annotations performed by human experts, ImAnno provides public access to various integrated databases and tools. Thus, it facilitates the analysis of complex ISH gene expression patterns, as well as functional annotation and interaction of gene sets. It also provides direct links to human pathways and diseases. Hierarchical clustering of expression patterns in the 25 tissues revealed three main branches corresponding to tissues with common functions and/or embryonic origins. To illustrate the integrative power of ImAnno, we explored the expression, function and disease traits of the sensory epithelia of the five presumptive sensory organs. The study identified 623 genes (out of 2000) concomitantly expressed in the five embryonic epithelia, among which many (∼12%) were involved in human disorders. Finally, various multilevel interaction networks were characterized, highlighting differential functional enrichments of directly or indirectly interacting genes. These analyses exemplify an under-represention of "sensory" functions in the sensory gene set suggests that E14.5 is a pivotal stage between the developmental stage and the functional phase that will be fully reached only after birth. PMID:25706271

  12. Manufacture and sensory analysis of reduced- and low-sodium Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brown, Kelly; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    High sodium intake negatively affects consumer health, thus there is active interest in lowering sodium levels in dairy foods. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were made with total salt levels of 0.7, 1.0, 1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% (wt/wt) in triplicate, thus reducing sodium by 25 to 60%. Multiple manufacturing protocols for salt reduction were used to produce cheeses with similar postpress moisture and pH, independent of the final salt levels in cheese, in order to study the role of salt in cheese acceptability. Cheese flavor was evaluated by a descriptive taste panel on a 15-point intensity scale. Consumer acceptance was evaluated by a consumer panel on a 9-point hedonic scale. Taste panels conducted with cubed Cheddar cheese (at 3 and 6mo) and cold shredded Mozzarella cheese (at 3wk) showed that consumer liking for cheese was low at 0.7 and 0.9% salt, but all cheeses containing higher salt levels (1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% salt) were comparably preferred. The cheeses had acceptable liking scores (≥6) when served as quesadilla or pizza toppings, and consumers were able to differentiate cheeses at alternate salt levels; for example, 1.8 and 1.5% salt cheeses scored similarly, as did cheeses with 1.5% and 1.35% salt, but 1.35% salt cheese scored lower than and was discernible from 1.8% salt cheese. Descriptive panelists perceived salty, sour, umami, bitter, brothy, lactone/fatty acid, and sulfur attributes as different across Mozzarella cheeses, with the perception of each significantly increasing along with salt level. Salty and buttery attributes were perceived more with increasing salt levels of Cheddar cheese by the descriptive panel at 3mo, whereas bitter, brothy, and umami attributes were perceived less at the higher salt levels. However, this trend reversed at 6mo, when perception of salty, sour, bitter, buttery, lactone/fatty acid, and umami attributes increased with salt level. We conclude that consumers can distinguish even a 30% salt

  13. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Oman: 
A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, AbdulAziz; Al-Sheibani, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to analyze all cases of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) in Oman to determine the most common clinical presentation, whether it is associated with certain tribes in Oman, and its distribution in different regions of the country. We also looked at the histopathological diagnosis, treatment modality, recurrence, and metastasis. Methods This retrospective chart analysis was performed using the data of all patients with NPC who presented to the Al Nahdha Hospital (the main tertiary hospital of head and neck surgery in Oman) from January 2003 until August 2011. Results Twenty-six cases of NPC were included in the final study population. Muscat (the capital city of Oman) had the highest number of cases followed by the Ash Sharqiyah, Al-Batinah, and Dhofar regions. The largest number of cases were found in the Al-Balushi tribe. Cases had a bimodal distribution within two age groups (20–30 years and 50–60 years). Follow-up ranged between six months and seven years. Conclusion Neck mass and nasal symptoms were the most common presentations of NPC in Oman. Further studies, with a larger sample size are required in order to support our results. PMID:26171122

  14. Diagnostic testing during pregnancy: a descriptive analysis of utilisation data.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, R L; Bell, S M; Rob, M I; Taylor, P T

    1994-12-01

    To describe patterns of diagnostic testing during the antenatal period and to assess the potential benefit of using Medicare claims data in monitoring testing practice, we examined the matched claims data (with identifying details removed) on approximately 10,000 women having a confinement for which a Medicare benefit was claimed between 1 July and 30 September 1990. The results showed that almost all the women included in the study sample had an ultrasound and blood group and antibody examination. A smaller proportion had serological tests for syphilis (77 per cent), rubella (51 per cent) and hepatitis B carriage (73 per cent). Two-thirds had urine microscopy and culture, and under half (40 per cent) had serum alpha-fetoprotein estimation. Few (18 per cent) had a claim processed for microscopy and culture of a genital swab and fewer than 8 per cent claimed for any other pathology tests. There were differences in the proportions having tests, depending on whether the clinician managing the confinement was a specialist obstetrician or a general practitioner, and depending on geographic area and age group. While the data do not represent all women having a confinement in New South Wales, the selective use of antenatal diagnostic tests found in this study is of considerable public health importance and analysis of claims data can provide useful information for health professionals. PMID:7536479

  15. Description and analysis of a vacuum ultraviolet atomic line source.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, T T

    1971-06-01

    An intense vacuum uv atomic line source excited in a 2450-MHz microwave discharge cavity is described and analyzed. Additional features are a clean spectrum, very little window deterioration, little or no self-absorption, and easily interchangeable parts. (For the O-atom source only the 1300-A triplet shows up over the 1200-A to 1650-A region.) This source is suitable for the detection of various species by absorption measurement in fast occurring events such as those in ballistic ranges and shock tubes. Atomic line shape theory is used to analyze an O-atom line source with intensity ratios I(1306A): I(1305A): I(1302A):1:2.9:4.5. This source is described by a 2700 +/- 200 K temperature and certain self-absorption parameters as deduced from the measurement of their intensity ratios and their transmission characteristics through known concentrations of O-atoms. A good theoretical fit to the measured transmission validates the assumed uniform source temperature and excitation for the analysis. An f value (f = 0.052 +/- 0.005) for the O-atom 1300-A triplet absorption and a collision diameter of 5.5 +/- 1.0 A between the O-atom and the nitrogen molecule were determined in the course of this study. PMID:20111107

  16. Concentration in the Greek private hospital sector: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Boutsioli, Zoe

    2007-07-01

    Over the last 20 years, governments all around the world have attempted to boost the role of market and competition in health care industries in order to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The increased competition and the significant implications on costs and prices of health care services resulted in health care industries being transformed. Large firms are merging and acquiring other firms. If this trend continues, few firms will dominate the health care markets. In this study, I use the simple concentration ratio (CR) for the largest 4, 8 and 20 companies to measure the concentration of Greek private hospitals during the period 1997-2004. Also, the Gini coefficient for inequality is used. For the two different categories of hospitals used (a) general and neuropsychiatric and (b) obstetric/gynaecological it is evident that the top four firms of the first category accounted for 43% of sales in 1997, and 52% in 2004, while the four largest firms of the second category accounted for almost 83% in 1997, and 81% in 2004. Also, the Gini coefficient increases over the 8-year period examined from 0.69 in 1997 to 0.82 in 2004. It explains that the market of the private health care services becomes less equal in the sense that fewer private hospitals and clinics hold more and more of the share of the total sales. From a cross-industry analysis it is clear that the private hospital sector has the highest concentration rate. Finally, it appears that the market structure of the private hospitals in Greece resembles more closely to an oligopoly rather than a monopolistic competition, since very few firms dominate the market. PMID:17056148

  17. Volatile profile and sensory evaluation of tomato juices treated with pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Martin-Belloso, Olga; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-02-27

    Tomato juices produced from tomatoes subjected to moderate-intensity pulsed electric fields (MIPEF) and from untreated tomatoes were preserved by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or by thermal treatment (TH) having, in both cases, the fresh juice as a reference. The chemical and sensory changes of tomato juices stored at 4 °C for increasing period of time were analyzed. A quantitative descriptive analysis was developed to characterize the sensory quality of samples. Tomatoes subjected to MIPEF treatments led to tomato juices with a higher content of volatile compounds and better sensory properties than those prepared with untreated tomatoes. An enhancement was observed in hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal just after processing in juices prepared with MIPEF-treated tomatoes. A slight decrease in volatile compounds and a loss of sensory quality was observed over time in TH and HIPEF juices, but HIPEF-processed samples just after processing and through storage maintained higher overall quality. PMID:23373424

  18. Chemical and sensory profiles of rosé wines from Australia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-04-01

    The appeal of rosé wine is attributable to its sensory profiles and underlying chemical composition, which are determined by viticultural and oenological inputs. This study provided the first insight into the sensory attributes and volatile profiles of Australian rosé wines. An HS-SPME-GC-MS method and a recently developed HPLC-MS/MS method were used to quantify 51 volatile compounds, including 4 potent sulfur compounds, in 26 commercial rosé wines. Descriptive analysis on all wines was undertaken and the sensory results were correlated with quantitative chemical data to explore relationships between wine composition and sensory profiles. Based on odour activity values, esters were prominent aroma volatiles, and β-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 3-MHA were deemed to be important, in accord with other studies. Wines were described with terms ranging from developed, spicy and savoury to fresh green, citrus, tropical fruit, floral and confectionery. PMID:26593542

  19. Usage of a Responsible Gambling Tool: A Descriptive Analysis and Latent Class Analysis of User Behavior.

    PubMed

    Forsström, David; Hesser, Hugo; Carlbring, Per

    2016-09-01

    Gambling is a common pastime around the world. Most gamblers can engage in gambling activities without negative consequences, but some run the risk of developing an excessive gambling pattern. Excessive gambling has severe negative economic and psychological consequences, which makes the development of responsible gambling strategies vital to protecting individuals from these risks. One such strategy is responsible gambling (RG) tools. These tools track an individual's gambling history and supplies personalized feedback and might be one way to decrease excessive gambling behavior. However, research is lacking in this area and little is known about the usage of these tools. The aim of this article is to describe user behavior and to investigate if there are different subclasses of users by conducting a latent class analysis. The user behaviour of 9528 online gamblers who voluntarily used a RG tool was analysed. Number of visits to the site, self-tests made, and advice used were the observed variables included in the latent class analysis. Descriptive statistics show that overall the functions of the tool had a high initial usage and a low repeated usage. Latent class analysis yielded five distinct classes of users: self-testers, multi-function users, advice users, site visitors, and non-users. Multinomial regression revealed that classes were associated with different risk levels of excessive gambling. The self-testers and multi-function users used the tool to a higher extent and were found to have a greater risk of excessive gambling than the other classes. PMID:26753878

  20. The effect of phenol composition on the sensory profile of smoke affected wines.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David; Zerihun, Ayalsew

    2015-01-01

    Vineyards exposed to wildfire generated smoke can produce wines with elevated levels of lignin derived phenols that have acrid, metallic and smoky aromas and flavour attributes. While a large number of phenols are present in smoke affected wines, the effect of smoke vegetation source on the sensory descriptors has not been reported. Here we report on a descriptive sensory analysis of wines made from grapes exposed to different vegetation sources of smoke to examine: (1) the effect vegetation source has on wine sensory attribute ratings and; (2) associations between volatile and glycoconjugated phenol composition and sensory attributes. Sensory attribute ratings were determined by a trained sensory panel and phenol concentrations determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis and partial least squares regressions were used to evaluate the interrelationships between the phenol composition and sensory attributes. The results showed that vegetation source of smoke significantly affected sensory attribute intensity, especially the taste descriptors. Differences in aroma and taste from smoke exposure were not limited to an elevation in a range of detractive descriptors but also a masking of positive fruit descriptors. Sensory differences due to vegetation type were driven by phenol composition and concentration. In particular, the glycoconjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetovanillone), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetosyringone) concentrations were influential in separating the vegetation sources of smoke. It is concluded that the detractive aroma attributes of smoke affected wine, especially of smoke and ash, were associated with volatile phenols while the detractive flavour descriptors were correlated with glycoconjugated phenols. PMID:26016545

  1. A Descriptive Analysis of Studies on Behavioural Treatment of Drooling (1970-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Burg, Jan J. W.; Didden, Robert; Jongerius, Peter H.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive analysis was conducted on studies on the behavioural treatment of drooling (published between 1970 and 2005). The 17 articles that met the inclusion criteria described 53 participants (mean age 14y 7mo, [SD 4y 9mo]; range 6-28y). Sex of 87% of the participants was reported: 28 male, 18 female. For 60% of the participants the degree…

  2. Effects of a Training Package to Improve the Accuracy of Descriptive Analysis Data Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Kimberly L.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2013-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is an important precursor to developing interventions to address a problem behavior. Descriptive analysis, a type of functional behavior assessment, is effective in informing intervention design only if the gathered data accurately capture relevant events and behaviors. We investigated a training procedure to improve…

  3. Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    While there has been substantial research studying the factors that influence teachers' career decisions, there is far less literature on the relationship between teacher effectiveness, mobility, and attrition. In the paper "Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis," Martin West and Matthew Chingos address…

  4. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method. PMID:26655663

  5. Screening of the key volatile organic compounds of Tuber melanosporum fermentation by aroma sensory evaluation combination with principle component analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Sang; Jin, Guang-Huai; Xiao, Deng-Rong; Li, Hong-Mei; Bai, Feng-Wu; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aroma results from the interplay of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the attributes of microbial-producing aromas are significantly affected by fermentation conditions. Among the VOCs, only a few of them contribute to aroma. Thus, screening and identification of the key VOCs is critical for microbial-producing aroma. The traditional method is based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), which is time-consuming and laborious. Considering the Tuber melanosporum fermentation system as an example, a new method to screen and identify the key VOCs by combining the aroma evaluation method with principle component analysis (PCA) was developed in this work. First, an aroma sensory evaluation method was developed to screen 34 potential favorite aroma samples from 504 fermentation samples. Second, PCA was employed to screen nine common key VOCs from these 34 samples. Third, seven key VOCs were identified by the traditional method. Finally, all of the seven key VOCs identified by the traditional method were also identified, along with four others, by the new strategy. These results indicate the reliability of the new method and demonstrate it to be a viable alternative to the traditional method. PMID:26655663

  6. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, José M.; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  7. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  8. Multiprocessing computer system for sensory evoked potentials and EEG spectral analysis for clinical neurophysiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Steben, J D; Streletz, L J; Fariello, R G

    1985-12-01

    A general-purpose minicomputer has been adapted and interfaced for the averaging and analysis of clinical evoked potentials and for compressed spectral arrays (CSA) of the routine EEG. In the first 2 years of operation, over 1,000 routine clinical studies of visual evoked potentials (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) have been performed with it, as well as over 100 CSAs and a variety of special and research studies. The CSA modality gives comparative frequency-domain pictures of left and right hemisphere power. An attached graphics terminal gives a live cumulative display of the EP and CSA. In addition, the system has automated and comprehensive physician-interactive graphics analysis and report generation capabilities. The reports are finalized versions used in the patient's chart, minimizing clerical efforts. PMID:3841553

  9. A brief description of an Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) computer data analysis and management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A data analysis and management procedure currently being used at Marshall Space Flight Center to analyze ERTS digital data is described. The objective is to acquaint potential users with the various computer programs that are available for analysis of multispectral digital imagery and to show how these programs are used in the overall data management plan. The report contains a brief description of each computer routine, and references are provided for obtaining more detailed information.

  10. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. PMID:25200782

  11. Sensory evaluation of locally-grown fruit purees and inulin fibre on probiotic yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 (o)C. PMID:25995722

  12. Sensory Evaluation of Locally-grown Fruit Purees and Inulin Fibre on Probiotic Yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 oC. PMID:25995722

  13. Determination of furan levels in commercial orange juice products and its correlation to the sensory and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Kim, Min Yeop; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-11-15

    The objective of current study was to determine the furan levels in commercial orange juices (OJs) and relate to the sensory and quality characteristics of OJs. The factors among sensory and quality characteristics that showed high correlation to furan were identified. The furan levels found in 18 commercial OJs ranged from 0.59 to 27.39ng/mL. Freshly-squeezed type OJs (n=4) had significantly lower furan levels (4.68ng/mL) than other OJs treated with heat processing (p<0.05). Vitamin C content, specifically, dehydroascorbic acid showed higher correlation to the furan level in OJs (r=0.833). A descriptive sensory analysis result revealed the different flavor profile of commercial OJs according to the processing method and added ingredient in OJs. Current approach of using sensory analysis for prediction of furan level in food products can be applied to future studies in many other food commodities. PMID:27283680

  14. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  15. Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

    2010-01-01

    Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists. PMID:21535620

  16. Metabolomic analysis of the effect of shade treatment on the nutritional and sensory qualities of green tea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Choi, Ji Hea; Son, Nari; Kim, Sang-Hee; Park, Jong-Dae; Jang, Dae-Ja; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2013-01-16

    We analyzed metabolites from a 50% aqueous methanol extract of green teas treated with different shade periods (0, 15, 18, and 20 days) to investigate the effect of low light on their nutritional and sensory qualities. The shaded groups could be clearly distinguished from the control (0 day), and the 20 day group was separated from the 15 and 18 day groups. The shade treatment increased quercetin-galactosylrutinoside, kaempferol-glucosylrutinoside, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, tryptophan, phenylalanine, theanine, glutamine, glutamate, and caffeine levels but decreased quercetin-glucosylrutinoside, kaempferol-glucoside, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin levels. Further studies on the nutritional benefits of these metabolites are needed. However, this result, along with the sensory evaluation and color measurement data, suggests that shade treatment improves the nutritional and sensory quality of green tea. Thus, we proposed a metabolomic pathway related to the effect of low light, which could elucidate the relationship between low light and tea quality. PMID:23256790

  17. Sensory acceptability of iron-fortified millet products.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Bhumika; Ravi, R; Prakash, Maya; Platel, Kalpana

    2011-09-01

    Fortification of millet flours with iron might be beneficial in combating iron deficiency. In this investigation, two products prepared from finger millet and sorghum flours fortified with iron and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and stored for up to 60 days were evaluated for sensory quality attributes using quantitative descriptive analysis, and their texture was measured using a texture analyzer. Fortification did not cause any significant change in the hardness of dumpling or the shearing effect of the roti prepared from either of the millet flours. There was no significant effect of the fortificant on the texture and aroma of the products prepared from the fortified flours up to a period of 60 days. However, a discoloration was perceived in the dumplings prepared from the same flours. The overall quality of the roti prepared was acceptable to the sensory panelists. Finger millet and sorghum flours seem to be suitable as vehicles for fortification with iron. PMID:21568824

  18. Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT). System Description and users guide (revision 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Mcgarry, F. E.; Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    A system description of, and user's guide for, the Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT) are presented. As a configuration management tool, CAT enhances the control of large software systems by providing a repository for information describing the current status of a project. CAT provides an editing capability to update the information and a reporting capability to present the information. CAT is an interactive program available in versions for the PDP-11/70 and VAX-11/780 computers.

  19. Aerodynamic design and analysis system for supersonic aircraft. Part 1: General description and theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated system of computer programs has been developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. This part presents a general description of the system and describes the theoretical methods used.

  20. Recent developments in the sensorial assessment of cosmetic products: a review.

    PubMed

    Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetic development is not exclusively guided by notions of rational effectiveness but also by notions of sensoriality. Thus, the sensorial properties of a cosmetic product are studied using internationally recognized discriminating or descriptive methods. Descriptive sensory profiling is an essential tool in this process as it allows an experienced panel to assess the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of a product. The results obtained with this method enable to get a more accurate image of the product. However, given the new demands of the industrial world and the new innovation paths (shorter development times, complex products or willingness to include the consumers in the process) a need to access new methods has arisen. These 'alternative' methods that offer product positioning, ratings and attribute citation frequency, can be implemented with either a panel of experts or with consumers. The flash profile, the pivot® profile or the check all that apply (CATA) are just a few of the methods that the cosmetic professionals have started to test. This article reviews the methods used in the sensory assessment of cosmetic products. The analysis carried out shows that the complementarity application of sensory assessment is essential in the upstream innovation phase of a product. PMID:25824827

  1. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    PubMed

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms. PMID:26304449

  2. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Jones, L A; Hills, P J; Dick, K M; Jones, S P; Bright, P

    2016-02-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  3. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  4. Loch Linnhe `94: Test operations description and on-site analysis, US activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mantrom, D.D.

    1994-11-01

    A field experiment named Loch Linnhe `94 (LL94) is described. This experiment was conducted in upper Loch Linnhe, Scotland, in September 1994, as an exercise involving UK and US investigators, under the Joint UK/US Radar Ocean Imaging Program. This experiment involved a dual-frequency, dual-polarization hillside real aperture radar operated by the UK, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) current meter array (CMA), in-water hydrodynamic sensors, and meteorological measurements. The primary measurements involved imaging ship-generated and ambient internal waves by the radar and the CMA. This report documents test operations from a US perspective and presents on-site analysis results derived by US investigators. The rationale underlying complementary radar and CMA measurements is described. Descriptions of the test site, platforms, and major US instrument systems are given. A summary of test operations and examples of radar, CMA, water column profile, and meteorological data are provided. A description of the rather extensive analysis of these data performed at the LL94 test site is presented. The products of this analysis are presented and some implications for further analysis and future experiments are discussed. All experimental objectives were either fully or partially met. Powerful on-site analysis capabilities generated many useful products and helped improve subsequent data collection. Significant further data analysis is planned.

  5. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  6. Multi-level model for 2D human motion analysis and description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foures, Thomas; Joly, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the proposition of a model for human motion analysis in a video. Its main caracteristic is to adapt itself automatically to the current resolution, the actual quality of the picture, or the level of precision required by a given application, due to its possible decomposition into several hierarchical levels. The model is region-based to address some analysis processing needs. The top level of the model is only defined with 5 ribbons, which can be cut into sub-ribbons regarding to a given (or an expected) level of details. Matching process between model and current picture consists in the comparison of extracted subject shape with a graphical rendering of the model built on the base of some computed parameters. The comparison is processed by using a chamfer matching algorithm. In our developments, we intend to realize a platform of interaction between a dancer and tools synthetizing abstract motion pictures and music in the conditions of a real-time dialogue between a human and a computer. In consequence, we use this model in a perspective of motion description instead of motion recognition: no a priori gestures are supposed to be recognized as far as no a priori application is specially targeted. The resulting description will be made following a Description Scheme compliant with the movement notation called "Labanotation".

  7. Job Analysis and the Preparation of Job Descriptions. Mendip Papers MP 037.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Bob

    This document provides guidelines for conducting job analyses and writing job descriptions. It covers the following topics: the rationale for job descriptions, the terminology of job descriptions, who should write job descriptions, getting the information to write job descriptions, preparing for staff interviews, conducting interviews, writing the…

  8. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  9. Multi-trait analysis of post-harvest storage in rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) links sensorial, volatile and nutritional data.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, Natasha D; Amaro, Ana L; Pereira, Maria J; Müller, Carsten T; Pintado, Manuela; Rogers, Hilary J

    2016-11-15

    Rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia; wild rocket) is an important component of ready to eat salads providing a distinct peppery flavour and containing nutritionally relevant compounds. Quality deteriorates during post-harvest, in relation to time and storage temperature amongst other factors. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily measurable from rocket leaves and may provide useful quality indicators for e.g. changes in isothiocyanates derived from nutritionally important glucosinolates. VOC profiles discriminated storage temperatures (0, 5 and 10°C) and times (over 14days). More specifically, concentrations of aldehydes and isothiocyanates decreased with time paralleling a fall in vitamin C and a reduction in sensorial quality at the two higher temperatures. Sulphur containing compounds rise at later time-points and at higher temperatures coincident with an increase in microbial titre, mirroring a further drop in sensorial quality thus indicating their contribution to off-odours. PMID:27283614

  10. Sensory properties and drivers of liking for Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Desai, N T; Shepard, L; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Greek yogurt is currently the largest growing sector in the dairy industry. Because no standard of identity exists for Greek yogurts in the United States, and they can be made by a variety of methods, variability in sensory properties is expected. Knowledge of consumer perception and specific drivers of liking will be useful information for product developers. The objective of this study was to document the sensory properties of commercial Greek yogurts and to determine drivers of liking through descriptive profiling and consumer testing. Flavor and texture attributes of commercial Greek yogurts (n = 24) were evaluated in triplicate by a trained descriptive sensory panel. An online survey (n = 520) was used to collect consumer usage and attitude information for Greek yogurts before consumer acceptance testing. Consumer acceptance testing (n = 155) was then conducted on commercial Greek yogurts (n = 10). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used for data analysis. Sensory properties of yogurt differed with fat content and manufacture (Greek vs. fortified Greek). Full-fat yogurts were characterized by firmness and denseness, whereas low- and non-fat yogurts lacked firmness, denseness, cohesiveness, and, after stirring, viscosity. Fortified Greek yogurts generally had more surface shine and jiggle and lower denseness compared with traditional Greek yogurts. Fewer flavor differences were observed among yogurts compared with texture differences. Fortified Greek yogurts displayed a burnt/beefy flavor not documented in traditional Greek yogurts, but this flavor was not evident in all fortified Greek yogurts. Consumer preferred Greek yogurts with firm, dense texture, moderate sweet aromatic, milkfat and dairy sour flavors, and moderate sour taste. Consumers were aware of the increased protein content of Greek yogurts but generally unaware of differences between strained and fortified Greek yogurts; both strained Greek and fortified Greek yogurts received

  11. Therapists' verbal behavior analysis: a descriptive approach to the psychotherapeutic phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Froján, M Xesús; Montaño, Montserrat; Calero, Ana

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents some preliminary results from a different approach to research on psychotherapeutic processes. As activity in psychotherapy is predominantly verbal, we propose a scientific study of therapists' verbal behavior from a behaviorist perspective. Data were obtained through observational analysis of the recordings of 16 clinical sessions involving 4 cases, all of which based on individual cognitive-behavioral therapy with adults, in the framework of private clinical practice in Spain. The analysis used a previously validated system of categories and The Observer XT software to register and code data. A descriptive analysis enabled us to identify several patterns of psychologists' verbal behavior, irrespective of the therapist and/or the case analyzed. Notable differences were also observed in clinicians' performance, which raises important questions about potential variables associated with therapeutic change. Finally, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the present research agenda, the development of which should lead to a fuller understanding of the psychotherapeutic phenomenon. PMID:20977039

  12. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

  13. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  14. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  15. Differential sensory fMRI signatures in autism and schizophrenia: Analysis of amplitude and trial-to-trial variability.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Sarah M; Gupta, Akshat; Barb, Scott M; Glass, Summer A F; Minshew, Nancy J; Dinstein, Ilan; Heeger, David J; Eack, Shaun M; Behrmann, Marlene

    2016-08-01

    Autism and schizophrenia share multiple phenotypic and genotypic markers, and there is ongoing debate regarding the relationship of these two disorders. To examine whether cortical dynamics are similar across these disorders, we directly compared fMRI responses to visual, somatosensory and auditory stimuli in adults with autism (N=15), with schizophrenia (N=15), and matched controls (N=15). All participants completed a one-back letter detection task presented at fixation (to control attention) while task-irrelevant sensory stimulation was delivered to the different modalities. We focused specifically on the response amplitudes and the variability in sensory fMRI responses of the two groups, given the evidence of greater trial-to-trial variability in adults with autism. Both autism and schizophrenia individuals showed weaker signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) in sensory-evoked responses compared to controls (d>0.42), but for different reasons. For the autism group, the fMRI response amplitudes were indistinguishable from controls but were more variable trial-to-trial (d=0.47). For the schizophrenia group, response amplitudes were smaller compared to autism (d=0.44) and control groups (d=0.74), but were not significantly more variable (d<0.29). These differential group profiles suggest (1) that greater trial-to-trial variability in cortical responses may be specific to autism and is not a defining characteristic of schizophrenia, and (2) that blunted response amplitudes may be characteristic of schizophrenia. The relationship between the amplitude and the variability of cortical activity might serve as a specific signature differentiating these neurodevelopmental disorders. Identifying the neural basis of these responses and their relationship to the underlying genetic bases may substantially enlighten the understanding of both disorders. PMID:27083780

  16. Phase angle description of perturbation correlation analysis and its application to time-resolved infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Morita, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Noda, Isao; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-08-01

    A method of spectral analysis, phase angle description of perturbation correlation analysis, is proposed. This method is based on global phase angle description of generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy, proposed by Shin-ichi Morita et al., and perturbation-correlation moving-window 2D (PCMW2D) correlation spectroscopy, proposed by Shigeaki Morita et al. For a spectral data set collected under an external perturbation, such as time-resolved infrared spectra, this method provides only one phase angle spectrum. A phase angle of the Fourier frequency domain correlation between a spectral intensity (e.g., absorbance) variation and a perturbation variation (e.g., scores of the first principle component) as a function of spectral variable (e.g., wavenumber) is plotted. Therefore, a degree of time lag of each band variation with respect to the perturbation variation is directly visualized in the phase angle spectrum. This method is applied to time-resolved infrared spectra in the O-H stretching region of the water sorption process into a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) film. The time-resolved infrared (IR) spectra show three broad and overlapping bands in the region. Each band increases toward saturated water sorption with different relaxation times. In comparison to conventional methods of generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy and global phase angle mapping, the method proposed in the present study enables the easier visualization of the sequence as a degree of phase angle in the spectrum. PMID:17716406

  17. Sensory Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

  18. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  19. Response Surface Optimization of Process Parameters and Fuzzy Analysis of Sensory Data of High Pressure-Temperature Treated Pineapple Puree.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Snehasis; Rao, Pavuluri Srinivasa; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-08-01

    The high-pressure processing conditions were optimized for pineapple puree within the domain of 400-600 MPa, 40-60 °C, and 10-20 min using the response surface methodology (RSM). The target was to maximize the inactivation of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) along with a minimal loss in beneficial bromelain (BRM) activity, ascorbic acid (AA) content, antioxidant capacity, and color in the sample. The optimum condition was 600 MPa, 50 °C, and 13 min, having the highest desirability of 0.604, which resulted in 44% PPO and 47% BRM activities. However, 93% antioxidant activity and 85% AA were retained in optimized sample with a total color change (∆E*) value less than 2.5. A 10-fold reduction in PPO activity was obtained at 600 MPa/70 °C/20 min; however, the thermal degradation of nutrients was severe at this condition. Fuzzy mathematical approach confirmed that sensory acceptance of the optimized sample was close to the fresh sample; whereas, the thermally pasteurized sample (treated at 0.1 MPa, 95 °C for 12 min) had the least sensory score as compared to others. PMID:26220205

  20. Predictive analysis of beer quality by correlating sensory evaluation with higher alcohol and ester production using multivariate statistics methods.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Liang; Yin, Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Hao, Jun-Guang; Yang, Pan-Fei; Tian, Yu-Hong; Jia, Shi-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Sensory evaluation is regarded as a necessary procedure to ensure a reproducible quality of beer. Meanwhile, high-throughput analytical methods provide a powerful tool to analyse various flavour compounds, such as higher alcohol and ester. In this study, the relationship between flavour compounds and sensory evaluation was established by non-linear models such as partial least squares (PLS), genetic algorithm back-propagation neural network (GA-BP), support vector machine (SVM). It was shown that SVM with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) had a better performance of prediction accuracy for both calibration set (94.3%) and validation set (96.2%) than other models. Relatively lower prediction abilities were observed for GA-BP (52.1%) and PLS (31.7%). In addition, the kernel function of SVM played an essential role of model training when the prediction accuracy of SVM with polynomial kernel function was 32.9%. As a powerful multivariate statistics method, SVM holds great potential to assess beer quality. PMID:24837965

  1. Development of the Classroom Sensory Environment Assessment (CSEA).

    PubMed

    Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Kelleher, Jaqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Classroom Sensory Environment Assessment (CSEA) is a tool that provides a means of understanding the impact of a classroom's sensory environment on student behavior. The purpose of the CSEA is to promote collaboration between occupational therapists and elementary education teachers. In particular, students with autism spectrum disorder included in general education classrooms may benefit from a suitable match created through this collaborative process between the sensory environment and their unique sensory preferences. The development of the CSEA has occurred in multiple stages over 2 yr. This article reports on descriptive results for 152 classrooms and initial reliability results. Descriptive information suggests that classrooms are environments with an enormous variety of sensory experiences that can be quantified. Visual experiences are most frequent. The tool has adequate internal consistency but requires further investigation of interrater reliability and validity. PMID:26565097

  2. Gas chromatography/olfactometry and electronic nose analyses of retronasal aroma of espresso and correlation with sensory evaluation by an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Michishita, Tomomi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hirano, Yuta; Ikeda, Michio; Sagara, Yasuyuki; Araki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for evaluating and designing the retronasal aroma of espresso, sensory evaluation data was correlated with data obtained from gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O, CharmAnalysis™) and from an electronic nose system αFOX4000 (E-nose). The volatile compounds of various kinds of espresso (arabica coffee beans from 6 production countries: Brazil, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Colombia, Indonesia, and Tanzania; 3 roasting degrees for each country: L values, 18, 23, and 26) were collected with a retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) and examined by GC/O and E-nose. In addition, sensory descriptive analysis using a 7-point scale for RAS effluent gas was performed by 5 trained flavorists using sensory descriptors selected based on the frequency in use and coefficient of correlation. The charm values of 10 odor descriptions obtained from GC/O analysis exhibited the significant (P < 0.05) differences among both roasting degrees and origins. Also, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on the E-nose-sensor resistances and factor analysis on the sensory evaluation scores showed that the differences of aroma characteristics among the roasting degrees were larger than those among the origins. Based on an artificial neural network (ANN) model applied to the data from GC/O analyses and sensory evaluations, the perceptual factor of the RAS aroma was predicted to be mainly affected by sweet-caramel, smoke-roast, and acidic odors. Also, 3 metal oxide semiconductor sensors (LY2/Gh, P30/1, and T40/1) of E-nose were selected for analyses of RAS aroma and correlated with the sensory descriptive scores by the ANN to support sensory evaluation. PMID:21535621

  3. Syntactic methods of shape feature description and its application in analysis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, Marek R.; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard

    2000-02-01

    The paper presents specialist algorithms of morphologic analysis of shapes of selected organs of abdominal cavity proposed in order to diagnose disease symptoms occurring in the main pancreatic ducts and upper segments of ureters. Analysis of the correct morphology of these structures has been conducted with the use of syntactic methods of pattern recognition. Its main objective is computer-aided support to early diagnosis of neoplastic lesions and pancreatitis based on images taken in the course of examination with the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) method and a diagnosis of morphological lesions in ureter based on kidney radiogram analysis. In the analysis of ERCP images, the main objective is to recognize morphological lesions in pancreas ducts characteristic for carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. In the case of kidney radiogram analysis the aim is to diagnose local irregularity of ureter lumen. Diagnosing the above mentioned lesion has been conducted with the use of syntactic methods of pattern recognition, in particular the languages of shape features description and context-free attributed grammars. These methods allow to recognize and describe in a very efficient way the aforementioned lesions on images obtained as a result of initial image processing into diagrams of widths of the examined structures.

  4. Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

  5. Primary sensory and motor cortex function in response to acute muscle pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Burns, E; Chipchase, L S; Schabrun, S M

    2016-09-01

    Acute muscle pain has both motor and sensory consequences, yet the effect of muscle pain on the primary sensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices has yet to be systematically evaluated. Here we aimed to determine the strength of the evidence for (1) altered activation of S1/M1 during and after pain, (2) the temporal profile of any change in activation and (3) the relationship between S1/M1 activity and the symptoms of pain. In September 2015, five electronic databases were systematically searched for neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the effect of acute experimental muscle pain on S1/M1 in healthy volunteers. Demographic data, methodological characteristics and primary outcomes for each study were extracted for critical appraisal. Meta-analyses were performed where appropriate. Twenty-five studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. There was consistent evidence from fMRI for increased S1 activation in the contralateral hemisphere during pain, but insufficient evidence to determine the effect at M1. Meta-analyses of TMS and EEG data revealed moderate to strong evidence of reduced S1 and corticomotor excitability during and following the resolution of muscle pain. A comprehensive understanding of the temporal profile of altered activity in S1/M1, and the relationship to symptoms of pain, is hampered by differences in methodological design, pain modality and pain severity between studies. Overall, the findings of this review indicate reduced S1 and corticomotor activity during and after resolution of acute muscle pain, mechanisms that could plausibly underpin altered sensorimotor function in pain. WHAT DOES THIS REVIEW ADD?: We provide the first systematic evaluation of the primary sensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortex response to acute experimental muscle pain in healthy volunteers. We present evidence from a range of methodologies to provide a comprehensive understanding of the effect of pain on S1/M1. Through meta-analyses we evaluate the strength

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Dietary Habits on Sensory Motor Association and Heart Rate Variability during Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Tanwir; Jiwane, Rekha; Kishanrao, Sadawarte Sahebrao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dietary habits can make a big difference on both physical and mental aspects of the body. Menstrual disorder frequently affects the quality of life of adolescent and young adult women. Menstrual cycle irregularities may be associated with psychological stress, and endocrine disturbances. Monitoring of sensory-motor association and cardiovascular activity across the menstrual cycle has not been evaluated with dietary habits. Aim The present study was carried out to bridge the relationship between dietary habits and endogenous sex hormone mediated sensory motor association and heart rate variability (HRV) among young females during different phases of menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods The present study was carried out on healthy volunteered 100 female medical students in the age group of 19-25 years with regular menstrual cycle. Group I (n=45) vegetarians, Group II (n=25) eggetarians and Group III (n= 30) non-vegetarians, where n denotes the number of individuals in each group. Sensory-motor association (reaction time) and cardiovascular activity (HRV) was evaluated. Results We observed among all the dietary habits (vegetarians, eggetarians and non-vegetarians) the reaction time and HRV was comparable in follicular and menstrual phase, however it was significantly altered in luteal phase when compared to follicular and menstrual phase. Moreover, among all the dietary habits, non-vegetarians showed more significant alteration of reaction time and HRV in luteal phase when compared to vegetarians and eggetarians, as well as there was positive correlation between visual and auditory reaction time and negative correlation between LF and HF in luteal phase, among all the dietary habits. Conclusion We concluded sensorimotor association and regulation of autonomic tone is modified in luteal phase comparable to follicular phase and menstrual phase; however non-vegetarian had showed more significant alterations as compared to eggetarians and vegetarians

  7. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638

  8. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  9. The Use of Descriptive Analysis to Identify and Manipulate Schedules of Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Cooper-Brown, Linda J.; Wacker, David P.; Rankin, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of a child diagnosed with failure to thrive were assessed using descriptive analysis methodology to identify the schedules of reinforcement provided by the child's parents. This analysis revealed that the child's appropriate feeding behaviors (i.e., bite acceptance, self-feeding) were on a lean schedule of positive…

  10. Structural description and combined 3D display for superior analysis of cerebral vascularity from MRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekely, Gabor; Koller, Thomas; Kikinis, Ron; Gerig, Guido

    1994-09-01

    Medical image analysis has to support the clinicians ability to identify, manipulate and quantify anatomical structures. On scalar 2D image data, a human observer is often superior to computer assisted analysis, but the interpretation of vector- valued data or data combined from different modalities, especially in 3D, can benefit from computer assistance. The problem of how to convey the complex information to the clinician is often tackled by providing colored multimodality renderings. We propose to go a step beyond by supplying a suitable modelling of anatomical and functional structures encoding important shape features and physical properties. The multiple attributes regarding geometry, topology and function are carried by the symbolic description and can be interactively queried and edited. Integrated 3D rendering of object surfaces and symbolic representation acts as a visual interface to allow interactive communication between the observer and the complex data, providing new possibilities for quantification and therapy planning. The discussion is guided by the prototypical example of investigating the cerebral vasculature in MRA volume data. Geometric, topological and flow-related information can be assessed by interactive analysis on a computer workstation, providing otherwise hidden qualitative and quantitative information. Several case studies demonstrate the potential usage for structure identification, definition of landmarks, assessment of topology for catheterization, and local simulation of blood flow.

  11. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of bread and cracker products made from red or white wheat.

    PubMed

    Challacombe, Carolyn A; Seetharaman, Koushik; Duizer, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption is being promoted due to a number of associated health benefits. However, whole grain consumption is below recommendations possibly due to the presence of characteristic flavors that consumers find unacceptable. The objective of this study was to investigate the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of products made from commercial whole grain flours produced from red or white wheats, and with fine or coarse bran particle sizes. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptance panels were used to characterize both low (cracker) and intermediate (bread) moisture products made with the flours. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to correlate the descriptive and consumer data. Sensory differences in whole grain products made from red or white wheat with small or large bran particles sizes and product moisture contents were observed. Bran particle size had a greater effect on the sensory properties of the whole grain products, particularly within the cracker; conversely bran particle size had little influence on consumer acceptance. Red wheat products were found to be more acceptable than the white wheat products. However, a number of color × bran particle interactions were observed in both the descriptive and consumer data. PLS regression demonstrated that consumers could be divided into groupings based upon certain attributes and characteristics. PMID:22417450

  12. Valued aspects of primary palliative care: content analysis of bereaved carers' descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Gunn E; Farquhar, Morag C; Barclay, Stephen IG; Todd, Chris J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Informal carers provide the bulk of palliative home care. They largely rely on general practitioners (GPs) and district nurses to support them in this role, yet little is known about what carers themselves consider important in this support. Aim: To identify what informal carers valued in the palliative support provided by GPs and district nurses by using carers' own descriptions of such support. Design of study: Retrospective interviews. Setting: Primary care in Cambridgeshire. Method: Semi-structured interviews with bereaved carers of 48 patients with cancer and 12 patients with non-cancer diagnoses. Content analysis of carers' evaluative descriptions of GP and district nurse support. Results: The accessibility of the GP and district nurse emerged as the most important aspect of support. Enlistment of help from other agencies was also extensively mentioned, together with provision of equipment. Attitude or approach during interactions, and relationship with the professional were important, particularly regarding GP support, whereas support for the carer, information, and symptom control were mentioned less often. Data suggested that support was not as good for older patients (≥75 years), but this finding requires further investigation. Conclusion: Results largely confirmed findings of previous, quantitative research and the importance of a patient-centred approach. What emerged most strongly, however, was the central importance of accessibility of support services for lay carers responsible for end-of-life home care. This mainly concerned GP and district nurse support, but accessibility of additional care and equipment were also important. In short, carers' main focus was the basic support that enabled them to sustain care in the home. PMID:15469677

  13. Poor description of non-pharmacological interventions: analysis of consecutive sample of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Erueti, Chrissy; Glasziou, Paul P

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the completeness of descriptions of non-pharmacological interventions in randomised trials, identify which elements are most frequently missing, and assess whether authors can provide missing details. Design Analysis of consecutive sample of randomised trials of non-pharmacological interventions. Data sources and study selection All reports of randomised trials of non-pharmacological interventions published in 2009 in six leading general medical journals; 133 trial reports, with 137 interventions, met the inclusion criteria. Data collection Using an eight item checklist, two raters assessed the primary full trial report, plus any reference materials, appendices, or websites. Questions about missing details were emailed to corresponding authors, and relevant items were then reassessed. Results Of 137 interventions, only 53 (39%) were adequately described; this was increased to 81 (59%) by using 63 responses from 88 contacted authors. The most frequently missing item was the “intervention materials” (47% complete), but it also improved the most after author response (92% complete). Whereas some authors (27/70) provided materials or further information, other authors (21/70) could not; their reasons included copyright or intellectual property concerns, not having the materials or intervention details, or being unaware of their importance. Although 46 (34%) trial interventions had further information or materials readily available on a website, many were not mentioned in the report, were not freely accessible, or the URL was no longer functioning. Conclusions Missing essential information about interventions is a frequent, yet remediable, contributor to the worldwide waste in research funding. If trial reports do not have a sufficient description of interventions, other researchers cannot build on the findings, and clinicians and patients cannot reliably implement useful interventions. Improvement will require action by funders, researchers

  14. Determination of geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, and a musty-earthy odor in wheat grain by SPME-GC-MS, profiling volatiles, and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Wiewiórowska, Małgorzata; Wasowicz, Erwin

    2003-11-19

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol-compounds responsible for the musty-earthy off-odor of wheat grain, were isolated by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. Carboxen/PDMS/DVB fiber coating was selected because of its highest extraction efficiency. Concentrations of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol as low as 0.001 microg/kg were detected in SIM mode using ion trap mass spectrometer. Apart from GC-MS determination of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, various methods for evaluating the musty-earthy off-odor caused by these compounds in wheat grain are presented. Sensory profile analysis differentiated wheat grain into sound and off-flavored, but the method was tedious. Similar groupings, however, were obtained using more rapid methods such as comparison of volatile profiles using SPME-fast GC with PCA projection of data and metal oxide (MOS) based electronic nose. PMID:14611175

  15. The role of temporal structure in the investigation of sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception: A healthy-aging perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David

    2014-01-01

    Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals - over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds - renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own ‚privileged‘ temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized. PMID:24956028

  16. A Description of the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) Common Data Analysis Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Paul A; Markey, Sanford P; Roth, Jeri; Mirokhin, Yuri; Yan, Xinjian; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V; Edwards, Nathan J; Thangudu, Ratna R; Ketchum, Karen A; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Stein, Stephen E

    2016-03-01

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has produced large proteomics data sets from the mass spectrometric interrogation of tumor samples previously analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program. The availability of the genomic and proteomic data is enabling proteogenomic study for both reference (i.e., contained in major sequence databases) and nonreference markers of cancer. The CPTAC laboratories have focused on colon, breast, and ovarian tissues in the first round of analyses; spectra from these data sets were produced from 2D liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses and represent deep coverage. To reduce the variability introduced by disparate data analysis platforms (e.g., software packages, versions, parameters, sequence databases, etc.), the CPTAC Common Data Analysis Platform (CDAP) was created. The CDAP produces both peptide-spectrum-match (PSM) reports and gene-level reports. The pipeline processes raw mass spectrometry data according to the following: (1) peak-picking and quantitative data extraction, (2) database searching, (3) gene-based protein parsimony, and (4) false-discovery rate-based filtering. The pipeline also produces localization scores for the phosphopeptide enrichment studies using the PhosphoRS program. Quantitative information for each of the data sets is specific to the sample processing, with PSM and protein reports containing the spectrum-level or gene-level ("rolled-up") precursor peak areas and spectral counts for label-free or reporter ion log-ratios for 4plex iTRAQ. The reports are available in simple tab-delimited formats and, for the PSM-reports, in mzIdentML. The goal of the CDAP is to provide standard, uniform reports for all of the CPTAC data to enable comparisons between different samples and cancer types as well as across the major omics fields. PMID:26860878

  17. Sensory profile of a model energy drink with varying levels of functional ingredients-caffeine, ginseng, and taurine.

    PubMed

    Tamamoto, Lauren C; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2010-08-01

    Energy drinks have increased in popularity in recent years due to the claimed energy boost provided by functional ingredients. A multitude of functional ingredients have been utilized; however, there is limited research on their sensory effects in energy drink formulations. A 13-member descriptive analysis panel was conducted to investigate the effects on the sensory and rheological properties of 3 common functional ingredients-caffeine, ginseng, and taurine-in a noncarbonated model energy drink solution. Combinations of these functional ingredients at 3 levels (low, medium, high) were added to create a total of 27 different solutions (3 x 3 x 3 factorial design). Analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the sensory effects of the varying concentrations of functional ingredients in solution. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to summarize the relationship among the attributes and solutions. In general, high levels of caffeine in solution resulted in low ratings of fruity attributes and high ratings of bitter tea and fruit bitter attributes. The high level of ginseng in solution was characterized by high ratings of bitter attributes. A horns effect was observed as the sweet, artificial lemon-lime, pear, mango, and pineapple attributes were rated lower in intensity with increased ginseng levels. Taurine levels of up to 416 mg/100 mL had no significant effect on the sensory attribute ratings of the model energy drink solutions. These findings can be utilized to predict the changes in sensory characteristics when formulating energy drinks containing these popular functional ingredients. PMID:20722948

  18. Sensory and immune genes identification and analysis in a widely used parasitoid wasp Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-Fang; Kong, Xiang-Bo; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhou, Gang; Yu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is one of the preponderant egg parasitoids of Dendrolimus spp., which are important defoliators of coniferous forests. This parasitoid wasp has been widely released to control pine caterpillar and other lepidopteran pests, but its control efficiency needs to be improved. Sensory systems are crucial for T. dendrolimi to locate hosts, and immunity is probably involved after egg deposition in the host cavity; however, few reports have focused on the molecular mechanism of olfactory detection and survival of T. dendrolimi. It is necessary to identify these genes before further functional research is conducted. In this study, we assembled and analyzed the transcriptome of T. dendrolimi using next-generation sequencing technology. The sequencing and assembly resulted in 38 565 contigs with N50 of 3422 bp. Sequence comparison indicate that T. dendrolimi sequences are very similar to those of another parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. Then the olfactory, vision, and immune-related gene families were identified, and phylogenetic analyses were performed with these genes from T. dendrolimi and other model insect species. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree with odorant binding proteins of T. dendrolimi and their host Dendrolimus was constructed to determine whether convergent evolution exists. These genes can be valid targets for further gene function research. The present study may help us to understand host location and survival mechanisms of T. dendrolimi and to use them more efficiently for pest control in the future. PMID:26940718

  19. The effect of sensory feedback on crayfish posture and locomotion: I. Experimental analysis of closing the loop.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bryce; Bacqué-Cazenave, Julien; Cofer, David W; Cattaert, Daniel; Edwards, Donald H

    2015-03-15

    The effect of proprioceptive feedback on the control of posture and locomotion was studied in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard). Sensory and motor nerves of an isolated crayfish thoracic nerve cord were connected to a computational neuromechanical model of the crayfish thorax and leg. Recorded levator (Lev) and depressor (Dep) nerve activity drove the model Lev and Dep muscles to move the leg up and down. These movements released and stretched a model stretch receptor, the coxobasal chordotonal organ (CBCO). Model CBCO length changes drove identical changes in the real CBCO; CBCO afferent responses completed the feedback loop. In a quiescent preparation, imposed model leg lifts evoked resistance reflexes in the Dep motor neurons that drove the leg back down. A muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine, induced an active state in which spontaneous Lev/Dep burst pairs occurred and an imposed leg lift excited a Lev assistance reflex followed by a Lev/Dep burst pair. When the feedback loop was intact, Lev/Dep burst pairs moved the leg up and down rhythmically at nearly three times the frequency of burst pairs when the feedback loop was open. The increased rate of rhythmic bursting appeared to result from the positive feedback produced by the assistance reflex. PMID:25540217

  20. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. PMID:27542492

  1. Gas engine heat pump cycle analysis. Volume 1: Model description and generic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R. D.

    1986-10-01

    The task has prepared performance and cost information to assist in evaluating the selection of high voltage alternating current components, values for component design variables, and system configurations and operating strategy. A steady-state computer model for performance simulation of engine-driven and electrically driven heat pumps was prepared and effectively used for parametric and seasonal performance analyses. Parametric analysis showed the effect of variables associated with design of recuperators, brine coils, domestic hot water heat exchanger, compressor size, engine efficiency, insulation on exhaust and brine piping. Seasonal performance data were prepared for residential and commercial units in six cities with system configurations closely related to existing or contemplated hardware of the five GRI engine contractors. Similar data were prepared for an advanced variable-speed electric unit for comparison purposes. The effect of domestic hot water production on operating costs was determined. Four fan-operating strategies and two brine loop configurations were explored.

  2. A SIMPLE DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. TRANSFORMATIONS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS PAPERS, NUMBER 67, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIZ, DANUTA; JOSHI, ARAVIND K.

    PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER IS A SIMPLIFIED DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. IT IS NEITHER ASSUMED NOR IMPLIED IN THIS ALGORITHM THAT ANY KIND OF PRIOR ANALYSIS (EITHER STRING OR CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS) IS REQUIRED AS A PREREQUISITE. IN ORDER TO DEFINE THE SET OF ALL TRANSFORMS, THE AUTHORS FIRST DEFINE A…

  3. Short communication: Sensory profile and acceptability of a cow milk cheese manufactured by adding jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Faraone, D; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Musto, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking has been recommended as a viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects. However, little is known on the sensory properties of the cheeses made with jenny milk. In this study, the effect of the addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking on sensory properties and consumer acceptability of cheese was evaluated. A sensory profile was carried out by 10 trained panelists on 4 cow milk cheese types. Two types of cheeses were made by adding jenny milk to cow milk during cheesemaking; the cheeses were then left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The remaining 2 cheese types were made with only cow milk and were also left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The attributes generated by a quantitative descriptive analysis sensory panel were effective for discriminating the 4 products. Among them, added jenny milk samples aged for 45 d had the highest intensity of some appearance descriptors (structure and color uniformity), as well as the highest intensity of sweetness. The analysis of acceptability data obtained from 89 consumers showed that added jenny milk aged for 45 d was the most preferred type of cheese, whereas no significant differences were found among the other products, which had higher intensity of bitter, salty, acid milk, and so on. PMID:26506544

  4. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  5. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  6. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95). PMID:27483326

  7. A Descriptive Analysis of Religious Involvement Among Older Adults In Japan

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan; Kobayashi, Erika; Akiyama, Hiroko; Fukaya, Taro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of multiple dimensions of religion with data provided by a nationwide sample of older people in Japan. Six dimensions of religion were evaluated: Religious affiliation, involvement in formal religious organizations, private religious practices, the functions of prayer, belief in punishment by supernatural forces, and beliefs about the afterlife. In addition to describing these facets of religion for the sample as a whole, tests were also performed to see if they vary by age, sex, marital status, education, and whether older Japanese people live in rural or urban areas. The findings suggest that even though older people in Japan are not highly involved in formal religious institutions, they frequently engage in private religious practices. Moreover, the data reveal that while older people in Japan do not often endorse some religious beliefs (e.g., beliefs about the quality of the afterlife), they strongly adhere to others (e.g., beliefs about punishment by supernatural forces). Significant and fairly consistent variations by gender and rural versus urban residence were also observed across the measures of religiousness. PMID:20556235

  8. Efficient sensory cortical coding optimizes pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Macellaio, Matthew V; Osborne, Leslie C

    2016-01-01

    In the natural world, the statistics of sensory stimuli fluctuate across a wide range. In theory, the brain could maximize information recovery if sensory neurons adaptively rescale their sensitivity to the current range of inputs. Such adaptive coding has been observed in a variety of systems, but the premise that adaptation optimizes behaviour has not been tested. Here we show that adaptation in cortical sensory neurons maximizes information about visual motion in pursuit eye movements guided by that cortical activity. We find that gain adaptation drives a rapid (<100 ms) recovery of information after shifts in motion variance, because the neurons and behaviour rescale their sensitivity to motion fluctuations. Both neurons and pursuit rapidly adopt a response gain that maximizes motion information and minimizes tracking errors. Thus, efficient sensory coding is not simply an ideal standard but a description of real sensory computation that manifests in improved behavioural performance. PMID:27611214

  9. Portable microcomputer for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. Volume I. Data analysis methodology and hardware description

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed and programmed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32-K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, a numeric keyboard for user responses, and a 20-character thermal printer for hard-copy output of results. The unit weights 11 kg and had dimensions of 33.5 x 30.5 x 23.0 cm. This compactness allows the unit to be stored under an airline seat. Only the positions of the 148-keV /sup 241/Pu and 208-keV /sup 237/U peaks are required for spectral analysis that gives plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percent abundances. Volume I of this report provides a detailed description of the data analysis methodology, operation instructions, hardware, and maintenance and troubleshooting. Volume II describes the software and provides software listings.

  10. Description, Usage, and Validation of the MVL-15 Modified Vortex Lattice Analysis Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    , thereby providing a pathway to map viscous data to the inviscid results. However, a number of factors can sidetrack the analysis consistency during various stages of this process. For example, it should be expected that the final airplane lift curve and drag polar results depend strongly on the geometry and aerodynamics of the airfoil section; however, flap deflections and flap chord extensions change the local reference geometry of the input airfoil, the airplane wing, the tabulated non-dimensional viscous aerodynamics, and the spanwise links between the linear and the viscous aerodynamics. These changes also affect the bound circulation and therefore, calculation and integration of the induced angle of attack and induced drag. MVL-15 is configured to ensure these types of challenges are properly addressed. This report is a comprehensive manual describing the theory, use, and validation of the MVL-15 analysis tool. Section 3 summarizes theoretical, procedural, and characteristic features of MVL-15, and includes a list of the files required to setup, execute, and summarize an analysis. Section 4, Section 5, Section 6, and Section 7 combine to comprise the User's Guide portions of this report. The MVL-15 input and output files are described in Section 4 and Section 5, respectively; the descriptions are supplemented with example files and information about the file formats, parameter definitions, and typical parameter values. Section 6 describes the Wing Geometry Setup Utility and the 2d-Variants Utility files that simplify and assist setting up a consistent set of MVL-15 geometry and aerodynamics input parameters and input files. Section 7 describes the use of the 3d-Results Presentation Utility file that can be used to automatically create summary tables and charts from the MVL-15 output files. Section 8 documents the Validation Results of an extensive and varied validation test matrix, including results of an airplane analysis representative of the ERA Program. A start

  11. Sensory representation of typicality of Cabernet franc wines related to phenolic composition: impact of ripening stage and maceration time.

    PubMed

    Cadot, Yves; Caillé, Soline; Samson, Alain; Barbeau, Gérard; Cheynier, Véronique

    2012-06-30

    Phenolics are responsible for important sensory properties of red wines, including colour, astringency, and possibly bitterness. From a technical viewpoint, the harvest date and the maceration duration are critical decisions for producing red wine with a distinctive style. But little is known about the evolution of phenolics and of their extractability during ripening to predict the composition of the wine and related sensory properties. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between the sensory profile of the wines and (i) the ripening stage of the berries (harvest date) and (ii) the extraction time (maceration duration). Phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins of Vitis Vinifera var. Cabernet franc were measured in grapes and in wines from two stages of maturity and with two maceration durations. Phenolic composition was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography, after fractionation and thiolysis for proanthocyanidins. The distinctive style of wines was investigated by descriptive analysis (trained panel), Just About Right profiles and typicality assessment (wine expert panel). Relationships between phenolics and sensory attributes were established by multidimensional analysis, and phenolics were classified according to sensory data by ANOVA and PLS regressions. Astringency, bitterness, colour intensity and alcohol significantly increased with ripening and astringency and colour intensity increased with maceration time. Grape anthocyanins increased and thiolysis yield significantly decreased with ripening. In wine, proanthocyanidins increased, and mean degree of polymerisation and thiolysis yield decreased with longer extraction time. The high impact of harvest date on the sensory profiles could be due to changes in anthocyanin and sugar contents, but also to an evolution of proanthocyanidins. Moreover, proanthocyanidin composition was affected by maceration time as suggested by the decrease of thiolysis yield. Our

  12. Descriptive statistics tables from a detailed analysis of the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, A.M.; Klepeis, N.E.

    1996-07-01

    Detailed results tables are presented from an unweighted statistical analysis of selected portions of the 1992--1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data base. This survey collected data on the potential exposure of Americans to important household pollutants. Randomly selected individuals (9,386) supplied minute-by-minute diaries spanning a 24-hour day as well as follow-up questions on specific exposure types. Selected 24-hour diary locations and activities, selected regroupings of the 24-hour diary locations, activities, and smoker-present categories, and most of the follow-up question variables in the NHAPS data base were statistically analyzed across 12 subgroups (gender, age, Hispanic, education, employment, census region, day-of-week, season, asthma, angina and bronchitis/emphysema). Overall statistics were also generated for the 9,386 total respondents. Tables show descriptive statistics (including frequency distributions) of time spent and frequency of occurrence in each of 39 locations and for 22 activities (that were experienced by more than 50 respondents), along with equivalent tables for 10 regrouped locations (Residence-Indoors, Residence-Outdoors, Inside Vehicle, Near Vehicle, Other Outdoor, Office/Factory, Mall/Store, Public Building, Bar/Restaurant, Other Indoor), seven regrouped activities and smoker present. Tables of frequency distributions of time spent in exposure activities, or the frequency of occurrence of exposure activities, as determined from the follow up questions that were analyzed are also presented. Detailed indices provide page numbers for each table. An Appendix contains a condensed listing of the questionnaires (Versions A and B for adults, child-direct and child-proxy interview types), including the question number, the NHAPS data base variable name, and the verbatim question text.

  13. Sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese: Relationship between starter cultures and ripening molds.

    PubMed

    Galli, Bruno Domingues; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Porto, Ernani; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2016-10-01

    Starter cultures and ripening molds used in the manufacture of moldy cheese aimed at obtaining characteristic flavors and textures considerably differ among dairy industries. Thus, the study of variables inherent to the process and their influence on sensory patterns in cheese can improve the standardization and control of the production process. The aim of this work was to study the influence of three different variables on the sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese: type of lactic bacteria, type of ripener molds and inoculation method. Batches of Camembert-type cheese were produced using O or DL-type mesophilic starter culture, ripened with Penicillium camemberti or Penicillium candidum and mold inoculation was made directly into the milk or by spraying. All batches were sensorially evaluated using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) with panelists trained for various attributes. Among the combinations analyzed, those resulting in more typical Camembert-type cheese were those using O-type mesophilic starter culture and P. candidum maturation mold directly applied into the milk or sprayed and those using DL-type mesophilic starter and P. camemberti ripener mold applied by surface spraying. These results demonstrate, therefore, that the combination of different ripener molds, inoculation methods and starter cultures directly influences the sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese, modifying significantly its texture, appearance, aroma and taste. PMID:27382958

  14. A detailed description of the uncertainty analysis for High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.; Dieck, Ronald H.; Chuang, Isaac

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary uncertainty analysis has been performed for the High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle test program which took place at the altitude test capsule of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Results from the study establish the uncertainty of measured and calculated parameters required for the calculation of rocket engine specific impulse. A generalized description of the uncertainty methodology used is provided. Specific equations and a detailed description of the analysis are presented. Verification of the uncertainty analysis model was performed by comparison with results from the experimental program's data reduction code. Final results include an uncertainty for specific impulse of 1.30 percent. The largest contributors to this uncertainty were calibration errors from the test capsule pressure and thrust measurement devices.

  15. A detailed description of the uncertainty analysis for high area ratio rocket nozzle tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.; Dieck, Ronald H.; Chuang, Isaac

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary uncertainty analysis was performed for the High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle test program which took place at the altitude test capsule of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Results from the study establish the uncertainty of measured and calculated parameters required for the calculation of rocket engine specific impulse. A generalized description of the uncertainty methodology used is provided. Specific equations and a detailed description of the analysis is presented. Verification of the uncertainty analysis model was performed by comparison with results from the experimental program's data reduction code. Final results include an uncertainty for specific impulse of 1.30 percent. The largest contributors to this uncertainty were calibration errors from the test capsule pressure and thrust measurement devices.

  16. Caramel as a Model System for Evaluating the Roles of Mechanical Properties and Oral Processing on Sensory Perception of Texture.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Ty B; Luck, Paige J; Foegeding, E Allen

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation can have a significant impact on texture perception during oral processing. We hypothesized that slight modifications to caramel formulations would significantly alter mechanical and masticatory parameters, which can be used to explain differences in texture perception. A multidisciplinary approach was applied by evaluating relationships among mechanical properties, sensory texture, and oral processing. Caramels were utilized as a highly adhesive and cohesive model system and the formulation was adjusted to generate distinct differences in sensory hardness and adhesiveness. Descriptive analysis was used to determine sensory texture, and mechanical properties were evaluated by oscillatory rheology, creep recovery, and pressure sensitive tack measurements. Oral processing was measured by determining activity of anterior temporalis and masseter muscles via electromyography and tracking jaw movement during chewing. The substitution of agar or gelatin for corn syrup at 0.6% w/w of the total formulation resulted in increased sensory hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Creep recovery and pressure sensitive tack testing were more effective at differentiating among treatments than oscillatory rheology. Hardness correlated inversely with creep compliance, and both stickiness and tooth adhesiveness correlated with pressure sensitive adhesive force. Harder samples, despite being less adhesive, were associated with increased muscle activity and jaw movement during mastication. Tooth packing, not linked with any mechanical property, correlated with altered jaw movement. The combination of material properties and oral processing parameters were able to explain all sensory texture differences in a highly adhesive food. PMID:26823092

  17. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes. PMID:26775994

  18. Sensory activity affects sensory axon development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Peckol, E L; Zallen, J A; Yarrow, J C; Bargmann, C I

    1999-05-01

    The simple nervous system of the nematode C. elegans consists of 302 neurons with highly reproducible morphologies, suggesting a hard-wired program of axon guidance. Surprisingly, we show here that sensory activity shapes sensory axon morphology in C. elegans. A class of mutants with deformed sensory cilia at their dendrite endings have extra axon branches, suggesting that sensory deprivation disrupts axon outgrowth. Mutations that alter calcium channels or membrane potential cause similar defects. Cell-specific perturbations of sensory activity can cause cell-autonomous changes in axon morphology. Although the sensory axons initially reach their targets in the embryo, the mutations that alter sensory activity cause extra axon growth late in development. Thus, perturbations of activity affect the maintenance of sensory axon morphology after an initial pattern of innervation is established. This system provides a genetically tractable model for identifying molecular mechanisms linking neuronal activity to nervous system structure. PMID:10101123

  19. Characterization of odor-active compounds of various Chrysanthemum essential oils by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fan, Binbin; Niu, Yunwei; Wu, Minling; Liu, Junhua; Ma, Shengtao

    2016-01-15

    Volatiles of five kinds of Chrysanthemum essential oils with different manufactures were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and statistics analysis. Six sensory attributes (floral, woody, grassy, fruity, sour and minty) were selected to assess Chrysanthemum essential oils. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected and quantified using standard substances by GC-O and GC-MS. Terpenes constituted the largest chemical group among the volatiles of the essential oils. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the relationship between sensory attributes and aroma compounds. The result showed that α-pinene, β-thujene, α-terpinolen, β-cubebene, caryophyllene, (Z)β-farnesene, (-)-spathulenol, linalool, camphor, camphene, 4-terpineol, Z-citral and 4-isopropyltoluene were typical aroma compounds covaried with characteristic aroma of Chrysanthemum essential oils. PMID:26735711

  20. Using Administrative Data for Research: A Companion Guide to "A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Florida Schools." REL 2015-049

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Herrington, Carolyn D.

    2014-01-01

    This document is a companion guide to "A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Florida Schools" (Folsom, Osborne-Lampkin, & Herrington, in press). It describes the methods used to extract information from the Florida Department of Education database in order to conduct a descriptive analysis of the demographic…

  1. Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory - an aggregate analysis of lesion and fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-12-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways, recent advances in lesions reconstruction methodology applied to groups of patients have implicated left temporoparietal zones. Parallel work using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has pinpointed a region in the posterior most portion of the left planum temporale, area Spt, which is critical for phonological working memory. Here we show that the region of maximal lesion overlap in a sample of 14 patients with conduction aphasia perfectly circumscribes area Spt, as defined in an aggregate fMRI analysis of 105 subjects performing a phonological working memory task. We provide a review of the evidence supporting the idea that Spt is an interface site for the integration of sensory and vocal tract-related motor representations of complex sound sequences, such as speech and music and show how the symptoms of conduction aphasia can be explained by damage to this system. PMID:21256582

  2. Quantification of Selected Aroma-Active Compounds in Strawberries by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography and Correlation with Sensory Descriptive Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selected aroma-active compounds in strawberries were quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography. Ten strawberry cultivars grown in California and Oregon were studied. The standard curves were built in a synthetic matrix and quantification was achieved using multipl...

  3. Recording Sensory Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

  4. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  5. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  6. Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon

  7. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations. PMID:16637699

  8. Physicochemical, textural, volatile, and sensory profiles of traditional Sepet cheese.

    PubMed

    Ercan, D; Korel, F; Yüceer, Y Karagül; Kınık, O

    2011-09-01

    Characterization of traditional cheeses is important for the protection of diversity of tradition and contributing baseline data for further research and quality control. Sepet cheese is a traditional cheese and specific to the Aegean region of Turkey. In this study, 52 Sepet cheese samples were analyzed to characterize the physicochemical, textural, volatile compounds, and sensory profiles. The changes in the physicochemical and volatile compositions were investigated during production and ripening periods. The average dry matter (DM; 55.16%), fat-in-DM (45.80%), protein (29.18%), salt-in-DM (12.88%), water activity (0.83), pH (5.50), titratable acidity (1.69%), ripening and lipolysis indices (11.06 and 6.36), firmness (212.20N), springiness (0.62), cohesiveness (0.57), adhesiveness (0.48 Nmm), and chewiness (66.87N) values of Sepet cheese samples were determined. Hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, and butyric acids, which were responsible for the cheesy, waxy, goaty odors, were the most abundant volatile compounds in these cheeses. Most of the volatile compounds increased significantly during production and ripening. Significant changes in most of the physicochemical characteristics were observed up to the third month of ripening. As a result of the descriptive sensory analysis, Sepet cheeses were described with descriptors such as free fatty acid, animal like, sulfurous, creamy, cooked, and whey, and aromatics with high salty basic taste. PMID:21854903

  9. Combinatorial approach to flavor analysis. 2. Olfactory investigation of a library of S-methyl thioesters and sensory evaluation of selected components.

    PubMed

    Berger, C; Martin, N; Collin, S; Gijs, L; Khan, J A; Piraprez, G; Spinnler, H E; Vulfson, E N

    1999-08-01

    The odor characteristics of individual components present in a library comprised of S-methyl thioesters were determined independently by two laboratories using similar but not identical techniques. The odor potency was assessed by values of best estimate-GC-lower amount detected by sniffing (BE-GC-LOADS). For small and medium chain S-methyl thioesters, these values were found to increase from 6 ng for S-methyl thiobutanoate to 90 ng for S-methyl thiostearate. All assessors detected a "green", "floral", or "pineapple" odor for S-methyl thiohexanoate and described thioesters containing a 2-6 carbon chain length as "cheesy". The results of this preliminary analysis were confirmed by a more extensive study of selected compounds, namely S-methyl thioacetate, S-methyl thiopropionate, S-methyl thiobutanoate, and S-methyl thiohexanoate, using a trained panel of 18 subjects. The subjects confirmed the presence of the "green" and "fruity" notes in the odor of S-methyl thiohexanoate. The analysis also revealed a significant difference in the odor of S-methyl thiopropionate relative to that of S-methyl thioacetate and S-methyl thiobutanoate. When "cheesy" characteristics were mentioned, the majority of panelists clearly associated the flavor of S-methyl thiopropionate with Camembert with almost 20% of all the descriptors given referring specifically to this cheese variety as compared to about 2 and 5% in the case of S-methyl thioacetate and thiobutanoate, respectively. Prompted by this observation, two samples of Camembert prepared from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk were analyzed and relatively large amounts of S-methyl thiopropionate were found in the former but not in the latter cheese. The results obtained in the course of this work suggest that the sensory analysis of combinatorial libraries is a useful new approach in the search for new commercial flavors and/or identification of characteristic flavors in foods. PMID:10552644

  10. Sensory Modulation Impairments in Children with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    John, Angela E.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to organize information detected by our senses (“sensory modulation”) allows us to act or respond effectively to situations encountered, facilitating learning, social behavior, and day to day functioning. We hypothesized that children with Williams syndrome (WS) would demonstrate symptoms of poor sensory modulation and that these sensory modulation abnormalities contribute to the phenotype. Participants were 78 children with WS aged 4.00 – 10.95 years. Based on parent ratings on the Short Sensory Profile [SSP; Dunn, 1999], most children were classified as having definite sensory modulation issues. Cluster analysis identified the presence of two clusters varying in level of sensory modulation impairment. Children in the high impairment group demonstrated poorer adaptive functioning, executive functioning, problems behaviors, and more difficult temperaments than children in the low impairment group. PMID:20425786

  11. Sensory modulation impairments in children with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    John, Angela E; Mervis, Carolyn B

    2010-05-15

    The ability to organize information detected by our senses ("sensory modulation") allows us to act or respond effectively to situations encountered, facilitating learning, social behavior, and day-to-day functioning. We hypothesized that children with Williams syndrome (WS) would demonstrate symptoms of poor sensory modulation and that these sensory modulation abnormalities contribute to the phenotype. Participants were 78 children with WS aged 4.00-10.95 years. Based on parent ratings on the Short Sensory Profile [SSP; Dunn, 1999], most children were classified as having definite sensory modulation issues. Cluster analysis identified the presence of two clusters varying in level of sensory modulation impairment. Children in the high impairment group demonstrated poorer adaptive functioning, executive functioning, more problem behaviors, and more difficult temperaments than children in the low impairment group. PMID:20425786

  12. Sensory theories of developmental dyslexia: three challenges for research.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen the publication of a range of new theories suggesting that the basis of dyslexia might be sensory dysfunction. In this Opinion article, the evidence for and against several prominent sensory theories of dyslexia is closely scrutinized. Contrary to the causal claims being made, my analysis suggests that many proposed sensory deficits might result from the effects of reduced reading experience on the dyslexic brain. I therefore suggest that longitudinal studies of sensory processing, beginning in infancy, are required to successfully identify the neural basis of developmental dyslexia. Such studies could have a powerful impact on remediation. PMID:25370786

  13. Integrating Real-Life Data Analysis in Teaching Descriptive Statistics: A Constructivist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at a process of integrating real-life data investigation in a course on descriptive statistics. Referring to constructivist perspectives, this article suggests a look at the potential of inculcating alternative teaching methods that encourage students to take a more active role in their own learning and participate in the…

  14. Accuracy of Teacher-Collected Descriptive Analysis Data: A Comparison of Narrative and Structured Recording Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hovanetz, Alyson; Strobel, Margaret; Tetreault, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Recording the antecedents and consequences of problem behavior for the purposes of conducting descriptive analyses (called "A-B-C recording") can be particularly challenging, given the multiple variables that are commonly present in the natural environment. Nonetheless, psychologists and behavioral consultants often must rely on parents and…

  15. Descriptive Analysis of Classroom Setting Events on the Social Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer M.; McKenney, Elizabeth L. W.; Mancil, G. Richmond

    2008-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are characterized by extreme deficits in social relatedness with same-age peers. The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify naturally occurring antecedent variables (i.e., setting events) in the classroom environments of children with ASD that promoted their engagement in peer-related social…

  16. Secondary Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs and Practices in Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammah, Jonathan O. A.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the beliefs and practices of general physical education (GPE) teachers at the high school level on inclusion and teaching students with severe disabilities. Participants were two experienced GPE teachers at separate suburban high schools. The research paradigm was descriptive using a combination of naturalistic…

  17. Descriptive Analysis of Teacher Instructional Practices and Student Engagement among Adolescents with and without Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirn, Regina G.; Scott, Terrance M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine teacher and student behavior in high school classrooms that included at least one student identified with challenging behavior. Across two school years and within the content areas of math, reading/English, social studies, and science, student/ teacher dyads were directly observed in the typical…

  18. A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Wisconsin. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 135

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Condon, Chris; Greenberg, Ariela; Williams, Ryan; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Fetters, Jenni; Baker, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    This study responds to a request from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction for information on Wisconsin's school principal workforce population. Descriptive analyses addressed two research questions: (1) How do the demographic characteristics of Wisconsin school principals compare how did these characteristics change over 1999-2009?; and…

  19. A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Wisconsin. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 135

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Condon, Chris; Greenberg, Ariela; Williams, Ryan; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Fetters, Jenni; Baker, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    This summary describes a study that responds to a request from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction for information on Wisconsin's school principal workforce population. In the study, descriptive analyses addressed two research questions: (1) How do the demographic characteristics of Wisconsin school principals compare how did these…

  20. Interpreting the Meaning of Grades: A Descriptive Analysis of Middle School Teachers' Assessment and Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Tameshia Vaden

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive, non-experimental, quantitative study was designed to answer the broad question, "What do grades mean?" Core academic subject middle school teachers from one large, suburban school district in Virginia were administered an electronic survey that asked them to report on aspects of their grading practices and assessment methods for…

  1. A Decade of International Activities by U.S. Nurse Faculty: A Descriptive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Brigid; Lash, Ayhan Aytekin

    2002-01-01

    A study to assess scholarly activities of U.S. nursing faculty abroad from 1985-1995 resulted in descriptions of 805 visits to 109 countries by 247 scholars. Results showed that U.S. nurse faculty were involved in diverse and widespread international nursing activities. (Contains 25 references.) (JOW)

  2. Best Practice in Action: A Descriptive Analysis of Exemplary Teacher Enhancement Institutes in Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruskus, Joan; Luczak, John

    The purpose of this study was to describe what federally funded teacher enhancement looks like at its best and to determine whether best practice can be recognized as such by professionals in the field. Narrative descriptions of programs were analyzed for strength of evidence supporting key elements of best practice. Other data collection methods…

  3. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  4. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  5. Field Air Sampling and Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis of Livestock Odorants with Sorbent Tube GC-MS/Olfactometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shicheng; Cai, Lingshuang; Koziel, Jacek A.; Hoff, Steven; Clanton, Charles; Schmidt, David; Jacobson, Larry; Parker, David; Heber, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Characterization and quantification of livestock odorants is one of the most challenging analytical tasks because odor-causing gases are very reactive, polar and often present at very low concentrations in a complex matrix of less important or irrelevant gases. The objective of this research was to develop a novel analytical method for characterization of the livestock odorants including their odor character, odor intensity, and hedonic tone and to apply this method for quantitative analysis of the key odorants responsible for livestock odor. Sorbent tubes packed with Tenax TA were used for field sampling. The automated one-step thermal desorption module coupled with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry system was used for simultaneous chemical and odor analysis. Fifteen odorous VOCs and semi-VOCs identified from different livestock species operations were quantified. Method detection limits ranges from 40 pg for skatole to 3590 pg for acetic acid. In addition, odor character, odor intensity and hedonic tone associated with each of the target odorants are also analyzed simultaneously. We found that the mass of each VOCs in the sample correlates well with the log stimulus intensity. All of the correlation coefficients (R2) are greater than 0.74, and the top 10 correlation coefficients were greater than 0.90.

  6. Remifentanil alters sensory neuromodulation of swallowing in healthy volunteers: quantification by a novel pressure-impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Doeltgen, S H; Omari, T I; Savilampi, J

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to remifentanil contributes to an increased risk of pulmonary aspiration, likely through reduced pharyngeal contractile vigor and diminished bolus propulsion during swallowing. We employed a novel high-resolution pressure-flow analysis to quantify the biomechanical changes across the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Eleven healthy young (23.3 ± 3.1 yr old) participants (7 men and 4 women) received remifentanil via intravenous target-controlled infusion with an effect-site concentration of 3 ng/ml. Before and 30 min following commencement of remifentanil administration, participants performed ten 10-ml saline swallows while pharyngoesophageal manometry and electrical impedance data were recorded using a 4.2-mm-diameter catheter housing 36 circumferential pressure sensors. Remifentanil significantly shortened the duration of UES opening (P < 0.001) and increased residual UES pressure (P = 0.003). At the level of the hypopharynx, remifentanil significantly shortened the latency from maximum bolus distension to peak contraction (P = 0.004) and significantly increased intrabolus distension pressure (P = 0.024). Novel mechanical states analysis revealed that the latencies between the different phases of the stereotypical UES relaxation sequence were shortened by remifentanil. Reduced duration of bolus flow during shortened UES opening, in concert with increased hypopharyngeal distension pressures, is mechanically consistent with increased flow resistance due to a more rapid bolus flow rate. These biomechanical changes are congruent with modification of the physiological neuroregulatory mechanism governing accommodation to bolus volume. PMID:27151943

  7. Chemical characterization of the aroma of Grenache rosé wines: aroma extract dilution analysis, quantitative determination, and sensory reconstitution studies.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Ortín, Natalia; Escudero, Ana; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan

    2002-07-01

    The aroma of a Grenache rosé wine from Calatayud (Zaragoza, Spain) has been elucidated following a strategy consisting of an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), followed by the quantitative analysis of the main odorants and the determination of odor activities values (OAVs) and, finally, by a series of reconstitution and omission tests with synthetic aroma models. Thirty-eight aroma compounds were found in the AEDA study, 35 of which were identified. Twenty-one compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. An aroma model prepared by mixing the 24 compounds with OAV > 0.5 in a synthetic wine showed a high qualitative similarity with the aroma of the rosé wine. The addition of compounds with OAV < 0.5 did not improve the model, whereas the aroma of a model containing only odorants with OAV > 10 was very different from that of the wine. Omission tests revealed that the most important odorant of this Grenache rosé wine was 3-mercapto-1-hexanol, with a deep impact on the wine fruity and citric notes. The synergic action of Furaneol and homofuraneol also had an important impact on wine aroma, particularly in its fruity and caramel notes. The omission of beta-damascenone, which had the second highest OAV, caused only a slight decrease on the intensity of the aroma model. Still weaker was the sensory effect caused by the omission of 10 other compounds, such as fatty acids and their ethyl esters, isoamyl acetate, and higher alcohols. PMID:12083881

  8. Characterizing the Smell of Marijuana by Odor Impact of Volatile Compounds: An Application of Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent US legislation permitting recreational use of marijuana in certain states brings the use of marijuana odor as probable cause for search and seizure to the forefront of forensic science, once again. This study showed the use of solid-phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and simultaneous human olfaction to characterize the total aroma of marijuana. The application of odor activity analysis offers an explanation as to why high volatile chemical concentration does not equate to most potent odor impact of a certain compound. This suggests that more attention should be focused on highly odorous compounds typically present in low concentrations, such as nonanal, decanol, o-cymene, benzaldehyde, which have more potent odor impact than previously reported marijuana headspace volatiles. PMID:26657499

  9. A Description for Rock Joint Roughness Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yunfeng; Tang, Huiming; Eldin, M. A. M Ez; Chen, Pengyu; Wang, Liangqing; Wang, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Shear behavior of rock mass greatly depends upon the rock joint roughness which is generally characterized by anisotropy, scale effect and interval effect. A new index enabling to capture all the three features, namely brightness area percentage (BAP), is presented to express the roughness based on synthetic illumination of a digital terrain model derived from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Since only tiny planes facing opposite to shear direction make contribution to resistance during shear failure, therefore these planes are recognized through the image processing technique by taking advantage of the fact that they appear brighter than other ones under the same light source. Comparison with existing roughness indexes and two case studies were illustrated to test the performance of BAP description. The results reveal that the rock joint roughness estimated by the presented description has a good match with existing roughness methods and displays a wider applicability. PMID:26585247

  10. A Description for Rock Joint Roughness Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yunfeng; Tang, Huiming; Eldin, M. A. M. Ez; Chen, Pengyu; Wang, Liangqing; Wang, Jinge

    2015-11-01

    Shear behavior of rock mass greatly depends upon the rock joint roughness which is generally characterized by anisotropy, scale effect and interval effect. A new index enabling to capture all the three features, namely brightness area percentage (BAP), is presented to express the roughness based on synthetic illumination of a digital terrain model derived from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Since only tiny planes facing opposite to shear direction make contribution to resistance during shear failure, therefore these planes are recognized through the image processing technique by taking advantage of the fact that they appear brighter than other ones under the same light source. Comparison with existing roughness indexes and two case studies were illustrated to test the performance of BAP description. The results reveal that the rock joint roughness estimated by the presented description has a good match with existing roughness methods and displays a wider applicability.

  11. A Description for Rock Joint Roughness Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yunfeng; Tang, Huiming; Eldin, M A M Ez; Chen, Pengyu; Wang, Liangqing; Wang, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Shear behavior of rock mass greatly depends upon the rock joint roughness which is generally characterized by anisotropy, scale effect and interval effect. A new index enabling to capture all the three features, namely brightness area percentage (BAP), is presented to express the roughness based on synthetic illumination of a digital terrain model derived from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Since only tiny planes facing opposite to shear direction make contribution to resistance during shear failure, therefore these planes are recognized through the image processing technique by taking advantage of the fact that they appear brighter than other ones under the same light source. Comparison with existing roughness indexes and two case studies were illustrated to test the performance of BAP description. The results reveal that the rock joint roughness estimated by the presented description has a good match with existing roughness methods and displays a wider applicability. PMID:26585247

  12. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids ("Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita," "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon," and "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita"). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid "Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita" exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita," such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon"; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents. PMID:24558334

  13. Tools for quantitative form description; an evaluation of different software packages for semi-landmark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houssaye, Alexandra; Herrel, Anthony; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The challenging complexity of biological structures has led to the development of several methods for quantitative analyses of form. Bones are shaped by the interaction of historical (phylogenetic), structural, and functional constrains. Consequently, bone shape has been investigated intensively in an evolutionary context. Geometric morphometric approaches allow the description of the shape of an object in all of its biological complexity. However, when biological objects present only few anatomical landmarks, sliding semi-landmarks may provide good descriptors of shape. The sliding procedure, mandatory for sliding semi-landmarks, requires several steps that may be time-consuming. We here compare the time required by two different software packages (‘Edgewarp’ and ‘Morpho’) for the same sliding task, and investigate potential differences in the results and biological interpretation. ‘Morpho’ is much faster than ‘Edgewarp,’ notably as a result of the greater computational power of the ‘Morpho’ software routines and the complexity of the ‘Edgewarp’ workflow. Morphospaces obtained using both software packages are similar and provide a consistent description of the biological variability. The principal differences between the two software packages are observed in areas characterized by abrupt changes in the bone topography. In summary, both software packages perform equally well in terms of the description of biological structures, yet differ in the simplicity of the workflow and time needed to perform the analyses. PMID:26618086

  14. Tools for quantitative form description; an evaluation of different software packages for semi-landmark analysis.

    PubMed

    Botton-Divet, Léo; Houssaye, Alexandra; Herrel, Anthony; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The challenging complexity of biological structures has led to the development of several methods for quantitative analyses of form. Bones are shaped by the interaction of historical (phylogenetic), structural, and functional constrains. Consequently, bone shape has been investigated intensively in an evolutionary context. Geometric morphometric approaches allow the description of the shape of an object in all of its biological complexity. However, when biological objects present only few anatomical landmarks, sliding semi-landmarks may provide good descriptors of shape. The sliding procedure, mandatory for sliding semi-landmarks, requires several steps that may be time-consuming. We here compare the time required by two different software packages ('Edgewarp' and 'Morpho') for the same sliding task, and investigate potential differences in the results and biological interpretation. 'Morpho' is much faster than 'Edgewarp,' notably as a result of the greater computational power of the 'Morpho' software routines and the complexity of the 'Edgewarp' workflow. Morphospaces obtained using both software packages are similar and provide a consistent description of the biological variability. The principal differences between the two software packages are observed in areas characterized by abrupt changes in the bone topography. In summary, both software packages perform equally well in terms of the description of biological structures, yet differ in the simplicity of the workflow and time needed to perform the analyses. PMID:26618086

  15. Effect of green tea powder on thermal, rheological & functional properties of wheat flour and physical, nutraceutical & sensory analysis of cookies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mudasir; Baba, Waqas N; A Wani, Touseef; Gani, Asir; Gani, Adil; Shah, Umar; Wani, S M; Masoodi, F A

    2015-09-01

    Green tea powder (GTP) was incorporated in wheat flour at different levels (1, 2 and 4 %) and its effect on quality parameters of flour and cookies were studied. Thermal analysis showed that addition of GTP did not increase the onset temperature, end temperature and enthalpy of flour significantly. However, the increase in GTP content retarded the retro gradation of the gelatinized wheat flour gel and decreased the water absorption capacity, Oil absorption capacity, water solubility index, Foam capacity and foam stability significantly. The L* and b* values of cookies decreased from 53.63 to 33.23 and 29.02 to 24.39 respectively, while as, a* value showed an increase from 3.61 to 5.23 indirect proportion to quantity added. The addition of GTP to wheat flour increased the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) percent inhibition and reducing power of cookies. Further, it also increases the acceptability for color, aroma and taste; however it loosened its structural integrity and decreased the fracture force. PMID:26344994

  16. Contralateral Sensory and Motor Effects of Unilateral Kaltenborn Mobilization in Patients with Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis: A Secondary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Villafañe, Jorge H.; de-las-Peñas, Cesar Fernandez; Silva, Guillermo B.; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine changes in pressure sensitivity and pinch strength in patients with thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) in the contralateral hand after unilateral Kaltenborn mobilization on the symptomatic hand. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine females with dominant hand thumb CMC osteoarthritis participated (age 70–90), and were randomized into 2 groups. The experimental group received a Kaltenborn mobilization, and the placebo group received a nontherapeutic dose of intermittent ultrasound. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) at the thumb CMC joint, scaphoid bone and hamate bone and tip and tripod pinch strength were assessed before and after the intervention and 1 week (1st follow-up) and 2 weeks (2nd follow-up) after the intervention. [Results] Significant increases in PPT in the experimental group at all follow-up periods as compared with baseline data were found. The post-intervention between-group mean differences for PPT were 1.1 (95%CI 0.4–1.8) for the CMC joint, 1.1 (95%CI 0.2–2.1) for the scaphoid, and 1.5 (95%CI 0.5–2.8) for the hamate. The post-intervention between-group mean differences were 0.5 (95%CI 0.2–0.9) for the tip pinch and 0.3 (95%CI 0.1–0.6) for the tripod pinch. [Conclusion] The current secondary analysis found that Kaltenborn mobilization for the symptomatic hand reduces pressure pain sensitivity (PPT increases) and also produces motor changes in the contralateral non-treated hand compared with a placebo group. PMID:25013272

  17. Contralateral sensory and motor effects of unilateral kaltenborn mobilization in patients with thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Jorge H; Fernandez de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Silva, Guillermo B; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine changes in pressure sensitivity and pinch strength in patients with thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) in the contralateral hand after unilateral Kaltenborn mobilization on the symptomatic hand. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine females with dominant hand thumb CMC osteoarthritis participated (age 70-90), and were randomized into 2 groups. The experimental group received a Kaltenborn mobilization, and the placebo group received a nontherapeutic dose of intermittent ultrasound. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) at the thumb CMC joint, scaphoid bone and hamate bone and tip and tripod pinch strength were assessed before and after the intervention and 1 week (1st follow-up) and 2 weeks (2nd follow-up) after the intervention. [Results] Significant increases in PPT in the experimental group at all follow-up periods as compared with baseline data were found. The post-intervention between-group mean differences for PPT were 1.1 (95%CI 0.4-1.8) for the CMC joint, 1.1 (95%CI 0.2-2.1) for the scaphoid, and 1.5 (95%CI 0.5-2.8) for the hamate. The post-intervention between-group mean differences were 0.5 (95%CI 0.2-0.9) for the tip pinch and 0.3 (95%CI 0.1-0.6) for the tripod pinch. [Conclusion] The current secondary analysis found that Kaltenborn mobilization for the symptomatic hand reduces pressure pain sensitivity (PPT increases) and also produces motor changes in the contralateral non-treated hand compared with a placebo group. PMID:25013272

  18. CRYPTOGENIC SENSORY POLYNEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause. They are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). The age of onset is variable but usually in the sixth to seventh decade of life, affecting men and women equally. CSPN symptoms progress slowly, most patients present with distal leg paresthesias or pain that progressed over years to involve the hands. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain (see Treatment of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy chapter) and physical therapy for balance training and occasionally assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  19. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for

  20. Correlation of quantitative sensorial descriptors and chromatographic signals of beer using multivariate calibration strategies.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gilmare A; Maretto, Danilo A; Bolini, Helena Maria A; Teófilo, Reinaldo F; Augusto, Fabio; Poppi, Ronei J

    2012-10-01

    In this study, two important sensorial parameters of beer quality - bitterness and grain taste - were correlated with data obtained after headspace solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis. Sensorial descriptors of 32 samples of Pilsner beers from different brands were previously estimated by conventional quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA). Areas of 54 compounds systematically found in the HS-SPME-GC-MS chromatograms were used as input data. Multivariate calibration models were established between the chromatographic areas and the sensorial parameters. The peaks (compounds) relevant to build each multivariate calibration model were determined by genetic algorithm (GA) and ordered predictors selection (OPS), tools for variable selection. GA selected 11 and 15 chromatographic peak areas, for bitterness and grain taste, respectively; while OPS selected 17 and 16 compounds for the same parameters. It could be noticed that seven variables were commonly pointed out by both variable selection methods to bitterness parameter and 10 variables were commonly selected to grain taste attribute. The peak areas most significant to the evaluation of the parameters found by both variable selection methods fed to the PLS algorithm to find the proper models. The obtained models estimated the sensorial descriptors with good accuracy and precision, showing that the utilised approaches were efficient in finding the evaluated correlations. Certainly, the combination of proper chemometric methodologies and instrumental data can be used as a potential tool for sensorial evaluation of foods and beverages, allowing for fast and secure replication of parameters usually measured by trained panellists. PMID:25005998

  1. Relationship between physical properties and sensory attributes of carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Kappes, S M; Schmidt, S J; Lee, S-Y

    2007-01-01

    Bulk sweeteners provide functional properties in beverages, including sweet taste, bulking, bitter masking, structure, and mouthfeel. Diet beverages come closer to the taste of regular beverages using a blend of high-intensity sweeteners; however, some properties, including bulking, structure, and mouthfeel, remain significantly different. Relating physical properties to sensory characteristics is an important step in understanding why mouthfeel differences are apparent in beverages sweetened with alternative sweeteners compared to bulk sweeteners. The objectives of this research were to (1) measure sweetener profile, Brix, refractive index, viscosity, a(w), carbonation, titratable acidity, and pH of commercial carbonated beverages; and (2) correlate the physical property measurements to descriptive analysis of the beverages. Correlation analysis, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Brix, viscosity, and sweet taste were highly correlated among one another and were all negatively correlated to a(w). Carbonated and decarbonated pH were highly correlated to each other and were both negatively correlated to mouthcoating. Numbing, burn, bite, and carbonation were highly correlated to total acidity, citric acid, and ascorbic acid and negatively correlated to phosphoric acid. The mouthfeel difference between diet and regular lemon/lime carbonated beverages is small and may be related to overall differences between flavor, acid, and sweetener types and usage levels. This research is significant because it demonstrates the use of both sensory attributes and physical properties to identify types of ingredients and levels that may decrease the mouthfeel perception differences between regular and diet carbonated beverages, which could consequently lead to higher acceptance of diet beverages by the consumers of regular. PMID:17995891

  2. Improved gold chloride staining method for anatomical analysis of sensory nerve endings in the shoulder capsule and labrum as examples of loose and dense fibrous tissues

    PubMed Central

    Witherspoon, J W; Smirnova, IV; McIff, TE

    2014-01-01

    Consistency in gold chloride staining is essential for anatomical analysis of sensory nerve endings. The gold chloride stain for this purpose has been modified by many investigators, but often yields inconsistent staining, which makes it difficult to differentiate structures and to determine nerve ending distribution in large tissue samples. We introduce additional steps and major changes to the modified Gairns’ protocol. We controlled the temperature and mixing rate during tissue staining to achieve consistent staining and complete solution penetration. We subjected samples to sucrose dehydration to improve cutting efficiency. We then exposed samples to a solution containing lemon juice, formic acid and paraformaldehyde to produce optimal tissue transparency with minimal tissue deformity. We extended the time for gold chloride impregnation 1.5 fold. Gold chloride was reduced in the labrum using 25% formic acid in water for 18 h and in the capsule using 25% formic acid in citrate phosphate buffer for 2 h. Citrate binds gold nanoparticles, which minimizes aggregation in the tissue. We stored samples in fresh ultrapure water at 4° C to slow reduction and to maintain color contrast in the tissue. Tissue samples were embedded in Tissue Tek and sectioned at 80 and 100 μm instead of using glycerin and teasing the tissue apart as in Gairns’ modified gold chloride method. We attached sections directly to gelatin subbed slides after sectioning with a cryostat. The slides then were processed and coverslipped with Permount. Staining consistency was demonstrated throughout the tissue sections and neural structures were clearly identifiable. PMID:24476562

  3. Engaging in the Study of Organizations. A Temporary Systems Approach to the Description and Analysis of Teacher Corps' Pilot Trainer Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Brenda; And Others

    This report is a description and analysis of Teacher Corps' Pilot Trainer Workshops (PTW) conducted in July, 1977. The volume serves two purposes: First, it provides descriptive information to those parties who may be involved in the delivery of programs similar to the Teacher Corps project, as well as providing specific recommendations regarding…

  4. Drought description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Descriptive analysis of individual and community factors among African American youths in urban public housing.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:25076647

  6. Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

  7. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked. PMID:25834250

  8. Star tracker constraint violations digital capability description and analysis results. Mission planning, mission analysis, and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poston, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of star tracker constraint violation analyses performed with the digital computer program Shuttle Attitude and Pointing Time Line Processor (SAPT) are presented. Results are typical of those utilized to provide the information required to update Baseline Reference Mission Attitude and Pointing Time Lines. Descriptions of SAPT modifications implemented to perform these analyses are also presented.

  9. Look Closer: The Alertness of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Multi-Sensory Storytelling, a Time Sequential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Brug, Annet; Munde, Vera S.; van der Putten, Annette A.J.; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) is a storytelling method designed for individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). It is essential that listeners be alert during MSST, so that they become familiar with their personalised stories. Repetition and the presentation of stimuli are likely to affect the…

  10. Multi-Sensory Storytelling as an Aid to Assisting People with Profound Intellectual Disabilities to Cope with Sensitive Issues: A Multiple Research Methods Analysis of Engagement and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Hannah; Fenwick, Maggi; Lambe, Loretto; Hogg, James

    2011-01-01

    The importance of storytelling in social, cultural and educational contexts is well established and documented. The extension of storytelling to people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) has in recent years been undertaken with an emphasis on the value of sensory experience and the context storytelling provides for social…

  11. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from dairy and swine facilities: Part 5-Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis with Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry - Olfactometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) for air samples collected at barn exhaust fans were used for quantification and ranking of odor impact of target odorous gases. Fifteen target odorous VOCs (odorants) were selected. Air sampl...

  12. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  13. Describing Quality and Sensory Attributes of 3 Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars at 3 Ripeness Stages Based on Firmness.

    PubMed

    Nassur, Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende; González-Moscoso, Sara; Crisosto, Gayle M; Lima, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2015-09-01

    To determine the ideal ripening stage for consumption of the mango cultivars, "Ataulfo," "Haden," and "Tommy Atkins"; fruits at 3 flesh firmness levels (ripeness stages) were evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive analysis after instrumental measurements were made. After harvest, all fruits were ripened to allow softening and quality and sensory attribute changes. Ripening changes during softening of Ataulfo mangos were expressed by a characteristic increase in the perception of "tropical fruit" and "peach" aromas, an increase in "juiciness," "sweetness," and "tropical fruit" flavor, while "fibrousness," "chewiness," and "sourness" decreased. Similar desirable sensory changes were also detected during softening of Haden mangos; an increase in tropical fruit and peach aromas, sweetness and tropical fruit flavor, and a decrease in chewiness, sourness, and bitterness. Softening of Tommy Atkins mangos was followed by reduced chewiness and sourness and increased peach aroma. Softening of all cultivars was followed by decreased sourness and titratable acidity (TA) and increased soluble solids concentration (SSC) and SSC:TA ratio. The results indicate that mango ripening leads to increased expression of sensory attributes such as tropical fruit and peach aromas, tropical flavor, and sweetness that have been related to improved eating quality and these final changes in sensory quality attributes are specific for each cultivar. For example, Ataulfo and Haden mangos had greater improvement in quality and sensory attributes related to fruit eating quality during ripening-softening than Tommy Atkins. In our consumer test, these quality-sensory attributes expressed during ripening that were perceived by the trained panel were also validated, supporting the need for a controlled ripening protocol in mangos. PMID:26257310

  14. A descriptive analysis of public school educators arrested for sex offenses.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Lindon; Watson, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This study examined trends and patterns in public school teacher convictions in order to create a descriptive profile of teachers who have offended against their students. To accomplish this goal, the authors reviewed public records for demographic information as well as the history and frequency of teacher arrests and convictions in the southeastern United States from 2007 to 2011 and created an offender profile. Subsequent analyses were conducted to assess whether gender differences among sexual misconduct offenders existed in terms of the age of their alleged victim, the grade level in which they were employed at the time of arrest or indictment, and the manner by which their alleged crimes were revealed and charges were brought against them. PMID:24512438

  15. Description and Application of a Mathematical Method for the Analysis of Harmony

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Qiting; Jin, Runfang; Ma, Junxia; Cui, Guotao

    2015-01-01

    Harmony issues are widespread in human society and nature. To analyze these issues, harmony theory has been proposed as the main theoretical approach for the study of interpersonal relationships and relationships between humans and nature. Therefore, it is of great importance to study harmony theory. After briefly introducing the basic concepts of harmony theory, this paper expounds the five elements that are essential for the quantitative description of harmony issues in water resources management: harmony participant, harmony objective, harmony regulation, harmony factor, and harmony action. A basic mathematical equation for the harmony degree, that is, a quantitative expression of harmony issues, is introduced in the paper: HD = ai − bj, where a is the uniform degree, b is the difference degree, i is the harmony coefficient, and j is the disharmony coefficient. This paper also discusses harmony assessment and harmony regulation and introduces some application examples. PMID:26167535

  16. Radioactive Solid Waste Storage and Disposal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Description and Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, L.D.

    2001-01-30

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a principle Department of Energy (DOE) Research Institution operated by the Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) under direction of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). The Laboratory was established in east Tennessee, near what is now the city of Oak Ridge, in the mid 1940s as a part of the World War II effort to develop a nuclear weapon. Since its inception, disposal of radioactively contaminated materials, both solid and liquid, has been an integral part of Laboratory operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the ORNL Solid Waste Storage Areas, to describe the practice and procedure of their operation, and to address the health and safety impacts and concerns of that operation.

  17. Volatile and sensory profiling of cocktail bitters.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arielle J; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic cocktail bitters are derived from the alcoholic extraction of a variety of plant materials and are used as additives in mixed drinks to enhance aroma and flavor. In this study sixteen commercial bitters were analyzed using volatile (GC-MS) and sensory profiling and multivariate statistics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS). The samples differed significantly in their citrus, celery, and spice characteristics. 148 volatile compounds were tentatively identified and the composition varied significantly with the type of bitters sample evaluated. PLS analysis showed that the volatile data correlated well overall to the sensory data, explaining 60% of the overall variability in the dataset. Primary aldehydes and phenylpropanoids were most closely related to green and spice-related sensory descriptors. However, the sensory impact of terpenoid compounds was difficult to predict in many cases. This may be due to the wide range of aroma qualities associated with terpenes as well as to concentration, synergistic or masking effects. PMID:25722175

  18. Variations in U.S. Consumers' Acceptability of Korean Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, with respect to Sensory Attributes and Nonsensory Factors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungeun; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Min, Jieun; Lee, Suji; Tokar, Tonya; Lee, Sun-Ok; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Because the Korean rice cake, Seolgitteok, is mainly prepared with rice flour containing no gluten-protein associated with celiac disease, it can be considered for inclusion in a gluten-free diet. However, Western consumers may be unlikely to enjoy the plain flavor and chewy texture of Seolgitteok. This study aimed to determine both sensory and nonsensory factors that might affect U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok. A total of 119 U.S. consumers rated 5 Seolgitteok samples, differentiated by descriptive sensory analysis, with respect to hedonic impression and just-about-right aspects of sensory attributes. Nonsensory factors such as demographic profile, innovativeness, social representation, sensation-seeking, and personality traits were also assessed. Addition levels of brown rice flour (0% to 100%) and sugar (5% to 20%) not only enriched flavor, but also lessened chewiness of Seolgitteok, thereby increasing an overall hedonic impression. Moreover, consumer acceptability of Seolgitteok varied with respect to nonsensory factors. Seolgitteok was more appreciated by males, sensation seekers, and individuals constrained by social desirability than by other groups. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok varies not only by sensory attributes such as rice flavor, sweetness, and chewiness, but also by nonsensory factors such as gender, sensation-seeking characteristics, and personality traits. PMID:26641741

  19. Systems analysis in cell biology: from the phenomenological description towards a computer model of the intracellular signal transduction network.

    PubMed

    Kraus, M; Lais, P; Wolf, B

    1993-03-15

    In this paper we introduce a systematic approach for the modelling of complex biological systems which is especially useful for the analysis of signal transduction mechanisms in cell biology. It is shown that systems analysis in form of top-down levelled dataflow diagrams provides a powerful tool for the mathematical modelling of the system in terms of a stochastic formulation. Due to the exact formulation, the consistency of the model with the experimental results can be tested by means of a computer simulation. The method termed Structured Biological Modelling (SBM) is illustrated by modelling some aspects of the second messenger network which regulates cell proliferation. As an example for the straightforward development of a mathematical description a stochastic computer model for intracellular Ca2+ oscillations is presented. PMID:8458410

  20. The influence of season on the sensory profile of Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) meat.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Muller, Nina; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-09-01

    The feeding activities of Egyptian geese are becoming a problem for crop farmers in South Africa. Their grain-based diet during the harvesting season compared to the diet during the rest of the year may have an influence on the meat quality, especially the sensory profile. Descriptive sensory analysis, physical measurements, and the proximate composition were used to investigate these effects. Season was a major influential factor with the meat from summer associating with sweet-oily-duck and beef attributes in contrast to the strong association towards the game, metallic, and fish attributes of the winter meat. This is due to the difference in the main fatty acids; winter was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA: ) (C18:3 n-3) and summer higher (P ≤ 0.05) in monounsaturated fatty acid (C18:1 n-9). This study established that season has a significant effect on the sensory profile of Egyptian goose meat and should be considered regarding the utilization and consumption. PMID:27143770

  1. Descriptive distribution and phylogenetic analysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus isolates of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive distribution and phylogeny of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) were studied in cats suspected of having feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in Malaysia. Ascitic fluids and/or biopsy samples were subjected to a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeted for a conserved region of 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the FCoV genome. Eighty nine percent of the sampled animals were positive for the presence of FCoV. Among the FCoV positive cats, 80% of cats were males and 64% were below 2 years of age. The FCoV positive cases included 56% domestic short hair (DSH), 40% Persian, and 4% Siamese cats. The nucleotide sequences of 10 selected amplified products from FIP cases were determined. The sequence comparison revealed that the field isolates had 96% homology with a few point mutations. The extent of homology decreased to 93% when compared with reference strains. The overall branching pattern of phylogenetic tree showed two distinct clusters, where all Malaysian isolates fall into one main genetic cluster. These findings provided the first genetic information of FCoV in Malaysia. PMID:20053278

  2. Descriptive distribution and phylogenetic analysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus isolates of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Saeed; Arshad, Siti S; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Omar, Abdul R; Zeenathul, Nazariah A; Fong, Lau S; Rahman, Nor-Alimah; Arshad, Habibah; Shamsudin, Shahirudin; Isa, Mohd-Kamarudin A

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive distribution and phylogeny of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) were studied in cats suspected of having feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in Malaysia. Ascitic fluids and/or biopsy samples were subjected to a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeted for a conserved region of 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the FCoV genome. Eighty nine percent of the sampled animals were positive for the presence of FCoV. Among the FCoV positive cats, 80% of cats were males and 64% were below 2 years of age. The FCoV positive cases included 56% domestic short hair (DSH), 40% Persian, and 4% Siamese cats. The nucleotide sequences of 10 selected amplified products from FIP cases were determined. The sequence comparison revealed that the field isolates had 96% homology with a few point mutations. The extent of homology decreased to 93% when compared with reference strains. The overall branching pattern of phylogenetic tree showed two distinct clusters, where all Malaysian isolates fall into one main genetic cluster. These findings provided the first genetic information of FCoV in Malaysia. PMID:20053278

  3. Description and analysis of cored hydraulic fractures -- Lost Hills field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, R.E.; Murer, A.S.; Timmer, R.S. )

    1994-05-01

    An inclined observation well was drilled in shallow (2,000 ft) Opal-A diatomite. Seven sand-propped hydraulic fractures were cored and recovered. The hydraulic fractures were found within 5[degree] of the azimuth measured with tilt meters and were tilted 15[degree] from vertical, oriented perpendicular to the formation bedding dip. Hydraulic fractures widths ranged from less than one sand grain (40/60 mesh) to 0.4 in. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of fracture faces showed no damage to the matrix from proppant embedment or compaction, and no evidence of guard residue was detected in the proppant pack or on the formation face. Fractures appear to be considerably longer than modeled. Three closely spaced fractures are interpreted to be branches of a single hydraulic fracture treatment. This paper presents a description of the fractures recovered during coring in Well OO2. Findings related to fracture dimensions and orientations, fracture sources, fracture permeability measurements, and fracture characteristics (proppant embedment, presence of gel residue) are presented. Implications related to field development are discussed.

  4. Cloning, expression, refolding, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the sensory domain of the Campylobacter chemoreceptor for aspartate A (CcaA).

    PubMed

    Machuca, Mayra A; Liu, Yu C; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In Campylobacter jejuni, chemotaxis and motility have been identified as important virulence factors that are required for host colonization and invasion. Chemotactic recognition of extracellular signals is mediated by the periplasmic sensory domains of its transducer-like proteins (Tlps). In this study, the sensory domain of the C. jejuni chemoreceptor for aspartate A (CcaA) has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from inclusion bodies. The urea-denatured protein was refolded and then crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitating agent. A complete data set has been collected to 1.4 Å resolution using cryocooling conditions and synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a=39.3, b=43.3, c=50.9 Å, α=92.5, β=111.4, γ=114.7°. PMID:25615981

  5. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system. Part 2: User's manual and program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divan, P.; Dunn, K.; Kojima, J.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive aerodynamic analysis program based on linearized potential theory is described. The solution treats thickness and attitude problems at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Three dimensional configurations with or without jet flaps having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and open or closed slender bodies or noncircular contour are analyzed. Longitudinal and lateral-directional static and rotary derivative solutions are generated. The analysis is implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Nominal case computation time of 45 CPU seconds on the CDC 175 for a 200 panel simulation indicates the program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.

  6. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation. PMID:23703104

  7. Characterising reward outcome signals in sensory cortex☆

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Friston, Karl J.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Reward outcome signalling in the sensory cortex is held as important for linking stimuli to their consequences and for modulating perceptual learning in response to incentives. Evidence for reward outcome signalling has been found in sensory regions including the visual, auditory and somatosensory cortices across a range of different paradigms, but it is unknown whether the population of neurons signalling rewarding outcomes are the same as those processing predictive stimuli. We addressed this question using a multivariate analysis of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in a task where subjects were engaged in instrumental learning with visual predictive cues and auditory signalled reward feedback. We found evidence that outcome signals in sensory regions localise to the same areas involved in stimulus processing. These outcome signals are non-specific and we show that the neuronal populations involved in stimulus representation are not their exclusive target, in keeping with theoretical models of value learning. Thus, our results reveal one likely mechanism through which rewarding outcomes are linked to predictive sensory stimuli, a link that may be key for both reward and perceptual learning. PMID:23811411

  8. The functioning of the Cuban home hospitalization programme: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Pol; Barroso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Armando; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Background Over the last decades hospital at home (HaH) programmes have been set up in many, mainly European, countries. The Cuban HaH programme is not hospital driven, but the responsibility of the first line health services, and family doctors play a pivotal role. Methods We analyse the structure and functioning of the Cuban programme. In this descriptive study, information was prospectively collected on HaH patients admitted between July 1st 2001 and June 30th 2002. Results Admission rates varied between areas from 0.014 to 0.035 per person per year (ppy). The < 1y and 1–4y age groups had the highest admission rates. In one area the follow-up of pregnancy problems led to high 15–24y and 25–49y female admission rates (0,070 and 0,058 respectively). Respiratory affections were the most frequent reason for admission (32,6%), followed by early hospital discharge (16,0%) and gynaeco-obstetrical problems (10.8%). The median length of stay varied from 5 to 7 days between regions and from 5 days (early discharge) to 7 days (gynaeco-obstetrical problems) in function of the reason for admission. On average an HaH episode entailed 1.4 and 1.6 contacts per patient-day with the family doctor and nurse respectively. Conclusion Difference in admission criteria in function of geography, distance to the hospital, transport facilities, and staff factors, as well as differences in hospital policy on early discharge explain the observed variability. The programme plays an important role in the integrated approach to quality care in the Cuban health system, but could benefit from more uniform admission criteria. PMID:17540015

  9. Sensory adaptation for timing perception

    PubMed Central

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-01-01

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  10. Description of a user-oriented geographic information system - The resource analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmann, S. E.; Mokma, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Resource Analysis Program, an applied geographic information system. Several applications are presented which utilized soil, and other natural resource data, to develop integrated maps and data analyses. These applications demonstrate the methods of analysis and the philosophy of approach used in the mapping system. The applications are evaluated in reference to four major needs of a functional mapping system: data capture, data libraries, data analysis, and mapping and data display. These four criteria are then used to describe an effort to develop the next generation of applied mapping systems. This approach uses inexpensive microcomputers for field applications and should prove to be a viable entry point for users heretofore unable or unwilling to venture into applied computer mapping.

  11. Environmental Analytical Sciences: An automation analysis and description of current laboratory procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Stuckemeyer, S.R.

    1990-05-07

    Environmental Analytical Sciences (EAS) is a state certified laboratory that analyzes potentially hazardous waste, generated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs. State laws require that hazardous waste be disposed of within 90 days. Chemistry and Materials Science expects the number of incoming samples to increase rapidly and EAS must be prepared to analyze them in a timely fashion. This report documents an analysis of Environmental Analytical Sciences, which is located in Buildings 222 and 226. It describes pertinent EAS procedures and recommends ways of automating EAS sample preparation, sample analysis, raw data acquisition and test results archiving. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  13. Description of the third instar of Hygrobia nigra (Clark, 1862) Coleoptera: Paelobiidae), with a key for the identification of mature larvae of Hygrobia Latreille, 1804 and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Michat, Mariano C; Alarie, Yves; Hendrich, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The mature larva of the squeak beetle Hygrobia nigra (Clark, 1862) (Paelobiidae) is studied for the first time based on detailed descriptions and illustrations of selected structures, with special emphasis on morphometry and chaetotaxy. A key for the identification of mature larvae of four of the six species of Hygrobia Latreille, 1804 known worldwide is presented. The phylogenetic relationships of the species are analyzed based on a cladistic analysis of a combined data set including larval and adult characters. Hygrobia nigra shares with the other known species of the genus several larval apomorphies including the presence of paramedian lip-like lobes on the epipharynx, a well-developed gula, gills on thoracic and first three abdominal sterna, and the maxillary stipites inserted into submental pouches, and is unique in the presence of a larger number of secondary setae on the metacoxa. The presence of a compact group of minute sensilla in the place where the galea is commonly located suggests that members of Hygrobia lost the galea, a condition independently evolved in some dytiscid lineages. The Australian species form a well-supported clade characterized by the presence of a short nasale, fewer natatory setae on the metatibia, and a marked shortening of the antennal sensorial appendage and the last abdominal segment. However, no larval characters were discovered to resolve relationships within that clade. The Palearctic H. hermanni (Fabricius, 1775) lacks a distinct nasale and is resolved as sister to the clade formed by the Australian species. PMID:25081162

  14. Descriptive analysis of the respiratory health status of persons exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Charlene A; Hill, Wade G; Rowse, Kimberly; Black, Brad; Kuntz, Sandra W; Weinert, Clarann

    2012-01-01

    Objective Describe respiratory health and quality of life in persons exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA) contaminated vermiculite. Design Cross-sectional descriptive. Setting Asbestos-related disease clinic in Libby, Montana USA. Participants 329 individuals exposed to LAA; mostly men, married, between 50 and 69 years; two-thirds lived in the surrounding county; one-third lived elsewhere in the state and USA. Primary outcome measures Chest radiograph (CXR), pulmonary function data and the St George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results Exposure categories included vermiculite workers=7.6%; family/household contact of vermiculite worker=32%; and environmental exposure only=60%. Of the participants, 55% had only pleural abnormalities; 5.4% had only interstitial abnormalities; nearly 21% had both abnormalities and 18% had no lung abnormality on chest x-ray. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) 95.3% (SD=18.7); forced expiratory volume (FEV1) mean 87% (SD=20.2); ratio of FEV11/FVC 95.5% (SD=12.0); and diffusing capacity (DLCO) of 83% (SD=21.7) of the percent predicted. The mean total SGRQ (38.5; SD=22.1) indicated a lower quality of life than healthy persons and persons with other chronic conditions. SGRQ subscale means were Symptoms 52.1 (SD=24.9), activity 49.4 (SD=26.9) and impacts 27.5 (SD=21.9). Participants with normal CXR differed significantly from those with both interstitial and pleural abnormalities on total, activity and impacts scores. For activity alone, subjects with normal CXR differed significantly from those with pleural disease; no differences were found for those with interstitial disease. Significant findings were found for smoking history across all pulmonary measures, and for exposure status, radiographic findings, age and gender for select pulmonary parameters. Subjects with any smoking history had significantly worse average total and subscale scores on the SGRQ. Conclusions Of 329 persons exposed to LAA, the majority (182) had pleural

  15. Aerodynamic design and analysis system for supersonic aircraft. Part 3: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The computer program for the design and analysis of supersonic aircraft configurations is presented. The schematics of the program structure are provided. The individual overlays and subroutines are described. The system is useful in determining surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts.

  16. Quantitative and Descriptive Comparison of Four Acoustic Analysis Systems: Vowel Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Carlyn; Vorperian, Houri K.; Fourakis, Marios; Kent, Ray D.; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines accuracy and comparability of 4 trademarked acoustic analysis software packages (AASPs): Praat, WaveSurfer, TF32, and CSL by using synthesized and natural vowels. Features of AASPs are also described. Method: Synthesized and natural vowels were analyzed using each of the AASP's default settings to secure 9…

  17. A Descriptive Analysis of Test Session Observation Checklist Ratings from the Woodcock Johnson III Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Osterlind, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Modern scale construction techniques have been used to develop scales measuring examiner ratings of examinees' test session behavior (TSB) on Wechsler and Stanford-Binet intelligence tests. This study analyzes data from the Test Session Observation Checklist (TSOC), a measure developed by post hoc rational analysis, from a portion of the Woodcock…

  18. DESCRIPTION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF BRAIN GROWTH IN SUCKLING MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth pattern of the brains of normal CD-1 mice was studied from day 1 through day 21 after birth. The main purpose of the study was to decide on suitable methods of statistical analysis of these kinds of data including whether to analyze brain weight or the brain-to-body we...

  19. Compositional analysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks. 1. Review and description of methods.

    PubMed

    Sluiter, Justin B; Ruiz, Raymond O; Scarlata, Christopher J; Sluiter, Amie D; Templeton, David W

    2010-08-25

    As interest in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for conversion into transportation fuels grows, the summative compositional analysis of biomass, or plant-derived material, becomes ever more important. The sulfuric acid hydrolysis of biomass has been used to measure lignin and structural carbohydrate content for more than 100 years. Researchers have applied these methods to measure the lignin and structural carbohydrate contents of woody materials, estimate the nutritional value of animal feed, analyze the dietary fiber content of human food, compare potential biofuels feedstocks, and measure the efficiency of biomass-to-biofuels processes. The purpose of this paper is to review the history and lineage of biomass compositional analysis methods based on a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. These methods have become the de facto procedure for biomass compositional analysis. The paper traces changes to the biomass compositional analysis methods through time to the biomass methods currently used at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The current suite of laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) offered by NREL is described, including an overview of the procedures and methodologies and some common pitfalls. Suggestions are made for continuing improvement to the suite of analyses. PMID:20669951

  20. A Descriptive Analysis of Health-Related Infomercials: Implications for Health Education and Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan C.; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Thomsen, Steve R.; Olsen, Astrid M.

    2003-01-01

    Media literacy education helps individuals become discriminating consumers of health information. Informed consumers are less likely to purchase useless health products if informed of misleading and deceptive advertising methods. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of health-related TV infomercials. An instrument…

  1. Compositional Analysis of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks. 1. Review and Description of Methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As interest in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for conversion into transportation fuels grows, the summative compositional analysis of biomass, or plant-derived material, becomes ever more important. The sulfuric acid hydrolysis of biomass has been used to measure lignin and structural carbohydrate content for more than 100 years. Researchers have applied these methods to measure the lignin and structural carbohydrate contents of woody materials, estimate the nutritional value of animal feed, analyze the dietary fiber content of human food, compare potential biofuels feedstocks, and measure the efficiency of biomass-to-biofuels processes. The purpose of this paper is to review the history and lineage of biomass compositional analysis methods based on a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. These methods have become the de facto procedure for biomass compositional analysis. The paper traces changes to the biomass compositional analysis methods through time to the biomass methods currently used at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The current suite of laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) offered by NREL is described, including an overview of the procedures and methodologies and some common pitfalls. Suggestions are made for continuing improvement to the suite of analyses. PMID:20669951

  2. The Influence of Institutional Control on the Persistence of Minority Students: A Descriptive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Oscar F.

    This study relates the personal characteristics, high school experiences, and college experiences of students pursuing a baccalaureate degree to the type of institution they attended and their ethnicity. Multivariate analysis was performed on data drawn from the High School and Beyond database. Summary conclusions include the following: (1)…

  3. Self-Injurious Behavior and Functional Analysis: Where Are the Descriptions of Participant Protections?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Marc; Mahoney, Amanda; Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the reporting of participant protections in studies involving functional analysis and self-injurious behavior and published from 1994 through 2008. Results indicated that session termination criteria were rarely reported and other specific participant safeguards were seldom described. The absence of such information in no way…

  4. Graphical and Numerical Descriptive Analysis: Exploratory Tools Applied to Vietnamese Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughton, Dominique; Phong, Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    This case study covers several exploratory data analysis ideas, the histogram and boxplot, kernel density estimates, the recently introduced bagplot--a two-dimensional extension of the boxplot--as well as the violin plot, which combines a boxplot with a density shape plot. We apply these ideas and demonstrate how to interpret the output from these…

  5. Description of practice as an ambulatory care nurse: psychometric properties of a practice-analysis survey.

    PubMed

    Baghi, Heibatollah; Panniers, Teresa L; Smolenski, Mary C

    2007-01-01

    Changes within nursing demand that a specialty conduct periodic, appropriate practice analyses to continually validate itself against preset standards. This study explicates practice analysis methods using ambulatory care nursing as an exemplar. Data derived from a focus group technique were used to develop a survey that was completed by 499 ambulatory care nurses. The validity of the instrument was assessed using principal components analysis; reliability was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The focus group with ambulatory care experts produced 34 knowledge and activity statements delineating ambulatory care nursing practice. The survey data produced five factors accounting for 71% of variance in the data. The factors were identified as initial patient assessment, professional nursing issues and standards, client care management skills, technical/clinical skills, and system administrative operations. It was concluded that practice analyses delineate a specialty and provide input for certification examinations aimed at measuring excellence in a field of nursing. PMID:17665821

  6. A Description of the Revised ATHEANA (A Technique for Human Event Analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    FORESTER,JOHN A.; BLEY,DENNIS C.; COOPER,SUSANE; KOLACZKOWSKI,ALAN M.; THOMPSON,CATHERINE; RAMEY-SMITH,ANN; WREATHALL,JOHN

    2000-07-18

    This paper describes the most recent version of a human reliability analysis (HRA) method called ``A Technique for Human Event Analysis'' (ATHEANA). The new version is documented in NUREG-1624, Rev. 1 [1] and reflects improvements to the method based on comments received from a peer review that was held in 1998 (see [2] for a detailed discussion of the peer review comments) and on the results of an initial trial application of the method conducted at a nuclear power plant in 1997 (see Appendix A in [3]). A summary of the more important recommendations resulting from the peer review and trial application is provided and critical and unique aspects of the revised method are discussed.

  7. Description of a urease-based microELISA for the analysis of limiting dilution microcultures.

    PubMed

    Cerrone, M C; Kuhn, R E

    1991-04-01

    Limiting dilution analysis has been a valuable approach for both determining the frequency of cell subpopulations elicited during immune responses, as well as for the analysis of immunoregulatory circuits. We describe a simple, visually scored spot test for evaluating the response of Mishell-Dutton microcultures used in limiting dilution analysis. This spot test is based on a microELISA using immunoreagents conjugated to the enzyme, urease, as an alternative to the hemolytic spot test. The assay as performed in Terasaki trays requires minute quantities (less than 10 microliters) of culture supernatant, yet the ELISA yields a distinct color difference between tray wells containing culture supernatants derived from responding (purple) and nonresponding (yellow) microcultures. Although designed to be scored rapidly by visual inspection, the assay can be quantified by manual alignment of the Terasaki tray wells on commercially available ELISA plate readers with an accuracy and reproducibility comparable to assays performed in 96-well ELISA plates. Determination of anti-sheep RBC responses in limiting dilution Mishell-Dutton microcultures with both the hemolytic spot test and the urease-microELISA spot test showed a very close correlation between the results of the two assays. However, the urease-microELISA should be amenable for use with antigens not readily conjugated to an indicator RBC, and should be useful in those situations where determination of the antibody subclass(es) produced by responding microcultures is desired. PMID:2019748

  8. Description of the Northwest hazardous waste site data base and preliminary analysis of site characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, D.L.; Hartz, K.E.; Triplett, M.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste RD and D Center (the Center) conducts research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities for hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste technologies applicable to remediating sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. To properly set priorities for these RD and D activities and to target development efforts it is necessary to understand the nature of the sites requiring remediation. A data base of hazardous waste site characteristics has been constructed to facilitate this analysis. The data base used data from EPA's Region X Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and from Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) forms for sites in Montana. The Center's data base focuses on two sets of sites--those on the National Priorities List (NPL) and other sites that are denoted as ''active'' CERCLIS sites. Active CERCLIS sites are those sites that are undergoing active investigation and analysis. The data base contains information for each site covering site identification and location, type of industry associated with the site, waste categories present (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides, etc.), methods of disposal (e.g., tanks, drums, land, etc.), waste forms (e.g., liquid, solid, etc.), and hazard targets (e.g., surface water, groundwater, etc.). As part of this analysis, the Northwest region was divided into three geographic subregions to identify differences in disposal site characteristics within the Northwest. 2 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Revision of Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Acanthocephala: Illiosentidae), with morphometric analysis and description of six new species.

    PubMed

    Steinauer, Michelle L; Nickol, Brent B

    2015-04-01

    Six new species of Leptorhynchoides from the southeastern United States are described. These new species were once part of the Leptorhynchoides thecatus complex of species that was previously recognized on the basis of DNA sequence data. Multivariate morphometric analysis including discriminant function analysis and decision tree analysis indicated that each of the species is morphologically distinct. Both analyses classified more than 90% of specimens correctly and most misclassifications occurred between members of 2 pairs of species that are morphologically similar. The most discriminating continuous characters were: trunk length, number of longitudinal rows of hooks, length of the longest hook, and testes width. Hook asymmetry and missing hooks on the proboscis were also important taxonomic characters. The discriminant function and the decision tree generated from the data were used to classify new specimens, yielding a 96% and 84% correct classification rate, respectively. The new taxonomic designations account for much of the previously recognized variability in host use, habitat use, and development as determined by survey data. With the addition of these 6 new taxa, 10 species currently are recognized within the genus. PMID:25422077

  10. A new analysis system for whole air sampling: description and results from 2013 SENEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J.; Dumas, M.; Hughes, D.; Jaksich, A.; Hatch, C. D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Holloway, J. S.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere is critical for the understanding of emissions and physical and chemical processes that can impact both air quality and climate. Airborne VOC measurements have proven especially challenging due to the requirement of both high sensitivity (pptv) and short sample collection times (≤15 s) to maximize spatial resolution and sampling frequency for targeted plume analysis. The use of stainless steel canisters to collect whole air samples (WAS) for post-flight analysis has been pioneered by the groups of D. Blake and E. Atlas [Blake et al., 1992; Atlas et al., 1993]. For the 2013 Southeast Nexus Study (SENEX), the NOAA ESRL CSD laboratory undertook WAS measurements for the first time. This required the construction of three new, highly-automated, and field-portable instruments designed to sample, analyze, and clean the canisters for re-use. Analysis was performed with a new custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. The instrument pre-concentrates analyte cryostatically into two parallel traps by means of a Stirling engine, a novel technique which obviates the need for liquid nitrogen to reach trapping temperatures of -175C. Here we present an evaluation of the retrieval of target VOC species from WAS canisters. We discuss the effects of humidity and sample age on the analyte, particularly upon C8+ alkane and aromatic species and biogenic species. Finally, we present results from several research flights during SENEX that targeted emissions from oil/natural gas production.

  11. The Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aerodynamics and systems: Description and analysis. [maneuver control and gust alleviators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrisani, D., II; Daughaday, H.; Dittenhauser, J.; Rynaski, E.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamics, control system, instrumentation complement and recording system of the USAF Total In/Flight Simulator (TIFS) airplane are described. A control system that would allow the ailerons to be operated collectively, as well as, differentially to entrance the ability of the vehicle to perform the dual function of maneuver load control and gust alleviation is emphasized. Mathematical prediction of the rigid body and the flexible equations of longitudinal motion using the level 2.01 FLEXSTAB program are included along with a definition of the vehicle geometry, the mass and stiffness distribution, the calculated mode frequencies and mode shapes, and the resulting aerodynamic equations of motion of the flexible vehicle. A complete description of the control and instrumentation system of the aircraft is presented, including analysis, ground test and flight data comparisons of the performance and bandwidth of the aerodynamic surface servos. Proposed modification for improved performance of the servos are also presented.

  12. New whole-body sensory-motor gradients revealed using phase-locked analysis and verified using multivoxel pattern analysis and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Zeharia, Noa; Hertz, Uri; Flash, Tamar; Amedi, Amir

    2015-02-18

    Topographic organization is one of the main principles of organization in the human brain. Specifically, whole-brain topographic mapping using spectral analysis is responsible for one of the greatest advances in vision research. Thus, it is intriguing that although topography is a key feature also in the motor system, whole-body somatosensory-motor mapping using spectral analysis has not been conducted in humans outside M1/SMA. Here, using this method, we were able to map a homunculus in the globus pallidus, a key target area for deep brain stimulation, which has not been mapped noninvasively or in healthy subjects. The analysis clarifies contradictory and partial results regarding somatotopy in the caudal-cingulate zone and rostral-cingulate zone in the medial wall and in the putamen. Most of the results were confirmed at the single-subject level and were found to be compatible with results from animal studies. Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we could predict movements of individual body parts in these homunculi, thus confirming that they contain somatotopic information. Using functional connectivity, we demonstrate interhemispheric functional somatotopic connectivity of these homunculi, such that the somatotopy in one hemisphere could have been found given the connectivity pattern of the corresponding regions of interest in the other hemisphere. When inspecting the somatotopic and nonsomatotopic connectivity patterns, a similarity index indicated that the pattern of connected and nonconnected regions of interest across different homunculi is similar for different body parts and hemispheres. The results show that topographical gradients are even more widespread than previously assumed in the somatosensory-motor system. Spectral analysis can thus potentially serve as a gold standard for defining somatosensory-motor system areas for basic research and clinical applications. PMID:25698725

  13. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration System Analysis project

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  14. Examination of the influence of coatings on thin superalloy sections. Volume 1: Description and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, M.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of an aluminide coating and of section thickness were investigated on two cast nickel-base superalloys. Cast section thickness ranged from 0.038 cm to 0.15 cm. Simulated engine exposures in a jet fuel burner rig with cyclic air cooling were studied. The effects of surface machining before coating and re-machining and re-coating after exposures were examined. The properties evaluated included tensile strength, stress rupture, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, and thermal fatigue. A metallurgical analysis was made of the microstructures of the coated and uncoated alloy.

  15. Sensory Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    KWON, Hye-Jin; KIM, Ji-su; KIM, Yoon-jung; KWON, Su-jin; YU, Jin-Na

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly. Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores. Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P = .02). Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment. PMID:26258089

  16. Holistic Analysis Enhances the Description of Metabolic Complexity in Dietary Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Simmler, Charlotte; Kulakowski, Daniel; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-01-01

    In the field of food and nutrition, complex natural products (NPs) are typically obtained from cells/tissues of diverse organisms such as plants, mushrooms, and animals. Among them, edible fruits, grains, and vegetables represent most of the human diet. Because of an important dietary dependence, the comprehensive metabolomic analysis of dietary NPs, performed holistically via the assessment of as many metabolites as possible, constitutes a fundamental building block for understanding the human diet. Both mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are important complementary analytic techniques, covering a wide range of metabolites at different concentrations. Particularly, 1-dimensional 1H-NMR offers an unbiased overview of all metabolites present in a sample without prior knowledge of its composition, thereby leading to an untargeted analysis. In the past decade, NMR-based metabolomics in plant and food analyses has evolved considerably. The scope of the present review, covering literature of the past 5 y, is to address the relevance of 1H-NMR–based metabolomics in food plant studies, including a comparison with MS-based techniques. Major applications of NMR-based metabolomics for the quality control of dietary NPs and assessment of their nutritional values are presented. PMID:27180381

  17. Analysis of Polygala tenuifolia Transcriptome and Description of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Pathways by Illumina Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hongling; Xu, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Fusheng; Wang, Yaoqin; Guo, Shuhong; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2015-01-01

    Radix polygalae, the dried roots of Polygala tenuifolia and P. sibirica, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Radix polygalae contains various saponins, xanthones, and oligosaccharide esters and these compounds are responsible for several pharmacological properties. To provide basic breeding information, enhance molecular biological analysis, and determine secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of P. tenuifolia, we applied Illumina sequencing technology and de novo assembly. We also applied this technique to gain an overview of P. tenuifolia transcriptome from samples with different years. Using Illumina sequencing, approximately 67.2% of unique sequences were annotated by basic local alignment search tool similarity searches against public sequence databases. We classified the annotated unigenes by using Nr, Nt, GO, COG, and KEGG databases compared with NCBI. We also obtained many candidates CYP450s and UGTs by the analysis of genes in the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways, including putative terpenoid backbone and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. With this transcriptome sequencing, future genetic and genomics studies related to the molecular mechanisms associated with the chemical composition of P. tenuifolia may be improved. Genes involved in the enrichment of secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related pathways could enhance the potential applications of P. tenuifolia in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26543847

  18. Analysis of Polygala tenuifolia Transcriptome and Description of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Pathways by Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hongling; Xu, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Fusheng; Wang, Yaoqin; Guo, Shuhong; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2015-01-01

    Radix polygalae, the dried roots of Polygala tenuifolia and P. sibirica, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Radix polygalae contains various saponins, xanthones, and oligosaccharide esters and these compounds are responsible for several pharmacological properties. To provide basic breeding information, enhance molecular biological analysis, and determine secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of P. tenuifolia, we applied Illumina sequencing technology and de novo assembly. We also applied this technique to gain an overview of P. tenuifolia transcriptome from samples with different years. Using Illumina sequencing, approximately 67.2% of unique sequences were annotated by basic local alignment search tool similarity searches against public sequence databases. We classified the annotated unigenes by using Nr, Nt, GO, COG, and KEGG databases compared with NCBI. We also obtained many candidates CYP450s and UGTs by the analysis of genes in the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways, including putative terpenoid backbone and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. With this transcriptome sequencing, future genetic and genomics studies related to the molecular mechanisms associated with the chemical composition of P. tenuifolia may be improved. Genes involved in the enrichment of secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related pathways could enhance the potential applications of P. tenuifolia in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26543847

  19. 3-D description of fracture surfaces and stress-sensitivity analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Q.; Jioa, D.; Meng, Y.F.; Fan, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Three kinds of reservoir cores (limestone, sandstone, and shale with natural fractures) were used to study the effect of morphology of fracture surfaces on stress sensitivity. The cores, obtained from the reservoirs with depths of 2170 to 2300 m, have fractures which are mated on a large scale, but unmated on a fine scale. A specially designed photoelectric scanner with a computer was used to describe the topography of the fracture surfaces. Then, theoretical analysis of the fracture closure was carried out based on the fracture topography generated. The scanning results show that the asperity has almost normal distributions for all three types of samples. For the tested samples, the fracture closure predicted by the elastic-contact theory is different from the laboratory measurements because plastic deformation of the aspirates plays an important role under the testing range of normal stresses. In this work, the traditionally used elastic-contact theory has been modified to better predict the stress sensitivity of reservoir fractures. Analysis shows that the standard deviation of the probability density function of asperity distribution has a great effect on the fracture closure rate.

  20. Network representation of protein interactions: Theory of graph description and analysis.

    PubMed

    Kurzbach, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    A methodological framework is presented for the graph theoretical interpretation of NMR data of protein interactions. The proposed analysis generalizes the idea of network representations of protein structures by expanding it to protein interactions. This approach is based on regularization of residue-resolved NMR relaxation times and chemical shift data and subsequent construction of an adjacency matrix that represents the underlying protein interaction as a graph or network. The network nodes represent protein residues. Two nodes are connected if two residues are functionally correlated during the protein interaction event. The analysis of the resulting network enables the quantification of the importance of each amino acid of a protein for its interactions. Furthermore, the determination of the pattern of correlations between residues yields insights into the functional architecture of an interaction. This is of special interest for intrinsically disordered proteins, since the structural (three-dimensional) architecture of these proteins and their complexes is difficult to determine. The power of the proposed methodology is demonstrated at the example of the interaction between the intrinsically disordered protein osteopontin and its natural ligand heparin. PMID:27272236

  1. Descriptive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications. PMID:19891281

  2. Portable microcomputer for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. Volume II. Software description and listings. [IAEAPU

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed and programmed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32-K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, a numeric keyboard for user responses, and a 20-character thermal printer for hard-copy output of results. The unit weights 11 kg and has dimensions of 33.5 x 30.5 x 23.0 cm. This compactness allows the unit to be stored under an airline seat. Only the positions of the 148-keV /sup 241/Pu and 208-keV /sup 237/U peaks are required for spectral analysis that gives plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percent abundances. Volume I of this report provides a detailed description of the data analysis methodology, operation instructions, hardware, and maintenance and troubleshooting. Volume II describes the software and provides software listings.

  3. Impact of model fat emulsions on sensory perception using repeated spoon to spoon ingestion.

    PubMed

    Appelqvist, I A M; Poelman, A A M; Cochet-Broch, M; Delahunty, C M

    2016-06-01

    Eating is a dynamic behaviour, in which food interacts with the mechanical and physiological environment of the mouth. This dynamic interaction changes the oral surfaces leaving particles of food and building up a film on the oral surfaces, which may impact on the temporal perception during the eating experience. The effect of repeated spoon to spoon ingestion of oil in water emulsion products (2%-50% w/w oil) was evaluated using descriptive in-mouth and after swallowing sensory attributes. Descriptive sensory analysis indicated that fatty mouthfeel and afterfeel perception (measured post swallowing) increased with the number of spoonfuls for emulsions containing 50% fat. This effect is likely due to the build-up of oil droplet layers deposited on the mouth surfaces. There was an enhancement of fatty afterfeel intensity for 50% fat emulsions containing the more lipophilic aroma ethylhexanoate compared to ethyl butanoate, indicating a cross-modal interaction. No increase in these attributes from spoon to spoon was observed for the low oil emulsions; since most of the oil in the emulsion was swallowed and very little oil was likely to be left in the mouth. Sweetness perception increased as fat level increased in the emulsion due to an increase in the effective concentration of sugar in the aqueous phase. However, the sweetness perceived did not change from spoon to spoon, suggesting that any oil-droplets deposited on the oral surfaces did not form a complete barrier, restricting access of the sucrose to the taste buds. This study highlights the importance of measuring the dynamic nature of eating and demonstrated change in sensory perception occurring with repeated ingestion of model emulsions, which was likely due to a change in mouth environment. PMID:27063245

  4. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The QL module of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is described. Execution of this module is initiated when and if subroutine PADSI calls subroutine GROPE. Subroutine GROPE controls the high level logical flow of the QL module. The purpose of the module is to determine a trajectory that satisfies the necessary variational conditions for optimal performance. The module achieves this by solving a nonlinear multi-point boundary value problem. The numerical method employed is described. It is an iterative technique that converges quadratically when it does converge. The three basic steps of the module are: (1) initialization, (2) iteration, and (3) culmination. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

  5. Multispectral scanner system parameter study and analysis software system description, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator); Mobasseri, B. G.; Wiersma, D. J.; Wiswell, E. R.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The integration of the available methods provided the analyst with the unified scanner analysis package (USAP), the flexibility and versatility of which was superior to many previous integrated techniques. The USAP consisted of three main subsystems; (1) a spatial path, (2) a spectral path, and (3) a set of analytic classification accuracy estimators which evaluated the system performance. The spatial path consisted of satellite and/or aircraft data, data correlation analyzer, scanner IFOV, and random noise model. The output of the spatial path was fed into the analytic classification and accuracy predictor. The spectral path consisted of laboratory and/or field spectral data, EXOSYS data retrieval, optimum spectral function calculation, data transformation, and statistics calculation. The output of the spectral path was fended into the stratified posterior performance estimator.

  6. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program has a two-fold purpose. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

  7. Scientometric analysis of physics (1979-2008): A quantitative description of scientific impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, YanNing; Yuan, JunPeng; Pan, YunTao; Zhao, XiaoYuan

    2011-01-01

    Citations are a way to show how researchers build on existing research to further evolve research. The citation count is an indication of the influence of specific articles. The importance of citations means that it is valuable to analyze the articles that are cited the most. This research investigates highly-cited articles in physics (1979-2008) using citation data from the ISI Web of Science. In this study, 1544205 articles were examined. The objective of the analysis was to identify and list the highly-productive countries, institutions, authors, and fields in physics. Based on the analysis, it was found that the USA is the world leader in physics, and Japan has maintained the highest growth rate in physics research since 1990. Furthermore, the research focus at Bell Labs and IBM has played important roles in physics. A striking fact is that the five most active authors are all Japanese, but the five most active institutions are all in the USA. In fact, only The University of Tokyo is ranked among the top 11 institutions, and only American authors have single-author articles ranked among the top 19 articles. The highest-impact articles are distributed across 25 subjects categories. Physics, Multidisciplinary has 424 articles, and is ranked at No. 1 in total articles; followed by Physics, Condensed Matter. The study can provide science policy makers with a picture of innovation capability in this field and help them make better decisions. Hopefully, this study will stimulate useful discussion among scientists and research managers about future research directions.

  8. The record precipitation and flood event in Iberia in December 1876: description and synoptic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Varino, Filipa; Ramos, Alexandre; Valente, Maria; Zêzere, José; Vaquero, José; Gouveia, Célia; Russo, Ana

    2014-04-01

    The first week of December 1876 was marked by extreme weather conditions that affected the south-western sector of the Iberian Peninsula, leading to an all-time record flow in two large international rivers. As a direct consequence, several Portuguese and Spanish towns and villages located in the banks of both rivers suffered serious flood damage on 7 December 1876. These unusual floods were amplified by the preceding particularly autumn wet months, with October 1876 presenting extremely high precipitation anomalies for all western Iberia stations. Two recently digitised stations in Portugal (Lisbon and Evora), present a peak value on 5 December 1876. Furthermore, the values of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December were so remarkable that, the episode of 1876 still corresponds to the maximum average daily precipitation values for temporal scales between 2 and 10 days. Using several different data sources, such as historical newspapers of that time, meteorological data recently digitised from several stations in Portugal and Spain and the recently available 20th Century Reanalysis, we provide a detailed analysis on the socio-economic impacts, precipitation values and the atmospheric circulation conditions associated with this event. The atmospheric circulation during these months was assessed at the monthly, daily and sub-daily scales. All months considered present an intense negative NAO index value, with November 1876 corresponding to the lowest NAO value on record since 1865. We have also computed a multivariable analysis of surface and upper air fields in order to provide some enlightening into the evolution of the synoptic conditions in the week prior to the floods. These events resulted from the continuous pouring of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December, due to the consecutive passage of Atlantic low-pressure systems fuelled by the presence of an atmospheric-river tropical moisture flow over central Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Inpatient cost of treating osteoporotic fractures in mainland China: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yicheng; Du, Fen; Ye, Wenyu; Chen, Yu; Li, Jinghu; Zhang, Jie; Nicely, Helen; Burge, Russel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to provide new estimates on the per-admission inpatient hospital cost and per-admission length of stay (LOS) for osteoporosis-related fractures in mainland China. Materials and methods Data for inpatient hospitalization associated with at least one osteoporosis-related fracture were obtained from the nationwide China Health Insurance Research Association and were analyzed post hoc. Patients’ data were included if the patients were ≥50 years old and diagnosed with osteoporosis and pathologic fracture, or osteoporosis therapy and fragility fracture by an International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) code designation, between 2008 and 2010. Results The analysis included 830 patients (female: 77.3%; mean age: 73.4±9.8 years). The medians of the per-admission LOS and inpatient costs were 19 days and ¥18,587, respectively. Longer LOS and higher costs per admission were associated with older patients (≥70 years) compared to younger patients (<70 years). Hip fracture had the longest median LOS (22 days) and highest median cost (¥32,594) among all fracture sites. The per-hospitalization episode and per-day costs of osteoporotic fracture increased rapidly (60% and 89%, respectively) between 2008 and 2010. Conclusion The analysis showed that hospitalization cost increases were associated with increasing per-day hospitalization costs. The proportion of the costs reimbursed by health insurances increased, while the mean absolute patient copayment amounts decreased. The incidence and prevalence of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures may rise rapidly due to the projected growth of the aged population in mainland China. Therefore, the combination of greater anticipated total fractures and rising hospital costs may lead to a tremendously increased economic burden in the future. PMID:25926747

  10. Descriptive analysis of and overall survival after surgical treatment of lung metastases*

    PubMed Central

    Poletti, Giana Balestro; Toro, Ivan Felizardo Contrera; Alves, Thais Ferreira; Miranda, Eliana Cristina Martins; Seabra, José Cláudio Teixeira; Mussi, Ricardo Kalaf

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic characteristics, surgical results, postoperative complications, and overall survival rates in surgically treated patients with lung metastases. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 119 patients who underwent a total of 154 lung metastasis resections between 1997 and 2011. RESULTS: Among the 119 patients, 68 (57.1%) were male and 108 (90.8%) were White. The median age was 52 years (range, 15-75 years). In this sample, 63 patients (52.9%) presented with comorbidities, the most common being systemic arterial hypertension (69.8%) and diabetes (19.0%). Primary colorectal tumors (47.9%) and musculoskeletal tumors (21.8%) were the main sites of origin of the metastases. Approximately 24% of the patients underwent more than one resection of the lesions, and 71% had adjuvant treatment prior to metastasectomy. The rate of lung metastasis recurrence was 19.3%, and the median disease-free interval was 23 months. The main surgical access used was thoracotomy (78%), and the most common approach was wedge resection with segmentectomy (51%). The rate of postoperative complications was 22%, and perioperative mortality was 1.9%. The overall survival rates at 12, 36, 60, and 120 months were 96%, 77%, 56%, and 39%, respectively. A Cox analysis confirmed that complications within the first 30 postoperative days were associated with poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.09-3.06; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment of lung metastases is safe and effective, with good overall survival, especially in patients with fewer metastases. PMID:24473758

  11. [De novotranscriptomic analysis of Chlorella sorokiniana: Pathway description and gene discovery for lipid production ].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wang, Qinhong; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2014-09-01

    [ OBJECTIVE] The paucity of genomic information limits the metabolic engineering of non-model microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana. Our study aimed to elucidate the fatty acid, triacylglycerol and starch biosynthetic pathways in the microalgae C. sorokiniana based on de novo transcriptomic analysis. [METHODS] We cultured C. sorokiniana with different nitrogen concentrations (KNO3: 8g/L and 2g/L) , then sequenced the transcriptomeusing Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. We used Trinity to de novo assemble the reads so as to obtain transcripts, aligned all the transcripts with Nr database, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database and COG database to annotate the function and classify using BLASTx algorithm, and assigned the transcript with metabolic pathway by aligning with KEGG database. Then we used RSEM to calculate FPKM value, and used it for preliminary analysis of different gene expression in the related pathways. [RESULTS] Over 49M high quality raw reads were produced with the length of 100bp, We used Trinity to assembled these reads into 49885 transcripts with an N50 of 1941bp, ranging from 300bp to 14100bp. 26479 transcripts were annotated through BLASTx similarity search, 2357 transcripts were assigned with EC number, and 207 metabolic pathways were assigned in total. Based on these analyses, we reconstructed the fatty acids, triacylglycerol and starch biosynthetic pathways in C. sorokiniana. We also identified preliminarily different geneexpression in the pathways. [CONCLUSION] Using RNA-seq technology, we reconstructed the metabolic pathways involving in the fatty acid, triacylglycerol and starch biosynthesis in non-model microalgae C. sorokiniana without genomic data, which is consistent with those in model microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and compared the gene expression level under different conditions. These information is very useful for the metabolic engineering of C. sorokiniana and other microalgae to enhance the production of lipids. PMID:25522590

  12. Integrated reservoir description and analysis of the Lance formation at Jonah Field, Sublette County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.W.; Delozier, D.L.; Flinch, R.

    1996-06-01

    Log, core, and production data from the 16 wells in Jonah field have been used to characterize sandstone reservoirs in the Lance Formation (Cretaceous) in the northern Green River basin. The Lance Fm. is composed of 2500 feet of heterolithic fluvial strata that were deposited on a broad alluvial plain. Sandstones were deposited in east- flowing channels 10-20 feet deep and 150-4000 feet wide; some amalgamated sandstone intervals are >100 feet thick and over a mile wide. Fluvial architecture varies from isolated meandering river deposits to amalgamated braided river deposits. Sandstones are dominantly composed of detrital chert and quartz grains. The Lance Fm. has been divided into several informal pay intervals that have different reservoir character and performance. Wardell interval sandstones produce gas in eight wells and are poor reservoirs due to fine grain size, high clay and cement content, and greater depth. Yellow Point interval sandstones have shown average performance in five wells. The Jonah interval produces in 10 wells and is the most prolific pay zone with up to 150 net feet of sandstone having core porosity of 8-12% and permeability of .01-0.9 mD. Upper and middle Lance sandstones have better than average performance from five wells. All pay intervals require greater than 8% porosity and less than 35% water saturation. Pre-frac pressure build-up analysis indicates in situ permeabilities of 3-20 microdarcys and suggests that fractures are a significant contributor to deliverability. Estimated reserves of 0.4-4.0 BCFG/well are based on decline curve analysis. Liquid yields vary from 6-86 BO/MMCFG and increase with depth. Pressure gradients range from .55 to .59 psi/ft. Reservoir overpressure is a result of continuous migration of hydrocarbons into available pore space via microfracture seepage.

  13. Living productively with sensory loss.

    PubMed

    Kinderknecht, C H; Garner, J D

    1993-01-01

    As the avenues for fully perceiving and experiencing life, our sensory organs are the bridge between Self and the outside world. Of the many disorders affecting the senses of the older woman, those that affect vision and hearing have the greatest potential for disrupting her activities of daily living, and diminishing her quality of life and level of independence. While adapting to and coping successfully with sensory loss may require significant effort and adjustment on the part of the afflicted older woman, strategies designed to maximize the older woman's function, her sense of personal control, and her social support system can mediate the negative effects of the sensory loss. PMID:23077999

  14. Sensory uncertainty decoded from visual cortex predicts behavior

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Ruben S; Ma, Wei Ji; Pratte, Michael S; Jehee, Janneke F M

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian theories of neural coding propose that sensory uncertainty is represented by a probability distribution encoded in neural population activity, but direct neural evidence supporting this hypothesis is currently lacking. Using fMRI in combination with a generative model-based analysis, we found that probability distributions reflecting sensory uncertainty could reliably be estimated from human visual cortex and, moreover, that observers appeared to use knowledge of this uncertainty in their perceptual decisions. PMID:26502262

  15. The cleanroom case study in the Software Engineering Laboratory: Project description and early analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Scott; Kouchakdjian, Ara; Basili, Victor; Weidow, David

    1990-01-01

    This case study analyzes the application of the cleanroom software development methodology to the development of production software at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The cleanroom methodology emphasizes human discipline in program verification to produce reliable software products that are right the first time. Preliminary analysis of the cleanroom case study shows that the method can be applied successfully in the FDD environment and may increase staff productivity and product quality. Compared to typical Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) activities, there is evidence of lower failure rates, a more complete and consistent set of inline code documentation, a different distribution of phase effort activity, and a different growth profile in terms of lines of code developed. The major goals of the study were to: (1) assess the process used in the SEL cleanroom model with respect to team structure, team activities, and effort distribution; (2) analyze the products of the SEL cleanroom model and determine the impact on measures of interest, including reliability, productivity, overall life-cycle cost, and software quality; and (3) analyze the residual products in the application of the SEL cleanroom model, such as fault distribution, error characteristics, system growth, and computer usage.

  16. A descriptive analysis of exercise tolerance test at seremban hospital : an audit for the year 2001.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Abdul Latiff; Nee, Chan Chee; Azzad, Ahmed

    2004-07-01

    Our purpose is to report on the epidemiological variables and their association with the results of the exercise tolerance test (ETT) in the series of patients referred for standard diagnostic ETT at Seremban Hospital during the year 2001. ETT is widely performed, but, in Malaysia, an analysis of the associations between the epidemiological data and the results of the ETT has not been presented. All patients referred for ETT at Seremban Hospital who underwent exercise treadmill tests for the year 2001 were taken as the study population. Demographic details and patients with established heart disease (i.e. prior coronary bypass surgery, myocardial infarction, or congestive heart failure) were noted. Clinical and ETT variables were collected retrospectively from the hospital records. Testing and data management were performed in a standardized fashion with a computer-assisted protocol. This study showed that there was no significant predictive epidemiological variable on the results of the ETT. However, it was found that there was statistically significant difference between the peak exercise time of males and females undergoing the ETT. PMID:22973128

  17. Cladistic analysis and description of three new species of the Chilean genus Nanophareus (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae: Pachylinae).

    PubMed

    Hara, Marcos Ryotaro

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of the Chilean Pachylinae genus, Nanophareus Roewer, 1929 are described: N. bicornutus sp. nov. (Valle de Aconcagua, Zapallar, V Región de Valparaíso), N. maipu sp. nov. (La Rinconada, Quebrada de la Plata, Maipu, Región Metropolitana-Santiago), and N. polyhastatus sp. nov. (El Abanico, VIII Región de Bio-Bío). These three new species were included in a cladistic analysis that resulted in two equally most parsimonious trees (238 steps, C.I. = 0.38; R.I. = 0.51), corroborating the monophyly of Nanophareus. The proposed synapomorphies for Nanophareus remain largely unchanged: an external row of enlarged tubercles inserted amongst small ones on the lateral margin of dorsal scutum; the ventro-basal margin of the pedipalpal tibia curved at 90° in lateral view; and retrolateral seta on pedipalpal tibia with an apically bifid socket (socket and seta longer than pedipalpal tibia length), with additional small setae distally. The sister group of Nanophareus, as well as its subfamilial placement, are still unsettled issues that are here further discussed. PMID:27394767

  18. Descriptive characteristics and cluster analysis of male veteran hazardous drinkers in an alcohol moderation intervention.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robrina; Hunt, Yvonne M; Olivier, Jake; Grothe, Karen B; Dubbert, Patricia M; Burke, Randy S; Cushman, William C

    2012-01-01

    Current efforts underway to develop the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) have reignited discussions for classifying the substance use disorders. This study's aim was to contribute to the understanding of abusive alcohol use and its validity as a diagnosis. Cluster analysis was used to identify relatively homogeneous groups of hazardous, nondependent drinkers by using data collected from the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension Study (PATHS), a multisite trial that examined the ability of a cognitive-behavioral-based alcohol reduction intervention, compared to a control condition, to reduce alcohol use. Participants for this study (N = 511) were male military veterans. Variables theoretically associated with alcohol use (eg, demographic, tobacco use, and mental health) were used to create the clusters and a priori, empirically based external criteria were used to assess discriminant validity. Bivariate correlations among cluster variables were generally consistent with previous findings in the literature. Analyses of internal and discriminant validity of the identified clusters were largely nonsignificant, suggesting meaningful differences between clusters could not be identified. Although the typology literature has contributed supportive validity for the alcohol dependence diagnosis, this study's results do not lend supportive validity for the construct of alcohol abuse. PMID:22691012

  19. Noninvasive ventilation practice patterns for acute respiratory failure in Canadian tertiary care centres: A descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Digby, Geneviève C; Keenan, Sean P; Parker, Christopher M; Sinuff, Tasnim; Burns, Karen E; Mehta, Sangeeta; Ronco, Juan J; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Rose, Louise; Ayas, Najib T; Berthiaume, Luc R; D’Arsigny, Christine L; Stollery, Daniel E; Muscedere, John

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use for patients with acute respiratory failure in Canadian hospitals, indications for use and associated outcomes are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe NIV practice variation in the acute setting. METHODS: A prospective observational study involving 11 Canadian tertiary care centres was performed. Data regarding NIV indication, mode and outcomes were collected for all adults (>16 years of age) treated with NIV for acute respiratory failure during a four-week period (between February and August 2011). Logistic regression with site as a random effect was used to examine the association between preselected predictors and mortality or intubation. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients (mean [± SD] 30±12 per centre) were included. The most common indications for NIV initiation were pulmonary edema (104 [31.5%]) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (99 [30.0%]). Significant differences in indications for NIV use across sites, specialty of ordering physician and location of NIV initiation were noted. Although intubation rates were not statistically different among sites (range 10.3% to 45.4%), mortality varied significantly (range 6.7% to 54.5%; P=0.006). In multivariate analysis, the most significant independent predictor of avoiding intubation was do-not-resuscitate status (OR 0.11 [95% CI 0.03 to 0.37]). CONCLUSION: Significant variability existed in NIV use and associated outcomes among Canadian tertiary care centres. Assignment of do-not-resuscitate status prevented intubation. PMID:26469155

  20. Sensory Modulation Disorders among Children with a History of Trauma: A Frame of Reference for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Ben J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present definitions and concepts about sensory modulation, illustrate behavioral aspects of sensory modulation disorders, describe a framework for assessment and intervention, and present advances in research. Method: A review of descriptive and evidence-based literature related to the impact of exposure…

  1. Annotation: What Do We Know about Sensory Dysfunction in Autism? A Critical Review of the Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sally J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Background: Unusual responses to sensory stimuli are seen in many children with autism. Their presence was highlighted both in early accounts of autism and in more recent first-person descriptions. There is a widespread belief that sensory symptoms characterize autism and differentiate it from other disorders. This paper examines the empirical…

  2. Failure of Early Diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis in Japan—A Retrospective Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Takahiko; Iwata, Kentaro; Ohji, Goh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality, and these can be exacerbated by delay in diagnosis. We investigated IE diagnosis in Japan with the emphasis on the delay in diagnosis and its cause and implications. We conducted a retrospective study on 82 definite IE patients at Kobe University Hospital from April 1, 2008, through March 31, 2013. We reviewed charts of the patients for data such as causative pathogens, prescription of inappropriate antibiotic use prior to the diagnosis, existence of risk factors of IE, previous doctor's subspecialty, or duration until the diagnosis, with the primary outcome of 180-day mortality. We also qualitatively, as well as quantitatively, analyzed those cases with delay in diagnosis, and hypothesized its causes and implications. Eighty-two patients were reviewed for this analysis. The average age was 61 ± 14.5-year-old. Fifty percent of patients had known underlying risk factors for IEs, such as prosthetic heart valve (10), valvular heart disease (21), congenital heart disease (3), or cardiomyopathy (2). The median days until the diagnosis was 14 days (range 2 days to 1 year). Sixty-five percent of patients received inappropriate antibiotic before the diagnosis (53). Forty percent of causative organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA 20, MRSA 13), 32% were viridans streptococci and Streptococcus bovis, 28% were others or unknown (CNS 5, Corynebacterium 3, Cardiobacterium 1, Candida 1). Subspecialties such as General Internal Medicine (15), and Orthopedics (13) were associated with delay in diagnosis. Ten patients (12%) died during follow up, and 8 of them had been received prior inappropriate antibiotics. Significant delay in the diagnosis of IE was observed in Japan. Inappropriate antibiotics were prescribed frequently and may be associated with poor prognosis. Further improvement for earlier diagnosis of IE is needed. PMID:25501088

  3. The Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey. I. Survey Description, Data Analysis, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, K.; Lynch, R. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Archibald, A. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Boyles, J.; Dartez, L. P.; Day, D.; Ford, A. J.; Flanigan, J.; Garcia, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Leake, S.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Rohr, M. D.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; van Leeuwen, J.; Walker, A. N.; Wells, B. L.

    2014-08-01

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > -40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm-3) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of -1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M J). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  4. Developing an International Register of Clinical Prediction Rules for Use in Primary Care: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Claire; Wallace, Emma; O’Brien, Kirsty K.; Galvin, Rose; Smith, Susan M.; Lewis, Cliona; Cummins, Anthony; Cousins, Grainne; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Fahey, Tom

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We describe the methodology used to create a register of clinical prediction rules relevant to primary care. We also summarize the rules included in the register according to various characteristics. METHODS To identify relevant articles, we searched the MEDLINE database (PubMed) for the years 1980 to 2009 and supplemented the results with searches of secondary sources (books on clinical prediction rules) and personal resources (eg, experts in the field). The rules described in relevant articles were classified according to their clinical domain, the stage of development, and the clinical setting in which they were studied. RESULTS Our search identified clinical prediction rules reported between 1965 and 2009. The largest share of rules (37.2%) were retrieved from PubMed. The number of published rules increased substantially over the study decades. We included 745 articles in the register; many contained more than 1 clinical prediction rule study (eg, both a derivation study and a validation study), resulting in 989 individual studies. In all, 434 unique rules had gone through derivation; however, only 54.8% had been validated and merely 2.8% had undergone analysis of their impact on either the process or outcome of clinical care. The rules most commonly pertained to cardiovascular disease, respiratory, and musculoskeletal conditions. They had most often been studied in the primary care or emergency department settings. CONCLUSIONS Many clinical prediction rules have been derived, but only about half have been validated and few have been assessed for clinical impact. This lack of thorough evaluation for many rules makes it difficult to retrieve and identify those that are ready for use at the point of patient care. We plan to develop an international web-based register of clinical prediction rules and computer-based clinical decision support systems. PMID:25024245

  5. Fetal Deaths in Brazil: Historical Series Descriptive Analysis 1996-2012.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Maria Salete Medeiros; Vieira, Filipe Medeiros; Fröde, Tânia Silvia; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-08-01

    Objective We seek to comprehensively assess stillbirths in Brazil, to compare the Brazilian findings with global trends and to identify the limitations of the fetal death record system. Method We studied fetal deaths in Brazil between 1996 and 2012 within the following five regions of the country: the North, Northeast, Southeast, South, and Central-West, through an analysis of data obtained from the Unified Health System's (SUS) Informatics Department. The rates of stillbirth in Brazil and in these regions were calculated in relation to the maternal and gestational age and education, birth weight, type of pregnancy, delivery type, weight ranges and cause of death. Results There were 579,661 recorded fetal deaths and a decrease of 22.9 % in the stillbirth rate. In 2012, the overall rate was 10.0/1000 births; the North and Northeast regions had the highest rates (10.3 and 12.1, respectively) and the South region had the lowest rate (7.7/1000 births). Two-thirds of the deaths occurred in pregnancies of 28 or more weeks. Low education was an important risk factor, with rates of 24.3/1000 birth in women with no formal education and 4.7/1000 birth in women with 12 or more years of study in 2012. More than 40 % of the causes of deaths were nonspecific. Conclusions Despite the gradual decline in stillbirth rates, Brazil still has stillbirth rates that are nearly two times higher than those found in developed countries. There are inequalities between country regions portrayed by the significant variation in mortality rates specified by cause. PMID:27007985

  6. The green bank northern celestial cap pulsar survey. I. Survey description, data analysis, and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, K.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Leake, S.; Lynch, R. S.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Boyles, J.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; and others

    2014-08-10

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > –40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm{sup –3}) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of –1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M{sub J}). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  7. Frequency, causes and pattern of abdominal trauma: A 4-year descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Al-Hassani, Ammar; El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Husham; Parchani, Ashok; Peralta, Ruben; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of abdominal trauma is still underreported from the Arab Middle-East. We aimed to evaluate the incidence, causes, clinical presentation, and outcome of the abdominal trauma patients in a newly established trauma center. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted at the only level I trauma center in Qatar for the patients admitted with abdominal trauma (2008-2011). Patients demographics, mechanism of injury, pattern of organ injuries, associated extra-abdominal injuries, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale, complications, length of Intensive Care Unit, and hospital stay, and mortality were reviewed. Results: A total of 6888 trauma patients were admitted to the hospital, of which 1036 (15%) had abdominal trauma. The mean age was 30.6 ± 13 years and the majority was males (93%). Road traffic accidents (61%) were the most frequent mechanism of injury followed by fall from height (25%) and fall of heavy object (7%). The mean ISS was 17.9 ± 10. Liver (36%), spleen (32%) and kidney (18%) were most common injured organs. The common associated extra-abdominal injuries included chest (35%), musculoskeletal (32%), and head injury (24%). Wound infection (3.8%), pneumonia (3%), and urinary tract infection (1.4%) were the frequently observed complications. The overall mortality was 8.3% and late mortality was observed in 2.3% cases mainly due to severe head injury and sepsis. The predictors of mortality were head injury, ISS, need for blood transfusion, and serum lactate. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is a frequent diagnosis in multiple trauma and the presence of extra-abdominal injuries and sepsis has a significant impact on the outcome. PMID:26604524

  8. A cohort description and analysis of the effect of gabapentin on idiopathic cough

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic idiopathic cough (known as cough hypersensitivity syndrome) is defined by cough in the absence of an identifiable cause. Gabapentin has been suggested as a treatment but evidence is scarce. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical features of patients with unexplained chronic cough and to investigate the effect of gabapentin (600 mg twice a day for a minimal duration of 4 weeks) in reducing cough symptoms. Methods A patient cohort analysis was performed. Patients were retrieved using a query in our medical database for the words ‘cough’ and ‘gabapentin’ in 2011. Patients without a clear etiology of cough despite having performed a stepwise diagnostic approach, were included. Medical records of these patients were analyzed. A telephonic survey was performed and patients were asked to retrospectivally rate their cough when they attended the outpatient clinic. They were then asked to rate their cough after treatment with gabapentin. A scale from one to ten was used to score cough severity. They were also questioned about the triggers inducing cough. To evaluate the cough severity score, the results were correlated with questions of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire. Results We recruited 51 patients (87% female) with a mean age of onset of 47 years (± 14 y) and an average cough duration of 48 months. The most frequently reported cough triggers included change of temperature (57%), talking (49%) and odours (45%). In 67% of patients, the urge to cough was located in the throat area. Thirty-five patients effectively took the prescribed gabapentin. The average improvement in cough score was 2.8/10 (p<0.0001). Of the 35 patients, 20 achieved improvement of their cough symptoms. Responders had a higher pre-treatment cough severity score (p=0.02) and were more likely to have a history of pre-cough airway infection (p=0.04). Current cough severity score negatively correlated with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire scores (p=0.05). Conclusion

  9. Online Social Networks That Connect Users to Physical Activity Partners: A Review and Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Passarella, Ralph Joseph; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-01-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified a lack of encouragement, support, or companionship from family and friends as a major barrier to physical activity. To overcome this barrier, online social networks are now actively leveraging principles of companion social support in novel ways. Objective The aim was to evaluate the functionality, features, and usability of existing online social networks which seek to increase physical activity and fitness among users by connecting them to physical activity partners, not just online, but also face-to-face. Methods In September 2012, we used 3 major databases to identify the website addresses for relevant online social networks. We conducted a Google search using 8 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword “find” coupled with 1 of 4 prefix terms “health,” “fitness,” “workout,” or “physical” coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms “activity partners” or “activity buddies.” We also searched 2 prominent technology start-up news sites, TechCrunch and Y Combinator, using 2 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword “find” coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms “activity partners” and “activity buddies.” Sites were defined as online social health activity networks if they had the ability to (1) actively find physical activity partners or activities for the user, (2) offer dynamic, real-time tracking or sharing of social activities, and (3) provide virtual profiles to users. We excluded from our analysis sites that were not Web-based, publicly available, in English, or free. Results Of the 360 initial search results, we identified 13 websites that met our complete criteria of an online social health activity network. Features such as physical activity creation (13/13, 100%) and private messaging (12/13, 92%) appeared almost universally among these websites. However, integration with Web 2.0 technologies such as Facebook and Twitter (9/13, 69%) and the option of

  10. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system identification paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of non-linear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify non-linear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and toward a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison. PMID:23761737

  11. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 6: Lunar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's two Office of Space Flight (Code M) Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) contractors supported development of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) lunar transportation concepts. This work treated lunar SEI missions as the far end of a more near-term STV program, most of whose missions were satellite delivery and servicing requirements derived from Civil Needs Data Base (CNDB) projections. Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) began to address the complete design of a lunar transportation system. The following challenges were addressed: (1) the geometry of aerobraking; (2) accommodation of mixed payloads; (3) cryogenic propellant transfer in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO); (4) fully re-usable design; and (5) growth capability. The leveled requirements, derived requirements, and assumptions applied to the lunar transportation system design are discussed. The mission operations section includes data on mission analysis studies and performance parametrics as well as the operating modes and performance evaluations which include the STCAEM recommendations. Element descriptions for the lunar transportation family included are a listing of the lunar transfer vehicle/lunar excursion vehicle (LTV/LEV) components; trade studies and mass analyses of the transfer and excursion modules; advanced crew recovery vehicle (ACRV) (modified crew recovery vehicle (MCRV)) modifications required to fulfill lunar operations; the aerobrake shape and L/D to be used; and some costing methods and results. Commonality and evolution issues are also discussed.

  12. What Does ‘Recovery’ Mean to People with Neck Pain? Results of a Descriptive Thematic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walton, David M; MacDermid, Joy C; Taylor, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the meaning of being recovered as perceived by people with chronic mechanical neck pain. Methods: To determine the way people with neck pain would describe a recovered state a descriptive thematic approach was used. A nominal focus group technique, written reflections, and one-on-one semi-structured interviews were used to collect sufficient data. Data from the focus groups were analyzed both through vote tallying and thematic analysis. Reflections and interviews were analyzed thematically by two independent researchers. Triangulation and member-checking were employed to establish trustworthiness of results. Results: A total of 35 people, primarily females with neck pain of traumatic origin, participated in this study. Thematic analysis identified 6 themes that adequately described the data: absent or manageable symptoms, having the physical capacity one ought to have, participation in life roles, feeling positive emotions, autonomy & spontaneity, and re-establishing a sense of self. Member checking and triangulation suggested data saturation and accuracy of the generated themes. Discussion: Recovery from neck pain appears to be informed by factors that fit with existing models of health, quality of life and satisfaction. Basing recovery solely on symptom or activity-level measures risks inaccurate estimates of recovery trajectories from traumatic or non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:24115969

  13. Characterization of cutaneous and articular sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Serra, Ines; Husson, Zoé; Bartlett, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of stimuli can activate sensory neurons and neurons innervating specific tissues often have distinct properties. Here, we used retrograde tracing to identify sensory neurons innervating the hind paw skin (cutaneous) and ankle/knee joints (articular), and combined immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology analysis to determine the neurochemical phenotype of cutaneous and articular neurons, as well as their electrical and chemical excitability. Results Immunohistochemistry analysis using RetroBeads as a retrograde tracer confirmed previous data that cutaneous and articular neurons are a mixture of myelinated and unmyelinated neurons, and the majority of both populations are peptidergic. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons, voltage-gated inward currents and action potential parameters were largely similar between articular and cutaneous neurons, although cutaneous neuron action potentials had a longer half-peak duration (HPD). An assessment of chemical sensitivity showed that all neurons responded to a pH 5.0 solution, but that acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) currents, determined by inhibition with the nonselective acid-sensing ion channel antagonist benzamil, were of a greater magnitude in cutaneous compared to articular neurons. Forty to fifty percent of cutaneous and articular neurons responded to capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, and menthol, indicating similar expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), respectively. By contrast, significantly more articular neurons responded to ATP than cutaneous neurons. Conclusion This work makes a detailed characterization of cutaneous and articular sensory neurons and highlights the importance of making recordings from identified neuronal populations: sensory neurons innervating different tissues have subtly different properties

  14. Sensory Features and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism and Developmental Delays

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Brian A.; Baranek, Grace T.; Sideris, John; Poe, Michele D.; Watson, Linda R.; Patten, Elena; Miller, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study combined parent and observational measures to examine the association between aberrant sensory features and restricted, repetitive behaviors in children with autism (N = 67) and those with developmental delays (N = 42). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to empirically validate three sensory constructs of interest: hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking. Examining the association between the three derived sensory factor scores and scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scales—Revised revealed the co-occurrence of these behaviors in both clinical groups. Specifically, high levels of hyperresponsive behaviors predicted high levels of repetitive behaviors, and the relationship between these variables remained the same controlling for mental age. We primarily found non-significant associations between hyporesponsiveness or sensory seeking and repetitive behaviors, with the exception that sensory seeking was associated with ritualistic/sameness behaviors. These findings suggest that shared neurobiological mechanisms may underlie hyperresponsive sensory symptoms and repetitive behaviors and have implications for diagnostic classification as well as intervention. PMID:20437603

  15. Is the homunculus "aware" of sensory adaptation?

    PubMed

    Seriès, Peggy; Stocker, Alan A; Simoncelli, Eero P

    2009-12-01

    Neural activity and perception are both affected by sensory history. The work presented here explores the relationship between the physiological effects of adaptation and their perceptual consequences. Perception is modeled as arising from an encoder-decoder cascade, in which the encoder is defined by the probabilistic response of a population of neurons, and the decoder transforms this population activity into a perceptual estimate. Adaptation is assumed to produce changes in the encoder, and we examine the conditions under which the decoder behavior is consistent with observed perceptual effects in terms of both bias and discriminability. We show that for all decoders, discriminability is bounded from below by the inverse Fisher information. Estimation bias, on the other hand, can arise for a variety of different reasons and can range from zero to substantial. We specifically examine biases that arise when the decoder is fixed, "unaware" of the changes in the encoding population (as opposed to "aware" of the adaptation and changing accordingly). We simulate the effects of adaptation on two well-studied sensory attributes, motion direction and contrast, assuming a gain change description of encoder adaptation. Although we cannot uniquely constrain the source of decoder bias, we find for both motion and contrast that an "unaware" decoder that maximizes the likelihood of the percept given by the preadaptation encoder leads to predictions that are consistent with behavioral data. This model implies that adaptation-induced biases arise as a result of temporary suboptimality of the decoder. PMID:19686064

  16. Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites.

    PubMed

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N K

    2013-01-01

    Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525 Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including μct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a 'living fossil', which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today. PMID:23492459

  17. Discovery of some 400 million year-old sensory structures in the compound eyes of trilobites

    PubMed Central

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Clarkson, Euan N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Fossilised arthropod compound eyes have frequently been described. Among the oldest known are those from the lower Cambrian of the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China, c 525 Ma). All these compound eyes, though often excellently preserved, however, represent just the outer shells, because soft tissues, or even individual cells, usually do not fossilise. Using modern techniques, including μct-scanning and synchrotron radiation analysis we present the discovery of the sensory cell system of compound eyes, belonging to trilobites around 400 million years old, which allows their description and analysis. They are interpreted as forming part of an apposition-like ommatidium, which is a basic functional type of compound eye present in arthropods of today. Considered in greater detail, it is similar to the compound eye of the horseshoe crab Limulus, generally regarded as a ‘living fossil’, which probably retained this ancient basal system successfully until today. PMID:23492459

  18. Behavioral guides for sensory neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Konishi, M

    2006-06-01

    The study of natural behavior is important for understanding the coding schemes of sensory systems. The jamming avoidance response of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is an excellent example of a bottom-up approach, in which behavioral analyses guided neurophysiological studies. These studies started from the electroreceptive sense organs to the motor output consisting of pacemaker neurons. Going in the opposite direction, from the central nervous system to lower centers, is the characteristic of the top-down approach. Although this approach is perhaps more difficult than the bottom-up approach, it was successfully employed in the neuroethological analysis of sound localization in the barn owl. In the latter studies, high-order neurons selective for complex natural stimuli led to the discovery of neural pathways and networks responsible for the genesis of the stimulus selectivity. Comparison of Eigenmannia and barn owls, and their neural systems, has revealed similarities in network designs, such as parallel pathways and their convergence to produce stimulus selectivity necessary for detection of natural stimuli. PMID:16432726

  19. Credits and Attainment: Returns to Postsecondary Education Ten Years after High School. Statistical Analysis Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Brian; Dawson, Royal

    This analysis examined 16 student characteristics and their association with earnings 10 years after high school. The study used data from the High School and Beyond Longitudinal Study (HS&B) and the HS&B Postsecondary Education Transcript (PETS) file. The information in these files was gathered through a nationally representative survey of high…

  20. The frequency of, and adherence to, single maintenance and reliever therapy instructions in asthma: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    DiSantostefano, Rachael L; Boudiaf, Nada; Stempel, David A; Barnes, Neil C; Greening, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) fixed-dose combinations are recommended regular maintenance options for asthma. ICS/LABAs containing formoterol may also be indicated for single maintenance and reliever therapy (SMART). This analysis evaluated the frequency of SMART dosing of budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (BFC) in the United Kingdom. Secondary objectives were to assess adherence and use of short-acting ß2-agonists (SABAs). This was a descriptive analysis of treatment patterns using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink-GP OnLine Database data (2009–2013). SMART dosing was determined when prescription instructions contained guidance for daily dosing plus ‘and when required’. Treatment and prescription refill patterns of BFC and SABA were described in the year following the index date to identify adherence and SMART dosing instructions versus other dosing regimens. Of 14,818 patients identified, 173 (1.2%) had evidence of prescriptions for SMART dosing at their index BFC prescription. Despite being prescribed SMART dosing, 91 of 173 patients (53%) were additionally dispensed SABA in the year following the index date. The mean number of BFC inhalers used was less than required for daily treatment for SMART and non-SMART dosing groups (4.7 and 4.8, respectively).This analysis suggests that SMART dosing is infrequent when examining dosing instructions. Therefore, results of randomised clinical trials using SMART dosing may not translate to clinical practice in the United Kingdom because of the low level of SMART prescription, concurrent use of SABA, and inadequate refill persistence observed. Further research is needed to understand SMART dosing in real-world clinical practice. PMID:27442488

  1. The frequency of, and adherence to, single maintenance and reliever therapy instructions in asthma: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    DiSantostefano, Rachael L; Boudiaf, Nada; Stempel, David A; Barnes, Neil C; Greening, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) fixed-dose combinations are recommended regular maintenance options for asthma. ICS/LABAs containing formoterol may also be indicated for single maintenance and reliever therapy (SMART). This analysis evaluated the frequency of SMART dosing of budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (BFC) in the United Kingdom. Secondary objectives were to assess adherence and use of short-acting ß2-agonists (SABAs). This was a descriptive analysis of treatment patterns using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink-GP OnLine Database data (2009-2013). SMART dosing was determined when prescription instructions contained guidance for daily dosing plus 'and when required'. Treatment and prescription refill patterns of BFC and SABA were described in the year following the index date to identify adherence and SMART dosing instructions versus other dosing regimens. Of 14,818 patients identified, 173 (1.2%) had evidence of prescriptions for SMART dosing at their index BFC prescription. Despite being prescribed SMART dosing, 91 of 173 patients (53%) were additionally dispensed SABA in the year following the index date. The mean number of BFC inhalers used was less than required for daily treatment for SMART and non-SMART dosing groups (4.7 and 4.8, respectively).This analysis suggests that SMART dosing is infrequent when examining dosing instructions. Therefore, results of randomised clinical trials using SMART dosing may not translate to clinical practice in the United Kingdom because of the low level of SMART prescription, concurrent use of SABA, and inadequate refill persistence observed. Further research is needed to understand SMART dosing in real-world clinical practice. PMID:27442488

  2. Family-Centered Management of Sensory Challenges of Children With Autism: Single-Case Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kim; Bundy, Anita; Roberts, Jacqueline; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    We explored the effectiveness of a sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach to changing problematic routines for young children with autism. Three mothers of young children with autism, atypical sensory processing, and global developmental delay each participated in a single-case experimental ABA design study. Mothers selected a problematic daily routine linked to sensory challenges as the focus of four intervention sessions provided in the home. Changes in mothers' perceptions of the children's behavior were the primary outcome, measured daily on a visual analog scale. Visual and descriptive analyses were undertaken. The sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach showed promise for changing sensory-related problem behaviors of young children with autism, but the degree and maintenance of the intervention effect varied among participants. PMID:27548868

  3. Identification and characterization of mouse otic sensory lineage genes

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Byron H.; Durruthy-Durruthy, Robert; Laske, Roman D.; Losorelli, Steven; Heller, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations) from other major lineages of vertebrate development. We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5) as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. Non-otic tissue samples including periotic tissues and whole embryos with otic regions removed were used as reference populations to evaluate otic specificity. Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2, and Oc90, and additional novel otic lineage markers. To validate these results we performed expression analysis on select genes using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting cells. PMID:25852475

  4. Anaphoric Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…

  5. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  6. Relationship of sensory and instrumental aroma measurements of dark chocolate as influenced by fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions.

    PubMed

    Owusu, Margaret; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Heimdal, Hanne

    2013-10-01

    The investigation was undertaken to establish a relationship between key odorants and perceived flavor attributes of dark chocolate as influenced by cocoa fermentation method, roasting and conching conditions, using multivariate data analysis in an attempt to use one variable to predict the other. Eight of the sixteen flavor attributes used by a trained sensory panel to describe and quantify the intensity of attributes in the samples were significantly different (p < 0.05). Roasting significantly reduced astringency in heap-fermented samples but the reduction in tray-fermented samples was not significant. Unconched samples were rated higher in banana attribute than conched samples. Multivariate data analytical tools, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) were used to investigate quantitative descriptive analysis and GC-O data and also to relate the two sets of data. PLS 1 models based on single sensory attributes gave better models than PLS2 models based on all sixteen sensory attributes. Ethyl-3-methylbutanoate (fruity, flowery); 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (popcorn); dihydro-2(3H)-furanone, (sweet); linalool oxide (sweet, flowery); benzaldehyde (earthy, nutty) and 2/3-methylbutanal (cocoa, roasted) modeled fruit attribute. It was also possible to model the attribute astringent from the aroma compounds 5-methyl-2-phenyl-2-hexenal (sweet, roasted cocoa), ethyl-3-methylbutanoate and pentyl acetate (green, cucumber). Since fruit attribute was higher in unconched samples and astringent higher in unroasted samples, it may be possible to use the levels of these important aroma compounds as indicators of the sensory attributes fruit and astringent. PMID:24425997

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) and Genome Descriptions of Six New Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Song, H.; Cameron, S. L.; Whiting, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Coleoptera is the most diverse group of insects with over 360,000 described species divided into four suborders: Adephaga, Archostemata, Myxophaga, and Polyphaga. In this study, we present six new complete mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) descriptions, including a representative of each suborder, and analyze the evolution of mtgenomes from a comparative framework using all available coleopteran mtgenomes. We propose a modification of atypical cox1 start codons based on sequence alignment to better reflect the conservation observed across species as well as findings of TTG start codons in other genes. We also analyze tRNA-Ser(AGN) anticodons, usually GCU in arthropods, and report a conserved UCU anticodon as a possible synapomorphy across Polyphaga. We further analyze the secondary structure of tRNA-Ser(AGN) and present a consensus structure and an updated covariance model that allows tRNAscan-SE (via the COVE software package) to locate and fold these atypical tRNAs with much greater consistency. We also report secondary structure predictions for both rRNA genes based on conserved stems. All six species of beetle have the same gene order as the ancestral insect. We report noncoding DNA regions, including a small gap region of about 20 bp between tRNA-Ser(UCN) and nad1 that is present in all six genomes, and present results of a base composition analysis. PMID:18779259

  8. Descriptive analysis of context evaluation instrument for technical oral presentation skills evaluation: A case study in English technical communication course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdullah-Adnan; Asmawi, Adelina; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Mustafa, Zainol bin

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a pilot study of Context Evaluation using a self-developed questionnaire distributed among engineering undergraduates at a university under study. The study aims to validate the self-developed questionnaires used in the Context evaluation, a component in the CIPP Model. The Context evaluation assesses background information for needs, assets, problems and opportunities relevant to beneficiaries of the study in a defined environment. Through the questionnaire, background information for the assessment of needs, assets and problems related to the engineering undergraduates' perceptions on the teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills was collected and analysed. The questionnaire was developed using 5-points Likert scale to measure the constructs under study. They were distributed to 100 respondents with 79 returned. The respondents consisted of engineering undergraduates studied at various faculties at one technical university in Malaysia. The descriptive analysis of data for each item which makes up the construct for Context evaluation is found to be high. This implied that engineering undergraduates showed high interest in teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills, thus their needs are met. Also, they agreed that assets and facilities are conducive to their learning. In conclusion, the context evaluation involving needs and assets factors are both considerably important; their needs are met and the assets and facilities do support their technical oral presentation skills learning experience.

  9. Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 3D has been developed to solve the three dimensional, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort has been to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation have been emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized non-orthogonal body-fitted coordinates by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. It describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  10. Proteus two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 2.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Bui, Trong T.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code called Proteus 2D was developed to solve the two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The objective in this effort was to develop a code for aerospace propulsion applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The governing equations are solved in generalized nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, by marching in time using a fully-coupled ADI solution procedure. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly. All terms, including the diffusion terms, are linearized using second-order Taylor series expansions. Turbulence is modeled using either an algebraic or two-equation eddy viscosity model. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. The energy equation may be eliminated by the assumption of constant total enthalpy. Explicit and implicit artificial viscosity may be used. Several time step options are available for convergence acceleration. The documentation is divided into three volumes. This is the Analysis Description, and presents the equations and solution procedure. The governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models are described in detail.

  11. PROTEUS two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code, version 1.0. Volume 1: Analysis description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Schwab, John R.; Benson, Thomas J.; Suresh, Ambady

    1990-01-01

    A new computer code was developed to solve the two-dimensional or axisymmetric, Reynolds averaged, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation law form. The thin-layer or Euler equations may also be solved. Turbulence is modeled using an algebraic eddy viscosity model. The objective was to develop a code for aerospace applications that is easy to use and easy to modify. Code readability, modularity, and documentation were emphasized. The equations are written in nonorthogonal body-fitted coordinates, and solved by marching in time using a fully-coupled alternating direction-implicit procedure with generalized first- or second-order time differencing. All terms are linearized using second-order Taylor series. The boundary conditions are treated implicitly, and may be steady, unsteady, or spatially periodic. Simple Cartesian or polar grids may be generated internally by the program. More complex geometries require an externally generated computational coordinate system. The documentation is divided into three volumes. Volume 1 is the Analysis Description, and describes in detail the governing equations, the turbulence model, the linearization of the equations and boundary conditions, the time and space differencing formulas, the ADI solution procedure, and the artificial viscosity models.

  12. Relationships between preference ratings, sensory profiles, and acoustical measurements in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Kuusinen, Antti; Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    Preferences of concert hall acoustics are explored with preference mapping. The investigation is performed on previously gathered data from individual vocabulary profiling of nine concert halls and three pieces of symphonic music, namely, excerpts of compositions by Beethoven, Bruckner, and Mozart. Individual preferences are regressed onto a latent three-dimensional sensory space obtained by multiple factor analysis of descriptive sensory data. Overlaying individually estimated preference surfaces onto one another produces preference maps which illustrates both the overall preference of the stimuli as well as differences between individual listeners. A comparison of the maps between music motifs illustrates how each music signal affects the weighting of different acoustical qualities in preference judgments. Differences in preferences between individuals are pronounced in the excerpts of Beethoven and Bruckner, while the responses are more homogeneous for Mozart music motif. Overall, proximity is identified as the main aspect associated with preference, but also loudness, envelopment, and bass are important. A correlation analysis of objective parameters and subjective perceptions substantiates the importance of lateral sound energy for good concert hall acoustics. Particularly, the lateral early energy fraction at high frequencies is found to be associated with the perception of proximity, and hence, also with preference. PMID:24437764

  13. Effect of adjuncts on sensory properties and consumer liking of Scamorza cheese.

    PubMed

    Braghieri, A; Piazzolla, N; Romaniello, A; Paladino, F; Ricciardi, A; Napolitano, F

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a peptidolytic adjunct (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Lactobacillus paracasei), as a tool to accelerate ripening, on sensory properties and acceptability of Scamorza cheese obtained using 2 types of milk (Friesian and Friesian+Jersey) and Streptococcus thermophilus as primary starter. A 10-member panel was trained using a specific frame of references and used a specific vocabulary to assess cheese sensory properties through quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), whereas 87 consumers were used to evaluate product acceptability. Analysis of variance showed that milk type did not markedly alter cheese sensory properties. Conversely, panelists perceived higher intensities of butter, saltiness, and sweetness flavors in cheese without adjunct culture (ST), whereas the addition of the adjunct culture (ST+A) induced higher and sourness flavors, oiliness and grainy textures, and lower adhesiveness, moisture, springiness, and tenderness. Principal component analysis showed positive relationships between pH and tenderness, sweetness and saltiness and a negative correlation between pH and grainy, oiliness, color and structure uniformity, sourness, and milk. Most of the differences observed in QDA and most of the relationships observed in the principal component analysis were linked to the higher microbial activity induced by the adjunct culture. Independently of milk and starter types, consumers perceived Scamorza cheese as characterized by a good eating quality (mean liking scores were all above the neutral point of the hedonic scale). Although ST cheeses showed higher values for overall liking, 2 homogeneous groups of consumers were identified using partial least squares regression analysis. One group preferred ST cheeses with higher levels of tenderness, adhesiveness, springiness, and moisture in terms of texture, butter in terms of flavor, and sweetness in terms of taste, whereas a second group

  14. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  15. Sensory neuropeptides and airway function.

    PubMed

    Solway, J; Leff, A R

    1991-12-01

    Sensory nerves synthesize tachykinins and calcitonin-gene related peptide and package these neuropeptides together in synaptic vesicles. Stimulation of these C-fibers by a range of chemical and physical factors results in afferent neuronal conduction that elicits central parasympathetic reflexes and in antidromic conduction that results in local release of neuropeptides through the axon reflex. In the airways, sensory neuropeptides act on bronchial smooth muscle, the mucosal vasculature, and submucosal glands to promote airflow obstruction, hyperemia, microvascular hyperpermeability, and mucus hypersecretion. In addition, tachykinins potentiate cholinergic neurotransmission. Proinflammatory effects of these peptides also promote the recruitment, adherence, and activation of granulocytes that may further exacerbate neurogenic inflammation (i.e., neuropeptide-induced plasma extravasation and vasodilation). Enzymatic degradation limits the physiological effects of tachykinins but may be impaired by respiratory infection or other factors. Given their sensitivity to noxious compounds and physical stimuli and their potent effects on airway function, it is possible that neuropeptide-containing sensory nerves play an important role in mediating airway responses in human disease. Supporting this view are the striking phenomenological similarities between hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB) in guinea pigs and HIB in patients with exercise-induced asthma. Endogenous tachykinins released from airway sensory nerves mediate HIB in guinea pigs and also cause hyperpnea-induced bronchovascular hyperpermeability in these animals. On the basis of these observations, it is reasonable to speculate that sensory neuropeptides participate in the pathogenesis of hyperpnea-induced airflow obstruction in human asthmatic subjects as well. PMID:1663932

  16. Sensory Characteristics and Comparison of Commercial Plain Yogurts and 2 New Production Sample Options.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marissa D; Chambers, Delores H

    2015-12-01

    This research determined the sensory characteristics of currently available plain yogurts available in U.S. supermarkets and examined how 3 "more sustainable" prototypes compared. The prototypes, nonfat set-style yogurts pre-acidified after pasteurization with lemon juice or citric acid at 80 ppm to pH 6.2, had shorter fermentation times than the lab-made control. These reduced fermentation times could result in energy reductions and potentially substantiate a "sustainable" marketing claim, a concept gaining traction with consumers. Twenty-six commercial yogurts, varying in percent milk fat, milk source (organic or conventional), and processing (set-style, stirred, or strained/Greek-style), were also included. Using descriptive sensory analysis, a 6-person highly trained panel scored the intensity of 25 flavor and 10 texture attributes on a 15-point scale. Three replications were carried out, and all samples were tested at least 10 d prior to the end of their shelf-lives. The samples differed for 19 flavor and all 10 texture attributes. Cluster analysis indicated approximately 7 flavor and 5 texture clusters. The prototype pre-acidified with lemon juice was similar to category leaders nonfat yogurt varieties. The prototype pre-acidified with citric acid was similar in texture but was less sour. Although no legal definitions exist for "sustainable," the prototypes' sensory characteristics are comparable to those of popular yogurts indicating potential market viability. This research also demonstrates potential for making yogurt that is in line with growing consumer expectations for sustainability. Despite the current diversity, several combinations of flavor and texture were not represented. PMID:26551026

  17. Description Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baader, Franz

    Description Logics (DLs) are a well-investigated family of logic-based knowledge representation formalisms, which can be used to represent the conceptual knowledge of an application domain in a structured and formally well-understood way. They are employed in various application domains, such as natural language processing, configuration, and databases, but their most notable success so far is the adoption of the DL-based language OWL as standard ontology language for the semantic web.

  18. Identification and Characterization of Novel Renal Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Premraj; Aisenberg, William H.; Acres, Omar W.; Protzko, Ryan J.; Pluznick, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important roles that “sensory” receptors (olfactory receptors, taste receptors, and orphan “GPR” receptors) play in a variety of tissues, including the kidney. Although several studies have identified important roles that individual sensory receptors play in the kidney, there has not been a systematic analysis of the renal repertoire of sensory receptors. In this study, we identify novel renal sensory receptors belonging to the GPR (n = 76), olfactory receptor (n = 6), and taste receptor (n = 11) gene families. A variety of reverse transcriptase (RT)- PCR screening strategies were used to identify novel renal sensory receptors, which were subsequently confirmed using gene-specific primers. The tissue-specific distribution of these receptors was determined, and the novel renal ORs were cloned from whole mouse kidney. Renal ORs that trafficked properly in vitro were screened for potential ligands using a dual-luciferase ligand screen, and novel ligands were identified for Olfr691. These studies demonstrate that multiple sensory receptors are expressed in the kidney beyond those previously identified. These results greatly expand the known repertoire of renal sensory receptors. Importantly, the mRNA of many of the receptors identified in this study are expressed highly in the kidney (comparable to well-known and extensively studied renal GPCRs), and in future studies it will be important to elucidate the roles that these novel renal receptors play in renal physiology. PMID:25340336

  19. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Christina; Mason, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis. PMID:25811027

  20. Sensory Cortex Underpinnings of Traumatic Brain Injury Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Alwis, Dasuni S.; Yan, Edwin B.; Morganti-Kossmann, Maria-Cristina; Rajan, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent sensorimotor and cognitive deficits including long-term altered sensory processing. The few animal models of sensory cortical processing effects of TBI have been limited to examination of effects immediately after TBI and only in some layers of cortex. We have now used the rat whisker tactile system and the cortex processing whisker-derived input to provide a highly detailed description of TBI-induced long-term changes in neuronal responses across the entire columnar network in primary sensory cortex. Brain injury (n = 19) was induced using an impact acceleration method and sham controls received surgery only (n = 15). Animals were tested in a range of sensorimotor behaviour tasks prior to and up to 6 weeks post-injury when there were still significant sensorimotor behaviour deficits. At 8–10 weeks post-trauma, in terminal experiments, extracellular recordings were obtained from barrel cortex neurons in response to whisker motion, including motion that mimicked whisker motion observed in awake animals undertaking different tasks. In cortex, there were lamina-specific neuronal response alterations that appeared to reflect local circuit changes. Hyper-excitation was found only in supragranular layers involved in intra-areal processing and long-range integration, and only for stimulation with complex, naturalistic whisker motion patterns and not for stimulation with simple trapezoidal whisker motion. Thus TBI induces long-term directional changes in integrative sensory cortical layers that depend on the complexity of the incoming sensory information. The nature of these changes allow predictions as to what types of sensory processes may be affected in TBI and contribute to post-trauma sensorimotor deficits. PMID:23284921

  1. Behavioral, perceptual, and neural alterations in sensory and multisensory function in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sarah H; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wallace, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Although sensory processing challenges have been noted since the first clinical descriptions of autism, it has taken until the release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013 for sensory problems to be included as part of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the diagnostic profile. Because sensory information forms the building blocks for higher-order social and cognitive functions, we argue that sensory processing is not only an additional piece of the puzzle, but rather a critical cornerstone for characterizing and understanding ASD. In this review we discuss what is currently known about sensory processing in ASD, how sensory function fits within contemporary models of ASD, and what is understood about the differences in the underlying neural processing of sensory and social communication observed between individuals with and without ASD. In addition to highlighting the sensory features associated with ASD, we also emphasize the importance of multisensory processing in building perceptual and cognitive representations, and how deficits in multisensory integration may also be a core characteristic of ASD. PMID:26455789

  2. Effect of rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis) on lipid oxidation over time and the sensory analysis of blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) and springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) droëwors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Maxine; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Magdalena

    2015-05-01

    The study objective was to investigate the addition of rooibos extract (RBE) in blesbok and springbok droëwors, a dried meat sausage with added beef fat, to improve oxidative stability. After a storage period of two weeks, inhibition of lipid oxidation showed to be successful with RBE 1.0% addition. No differences (P>0.05) in heme-iron results within the raw, dried or stored samples were seen. However, a positive correlation between lipid oxidation and heme-iron was noted. The fatty acid profiles suggest that after drying the decrease in polyunsaturated fats could be linked to the increase in lipid oxidation. Flavor and aroma differences between the varying RBE concentrations in the droëwors were detected by the sensory panel. A droëwors formulation using a combination of game meat and beef fat with the addition of RBE at a 1.0% concentration could be a successful addition to the processed meat market. PMID:25617707

  3. On the brain of a crustacean: a morphological analysis of CaMKII expression and its relation to sensory and motor pathways.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M; Müller, Yara M R; Allodi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a Ca(2+)-activated enzyme that is abundant in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. However, its characterization is poorly addressed in the nervous system of crustaceans, and, to our knowledge, no studies have determined the microanatomical location of CaMKII in a crustacean species. In this study, we found labeling of CaMKII in the eyestalk and brain of the prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus, by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Antibodies against neuron (ß tubulin III), glutamate receptor (GluA1), and FMRFamide were used in order to further characterize the CaMKII-labeled cells in the brain. In the eyestalk, strong labeling with CaMKII was observed in the photoreceptors. These cells, especially in the rhabdom, were also reactive to anti-ß tubulin III, whereas the pigment cells were labeled with anti-CaMKII. GluA1 co-located with CaMKII in the photoreceptors. Also, CaMKII appeared in the same sites as FMRFamide in the deutocerebrum, including the olfactory lobe, and in the tritocerebrum, specifically in the antennular neuropil, indicating that the synaptic areas in these regions may be related to sensory-motor processing. In the brain, the identification of cells and regions that express CaMKII contributes to the understanding of the processing of neural connections and the modulating role of CaMKII in decapod crustaceans. PMID:23741406

  4. On the Brain of a Crustacean: A Morphological Analysis of CaMKII Expression and Its Relation to Sensory and Motor Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a Ca2+-activated enzyme that is abundant in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. However, its characterization is poorly addressed in the nervous system of crustaceans, and, to our knowledge, no studies have determined the microanatomical location of CaMKII in a crustacean species. In this study, we found labeling of CaMKII in the eyestalk and brain of the prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus, by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Antibodies against neuron (ß tubulin III), glutamate receptor (GluA1), and FMRFamide were used in order to further characterize the CaMKII-labeled cells in the brain. In the eyestalk, strong labeling with CaMKII was observed in the photoreceptors. These cells, especially in the rhabdom, were also reactive to anti-ß tubulin III, whereas the pigment cells were labeled with anti-CaMKII. GluA1 co-located with CaMKII in the photoreceptors. Also, CaMKII appeared in the same sites as FMRFamide in the deutocerebrum, including the olfactory lobe, and in the tritocerebrum, specifically in the antennular neuropil, indicating that the synaptic areas in these regions may be related to sensory-motor processing. In the brain, the identification of cells and regions that express CaMKII contributes to the understanding of the processing of neural connections and the modulating role of CaMKII in decapod crustaceans. PMID:23741406

  5. Sensory Neuronopathy and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Alberto R. M.; Nunes, Marcelo B.; Nucci, Anamarli; França, Marcondes C.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory neuronopathies (SNs) are a specific subgroup of peripheral nervous system diseases characterized by primary degeneration of dorsal root ganglia and their projections. Multifocal sensory symptoms often associated to ataxia are the classical features of SN. Several different etiologies have been described for SNs, but immune-mediated damage plays a key role in most cases. SN may herald the onset of some systemic autoimmune diseases, which further emphasizes how important the recognition of SN is in clinical practice. We have thus reviewed available clinical, neurophysiological, and therapeutic data on autoimmune disease-related SN, namely, in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, and celiac disease. PMID:22312482

  6. The critical role of locomotion mechanics in decoding sensory systems.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Noah J; Fortune, Eric S

    2007-01-31

    How do neural systems process sensory information to control locomotion? The weakly electric knifefish Eigenmannia, an ideal model for studying sensorimotor control, swims to stabilize the sensory image of a sinusoidally moving refuge. Tracking performance is best at stimulus frequencies less than approximately 1 Hz. Kinematic analysis, which is widely used in the study of neural control of movement, predicts commensurately low-pass sensory processing for control. The inclusion of Newtonian mechanics in the analysis of the behavior, however, categorically shifts the prediction: this analysis predicts that sensory processing is high pass. The counterintuitive prediction that a low-pass behavior is controlled by a high-pass neural filter nevertheless matches previously reported but poorly understood high-pass filtering seen in electrosensory afferents and downstream neurons. Furthermore, a model incorporating the high-pass controller matches animal behavior, whereas the model with the low-pass controller does not and is unstable. Because locomotor mechanics are similar in a wide array of animals, these data suggest that such high-pass sensory filters may be a general mechanism used for task-level locomotion control. Furthermore, these data highlight the critical role of mechanical analyses in addition to widely used kinematic analyses in the study of neural control systems. PMID:17267567

  7. β-Lactoglobulin as nanotransporter for allicin: Sensory properties and applicability in food.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Sandra Catharina; Keppler, Julia Katharina; Palani, Kalpana; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-05-15

    The thiosulfinate allicin is a labile, bioactive compound of garlic. In order to enrich allicin in a functional food, a delivery system which stabilises the compound and masks its intense flavour is necessary. In the present study allicin was covalently bound to the whey protein β-lactoglobulin and the incorporation of this transporter in a food matrix was tested. The sensory properties of the pure functional ingredient as well as of an enriched beverage were characterised by quantitative descriptive analysis. The concentration of volatile compounds was analysed by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The garlic-related organoleptic properties of garlic powder were significantly improved by the binding of allicin in combination with spray drying. After purification of the modified β-lactoglobulin the garlic taste and smell were barely perceptible. β-Lactoglobulin modified with allicin provided a stable functional ingredient that can be used to enrich a broad range of food products. PMID:26776023

  8. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2015-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5–6 days/week, but close by 4–5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor. PMID:25759453

  9. Health technology assessment in Switzerland: a descriptive analysis of “Coverage with Evidence Development” decisions from 1996 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Brügger, Urs; Horisberger, Bruno; Ruckstuhl, Alexander; Plessow, Rafael; Eichler, Klaus; Gratwohl, Alois

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors associated with the decisions of the Federal Department of Home Affairs concerning coverage with evidence development (CED) for contested novel medical technologies in Switzerland. Design Quantitative, retrospective, descriptive analysis of publicly available material and prospective, structured, qualitative interviews with key stakeholders. Setting All 152 controversial medical services decided on by the Federal Commission on Health Insurance Benefits within the framework of the new federal law on health insurance in Switzerland from 1997 to 2013, with focus on 33 technologies assigned initially to CED and 33 to evidence development without coverage. Main outcome measures Factors associated with numbers and type of contested services assigned to CED per year, the duration and final outcome of the evaluations and perceptions of key stakeholders. Results The rate of CED decisions (82 total; median 1.5/year; range 0–9/year), the time to final decision (4.5 years median; 0.75 to +11 years) and the probability of a final ‘yes’ varied over time. In logistic regression models, the change of office of the commission provided the best explanation for the observed outcomes. Good intentions but absence of scientific criteria for decisions were reported as major comments by the stakeholders. Conclusions The introduction of CED enabled access to some promising technologies early in their life cycle, and might have triggered establishment of registries and research. Impact on patients’ outcome and costs remain unknown. The primary association of institutional changes with measured end points illustrates the need for evaluation of the current health technology assessment (HTA) system. PMID:25818273

  10. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. PMID:26642109

  11. Laser-Induced Transient Grating Analysis of Dynamics of Interaction between Sensory Rhodopsin II D75N and the HtrII Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Keiichi; Sasaki, Jun; Spudich, John L.; Terazima, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) and its transducer HtrII was studied by the time-resolved laser-induced transient grating method using the D75N mutant of SRII, which exhibits minimal visible light absorption changes during its photocycle, but mediates normal phototaxis responses. Flash-induced transient absorption spectra of transducer-free D75N and D75N joined to 120 amino-acid residues of the N-terminal part of the SRII transducer protein HtrII (ΔHtrII) showed only one spectrally distinct K-like intermediate in their photocycles, but the transient grating method resolved four intermediates (K1–K4) distinct in their volumes. D75N bound to HtrII exhibited one additional slower kinetic species, which persists after complete recovery of the initial state as assessed by absorption changes in the UV-visible region. The kinetics indicate a conformationally changed form of the transducer portion (designated Tr*), which persists after the photoreceptor returns to the unphotolyzed state. The largest conformational change in the ΔHtrII portion was found to cause a ΔHtrII-dependent increase in volume rising in 8 μs in the K4 state and a drastic decrease in the diffusion coefficient (D) of K4 relatively to those of the unphotolyzed state and Tr*. The magnitude of the decrease in D indicates a large structural change, presumably in the solvent-exposed HAMP domain of ΔHtrII, where rearrangement of interacting molecules in the solvent would substantially change friction between the protein and the solvent. PMID:17189313

  12. Workplace Measurements by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration since 1979: Descriptive Analysis and Potential Uses for Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background : Inspectors from the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have been collecting industrial hygiene samples since 1972 to verify compliance with Permissible Exposure Limits. Starting in 1979, these measurements were computerized into the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS). In 2010, a dataset of over 1 million personal sample results analysed at OSHA’s central laboratory in Salt Lake City [Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD)], only partially overlapping the IMIS database, was placed into public domain via the internet. We undertook this study to inform potential users about the relationship between this newly available OSHA data and IMIS and to offer insight about the opportunities and challenges associated with the use of OSHA measurement data for occupational exposure assessment. Methods : We conducted a literature review of previous uses of IMIS in occupational health research and performed a descriptive analysis of the data recently made available and compared them to the IMIS database for lead, the most frequently sampled agent. Results : The literature review yielded 29 studies reporting use of IMIS data, but none using the CEHD data. Most studies focused on a single contaminant, with silica and lead being most frequently analysed. Sixteen studies addressed potential bias in IMIS, mostly by examining the association between exposure levels and ancillary information. Although no biases of appreciable magnitude were consistently reported across studies and agents, these assessments may have been obscured by selective under-reporting of non-detectable measurements. The CEHD data comprised 1 450 836 records from 1984 to 2009, not counting analytical blanks and erroneous records. Seventy eight agents with >1000 personal samples yielded 1 037 367 records. Unlike IMIS, which contain administrative information (company size, job description), ancillary information in the CEHD data is mostly analytical. When the IMIS and

  13. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  14. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  15. Effect of barley flour on the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies.

    PubMed

    Frost, Diana June; Adhikari, Koushik; Lewis, Douglas S

    2011-10-01

    The present study explored the possibility of using barley flour as an ingredient to incorporate soluble fibre (β-glucan) in chocolate-chip cookies. Some clinical studies have shown that β-glucan might reduce the serum cholesterol levels. The objective of this study was to determine the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies partly substituted with barley flour at different levels. Physical characteristics (water activity and L*a*b* colour) and sensory characteristics (descriptive and consumer analysis) were evaluated on the experimental cookies substituted with 0, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% barley flour for all-purpose flour. There were increases in the baked-barley aroma and flavour, thickness, colour intensity, dryness and graininess with increasing barley flour content. Consumer data showed that cookies made with 30% (0.5 g β-glucan/serving) and 50% (0.8 g β-glucan/serving) barley flour substitution were comparable in liking to the control (0% substitution) cookie and a commercial cookie. The presence of β-glucan in our chocolate-chip cookies might make them a healthier option for many consumers. PMID:23572789

  16. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The results from this research indicate that fibers have an effect on extruded pet food texture and palatability. These results may help pet food companies select ingredients for successful product formulations. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods

  17. Instrumental and sensory quantification of oral coatings retained after swallowing semi-solid foods.

    PubMed

    Prinz, J F; Huntjens, L; de Wijk, R A

    2006-12-01

    After a mouthful of food has been swallowed, some food material is always retained in the mouth. With semi-solid foods this is in the form of a coating that adheres to the oral mucosa. The amount and location of this material may play an important role in food sensations. In this study two quantitative methods of describing the coatings, generated by a set of 16 model custards varying in degree of lubrication (fat content) and degree of viscosity (starch concentration) are investigated. In the first method, a trained quantitative descriptive analysis panel (N=8) was instructed to take single mouthfuls of semi-solid foods, swallow and then rinse twice for 5s with water and spit out. The turbidity of the rinse water was then measured. During the same session, sensory assessments of the products were obtained. In the second method the thickness of the coating on the anterior and middle one-thirds of the tongue was quantified using a pair of opto-electronic reflectance sensors mounted on a probe which was placed on the tongue, one sensor measuring the anterior part of the tongue the other the posterior (middle third) of the tongue. Turbidity of the first rinse related strongly to the food's viscosity, as well as to sensory attributes associated with the food's fat content and viscosity, such as perceived thickness, creaminess and fattiness. Turbidity of subsequent rinses related primarily to fat content. These results indicate that turbidity of rinse water is a useful tool in fundamental (e.g., food texture research) as well as applied research (e.g., product development and quality assurance in food industry). Reflectance varied primarily with fat content and did not relate well to sensory attributes. PMID:17045954

  18. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers. PMID:26479141

  19. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

  20. Job Descriptions for Cooperative and Distributive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Frederick A.

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines for writing job descriptions (with consideration given to cooperative and distributive education) are presented. Areas of discussion are procedure for job analysis, questions that gather information for job descriptions, writing the job description, and validity. A sample job description is included. (TA)

  1. Active compounds and distinctive sensory features provided by American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) extract in a new functional milk beverage.

    PubMed

    Tárrega, A; Salvador, A; Meyer, M; Feuillère, N; Ibarra, A; Roller, M; Terroba, D; Madera, C; Iglesias, J R; Echevarría, J; Fiszman, S

    2012-08-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has recognized neurocognitive effects, and a ginsenoside-rich extract of the root of the plant has been shown to improve cognitive functions in young adults. This study aimed at assessing the chemical and sensory profiles of a UHT-treated, low-lactose functional milk containing American ginseng. Individual ginsenosides in the milk were analyzed by HPLC. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed by a trained panel to quantitatively document sensory changes resulting from the addition of ginseng and the UHT process on flavored and unflavored milks. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated. Total ginsenoside content in the UHT-treated milk enriched with the ginseng extract after UHT process treatment was 7.52 mg/100 g of milk, corresponding to a recovery of 67.6% compared with the content in the unprocessed extract. The intake of 150 to 300 mL of this ginseng-enriched milk provides the amount of total ginsenosides (11.5 to 23 mg) necessary to improve cognitive function after its consumption. Both the presence of ginsenosides and their thermal treatment affected some sensory properties of the milk, most notably an increase in bitterness and metallic taste, the appearance of a brownish color, and a decrease in milky flavor. Levels of brown color, bitterness, and metallic taste were highest in the industrially processed ginseng-enriched milk. The bitterness attributable to ginseng extract was reduced by addition of vanilla flavor and sucralose. A consumer exploratory study revealed that a niche of consumers exists who are willing to consume this type of product. PMID:22818438

  2. Impact of dietary supplemental methionine sources on sensory measurement of odor-related compounds in broiler excreta.

    PubMed

    Chavez, C; Coufal, C D; Niemeyer, P L; Carey, J B; Lacey, R E; Miller, R K; Beier, R C

    2004-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to detect differences in odor characteristics of broiler excreta due to utilization of different supplementary Met sources by a trained human descriptive aroma attribute sensory panel. The 5 treatment groups were no supplemental Met (control group), sodium methioninate aqueous solution, dry Met hydroxy analogue, liquid Met hydroxy analogue, and DL-Met. Two trials were conducted consisting of 5 treatment groups with 3 replications of 13 randomly distributed straight run broiler chicks per pen reared in battery cages. Starter and grower diets were formulated to contain 0.5 and 0.38% Met activity, respectively (except control group, 0.35% Met activity). Excreta were collected for 24 h in litter pans lined with aluminum foil at wk 4, 5, and 6 and analyzed by a trained sensory panel (7 people). Each panelist was given 25 g of manure heated at 27 degrees C for 5 min for sensory analysis. The 13 odor attributes used to determine differences in broiler excreta by the trained sensory panel were ammonia, dirty socks, wet poultry, fermented rotten fruit, hay, musty wet, sharp, sour, urinous, rotten eggs, irritating, pungent, and nauseating. Panelist marked intensities for each attribute ranging from 0 = none and 15 = extremely intense. Each panelist was given 2 replications of each treatment group in a random order each week (total of 10 samples per wk). All data were evaluated by ANOVA using the general linear model procedure of SAS software. No significant differences were observed in BW, feed consumption, or feed conversion among the treatments. The attributes of ammonia, wet poultry, rotten fruit, musty wet, sharp, and pungent differed (P < 0.05) across treatment groups. These findings demonstrate that supplemental Met sources significantly influence odor production in broiler excreta. PMID:15510549

  3. Response to Vestibular Sensory Events in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the response to vestibular sensory events in persons with autism. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to age- and gender-matched community controls. The…

  4. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  5. USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

  6. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    PubMed Central

    Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Kristensen, Mette; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Raben, Anne; Kehlet, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than the other sausages. RBS was similar to the commercial 10%S with regard to several sensory attributes and liking, whereas WBS was the least juicy, had a higher intensity of cereal odor and flavor, and the lowest liking. PMID:25473511

  7. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 5: Nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept design developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study is presented. The evolution of the NEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines, and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities and costs.

  8. Student Success: A Descriptive Analysis of Hispanic Students and Engagement at a Midwest Hispanic-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn more about the Hispanic students attending Northeastern Illinois University, a four-year institution in Chicago, IL, and their student success. Little is known descriptively and statistically about this population at NEIU, which serves as a Hispanic-Serving Institution. In addition, little is known about…

  9. Sensory Clusters of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Differences in Affective Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Sasson, A.; Cermak, S. A.; Orsmond, G. I.; Tager-Flusberg, H.; Kadlec, M. B.; Carter, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) show variability in their sensory behaviors. In this study we identified clusters of toddlers with ASDs who shared sensory profiles and examined differences in affective symptoms across these clusters. Method: Using cluster analysis 170 toddlers with ASDs were grouped based on parent…

  10. Effect of dual sensory loss on auditory localization: implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Simon, Helen J; Levitt, Harry

    2007-12-01

    Our sensory systems are remarkable in several respects. They are extremely sensitive, they each perform more than one function, and they interact in a complementary way, thereby providing a high degree of redundancy that is particularly helpful should one or more sensory systems be impaired. In this article, the problem of dual hearing and vision loss is addressed. A brief description is provided on the use of auditory cues in vision loss, the use of visual cues in hearing loss, and the additional difficulties encountered when both sensory systems are impaired. A major focus of this article is the use of sound localization by normal hearing, hearing impaired, and blind individuals and the special problem of sound localization in people with dual sensory loss. PMID:18003869

  11. A new car-following model considering driver's sensory memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bao-gui

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents one kind of new car-following model (mean memory model, simplified as MMM) by introducing driver sensory memory (sensory buffer) term into the original optimal velocity (OV) function by Bando et al. (1995, 1998). The main improvement is that MMM can avoid the disadvantage of the sensory buffer time neglected in existing models. The stability condition of the proposed model is obtained by using linear stability theory. Results show that the stability region decreases when the driver's sensory buffer time increases. Furthermore, the model is investigated in detail by numerical methods. The following conclusions are derived. (a) Numerical results of starting process for the car motion under a traffic signal accord with empirical traffic values; (b) the numerical simulations in the form of the space-time evolution of headway and velocity are also in good agreement with the theoretical analysis; (c) the size of hysteresis loops will be reduced with the sensing buffer time decreasing. Both analytical and simulation results show that the following car driver's sensory buffer time plays an important role on the stability of traffic flow.

  12. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity. PMID:26453064

  13. Analysis of Odorants in Marking Fluid of Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Using Simultaneous Sensory and Chemical Analysis with Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Soso, Simone B; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-01-01

    Scent-marking is the most effective method of communication in the presence or absence of a signaler. These complex mixtures result in a multifaceted interaction triggered by the sense of smell. The objective was to identify volatile organic compound (VOC) composition and odors emitted by total marking fluid (MF) associated with Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). Siberian tiger, an endangered species, was chosen because its MF had never been analyzed. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for headspace volatile collection combined with multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry for simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses were used. Thirty-two VOCs emitted from MF were identified. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the sole previously identified compound responsible for the "characteristic" odor of P. tigris MF, was identified along with two additional compounds confirmed with standards (urea, furfural) and four tentatively identified compounds (3-methylbutanamine, (R)-3-methylcyclopentanone, propanedioic acid, and 3-hydroxybutanal) as being responsible for the characteristic aroma of Siberian tiger MF. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses improved characterization of scent-markings and identified compounds not previously reported in MF of other tiger species. This research will assist animal ecologists, behaviorists, and zookeepers in understanding how scents from specific MF compounds impact tiger and wildlife communication and improve management practices related to animal behavior. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses is applicable to unlocking scent-marking information for other species. PMID:27347921

  14. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  15. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  16. The Impact of Hybridization on the Volatile and Sensorial Profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids (“Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita,” “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon,” and “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita”). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid “Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita” exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita,” such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon”; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents. PMID:24558334

  17. Sensory Cells of the Fish Ear: A Hairy Enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, A. N.; Saidel, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the structure of the ears in teleost fishes has led to the tentative suggestion that otolithic endorgans may function differently, in different species. Recently, evidence has demonstrated different 'types' of sensory hair cells can be found in the ears of teleost fishes, and individual hair cell types are found in discrete regions of individual sensory, epithelia. The presence of multiple hair cell types in fishes provides strong support to the hypothesis of regional differences in the responses of individual otolithic sensory epithelia. The finding of hair cell types in fishes that closely resemble those found in amniote vestibular endorgans also suggests that hair cell heterogeneity arose earlier in the evolution of the vertebrate ear than previously thought.

  18. Sensory Augmentation for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

  19. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials. PMID:19389606

  20. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  1. Universal Natural Shapes: From Unifying Shape Description to Simple Methods for Shape Analysis and Boundary Value Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gielis, Johan; Caratelli, Diego; Fougerolle, Yohan; Ricci, Paolo Emilio; Tavkelidze, Ilia; Gerats, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Gielis curves and surfaces can describe a wide range of natural shapes and they have been used in various studies in biology and physics as descriptive tool. This has stimulated the generalization of widely used computational methods. Here we show that proper normalization of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm allows for efficient and robust reconstruction of Gielis curves, including self-intersecting and asymmetric curves, without increasing the overall complexity of the algorithm. Then, we show how complex curves of k-type can be constructed and how solutions to the Dirichlet problem for the Laplace equation on these complex domains can be derived using a semi-Fourier method. In all three methods, descriptive and computational power and efficiency is obtained in a surprisingly simple way. PMID:23028417

  2. An objective and reproducible landform and topography description approach based on digital terrain analysis used for soil profile site characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Fabian E.; Baruck, Jasmin; Hastik, Richard; Geitner, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    All major soil description and classification systems, including the World Reference Base (WRB) and the German Soil description guidelines (KA5), require the characterization of landform and topography for soil profile sites. This is commonly done at more than one scale, for instance at macro-, meso- and micro scale. However, inherent when humans perform such a task, different surveyors will reach different conclusions due to their subjective perception of landscape structure, based on their individual mind-model of soil-landscape structure, emphasizing different aspects and scales of the landscape. In this study we apply a work-flow using the GRASS GIS extension module r.geomorphon to make use of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to characterize the landform elements and topography of soil profile sites at different scales, and compare the results with a large number of soil profile site descriptions performed during the course of forestry surveys in South and North Tyrol (Italy and Austria, respectively). The r.geomorphon extension module for the open source geographic information system GRASS GIS applies a pattern recognition algorithm to delineate landform elements based on an input DEM. For each raster cell it computes and characterizes the visible neighborhood using line-of-sight calculations and then applies a lookup-table to classify the raster cell into one of ten landform elements (flat, peak, ridge, shoulder, slope, spur, hollow, footslope, valley and pit). The input parameter search radius (L) represents the maximum number of pixels for line-of-sight calculation, resulting in landforms larger than L to be split into landform components. The use of these visibility calculations makes this landform delineation approach suitable for comparison with the landform descriptions of soil surveyors, as their spatial perception of the landscape surrounding a soil profile site certainly influences their classification of the landform on which the

  3. Sensory Flavor and Texture Profiles of Cooked Broiler Breast Fillets Deboned at Different Postmortem Times

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) deboned at 3 postmortem times. In each trial, 30 broiler carcasses (42d old birds) were obtained from a commercial processing plant. Ten carcasses were hot-boned (about 3...

  4. The Impact of Sensory Preferences on Student Engagement, Success, and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barends, Bobbi J.

    2012-01-01

    Many students enter institutions of higher education underprepared for college level coursework. Instructors must establish early connections with these students to engage them in their required coursework and foster success in remedial coursework. The purpose of this descriptive, quantitative study was to examine the sensory processing…

  5. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors. PMID:19397734

  6. Kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures (VCF) : procedure description and analysis of the outcomes in 128 patients.

    PubMed

    Molina, Guillermo Saul Fernandez; Campero, A; Feito, R; Pombo, S

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the advent of percutaneous techniques in the management of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures has proven to be a great step forward in the evolution of patients suffering from this pathology.Vertebroplasty, which was developed in 1984 by Galibert and Deramond, presents the disadvantage of leakage of the cementation material and the impossibility to restore spinal deformity. Kyphoplasty has shown to be almost a definite solution to these problems. The description of the technique, its indications, and the outcomes resulting from our series of 200 vertebral fractures in 128 patients are presented in this paper. PMID:21107953

  7. [Chemical and sensory characterization of tea (Thea sinensis) consumed in Chile].

    PubMed

    Wittig de Penna, Emma; José Zúñiga, María; Fuenzalida, Regina; López-Planes, Reinaldo

    2005-03-01

    By means of descriptive analysis four varieties of tea (Thea sinensis) were assesed: Argentinean OP (orange pekoe) tea (black), Brazilian OP tea (black), Ceylan OP tea (black) and Darjeeling OP tea (green). The appearance of dry tea leaves were qualitatively characterized comparing with dry leaves standard. The attributes: colour, form, regularity of the leaves, fibre and stem cutting were evaluated The differences obtained were related to the differences produced by the effect of the fermentation process. Flavour and aroma descriptors of the tea liqueur were generated by a trained panel. Colour and astringency were evaluated in comparison with qualified standards using non structured linear scales. In order to relate the sensory analysis and the chemical composition for the different varieties of tea, following determinations were made: chemical moisture, dry material, aqueous extract, tannin and caffeine. Through multifactor regression analysis the equations in relation to the following chemical parameters were determined. Dry material, aqueous extract and tannins for colour and moisture, dry material and aqueous extract for astringency, respectively. Statistical analysis through ANOVA (3 variation sources: samples, judges and replications) showed for samples four significant different groups for astringency and three different groups for colour. No significant differences between judges or repetitions were found. By multifactor regression analysis of both, colour and astringency, on their dependence of chemist results were calculated in order to asses the corresponding equations. PMID:16187684

  8. Consumer perceptions, descriptive profile, and mechanical properties of a novel product with chickpea flour: Effect of ingredients.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, María José; Tárrega, Amparo; Fuentes, Raúl; Canet, Wenceslao; Álvarez, María Dolores

    2016-09-01

    Increasingly popular in the West is hummus, a spread that is made with pureed chickpeas and other healthful ingredients. The changes in texture measurements and sensory properties in a novel chickpea flour-based product occurring when water is partially replaced by common ingredients of hummus were investigated. Eleven chickpea gels containing different amounts of minced garlic, lemon juice, curry powder, and inulin were prepared and compared with two control gels. These ingredients were chosen to make the product tastier, appealing, and similar to hummus. Instrumental texture tests were carried out: uniaxial compression, stress relaxation, and texture profile analysis. Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to describe differences in sensory properties perceived by a trained panel, whereas repertory grid method combined with free choice profile was used to determine differences perceived by untrained consumers. Gels with higher curry powder content presented lower force to breakdown, whereas increasing inulin content led to gels with higher hardness. Principal component analysis was applied to instrumental parameters and quantitative descriptive analysis data, whereas generalized Procrustes analysis was applied to free choice profile data. This newly developed chickpea gel may make a nutrition claim with respect to protein ("high in protein," or at least a "source of protein"). PMID:27000135

  9. Comparison of aroma-active volatiles and their sensory characteristics of mangosteen wines prepared by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with GC-olfactometry and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuo Bing; Liu, Jun Hua; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ling Ying; Niu, Yun Wei; Feng, Tao; Zhu, Jian Cai

    2015-01-01

    Mangosteen fruit is fermented with five different strains (i.e. GRE (Y1), Lalvin RC212 (Y2), Lalvin D254 (Y3), CGMCC2.23 (Y4) and CGMCC2.4 (Y5)) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to make mangosteen wines. A total of 36 volatile compounds of the mangosteen wines were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection. A total of 35 odour-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis and by the detection frequency (DF) method. The compounds with high DF values included ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate and 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol. Principal component analysis was used to characterise the differences of the flavour profiles of those mangosteen wines. The result demonstrated that the samples could be divided into three groups that were associated closely with aroma-active compounds. PMID:25428208

  10. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    PubMed Central

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  11. Sensory Evaluation of Pralines Containing Different Honey Products

    PubMed Central

    Popov-Raljić, Jovanka V.; Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka G.; Georgijev, Aneta S.; Popov, Vladimir S.; Mladenović, Mića A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, pralines manufactured by hand were evaluated sensorially. These pralines were obtained from dark chocolate containing 60% cocoa components, filled with Apis mellifera carnica Poll drone larvae, blossom honey and a blossom honey/pollen mixture from the protected region of Stara Planina-Eastern Serbia (a specific botanical region). The objectives of this study were investigations related to the use of sensory analysis for quality assessment of new functional products with potential benefits for human health, in particular of desserts based on dark chocolate pralines filled with different bee products characterized by a specific botanical and geographic origin, as well as of their storage properties and expected shelf life. Sensory quality (appearance, texture, odor and taste were evaluated by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (day 0), and then after 30, 90 and 180 days of storage under ambient conditions (temperature 18–20 °C). The results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA) and with the LSD-test. It is possible to conclude that the storage time and composition of dark chocolate pralines containing different honey-bee products have statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) influence on the sensorially evaluated properties of pralines. PMID:22163633

  12. Sensory feedback in a bump attractor model of path integration.

    PubMed

    Poll, Daniel B; Nguyen, Khanh; Kilpatrick, Zachary P

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian spatial navigation systems utilize several different sensory information channels. This information is converted into a neural code that represents the animal's current position in space by engaging place cell, grid cell, and head direction cell networks. In particular, sensory landmark (allothetic) cues can be utilized in concert with an animal's knowledge of its own velocity (idiothetic) cues to generate a more accurate representation of position than path integration provides on its own (Battaglia et al. The Journal of Neuroscience 24(19):4541-4550 (2004)). We develop a computational model that merges path integration with feedback from external sensory cues that provide a reliable representation of spatial position along an annular track. Starting with a continuous bump attractor model, we explore the impact of synaptic spatial asymmetry and heterogeneity, which disrupt the position code of the path integration process. We use asymptotic analysis to reduce the bump attractor model to a single scalar equation whose potential represents the impact of asymmetry and heterogeneity. Such imperfections cause errors to build up when the network performs path integration, but these errors can be corrected by an external control signal representing the effects of sensory cues. We demonstrate that there is an optimal strength and decay rate of the control signal when cues appear either periodically or randomly. A similar analysis is performed when errors in path integration arise from dynamic noise fluctuations. Again, there is an optimal strength and decay of discrete control that minimizes the path integration error. PMID:26754972

  13. Sensory evaluation of pralines containing different honey products.

    PubMed

    Popov-Raljić, Jovanka V; Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka G; Georgijev, Aneta S; Popov, Vladimir S; Mladenović, Mića A

    2010-01-01

    In this study, pralines manufactured by hand were evaluated sensorially. These pralines were obtained from dark chocolate containing 60% cocoa components, filled with Apis mellifera carnica Poll drone larvae, blossom honey and a blossom honey/pollen mixture from the protected region of Stara Planina-Eastern Serbia (a specific botanical region). The objectives of this study were investigations related to the use of sensory analysis for quality assessment of new functional products with potential benefits for human health, in particular of desserts based on dark chocolate pralines filled with different bee products characterized by a specific botanical and geographic origin, as well as of their storage properties and expected shelf life. Sensory quality (appearance, texture, odor and taste were evaluated by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (day 0), and then after 30, 90 and 180 days of storage under ambient conditions (temperature 18-20 °C). The results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA) and with the LSD-test. It is possible to conclude that the storage time and composition of dark chocolate pralines containing different honey-bee products have statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) influence on the sensorially evaluated properties of pralines. PMID:22163633

  14. The Use of Descriptive Words and Metaphor in Patient and Carer Experience of Palliative Day Care: Secondary Analysis of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J; Grose, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: An independent evaluation of changes to the delivery of Palliative Day Services was carried out during 2006-2007 using interviews with service users. The analysis found that the words and metaphors employed by users of services emphasized their emotional response to the changes, and helped to explain their depth of feeling about their experiences, warranting further investigation. Aim: To conduct a secondary analysis on interview data collected for the Day Services Evaluation Study in order to understand how patients and their carers use descriptive words and metaphor when talking about their experiences of palliative day services. Methods: Interview transcripts from 40 patients and 8 carers were subjected to secondary thematic analysis. These were read individually and coded where metaphor or descriptive words had been used to emphasize the effect of the illness and the experiences of the Day Services. Findings: Examples of the metaphorical expressions and words used described the service as a ‘secure rock in a changing world’; transition was felt as ‘sadness’, a ‘betrayal’, with feelings that the changes were ‘bitter and twisted;’ and left ‘a black hole’. Post transition the mood had changed to acceptance ‘When life throws lemons at you, you make lemonade’. Conclusions: The metaphors and descriptive words used act as what we describe as ‘emotional intensifiers’ which provide a measure of the impact of the effect of illness, the effect of the day services on users and carers and the intensity of feeling during the time of transition. PMID:19587796

  15. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptability of a beverage made from malted and fermented cereal: case of gowe from Benin

    PubMed Central

    Adinsi, Laurent; Akissoé, Noël H; Dalodé-Vieira, Générose; Anihouvi, Victor B; Fliedel, Geneviève; Mestres, Christian; Hounhouigan, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory profile of gowe beverage was established with 10 gowe samples by 22 semitrained panelists. Besides, consumer study was performed on four representative gowe samples with 141 African ordinary consumers using a modified quantitative descriptive analysis. Gowe samples significantly differed (P < 0.05) with respect to all the sensory attributes, except for cereal odor and cereal taste (P > 0.05). The principal component analysis plot revealed the effects of raw material and process: Sorghum gowe was differently scored from maize gowe samples (P < 0.05). Gowe types from saccharification step (SSaF, SSaSF) evidenced higher scores with respect to fermented odor (41.7) and acidic taste (47.9), while those without saccharification had lower scores of fermented odor and acidic taste, with values of 18.4 and 16.9, respectively. No significant difference was evidenced with respect to the addition of “non malted flour” before or after saccharification. Regarding consumer testing, three distinct patterns of consumer acceptability were observed, which were grouped as “Sugary gowe likers” (63.1% of consumers) followed by “Sugary and saccharified sorghum gowe likers” (20.6%) and “Pure maize gowe dislikers” (16.3%). Irrespective of the consumers cluster, saccharified malted sorghum gowe without sugar was the unique sample scored more than 6 over 9. PMID:25649142

  16. Development of sensorial experiments and their implementation into undergraduate laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromfield Lee, Deborah Christina

    for accuracy and all chemicals examined for safety prior to implementation. The pedagogical objectives were established of to provide the ability to develop and stimulate students' conceptual understanding. The educational assessments of these experiments are are fashioned using the framework chosen (Marzano and Kendall). All the experiments are designed as collaborative, inquiry-based experiments in aims of enhancing the students understanding of the subject and promote critical thinking skills. These experiments use an investigative approach rather than verification methods. Terminology and misconceptions of the experiment were evaluated to prevent misunderstanding or confusion during the experiment. Interventions to address these misconceptions and learning problems associated with the experiment were developed. We have developed the Learning Lab Report, LLR, as an alternative model for the traditional laboratory reports, with the goal of transforming the traditional reports into something more useful for both students and instructors. The educational strategies are employed to develop this format in order to promote students to think critically about the concepts and take an active involvement in learning. From the results of the LLR, all experiments were reviewed and re-written to address any learning problems. The sensorial experiments study several topics usually covered in the first 2 years of the chemistry curriculum (general and organic chemistry courses). The experiments implemented, organic qualitative analysis, esterification kinetics, Le Chatelier equilibrium, thermometric titrations and ASA kinetics, worked effectively as students were able to draw correct conclusions about the concepts from the data obtained. An olfactory titration using the smell of the rutabaga vegetable has been developed and thoroughly tested. The LLR was utilized with the equilibrium, titration and acetyl salicylic acid experiments. The details of the development, implementation

  17. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 3: Nuclear thermal rocket vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document presents the nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) concept design developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study. The evolution of the NTR concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities and costs.

  18. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 4: Solar electric propulsion vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document presents the solar electric propulsion (SEP) concept design developed as part of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study. The evolution of the SEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities, and costs.

  19. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 2: Cryo/aerobrake vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The cryogenic/aerobrake (CAB) and the cryogenic all-propulsive (CAP) concept designs developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study are presented. The evolution of the CAB and CAP concepts is described along with the requirements, guidelines and assumptions for the designs. Operating modes and options are defined and systems descriptions of the vehicles are presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities, and costs.

  20. Description of larva of Amblyomma romitii (Acari: Ixodidae) by optical and scanning electron microscopy, including porotaxy and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Ramirez, Diego G; Sampaio, Janio dos Santos; Famadas, Katia M; Faccini, João Luiz H; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Martins, Thiago F; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Labruna, Marcelo B; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Fabio da Silva

    2013-06-01

    The description of the larva of Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli is based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Larvae were obtained under laboratory conditions from an engorged female collected on capybara from Rurópolis municipality, State of Pará, Northern Brazil. Several characters are presented including the chaetotaxy of idiosoma, palpi and Haller's organ. The larval porotaxy (topographical and numerical patterns of integumentary structures) was presented and compared to that of the other Amblyomma spp. larvae. The mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequence of A. romitii generated in the present study was aligned with sequences previously determined for other Amblyomma species available in Genbank and with some species presently sequenced. The larval morphology of A. romitii and other Neotropical Amblyomma spp. larvae is discussed as well as the DNA sequence and its phylogenetic position among other species of the genus. PMID:23114657

  1. Morphological and Genetic Analysis of the Acerentomon doderoi Group (Protura: Acerentomidae) with Description of A. christiani sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Shrubovych, Julia; Bartel, Daniela; Szucsich, Nikolaus Urban; Resch, Monika Carol; Pass, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Acerentomon christiani sp. nov. is described from Vienna, Austria. The new species is a member of the “doderoi” group, characterized by the presence of seta x on tergite VII. It is most similar to A. gallicum, A. brevisetosum and A. tenuisetosum, but differs from these species in the length of foretarsal sensillum c and certain other chaetotaxic measurements and indices. In addition to the morphological description, the DNA barcoding region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI) and the 28S ribosomal RNA of the new species are provided. The morphological characters and the barcode of the new species are discussed in comparison to those of other Acerentomon species. An identification key to all known Acerentomon spp. of the “doderoi” group is given. PMID:27073924

  2. Morphological and Genetic Analysis of the Acerentomon doderoi Group (Protura: Acerentomidae) with Description of A. christiani sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Shrubovych, Julia; Bartel, Daniela; Szucsich, Nikolaus Urban; Resch, Monika Carol; Pass, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Acerentomon christiani sp. nov. is described from Vienna, Austria. The new species is a member of the "doderoi" group, characterized by the presence of seta x on tergite VII. It is most similar to A. gallicum, A. brevisetosum and A. tenuisetosum, but differs from these species in the length of foretarsal sensillum c and certain other chaetotaxic measurements and indices. In addition to the morphological description, the DNA barcoding region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI) and the 28S ribosomal RNA of the new species are provided. The morphological characters and the barcode of the new species are discussed in comparison to those of other Acerentomon species. An identification key to all known Acerentomon spp. of the "doderoi" group is given. PMID:27073924

  3. Sensory Function: Insights From Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Kern, David W.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Sensory function, a critical component of quality of life, generally declines with age and influences health, physical activity, and social function. Sensory measures collected in Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey focused on the personal impact of sensory function in the home environment and included: subjective assessment of vision, hearing, and touch, information on relevant home conditions and social sequelae as well as an improved objective assessment of odor detection. Method. Summary data were generated for each sensory category, stratified by age (62–90 years of age) and gender, with a focus on function in the home setting and the social consequences of sensory decrements in each modality. Results. Among both men and women, older age was associated with self-reported impairment of vision, hearing, and pleasantness of light touch. Compared with women, men reported significantly worse hearing and found light touch less appealing. There were no gender differences for vision. Overall, hearing loss seemed to have a greater impact on social function than did visual impairment. Discussion. Sensory function declines across age groups, with notable gender differences for hearing and light touch. Further analysis of sensory measures from NSHAP Wave 2 may provide important information on how sensory declines are related to health, social function, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in this nationally representative sample of older adults. PMID:25360015

  4. Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

    1983-01-01

    Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

  5. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    PubMed

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. However, the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of SP50 and the control. Of the cooking properties measured, SP100 had lower (P < 0.05) cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention than the control. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) performed by 12 trained panelists showed that sensory characteristic (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) scores of SP100 were lower than those of SP50 and the control. The use of surimi powder in fish sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages. PMID:25745219

  6. The sensory interactions of organic acids and various flavors in ramen soup systems.

    PubMed

    Kang, M-W; Chung, S-J; Lee, H-S; Kim, Y; Kim, K-O

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the sensory interactions between various organic acids and flavorants in 3 types of ramen soup ('beef,' seafood, and 'kimchi') when types and levels of organic acids (citric, malic, and lactic) varied. For 'beef' and seafood ramen soup, weak suprathreshold levels of acids (0.0039% to 0.0071%) were applied to the system and medium suprathreshold of acids (0.0128% to 0.0299%) were applied to the kimchi ramen soup. The amount of acid applied to each system was chosen based on the equiweight level. Descriptive analyses were performed separately for each ramen soup system using 8 trained panelists. A total of 11, 13, and 12 flavor descriptors were generated for 'beef,' seafood, and 'kimchi' soup, respectively. Analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate the effect of organic acid on the sensory characteristics of ramen soup. Principal component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationship between the soup samples and attributes. The effect of organic acids on the flavor attributes of ramen soup was dependent on the soup system as well as adding levels of acid. Addition of lactic acid power (at 0.0066%) in 'beef'ramen soup showed enhancement effect on the sour, salty, beefy, 'mushroom' flavor, and fermented soybean paste soup flavor, whereas lactic acid powder (at 0.0071%) showed enhancement effect only on the sour and fermented soybean paste soup flavor in seafood ramen soup due to the strong 'hot' flavor characteristics of the soup. In kimchi ramen soup, flavor attributes congruent to sourness were enhanced by the addition of organic acids to the system. PMID:18034748

  7. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  8. Languages of shape feature description and syntactic methods for recognition of morphological changes in organs in analysis of selected x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, Marek R.

    1998-06-01

    The presented paper treats a subject of elaboration of new algorithms for recognition of lesions and analysis of shape features of selected abdominal cavity organs visible on radiograms or tomograms. The aim of the methods is to determine and examine morphological shapes of the analyzed anatomical structures in order to diagnose cancerous lesions and inflammatory processes. The formulated target was accomplished in the case of the diagnosis of cancer and chronic inflammation of the pancreas made on the base of X- ray images obtained during the ERCP examinations. For this purpose an effective algorithm for thresholding of the ERCP images was employed. Hence it was possible to extract the pancreas duct together with morphological changes which could occur. Then, thanks to determination and application of special sequence of geometric operations (skeletonizing and rotations of contour points about a skeleton), a linear graph representing the width of pancreas duct and showing morphological changes was obtained. In order to find these changes the context-free attributed grammars, enabling description of all searched morphological changes were used. These attributes contained an additional information (height and width of the discovered change) used for recognition of ambiguous cases. For proper description and recognition of symptoms, for which the 2D analysis is required (i.e. e.g. large cavernous bulges), the language of shape features description with a special multidirectional sinquad distribution were employed. Research on usefulness of the proposed methods, performed so far, justified the application of syntactic methods to recognition of medical images, especially to support medical diagnostics.

  9. Structure determination and sensory analysis of bitter-tasting 4-vinylcatechol oligomers and their identification in roasted coffee by means of LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Frank, Oliver; Blumberg, Simone; Kunert, Christof; Zehentbauer, Gerhard; Hofmann, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Aimed at elucidating intense bitter-tasting molecules in coffee, various bean ingredients were thermally treated in model experiments and evaluated for their potential to produce bitter compounds. As caffeic acid was found to generate intense bitterness reminiscent of the bitter taste of a strongly roasted espresso-type coffee, the reaction products formed were screened for bitter compounds by means of taste dilution analysis, and the most bitter tastants were isolated and purified. LC-MS/MS as well as 1-D/2-D NMR experiments enabled the identification of 10 bitter compounds with rather low recognition threshold concentrations ranging between 23 and 178 micromol/L. These bitter compounds are the previously unreported 1,3-bis(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) butane, trans-1,3-bis(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-butene, and eight multiply hydroxylated phenylindanes, among which five derivatives are reported for the first time. In addition, the occurrence of each of these bitter compounds in a coffee brew was verified by means of LC-MS/MS (ESI-) operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The structures of these bitter compounds show strong evidence that they are generated by oligomerization of 4-vinylcatechol released from caffeic acid moieties upon roasting. PMID:17269788

  10. Metatranscriptome analysis of fungal strains Penicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum reveal cheese matrix breakdown and potential development of sensory properties of ripened Camembert-type cheese

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Camembert-type cheese ripening is driven mainly by fungal microflora including Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium camemberti. These species are major contributors to the texture and flavour of typical bloomy rind cheeses. Biochemical studies showed that G. candidum reduces bitterness, enhances sulphur flavors through amino acid catabolism and has an impact on rind texture, firmness and thickness, while P. camemberti is responsible for the white and bloomy aspect of the rind, and produces enzymes involved in proteolysis and lipolysis activities. However, very little is known about the genetic determinants that code for these activities and their expression profile over time during the ripening process. Results The metatranscriptome of an industrial Canadian Camembert-type cheese was studied at seven different sampling days over 77 days of ripening. A database called CamemBank01was generated, containing a total of 1,060,019 sequence tags (reads) assembled in 7916 contigs. Sequence analysis revealed that 57% of the contigs could be affiliated to molds, 16% originated from yeasts, and 27% could not be identified. According to the functional annotation performed, the predominant processes during Camembert ripening include gene expression, energy-, carbohydrate-, organic acid-, lipid- and protein- metabolic processes, cell growth, and response to different stresses. Relative expression data showed that these functions occurred mostly in the first two weeks of the ripening period. Conclusions These data provide further advances in our knowledge about the biological activities of the dominant ripening microflora of Camembert cheese and will help select biological markers to improve cheese quality assessment. PMID:24670012

  11. Time-Domain Ab Initio Analysis of Excitation Dynamics in a Quantum Dot/Polymer Hybrid: Atomistic Description Rationalizes Experiment.

    PubMed

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic polymer/quantum dot (QD) solar cells are an attractive alternative to the traditional cells. The original, simple models postulate that one-dimensional polymers have continuous energy levels, while zero-dimensional QDs exhibit atom-like electronic structure. A realistic, atomistic viewpoint provides an alternative description. Electronic states in polymers are molecule-like: finite in size and discrete in energy. QDs are composed of many atoms and have high, bulk-like densities of states. We employ ab initio time-domain simulation to model the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced dynamics in a QD/polymer hybrid and show that an atomistic description is essential for understanding the time-resolved experimental data. Both electron and hole transfers across the interface exhibit subpicosecond time scales. The interfacial processes are fast due to strong electronic donor-acceptor, as evidenced by the densities of the photoexcited states which are delocalized between the donor and the acceptor. The nonadiabatic charge-phonon coupling is also strong, especially in the polymer, resulting in rapid energy losses. The electron transfer from the polymer is notably faster than the hole transfer from the QD, due to a significantly higher density of acceptor states. The stronger molecule-like electronic and charge-phonon coupling in the polymer rationalizes why the electron-hole recombination inside the polymer is several orders of magnitude faster than in the QD. As a result, experiments exhibit multiple transfer times for the long-lived hole inside the QD, ranging from subpicoseconds to nanoseconds. In contrast, transfer of the short-lived electron inside the polymer does not occur beyond the first picosecond. The energy lost by the hole on its transit into the polymer is accommodated by polymer's high-frequency vibrations. The energy lost by the electron injected into the QD is accommodated primarily by much lower-frequency collective and

  12. Analytical and Methodological Issues in the Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software: A Description of Three Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerum-Leys, Jon; Kupperman, Jeff; Boyle-Heimann, Kristen

    This paper presents perspectives on the use of data analysis software in the process of qualitative research. These perspectives were gained in the conduct of three qualitative research studies that differed in theoretical frames, areas of interests, and scope. Their common use of a particular data analysis software package allows the exploration…

  13. A doublet lattice method for the determination of rotor induced empennage vibration airloads. Analysis description and program documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangwani, S. T.

    1982-01-01

    An efficient state-of-the-art method was developed to determine the unteady vibratory airloads produced by the interaction of the main rotor wake with a helicopter empennage. This method was incorporated into a computer program, Rotor Induced Empennage Vibration Analysis (RIEVA). The program requires the main rotor wake position and the strength of the vortices locates near the empennage surfaces. A nonlinear lifting surface analysis is utilized to predict the aerodynamic loads on the empennage surfaces in the presence of these concentrated vortices. The analysis was formulated to include all pertinent effects such as suction of the interacting vortices and the shed vorticity behind the empennage surfaces. The analysis employs a time domain solution. The output of the program consists of chordwise and spanwise airload distributions on the empennage surfaces. The airload distributions are harmonically analyzed and formulated for input into the Coupled Rotor/Airframe Vibration Analysis.

  14. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae. PMID:25009429

  15. A descriptive analysis of batting backlift techniques in cricket: Does the practice of elite cricketers follow the theory?

    PubMed

    Noorbhai, M Habib; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship that is coached from a young age is to play with a straight bat. Limited studies to date have examined whether top international batsmen use this traditionally described technique. Accordingly, we performed a descriptive, observational study of the backlift technique adopted by 65 of the most successful batsmen of all time, based on their career averages, strike rate and runs scored. The batsmen were divided into two groups depending on whether they played the game before or after 1954. Surprisingly, more than 70% of these successful batsmen did not adopt the traditionally taught technique. Instead, they adopted a more looped action in which the initial movement of the bat was in the direction of the slips, and in extreme cases it was either towards the gully/point region or to have the face of the bat directed towards the off-side. This suggests that traditionally taught batting coaching techniques may hinder, rather than enhance future cricketing performance. Since the vast majority of cricketers are not coached in this technique, this finding probably indicates that this looped technique is likely a contributing factor to effective batsmanship. PMID:26956380

  16. Occupational Injuries in Ohio Wood Product Manufacturing: A Descriptive Analysis With Emphasis on Saw-Related Injuries and Associated Causes

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Lindsay; Harris, James R.; Collins, James W.; Current, Richard S.; Amendola, Alfred A.; Meyers, Alysha R.; Wurzelbacher, Steven J.; Lampl, Mike; Bertke, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stationary sawing machinery is often a basic tool in the wood product manufacturing industry and was the source for over 2,500 injury/illness events that resulted in days away from work in 2010. Methods We examined 9 years of workers’ compensation claims for the state of Ohio in wood product manufacturing with specific attention to saw-related claims. For the study period, 8,547 claims were evaluated; from this group, 716 saw-related cases were examined. Results The sawmills and wood preservation sub-sector experienced a 71% reduction in average incidence rate and an 87% reduction in average lost-time incidence rate from 2001 to 2009. The top three injury category descriptions for lost-time incidents within saw-related claims were fracture (35.8%), open wounds (29.6%), and amputation (14.8%). Conclusions For saw-related injuries, preventing blade contact remains important but securing the work piece to prevent kickback is also important. PMID:25123487

  17. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected. PMID:15971901

  18. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  19. SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS: MEASURES OF NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need for tests of sensory function to be incorporated in laboratory and toxicity testing. t is clear that sensory dysfunction may frequently occur, but go undetected, in standard animal toxicological testing protocols. ensory evoked potential technology can be employed...

  20. [Sensory neuronopathy. Its recognition and early treatment].

    PubMed

    Zuberbuhler, Paz; Young, Pablo; León Cejas, Luciana V; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Calandra, Cristian R; Fulgenzi, Ernesto; Pérez Akly, Manuel; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pardal, Ana; Reisin, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sensory neuronopathies or ganglionopathies, or dorsal root ganglion disorders, represent a subgroup of peripheral nervous system diseases, frequently associated with dysinmune or neoplastic disorders and with toxic agents. A degeneration of both central and peripheral sensory proyections is present. Patients typically show early ataxia, loss of deep tendon reflexes and positive sensory symptoms present both in proximal and distal sites of the body. We retrospectively studied 10 cases with a final diagnosis of sensory neuronopathy. Sensory neuropathy was the presenting symptom and the course was subacute in all cases. Paresthesias in upper limbs were a predominant manifestation (100%). Other manifestations included: hypoesthesia (10/10), gait ataxia (8/10), autonomic symptoms (3/10) and perioral paresthesias (3/10). Electrophysiology showed sensory axonal neuronal pattern, with normal motor responses. Final diagnosis was acquired sensory neuronopathy in all patients, associated with Sjögren's syndrome in 2, with lupus erythematosus in 1, with rheumatoid arthritis in 1, with a cancer in 2 (paraneoplastic) and idiopathic in 4. In paraneoplastic cases, the tumor was small cell lung cancer in 1 (with positive anti-Hu antibodies), and epidermoid lung cancer in the other. Eight patients were treated with immunotherapy, high dose intravenous methylprednisolone and/or intravenous immunoglobulin; with poor response in 4 cases, neurologic improvement in 5, and without any change in 1 patient. The present work shows the typical clinical and electrophysiological pattern of subacute sensory neuronopathy, and the relevance of early treatment. PMID:26502464

  1. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  2. Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

  3. Measuring Sensory Reactivity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Application and Simplification of a Clinician-Administered Sensory Observation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Bellesheim, Katherine; Siper, Paige M.; Wang, A. Ting; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Grodberg, David; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory reactivity is a new DSM-5 criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study aims to validate a clinician-administered sensory observation in ASD, the Sensory Processing Scale Assessment (SPS). The SPS and the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) parent-report were used to measure sensory reactivity in children with ASD (n = 35) and…

  4. Sensory functions in chronic neuralgia.

    PubMed Central

    Lindblom, U; Verrillo, R T

    1979-01-01

    Eleven patients with sustained neuralgia, in most cases after traumatic nerve lesion, were subjected to quantitative sensory testing with thermal and non-noxious mechanical stimuli. Measurements were made in the pain area and at a homologous site on the contralateral normal side. All patients were hypoaesthetic with raised thresholds for warm and cold or touch, or both. Thermal pain thresholds were also raised in some patients but lowered in others indicating hypersensitivity of the nociceptor system or dysaesthesia for thermal input. In six patients single mechanical stimuli produced a painful response above the touch detection threshold. Reaction time measurements indicated that this painful response to suprathreshold mechanical pulses was measured by magnitude estimation as a function of stimulus amplitude. The results were fitted by power functions, as in normal skin, but with steeper slopes on the abnormal side. Suprathreshold hyperaesthesia (recruitment) may exist in the presence of normal threshold functioning. PMID:448382

  5. Body-scaled affordances in sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Travieso, David; Gómez-Jordana, Luis; Díaz, Alex; Lobo, Lorena; Jacobs, David M

    2015-12-15

    The research field on sensory substitution devices has strong implications for theoretical work on perceptual consciousness. One of these implications concerns the extent to which the devices allow distal attribution. The present study applies a classic empirical approach on the perception of affordances to the field of sensory substitution. The reported experiment considers the perception of the stair-climbing affordance. Participants judged the climbability of steps apprehended through a vibrotactile sensory substitution device. If measured with standard metric units, climbability judgments of tall and short participants differed, but if measured in units of leg length, judgments did not differ. These results are similar to paradigmatic results in regular visual perception. We conclude that our sensory substitution device allows the perception of affordances. More generally, we argue that the theory of affordances may enrich theoretical debates concerning sensory substitution to a larger extent than has hitherto been the case. PMID:26587958

  6. Tracking sensory system atrophy and outcome prediction in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Grabher, Patrick; Callaghan, Martina F.; Ashburner, John; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Thompson, Alan J.; Curt, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Objective In patients with subacute spinal cord injury (SCI), the motor system undergoes progressive structural changes rostral to the lesion, which are associated with motor outcome. The extent to which the sensory system is affected and how this relates to sensory outcome are uncertain. Methods Changes in the sensory system were prospectively followed by applying a comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to 14 patients with subacute traumatic SCI at baseline, 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months after injury, combined with a full neurological examination and comprehensive pain assessment. Eighteen controls underwent the same MRI protocol. T1‐weighted volumes, myelin‐sensitive magnetization transfer saturation (MT), and longitudinal relaxation rate (R1) mapping provided data on spinal cord and brain morphometry and microstructure. Regression analysis assessed the relationship between MRI readouts and sensory outcomes. Results At 12 months from baseline, sensory scores were unchanged and below‐level neuropathic pain became prominent. Compared with controls, patients showed progressive degenerative changes in cervical cord and brain morphometry across the sensory system. At 12 months, MT and R1 were reduced in areas of structural decline. Sensory scores at 12 months correlated with rate of change in cord area and brain volume and decreased MT in the spinal cord at 12 months. Interpretation This study has demonstrated progressive atrophic and microstructural changes across the sensory system with a close relation to sensory outcome. Structural MRI protocols remote from the site of lesion provide new insights into neuronal degeneration underpinning sensory disturbance and have potential as responsive biomarkers of rehabilitation and treatment interventions. Ann Neurol 2015;78:Ann Neurol 2015;78:679–696 PMID:26290444

  7. Novel Roles for Osteopontin and Clusterin in Peripheral Motor and Sensory Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Ruifa; Connor, Emmalynn; Reed, Nicole; Vyas, Alka; Alspalter, Manula; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Brushart, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) express distinct motor and sensory phenotypes, which impact the ability of these pathways to selectively support regenerating neurons. In the present study, unbiased microarray analysis was used to examine differential gene expression in denervated motor and sensory pathways in rats. Several genes that were significantly upregulated in either denervated sensory or motor pathways were identified and two secreted factors were selected for further analysis: osteopontin (OPN) and clusterin (CLU) which were upregulated in denervated motor and sensory pathways, respectively. Sciatic nerve transection induced upregulation of OPN and CLU and expression of both returned to baseline levels with ensuing regeneration. In vitro analysis using exogenously applied OPN induced outgrowth of motor but not sensory neurons. CLU, however, induced outgrowth of sensory neurons, but not motor neurons. To assess the functional importance of OPN and CLU, peripheral nerve regeneration was examined in OPN and CLU−/− mice. When compared with OPN+/+ mice, motor neuron regeneration was reduced in OPN−/− mice. Impaired regeneration through OPN−/− peripheral nerves grafted into OPN+/+ mice indicated that loss of OPN in SCs was responsible for reduced motor regeneration. Sensory neuron regeneration was impaired in CLU−/− mice following sciatic nerve crush and impaired regeneration nerve fibers through CLU−/− nerve grafts transplanted into CLU+/+ mice indicated that reduced sensory regeneration is likely due to SC-derived CLU. Together, these studies suggest unique roles for SC-derived OPN and CLU in regeneration of peripheral motor and sensory axons. PMID:24478351

  8. Sensory sensitivities and performance on sensory perceptual tasks in high-functioning individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive reports of sensory symptoms in autism, there is little empirical support for their neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical comparison participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and standardized neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two per cent of participants with autism endorsed more sensory sensitivity items than any of the participants in the comparison group. On the sensory perceptual exam, both groups made few errors on elementary sensory perception items. Controls made few errors on higher cortical sensory perception items, but 30% of the participants with autism made high numbers of errors, though there was no evidence of the neglect syndrome. There was little correlation between the sensory sensitivities and the sensory perceptual deficits, likely due to the low correspondence between the measures. These results support the common occurrence of disturbances in sensory experiences in high functioning individuals with autism based on first person report, and the presence of neurological abnormalities in higher cortical sensory perception. PMID:18302014

  9. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V

    MedlinePlus

    ... that primarily affects the sensory nerve cells (sensory neurons), which transmit information about sensations such as pain, ... in the development and survival of nerve cells (neurons), including sensory neurons. The NGFβ protein functions by ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... that primarily affects the sensory nerve cells (sensory neurons), which transmit information about sensations such as pain, ... the sensations of pain, temperature, and touch (sensory neurons). The mutations involved in HSAN2A result in an ...

  11. Foot and ankle surgery in Australia: a descriptive analysis of the Medicare Benefits Schedule database, 1997–2006

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Hylton B; Gilheany, Mark F; Landorf, Karl B

    2008-01-01

    Background Foot and ankle problems are highly prevalent in the general community and a substantial proportion of people seek surgical treatment to alleviate foot pain and deformity. However, the epidemiology of foot and ankle surgery has not been examined in detail. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine patterns and costs of private sector foot surgery provision in Australia. Methods Data pertaining to all foot and ankle surgical procedures for the calendar years 1997–2006 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) database and were cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number and type of procedures performed and to assess for temporal trends over the ten year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare of subsiding surgeons' fees in 2006 was also determined. Results During the 1997–2006 period, 996,477 surgical procedures were performed on the foot and ankle by private surgeons in Australia. Approximately equal numbers of procedures were performed on males (52%) and females (48%). However, males were more likely to undergo toenail, ankle, clubfoot, tarsal coalition and congenital vertical talus surgery, whereas females were more likely to undergo lesser toe, first metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ), neuroma, heel, rearfoot and lesser MPJ surgery. The total number of procedures was stable over the assessment period, however there was a relative increase in the number of procedures performed on people aged over 55 years. The total contribution of Medicare to subsiding surgeons' fees for procedures performed in 2006 was $14 M. Conclusion Foot and ankle surgery accounts for a considerable degree of healthcare expenditure in Australia, and the number of procedures in those aged over 55 years is increasing. Given the ageing demographics of the Australian population, the future public health and economic impact of foot morbidity is likely to be substantial

  12. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation.

    PubMed

    Vingerhoeds, Monique H; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A; Ruepert, Nienke; van der Laan, Harmen; Bredie, Wender L P; Kremer, Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from permeate. Both the nature and the concentrations of added minerals affect the taste of the water and in turn its acceptance by consumers. The aim of this study was to examine differences in taste between various remineralised drinking waters. Samples selected varied in mineral composition, i.e. tap water, permeate, and permeate with added minerals (40 or 120 mg Ca/L, added as CaCO3, and 4 or 24 mg Mg/L added as MgCl2), as well as commercially available bottled drinking waters, to span a relevant product space in which the remineralised samples could be compared. All samples were analysed with respect to their physical-chemical properties. Sensory profiling was done by descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Significant attributes included taste intensity, the tastes bitter, sweet, salt, metal, fresh and dry mouthfeel, bitter and metal aftertaste, and rough afterfeel. Total dissolved solids (TDS) was a major determinant of the taste perception of water. In general, lowering mineral content in drinking water in the range examined (from <5 to 440 mg/L) shifted the sensory perception of water from fresh towards bitter, dry, and rough sensations. In addition, perceived freshness of the waters correlated positively with calcium concentration. The greatest fresh taste was found for water with a TDS between 190 and 350 mg/L. Remineralisation of water after reverse osmosis can improve drinking quality significantly. PMID:26925543

  13. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; methods of data collection and analysis and description of study areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chichester, Douglas C.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water quality study as part of the nationally implemented Rural Clean Water Program in the headwaters of the Conestoga River, Pennsylvania. The study, which began in 1982, was designed to determine the effect of agricultural best management practices on surface--and groundwater quality. The study was concentrated in four areas within the intensively farmed, carbonate rock terrane located predominately in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These areas were divided into three monitoring components: (1) a Regional study area (188 sq mi): (2) a Small Watershed study area (5.82 sq mi); and (3) two field site study areas, Field-Site 1 (22.1 acres) and Field 2 (47.5 acres). The type of water quality data and the methods of data collection and analysis are presented. The monitoring strategy and description of the study areas are discussed. The locations and descriptions for all data collection locations at the four study areas are provided. (USGS)

  14. Systematic analysis of the falcate-spored graminicolous Colletotrichum and a description of six new species from warm-season grasses.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Jo Anne; Clarke, Bruce B; White, James F; Hillman, Bradley I

    2009-01-01

    Species limits in the fungal genus Colletotrichum are traditionally distinguished by appressorial and/or conidial morphology or through host plant association, but both criteria are criticized for their inability to resolve distinct taxa. In previous research eight novel falcate-spored Colletotrichum species were identified from graminicolous hosts using multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis. In the present work formal descriptions and illustrations are provided for six of the new taxa: C. hanaui sp. nov., C. nicholsonii sp. nov., C. paspali sp. nov., C. jacksonii sp. nov., C. miscanthi sp. nov. and C. axonopodi sp. nov.; and an emended description with epitypification is provided for C. eleusines. Comparison of hyphopodial appressoria and host association against phylogenetic species boundaries and evolutionary relationships in the graminicolous Colletotrichum group demonstrate that, while these characters can be useful in combination for the purpose of species diagnosis, erroneous identification is possible and species boundaries might be underestimated if these characters are used independently, as exemplified by the polyphyletic taxa C. falcatum. Appressoria have been subject to convergent evolution and were not predictive of phylogenetic relationships. Despite these limitations, the results of this work establish that in combination appressorial and host range characters could be used to generate informative dichotomous identification keys for Colletotrichum species groups when an underlying framework of evolutionary relationships, taxonomic criteria and nomenclature have been satisfactorily derived from molecular systematic treatments. PMID:19750952

  15. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified l...

  16. Administration of the FIDCR: A Description and Analysis of the Federal Day Care Regulatory Role. Technical Paper 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jane Roosevelt

    This volume contains the technical paper prepared by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) to give additional data and more detailed analysis of materials used to study the administration of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements (FIDCR). This study was part of a larger project to investigate two questions: Is the Federal…

  17. Foreign News on UPI's "A" Wire in the USA: A Descriptive Analysis of Content for February 13-18, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Tony

    A content analysis was conducted of the news transmitted on the premier, or "A," wire of United Press International (UPI) to determine the amount of foreign news coverage for a six-day period. Foreign news stories were defined as those that originated from abroad, had a United States dateline but dealt with foreign material or were about foreign…

  18. Identification of Variables Associated with Group Separation in Descriptive Discriminant Analysis: Comparison of Methods for Interpreting Structure Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Discriminant Analysis (DA) is a tool commonly used for differentiating among 2 or more groups based on 2 or more predictor variables. DA works by finding 1 or more linear combinations of the predictors that yield maximal difference among the groups. One common goal of researchers using DA is to characterize the nature of group difference by…

  19. Identifying What Student Affairs Professionals Value: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Professional Competencies Listed in Job Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, John L.; Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method study explored the professional competencies that administrators expect from entry-, mid-, and senior-level professionals as reflected in 1,759 job openings posted in 2008. Knowledge, skill, and dispositional competencies were identified during the qualitative phase of the study. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of…

  20. Caregiver Strain and Sensory Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and other Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Anne V.; White, Tamira J.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2015-01-01

    Caring for children with disabilities contributes to increased levels of parent stress, or caregiver strain. However, the potential relationship of sensory features to strain among caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD) is unknown. Sensory features include over-reactions, under-reactions, and unusual interests in sensations, which may negatively impact family functioning. This descriptive study confirmed three caregiver strain types (i.e., objective, subjective internalized, subjective externalized) and explored differences among ASD (n=71) and DD (n=36) groups, with the ASD group reporting higher levels. Furthermore, this study explored the contribution of sensory features to caregiver strain, finding differential contributions to strain in the ASD group and covariate contributions (i.e., child cognition, mother’s education) in the DD group. PMID:25551265