Science.gov

Sample records for desempenhado por familiares

  1. Familiarity in Source Memory

    PubMed Central

    Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677

  2. Human recognition of familiar voices.

    PubMed

    Wenndt, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    Recognizing familiar voices is something we do every day. In quiet environments, it is usually easy to recognize a familiar voice. In noisier environments, this can become a difficult task. This paper examines how robust listeners are at identifying familiar voices in noisy, changing environments and what factors may affect their recognition rates. While there is previous research addressing familiar speaker recognition, the research is limited due to the difficulty in obtaining appropriate data that eliminates speaker dependent traits, such as word choice, along with having corresponding listeners who are familiar with the speakers. The data used in this study were collected in such a fashion to mimic conversational, free-flow dialogue, but in a way to eliminate many variables such as word choice, intonation, or non-verbal cues. These data provide some of the most realistic test scenarios to-date for familiar speaker identification. A pure-tone hearing test was used to separate listeners into normal hearing and hearing impaired groups. It is hypothesized that the results of the Normal Hearing Group will be statistically better. Additionally, the aspect of familiar speaker recognition is addressed by having each listener rate his or her familiarity with each speaker. Two statistical approaches showed that the more familiar a listener is with a speaker, the more likely the listener will recognize the speaker. PMID:27586746

  3. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  4. The shy prefer familiar congeners.

    PubMed

    Benhaïm, David; Ferrari, Sébastien; Chatain, Béatrice; Bégout, Marie-Laure

    2016-05-01

    The shy-bold continuum is both a fundamental aspect of human behavior and a relatively stable behavioral trait for many other species. Here we assessed whether shy individuals prefer familiar congeners, taking the European sea bass, a recently domesticated fish showing similar behavioral responses to wild fish, as a model to better understand the inter-individual variability in social behavior previously observed in this species. In the wild, the link between familiarity i.e., the preference of fish for familiar congeners and boldness could be part of the mechanism underlying shoaling formation in fish. Thirty fish were individually tested in a device designed to assess the preference for a familiar vs. an unfamiliar congener on the basis of visual cues only. An open field test (OFT) with shelter was performed on the same fish 32 days later to assess the boldness of each individual. Variables of interest included the proportion of time spent in the shelter, border and center zone of the arena and variables of activity. Variables measured in OFT were collapsed into first principal component scores using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which allowed characterizing a shy-bold continuum. Time spent near the familiar congener was negatively correlated with boldness i.e., shy individuals spent most of the time near the familiar congener. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the understanding of the behavior of European sea bass and suggest that the link between familiarity and shyness is a general aspect of both animal and human behavior. PMID:26995491

  5. A Familiar(ity) Problem: Assessing the Impact of Prerequisites and Content Familiarity on Student Learning.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Justin F; Dang, Jennifer V; Lee, Amanda K; Dacanay, Samantha J; Alam, Usman; Wong, Hollie Y; Richards, George J; Kadandale, Pavan; Sato, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    Prerequisites are embedded in most STEM curricula. However, the assumption that the content presented in these courses will improve learning in later courses has not been verified. Because a direct comparison of performance between students with and without required prerequisites is logistically difficult to arrange in a randomized fashion, we developed a novel familiarity scale, and used this to determine whether concepts introduced in a prerequisite course improved student learning in a later course (in two biology disciplines). Exam questions in the latter courses were classified into three categories, based on the degree to which the tested concept had been taught in the prerequisite course. If content familiarity mattered, it would be expected that exam scores on topics covered in the prerequisite would be higher than scores on novel topics. We found this to be partially true for "Very Familiar" questions (concepts covered in depth in the prerequisite). However, scores for concepts only briefly discussed in the prerequisite ("Familiar") were indistinguishable from performance on topics that were "Not Familiar" (concepts only taught in the later course). These results imply that merely "covering" topics in a prerequisite course does not result in improved future performance, and that some topics may be able to removed from a course thereby freeing up class time. Our results may therefore support the implementation of student-centered teaching methods such as active learning, as the time-intensive nature of active learning has been cited as a barrier to its adoption. In addition, we propose that our familiarity system could be broadly utilized to aid in the assessment of the effectiveness of prerequisites. PMID:26824700

  6. The Conscious, the Unconscious, and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ryan B.; Dienes, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the role of subjective familiarity in the implicit and explicit learning of artificial grammars. Experiment 1 found that objective measures of similarity (including fragment frequency and repetition structure) predicted ratings of familiarity, that familiarity ratings predicted grammaticality judgments, and that the extremity…

  7. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  8. Probabilistic risk assessment familiarization training

    SciTech Connect

    Phillabaum, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) created a Nuclear Group Risk and Reliability Assessment Program Plan in order to focus the utilization of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in support of Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The continuation of a PRA program was committed by PECo to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) prior to be the issuance of an operating license for Limerick Unit 1. It is believed that increased use of PRA techniques to support activities at Limerick and Peach Bottom will enhance PECo's overall nuclear excellence. Training for familiarization with PRA is designed for attendance once by all nuclear group personnel to understand PRA and its potential effect on their jobs. The training content describes the history of PRA and how it applies to PECo's nuclear activities. Key PRA concepts serve as the foundation for the familiarization training. These key concepts are covered in all classes to facilitate an appreciation of the remaining material, which is tailored to the audience. Some of the concepts covered are comparison of regulatory philosophy to PRA techniques, fundamentals of risk/success, risk equation/risk summation, and fault trees and event trees. Building on the concepts, PRA insights and applications are then described that are tailored to the audience.

  9. A Familiar(ity) Problem: Assessing the Impact of Prerequisites and Content Familiarity on Student Learning

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Justin F.; Kadandale, Pavan; Sato, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Prerequisites are embedded in most STEM curricula. However, the assumption that the content presented in these courses will improve learning in later courses has not been verified. Because a direct comparison of performance between students with and without required prerequisites is logistically difficult to arrange in a randomized fashion, we developed a novel familiarity scale, and used this to determine whether concepts introduced in a prerequisite course improved student learning in a later course (in two biology disciplines). Exam questions in the latter courses were classified into three categories, based on the degree to which the tested concept had been taught in the prerequisite course. If content familiarity mattered, it would be expected that exam scores on topics covered in the prerequisite would be higher than scores on novel topics. We found this to be partially true for “Very Familiar” questions (concepts covered in depth in the prerequisite). However, scores for concepts only briefly discussed in the prerequisite (“Familiar”) were indistinguishable from performance on topics that were “Not Familiar” (concepts only taught in the later course). These results imply that merely “covering” topics in a prerequisite course does not result in improved future performance, and that some topics may be able to removed from a course thereby freeing up class time. Our results may therefore support the implementation of student-centered teaching methods such as active learning, as the time-intensive nature of active learning has been cited as a barrier to its adoption. In addition, we propose that our familiarity system could be broadly utilized to aid in the assessment of the effectiveness of prerequisites. PMID:26824700

  10. Neural microgenesis of personally familiar face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Meike; Vizioli, Luca; Liu-Shuang, Joan; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information provided by neuroimaging research, the neural basis of familiar face recognition in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated the discriminative neural responses to unfamiliar and familiar faces by slowly increasing visual information (i.e., high-spatial frequencies) to progressively reveal faces of unfamiliar or personally familiar individuals. Activation in ventral occipitotemporal face-preferential regions increased with visual information, independently of long-term face familiarity. In contrast, medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus) and anterior inferior temporal cortex responded abruptly when sufficient information for familiar face recognition was accumulated. These observations suggest that following detailed analysis of individual faces in core posterior areas of the face-processing network, familiar face recognition emerges categorically in medial temporal and anterior regions of the extended cortical face network. PMID:26283361

  11. Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

  12. Familiarity and Aptness in Metaphor Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Damerall, Alison Whiteford; Kellogg, Ronald T

    2016-01-01

    The career of metaphor hypothesis suggests that novel metaphors are understood through a search for shared features between the topic and vehicle, but with repeated exposure, the figurative meaning is understood directly as a new category is established. The categorization hypothesis argues that instead good or apt metaphors are understood through a categorization process, whether or not they are familiar. Only poor metaphors ever invoke a literal comparison. In Experiment 1, with aptness equated, we found that high familiarity speeded comprehension time over low-familiarity metaphors. In Experiment 2a, providing a literal prime failed to facilitate interpretation of low-familiarity metaphors, contrary to the career of metaphor hypothesis. In Experiment 2b, with familiarity equated, high- and low-aptness metaphors did not differ, contrary to the categorization hypothesis. PMID:27029106

  13. Prioritized Detection of Personally Familiar Faces.

    PubMed

    Gobbini, Maria Ida; Gors, Jason D; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Rogers, Courtney; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Hughes, Howard; Cipolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether personally familiar faces are preferentially processed in conditions of reduced attentional resources and in the absence of conscious awareness. In the first experiment, we used Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) to test the susceptibility of familiar faces and faces of strangers to the attentional blink. In the second experiment, we used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and measured face detection time for personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. In both experiments we found an advantage for detection of personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. Our data suggest that the identity of faces is processed with reduced attentional resources and even in the absence of awareness. Our results show that this facilitated processing of familiar faces cannot be attributed to detection of low-level visual features and that a learned unique configuration of facial features can influence preconscious perceptual processing. PMID:23805248

  14. Familiarity interferes with filial imprinting.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, H S; de Vos, G J

    1996-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate whether and how pre-exposure to an object affects subsequent filial imprinting to that object. In Experiment 1 junglefowl chicks (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were first exposed to either a red object alone (control group), or a red and a yellow object simultaneously (experimental group; phase 1). Subsequently, all chicks were exposed to the yellow object in the presence of a black and blue one (phase 2). At the end of phase 1, most experimental chicks had developed a preference for the red object over the yellow one. At the end of phase 2, preferences of experimental chicks were shifted away from the yellow object towards the novel black and blue object, relative to preferences of control chicks. This shows that pre-exposure may interfere with imprinting. Experiment 2 revealed that when control chicks were tested with the yellow object at the end of phase 1, filial responses were as strong as in experimental chicks. This shows that the yellow object had not acquired control over filial behaviour during phase 1, and also that the relatively impaired imprinting on that object in phase 2 was not due to reduced generalization from the red object. One possible explanation why pre-exposure may interfere with imprinting is that familiarity alters the level of attention attracted by an object, a mechanism suggested to underlie 'latent inhibition' in conditioning. PMID:24897630

  15. Residential mobility breeds familiarity-seeking.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Miao, Felicity F; Koo, Minkyung; Kisling, Jason; Ratliff, Kate A

    2012-01-01

    Why are American landscapes (e.g., housing developments, shopping malls) so uniform, despite the well-known American penchant for independence and uniqueness? We propose that this paradox can be explained by American mobility: Residential mobility fosters familiarity-seeking and familiarity-liking, while allowing individuals to pursue their personal goals and desires. We reason that people are drawn to familiar objects (e.g., familiar, national chain stores) when they move. We conducted 5 studies to test this idea at the levels of society, individuals, and situations. We found that (a) national chain stores do better in residentially mobile places than in residentially stable places (controlling for other economic and demographic factors; Study 1); (b) individuals who have moved a lot prefer familiar, national chain stores to unfamiliar stores (Studies 2a and 2b); and (c) a residential mobility mindset enhances the mere exposure and familiarity-liking effect (Studies 4 and 5). In Study 5, we demonstrated that the link between mobility and familiarity-liking was mediated by anxiety evoked by mobility. PMID:21843015

  16. The effect of familiarity on perceived interestingness of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sharon Lynn; Fedorovskaya, Elena; Quek, Francis; Snyder, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    We present an exploration of familiarity as a meaningful dimension for the individualized adaptation of media-rich interfaces. In this paper, we investigate in particular the effect of digital images personalized for familiarity on users' perceived interestingness. Two dimensions of familiarity, facial familiarity and familiarity with image context, are manipulated. Our investigation consisted of three studies: the first two address how morphing technology can be used to convey meaningful familiarity, and the third studies the effect of such familiarity on users' sense of interestingness. Four levels of person familiarity varying in degree of person knowledge, and two levels of context familiarity varying in frequency of exposure, were considered: Self, Friend, Celebrity, and Stranger in Familiar and Unfamiliar contexts. Experimental results showed significant main effects of context and person familiarity. Our findings deepen understanding of the critical element of familiarity in HCI and its relationship to the interestingness of images, and can have great impact for the design of media-rich systems.

  17. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee's facial-recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  18. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  19. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  20. Familiarity and preference for pitch probability profiles.

    PubMed

    Cui, Anja-Xiaoxing; Collett, Meghan J; Troje, Niko F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2015-05-01

    We investigated familiarity and preference judgments of participants toward a novel musical system. We exposed participants to tone sequences generated from a novel pitch probability profile. Afterward, we either asked participants to identify more familiar or we asked participants to identify preferred tone sequences in a two-alternative forced-choice task. The task paired a tone sequence generated from the pitch probability profile they had been exposed to and a tone sequence generated from another pitch probability profile at three levels of distinctiveness. We found that participants identified tone sequences as more familiar if they were generated from the same pitch probability profile which they had been exposed to. However, participants did not prefer these tone sequences. We interpret this relationship between familiarity and preference to be consistent with an inverted U-shaped relationship between knowledge and affect. The fact that participants identified tone sequences as even more familiar if they were generated from the more distinctive (caricatured) version of the pitch probability profile which they had been exposed to suggests that the statistical learning of the pitch probability profile is involved in gaining of musical knowledge. PMID:25838257

  1. Does familiarity change in the revelation effect?

    PubMed

    Verde, Michael F; Rotello, Caren M

    2003-09-01

    The revelation effect describes the increased tendency to call items "old" when a recognition judgment is preceded by an incidental task. Past findings show that d' for recognition decreases following revelation, evidence that the revelation effect is due to familiarity change. However, data from receiver operating characteristic curves from 3 experiments produced no evidence of changes in recognition sensitivity. The authors illustrate how the use of a single-point measure like d' can be misleading when familiarity distribution variances are unequal. Also investigated was whether the effect depends on the revelation materials used. Neither the memorability of the revelation items, their similarity to recognition probes, nor the difficulty of the task changed the size of the effect. Thus, the revelation effect is not the result of a memory retrieval mechanism and seems to be generic and all-or-nothing. These characteristics are consistent with response bias rather than familiarity change. PMID:14516209

  2. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  3. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  4. Effects of Test Familiarization on SAT Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.; Alderman, Donald L.

    1983-01-01

    Prepublication copies of an extensive test familiarization booklet were sent to a random sample of Scholastic Aptitude Test candidates. The booklet had little, if any, effect on test scores, but it did alter examinees' tendencies to omit questions and improved their confidence with various aspects of test taking. (Author/PN)

  5. Contemporary Art: Familiar Objects in New Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prabhu, Vas

    1990-01-01

    Describes objects from everyday life and analyzes artworks by four contemporary artists whose works make use of familiar objects (Louise Nevelson, Claes Oldenburg, Mitchell Syrop, and Betye Sarr). Divides lesson into four steps: (1) discussing everyday objects; (2) viewing artworks; (3) studying artists; and (4) class activities related to the…

  6. Modulation of Brain Activity during Phonological Familiarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, S.; Van der Linden, M.; Collette, F.; Laureys, S.; Poncelet, M.; Degueldre, C.; Delfiore, G.; Luxen, A.; Salmon, E.

    2005-01-01

    We measured brain activity in 12 adults for the repetition of auditorily presented words and nonwords, before and after repeated exposure to their phonological form. The nonword phoneme combinations were either of high (HF) or low (LF) phonotactic frequency. After familiarization, we observed, for both word and nonword conditions, decreased…

  7. Age and Familiarity in Memory Scanning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 65 healthy males (31 to 75 years old) memorized lists of six letters (familiar or unfamiliar organization). Age-related differences in the unfamiliar condition could not be wholly accounted for by psychomotor factors. The distributions of response latencies in the oldest groups had greater variance and skew. (Author)

  8. Familiarity-Frequency Ratings of Melodic Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Thomas B.

    1972-01-01

    Objective of this study was to determine subjects' reliability in rating randomly played ascending and descending melodic intervals within the octave on the basis of their familiarity with each type of interval and the frequency of their having experienced each type of interval in music. (Author/CB)

  9. Preferring familiar emotions: As you want (and like) it?

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value. PMID:23962316

  10. Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rob; McLachlan, Jane L; Renaud, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised 'facelock', in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems. PMID:25024913

  11. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice.

    PubMed

    Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L

    2013-12-22

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

  12. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Senar, J. C.; Mateos-Gonzalez, F.; Uribe, F.; Arroyo, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

  13. Development of inductive generalization with familiar categories.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Anna V; Godwin, Karrie E; Matlen, Bryan J

    2015-10-01

    Inductive generalization is ubiquitous in human cognition. In the developmental literature, two different theoretical accounts of this important process have been proposed: a naïve theory account and a similarity-based account. However, a number of recent findings cannot be explained within the existing theoretical accounts. We describe a revised version of the similarity-based account of inductive generalization with familiar categories. We tested the novel predictions of this account in two reported studies with 4-year-old children (N = 57). The reported studies include the first short-term longitudinal investigation of the development of children's induction with familiar categories, and it is the first study to explore the role of individual differences in semantic organization, general intelligence, working memory, and inhibition in children's induction. PMID:25737367

  14. Word-Form Familiarity Bootstraps Infant Speech Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita

    2013-01-01

    At about 7 months of age, infants listen longer to sentences containing familiar words--but not deviant pronunciations of familiar words (Jusczyk & Aslin, 1995). This finding suggests that infants are able to segment familiar words from fluent speech and that they store words in sufficient phonological detail to recognize deviations from a…

  15. Roles of Age and Familiarity in Learning Health Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott C.; Park, Denise C.

    2002-01-01

    Younger (n=40) and older (n=40) adults received information on either familiar or unfamiliar diseases and answered questions about it. Older adults learned less regardless of familiarity or type of memory test. Both older and younger participants learned less new information about familiar diseases. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  16. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  17. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  18. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  19. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  20. 14 CFR 121.599 - Familiarity with weather conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Familiarity with weather conditions. 121... § 121.599 Familiarity with weather conditions. (a) Domestic and flag operations. No aircraft dispatcher may release a flight unless he is thoroughly familiar with reported and forecast weather conditions...

  1. Familiarity of environmental sounds is used to establish auditory rules.

    PubMed

    Kirmse, Ursula; Schröger, Erich; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-03-28

    This study addressed the extraction of long-term sound familiarity as a higher-order feature of complex, environmental sounds. Physically variable, familiar animal sounds and spectrotemporally matched, unfamiliar control sounds were presented. Participants ignored the acoustic stimuli. Infrequent deviant sounds violated the familiarity status established by the standard sounds, but no regularity on the basis of physical features. In the auditory event-related potential, deviants elicited a negative-going deflection over parietal scalp areas around 230 ms. This effect occurred for familiar deviants among unfamiliar standards and for unfamiliar deviants among familiar standards. The results indicate the establishment of an auditory regularity based on sound familiarity. This reflects the extraction of sound familiarity outside the focus of attention. PMID:22410549

  2. Medical Operation KC-135 Familiarization Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Chris; Stoner, Paul; Arenare, Brian; Strickland, Angie; Rudge, Fredrick; Lowdermilk, Greg

    1999-01-01

    As new personnel join the Medical Operations Branch, it is critical that they understand the effects of microgravity on medical procedures, hardware, and supplies. The familiarization flight provided new personnel with a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on (1) medical procedures, (2) patient and rescuer restraint, (3) medical fluids, and (4) medical training for space flight. The flight process also provided experience in flight proposal preparation, flight test plan preparation and execution, and final report preparation. In addition, first time flyers gained insight on their performance level in microgravity for future flights.

  3. Fixation Patterns During Recognition of Personally Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces

    PubMed Central

    van Belle, Goedele; Ramon, Meike; Lefèvre, Philippe; Rossion, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies recording eye gaze during face perception have rendered somewhat inconclusive findings with respect to fixation differences between familiar and unfamiliar faces. This can be attributed to a number of factors that differ across studies: the type and extent of familiarity with the faces presented, the definition of areas of interest subject to analyses, as well as a lack of consideration for the time course of scan patterns. Here we sought to address these issues by recording fixations in a recognition task with personally familiar and unfamiliar faces. After a first common fixation on a central superior location of the face in between features, suggesting initial holistic encoding, and a subsequent left eye bias, local features were focused and explored more for familiar than unfamiliar faces. Although the number of fixations did not differ for un-/familiar faces, the locations of fixations began to differ before familiarity decisions were provided. This suggests that in the context of familiarity decisions without time constraints, differences in processing familiar and unfamiliar faces arise relatively early – immediately upon initiation of the first fixation to identity-specific information – and that the local features of familiar faces are processed more than those of unfamiliar faces. PMID:21607074

  4. Assessing Consumer Health Vocabulary Familiarity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Tse, Tony; Crowell, Jon; Browne, Allen; Ngo, Long

    2007-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of the difficulty of consumer health texts is a prerequisite for improving readability. General purpose readability formulas based primarily on word length are not well suited for the health domain, where short technical terms may be unfamiliar to consumers. To address this need, we previously developed a regression model for predicting “average familiarity” with consumer health vocabulary (CHV) terms. Objective The primary goal was to evaluate the ability of the CHV term familiarity model to predict (1) surface-level familiarity of health-related terms and (2) understanding of the underlying meaning (concept familiarity) among actual consumers. Secondary goals involved exploring the effect of demographic factors (eg, health literacy) on surface-level and concept-level familiarity and describing the relationship between the two levels of familiarity. Methods Survey instruments for assessing surface-level familiarity (45 items) and concept-level familiarity (15 items) were developed. All participants also completed a demographic survey and a standardized health literacy assessment, S-TOFHLA. Results Based on surveys completed by 52 consumers, linear regression suggests that predicted CHV term familiarity is a statistically significantly predictor (P < .001) of participants’ surface-level and concept-level familiarity performance. Health literacy was a statistically significant predictor of surface-level familiarity scores (P < .001); its effect on concept-level familiarity scores warrants further investigation (P = 0.06). Educational level was not a significant predictor of either type of familiarity. Participant scores indicated that conceptualization lagged behind recognition, especially for terms predicted as “likely to be familiar” (P = .006). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the CHV term familiarity model is predictive of consumer recognition and understanding of terms in the health domain. Potential uses

  5. Effects of Caricaturing in Shape or Color on Familiarity Decisions for Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces

    PubMed Central

    Itz, Marlena L.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Kaufmann, Jürgen M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that while reflectance information (including color) may be more diagnostic for familiar face recognition, shape may be more diagnostic for unfamiliar face identity processing. Moreover, event-related potential (ERP) findings suggest an earlier onset for neural processing of facial shape compared to reflectance. In the current study, we aimed to explore specifically the roles of facial shape and color in a familiarity decision task using pre-experimentally familiar (famous) and unfamiliar faces that were caricatured either in shape-only, color-only, or both (full; shape + color) by 15%, 30%, or 45%. We recorded accuracies, mean reaction times, and face-sensitive ERPs. Performance data revealed that shape caricaturing facilitated identity processing for unfamiliar faces only. In the ERP data, such effects of shape caricaturing emerged earlier than those of color caricaturing. Unsurprisingly, ERP effects were accentuated for larger levels of caricaturing. Overall, our findings corroborate the importance of shape for identity processing of unfamiliar faces and demonstrate an earlier onset of neural processing for facial shape compared to color. PMID:26900690

  6. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer: funciones y desafíos (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  7. Long-term familiarity promotes joining in neighbour nest defence.

    PubMed

    Grabowska-Zhang, A M; Sheldon, B C; Hinde, C A

    2012-08-23

    Familiarity plays an important role in the evolution of sociality and cooperation. Familiar individuals may gain a reputation for participating in, or defecting from, cooperative tasks. Previous research suggests that long-term familiarity with territorial neighbours benefits breeders. We tested the hypothesis that great tits (Parus major) are more likely to join in neighbours' nest defence if those neighbours are familiar from the previous year. We show that neighbours that shared a territory boundary the previous year are more likely to join their neighbours' nest defence than neighbours that did not share a boundary before. Closer neighbours did not differ from distant neighbours in their latency to join. For familiar neighbours that joined, there was no difference in call rate in relation to whether one or both members of the focal pair were familiar. First-time breeders (by definition unfamiliar) did not join each other's nest defence. This is the first evidence of a relationship between familiarity and joining in nest defence. Such direct benefits of familiarity may have important implications in the evolution of sociality. PMID:22535641

  8. Rats' Novel Object Interaction as a Measure of Environmental Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Herrman, Laura; Palmatier, Matthew I.; Bevins, Rick A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental familiarization is a learning phenomenon embedded within most tasks used to study learning and motivation. Given its prevalence there is surprisingly little systematic behavioral research on factors affecting familiarization. The six experiments reported in the present report used rats' tendency to interact more with a novel object…

  9. Familiarity for Associations? A Test of the Domain Dichotomy Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Iain M.; Mackenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Episodic recognition memory is mediated by functionally separable retrieval processes, notably familiarity (a general sense of prior exposure) and recollection (the retrieval of contextual details), whose relative engagement depends partly on the nature of the information being retrieved. Currently, the specific contribution of familiarity to…

  10. Familiar-Strange: Teaching the Scripture as John Would Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tung-Chiew

    2014-01-01

    The Gospel of John teaches through telling the story of Jesus in light of the familiar Hebrew faith stories. It is an interpretive task that presents Jesus to his audience and teaches them adequate faith. John the Teacher skillfully uses narrative skills to create the familiar-strange effect in his storytelling. Each story is followed by a…

  11. The Importance of Unitization for Familiarity-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Colleen M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that recollection is necessary to support memory for novel associations, whereas familiarity supports memory for single items. However, the levels of unitization framework assumes that familiarity can support associative memory under conditions in which the components of an association are unitized (i.e., treated as a single…

  12. Revisiting the Novelty Effect: When Familiarity, Not Novelty, Enhances Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppenk, J.; Kohler, S.; Moscovitch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports of superior memory for novel relative to familiar material have figured prominently in recent theories of memory. However, such "novelty effects" are incongruous with long-standing observations that familiar items are remembered better. In 2 experiments, we explored whether this discrepancy was explained by differences in the type of…

  13. Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory: Evidence from ROC Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathcote, Andrew; Raymond, Frances; Dunn, John

    2006-01-01

    Does recognition memory rely on discrete recollection, continuous evidence, or both? Is continuous evidence sensitive to only the recency and duration of study (familiarity), or is it also sensitive to details of the study episode? Dual process theories assume recognition is based on recollection and familiarity, with only recollection providing…

  14. Familiarity with music increases walking speed in rhythmic auditory cuing.

    PubMed

    Leow, Li-Ann; Rinchon, Cricia; Grahn, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) is a gait rehabilitation method in which patients synchronize footsteps to a metronome or musical beats. Although RAS with music can ameliorate gait abnormalities, outcomes vary, possibly because music properties, such as groove or familiarity, differ across interventions. To optimize future interventions, we assessed how initially familiar and unfamiliar low-groove and high-groove music affected synchronization accuracy and gait in healthy individuals. We also experimentally increased music familiarity using repeated exposure to initially unfamiliar songs. Overall, familiar music elicited faster stride velocity and less variable strides, as well as better synchronization performance (matching of step tempo to beat tempo). High-groove music, as reported previously, led to faster stride velocity than low-groove music. We propose two mechanisms for familiarity's effects. First, familiarity with the beat structure reduces cognitive demands of synchronizing, leading to better synchronization performance and faster, less variable gait. Second, familiarity might have elicited faster gait by increasing enjoyment of the music, as enjoyment was higher after repeated exposure to initially low-enjoyment songs. Future studies are necessary to dissociate the contribution of these mechanisms to the observed RAS effects of familiar music on gait. PMID:25773617

  15. The Effects of Cultural Familiarity on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten, Ismail Hakki; Razi, Salim

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether cultural familiarity influences comprehension of short stories and whether nativizing the story or using reading activities can compensate for the lack of such familiarity. The study was conducted with 44 advanced-level students of English at a state university in Turkey. In a 2 x 2 experimental research design, the…

  16. The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

  17. When Do Infants Begin Recognizing Familiar Words in Sentences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaolis, Rory A.; Vihman, Marilyn M.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12- month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference…

  18. An Inner Face Advantage in Children's Recognition of Familiar Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Liezhong; Anzures, Gizelle; Wang, Zhe; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Yang, Zhiliang; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    Children's recognition of familiar own-age peers was investigated. Chinese children (4-, 8-, and 14-year-olds) were asked to identify their classmates from photographs showing the entire face, the internal facial features only, the external facial features only, or the eyes, nose, or mouth only. Participants from all age groups were familiar with…

  19. 30 CFR 57.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 57.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 57.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person reponsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19096 - Familiarity with signal code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 56.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 56.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person responsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts...

  1. Intuitive reasoning about abstract and familiar physics problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Jonides, John; Alexander, Joanne

    1986-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that many people have misconceptions about basic properties of motion. Two experiments examined whether people are more likely to produce dynamically correct predictions about basic motion problems involving situations with which they are familiar, and whether solving such problems enhances performance on a subsequent abstract problem. In experiment 1, college students were asked to predict the trajectories of objects exiting a curved tube. Subjects were more accurate on the familiar version of the problem, and there was no evidence of transfer to the abstract problem. In experiment 2, two familiar problems were provided in an attempt to enhance subjects' tendency to extract the general structure of the problems. Once again, they gave more correct responses to the familiar problems but failed to generalize to the abstract problem. Formal physics training was associated with correct predictions for the abstract problem but was unrelated to performance on the familiar problems.

  2. Culture-specific familiarity equally mediates action representations across cultures.

    PubMed

    Umla-Runge, Katja; Fu, Xiaolan; Wang, Lamei; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that we need to distinguish between means and end information about actions. It is unclear how these two subtypes of action information relate to each other with theoretical accounts postulating the superiority of end over means information and others linking separate means and end routes of processing to actions of differential meaningfulness. Action meaningfulness or familiarity differs between cultures. In a cross-cultural setting, we investigated how action familiarity influences recognition memory for means and end information. Object directed actions of differential familiarity were presented to Chinese and German participants. Action familiarity modulated the representation of means and end information in both cultures in the same way, although the effects were based on different stimulus sets. Our results suggest that, in the representation of actions in memory, end information is superordinate to means information. This effect is independent of culture whereas action familiarity is not. PMID:24168196

  3. Perception of familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broersma, Mirjam

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the perception of non-native phoneme contrasts which exist in the native language, but not in the position tested. Like English, Dutch contrasts voiced and voiceless obstruents. Unlike English, Dutch allows only voiceless obstruents in word-final position. Dutch and English listeners' accuracy on English final voicing contrasts and their use of preceding vowel duration as a voicing cue were tested. The phonetic structure of Dutch should provide the necessary experience for a native-like use of this cue. Experiment 1 showed that Dutch listeners categorized English final /zee/-/ess/, /vee/-/eff/, /bee/-/pee/, and /dee/-/tee/ contrasts in nonwords as accurately as initial contrasts, and as accurately as English listeners did, even when release bursts were removed. In experiment 2, English listeners used vowel duration as a cue for one final contrast, although it was uninformative and sometimes mismatched other voicing characteristics, whereas Dutch listeners did not. Although it should be relatively easy for them, Dutch listeners did not use vowel duration. Nevertheless, they attained native-like accuracy, and sometimes even outperformed the native listeners who were liable to be misled by uninformative vowel duration information. Thus, native-like use of cues for non-native but familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions may hardly ever be attained. .

  4. Memory Color Effect Induced by Familiarity of Brand Logos

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Masuda, Tomohiro; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Hibino, Haruo; Cai, Dongsheng; Dan, Ippeita

    2013-01-01

    Background When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray points in a direction opposite to the memory color (memory color effect). It is still unclear whether the discrepancy between memorized and actual colors of objects is dependent on the familiarity of the objects. Here, we conducted two experiments in order to examine the relationship between the degree of a subject’s familiarity with objects and the degree of the memory color effect by using logographs of food and beverage companies. Methods and Findings In Experiment 1, we measured the memory color effects of logos which varied in terms of their familiarity (high, middle, or low). Results demonstrate that the memory color effect occurs only in the high-familiarity condition, but not in the middle- and low-familiarity conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the memory color effect and the actual number of domestic stores of the brand. In Experiment 2, we assessed the semantic association between logos and food/beverage names by using a semantic priming task to elucidate whether the memory color effect of logos relates to consumer brand cognition, and found that the semantic associations between logos and food/beverage names in the high-familiarity brands were stronger than those in the low-familiarity brands only when the logos were colored correctly, but not when they were appropriately or inappropriately colored, or achromatic. Conclusion The current results provide behavioral evidence of the relationship between the familiarity of objects and the memory color effect and suggest that the memory color effect increases with the familiarity of objects, albeit not constantly. PMID:23874638

  5. Familiarity is not notoriety: phenomenological accounts of face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Liccione, Davide; Moruzzi, Sara; Rossi, Federica; Manganaro, Alessia; Porta, Marco; Nugrahaningsih, Nahumi; Caserio, Valentina; Allegri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    From a phenomenological perspective, faces are perceived differently from objects as their perception always involves the possibility of a relational engagement (Bredlau, 2011). This is especially true for familiar faces, i.e., faces of people with a history of real relational engagements. Similarly, valence of emotional expressions assumes a key role, as they define the sense and direction of this engagement. Following these premises, the aim of the present study is to demonstrate that face recognition is facilitated by at least two variables, familiarity and emotional expression, and that perception of familiar faces is not influenced by orientation. In order to verify this hypothesis, we implemented a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design, showing 17 healthy subjects three type of faces (unfamiliar, personally familiar, famous) characterized by three different emotional expressions (happy, hungry/sad, neutral) and in two different orientation (upright vs. inverted). We showed every subject a total of 180 faces with the instructions to give a familiarity judgment. Reaction times (RTs) were recorded and we found that the recognition of a face is facilitated by personal familiarity and emotional expression, and that this process is otherwise independent from a cognitive elaboration of stimuli and remains stable despite orientation. These results highlight the need to make a distinction between famous and personally familiar faces when studying face perception and to consider its historical aspects from a phenomenological point of view. PMID:25225476

  6. Neural representation of face familiarity in an awake chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Hirokata; Hirata, Satoshi; Matsuda, Goh; Ueno, Ari; Fuwa, Kohki; Sugama, Keiko; Kusunoki, Kiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of familiar and unfamiliar chimpanzee faces (Experiment 1) and human faces (Experiment 2). The ERPs evoked by chimpanzee faces differentiated unfamiliar individuals from familiar ones around midline areas centered on vertex sites at approximately 200 ms after the stimulus onset. In addition, the ERP response to the image of the subject's own face did not significantly diverge from those evoked by familiar chimpanzees, suggesting that the subject's brain at a minimum remembered the image of her own face. The ERPs evoked by human faces were not influenced by the familiarity of target individuals. These results indicate that chimpanzee neural representations are more sensitive to the familiarity of conspecific than allospecific faces. PMID:24392287

  7. How familiar characters influence children's judgments about information and products.

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Judith H; Mills, Candice M

    2014-12-01

    Children are exposed to advertisements and products that incorporate familiar characters, such as Dora the Explorer and Bob the Builder, virtually from birth. How does the presence of these characters influence children's judgments about information and products? Three experiments (N=125) explored how 4-year-olds evaluate messages from familiar characters and how their trust in a familiar character's testimony relates to their product preferences. Children endorsed objective and subjective claims made by a familiar character more often than those made by a perceptually similar but unfamiliar character even in situations where they had evidence that the familiar character was unreliable. Children also preferred low-quality products bearing a familiar character's image over high-quality products without a character image up to 74% of the time (whereas control groups preferred the low-quality products less than 6% of the time when they did not include a character image). These findings suggest that young children are powerfully influenced by familiar characters encountered in the media, leaving them vulnerable to advertising messages and clouding their judgments about products. PMID:25038449

  8. Judging familiarity and emotion from very brief musical excerpts.

    PubMed

    Filipic, Suzanne; Tillmann, Barbara; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, the gating paradigm was used to measure how much perceptual information that was extracted from musical excerpts needs to be heard to provide judgments of familiarity and of emotionality. Nonmusicians heard segments of increasing duration (250, 500, 1,000 msec, etc.). The stimuli were segments from familiar and unfamiliar musical excerpts in Experiment 1 and from very moving and emotionally neutral musical excerpts in Experiment 2. Participants judged how familiar (Experiment 1) or how moving (Experiment 2) the excerpt was to them. Results show that a feeling of familiarity can be triggered by 500-msec segments, and that the distinction between moving and neutral can be made for 250-msec segments. This finding extends the observation of fast-acting cognitive and emotional processes from face and voice perception to music perception. PMID:20551355

  9. Relations of familiarity with reasoning strategies in conspiracy beliefs.

    PubMed

    Bost, Preston R; Prunier, Stephen G; Piper, Allen J

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence and resilience of conspiracy beliefs suggest that such beliefs may derive in part from general information-processing mechanisms. Two predictions were tested: conspiracy beliefs would increase as familiarity with the conspiracy increased, and conspiracy beliefs would rest in part on the perception of the alleged conspirators' motive. Participants read condensed versions of four real-life conspiracy theories of varying familiarity, rated their belief in the conspiracies, and explained their ratings. Although belief was not associated with familiarity, participants used different justifications for their beliefs about familiar and unfamiliar conspiracies, relying prominently on motive when the conspiracy was unfamiliar. Preliminary data suggested that participants' beliefs in conspiracies may have been equally strong when they reasoned only in terms of motive as when they reasoned in terms of documented evidence. An additional finding suggested also that beliefs in conspiracies may increase as affiliation with the victim of the alleged conspiracy increases. PMID:21117487

  10. Facilitated detection of social cues conveyed by familiar faces

    PubMed Central

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Yang, Hua; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the identity of familiar faces in conditions with poor visibility or over large changes in head angle, lighting and partial occlusion is far more accurate than recognition of unfamiliar faces in similar conditions. Here we used a visual search paradigm to test if one class of social cues transmitted by faces—direction of another's attention as conveyed by gaze direction and head orientation—is perceived more rapidly in personally familiar faces than in unfamiliar faces. We found a strong effect of familiarity on the detection of these social cues, suggesting that the times to process these signals in familiar faces are markedly faster than the corresponding processing times for unfamiliar faces. In the light of these new data, hypotheses on the organization of the visual system for processing faces are formulated and discussed. PMID:25228873

  11. Chemosensory discrimination of identity and familiarity in koalas.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2015-10-01

    Despite numerous descriptive accounts of scent marking in marsupials, rigorous experimentation is rare, and relatively little evidence exists to show that conspecifics use chemical signals to distinguish between individuals or different social groups. In this study a series of olfactory discrimination tests sought to determine whether: (1) male koala sternal scent gland secretions are individually distinctive; and (2) male koalas can differentiate between the scent of familiar and unfamiliar individuals. In the first experiment a habituation-discrimination trial demonstrated that male koalas discriminate between the scent gland secretions of different unfamiliar individuals. In a second experiment male koalas spent significantly more time investigating scent from unfamiliar males than familiar males, supporting the hypothesis that they differentiate between conspecifics based on their familiarity. Taken together these results suggest that male koalas are able to discriminate the identity and familiarity of conspecifics using chemical cues, and provide a platform for further studies investigating the functional role of olfactory communication in this species. PMID:26216198

  12. The effects of advertisement location and familiarity on selective attention.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Tanja Lund; Rodway, Paul

    2010-06-01

    This study comprised two experiments to examine the distracting effects of advertisement familiarity, location, and onset on the performance of a selective attention task. In Exp. 1, familiar advertisements presented in peripheral vision disrupted selective attention when the attention task was more demanding, suggesting that the distracting effect of advertisements is a product of task demands and advertisement familiarity and location. In Exp. 2, the onset of the advertisement shortly before, or after, the attention task captured attention and disrupted attentional performance. The onset of the advertisement before the attention task reduced target response time without an increase in errors and therefore facilitated performance. Despite being instructed to ignore the advertisements, the participants were able to recall a substantial proportion of the familiar advertisements. Implications for the presentation of advertisements during human-computer interaction were discussed. PMID:20681345

  13. A model of ant route navigation driven by scene familiarity.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

  14. Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data. PMID:22110619

  15. Elementary School Teachers' Familiarity, Conceptual Knowledge, and Interest in Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simon; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning more about light and its related concepts. This study also sought to establish the relationship between elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning light concepts. Sixty-six lower and upper elementary school teachers in Midwest of the USA participated in this study. Data were collected using 3 instruments namely Familiarity with Light Concepts Questionnaire, Conceptual Knowledge of Light Test, and Interest in Learning about Light Concepts Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using statistical tests. Most teachers expressed high levels of familiarity with light concepts surveyed. The upper elementary grade teachers expressed more familiarity with advanced light concepts than lower elementary grade teachers. However, most teachers exhibited low conceptual knowledge of light concepts. There was no significant difference in conceptual knowledge of light concepts between lower and upper elementary grade teachers, and between more experienced and less experienced teachers. As such, teachers' self-reported familiarity with light concepts was not consistent with their actual knowledge of the concepts. However, most teachers expressed high interest in learning more about the light concepts. Thus, teachers showed willingness to learn more about light concepts they did not understand. These findings have implications on teacher education, and science teaching and learning.

  16. Semantic memory influences episodic retrieval by increased familiarity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujuan; Mao, Xinrui; Li, Bingcan; Lu, Baoqing; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-07-01

    The role of familiarity in associative recognition has been investigated in a number of studies, which have indicated that familiarity can facilitate recognition under certain circumstances. The ability of a pre-experimentally existing common representation to boost the contribution of familiarity has rarely been investigated. In addition, although many studies have investigated the interactions between semantic memory and episodic retrieval, the conditions that influence the presence of specific patterns were unclear. This study aimed to address these two questions. We manipulated the degree of overlap between the two representations using synonym and nonsynonym pairs in an associative recognition task. Results indicated that an increased degree of overlap enhanced recognition performance. The analysis of event-related potentials effects in the test phase showed that synonym pairs elicited both types of old/rearranged effects, whereas nonsynonym pairs elicited a late old/rearranged effect. These results confirmed that a common representation, irrespective of source, was necessary for assuring the presence of familiarity, but a common representation could not distinguish associative recognition depending on familiarity alone. Moreover, our expected double dissociation between familiarity and recollection was absent, which indicated that mode selection may be influenced by the degree of distinctness between old and rearranged pairs rather than the degree of overlap between representations. PMID:27244264

  17. A Model of Ant Route Navigation Driven by Scene Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Baddeley, Bart; Graham, Paul; Husbands, Philip; Philippides, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of visually guided route navigation in ants that captures the known properties of real behaviour whilst retaining mechanistic simplicity and thus biological plausibility. For an ant, the coupling of movement and viewing direction means that a familiar view specifies a familiar direction of movement. Since the views experienced along a habitual route will be more familiar, route navigation can be re-cast as a search for familiar views. This search can be performed with a simple scanning routine, a behaviour that ants have been observed to perform. We test this proposed route navigation strategy in simulation, by learning a series of routes through visually cluttered environments consisting of objects that are only distinguishable as silhouettes against the sky. In the first instance we determine view familiarity by exhaustive comparison with the set of views experienced during training. In further experiments we train an artificial neural network to perform familiarity discrimination using the training views. Our results indicate that, not only is the approach successful, but also that the routes that are learnt show many of the characteristics of the routes of desert ants. As such, we believe the model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What is more, the model provides a general demonstration that visually guided routes can be produced with parsimonious mechanisms that do not specify when or what to learn, nor separate routes into sequences of waypoints. PMID:22241975

  18. Music and emotions in the brain: familiarity matters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data. PMID:22110619

  19. A language-familiarity effect for speaker discrimination without comprehension.

    PubMed

    Fleming, David; Giordano, Bruno L; Caldara, Roberto; Belin, Pascal

    2014-09-23

    The influence of language familiarity upon speaker identification is well established, to such an extent that it has been argued that "Human voice recognition depends on language ability" [Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE (2011) Science 333(6042):595]. However, 7-mo-old infants discriminate speakers of their mother tongue better than they do foreign speakers [Johnson EK, Westrek E, Nazzi T, Cutler A (2011) Dev Sci 14(5):1002-1011] despite their limited speech comprehension abilities, suggesting that speaker discrimination may rely on familiarity with the sound structure of one's native language rather than the ability to comprehend speech. To test this hypothesis, we asked Chinese and English adult participants to rate speaker dissimilarity in pairs of sentences in English or Mandarin that were first time-reversed to render them unintelligible. Even in these conditions a language-familiarity effect was observed: Both Chinese and English listeners rated pairs of native-language speakers as more dissimilar than foreign-language speakers, despite their inability to understand the material. Our data indicate that the language familiarity effect is not based on comprehension but rather on familiarity with the phonology of one's native language. This effect may stem from a mechanism analogous to the "other-race" effect in face recognition. PMID:25201950

  20. The sensorimotor contributions to implicit memory, familiarity, and recollection.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha

    2012-05-01

    The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in stimulus-specific motor simulations or reenactment (e.g., covert pronouncing simulations for words as stimuli). Combining these lines of evidence, it was predicted that stimulus-specific motor interference preventing simulations should impair both implicit memory and familiarity but leave recollection unaffected. This was tested for words as verbal stimuli associated to pronouncing simulations in the oral muscle system (but also for tunes as vocal stimuli and their associated vocal system, Experiment 2). It was found that oral (e.g., chewing gum), compared with manual (kneading a ball), motor interference prevented mere exposure effects (Experiments 1-2), substantially reduced repetition priming in word fragment completion (Experiment 3), reduced the familiarity estimates in a remember-know task (Experiment 5) and in receiver-operating characteristics (Experiment 6), and completely neutralized familiarity measured by self-reports (Experiment 4) and skin conductance responses (Experiment 7), while leaving recollection and free recall unaffected (across Experiments 1-7). This pattern establishes a rare memory dissociation in healthy participants, that is, explicit without implicit memory or recognizing without feeling familiar. Implications for embodied memory and neuropsychology are discussed. PMID:22004167

  1. Musical familiarity in congenital amusia: evidence from a gating paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Congenital amusia has been described as a lifelong deficit of music perception and production, notably including amusic individuals' difficulties to recognize a familiar tune without the aid of lyrics. The present study aimed to evaluate whether amusic individuals might have acquired long-term knowledge of familiar music, and to test for the minimal amount of acoustic information necessary to access this knowledge (if any) in amusia. Segments of familiar and unfamiliar instrumental musical pieces were presented with increasing duration (250, 500, 1000 msec etc.), and participants provided familiarity judgments for each segment. Results showed that amusic individuals succeeded in differentiating familiar from unfamiliar excerpts with as little acoustic information as did control participants (i.e., within 500 msec). The findings reveal that amusic individuals have stored musical pieces in long-term memory (LTM), and, together with other recent findings, they suggest that congenital amusia might impair conscious access to music processing rather than music processing per se. PMID:25151640

  2. The importance of unitization for familiarity-based learning

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Colleen M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that recollection is necessary to support memory for novel associations, whereas familiarity supports memory for single items. However, the levels of unitization (LOU) framework assumes that familiarity can support associative memory under conditions in which the components of an association are unitized (i.e., treated as a single coherent item). In the current study we test two critical assumptions of this framework. First, does unitization reflect a specialized form of learning or is it simply a form of semantic or elaborative encoding, and, second, can the beneficial effects of unitization on familiarity be observed for across-domain associations or are they limited to creating new associations between items that are from the same stimulus domains? Unitization was found to increase associative recognition but not item recognition, it affected familiarity more so than recollection, it increased associative but not item priming, and it was dissociable from levels of processing effects. Moreover, unitization effects were found to be particularly effective in supporting face-word and fractal-sound pairs. The current results indicate that unitization reflects a specialized form of learning that supports associative familiarity of within- and across-domain associations. PMID:25329077

  3. Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly documented in adults but never measured in children. Here, we use two distinct tasks to investigate ambiguity preferences of children (8- to 9-year-olds) and a comparison group of adults (19- to 27-year-olds). Across three separate measures, we found evidence for significant ambiguity aversion in adults but not in children and for greater ambiguity aversion in adults compared to children. As ambiguity aversion in adults has been theorized to result from a preference to bet on the known and avoid the unfamiliar, we separately measured familiarity bias and found that children, like adults, are biased towards the familiar. Our findings indicate that ambiguity aversion emerges across the course of development between childhood and adolescence, while a familiarity bias is already present in childhood. PMID:25601848

  4. Is my voice just a familiar voice? An electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Gomot, Marie; Roux, Sylvie; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Bruneau, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear whether self-stimuli are processed by the brain as highly familiar overlearned stimuli or as self-specific stimuli. This study examined the neural processes underlying discrimination of one’s own voice (OV) compared with a familiar voice (FV) using electrophysiological methods. Event-related potentials were recorded while healthy subjects (n = 15) listened passively to oddball sequences composed of recordings of the French vowel /a/ pronounced either by the participant her/himself, or by a familiar person or an unknown person. The results indicated that, although mismatch negativity displayed similar peak latency and amplitude in both conditions, the amplitude of the subsequent P3a was significantly smaller in response to OV compared with a FV. This study therefore indicated that fewer pre-attentional processes are involved in the discrimination of one’s OV than in the discrimination of FVs. PMID:24625786

  5. How familiarization and repetition modulate the picture naming network

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. PMID:24785306

  6. Familiarity, expertise, and change detection: change deafness is worse in your native language.

    PubMed

    Neuhoff, John G; Schott, Steven A; Kropf, Adam J; Neuhoff, Emily M

    2014-01-01

    We first replicated the language-familiarity effect for voice discrimination and found better voice discrimination in familiar languages. However, when listeners were not cued to listen for changes, both English and Spanish speakers exhibited greater change deafness in their familiar language. Results suggest that lexical/semantic attention in a familiar language and increased indexical processing in an unfamiliar language can produce greater change deafness in familiar languages. PMID:24919355

  7. Dogs' comprehension of referential emotional expressions: familiar people and familiar emotions are easier.

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2014-03-01

    Dogs have been shown to discriminate between human facial expressions, and they seem to use human emotional communication to regulate their behaviour towards an external object/situation. However, it is still not clear (1) whether they just respond to the emotional message received with a corresponding increase/decrease in their level of activation or whether they perceive that the emotional message refers to a specific object, (2) which emotional message they use to modify their behaviour (i.e. whether they are following the positive message or avoiding the negative one) and (3) whether their familiarity with the informant has an effect on the dogs' behaviour. To address these issues, five groups of dogs were tested in two experiments. The first group observed the owner delivering two different emotional messages (happiness and fear) towards two identical objects hidden behind barriers, and the second group observed the owner delivering the same emotional messages but with no-objects present in the room. The third and the fourth groups observed the owner delivering a happy versus a neutral, and a negative versus a neutral emotional message towards the hidden objects. Finally, the fifth group observed a stranger acting like the owner of the first group. When the owner was acting as the informant, dogs seemed to be capable of distinguishing between a fearful and happy emotional expression and preferentially chose to investigate a box eliciting an expression of happiness rather than of fear or neutrality. Dogs, however, seemed to have greater difficulty in distinguishing between the fearful and neutral emotional messages delivered by the owner and between the happy and fearful expressions delivered by the stranger. Results suggest that dogs have learned to associate their owners' positive emotional messages to positive outcomes, and hence use their communicative messages to guide their actions. However, negative emotional messages and those delivered by strangers are

  8. The Familiar Observer: Seeing beyond the Expected in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker

    2015-01-01

    Reflection on subjectivity in the qualitative research process is fundamental to the methodology. Although much attention is paid to what to do (identify subjectivities), there is much less emphasis on how one should do this. Furthermore, a researcher engaged in an intimately familiar setting, such as a typical American classroom, faces the unique…

  9. Assessing the Dissociability of Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratte, Michael S.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition memory is often modeled as constituting 2 separate processes, recollection and familiarity, rather than as constituting a single process mediated by a generic latent strength. One way of stating evidence for the more complex 2-process model is to show dissociations with select manipulations, in which one manipulation affects…

  10. Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

  11. Recollection- and familiarity-based decisions reflect memory strength.

    PubMed

    Wiesmann, Martin; Ishai, Alumit

    2008-01-01

    We used event-related fMRI to investigate whether recollection- and familiarity-based memory judgments are modulated by the degree of visual similarity between old and new art paintings. Subjects performed a flower detection task, followed by a Remember/Know/New surprise memory test. The old paintings were randomly presented with new paintings, which were either visually similar or visually different. Consistent with our prediction, subjects were significantly faster and more accurate to reject new, visually different paintings than new, visually similar ones. The proportion of false alarms, namely remember and know responses to new paintings, was significantly reduced with decreased visual similarity. The retrieval task evoked activation in multiple visual, parietal and prefrontal regions, within which remember judgments elicited stronger activation than know judgments. New, visually different paintings evoked weaker activation than new, visually similar items in the intraparietal sulcus. Contrasting recollection with familiarity revealed activation predominantly within the precuneus, where the BOLD response elicited by recollection peaked significantly earlier than the BOLD response evoked by familiarity judgments. These findings suggest that successful memory retrieval of pictures is mediated by activation in a distributed cortical network, where memory strength is manifested by differential hemodynamic profiles. Recollection- and familiarity-based memory decisions may therefore reflect strong memories and weak memories, respectively. PMID:18958245

  12. Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a…

  13. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  14. Probability of Equivalence Formation: Familiar Stimuli and Training Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arntzen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to show how responding in accord with equivalence relations changes as a function of position of familiar stimuli, pictures, and with the use of nonsense syllables in an MTO-training structure. Fifty college students were tested for responding in accord with equivalence in an AB, CB, DB, and EB training structure.…

  15. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

  16. Contextual Variation, Familiarity, Academic Literacy, and Rural Adolescents' Idiom Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualls, Constance Dean; O'Brien, Rose M.; Blood, Gordon W.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2003-01-01

    Ninety-five rural eighth graders completed the Idiom Comprehension Test in three contexts: idioms in a short story, in isolation, and in a verification task. Performance in the story condition and on high-familiarity idioms showed the greatest accuracy. Associations existed between performance and reading ability for the story and verification…

  17. Effective Approaches to Disorientation Familiarization for Aviation Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, William E.

    Techniques are discussed for providing familiarization of aviation personnel with disorientation problems (dizziness). Procedures are spelled out in detail. Methods of modifying existing equipment as well as an evaluation of available commercial equipment, are presented. The techniques have been used with notable success both at the Civil…

  18. Object Familiarity Facilitates Foreign Word Learning in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sera, Maria D.; Cole, Caitlin A.; Oromendia, Mercedes; Koenig, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Studying how children learn words in a foreign language can shed light on how language learning changes with development. In one experiment, we examined whether three-, four-, and five-year-olds could learn and remember words for familiar and unfamiliar objects in their native English and a foreign language. All age groups could learn and remember…

  19. Electrophysiological Signals of Familiarity and Recency in the Infant Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Kelly A.; Garza, John; Zolot, Liza; Kresse, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Electrophysiological work in nonhuman primates has established the existence of multiple types of signals in the temporal lobe that contribute to recognition memory, including information regarding a stimulus's relative novelty, familiarity, and recency of occurrence. We used high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether young…

  20. The Concept Smacks of Magic: Fighting Familiarity Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delamont, Sara; Atkinson, Paul; Pugsley, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Good educational ethnography whether done by sociologists or anthropologists, makes the familiar strange. The history of that proposition is outlined, and five strategies available to all ethnographers focused on teaching and learning, whether sociologists or anthropologists of education or not, are outlined. The vital importance of the working…

  1. Infants' Discrimination of Familiar and Unfamiliar Accents in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Joseph; Floccia, Caroline; Goslin, Jeremy; Panneton, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates infants' discrimination abilities for familiar and unfamiliar regional English accents. Using a variation of the head-turn preference procedure, 5-month-old infants demonstrated that they were able to distinguish between their own South-West English accent and an unfamiliar Welsh English accent. However, this distinction…

  2. Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images. PMID:19093619

  3. Use of Interdisciplinary Education to Foster Familiarization among Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laatsch, Linda J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a pilot interdisciplinary experience between the dental hygiene and medical technology programs at Marquette University. It was designed, in part, to familiarize dental hygiene students with the medical technology profession. Comments solicited from students on the final evaluation form indicated that this pilot project was highly…

  4. Prefrontal Control of Familiarity and Recollection in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feredoes, Eva; Postle, Bradley R.

    2010-01-01

    Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a critical neural substrate for the resolution of proactive interference (PI) in working memory. We hypothesized that left IFG achieves this by controlling the influence of familiarity- versus recollection-based information about memory probes. Consistent with this idea, we observed evidence for an "early" (200…

  5. Familiarity and Lie Detection: A Replication and Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, David R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reported two studies on the relations among observer familiarity, perceived behavioral discrepancy, and judgmental accuracy in detecting deceptions. Results indicated, among other findings, that observers having prior exposure to baseline information were significantly better at detecting deception, though repeated exposure did not significantly…

  6. Humans Have Precise Knowledge of Familiar Geographical Slants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigliani, Anthony; Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas maps primarily represent the 2-dimensional layout of the environment, people are also aware of the 3-dimensional layout of their environment. An experiment conducted on a small college campus tested whether the remembered slants of familiar paths were precisely represented. Three measures of slant (verbal, manual, and pictorial) were…

  7. Effects of Adult Familiarity on Social Behaviours in Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated adult…

  8. The Effect of Conceptual and Contextual Familiarity on Transfer Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Min, Cynthia; Ames, Kimberly; Howey, Elizabeth; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Applying a previously learned concept to a novel problem is an important but difficult process called transfer. It is suggested that a commonsense analogy aids in transfer by linking novel concepts to familiar ones. How the context of practice affects transfer when learning using analogies is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of a…

  9. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  10. Temporal Knowledge Expressed in Preschoolers' Descriptions of Familiar Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Lucia A.; Nelson, Katherine

    Forty-three children, 2;11 to 5;6, described six familiar activities: making cookies, going to the grocery, having a birthday party, going to a restaurant, getting dressed, and having a fire drill. They described each event three times. The descriptions were elicited by initially asking "What happens when...?" or "What do you do when...?" and then…

  11. The Sensorimotor Contributions to Implicit Memory, Familiarity, and Recollection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…

  12. Correctional Training. Institution Familiarization. Part II: The Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Prisons (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist training coordinators in the initial institution familiarization training for new employees in correctional institutions, this manual consists of two documents: a training coordinator's guide (Part I - CE 017 285) and this document, the training program (Part II). Four training areas are treated: (1) an introduction consisting…

  13. The Contributions of Talker Familiarity and Individual Talker Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schierloh, Maren; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The article details a two-phase study investigating the relative contributions of talker-familiarity and talker-intelligibility to L2 listening comprehension by learners in a classroom setting. Students from beginning to low-intermediate German FL classes participated in German language listening tasks, being exposed to speech by their German…

  14. The representation of stimulus familiarity in anterior inferior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Miller, E K; Desimone, R

    1993-06-01

    1. The inferior temporal (IT) cortex plays an important role in both short- and long-term memory for visual patterns. Most previous studies of IT neurons have tested their responses in recency memory tasks, which require that the memory lasts only the length of a single behavioral trial, which may be < 1 s. To determine the role of IT neurons in longer lasting memories, we measured their responses to initially novel stimuli as the stimuli gradually became familiar to the animal. 2. Two rhesus monkeys were trained on a delayed matching to sample (DMS) task with several intervening stimuli between the sample and the final matching stimulus on each trial. The purpose of the task was to ensure that the animal attended to the stimuli and held them in memory, at least temporarily. Unlike in several previous studies, the focus was not on within-trial effects but rather on the incidental memories that built up across trials as the stimuli became familiar. Each cell was tested with a set of 20 novel stimuli (digitized pictures of objects) that the monkey had not seen before. These stimuli were used in a fixed order over the course of an hour-long recording session, and the number of intervening trials between repetitions of a given sample stimulus was varied. 3. The responses of about one-third of the cells recorded in anterior-ventral IT cortex declined systematically as the novel stimuli became familiar. After six to eight repetitions, responses reached a plateau that was approximately 40% of the peak response. Virtually all of these cells also showed selectivity for particular visual stimuli and thus were not "novelty detectors" in the sense of cells that respond to any novel stimulus. Rather, the responses of these cells were a joint function of familiarity and specific object features such as shape and color. A few cells showed increasing responses with repetition over the recording session, but these changes were accompanied by changes in baseline firing rate

  15. Talker familiarity and spoken word recognition in school-age children*

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2014-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers’ voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German–English bilingual talkers and were tested on the speech of six bilinguals, three of whom were familiar. Results revealed that children do show improved spoken language processing when they are familiar with the talkers, but this improvement was limited to highly familiar lexical items. This restriction of the familiar talker advantage is attributed to differences in the representation of highly familiar and less familiar lexical items. In addition, children did not exhibit accent-general learning; despite having been exposed to German-accented talkers during training, there was no improvement for novel German-accented talkers. PMID:25159173

  16. Visual laterality in dolphins: importance of the familiarity of stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system

  17. Recollection can be weak and familiarity can be strong.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Katherine M; Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T

    2012-03-01

    The remember-know procedure is widely used to investigate recollection and familiarity in recognition memory, but almost all of the results obtained with that procedure can be readily accommodated by a unidimensional model based on signal-detection theory. The unidimensional model holds that remember judgments reflect strong memories (associated with high confidence, high accuracy, and fast reaction times), whereas know judgments reflect weaker memories (associated with lower confidence, lower accuracy, and slower reaction times). Although this is invariably true on average, a new 2-dimensional account (the continuous dual-process model) suggests that remember judgments made with low confidence should be associated with lower old-new accuracy but higher source accuracy than know judgments made with high confidence. We tested this prediction--and found evidence to support it--using a modified remember-know procedure in which participants were first asked to indicate a degree of recollection-based or familiarity-based confidence for each word presented on a recognition test and were then asked to recollect the color (red or blue) and screen location (top or bottom) associated with the word at study. For familiarity-based decisions, old-new accuracy increased with old-new confidence, but source accuracy did not (suggesting that stronger old-new memory was supported by higher degrees of familiarity). For recollection-based decisions, both old-new accuracy and source accuracy increased with old-new confidence (suggesting that stronger old-new memory was supported by higher degrees of recollection). These findings suggest that recollection and familiarity are continuous processes and that participants can indicate which process mainly contributed to their recognition decisions. PMID:21967320

  18. Environmental context and recognition: the role of recollection and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Macken, William J

    2002-01-01

    Evidence for effects of changed environmental context on recognition has been equivocal. Using 3 experiments, the author investigated the role of environmental context from a dual-processing approach. Experiment 1 showed that testing word recognition in a novel context led to a reliable decrement but only for recognition accompanied by conscious recollection, with familiarity-based recognition judgments being unaffected. This was replicated in Experiment 2 using stimuli that were novel to the participants (nonwords). Experiment 3 showed that the decrement in recollection also occurred when the changed-context condition involved presenting items in a different but familiar context. The results suggest that effects of environmental context will only be found when recognition is accompanied by conscious recollection and that this effect is due to a specific item-context association. PMID:11827077

  19. Bodystorming: effects of collaboration and familiarity on improvising contemporary dance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Catherine J; Leach, James

    2015-09-01

    In contemporary dance, cognitive events are not necessarily restricted "to the skin or skull of an individual" (Hutchins in Int Encycl Soc Behav Sci 2068-2072, 2001) but distributed across dancers during collaborative improvisation. There is some experimental evidence of greater output when people perform problem-solving tasks alone. However, when a task is challenging and paired participants are familiar with each other, pairwise and emergent outcomes are more plentiful than solo outcomes. We investigate these factors in the context of dance with the broad hypothesis that innovation is enhanced when dancers improvise together compared with when they improvise alone. Dancers (N = 10) in a professional company improvised for 2 min alone and then with another dancer. Dancer familiarity (familiar, unfamiliar) and task (expressive, non-expressive) were crossed (within-subjects). The improvisations were video-recorded over 2 h in the dancers' usual improvisation space. After each improvisation, the dancers: stated the number of movement ideas expressed and rated task ease, satisfaction, interest, novelty, originality and clarity. In both tasks, there was a tendency for self-report of a greater number of movement ideas expressed in familiar and unfamiliar pairs than alone. Ratings of task ease, satisfaction, interest, clarity, etc. were slightly higher in the unfamiliar pair condition. In the non-expressive task, ratings of the task were higher in pairs (M = 3.02, SD 0.82) than in the solo (M = 2.67, SD 0.96) condition. Distributed creativity, relational cognition and social facilitation are used to interpret the results. PMID:26233523

  20. Putting bias into context: The role of familiarity in identification.

    PubMed

    Searston, Rachel A; Tangen, Jason M; Eva, Kevin W

    2016-02-01

    Previous demonstrations of context effects in the forensic comparison sciences have shown that the number of "match" responses a person makes can be swayed by case information. Less clear is whether these effects are a result of changes in accuracy (e.g., discrimination ability), a shift in response bias (e.g., tendency to say "match" or "no match") or a mix of the 2. We present a series of experiments where we use a signal detection framework to examine the effects of case information (separately) on forensic comparison accuracy and response bias. We also explore the role of familiarity as 1 potential mechanism for case information to sway accuracy. In Experiment 1, case information about crimes perceived to be more severe swayed people to say "match" more, but had little bearing on their ability to discriminate matching and nonmatching fingerprint pairs. In Experiment 2, case information did affect accuracy when it was familiar (i.e., if a previous similar case was associated with a "match" then people were more likely to also rate the current case as a "match," even though it was not). Even when we blinded people to all extrinsic case information in Experiment 3, accuracy was significantly affected by the familiarity of the fingerprints. These results demonstrate that contextual factors can have different (and independent) influences on accuracy and response bias and that even subtle information can affect accuracy if it is sufficiently similar to the case or trace at hand. PMID:26301709

  1. Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: Clarifying familiar effects

    PubMed Central

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Curtin, John J.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of psychopathic individuals is thought to reflect a core fear deficit that prevents these individuals from appreciating the consequences of their choices and actions. However, growing evidence suggests that psychopathy-related emotion deficits are moderated by attention and, thus, may not reflect a reduced capacity for emotion responding. The present study attempts to reconcile this attention perspective with one of the most cited findings in psychopathy, which reports emotion-modulated startle deficits among psychopathic individuals during picture viewing. In this study, we evaluate the potential effects of a putative attention bottleneck on the emotion processing of psychopathic offenders during picture viewing by manipulating picture familiarity and examining emotion-modulated startle and late positive potential (LPP). As predicted, psychopathic individuals displayed the classic deficit in emotion-modulated startle during novel pictures, but they showed no deficit in emotion-modulated startle during familiar pictures. Conversely, results for LPP responses revealed psychopathy-related differences during familiar pictures and no psychopathy-related differences during novel pictures. Important differences related to the two Factors of psychopathy are also discussed. Overall, the results of this study not only highlight the differential importance of perceptual load on emotion processing in psychopathy, but also raise interesting questions about the varied effects of attention on psychopathy-related emotion deficits. PMID:23356218

  2. Bonobos modify communication signals according to recipient familiarity.

    PubMed

    Genty, Emilie; Neumann, Christof; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primate communication differs in various ways. In particular, humans base communicative efforts on mutual knowledge and conventions shared between interlocutors. In this study, we experimentally tested whether bonobos (Pan paniscus), a close relative to humans, are able to take into account the familiarity, i.e. the shared interaction history, when communicating with a human partner. In five experimental conditions we found that subjects took the recipients' attentional state and their own communicative effectiveness into account by adjusting signal production accordingly. More importantly, in case of communicative failure, subjects repeated previously successful signals more often with a familiar than unfamiliar recipient, with whom they had no previous interactions, and elaborated by switching to new signals more with the unfamiliar than the familiar one, similar to what has previously been found in two year-old children. We discuss these findings in relation to the human capacity to establish common ground between interlocutors, a crucial aspect of human cooperative communication. PMID:26552655

  3. Bonobos modify communication signals according to recipient familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Genty, Emilie; Neumann, Christof; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primate communication differs in various ways. In particular, humans base communicative efforts on mutual knowledge and conventions shared between interlocutors. In this study, we experimentally tested whether bonobos (Pan paniscus), a close relative to humans, are able to take into account the familiarity, i.e. the shared interaction history, when communicating with a human partner. In five experimental conditions we found that subjects took the recipients’ attentional state and their own communicative effectiveness into account by adjusting signal production accordingly. More importantly, in case of communicative failure, subjects repeated previously successful signals more often with a familiar than unfamiliar recipient, with whom they had no previous interactions, and elaborated by switching to new signals more with the unfamiliar than the familiar one, similar to what has previously been found in two year-old children. We discuss these findings in relation to the human capacity to establish common ground between interlocutors, a crucial aspect of human cooperative communication. PMID:26552655

  4. Getting to Know You: Familiarity, Stereotypes, and Children's Eyewitness Memory.

    PubMed

    Cordón, Ingrid M; Silberkleit, Gent; Goodman, Gail S

    2016-01-01

    The present study concerned how the acquisition of social information, specifically knowledge about personal characteristics, influences young children's memory and suggestibility. Effects of two sources of knowledge about a target person were systematically examined: familiarity and stereotypes. Children, aged 4-5 and 7-9 years (N = 145), were randomly assigned, per age group, to experimental conditions based on a familiarity (6 hours vs. no prior exposure) × stereotype (negative depiction as messy and clumsy vs. no stereotype) factorial design. Children then watched the target person engage in a target event (a series of contests) at a preschool ("Camp Ingrid"). The children's memory and suggestibility about the target person and target event were tested after a delay of 2 weeks. Results indicated that the negative stereotype resulted in an increase in children's correct responses both to free-recall stereotype-related questions (when children were unfamiliar with the target person) and to closed-ended questions overall (for younger children). However, the stereotype was associated with greater error to stereotype-related closed-ended questions. Moreover, familiarity increased children's accuracy to closed-ended questions. Implications for theory and application are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27117602

  5. Children's identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4–7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1) the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2) the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo), and (3) the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals). Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues. PMID:25147537

  6. The hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity when memories are strong

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christine N.; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory is thought to consist of two component processes – recollection and familiarity. It has been suggested that the hippocampus supports recollection, while adjacent cortex supports familiarity. However, the qualitative experiences of recollection and familiarity are typically confounded with a quantitative difference in memory strength (recollection > familiarity). Thus, the question remains whether the hippocampus might in fact support familiarity-based memories whenever they are as strong as recollection-based memories. We addressed this problem in a novel way using the Remember/Know procedure where we could explicitly match the confidence and accuracy of Remember and Know decisions. As in earlier studies, recollected items had higher accuracy and confidence than familiar items, and hippocampal activity was higher for recollected items than for familiar items. Furthermore hippocampal activity was similar for familiar items, misses, and correct rejections. When the accuracy and confidence of recollected and familiar items were matched, the findings were dramatically different. Hippocampal activity was now similar for recollected and familiar items. Importantly, hippocampal activity was also greater for familiar items than for misses or correct rejections (as well as for recollected items vs. misses or correct rejections). Our findings suggest that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity when memories are strong. PMID:22049412

  7. Talker Familiarity and Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…

  8. Influence of Familiarity on Identifying Prosodic Vocalizations Produced by Children with Severe Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Schroeder, Bethany

    2007-01-01

    Familiarity is thought to aid listeners in decoding disordered speech; however, as the speech signal degrades, the "familiarity advantage" becomes less beneficial. Despite highly unintelligible speech sound production, many children with dysarthria vocalize when interacting with familiar caregivers. Perhaps listeners can understand these…

  9. Familiarity and Sex Based Stereotypes on Instant Impressions of Male and Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,…

  10. Investigating Faculty Familiarity with Assessment Terminology by Applying Cluster Analysis to Interpret Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    A cluster analysis was conducted with a set of survey data on chemistry faculty familiarity with 13 assessment terms. Cluster groupings suggest a high, middle, and low overall familiarity with the terminology and an independent high and low familiarity with terms related to fundamental statistics. The six resultant clusters were found to be…

  11. Temporal Aspects of the Feeling of Familiarity for Music and the Emergence of Conceptual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daltrozzo, Jerome; Tillmann, Barbara; Platel, Herve; Schon, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether the emergence of familiarity to a melody may trigger or co-occur with the processing of the concept(s) conveyed by emotions to, or semantic association with, the melody. With this objective, we recorded ERPs while participants were presented with highly familiar and less familiar melodies in a gating paradigm. The ERPs time…

  12. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  13. Dissociations between familiarity processes in explicit recognition and implicit perceptual memory.

    PubMed

    Wagner, A D; Gabrieli, J D; Verfaellie, M

    1997-03-01

    Dual-process theories of recognition posit that a perceptual familiarity process contributes to both explicit recognition and implicit perceptual memory. This putative single familiarity process has been indexed by inclusion-exclusion, remember-know, and repetition priming measures. The present studies examined whether these measures identify a common familiarity process. Familiarity-based explicit recognition (as indexed by the inclusion-exclusion and the independence remember-know procedures) increased with conceptual processing. In contrast, implicit word-identification priming and familiarity-based word-stem completion (as indexed by inclusion-exclusion) increased with study-test perceptual similarity. These dissociations indicate that familiarity-based explicit recognition may be more sensitive to conceptual than to perceptual processing and is functionally distinct from the perceptual familiarity process mediating implicit perceptual memory. PMID:9080006

  14. You sound familiar: carrion crows can differentiate between the calls of known and unknown heterospecifics

    PubMed Central

    Wascher, Claudia A. F.; Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wilkinson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In group-living animals, it is adaptive to recognize conspecifics on the basis of familiarity or group membership as it allows association with preferred social partners and avoidance of competitors. However, animals do not only associate with conspecifics but also with heterospecifics, for example in mixed-species flocks. Consequently, between-species recognition, based either on familiarity or even individual recognition, is likely to be beneficial. The extent to which animals can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar heterospecifics is currently unclear. In the present study, we investigated the ability of eight carrion crows to differentiate between the voices and calls of familiar and unfamiliar humans and jackdaws. The crows responded significantly more often to unfamiliar than familiar human playbacks and, conversely, responded more to familiar than unfamiliar jackdaw calls. Our results provide the first evidence that birds can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar heterospecific individuals using auditory stimuli. PMID:22538713

  15. Preparing for novel versus familiar events: shifts in global and local processing.

    PubMed

    Förster, Jens; Liberman, Nira; Shapira, Oren

    2009-08-01

    Six experiments examined whether novelty versus familiarity influences global versus local processing styles. Novelty and familiarity were manipulated by either framing a task as new versus familiar or by asking participants to reflect upon novel versus familiar events prior to the task (i.e., procedural priming). In Experiments 1-3, global perception was enhanced after novelty priming or framing, whereas familiarity priming facilitated local perception relative to a control group. In Experiment 4, participants used more inclusive categories under novelty priming and narrower categories under familiarity priming. In Experiments 5-6, participants construed actions and products more abstractly when these were framed as novel as compared to familiar. These results support the construal level theory (N. Liberman & Y. Trope, 2008; Y. Trope & N. Liberman, 2003) contention that having less direct experience is associated with using higher construal levels. Implications of the findings for research on mood, processing styles, stereotypes, and consumer research are discussed. PMID:19653797

  16. Discrimination of familiar human faces in dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Ludwig; Racca, Anaïs; Scaf, Billy; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Faces are an important visual category for many taxa, and the human face is no exception to this. Because faces differ in subtle ways and possess many idiosyncratic features, they provide a rich source of perceptual cues. A fair amount of those cues are learned through social interactions and are used for future identification of individual humans. These effects of individual experience can be studied particularly well in hetero-specific face perception. Domestic dogs represent a perfect model in this respect, due to their proved ability to extract important information from the human face in socio-communicative interactions. There is also suggestive evidence that dogs can identify their owner or other familiar human individuals by using visual information from the face. However, most studies have used only dogs’ looking behavior to examine their visual processing of human faces and it has been demonstrated only that dogs can differentiate between familiar and unknown human faces. Here, we examined the dog's ability to discriminate the faces of two familiar persons by active choice (approach and touch). Furthermore, in successive stages of the experiment we investigated how well dogs discriminate humans in different representations by systematically reducing the informational richness and the quality of the stimuli. We found a huge inter-individual and inter-stage variance in performance, indicating differences across dogs in their learning ability as well as their selection of discriminative cues. On a group level, the performance of dogs significantly decreased when they were presented with pictures of human heads after having learned to discriminate the real heads, and when – after relearning – confronted with the same pictures showing only the inner parts of the heads. However, as two dogs quickly mastered all stages, we conclude that dogs are in principle able to discriminate people on the basis of visual information from their faces and by making active

  17. Emotional contagion in mice: the role of familiarity.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Liencres, Cristina; Juckel, Georg; Tas, Cumhur; Friebe, Astrid; Brüne, Martin

    2014-04-15

    Empathy is a complex emotional process that involves sharing an emotional state with another organism. The extent to which nonhuman animals are capable of empathizing with others is still far from clear, partly due to a lack of empirical work in this domain, but also due to definitional confusion of empathy with emotional contagion and other related terms. In this study, an observer mouse witnessed a familiar cagemate or an unfamiliar non-cagemate receiving electric foot shocks in an experiment that consisted of three periods: baseline (no shocks), test (shocks) and recovery (no shocks). Freezing behavior in the observer was significantly increased in the cagemate, as opposed to the non-cagemate condition during the test period, but not during baseline or recovery, emphasizing the role of familiarity in empathy-like processes. In agreement with this, we also found a correlation that approached significance between the total number of fecal droppings of the observers, as an indication of distress, and those of the demonstrator in the cagemate, but not in the non-cagemate, condition. While the freezing behavior of the demonstrators increased with time, reaching a maximum at the recovery period, the observers froze the most during the test period while the demonstrators were receiving the electric foot shocks. The observation that the freezing response of the observers ceased when the shocks in the adjacent compartment stopped could be due to a decrease in saliency of the demonstrators' behavioral response. Finally, the presence of a cagemate, as compared to a stranger, possibly reduced the demonstrator's pain-induced behavior, suggesting an ameliorating effect of familiarity on stress responses. PMID:24480421

  18. Discrimination of familiar human faces in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Huber, Ludwig; Racca, Anaïs; Scaf, Billy; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Faces are an important visual category for many taxa, and the human face is no exception to this. Because faces differ in subtle ways and possess many idiosyncratic features, they provide a rich source of perceptual cues. A fair amount of those cues are learned through social interactions and are used for future identification of individual humans. These effects of individual experience can be studied particularly well in hetero-specific face perception. Domestic dogs represent a perfect model in this respect, due to their proved ability to extract important information from the human face in socio-communicative interactions. There is also suggestive evidence that dogs can identify their owner or other familiar human individuals by using visual information from the face. However, most studies have used only dogs' looking behavior to examine their visual processing of human faces and it has been demonstrated only that dogs can differentiate between familiar and unknown human faces. Here, we examined the dog's ability to discriminate the faces of two familiar persons by active choice (approach and touch). Furthermore, in successive stages of the experiment we investigated how well dogs discriminate humans in different representations by systematically reducing the informational richness and the quality of the stimuli. We found a huge inter-individual and inter-stage variance in performance, indicating differences across dogs in their learning ability as well as their selection of discriminative cues. On a group level, the performance of dogs significantly decreased when they were presented with pictures of human heads after having learned to discriminate the real heads, and when - after relearning - confronted with the same pictures showing only the inner parts of the heads. However, as two dogs quickly mastered all stages, we conclude that dogs are in principle able to discriminate people on the basis of visual information from their faces and by making active

  19. Sensitivity to orthographic familiarity in the occipito-temporal region.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Jennifer Lynn; Zumberge, Allison; Manis, Franklin R; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Goldman, Jason G

    2008-02-15

    The involvement of the left hemisphere occipito-temporal (OT) junction in reading has been established, yet there is current controversy over the region's specificity for reading and the nature of its role in the reading process. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity [Kronbichler, M., Bergmann, J., Hutzler, F., Staffen, W., Mair, A., Ladurner, G., Wimmer, H. 2007. Taxi vs. Taksi: on orthographic word recognition in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19, 1-11], and the present study tested that hypothesis. Using fMRI, the OT region and other regions in the reading network were localized in 28 adult, right-handed participants. The BOLD signal in these regions was measured during a phonological judgment task (i.e., "Does it sound like a word?"). Stimuli included words, pseudohomophones (phonologically familiar yet orthographically unfamiliar), and pseudowords (phonologically and orthographically unfamiliar) that were matched on lexical properties including sublexical orthography. Relative to baseline, BOLD signal in the OT region was greater for pseudohomophones than for words, suggesting that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity at the whole-word level. Further contrasts of orthographic frequency within the word condition revealed increased BOLD signal for low- than high-frequency words. Specialization in the OT region for recognition of frequent letter strings may support the development of reading expertise. Additionally, BOLD signal in the OT region correlates positively with reading efficiency, supporting the idea that this region is a skill zone for reading printed words. BOLD signal in the IFG and STG correlates negatively with reading efficiency, indicating that processing effort in these classic phonological regions is inversely related to reading efficiency. PMID:18180168

  20. Sensitivity to Orthographic Familiarity in the Occipito-Temporal Region

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Jennifer Lynn; Zumberge, Allison; Manis, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Goldman, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of the left hemisphere occipito-temporal (OT) junction in reading has been established, yet there is current controversy over the region’s specificity for reading and the nature of its role in the reading process. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity (Kronbichler et al., 2007), and the present study tested that hypothesis. Using fMRI, the OT region and other regions in the reading network were localized in 28 adult, right-handed participants. The BOLD signal in these regions was measured during a phonological judgment task (i.e., “Does it sound like a word?”). Stimuli included words, pseudohomophones (phonologically familiar yet orthographically unfamiliar), and pseudowords (phonologically and orthographically unfamiliar) that were matched on lexical properties including sublexical orthography. Relative to baseline, BOLD signal in the OT region was greater for pseudohomophones than for words, suggesting that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity at the whole-word level. Further contrasts of orthographic frequency within the word condition revealed increased BOLD signal for low- than high-frequency words. Specialization in the OT area for recognition of frequent letter strings may support the development of reading expertise. Additionally, BOLD signal in the OT region correlates positively with reading efficiency, supporting the idea that this region is a skill zone for reading printed words. BOLD signal in the IFG and STG correlate negatively with reading efficiency, indicating that processing effort in these classic phonological regions is inversely related to reading efficiency. PMID:18180168

  1. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the SPACECHAB training module, STS-95 Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio, tries on the mesh cap that he will wear on the mission to monitor and record brain waves during sleep. Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., watches. Parazynski and Glenn are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  2. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    (Left to right) STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, who represents the European Space Agency (ESA), Mission Commander Curtis Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Stephen Robinson, Ph.D., chat during SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  3. Cross-cultural variation of memory colors of familiar objects.

    PubMed

    Smet, Kevin A G; Lin, Yandan; Nagy, Balázs V; Németh, Zoltan; Duque-Chica, Gloria L; Quintero, Jesús M; Chen, Hung-Shing; Luo, Ronnier M; Safi, Mahdi; Hanselaer, Peter

    2014-12-29

    The effect of cross-regional or cross-cultural differences on color appearance ratings and memory colors of familiar objects was investigated in seven different countries/regions - Belgium, Hungary, Brazil, Colombia, Taiwan, China and Iran. In each region the familiar objects were presented on a calibrated monitor in over 100 different colors to a test panel of observers that were asked to rate the similarity of the presented object color with respect to what they thought the object looks like in reality (memory color). For each object and region the mean observer ratings were modeled by a bivariate Gaussian function. A statistical analysis showed significant (p < 0.001) differences between the region average observers and the global average observer obtained by pooling the data from all regions. However, the effect size of geographical region or culture was found to be small. In fact, the differences between the region average observers and the global average observer were found to of the same magnitude or smaller than the typical within region inter-observer variability. Thus, although statistical differences in color appearance ratings and memory between regions were found, regional impact is not likely to be of practical importance. PMID:25607196

  4. Familiar and unfamiliar face recognition in crested macaques (Macaca nigra)

    PubMed Central

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Parr, Lisa A.; Marshman, Paul; Engelhardt, Antje; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Many species use facial features to identify conspecifics, which is necessary to navigate a complex social environment. The fundamental mechanisms underlying face processing are starting to be well understood in a variety of primate species. However, most studies focus on a limited subset of species tested with unfamiliar faces. As well as limiting our understanding of how widely distributed across species these skills are, this also limits our understanding of how primates process faces of individuals they know, and whether social factors (e.g. dominance and social bonds) influence how readily they recognize others. In this study, socially housed crested macaques voluntarily participated in a series of computerized matching-to-sample tasks investigating their ability to discriminate (i) unfamiliar individuals and (ii) members of their own social group. The macaques performed above chance on all tasks. Familiar faces were not easier to discriminate than unfamiliar faces. However, the subjects were better at discriminating higher ranking familiar individuals, but not unfamiliar ones. This suggests that our subjects applied their knowledge of their dominance hierarchies to the pictorial representation of their group mates. Faces of high-ranking individuals garner more social attention, and therefore might be more deeply encoded than other individuals. Our results extend the study of face recognition to a novel species, and consequently provide valuable data for future comparative studies. PMID:26064665

  5. Content of methylated inositols in familiar edible plants.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Mun'im, Abdul; Negishi, Yukiko

    2015-03-18

    Familiar plants contain large amounts of inositols; soybean, white clover, red clover, bush clover, locust tree, wisteria, and kudzu of the legume family contain pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) at approximately 200-600 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The contents of pinitol in other plants were 260 mg/100 g FW for sticky mouse-ear, 275 mg/100 g FW for chickweed, and 332 mg/100 g FW for ginkgo. chiro-Inositol of 191 and 156 mg/100 g FW was also found in dandelion and Japanese mallotus, respectively. Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 166 mg/100 g FW was found in sticky mouse-ear. Furthermore, young leaves of ginkgo contained sequoyitol (5-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 287 mg/100 g FW. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the methylated inositols were higher than those of the original inositols. Effective uses of these familiar edible plants are expected to promote good health. PMID:25734537

  6. Familiarity breeds content: assessing bird species popularity with culturomics.

    PubMed

    Correia, Ricardo A; Jepson, Paul R; Malhado, Ana C M; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding public perceptions of biodiversity is essential to ensure continued support for conservation efforts. Despite this, insights remain scarce at broader spatial scales, mostly due to a lack of adequate methods for their assessment. The emergence of new technologies with global reach and high levels of participation provide exciting new opportunities to study the public visibility of biodiversity and the factors that drive it. Here, we use a measure of internet saliency to assess the national and international visibility of species within four taxa of Brazilian birds (toucans, hummingbirds, parrots and woodpeckers), and evaluate how much of this visibility can be explained by factors associated with familiarity, aesthetic appeal and conservation interest. Our results strongly indicate that familiarity (human population within the range of a species) is the most important factor driving internet saliency within Brazil, while aesthetic appeal (body size) best explains variation in international saliency. Endemism and conservation status of a species had small, but often negative, effects on either metric of internet saliency. While further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between internet content and the cultural visibility of different species, our results strongly indicate that internet saliency can be considered as a broad proxy of cultural interest. PMID:26966663

  7. Safety symbol comprehension: effects of symbol type, familiarity, and age.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Holly E; Rogers, Wendy A; Schroeder, Derek; Fisk, Arthur D

    2004-01-01

    A new procedure for evaluating symbol comprehension, the phrase generation procedure, was assessed with 52 younger and 52 older adults. Participants generated as many phrases as came to mind when viewing 40 different safety symbols (hazard alerting, mandatory action, prohibition, and information symbols). Symbol familiarity was also assessed. Comprehension rates for both groups were lower than the 85% level recommended by the American National Standards Institute. Moreover, older participants' comprehension was significantly worse than younger participants', and the older adults also generated significantly fewer phrases. Generally, prohibition symbols were comprehended best and hazard alerting symbols worst. In addition, symbol familiarity was positively correlated with symbol comprehension. These findings indicate that important safety information depicted on signs and household products may be misunderstood if presented in symbolic form. Furthermore, certain types of symbols may be better understood (e.g., prohibition symbols) than other types (e.g., hazard alerting symbols) by both younger and older individuals. These findings signify the utility of the phrase generation procedure as a method for evaluating symbol comprehension, particularly when it is not possible or desirable to provide contextual information. Actual or potential applications of this research include using the phrase generation approach to identify poorly comprehended symbols, including identification of critical confusions that may arise when processing symbolic information. PMID:15359669

  8. Familiarity breeds content: assessing bird species popularity with culturomics

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Paul R.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding public perceptions of biodiversity is essential to ensure continued support for conservation efforts. Despite this, insights remain scarce at broader spatial scales, mostly due to a lack of adequate methods for their assessment. The emergence of new technologies with global reach and high levels of participation provide exciting new opportunities to study the public visibility of biodiversity and the factors that drive it. Here, we use a measure of internet saliency to assess the national and international visibility of species within four taxa of Brazilian birds (toucans, hummingbirds, parrots and woodpeckers), and evaluate how much of this visibility can be explained by factors associated with familiarity, aesthetic appeal and conservation interest. Our results strongly indicate that familiarity (human population within the range of a species) is the most important factor driving internet saliency within Brazil, while aesthetic appeal (body size) best explains variation in international saliency. Endemism and conservation status of a species had small, but often negative, effects on either metric of internet saliency. While further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between internet content and the cultural visibility of different species, our results strongly indicate that internet saliency can be considered as a broad proxy of cultural interest. PMID:26966663

  9. Energetic cost determines voluntary movement speed only in familiar environments.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Borg, Jason; Schlotfeldt, Kathryn; Yan, Zhongning

    2016-06-01

    Locomotor performance is closely related to fitness. However, in many ecological contexts, animals do not move at their maximal locomotor capacity, but adopt a voluntary speed that is lower than maximal. It is important to understand the mechanisms that underlie voluntary speed, because these determine movement patterns of animals across natural environments. We show that voluntary speed is a stable trait in zebrafish (Danio rerio), but there were pronounced differences between individuals in maximal sustained speed, voluntary speed and metabolic cost of locomotion. We accept the hypothesis that voluntary speed scales positively with maximal sustained swimming performance (Ucrit), but only in unfamiliar environments (1st minute in an open-field arena versus 10th minute) at high temperature (30°C). There was no significant effect of metabolic scope on Ucrit Contrary to expectation, we rejected the hypothesis that voluntary speed decreases with increasing metabolic cost of movement, except in familiar spatial (after 10 min of exploration) and thermal (24°C but not 18 or 30°C) environments. The implications of these data are that the energetic costs of exploration and dispersal in novel environments are higher than those for movement within familiar home ranges. PMID:27252454

  10. Familiarizing New Staff for Working with Adults with Severe Disabilities: a Case for Relationship Building.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Marsha B; Bentley, Erik; Solari, Todd; Reid, Dennis H

    2016-09-01

    In human service agencies, situations exist at various times in which consumers are not familiar with the staff who work with them. We evaluated effects of familiar versus unfamiliar staff working with two men with severe disabilities in a vocational program. Results indicated both participants displayed more compliance with familiar staff relative to unfamiliar staff and one exhibited more on-task (one was near ceiling levels with both staff). Subsequently, a familiarization process was conducted with four new staff before working with four men with severe disabilities that involved spending time with a participant in a preferred activity and phasing in to the participant's routine. Each staff worked with one participant after being familiarized and concurrently with another without being familiarized. In all but one case, participant compliance was greater with the familiarized staff. Except when on-task was near ceiling levels, it also was higher with the familiarized staff. Additionally, results offered some support for the existence of a good relationship between familiarized staff and participants in terms of more participant happiness indices than with unfamiliar staff and, to a smaller degree, less unhappiness indices and problem behavior. Implications for practitioners are discussed, including being aware of potential problems when unfamiliar staff work with adults with severe disabilities and considering familiarizing new staff prior to working with individuals. Discussion also addresses how more attention could be directed to relationship development from a practitioner and research perspective. PMID:27622127

  11. Predictive codes of familiarity and context during the perceptual learning of facial identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apps, Matthew A. J.; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-11-01

    Face recognition is a key component of successful social behaviour. However, the computational processes that underpin perceptual learning and recognition as faces transition from unfamiliar to familiar are poorly understood. In predictive coding, learning occurs through prediction errors that update stimulus familiarity, but recognition is a function of both stimulus and contextual familiarity. Here we show that behavioural responses on a two-option face recognition task can be predicted by the level of contextual and facial familiarity in a computational model derived from predictive-coding principles. Using fMRI, we show that activity in the superior temporal sulcus varies with the contextual familiarity in the model, whereas activity in the fusiform face area covaries with the prediction error parameter that updated facial familiarity. Our results characterize the key computations underpinning the perceptual learning of faces, highlighting that the functional properties of face-processing areas conform to the principles of predictive coding.

  12. The Lateral Occipital Complex shows no net response to object familiarity.

    PubMed

    Margalit, Eshed; Shah, Manan P; Tjan, Bosco S; Biederman, Irving; Keller, Brenton; Brenner, Rorry

    2016-09-01

    In 1995, Malach et al. discovered an area whose fMRI BOLD response was greater when viewing intact, familiar objects than when viewing their scrambled versions (resembling texture). Since then hundreds of studies have explored this late visual region termed the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC), which is now known to be critical for shape perception (James, Culham, Humphrey, Milner, & Goodale, 2003). Malach et al. (1995) discounted a role of familiarity by showing that "abstract" Henry Moore sculptures, unfamiliar to the subjects, also activated this region. This characterization of LOC as a region that responds to shape independently of familiarity has been accepted but never tested with control of the same low-level features. We assessed LOC's response to objects that had identical parts in two different arrangements, one familiar and the other novel. Malach was correct: There is no net effect of familiarity in LOC. However, a multivoxel correlation analysis showed that LOC does distinguish familiar from novel objects. PMID:27599373

  13. Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

  14. You Look Familiar: How Malaysian Chinese Recognize Faces

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chrystalle B. Y.; Stephen, Ian D.; Whitehead, Ross; Sheppard, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    East Asian and white Western observers employ different eye movement strategies for a variety of visual processing tasks, including face processing. Recent eye tracking studies on face recognition found that East Asians tend to integrate information holistically by focusing on the nose while white Westerners perceive faces featurally by moving between the eyes and mouth. The current study examines the eye movement strategy that Malaysian Chinese participants employ when recognizing East Asian, white Western, and African faces. Rather than adopting the Eastern or Western fixation pattern, Malaysian Chinese participants use a mixed strategy by focusing on the eyes and nose more than the mouth. The combination of Eastern and Western strategies proved advantageous in participants' ability to recognize East Asian and white Western faces, suggesting that individuals learn to use fixation patterns that are optimized for recognizing the faces with which they are more familiar. PMID:22253762

  15. Global Plasmaspheric Imaging: A New "Light" Focusing on Familiar Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Until recently plasmaspheric physics, for that matter, magnetospheric physics as a whole, has relied primarily on single point in-situ measurement, theory, modeling, and a considerable amount of extrapolation in order to envision the global structure of the plasmasphere. This condition changed with the launch of the IMAGE satellite in March 2000. Using the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) imager on WAGE, we can now view the global structure of the plasmasphere bathed in the glow of resonantly scattered 30.4 nm radiation allowing the space physics community to view the dynamics of this global structure as never before. This talk will: (1) define the plasmasphere from the perspective of plasmaspheric physics prior to March 2000; (2) present a review of EUV imaging optics and the IMAGE mission; and focus on efforts to understand an old and familiar feature of plasmaspheric physics, embedded plasmaspheric density troughs, in this new global light with the assistance of forward modeling.

  16. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 crew members look over the Osteoporosis Experiment in Orbit (OSTEO) during a SPACEHAB familiarization tour and briefing in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Seated from left are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., who also is a senator from Ohio. Standing, from left, are STS-95 Commander Curtis L. Brown and Canadian Space Agency representative Duncan Burnside. STS-95 will feature a variety of research payloads, including the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and experiments on space flight and the aging process. STS-95 is targeted for an Oct. 29 launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  17. Sustained effects of adaptation on the perception of familiar faces.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a 2-alternative forced choice task. Veridicality aftereffects were found in a direction opposite to the adapting distortion; these effects generalized to other pictures of the same individual and also to pictures of celebrities that had not been shown during adaptation. The findings support hierarchical theories of norm-based face coding and suggest that face adaptation effects have a representational basis. They also point toward multiple timescales in the operation of adaptation mechanisms, thereby providing a link between high-level adaptation and more general aspects of neuro-cognitive plasticity, that is, learning and memory. PMID:20731521

  18. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D. (right), attaches sensors to the mesh cap worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn (back to camera). In the background is Ann Elliott, University of California, San Diego. Glenn will wear the cap on the mission to monitor and record brain waves during sleep. Parazynski and Glenn are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  19. Reducing the familiarity of conjunction lures with pictures.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Marianne E

    2013-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to test whether conjunction errors were reduced after pictorial encoding and whether the semantic overlap between study and conjunction items would impact error rates. Across 4 experiments, compound words studied with a single-picture had lower conjunction error rates during a recognition test than those words studied with 2 pictures. This effect occurred even when participants were asked to respond quickly (Experiment 3) or to respond positively to any word that overlapped with the study phase (Experiment 2), as well as when the number of pictures shown at study was manipulated within-participants (Experiment 4). The effect of semantic overlap was ambiguous, with only Experiment 2 showing a difference between high and low overlap items. Overall, these results are inconsistent with a metacognitive interpretation of the role of pictures in reducing memory errors and are more consistent with impoverished familiarity after single-picture encoding. PMID:23356239

  20. From network heterogeneities to familiarity detection and hippocampal memory management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jane X.; Poe, Gina; Zochowski, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Hippocampal-neocortical interactions are key to the rapid formation of novel associative memories in the hippocampus and consolidation to long term storage sites in the neocortex. We investigated the role of network correlates during information processing in hippocampal-cortical networks. We found that changes in the intrinsic network dynamics due to the formation of structural network heterogeneities alone act as a dynamical and regulatory mechanism for stimulus novelty and familiarity detection, thereby controlling memory management in the context of memory consolidation. This network dynamic, coupled with an anatomically established feedback between the hippocampus and the neocortex, recovered heretofore unexplained properties of neural activity patterns during memory management tasks which we observed during sleep in multiunit recordings from behaving animals. Our simple dynamical mechanism shows an experimentally matched progressive shift of memory activation from the hippocampus to the neocortex and thus provides the means to achieve an autonomous off-line progression of memory consolidation.

  1. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., helps with connections on the mesh cap worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio. Glenn is also wearing the Respiratory Inductance Plethysmograph (RIP) suit he will wear on the mission to monitor respiration. The cap and suit are part of the equipment that will be used to seek to improve the quality of sleep for future astronauts. The STS-95 crew are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  2. STS-95 crew members participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Inside the SPACEHAB training module, STS-95 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski, M.D., helps adjust connections for the mesh cap and the Respiratory Inductance Plethysmograph (RIP) suit worn by Payload Specialist John Glenn, who is a senator from Ohio. The cap and suit, which Glenn will wear on the mission, are part of the equipment that will be used to seek to improve the quality of sleep for future astronauts. The STS-95 crew are participating in SPACEHAB familiarization at the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility, Cape Canaveral. The mission, scheduled to launch Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  3. Visual search and eye movements in novel and familiar contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Kyle; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Bebis, George; Webster, Michael A.

    2006-02-01

    Adapting to the visual characteristics of a specific environment may facilitate detecting novel stimuli within that environment. We monitored eye movements while subjects searched for a color target on familiar or unfamiliar color backgrounds, in order to test for these performance changes and to explore whether they reflect changes in salience from adaptation vs. changes in search strategies or perceptual learning. The target was an ellipse of variable color presented at a random location on a dense background of ellipses. In one condition, the colors of the background varied along either the LvsM or SvsLM cardinal axes. Observers adapted by viewing a rapid succession of backgrounds drawn from one color axis, and then searched for a target on a background from the same or different color axis. Searches were monitored with a Cambridge Research Systems Video Eyetracker. Targets were located more quickly on the background axis that observers were pre-exposed to, confirming that this exposure can improve search efficiency for stimuli that differ from the background. However, eye movement patterns (e.g. fixation durations and saccade magnitudes) did not clearly differ across the two backgrounds, suggesting that how the novel and familiar backgrounds were sampled remained similar. In a second condition, we compared search on a nonselective color background drawn from a circle of hues at fixed contrast. Prior exposure to this background did not facilitate search compared to an achromatic adapting field, suggesting that subjects were not simply learning the specific colors defining the background distributions. Instead, results for both conditions are consistent with a selective adaptation effect that enhances the salience of novel stimuli by partially discounting the background.

  4. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  5. Selective lesion to the entorhinal cortex leads to an impairment in familiarity but not recollection.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W; Nielsen, Maria Kragh; von Oertzen, Tim J

    2016-04-01

    The present research explored the effects of selective impairment to the entorhinal cortex on the processes of familiarity and recollection. To achieve this objective, the performance of patient MR, who has a selective impairment of the left entorhinal cortex, was compared to that of age and IQ-matched controls. Four experiments tested participants' recognition memory for familiar and unfamiliar faces and words. In all experiments, participants studied lists of items and then completed an old/new recognition test in which they also made remember/know/guess judgements. A fifth experiment tested participants' priming associated with the familiarity process. MR had intact performance in both face recognition experiments as well as having intact performance in pseudoword recognition. Crucially, however, in the familiar word experiment, whilst MR performed similarly to control participants in terms of recollection, she showed a marked impairment in familiarity. Furthermore, she also demonstrated a reversed conceptual priming effect. MR's impairment is both material-specific and selective for previously encountered but not new verbal items (pseudowords). These findings provide the first clear evidence that selective impairment of the entorhinal cortex impairs the familiarity process for familiar verbal material whilst leaving recollection intact. These results suggest the entorhinal cortex does not have attributes reflective of both recollection and familiarity as previously assumed, but rather supports context-free long-term familiarity-based recognition memory. PMID:26974041

  6. Effects of cross-language voice training on speech perception: Whose familiar voices are more intelligible?

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that familiarity with a talker’s voice can improve linguistic processing (herein, “Familiar Talker Advantage”), but this benefit is constrained by the context in which the talker’s voice is familiar. The current study examined how familiarity affects intelligibility by manipulating the type of talker information available to listeners. One group of listeners learned to identify bilingual talkers’ voices from English words, where they learned language-specific talker information. A second group of listeners learned the same talkers from German words, and thus only learned language-independent talker information. After voice training, both groups of listeners completed a word recognition task with English words produced by both familiar and unfamiliar talkers. Results revealed that English-trained listeners perceived more phonemes correct for familiar than unfamiliar talkers, while German-trained listeners did not show improved intelligibility for familiar talkers. The absence of a processing advantage in speech intelligibility for the German-trained listeners demonstrates limitations on the Familiar Talker Advantage, which crucially depends on the language context in which the talkers’ voices were learned; knowledge of how a talker produces linguistically relevant contrasts in a particular language is necessary to increase speech intelligibility for words produced by familiar talkers. PMID:22225059

  7. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  8. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (P<.001). Next, according to the

  9. Influence of Text Type, Topic Familiarity, and Stuttering Frequency on Listener Recall, Comprehension, and Mental Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panico, James; Healey, E. Charles

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how text type, topic familiarity, and stuttering frequency influence listener recall, comprehension, and perceived mental effort. Method: Sixty adults listened to familiar and unfamiliar narrative and expository texts produced with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% stuttering. Participants listened to 4 experimental text samples at only 1…

  10. Mechanisms Supporting Superior Source Memory for Familiar Items: A Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting…

  11. A Comparison of Infants' Categorization in Paired and Successive Presentation Familiarization Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.; Ribar, Rebecca J.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments directly compared infants' categorization in variations of the visual familiarization task. In each experiment, 4- or 6-month-old infants were familiarized with a collection of dogs or cats and then their response to novel dogs and cats was assessed. In Experiment 1, 4-month-old infants responded to the exclusive distinction of…

  12. Availability of Semantic Knowledge in Familiar-Only Experiences for Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Ben; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Situations in which the name of a person is perceived as familiar but does not trigger recall of pertinent semantic knowledge are common in daily life. In current connectionist models of person recognition, such "familiar-only" experiences reflect supra-threshold activation at person-identity nodes but subthreshold activation at nodes…

  13. Effects of Familiarity and Feeding on Newborn Speech-Voice Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiante, A. Grace; Barr, Ronald G.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brant, Rollin; Young, Simon N.

    2013-01-01

    Newborn infants preferentially orient to familiar over unfamiliar speech sounds. They are also better at remembering unfamiliar speech sounds for short periods of time if learning and retention occur after a feed than before. It is unknown whether short-term memory for speech is enhanced when the sound is familiar (versus unfamiliar) and, if so,…

  14. Basic Processes in Reading: On the Relation between Spatial Attention and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risko, Evan F.; Stolz, Jennifer A.; Besner, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments combined a spatial cueing manipulation (valid vs. invalid spatial cues) with a stimulus repetition manipulation (repeated vs. nonrepeated) in order to assess the hypothesis that familiar items need less spatial attention than less familiar ones. The magnitude of the effect of cueing on reading aloud time for items that were…

  15. Recognition Memory and the Hippocampus: A Test of the Hippocampal Contribution to Recollection and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeneson, Annette; Kirwan, C. Brock; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection and that adjacent cortex in the medial temporal lobe can support familiarity. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. We tested these suggestions by assessing the performance of patients with hippocampal…

  16. Elementary School Teachers' Familiarity, Conceptual Knowledge, and Interest in Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simon; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning more about light and its related concepts. This study also sought to establish the relationship between elementary school teachers' familiarity, conceptual knowledge, and interest in learning light concepts. Sixty-six lower and…

  17. Sentential Context and the Interpretation of Familiar Open-Compounds and Novel Modifier-Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.; Gorrie, Melissa C.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of sentential context on the relative ease of deriving a particular meaning for novel and familiar compounds. Experiment 1 determined which of two possible meanings was preferred for a set of novel phrases. Experiment 2 used both novel (e.g., "brain sponge") and familiar compounds (e.g., "bug spray"). The…

  18. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

  19. Evaluating Preference for Familiar and Novel Stimuli across a Large Group of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenzer, Amy L.; Bishop, Michele R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relative preference for familiar and novel stimuli for 31 children with autism. Preference surveys, completed by 39 staff members, identified high and low preference familiar stimuli for each participant. Novel stimuli were selected by experimenters and included items that were not reported on a preference survey for that…

  20. Two-Year-Olds Interpret Novel Phonological Neighbors as Familiar Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swingley, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    When children hear a novel word in a context presenting a novel object and a familiar one, they usually assume that the novel word refers to the novel object. In a series of experiments, we tested whether this behavior would be found when 2-year-olds interpreted novel words that differed phonologically from familiar words in only 1 sound, either a…

  1. The Effects of Familiarity or Distance in the Critical Reading of Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira Pimenta, Sonia Maria

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the familiarity or distance aspects as well as interest in topics of texts in the light of reader-text interaction. Results found that familiarity and interest with a topic of a text may influence the reading process in terms of evaluation, reader text interaction, and critical reading. (20 references) (Author/VWL)

  2. The Role of Person Familiarity in Young Infants' Perception of Emotional Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Walker-Andrews, Arlene S.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the role of person familiarity in 3.5-month-olds' ability to recognize emotional expressions. Found that when more contextual information such as person familiarity was available, infants as young as 3.5 months recognized happy and sad expressions. Findings suggest that in early stages, infants are sensitive to contextual information…

  3. Familiarity and Personal Experience as Mediators of Recall when Planning for Future Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stanley B.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Delton, Andrew W.; Lax, Moshe L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that planning tasks enhance recall when the context of planning (a) is self-referential and (b) draws on familiar scenarios represented in episodic memory. Specifically, we show that when planning tasks are sorted according to the degree to which they evoke memories of personally familiar scenarios (e.g., planning a…

  4. Information from familiar and related conspecifics affects foraging in a solitary wolf spider.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Catherine R; Sitvarin, Michael I; Rypstra, Ann L

    2016-06-01

    As neighbours become familiar with one another, they can divert attention away from one another and focus on other activities. Since familiarity is a likely mechanism by which animals recognise relatives, both kinship and prior association with conspecifics should allow individuals to increase foraging. We attempted to determine if the interference observed among conspecific foragers could be mitigated by familiarity and/or kinship. Because Pardosa milvina wolf spiders are sensitive to chemotactile cues deposited on substrates by other spiders, we used cues to manipulate the information available to focal spiders. We first verified that animals could use these cues to differentiate relatives and familiar conspecifics. We then documented foraging in the presence of all combinations of related and familiar animal cues. Test spiders were slower foragers, less likely to capture prey, and consumed less of each prey item when on cues from unfamiliar kin, but were faster and more effective foragers on cues from familiar non-kin. Their reactions to familiar kin and unfamiliar non-kin were intermediate. High foraging intensity on familiar cues is consistent with the idea that animals pay less attention to neighbours after some prior association. Lower foraging effort in the presence of cues from relatives may be an attempt to reduce kin competition by shifting attention toward dispersal or to provide increased access to prey for hungry relatives nearby. These findings reveal that information from conspecifics mediates social interactions among individuals and affects foraging in ways that can influence their role in the food web. PMID:26497123

  5. Recognition Memory: Adding a Response Deadline Eliminates Recollection but Spares Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauvage, Magdalena M.; Beer, Zachery; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    A current controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is supported by distinct processes of familiarity and recollection, or instead by a single process wherein familiarity and recollection reflect weak and strong memories, respectively. Recent studies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in an animal model have…

  6. The Price of Fame: The Impact of Stimulus Familiarity on Proactive Interference Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution…

  7. Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

  8. You can't drink a word: lexical and individual emotionality affect subjective familiarity judgments.

    PubMed

    Westbury, Chris

    2014-10-01

    For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity. PMID:24061785

  9. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  10. The effects of familiarization on intelligibility and lexical segmentation in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Julie M.; Spitzer, Stephanie M.; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles

    2002-12-01

    This study is the third in a series that has explored the source of intelligibility decrement in dysarthria by jointly considering signal characteristics and the cognitive-perceptual processes employed by listeners. A paradigm of lexical boundary error analysis was used to examine this interface by manipulating listener constraints with a brief familiarization procedure. If familiarization allows listeners to extract relevant segmental and suprasegmental information from dysarthric speech, they should obtain higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized listeners, and their lexical boundary error patterns should approximate those obtained in misperceptions of normal speech. Listeners transcribed phrases produced by speakers with either hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria after being familiarized with other phrases produced by these speakers. Data were compared to those of nonfamiliarized listeners [Liss et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 3415-3424 (2000)]. The familiarized groups obtained higher intelligibility scores than nonfamiliarized groups, and the effects were greater when the dysarthria type of the familiarization procedure matched the dysarthria type of the transcription task. Remarkably, no differences in lexical boundary error patterns were discovered between the familiarized and nonfamiliarized groups. Transcribers of the ataxic speech appeared to have difficulty distinguishing strong and weak syllables in spite of the familiarization. Results suggest that intelligibility decrements arise from the perceptual challenges posed by the degraded segmental and suprasegmental aspects of the signal, but that this type of familiarization process may differentially facilitate mapping segmental information onto existing phonological categories.

  11. Liking to Be Liked: Imitation, Familiarity and Pedagogy in the First Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker-Rees, Rod

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers a review of the literature on the role of imitation in the earliest stages of social interaction between babies and familiar partners. The review focuses on the ways in which reciprocal imitation marks familiar relationships that provide special contexts for babies to engage actively and exuberantly in the construction of a…

  12. The Relations between Document Familiarity, Frequency, and Prevalence and Document Literacy Performance among Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; Snowden, Jessica L.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of document prevalence and familiarity as predictors of adult document literacy performance. Three indexes--quantifying document prevalence, document familiarity, and the frequency of document use--were constructed using survey responses from an adult community sample and documents collected from government agencies…

  13. The Effects of Spatial Contextual Familiarity on Remembered Scenes, Episodic Memories, and Imagined Future Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the effect of contextual familiarity on remembered and imagined events. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of this effect by comparing the effect of cuing spatial memories, episodic memories, and imagined future events with spatial contextual cues of varying levels of familiarity. We used…

  14. Familiar Face Recognition in Children with Autism: The Differential Use of Inner and Outer Face Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rebecca; Pascalis, Olivier; Blades, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have a deficit in recognising familiar faces. Children with ASD were given a forced choice familiar face recognition task with three conditions: full faces, inner face parts and outer face parts. Control groups were children with developmental delay (DD) and typically…

  15. Eye Movement Control during Reading: Effects of Word Frequency and Orthographic Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    Word frequency and orthographic familiarity were independently manipulated as readers' eye movements were recorded. Word frequency influenced fixation durations and the probability of word skipping when orthographic familiarity was controlled. These results indicate that lexical processing of words can influence saccade programming (as shown by…

  16. The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Lindsey; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara; Murias, Michael; Munson, Jeffrey; Panagiotides, Heracles; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate normal activation in the fusiform gyrus when viewing familiar, but not unfamiliar faces. The current study utilized eye tracking to investigate patterns of attention underlying familiar versus unfamiliar face processing in ASD. Eye movements of 18 typically…

  17. Temporal aspects of the feeling of familiarity for music and the emergence of conceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Tillmann, Barbara; Platel, Hervé; Schön, Daniele

    2010-08-01

    We tested whether the emergence of familiarity to a melody may trigger or co-occur with the processing of the concept(s) conveyed by emotions to, or semantic association with, the melody. With this objective, we recorded ERPs while participants were presented with highly familiar and less familiar melodies in a gating paradigm. The ERPs time locked to a tone of the melody called the "familiarity emergence point" showed a larger fronto-central negativity for highly familiar compared with less familiar melodies between 200 and 500 msec, with a peak latency around 400 msec. This latency and the sensitivity to the degree of familiarity/conceptual information suggest that this component was an N400, a marker of conceptual processing. Our data suggest that the feeling of familiarity evoked by a musical excerpt could be accompanied by other processing mechanisms at the conceptual level. Coupling the gating paradigm with ERP analyses might become a new avenue for investigating the neurocognitive basis of implicit musical knowledge. PMID:19580391

  18. Does the Extent of Problem Familiarity Influence Students' Learning in Problem-Based Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between problem familiarity and students' learning in a problem-based course. Problem familiarity in this study refers to the extent to which a problem fits with students' prior knowledge and experiences. As part of regular course work, 172 students were given two problems on different occasions.…

  19. The role of oxytocin in familiarization-habituation responses to social novelty

    PubMed Central

    Tops, Mattie; Huffmeijer, Renske; Linting, Mariëlle; Grewen, Karen M.; Light, Kathleen C.; Koole, Sander L.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Stress or arousal responses to novel social contexts ease off when individuals get familiar with the social context. In the present study we investigated whether oxytocin is involved in this process of familiarization-habituation as oxytocin is known to increase trust and decrease anxiety. Fifty-nine healthy female subjects took part in the same experimental procedure in two sessions separated by 4 weeks. In the first (novelty) session state trust scores were significantly positively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels while in the second (familiarity) session state trust scores were significantly negatively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels. In a path model oxytocin was associated with increased trust in the novelty session and trust was associated with decreased oxytocin levels in the familiarity session. The results are consistent with the idea that oxytocin decreases stress-to-novelty responses by promoting familiarization to novel social contexts. PMID:24151482

  20. How visual and semantic information influence learning in familiar contexts.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R; Ehinger, Krista A

    2012-10-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical contextual cuing procedure was adapted to use meaningless but nevertheless visually complex images. The data in reaction time and in eye movements show that, like scenes, such repeated contexts can trigger large, stable, and explicit cuing effects, and that those effects result from facilitated attentional guidance. Like simpler stimulus arrays, however, those effects were impaired by a sudden change of a repeating image's color scheme at the end of the learning phase (Experiment 1), or when the repeated images were presented in a different and unique color scheme across each presentation (Experiment 2). In both cases, search was driven by explicit memory. Collectively, these results suggest that semantic information is not required for conscious awareness of context-target covariation, but it plays a primary role in overcoming variability in specific features within familiar displays. PMID:22612057

  1. The Art of Reflection: Turning the Strange into the Familiar.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Kaethe

    2016-06-01

    There are a great many useful articles on the dynamics and pragmatics of reflecting teams but few articles address what constitutes a good or inept reflection and why. I provide a conceptual model for thinking about what a good reflection does, distinguishing it from a nice reflection. With some further refinements in place, I then illustrate how reflections can be part of any relationship, not just clinical ones. We have opportunities to make them and to recognize when others make them to us. By using examples from my personal life-as a grandmother, daughter, radio listener, cancer survivor, and client-I attempt to ease the personal/professional binary, a project of mine for the last 35 years. In the second part of the article, I address how writing can serve reflection. Although best offered at the moment one is called for, it is never too late for a reflection. Writing allows people to offer reflections after the fact to those who have shared their stories. Sometimes, it is to ourselves we offer those reflections, when the reflector has long since dropped the thread of obligation or interest. I provide an example of working with iconic imagery to unpack meaning so that reflection can eventually take place, allowing integration to proceed, facilitating the strange becoming the familiar. PMID:26118842

  2. Neuroimaging studies on recognition of personally familiar people.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2014-01-01

    From an evolutionary viewpoint, readiness to engage in appropriate behavior toward a recognized person seems to be inherent in the human brain. In support of this hypothesis, functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated activation in regions relevant to relationship-appropriate behavior during the recognition of personally familiar (PF) people. Recognition of friends and colleagues activates regions involved in real-time communication, including the regions for inference about the other's mental state, autobiographical memory retrieval, and self-referential processes. Recognition of people related by romantic love, maternal love, and lost love induces activation in regions involved in motivational, reward, and affective processes, reflecting behavioral readiness for mating, caretaking, and yearning, respectively. The involvement of motor-associated cortices during recognition of a personal enemy may reflect readiness for attack or defense. Self-recognition in a body-related modality uniquely activates sensory and motor association cortices reflecting the sensorimotor origin of the bodily self-concept, with social cognitive processes being suppressed or context dependent. Issues and future directions are also discussed. PMID:24389212

  3. Familiarity affects other-regarding preferences in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Quervel-Chaumette, Mylene; Dale, Rachel; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Range, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Other-regarding preferences are considered to be the foundation of human cooperation. However, the evolutionary origin of this behavior in humans remains poorly understood. So far, comparative studies in primates have led to mixed conclusions probably due to methodological differences relating to both task complexity and the types of control conditions used. Moreover, no clear link between phylogenetic relatedness and prosociality has been found, suggesting that other convergent selection pressures may play a role in the evolution of such behaviors. Here, using one of the cognitively less demanding tasks, we show for the first time, that dogs can behave pro-socially by donating food to a conspecific partner, but only if the partner is familiar. This highlights the importance of considering the social relationships between individuals when testing animals for other-regarding behaviors. Moreover, by including a social control condition, we show that the dogs' prosocial response was not due to a simple social facilitation effect. The current findings support recent proposals that other convergent selection pressures, such as dependence on cooperative activities, rather than genetic relatedness to humans, may shape a species' propensity for other-regarding behaviors. PMID:26669671

  4. Familiarity affects other-regarding preferences in pet dogs

    PubMed Central

    Quervel-Chaumette, Mylene; Dale, Rachel; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Range, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Other-regarding preferences are considered to be the foundation of human cooperation. However, the evolutionary origin of this behavior in humans remains poorly understood. So far, comparative studies in primates have led to mixed conclusions probably due to methodological differences relating to both task complexity and the types of control conditions used. Moreover, no clear link between phylogenetic relatedness and prosociality has been found, suggesting that other convergent selection pressures may play a role in the evolution of such behaviors. Here, using one of the cognitively less demanding tasks, we show for the first time, that dogs can behave pro-socially by donating food to a conspecific partner, but only if the partner is familiar. This highlights the importance of considering the social relationships between individuals when testing animals for other-regarding behaviors. Moreover, by including a social control condition, we show that the dogs’ prosocial response was not due to a simple social facilitation effect. The current findings support recent proposals that other convergent selection pressures, such as dependence on cooperative activities, rather than genetic relatedness to humans, may shape a species’ propensity for other-regarding behaviors. PMID:26669671

  5. Feature diagnosticity affects representations of novel and familiar objects

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Nina S.; Schlichting, Margaret L.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Many features can describe a concept, but only some features define a concept in that they enable discrimination of items that are instances of a concept from (similar) items that are not. We refer to this property of some features as feature diagnosticity. Previous work has described the behavioral effects of feature diagnosticity, but there has been little work on explaining why and how these effects arise. In this study, we aimed to understand the impact of feature diagnosticity on concept representations across two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the diagnosticity of one feature, color, for a set of novel objects that human subjects learned over the course of one week. We report behavioral and neural evidence that diagnostic features are likely to be automatically recruited during remembering. Specifically, individuals activated color-selective regions of ventral temporal cortex (specifically, left fusiform gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus) when thinking about the novel objects, even though color information was never explicitly probed during the task. Moreover, multiple behavioral and neural measures of the effects of feature diagnosticity were correlated across subjects. In Experiment 2, we examined relative color association in familiar object categories, which varied in feature diagnosticity (fruits and vegetables, household items). Taken together, these results offer novel insights into the neural mechanisms underlying concept representations by demonstrating that automatic recruitment of diagnostic information gives rise to behavioral effects of feature diagnosticity. PMID:24800630

  6. Memory conjunction clusters: Influence of familiarity and recollection.

    PubMed

    Leding, Juliana K

    2016-07-01

    In the memory conjunction paradigm, the number of times that constituents of conjunction lures were studied and the method of presentation were varied. In two experiments, participants were presented with eight parent items that could be recombined at test to form a conjunction lure. The constituents that were shared between the parent items and the conjunction lures were either presented in the same words (e.g., blackmail and jailbird presented four times each for the conjunction lure blackbird) or in different words (e.g., the targets footstool, footlocker, foothill, footbridge, baseball, softball, basketball, and golfball for the conjunction lure football). In both experiments, rates of false recognition were higher in the Different condition as opposed to the Same condition. These results provide evidence that participants in the Same condition were able to utilise a recall-to-reject strategy by remembering the repeatedly presented parent word. In the Different condition, participants were not able to utilise that strategy and instead relied on the familiarity of the repeatedly presented constituents which led to higher rates of false recognition. PMID:26284615

  7. Using Scavenger Hunts to Familiarize Students with Scientific Journal Articles.

    PubMed

    Lijek, Rebeccah S; Fankhauser, Sarah C

    2016-03-01

    Primary scientific literature can be difficult to navigate for anyone unfamiliar with its foreign, formal structure. We sought to create a fun, easy learning tool to help familiarize students of all ages with the structure of a scientific article. Our main learning objective was for the student to realize that science writing is formulaic-that specific information is found in predictable locations within an article-and that, with an understanding of the formula, anyone can comfortably navigate any journal article and accurately predict what to expect to find in each section. To this end, we designed a Journal Article Scavenger Hunt that requires the user to find and identify a series of commonplace features of a primary research article. The scavenger hunt activity is quick and easy to implement, and is adaptable to various ages and settings, including the classroom, lab, and at outreach events. The questions in the scavenger hunt can be scaled in difficulty and specificity to suit the instructor's needs. Over many years of using this activity, we have received positive feedback from students of all ages, from elementary school students to lay adult-learners as well as science teachers themselves. By making the unknown seem predictable and approachable, the scavenger hunt helps a variety of audiences feel more comfortable with science and more confident in their ability to engage directly with the scientific literature. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27047608

  8. Neuronal correlates of perception, imagery, and memory for familiar tunes.

    PubMed

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Halpern, Andrea R; Zatorre, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal correlates of encoding and recognizing heard and imagined melodies. Ten participants were shown lyrics of familiar verbal tunes; they either heard the tune along with the lyrics, or they had to imagine it. In a subsequent surprise recognition test, they had to identify the titles of tunes that they had heard or imagined earlier. The functional data showed substantial overlap during melody perception and imagery, including secondary auditory areas. During imagery compared with perception, an extended network including pFC, SMA, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellum showed increased activity, in line with the increased processing demands of imagery. Functional connectivity of anterior right temporal cortex with frontal areas was increased during imagery compared with perception, indicating that these areas form an imagery-related network. Activity in right superior temporal gyrus and pFC was correlated with the subjective rating of imagery vividness. Similar to the encoding phase, the recognition task recruited overlapping areas, including inferior frontal cortex associated with memory retrieval, as well as left middle temporal gyrus. The results present new evidence for the cortical network underlying goal-directed auditory imagery, with a prominent role of the right pFC both for the subjective impression of imagery vividness and for on-line mental monitoring of imagery-related activity in auditory areas. PMID:22360595

  9. Efficiency of the male effect with photostimulated bucks does not depend on their familiarity with goats.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, A L; Bedos, M; Aroña, R M; Flores, J A; Hernández, H; Moussu, C; Briefer, E F; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-05-01

    In ewes, the ovulatory response of females exposed to familiar rams is lower than the response of those exposed to novel ones. In goats, males rendered sexually active by exposure to long days are more efficient to induce ovulation in seasonal anestrous females than untreated males. Two experiments were conducted to determine 1) whether male goats remain familiar to females after 45days of separation; and 2) whether photostimulated males are able to stimulate the sexual activity of females, independently of their familiarity with them. In Experiment 1, three groups of goats (n=10 goats per group) were put in contact with males (n=2 per group) during 10days in November (familiarization period). These males were called familiar males. After 15, 30 and 45days of separation from the males, females of each group were exposed to familiar or novel males during 10min. In each test, goats in contact with novel males displayed more distress bleats, escapes, head butts, and sniffing than those in contact with familiar males (P<0.05). In Experiment 2, we used sexually inactive (n=4 control males), and sexually active males (n=4 photostimulated males). In February, two groups of goats (n=50 each) were put in contact with control or photostimulated males (n=2 each) during 10days ("familiar" control or photostimulated male, respectively). After 45days of separation from the males, both groups of females were further divided into two groups (n=25 goats per group). In April, two groups were re-exposed to "familiar" control or "familiar" photostimulated males (n=2 per group), whereas the other two groups were exposed to "novel" control or "novel" photostimulated males (n=2 per group). The photostimulated males displayed a higher level of sexual behavior than the controls. The proportion of goats that ovulated and displayed estrus was higher when exposed to the photostimulated males than when exposed to control ones (≥80% vs. 0%; P<0.05). These proportions did not differ between

  10. Continuous recollection versus unitized familiarity in associative recognition.

    PubMed

    Mickes, Laura; Johnson, Emily M; Wixted, John T

    2010-07-01

    Recollection has long been thought to play a key role in associative recognition tasks. Evidence that associative recollection might be a threshold process has come from analyses of the associative recognition receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Specifically, the ROC is not as curvilinear as a signal detection theory requires. In addition, the Z-ROC is usually curvilinear, as a threshold recollection model requires, not linear, as a signal detection model requires. In Experiment 1, word pairs were strengthened at study, which yielded a curvilinear ROC and a linear Z-ROC (in accordance with signal detection theory). This result suggests that associative recognition performance was based on a continuous variable, one that likely consists of either unitized familiarity or continuous recollection. The remember-know procedure and an unexpected cued recall test suggested that the more curvilinear ROC in the strong condition was mainly due to increased recollection. In Experiment 2, word pairs were presented for an old-new recognition decision before being presented for an associative recognition decision. When pairs consisting of items not recognized as having been seen on the list were removed from the analysis, the ROC again became curvilinear, the Z-ROC again became linear, and most associative recognition decisions were associated with remember judgments. These findings suggest that the curvilinear Z-ROC often observed on associative recognition tests results from noise, as a mixture signal detection model assumes, and that recollection is a continuous process that yields a curvilinear ROC that is well characterized by signal detection theory. PMID:20565205

  11. Stranger to familiar: wild strepsirhines manage xenophobia by playing.

    PubMed

    Antonacci, Daniela; Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    "upgrades" an individual from stranger to familiar. PMID:20949052

  12. Stranger to Familiar: Wild Strepsirhines Manage Xenophobia by Playing

    PubMed Central

    Antonacci, Daniela; Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    upgrades” an individual from stranger to familiar. PMID:20949052

  13. The Price of Fame: The Impact of Stimulus Familiarity on Proactive Interference Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution processes. In two behavioral experiments and one event-related fMRI experiment, long-term familiarity was manipulated through the use of famous and nonfamous stimuli, and short-term familiarity was manipulated through the use of recent and nonrecent probe items in an item recognition task. The right middle frontal gyrus demonstrated greater sensitivity to famous stimuli, suggesting that long-term stimulus familiarity plays a role in influencing PI resolution processes. Further examination of the effect of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution revealed a larger behavioral interference effect for famous stimuli, but only under speeded response conditions. Thus, models of memory retrieval—and of the cognitive control mechanisms that guide retrieval processes—should consider the impact of and interactions among sources of familiarity on multiple time scales. PMID:20429858

  14. Spatiotemporal changes in neural response patterns to faces varying in visual familiarity.

    PubMed

    Natu, Vaidehi S; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-03-01

    Increasing experience with a previously unfamiliar face improves human ability to recognize it in challenging and novel viewing conditions. Differential neural responses to familiar versus unfamiliar faces in multiple regions of the ventral-temporal and parietal cortex have been reported in previous work, but with limited attention to how behavioral and neural measures change with increasing familiarity. We examined changes in the spatial and temporal characteristics of neural response patterns elicited by faces that vary in their degree of visual familiarity. First, we developed a behavioral paradigm to familiarize participants to low-, medium-, and high-levels of familiarity with faces. Recognition of novel, naturalistic images of the learned individuals improved with increasing familiarity with faces. Next, a new set of participants learned faces using the behavioral paradigm, outside the fMRI scanner, and subsequently viewed blocks of whole-body images of the learned and novel people, inside the scanner. We found that the face-selective FFA and OFA, and a combination of the ventral-temporal areas (e.g., fusiform gyrus) and parietal areas (e.g., precuneus) contained patterns useful for classifying highly familiar versus unfamiliar faces. Classification along the temporal-sequence of the face blocks revealed an early separation of neural patterns elicited in response to highly familiar versus unfamiliar faces in the FFA and OFA, but not in other regions of interest. This indicates the potential for a rapid assessment of the "known versus unknown" status of faces in core face-selective regions of the brain. The present study provides a first look at the perceptual and neural correlates underlying experience gains with faces as they become familiar. PMID:25524650

  15. Differential response of coyotes to novel stimuli in familiar and unfamiliar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.E.; Knowlton, F.F.

    1986-01-01

    The behavioral responses shown by captive coyotes, Canis latrans, to novel objects and artificial scent stations in familiar and unfamiliar environments were studied to determine how coyotes potentially respond to novel stimuli used in coyote management and research. Coyotes showed little avoidance of novel objects and scent stations when they were encountered in unfamiliar environments while avoidance was frequently observed with the same stimuli encountered in familiar environments, and supported the hypothesis that coyotes are more vulnerable to trapping and man-induced mortality when outside of the familiar environment of their territories.

  16. The Effects of Topic Familiarity, Author Expertise, and Content Relevance on Norwegian Students' Document Selection: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Stenseth, Tonje; Bråten, Ivar; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study investigated the extent to which author expertise and content relevance were salient to secondary Norwegian students (N = 153) when they selected documents that pertained to more familiar and less familiar topics. Quantitative results indicated that author expertise was more salient for the less familiar topic (nuclear…

  17. Social familiarity relaxes the constraints of limited attention and enhances reproduction of group-living predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Strodl, Markus A; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In many group-living animals, within-group associations are determined by familiarity, i.e. familiar individuals, independent of genetic relatedness, preferentially associate with each other. The ultimate causes of this behaviour are poorly understood and rigorous documentation of its adaptive significance is scarce. Limited attention theory states that focusing on a given task has interrelated cognitive, behavioural and physiological costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks. In multiple signal environments attention has thus to be shared among signals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, associating with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks and ultimately increase fitness. We tested this prediction in adult females of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We evaluated the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, activity, predation and reproduction. In mixed groups (familiar and unfamiliar), familiar predator females preferentially associated with each other. In pure groups (either familiar or unfamiliar), familiar predator females produced more eggs than unfamiliar females at similar predation rates. Higher egg production was correlated with lower activity levels, indicating decreased restlessness. In light of limited attention theory, we argue that the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals and preferential association with familiar individuals confers a selective advantage because familiar social environments are cognitively and physiologically less taxing than unfamiliar social environments. PMID:24273345

  18. Familiar Music as an Enhancer of Self-Consciousness in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M.; Díaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24106716

  19. Primacy Performance of Normal and Retarded Children: Stimulus Familiarity or Spatial Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lee

    1978-01-01

    Explores the effect of stimulus familiarity on the spatial primacy performance of normal and retarded children. Assumes that serial recall tasks reflect spatial memory rather than verbal rehearsal. (BD)

  20. Real-life experience with personally familiar faces enhances discrimination based on global information

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Goedele

    2016-01-01

    Despite the agreement that experience with faces leads to more efficient processing, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Building on empirical evidence from unfamiliar face processing in healthy populations and neuropsychological patients, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that personal familiarity is associated with superior discrimination when identity information is derived based on global, as opposed to local facial information. Diagnosticity and availability of local and global information was manipulated through varied physical similarity and spatial resolution of morph faces created from personally familiar or unfamiliar faces. We found that discrimination of subtle changes between highly similar morph faces was unaffected by familiarity. Contrariwise, relatively more pronounced physical (i.e., identity) differences were more efficiently discriminated for personally familiar faces, indicating more efficient processing of global, as opposed to local facial information through real-life experience. PMID:26855852

  1. Asymmetry in pay-off predicts how familiar individuals respond to one another.

    PubMed

    Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Magurran, Anne E

    2013-06-23

    Familiarity influences individual decision-making in many vertebrate species. Here, we propose that familiarity modulates behaviour to different extents depending on the social context of the interaction. Specifically, the more that one player stands to gain relative to the other, the less important familiarity will be in influencing their responses to one another. We test this prediction using pairs of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in three competitive scenarios of increasing asymmetry in outcome to the two players: schooling under potential threat (similar outcomes), competing for a defensible food source (some asymmetry) and competing for a receptive female (strongly asymmetrical outcomes). Males show a graded response as asymmetry increases, with familiarity producing marked behavioural differences under potential threat, minor changes when competing for food, but none at all in competition for mating opportunities. This suggests that mutualistic benefits can arise as a by-product of selfish behaviour, supporting the role of pseudo-reciprocity in the evolution of cooperation. PMID:23576778

  2. Familiar music as an enhancer of self-consciousness in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Díaz, Juan Poveda; Gil, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24106716

  3. Effects of Relationship Motivation, Partner Familiarity, and Alcohol on Women's Risky Sexual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; Hessler, Danielle M.; Morrison, Diane M.; Stoner, Susan A.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Abdallah, Devon A.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. Women completed an individual difference measure of relationship motivation, then were randomly assigned to partner familiarity condition (low, high), and to alcohol consumption condition (high dose, low dose, no alcohol, placebo). Then women read and projected themselves into a scenario of a sexual encounter. Relationship motivation and partner familiarity interacted with intoxication to influence primary appraisals of relationship potential. Participants’ primary and secondary relationship appraisals mediated the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and intoxication on condom negotiation, sexual decision abdication, and unprotected sex intentions. These findings support a cognitive mediation model of women's sexual decision making, and identify how individual and situational factors interact to shape alcohol's influences on cognitive appraisals that lead to risky sexual decisions. This knowledge can inform empirically-based risky sex interventions. PMID:19332435

  4. Apollo lunar surface experiments package. Apollo 17 ALSEP (array E) familiarization course handout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The familiarization course for the Apollo 17 ALSEP (ARRAY E) is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) power and data subsystems, (2) lunar surface gravimeter, (3) lunar mass spectrometer, (4) lunar seismic profiling experiment, and (5) heat flow experiment.

  5. The Development of Differential Use of Inner and Outer Face Features in Familiar Face Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ruth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied 4- to 10-year-olds' familiarity judgments of peers. Found that, contrary to adults, external facial features were key. Also found that the switch to adult recognition pattern takes place after the ninth year. (ETB)

  6. What's the Problem? Familiarity Working Memory, and Transfer in a Problem-Solving Task.

    PubMed

    Kole, James A; Snyder, Hannah R; Brojde, Chandra L; Friend, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of familiarity and working memory to transfer were examined in the Tower of Hanoi task. Participants completed 3 different versions of the task: a standard 3-disk version, a clothing exchange task that included familiar semantic content, and a tea ceremony task that included unfamiliar semantic content. The constraints on moves were equivalent across tasks, and each could be solved with the same sequence of movements. Working memory demands were manipulated by the provision of a (static or dynamic) visual representation of the problem. Performance was equivalent for the standard Tower of Hanoi and clothing exchange tasks but worse for the tea ceremony task, and it decreased with increasing working memory demands. Furthermore, the standard Tower of Hanoi task and clothing exchange tasks independently, additively, and equivalently transferred to subsequent tasks, whereas the tea ceremony task did not. The results suggest that both familiarity and working memory demands determine overall level of performance, whereas familiarity influences transfer. PMID:26255436

  7. Levels-of-processing effects on "remember" responses in recognition for familiar and unfamiliar tunes.

    PubMed

    Mungan, Esra; Peynircioğlu, Zehra F; Halpern, Andrea R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of level-of-processing manipulations on "remember" and "know" responses in episodic melody recognition (Experiments 1 and 2) and how this effect is modulated by item familiarity (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants performed 2 conceptual and 2 perceptual orienting tasks while listening to familiar melodies: judging the mood, continuing the tune, tracing the pitch contour, and counting long notes. The conceptual mood task led to higher d' rates for "remember" but not "know" responses. In Experiment 2, participants either judged the mood or counted long notes of tunes with high and low familiarity. A level-of-processing effect emerged again in participants' "remember" d' rates regardless of melody familiarity. Results are discussed within the distinctive processing framework. PMID:21506449

  8. Long-Term Memory for Odors: Influences of Familiarity and Identification Across 64 Days

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Willander, Johan; Sikström, Sverker; Larsson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated long-term odor recognition memory, although some early observations suggested that the forgetting rate of olfactory representations is slower than for other sensory modalities. This study investigated recognition memory across 64 days for high and low familiar odors and faces. Memory was assessed in 83 young participants at 4 occasions; immediate, 4, 16, and 64 days after encoding. The results indicated significant forgetting for odors and faces across the 64 days. The forgetting functions for the 2 modalities were not fundamentally different. Moreover, high familiar odors and faces were better remembered than low familiar ones, indicating an important role of semantic knowledge on recognition proficiency for both modalities. Although odor recognition was significantly better than chance at the 64 days testing, memory for the low familiar odors was relatively poor. Also, the results indicated that odor identification consistency across sessions, irrespective of accuracy, was positively related to successful recognition. PMID:25740304

  9. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space

    PubMed Central

    Faerber, Stella J.; Kaufmann, Jürgen M.; Leder, Helmut; Martin, Eva Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991), any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face) should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm), such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent) from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV), and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC) for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV). In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1) that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2) that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations. PMID:27168323

  10. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space.

    PubMed

    Faerber, Stella J; Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Leder, Helmut; Martin, Eva Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991), any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face) should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm), such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent) from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV), and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC) for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV). In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1) that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2) that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations. PMID:27168323

  11. Impairment of recollection but not familiarity in a case of developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karen R; Gardiner, John M; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2008-01-01

    In a re-examination of the recognition memory of Jon, a young adult with developmental amnesia due to perinatal hippocampal damage, we used a test procedure that provides estimates of the separate contributions to recognition of recollection and familiarity. Comparison between Jon and his controls revealed that, whereas he was unimpaired in the familiarity process, he showed abnormally low levels of recollection, supporting the view that the hippocampus mediates the latter process selectively. PMID:19090415

  12. Impairment of recollection but not familiarity in a case of developmental amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Karen R.; Gardiner, John M.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2010-01-01

    In a re-examination of the recognition memory of Jon, a young adult with developmental amnesia due to perinatal hippocampal damage, we used a test procedure that provides estimates of the separate contributions to recognition of recollection and familiarity. Comparison between Jon and his controls revealed that, whereas he was unimpaired in the familiarity process, he showed abnormally low levels of recollection, supporting the view that the hippocampus mediates the latter process selectively. PMID:19090415

  13. Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals

    PubMed Central

    Atton, N.; Galef, B. J.; Hoppitt, W.; Webster, M. M.; Laland, K. N.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that there was a strong untransmitted social effect on patch discovery, with individuals tending to discover a task sooner if a familiar individual from their group had previously done so than if an unfamiliar fish had done so. However, in contrast to the effect of familiarity, the frequency with which individuals had previously associated with one another had no effect upon the likelihood of prey patch discovery. This may have been due to the influence of fish on one another's movements; the effect of familiarity on discovery of an empty ‘control’ patch was as strong as for discovery of an actual prey patch. Our results demonstrate that factors affecting fine-scale social interactions can also influence how individuals encounter and exploit resources. PMID:25009061

  14. Familiarity is related to conceptual implicit memory: an examination of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2012-12-01

    Explicit memory is thought to be distinct from implicit memory. However, growing evidence has indicated that explicit familiarity-based recognition memory judgments rely on the same process that supports conceptual implicit memory. We tested this hypothesis by examining individual differences using a paradigm wherein we measured both familiarity and conceptual implicit memory within the same participants. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we examined recognition memory confidence ROCs and remember/know responses, respectively, to estimate recollection and familiarity, and used a free association task to measure conceptual implicit memory. The results demonstrated that, across participants, familiarity, but not recollection, was significantly correlated with conceptual priming. In contrast, in Experiment 2, utilizing a similar paradigm, a comparison of recognition memory ROCs and explicit associative cued-recall performance indicated that cued recall was related to both recollection and familiarity. These results are consistent with models assuming that familiarity-based recognition and conceptual implicit memory rely on similar underlying processes. PMID:22833341

  15. Exploring the effect of action familiarity on SPTs recall performance in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lekeu, Françoise; Van der Linden, Martial; Moonen, Gustave; Salmon, Eric

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the performance of normal controls (NC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on free recall, semantic cued recall and object cued recall of both subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and verbal descriptions of actions, by controlling familiarity of actions associated to objects. The results showed that both groups performed better after SPT encoding than after verbal encoding, in all three types of recall. In addition, this SPT advantage was greater for AD patients than for NC in the object cued recall test, emphasizing AD patients' sensibility to the congruence of cues between encoding and retrieval conditions. Following verbal encoding, NC showed a better recall for less familiar actions than for highly familiar actions, whereas AD patients exhibited the opposite pattern. These results reflect that AD patients did not benefit from a distinctiveness effect at encoding for improving subsequent retrieval of verbal information, probably due to a reduced level of elaboration during encoding. However, there was no effect of action familiarity on recall performance by both groups following SPT encoding. These results suggest that memory for verbal actions and SPTs is governed by different principles. In addition, they demonstrate the robustness of the SPT effect in AD patients, who were able to improve memory performance in the SPT condition not only with highly familiar actions but also with less familiar actions. PMID:12650231

  16. Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

    2010-11-01

    Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

  17. Laterality effects in normal subjects' recognition of familiar faces, voices and names. Perceptual and representational components.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a different hemispheric specialization may exist for different modalities of person identification, with a prevalent right lateralization of the sensory-motor systems allowing face and voice recognition and a prevalent left lateralization of the name recognition system. Data supporting this claim concern, however, much more disorders of familiar people recognition observed in patients with focal brain lesions than results of experimental studies conducted in normal subjects. These last data are sparse and in part controversial, but are important from the theoretical point of view, because it is not clear if hemispheric asymmetries in the recognition of faces, voices and names are limited to their perceptual processing, or also extend to the domain of their cortical representations. The present review has tried to clarify this issues, taking into account investigations that have evaluated in normal subjects laterality effects in recognition of familiar names, faces and voices, by means of behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. Results of this survey indicate that: (a) recognition of familiar faces and voices show a prevalent right lateralization, whereas recognition of familiar names is lateralized to the left hemisphere; (b) the right hemisphere prevalence is greater in tasks involving familiar than unfamiliar faces and voices, and the left hemisphere superiority is greater in the recognition of familiar than unfamiliar names. Taken together, these data suggest that hemispheric asymmetries in the recognition of faces, voices and names are not limited to their perceptual processing, but also extend to the domain of their cortical representations. PMID:23542500

  18. Social familiarity affects Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Claudia; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other's calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other's alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone). At both sites, we found specific acoustic markers in male alarm call responses that discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers, but response patterns were site-specific. On Tiwai Island, males responded to familiar males' eagle alarms with 'standard' eagle alarm calls, whereas unfamiliar males triggered acoustically atypical eagle alarms. The opposite was found in Taï Forest where males responded to unfamiliar males' eagle alarm calls with 'standard' eagle alarms, and with atypical eagle alarms to familiar males' calls. Moreover, only Taï, but not Tiwai, males also marked familiarity with the caller in their leopard-induced alarms. We concluded that male Diana monkeys encode not only predator type but also signaller familiarity in their alarm calls, although in population-specific ways. We explain these inter-site differences in vocal behaviour in terms of differences in predation pressure and population density. We discuss the adaptive function and implications of this behaviour for the origins of acoustic flexibility in primate communication. PMID:26998336

  19. The pupillary response discriminates between subjective and objective familiarity and novelty

    PubMed Central

    Montaldi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The pupil response discriminates between old and new stimuli, with old stimuli characterized by larger pupil dilation patterns than new stimuli. We sought to explore the cause of the pupil old/new effect and discount the effect of targetness, effort, recollection retrieval, and complexity of the recognition decision. Two experiments are reported in which the pupil response and the eye fixation patterns were measured, while participants identified novel and familiar object stimuli, in two separate tasks, emphasizing either novelty or familiarity detection. In Experiment 1, familiarity and novelty decisions were taken using a rating scale, while in Experiment 2 a simpler yes/no decision was used. In both experiments, we found that detection of target familiar stimuli resulted in greater pupil dilation than the detection of target novel stimuli, while the duration of the first fixation discriminated between familiar and novel stimuli as early as within 320 ms after stimulus onset. Importantly, the pupil response distinguished between the objective (during an earlier temporal component) and the subjective (during a later temporal component) status of the stimulus for misses and false alarms. In the light of previous findings, we suggest that the pupil and fixation old/new effects reflect the distinct neural and cognitive mechanisms involved in the familiarity and novelty decisions. The findings also have important implications for the use of pupil dilation and eye movement patterns to explore explicit and implicit memory processes. PMID:26174940

  20. Hierarchical Novelty-Familiarity Representation in the Visual System by Modular Predictive Coding

    PubMed Central

    Vladimirskiy, Boris; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Predictive coding has been previously introduced as a hierarchical coding framework for the visual system. At each level, activity predicted by the higher level is dynamically subtracted from the input, while the difference in activity continuously propagates further. Here we introduce modular predictive coding as a feedforward hierarchy of prediction modules without back-projections from higher to lower levels. Within each level, recurrent dynamics optimally segregates the input into novelty and familiarity components. Although the anatomical feedforward connectivity passes through the novelty-representing neurons, it is nevertheless the familiarity information which is propagated to higher levels. This modularity results in a twofold advantage compared to the original predictive coding scheme: the familiarity-novelty representation forms quickly, and at each level the full representational power is exploited for an optimized readout. As we show, natural images are successfully compressed and can be reconstructed by the familiarity neurons at each level. Missing information on different spatial scales is identified by novelty neurons and complements the familiarity representation. Furthermore, by virtue of the recurrent connectivity within each level, non-classical receptive field properties still emerge. Hence, modular predictive coding is a biologically realistic metaphor for the visual system that dynamically extracts novelty at various scales while propagating the familiarity information. PMID:26670700

  1. Making Sense of Infant Familiarity and Novelty Responses to Words at Lexical Onset

    PubMed Central

    DePaolis, Rory A.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Vihman, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests that familiarity and novelty preferences in infant experimental tasks can in some instances be interpreted together as a single indicator of language advance. We provide evidence to support this idea based on our use of the auditory headturn preference paradigm to record responses to words likely to be either familiar or unfamiliar to infants. Fifty-nine 10-month-old infants were tested. The task elicited mixed preferences: familiarity (longer average looks to the words likely to be familiar to the infants), novelty (longer average looks to the words likely to be unfamiliar) and no-preference (similar-length of looks to both type of words). The infants who exhibited either a familiarity or a novelty response were more advanced on independent indices of phonetic advance than the infants who showed no preference. In addition, infants exhibiting novelty responses were more lexically advanced than either the infants who exhibited familiarity or those who showed no-preference. The results provide partial support for Hunter and Ames’ (1988) developmental model of attention in infancy and suggest caution when interpreting studies indexed to chronological age. PMID:27242624

  2. Wayfinding in familiar and unfamiliar environments in a case of progressive topographical agnosia.

    PubMed

    Rainville, Constant; Joubert, Sven; Felician, Olivier; Chabanne, Vanessa; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Péruch, Patrick

    2005-10-01

    A 71-year-old right-handed man (F.G.) presents with prosopagnosia and with an inability to recognize famous and familiar buildings. Despite his deficit, F.G. obtained normal scores on neuropsychological tests of executive functions, language, praxis and primary visuoperceptual skills. Brain MRI showed atrophy predominantly in the right temporal lobe, particularly in the fusiform gyrus and the parahippocampal cortex. The present study investigated F.G.'s ability to orient himself in familiar and new environments. His wayfinding abilities in a familiar environment (i.e., his hometown) were preserved despite an inability to recognize familiar and famous buildings, monuments and landmarks in this environment. Wayfinding was achieved through a heavy reliance on written indications (e.g., names of restaurants and streets), preservation of a pre-existing cognitive map of this familiar environment, and normal executive functions necessary to plan the execution of a given trajectory. In an unfamiliar environment, F.G.'s topographical agnosia resulted in severe wayfinding difficulties and in the inability to build an adequate cognitive spatial representation. F.G.'s topographical agnosia results from a high-level visuoperceptual deficit, characterized by an inability to access a global configuration of complex visual stimuli such as familiar and famous monuments, and an over-reliance on the processing of local features. PMID:16251131

  3. Assessment of familiarity and recollection in the false fame paradigm using a modified process dissociation procedure.

    PubMed

    Mayes, A R; Van Eijk, R; Isaac, C L

    1995-09-01

    A modified way of administering the process dissociation procedure to the false fame paradigm is described. Multidimensional signal detection theory (SDT) is used to correct for recollection as well as familiarity false alarms, and two experiments are reported that compare this method of false alarm correction with the hybrid procedure preferred by Jacoby et al. (1993). In experiment 1, it is shown that recollection and familiarity are lost at the same rate in normal subjects over a delay of 1 d when an SDT analysis is used. Analysis with the hybrid procedure fails to find any forgetting over the 1-d delay. In experiment 2, amnesics are shown to have preserved familiarity in the face of impaired recollection for names when the results are analyzed by either method. An additional analysis showed that the amnesics' familiarity was normal even for relatively novel surnames. The SDT analysis also revealed that the amnesics, relative to controls, showed a conservative recollection and a liberal familiarity response bias. The results indicate that it is important to correct for recollection as well as familiarity false alarms. PMID:9375232

  4. The Role of Familiarity on Viewpoint Adaptation for Self-Face and Other-Face Images.

    PubMed

    Nevi, Andrea; Cicali, Filippo; Caudek, Corrado

    2016-07-01

    An adaptation method was used to investigate whether self-face processing is dissociable from general face processing. We explored the viewpoint aftereffect with face images having different degrees of familiarity (never-before-seen faces, recently familiarized faces, personally familiar faces, and the participant's own face). A face viewpoint aftereffect occurs after prolonged viewing of a face viewed from one side, with the result that the perceived viewing direction of a subsequently presented face image shown near the frontal view is biased in a direction which is the opposite of the adapting orientation. We found that (1) the magnitude of the viewpoint aftereffect depends on the level of familiarity of the adapting and test faces, (2) a cross-identity transfer of the viewpoint aftereffect is found between all categories of faces, but not between an unfamiliar adaptor face and the self-face test, and (3) learning affects the processing of the self-face in greater measure than any other category of faces. These results highlight the importance of familiarity on the face aftereffects, but they also suggest the possibility of separate representations for the self-face, on the one side, and for highly familiar faces, on the other. PMID:27165718

  5. Resolving 20 Years of Inconsistent Interactions Between Lexical Familiarity and Orthography, Concreteness, and Polysemy

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Numerous word recognition studies conducted over the past 2 decades are examined. These studies manipulated lexical familiarity by presenting words of high versus low printed frequency and most reported an interaction between printed frequency and one of several second variables, namely, orthographic regularity, semantic concreteness, or polysemy. However, the direction of these interactions was inconsistent from study to study. Six new experiments clarify these discordant results. The first two demonstrate that words of the same low printed frequency are not always equally familiar to subjects. Instead, subjects’ ratings of “experiential familiarity” suggest that many of the low-printed-frequency words used in prior studies varied along this dimension. Four lexical decision experiments reexamine the prior findings by orthogonally manipulating lexical familiarity, as assessed by experiential familiarity ratings, with bigram frequency, semantic concreteness, and number of meanings. The results suggest that of these variables, only experiential familiarity reliably affects word recognition latencies. This in turn suggests that previous inconsistent findings are due to confounding experiential familiarity with a second variable. PMID:6242753

  6. You look familiar, but I don’t care: Lure rejection in hybrid visual and memory search is not based on familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Boettcher, Sage E. P.; Josephs, Emilie L.; Cunningham, Corbin A.; Drew, Trafton

    2015-01-01

    In “hybrid” search tasks, observers hold multiple possible targets in memory while searching for those targets amongst distractor items in visual displays. Wolfe (2012) found that, if the target set is held constant over a block of trials, RTs in such tasks were a linear function of the number of items in the visual display and a linear function of the log of the number of items held in memory. However, in such tasks, the targets can become far more familiar than the distractors. Does this “familiarity” – operationalized here as the frequency and recency with which an item has appeared – influence performance in hybrid tasks In Experiment 1, we compared searches where distractors appeared with the same frequency as the targets to searches where all distractors were novel. Distractor familiarity did not have any reliable effect on search. In Experiment 2, most distractors were novel but some critical distractors were as common as the targets while others were 4× more common. Familiar distractors did not produce false alarm errors, though they did slightly increase response times (RTs). In Experiment 3, observers successfully searched for the new, unfamiliar item among distractors that, in many cases, had been seen only once before. We conclude that when the memory set is held constant for many trials, item familiarity alone does not cause observers to mistakenly confuse target with distractors. PMID:26191615

  7. The Similarities (and Familiarities) of Pseudowords and Extremely High-Frequency Words: Examining a Familiarity-Based Explanation of the Pseudoword Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozubko, Jason D.; Joordens, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The pseudoword effect is the finding that pseudowords (i.e., rare words or pronounceable nonwords) give rise to more hits and false alarms than words. Using the retrieving effectively from memory (REM) model of recognition memory, we tested a familiarity-based account of the pseudoword effect: Specifically, the pseudoword effect arises because…

  8. Activity in the right fusiform face area predicts the behavioural advantage for the perception of familiar faces.

    PubMed

    Weibert, Katja; Andrews, Timothy J

    2015-08-01

    People are extremely proficient at discriminating the identity of familiar faces, but are significantly worse with unfamiliar faces. Despite this clear behavioural difference in perception, the neural correlates of the advantage for familiar faces remain unclear. Here, we use an individual differences approach to explore the link between neural responses in face-selective regions and the behavioural advantage for the perception of familiar faces. First, we compared performance on an identity matching task with either familiar or unfamiliar faces. We found that participants were significantly better at matching the identity of familiar compared to unfamiliar faces. Next, we used fMRI to measure the response to familiar and unfamiliar faces. Consistent with the behavioural data, there was a significant difference in the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar faces in face-selective regions. Finally, we asked whether interindividual variation in behavioural performance could be predicted by corresponding variation in fMRI response. We found a significant correlation in the right fusiform face area (rFFA) between the difference in response to familiar and unfamiliar faces and corresponding differences on the face-matching task. That is, participants who showed a larger response to familiar compared to unfamiliar faces in the rFFA also matched familiar faces much more accurately than unfamiliar faces. No other face-selective region showed a correlation between neural and matching accuracy. These results provide a link between activity in the rFFA and the perception of familiar faces. PMID:26187507

  9. Scent of the familiar: an fMRI study of canine brain responses to familiar and unfamiliar human and dog odors.

    PubMed

    Berns, Gregory S; Brooks, Andrew M; Spivak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Understanding dogs' perceptual experience of both conspecifics and humans is important to understand how dogs evolved and the nature of their relationships with humans and other dogs. Olfaction is believed to be dogs' most powerful and perhaps important sense and an obvious place to begin for the study of social cognition of conspecifics and humans. We used fMRI in a cohort of dogs (N=12) that had been trained to remain motionless while unsedated and unrestrained in the MRI. By presenting scents from humans and conspecifics, we aimed to identify the dimensions of dogs' responses to salient biological odors - whether they are based on species (dog or human), familiarity, or a specific combination of factors. We focused our analysis on the dog's caudate nucleus because of its well-known association with positive expectations and because of its clearly defined anatomical location. We hypothesized that if dogs' primary association to reward, whether it is based on food or social bonds, is to humans, then the human scents would activate the caudate more than the conspecific scents. Conversely, if the smell of conspecifics activated the caudate more than the smell of humans, dogs' association to reward would be stronger to their fellow canines. Five scents were presented (self, familiar human, strange human, familiar dog, strange dog). While the olfactory bulb/peduncle was activated to a similar degree by all the scents, the caudate was activated maximally to the familiar human. Importantly, the scent of the familiar human was not the handler, meaning that the caudate response differentiated the scent in the absence of the person being present. The caudate activation suggested that not only did the dogs discriminate that scent from the others, they had a positive association with it. This speaks to the power of the dog's sense of smell, and it provides important clues about the importance of humans in dogs' lives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine

  10. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24548652

  11. Familiar environments enhance object and spatial memory in both younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Niamh A; Ondřej, Jan; Roudaia, Eugenie; O'Sullivan, Carol; Newell, Fiona N

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that familiarity with an environment may protect against spatial memory decline for familiar objects in older adults. We investigated whether a familiar context also reduces age-related decline in spatial memory for novel objects. Twenty-four younger and 23 older participants viewed a virtual rendering of a local environment along two different routes, each through a well-known (West) or lesser-known (East) area within the environment. Older and younger participants reported being more familiar with one (i.e. West) area than the other. In each trial, participants were presented with one route and were instructed to learn ten novel objects and their locations along the route. Following learning, participants immediately completed five test blocks: an object recognition task, an egocentric spatial processing (direction judgement) task, an allocentric spatial processing (proximity judgement) task and two pen-and-paper tests to measure cognitive mapping abilities. First we found an age effect with worse performance by older than younger adults in all spatial tasks, particularly in allocentric spatial processing. However, our results suggested better memory for objects and directions, but not proximity judgements, when the task was associated with more familiar than unfamiliar contexts, in both age groups. There was no benefit of context when a separate young adult group (N = 24) was tested, who reported being equally familiar with both areas. These results suggest an important facilitatory role of context familiarity on object recognition, and in particular egocentric spatial memory, and have implications for enhancing spatial memory in older adults. PMID:26821318

  12. Familiarity and recollection produce distinct eye movement, pupil and medial temporal lobe responses when memory strength is matched.

    PubMed

    Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments explored eye measures (fixations and pupil response patterns) and brain responses (BOLD) accompanying the recognition of visual object stimuli based on familiarity and recollection. In both experiments, the use of a modified remember/know procedure led to high confidence and matched accuracy levels characterising strong familiarity (F3) and recollection (R) responses. In Experiment 1, visual scanning behaviour at retrieval distinguished familiarity-based from recollection-based recognition. Recollection, relative to strength-matched familiarity, involved significantly larger pupil dilations and more dispersed fixation patterns. In Experiment 2, the hippocampus was selectively activated for recollected stimuli, while no evidence of activation was observed in the hippocampus for strong familiarity of matched accuracy. Recollection also activated the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), while the adjacent perirhinal cortex (PRC) was actively engaged in response to strong familiarity (than to recollection). Activity in prefrontal and parietal areas differentiated familiarity and recollection in both the extent and the magnitude of activity they exhibited, while the dorsomedial thalamus showed selective familiarity-related activity, and the ventrolateral and anterior thalamus selective recollection-related activity. These findings are consistent with the view that the hippocampus and PRC play contrasting roles in supporting recollection and familiarity and that these differences are not a result of differences in memory strength. Overall, the combined pupil dilation, eye movement and fMRI data suggest the operation of recognition mechanisms drawing differentially on familiarity and recollection, whose neural bases are distinct within the MTL. PMID:22902538

  13. Dogs’ attention towards humans depends on their relationship, not only on social familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Lisa; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Both in humans and non-human animals it has been shown that individuals attend more to those they have previously interacted with and/or that they are more closely associated with than to unfamiliar individuals. Whether this preference is mediated by mere social familiarity based on exposure or by the specific relationship between the two individuals, however, remains unclear. The domestic dog is an interesting subject in this line of research as it lives in the human environment and regularly interacts with numerous humans, yet it often has a particularly close relationship with its owner. Therefore, we investigated how long dogs (Canis familiaris) would attend to the actions of two familiar humans and one unfamiliar experimenter, while varying whether dogs had a close relationship with only one or both familiar humans. Our data provide evidence that social familiarity by itself cannot account for dogs’ increased attention towards their owners since they only attended more to those familiar humans with whom they also had a close relationship. PMID:23224364

  14. Rhesus Monkeys See Who They Hear: Spontaneous Cross-Modal Memory for Familiar Conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Ikuma; Hampton, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys. PMID:21887244

  15. Familiarity, but not Recollection, Supports the Between-Subject Production Effect in Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Five experiments explored the basis of the between-subjects production effect in recognition memory as represented by differences in the recollection and familiarity of produced (read aloud) and nonproduced (read silently) words. Using remember-know judgments (Experiment 1b) and a dual-process signal-detection approach applied to confidence ratings (Experiments 2b and 3), we observed that production influences familiarity but not recollection when manipulated between-subjects. This is in contrast to within-subject designs, which reveal a clear effect of production on both recollection and familiarity (Experiments 1a and 2a). Our findings resolve contention concerning apparent design effects: Whereas the within-subject production effect is subserved by separable recollective- and familiarity-based components, the between-subjects production effect is subserved by the familiarity-based component alone. Our findings support a role for the relative distinctiveness of production as a means of guiding recognition judgments (at least when manipulated within-subjects), but we also propose that production influences the strength of produced items, explaining the persistence of the effect in between-subjects designs. PMID:27244352

  16. Testing the absolute-tempo hypothesis: context effects for familiar and unfamiliar songs.

    PubMed

    Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    In two experiments, we investigated context effects on tempo judgments for familiar and unfamiliar songs performed by popular artists. In Experiment 1, participants made comparative tempo judgments to a remembered standard for song clips drawn from either a slow or a fast context, created by manipulating the tempos of the same songs. Although both familiar and unfamiliar songs showed significant shifts in their points of subjective equality toward the tempo context values, more-familiar songs showed significantly reduced contextual bias. In Experiment 2, tempo pleasantness ratings showed significant context effects in which the ordering of tempos on the pleasantness scale differed across contexts, with the most pleasant tempo shifting toward the contextual values, an assimilation of ideal points. Once again, these effects were significant but reduced for the more-familiar songs. The moderating effects of song familiarity support a weak version of the absolute-tempo hypothesis, in which long-term memory for tempo reduces but does not eliminate contextual effects. Thus, although both relative and absolute tempo information appear to be encoded in memory, the absolute representation may be subject to rapid revision by recently experienced tempo-altered versions of the same song. PMID:24972559

  17. The effect of familiarity on behavior of kenneled dogs during interactions with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Pullen, Anne J; Merrill, Ralph J N; Bradshaw, John W S

    2013-01-01

    Kenneled environments often prevent direct physical contact between dogs, potentially causing stress, and so it has been recommended that such contact should be provided. This study examined the effect of familiarity on the behavior of dogs during off-lead interaction. Kenneled dogs (3 breeds) were given 15-min off-lead interactions with a familiar dog and an unfamiliar dog; the behavior of the focal dog and the distance between the dogs were recorded. More time in contact and interaction behaviors were recorded at 0 to 3 min with unfamiliar dogs than with familiar dogs. At 9 to 12 min, familiar pairs spent more time within 5 body lengths and more time being followed than unfamiliar pairs, who spent more time at more than 5 body lengths apart. This suggests that the initial interaction is more important when dogs are unfamiliar, but once this "greeting" has occurred, unfamiliar pairs are more likely to investigate their surroundings independently rather than together. Breed differences were observed only at 0 to 3 min. The study suggests that familiarity should be taken into account when assessing the effectiveness of conspecific contact as a potential enrichment for kennel-housed dogs. PMID:23282294

  18. Age-related differences in pointing accuracy in familiar and unfamiliar environments.

    PubMed

    Muffato, Veronica; Della Giustina, Martina; Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in spatial mental representations of familiar and unfamiliar places. Nineteen young adults (aged 18-23) and 19 older adults (aged 60-74), all living in the same Italian town, completed a set of visuospatial measures and then pointed in the direction of familiar landmarks in their town and in the direction of landmarks in an unknown environment studied on a map. Results showed that older adults were less accurate in the visuospatial tasks and in pointing at landmarks in an unfamiliar environment, but performed as well as the young adults when pointing to familiar places. Pointing performance correlated with visuospatial tests accuracy in both familiar and unfamiliar environments, while only pointing in an unknown environment correlated with visuospatial working memory (VSWM). The spatial representation of well-known places seems to be well preserved in older adults (just as well as in young adults), while it declines for unfamiliar environments. Spatial abilities sustain the mental representations of both familiar and unfamiliar environments, while the support of VSWM resources is only needed for the latter. PMID:26224272

  19. A Comparison of Zoo Animal Behavior in the Presence of Familiar and Unfamiliar People.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rosemary Anne; Melfi, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    As recorded in domestic nonhuman animals, regular interactions between animals in zoos and keepers and the resulting relationship formed (human-animal relationship [HAR]) are likely to influence the animals' behaviors with associated welfare consequences. HAR formation requires that zoo animals distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. This ability was tested by comparing zoo animal behavioral responses to familiar (routine) keepers and unfamiliar keepers (participants in the "Keeper for the Day" program). Study subjects included 1 African elephant (Loxodonta Africana), 3 Rothschild's giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi), 2 Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), and 2 slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Different behavior was evident and observed as decreased avoidance behavior toward familiar keepers (t7 = 6.00, p <  .001). This finding suggests the zoo animals have a lower level of fear toward familiar keepers. Keeper familiarity did not significantly affect any other behavioral measure. This finding suggests that in the current study, unfamiliar keeper presence did not appear to have detrimental effects. Furthermore, unfamiliar keeper-animal interactions could provide an increased number of positive human-animal interactions and potentially enhance animal welfare. PMID:26960022

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial of RSS Reader Use and Resident Familiarity With Primary Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Brian P.; Desai, Bimal R.; Callahan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness of the primary literature is important for clinicians. Lack of time, poor access to information, and lack of personal initiative may be barriers for some trainees. Really Simple Syndication (RSS) readers aggregate web content, such as journal abstracts, in a single location for easy viewing. Objective We assessed whether use of an RSS reader would increase resident reading frequency, familiarity, and understanding of the primary literature. Methods We conducted a single-center, prospective, randomized, nonblinded, controlled trial of the effect of RSS reader use on knowledge of recent literature among pediatrics residents. Residents were randomly assigned to the RSS group (education in RSS use and receipt of the Pediatrics RSS feed) or a control group that followed standard reading practices. Outcome measures were differences on baseline and monthly surveys of reading frequency, familiarity with recent publications, and knowledge of recent articles (familiarity validation). Results Of 144 eligible residents, 79 (55%) were enrolled in the survey, with 81% (64 of 79) of participants completing all surveys. The RSS reader use was correlated with greater familiarity with selected articles, but not with improved understanding (as measured by ability to answer multiple-choice questions about content). Participants reported satisfaction with the RSS reader based on its ease of use, accessibility, and as an aid in supplementing reading. Conclusions The RSS reader use was accepted by residents and associated with increased familiarity with the primary literature but not with increased understanding. PMID:24949145

  1. The Role of Issue Familiarity And Social Norms: Findings on New College Students’ Alcohol Use Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Rimal, Rajiv N.; Mollen, Saar

    2013-01-01

    Background Scholars in a variety of disciplines are interested in understanding the conditions under which social norms affect human behavior. Following the distinction made between descriptive and injunctive norms by the focus theory of normative conduct, the theory of normative social behavior predicts that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms, outcome expectations, and group identity. We extended the theory by testing the proposition that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior would be greater under conditions of greater issue familiarity, defined as the ease with which one can cognitively access the behavior or behavioral issue. Design and Methods The model was tested in the domain of alcohol consumption intentions by conducting a survey among incoming students (n=719) to a large university in the United States. Data indicated that students in the sample were well representative of the university population. Results The influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was moderated by issue familiarity, as predicted. Familiarity was a facilitator of behavior: the influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was greater under conditions of high, rather than low, familiarity. The overall model explained 53% of the variance in alcohol consumption intentions. Conclusions Public health interventions promoting health behaviors need to take into account the extent to which the behaviors are familiar to the target audience. The influence of norms appears to be weaker when the behavior is unfamiliar or novel. Implications for theory and interventions for reducing alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:25170478

  2. Building knowledge requires bricks, not sand: The critical role of familiar constituents in learning.

    PubMed

    Reder, Lynne M; Liu, Xiaonan L; Keinath, Alexander; Popov, Vencislav

    2016-02-01

    Despite vast efforts to better understand human learning, some principles have been overlooked; specifically, that less familiar stimuli are more difficult to combine to create new knowledge and that this is because less familiar stimuli consume more working memory resources. Participants previously unfamiliar with Chinese characters were trained to discriminate visually similar characters during a visual search task over the course of a month, during which half of the characters appeared much more frequently. Ability to form associations involving these characters was tested via cued recall for novel associations consisting of two Chinese characters and an English word. Each week performance improved on the cued-recall task. Crucially, however, even though all Chinese character pairs were novel each week, those pairs consisting of more familiar characters were more easily learned. Performance on a working-memory task was better for more familiar stimuli, consistent with the claim that familiar stimuli consume fewer working memory resources. These findings have implications for optimal instruction, including second language learning. PMID:26139355

  3. Familiarity, but not recollection, supports the between-subject production effect in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jonathan M; Ozubko, Jason D

    2016-06-01

    Five experiments explored the basis of the between-subjects production effect in recognition memory as represented by differences in the recollection and familiarity of produced (read aloud) and nonproduced (read silently) words. Using remember-know judgments (Experiment 1b) and a dual-process signal-detection approach applied to confidence ratings (Experiments 2b and 3), we observed that production influences familiarity but not recollection when manipulated between-subjects. This is in contrast to within-subject designs, which reveal a clear effect of production on both recollection and familiarity (Experiments 1a and 2a). Our findings resolve contention concerning apparent design effects: Whereas the within-subject production effect is subserved by separable recollective- and familiarity-based components, the between-subjects production effect is subserved by the familiarity-based component alone. Our findings support a role for the relative distinctiveness of production as a means of guiding recognition judgments (at least when manipulated within-subjects), but we also propose that production influences the strength of produced items, explaining the persistence of the effect in between-subjects designs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27244352

  4. The effects of tempo and familiarity on children's affective interpretation of music.

    PubMed

    Mote, Jasmine

    2011-06-01

    When and how does one learn to associate emotion with music? This study attempted to address this issue by examining whether preschool children use tempo as a cue in determining whether a song is happy or sad. Instrumental versions of children's songs were played at different tempos to adults and children ages 3 to 5 years. Familiar and unfamiliar songs were used to examine whether familiarity affected children's identification of emotion in music. The results indicated that adults, 4 year olds and 5 year olds rated fast songs as significantly happier than slow songs. However, 3 year olds failed to rate fast songs differently than slow songs at above-chance levels. Familiarity did not significantly affect children's identification of happiness and sadness in music. PMID:21668112

  5. Adult social behavior with familiar partners following neonatal amygdala or hippocampus damage.

    PubMed

    Moadab, Gilda; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Amaral, David G

    2015-06-01

    The social behavior in a cohort of adult animals who received ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala (4 female, 3 male) or hippocampus (5 female, 3 male) as neonates, and sham-operated controls (4 female, 4 male) was evaluated in their home environments with the familiar opposite sex monkey (pair-mate) with whom they were housed. Amygdala-lesioned animals spent less time with their familiar partners and engaged in higher frequencies of stress-related behaviors than control animals. Hippocampus-lesioned animals spent significantly more time socially engaging their pair-mates than both control and amygdala-lesioned animals. These results suggest that early damage to the amygdala or hippocampus subtly alter patterns of adult social behavior in a familiar context and stand in sharp contrast to extant studies of early damage to the amygdala or hippocampus and to the more dramatically altered patterns of behavior observed after damage to the adult amygdala. PMID:26030432

  6. Visual laterality in dolphins when looking at (un)familiar humans.

    PubMed

    Thieltges, Hélène; Lemasson, Alban; Kuczaj, Stan; Böye, Martin; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the evolution of brain lateralisation including the origin of human visual laterality requires an understanding of brain lateralisation in related animal species. However, little is known about the visual laterality of marine mammals. To help correct this lack, we evaluated the influence of familiarity with a human on the visual response of five captive bottlenose dolphins. Dolphins gazed longer at unfamiliar than at familiar humans, revealing their capacity to discriminate between these two types of stimuli. Pooled data for responses to all test stimuli demonstrated a preferential use of left eye by all our five dolphin subjects. However, familiarity with particular humans did not influence preferential use of a given eye. Finally, we compared our results with those on other vertebrates. PMID:21140186

  7. When does familiarity promote versus undermine interpersonal attraction? A proposed integrative model from erstwhile adversaries.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Eli J; Norton, Michael I; Reis, Harry T; Ariely, Dan; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Frost, Jeana H; Maniaci, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear that the limitations of our conceptualizations of the familiarity-attraction link, as well as the limitations of prior research, were masking a set of higher order principles capable of integrating these diverse conceptualizations. This realization led us to adopt a broader perspective, which focuses on three distinct relationship stages-awareness, surface contact, and mutuality-and suggests that the influence of familiarity on attraction depends on both the nature and the stage of the relationship between perceivers and targets. This article introduces the framework that emerged from our discussions and suggests directions for research to investigate its validity. PMID:25910379

  8. Does this sound familiar? Effects of timbre change on episodic retrieval of novel melodies.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kathrin; Czernochowski, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    Three experiments investigated episodic retrieval of novel melodies and tested how a change in timbre between study and test affects the two processes underlying recognition memory, conscious recollection and familiarity. In Experiments 1 and 2, conscious recollection and familiarity were operationalized using the remember/know paradigm. We additionally assessed the influence of the number of presentations during learning in Experiment 1, and the effect of massed versus distributed learning in Experiment 2. Experiment 3 confirmed that participants could also indicate a change in timbre explicitly (same versus different timbre classifications). In all experiments, melodies were better recognized when the timbre at study and test was identical. Effects of timbre change were more pronounced for recollection than familiarity. Distributed learning specifically enhanced the same-timbre advantage on recollection. Together, these results suggest that timbre serves both as a context cue and as an integrated feature of a melody. PMID:23562848

  9. Prefrontal-temporal disconnection impairs recognition memory but not familiarity discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Philip G.F.; Baxter, Mark G.; Gaffan, David

    2013-01-01

    Neural mechanisms in the temporal lobe are essential for recognition memory. Evidence from human functional imaging and neuropsychology and monkey neurophysiology and neuropsychology also suggests a role for prefrontal cortex in recognition memory. To examine the interaction of these cortical regions in support of recognition memory we tested rhesus monkeys with prefrontal-inferotemporal (PFC-IT) cortical disconnection on two recognition memory tasks, a ‘Constant Negative’ task and delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). In the Constant Negative task monkeys were presented with sets of 100 discrimination problems. In each problem one unrewarded object was presented once every day, and became familiar over the course of several days testing. The other, rewarded object was always novel. In this task monkeys learned to avoid the familiar ‘constant negatives’ and choose the novel objects, so performance on this task is guided by a sense of familiarity for the constant negatives. Following PFC-IT disconnection monkeys were severely impaired at reacquiring the rule (to avoid familiar items) but were subsequently unimpaired at acquiring new constant negative problems, thus displaying intact familiarity recognition. The same monkeys were impaired in the acquisition of the DNMS task, as well as memory for lists of objects. This dissociation between two tests of recognition memory is best explained in terms of our general hypothesis that PFC-IT interactions support the representation of temporally complex events, which is necessary in DNMS but not in Constant Negative. These findings, furthermore, indicate that stimulus familiarity can be represented in the temporal cortex without input from the prefrontal cortex. PMID:23739963

  10. Recognition of personally familiar faces and functional connectivity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Sophie; Moyse, Evelyne; Bahri, Mohamed A; Salmon, Eric; Bastin, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Studies have reported that patients in the severe stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience difficulties recognizing their own faces in recent photographs. Two case reports of late-stage AD showed that this loss of self-face recognition was temporally graded: photographs from the remote past were recognized more easily than more recent photographs. Little is known about the neural correlates of own face recognition abilities in AD patients, while neuroimaging studies in healthy adults have related these abilities to a bilateral fronto-parieto-occipital network. In this study, two behavioral experiments (experiments 1 and 2) and one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment (second part of experiment 2) were conducted to compare mild AD patients (experiment 1) and moderate AD patients (experiment 2) with healthy older participants in a recognition task involving self and familiar faces from different decades of the participants' life. In moderate AD patients, variable performance allowed us to examine correlations between scores and resting-state fMRI in order to link behavioral data to cerebral activity. At the behavioral level, the results revealed that, in mild AD, self and familiar face recognition was preserved. Moreover, mild AD patients and healthy older participants showed an inverse temporal gradient, with faster recognition of self and familiar recent photographs than self and familiar remote photographs. However, in moderate AD, both self and familiar face recognition were affected. fMRI results showed that the higher the connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG), the lower the self and familiar face recognition scores in moderate AD patients. Given that previous studies have related the superior frontal region to control processes rather than face recognition processes, these results might reflect less segregation and more interference between brain networks in AD. In

  11. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

  12. Implications of recent findings for current cognitive models of familiar people recognition.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present survey was to review clinical and experimental data concerning the visual (face), auditory (voice) and verbal (name) channels through which familiar people are recognized, by contrasting these data with assumptions made by modular cognitive models of familiar people recognition. Particular attention was paid to the fact that visual (face), auditory (voice) and verbal (name) recognition modalities have different hemispheric representations and that these asymmetries have important implications for cognitive models which have not considered hemispheric differences as an important variable in familiar people recognition. Several lines of research have, indeed, shown that familiar faces and voices are mainly underpinned by the right hemisphere, whereas names are mostly subsumed by the left hemisphere. Furthermore, anatomo-clinical data have shown that familiarity judgements are not generated at the level of the Person Identity Nodes (PINs), as suggested by influential cognitive models, but at the level of the modality-specific recognition units, with a right hemisphere dominance in the generation of face and voice familiarity feelings. Additionally, clinical and experimental data have shown that PINs should not be considered as a simple gateway to a unitary semantic system, which stores information about people in an abstract and amodal format, but as structures involved in the storage and retrieval of person-specific information, preferentially represented in a sensory-motor format in the right hemisphere and in a language-mediated format in the left hemisphere. Finally, clinical and experimental data have shown that before the level of the person identity nodes (PINs) a cross-communication exists between the perceptual channels concerning faces and voices, but not between the latter and personal names. These data show that person-specific representations are mainly based on perceptual (face and voice) information in the right hemisphere and on

  13. Affect and Cognition in Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects

    PubMed Central

    van Giesen, Roxanne I.

    2015-01-01

    At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes. PMID:26517876

  14. Social familiarity affects Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Claudia; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other’s calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other’s alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone). At both sites, we found specific acoustic markers in male alarm call responses that discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers, but response patterns were site-specific. On Tiwai Island, males responded to familiar males’ eagle alarms with ‘standard’ eagle alarm calls, whereas unfamiliar males triggered acoustically atypical eagle alarms. The opposite was found in Taï Forest where males responded to unfamiliar males’ eagle alarm calls with ‘standard’ eagle alarms, and with atypical eagle alarms to familiar males’ calls. Moreover, only Taï, but not Tiwai, males also marked familiarity with the caller in their leopard-induced alarms. We concluded that male Diana monkeys encode not only predator type but also signaller familiarity in their alarm calls, although in population-specific ways. We explain these inter-site differences in vocal behaviour in terms of differences in predation pressure and population density. We discuss the adaptive function and implications of this behaviour for the origins of acoustic flexibility in primate communication. PMID:26998336

  15. Affect and Cognition in Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects.

    PubMed

    van Giesen, Roxanne I; Fischer, Arnout R H; van Dijk, Heleen; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2015-01-01

    At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes. PMID:26517876

  16. Neural mechanisms of repetition priming of familiar and globally unfamiliar visual objects.

    PubMed

    Soldan, Anja; Habeck, Christian; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that repetition priming of visual objects is typically accompanied by a reduction in activity for repeated compared to new stimuli (repetition suppression). However, the spatial distribution and direction (suppression vs. enhancement) of neural repetition effects can depend on the pre-experimental familiarity of stimuli. The first goal of this study was to further probe the link between repetition priming and repetition suppression/enhancement for visual objects and how this link is affected by stimulus familiarity. A second goal was to examine whether priming of familiar and unfamiliar objects following a single stimulus repetition is supported by the same processes as priming following multiple repetitions within the same task. In this endeavor, we examined both between and within-subject correlations between priming and fMRI repetition effects for familiar and globally unfamiliar visual objects during the first and third repetitions of the stimuli. We included reaction time of individual trials as a linear regressor to identify brain regions whose repetition effects varied with response facilitation on a trial-by-trial basis. The results showed that repetition suppression in bilateral fusiform gyrus, was selectively correlated with priming of familiar objects that had been repeated once, likely reflecting facilitated perceptual processing or the sharpening of perceptual representations. Priming during the third repetition was correlated with repetition suppression in prefrontal and parietal areas for both familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, possibly reflecting a shift from top-down controlled to more automatic processing that occurs for both item types. PMID:20450898

  17. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

  18. Assessing the influence of recollection and familiarity in memory for own- versus other-race faces.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Jessica L; Susa, Kyle J; Meissner, Christian A

    2009-02-01

    In the present research, we examined the contributions of recollection and familiarity in memory for own- and other-race faces. In Experiment 1, we used a repetition lag paradigm (Jennings & Jacoby, 1997) to demonstrate the typical cross-race effect with respect to discrimination accuracy and response bias. Participants were more likely to commit repetition errors by falsely recognizing repeated other-race faces. In Experiment 2, we used process-dissociation equations to estimate differences in recollection and familiarity. As predicted, results showed a greater reliance on recollection-based processing for own-race faces. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19145017

  19. Familiarity and Personal Experience as Mediators of Recall When Planning for Future Contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Stanley B.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Delton, Andrew W.; Lax, Moshe L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that planning tasks enhance recall when the context of planning (a) is self-referential and (b) draws on familiar scenarios represented in episodic memory. Specifically, we show that when planning tasks are sorted according to the degree to which they evoke memories of personally familiar scenarios (e.g., planning a picnic), recall is reliably superior to tasks that fail to do so (e.g., planning an Arctic trek). We discuss the implications of these findings for planning tasks and their relation to episodic memory. PMID:21859232

  20. Lifetimes and stabilities of familiar explosives molecular adduct complexes during ion mobility measurements

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Alan; DeBord, John Daniel; Ridgeway, Mark; Park, Melvin; Eiceman, Gary; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Trapped ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) was utilized for the separation and identification of familiar explosives in complex mixtures. For the first time, molecular adduct complex lifetimes, relative stability, binding energies and candidate structures are reported for familiar explosives. Experimental and theoretical results showed that the adduct size and reactivity, complex binding energy and the explosive structure tailors the stability of the molecular adduct complex. TIMS flexibility to adapt the mobility separation as a function of the molecular adduct complex stability (i.e., short or long IMS experiments / low or high IMS resolution) permits targeted measurements of explosives in complex mixtures with higher confidence levels. PMID:26153567

  1. Development of visual expertise for reading: rapid emergence of visual familiarity for an artificial script

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Urs; Blau, Vera C.; Yoncheva, Yuliya N.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Adults produce left-lateralized N170 responses to visual words relative to control stimuli, even within tasks that do not require active reading. This specialization begins in preschoolers as a right-lateralized N170 effect. We investigated whether this developmental shift reflects an early learning phenomenon, such as attaining visual familiarity with a script, by training adults in an artificial script and measuring N170 responses before and afterward. Training enhanced the N170 response, especially over the right hemisphere. This suggests N170 sensitivity to visual familiarity with a script before reading becomes sufficiently automatic to drive left-lateralized effects in a shallow encoding task. PMID:20614357

  2. FAMILIARITY TRANSFER AS AN EXPLANATION OF THE DÉJÀ VU EFFECT.

    PubMed

    Małecki, M

    2015-06-01

    Déjà vu is often explained in terms of an unconscious transfer of familiarity between a familiar object or objects and accompanying new objects. However, empirical research tests more the priming effectiveness than such a transfer. This paper reviews the main explanations of déjà vu, proposes a cognitive model of the phenomenon, and tests its six major assumptions. The model states that a sense of familiarity can be felt toward an objectively new stimulus (point 1) and that it can be transferred from a known stimulus to a novel one (point 2) in a situation where the person is unaware of such a transfer (point 3). The criteria for déjà vu are that the known and the novel stimuli may have graphical or semantic similarity, but differences exclude priming explanations (point 4); the familiarity measure should be of an non-rational nature (sense of familiarity rather than recognition; point 5); and that the feeling of familiarity toward a novel stimuli produces a conflict, which could be measured by means of increased reaction (point 6). 119 participants were tested in three experiments. The participants were to assess the novel stimuli in terms of their sense of familiarity. The novel stimuli were primed or were not primed by the known stimulus (Exp. 1) or primed by the known vs a novel stimulus (Exp. 2 and 3). The priming was subliminal in all the experiments. Reaction times were measured in Exps. 2 and 3. The participants assessed the novel stimuli as more familiar when they were preceded by a known stimulus than when they were not (Exp. 1) or when they were preceded by a novel stimulus (Exps. 2 and 3). Reaction times were longer for assessments preceded by known stimulus than for assessments preceded by a novel stimulus, which contradicts the priming explanations. The results seem to support all six points of the proposed model of the mechanisms underlying the déjà vu experience. PMID:25871565

  3. Influence of male gonadal hormones and familiarity on pregnancy interruption in prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Smale, L

    1988-08-01

    Pregnancy interruption (PI) was examined in female prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, exposed to stimuli from males 7 to 12 days after pairing. Urine from unfamiliar males interrupted pregnancy when placed directly on the external nares of newly mated females, but urine from familiar stud males was without effect. Castration of males did not reduce the efficacy of unfamiliar male urine in interrupting pregnancy. The neuroendocrine system of female prairie voles responded selectively to male urine as a function of its familiarity; the efficacy of male stimuli leading to PI was not dependent on gonadal hormones. PMID:3061485

  4. Episodic over-Distribution: A Signature Effect of Familiarity without Recollection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

    2008-01-01

    When recognition probes seem familiar but their presentation cannot be recollected, dual-process models predict that they will be attributed to too many presentation contexts--most dramatically, to multiple contexts that are mutually contradictory. This is the phenomenon of episodic over-distribution. In the conjoint-recognition and…

  5. Aesthetic Education in the Early Years: Exploring Familiar and Unfamiliar Personal-Cultural Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Jolyn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a double-bind in early schooling: a persistent value placed upon presenting multicultural art forms to a child constructed as incapable of grasping what is not familiar. The author argues that this bind is situated within dominant developmental discourses that emphasize the appropriateness of concrete and sequential…

  6. Does Topic Familiarity Affect Assessed Difficulty and Actual Performance on Reading Comprehension Tests in LSP?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Arna S.; Shoham, Miriam

    A study investigated the hypothesis that topic familiarity and assessed difficulty of a second language text correlated positively with performance on reading comprehension tests in languages for special purposes (LSP). Subjects were 177 advanced students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at Ben Gurion University (Israel). Faculty from the…

  7. Testing Reading Comprehension in LSP: Does Topic Familiarity Affect Assessed Difficulty and Actual Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Arna S.; Shoham, Miriam

    1990-01-01

    Investigates hypothesis that topic familiarity and assessed difficulty of a text correlate positively with performance on reading comprehension tests. A study of 177 advanced students of English for Specific Purposes indicates that students' subjective evaluation of the relative difficulty of a reading text is not always a reliable index of their…

  8. No Measured Effect of a Familiar Contextual Object on Color Constancy.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, Erika; Brainard, David H

    2014-08-01

    Some familiar objects have a typical color, such as the yellow of a banana. The presence of such objects in a scene is a potential cue to the scene illumination, since the light reflected from them should on average be consistent with their typical surface reflectance. Although there are many studies on how the identity of an object affects how its color is perceived, little is known about whether the presence of a familiar object in a scene helps the visual system stabilize the color appearance of other objects with respect to changes in illumination. We used a successive color matching procedure in three experiments designed to address this question. Across the experiments we studied a total of 6 subjects (2 in Experiment 1, 3 in Experiment 2, and 4 in Experiment 3) with partial overlap of subjects between experiments. We compared measured color constancy across conditions in which a familiar object cue to the illuminant was available with conditions in which such a cue was not present. Overall, our results do not reveal a reliable improvement in color constancy with the addition of a familiar object to a scene. An analysis of the experimental power of our data suggests that if there is such an effect, it is small: less than approximately a change of 0.09 in a constancy index where an absence of constancy corresponds to an index value of 0 and perfect constancy corresponds to an index value of 1. PMID:25313267

  9. 46 CFR 15.1105 - Familiarization and basic safety-training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Familiarization and basic safety-training. 15.1105... performing it can produce evidence of having— (1) Received appropriate approved basic safety training or...-training. (a) On board a seagoing vessel, no person may assign any person to perform shipboard duties,...

  10. 46 CFR 15.1105 - Familiarization and basic safety-training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Familiarization and basic safety-training. 15.1105... performing it can produce evidence of having— (1) Received appropriate approved basic safety training or...-training. (a) On board a seagoing vessel, no person may assign any person to perform shipboard duties,...

  11. 46 CFR 15.1105 - Familiarization and basic safety-training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Familiarization and basic safety-training. 15.1105... performing it can produce evidence of having— (1) Received appropriate approved basic safety training or...-training. (a) On board a seagoing vessel, no person may assign any person to perform shipboard duties,...

  12. 46 CFR 15.1105 - Familiarization and basic safety-training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Familiarization and basic safety-training. 15.1105... performing it can produce evidence of having— (1) Received appropriate approved basic safety training or...-training. (a) On board a seagoing vessel, no person may assign any person to perform shipboard duties,...

  13. Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Williams Syndrome in Novel and Familiar Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in…

  14. Could Masked Conceptual Primes Increase Recollection? The Subtleties of Measuring Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection…

  15. Language Learner Strategy by Chinese-Speaking EFL Readers When Comprehending Familiar and Unfamiliar Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the language learner and test-taking strategies used by Chinese-speaking graduate students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in an English multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. Thirty-six participants at a large mid-western university performed three tasks: A content knowledge vocabulary…

  16. A Cross-Linguistic Investigation of the Effect of Raters' Accent Familiarity on Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Becky; Alegre, Analucia; Eisenberg, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The project aimed to examine the effect of raters' familiarity with accents on their judgments of non-native speech. Participants included three groups of raters who were either from Spanish Heritage, Spanish Non-Heritage, or Chinese Heritage backgrounds (n = 16 in each group) using Winke & Gass's (2013) definition of a heritage learner as…

  17. Effects of chlordiazepoxide, food familiarization, and prior shock experience on food choice in rats.

    PubMed

    Cooper, S J; McClelland, A

    1980-01-01

    Chlordiazepoxide (5, 10 mg/kg) increased the time devoted to eating familiar laboratory chow without altering the response to a range of novel, palatable foods which were also available to the food-deprived rats. Prior experience with the same range of alternative foods (food familiarization) radically changed the effect of the drug. After familiarization with these foods, chow was virtually ignored as a food choice, indicating its low relative palatability; chlordiazepoxide then prolonged the time eating the familiarized foods without significantly increasing the response to chow. These results are not consistent with an anti-food neophobia action of chordiazepoxide. They suggest instead that chlordiazepoxide enhances feeding responses related to food saliency. Footshock, delivered two days before the food choice test affected performance within the test. Its effects were opposite those of chlordiazepoxide, but they competed additively with the drug's effects. These results indicate that chlordiazepoxide's action was not simply to remove any inhibitory effect on feeding produced by fear; instead the drug promoted approach to food antagonizing any deficit in approach associated with fear. These findings are viewed as consistent with an action of chlordiazepoxide to augment the level of feeding motivation. Chlordiazepoxide (15 mg/kg) may act to overcome food neophobia. PMID:7367459

  18. Perception Precedes Computation: Can Familiarity Preferences Explain Apparent Calculation by Human Babies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David S.; Cocas, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies of 5-month-old infants explored whether a phenomenon reported by K. Wynn (1992) reflects a familiarity preference instead of a mathematical competence. Experiment 1 was a conceptual replication of Wynn's study. When data were analyzed with the relatively liberal statistical approach used by Wynn, the original phenomenon was replicated.…

  19. Internal Consistency of Performance Evaluations as a Function of Music Expertise and Excerpt Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Daryl W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music experience and excerpt familiarity on the internal consistency of performance evaluations. Participants included nonmusic majors who had not participated in high school music ensembles, nonmusic majors who had participated in high school music ensembles, music majors, and experts…

  20. Students' Difficulties with Applying a Familiar Formula in an Unfamiliar Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Maureen; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses problems many tenth grade students have when asked to apply a familiar formula in an unfamiliar context: specifically factoring a compound expression. Some of their attempts at solution are presented and discussed in terms of structure sense. (Contains 1 table.) [For complete proceedings, see ED496848.

  1. Familiarity or Conceptual Priming: Event-Related Potentials in Name Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Georg; Hellman, Johan; Johansson, Mikael; Rosen, Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    Recent interest has been drawn to the separate components of recognition memory, as studied by event-related potentials (ERPs). In ERPs, recollection is usually accompanied by a late, parietal positive deflection. An earlier, frontal component has been suggested to be a counterpart, accompanying recognition by familiarity. However, this component,…

  2. Effects of Multimodal Presentation and Stimulus Familiarity on Auditory and Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing. In Experiment 1, 10-month-olds were habituated to either an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus, or an auditory-visual multimodal stimulus. Processing time was assessed during the habituation phase, and discrimination of…

  3. Cultural Familiarity in Inferential and Literal Comprehension in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alptekin, Cem

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the role of culturally familiar background knowledge in inferential and literal comprehension in L2 reading. Ninety-eight Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) university students were divided into two groups of equivalent English proficiency. They read either the original of an American short story or a "nativized"…

  4. Making the Familiar Strange: Creative Cultural Storytelling within the Communication Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinne, Kristen C.

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, students employ mock campfire storytelling to "make the familiar strange" in the same spirit as Horace Miner's (1956) classic tale of the "Nacirema." Students work individually, in pairs, or as small groups (around three) to create a whimsical story that deconstructs a mundane, everyday ritual (event, activity, practice) into a…

  5. The Influence of Second Language Experience and Accent Familiarity on Oral Proficiency Rating: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winke, Paula; Gass, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether raters' knowledge of test takers' first language (L1) affects how the raters orient themselves to the task of rating oral speech. The authors qualitatively investigated the effects of accent familiarity on raters' score assignment processes. Twenty-six trained raters with a second language of Mandarin…

  6. Cross-modal individual recognition in domestic horses (Equus caballus) extends to familiar humans

    PubMed Central

    Proops, Leanne; McComb, Karen

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been shown that some non-human animals can cross-modally recognize members of their own taxon. What is unclear is just how plastic this recognition system can be. In this study, we investigate whether an animal, the domestic horse, is capable of spontaneous cross-modal recognition of individuals from a morphologically very different species. We also provide the first insights into how cross-modal identity information is processed by examining whether there are hemispheric biases in this important social skill. In our preferential looking paradigm, subjects were presented with two people and playbacks of their voices to determine whether they were able to match the voice with the person. When presented with familiar handlers subjects could match the specific familiar person with the correct familiar voice. Horses were significantly better at performing the matching task when the congruent person was standing on their right, indicating marked hemispheric specialization (left hemisphere bias) in this ability. These results are the first to demonstrate that cross-modal recognition in animals can extend to individuals from phylogenetically very distant species. They also indicate that processes governed by the left hemisphere are central to the cross-modal matching of visual and auditory information from familiar individuals in a naturalistic setting. PMID:22593108

  7. Constraints on View Combination: Effects of Self-Occlusion and Differences among Familiar and Novel Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong,Alan C.-N.; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    The use of multiple familiar views of objects to facilitate recognition of novel views has been addressed in a number of behavioral studies, but the results have not been conclusive. The present study was a comprehensive examination of view combination for different types of novel views (internal or external to the studied views) and different…

  8. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Substance Abuse Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    When training counseling students, it is important to familiarize them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. The bulk of the document is comprised of a review of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). ESTs or evidence-based treatments are grounded in studies recommended by the American…

  9. Effects of Presentation Mode and Computer Familiarity on Summarization of Extended Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Guoxing

    2010-01-01

    Comparability studies on computer- and paper-based reading tests have focused on short texts and selected-response items via almost exclusively statistical modeling of test performance. The psychological effects of presentation mode and computer familiarity on individual students are under-researched. In this study, 157 students read extended…

  10. Listen to Your Mother!: The Role of Talker Familiarity in Infant Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Brittan A.; Newman, Rochelle S.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the acoustic cues infants might use to selectively attend to one talker in the presence of background noise. This study examined the role of talker familiarity as a possible cue. Infants either heard their own mothers (maternal-voice condition) or a different infant's mother (novel-voice condition) repeating isolated words…

  11. Recognition of familiar and unfamiliar melodies in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Barlett, J C; Halpern, A R; Dowling, W J

    1995-09-01

    We tested normal young and elderly adults and elderly Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on recognition memory for tunes. In Experiment 1, AD patients and age-matched controls received a study list and an old/new recognition test of highly familiar, traditional tunes, followed by a study list and test of novel tunes. The controls performed better than did the AD patients. The controls showed the "mirror effect" of increased hits and reduced false alarms for traditional versus novel tunes, whereas the patients false-alarmed as often to traditional tunes as to novel tunes. Experiment 2 compared young adults and healthy elderly persons using a similar design. Performance was lower in the elderly group, but both younger and older subjects showed the mirror effect. Experiment 3 produced confusion between preexperimental familiarity and intraexperimental familiarity by mixing traditional and novel tunes in the study lists and tests. Here, the subjects in both age groups resembled the patients of Experiment 1 in failing to show the mirror effect. Older subjects again performed more poorly, and they differed qualitatively from younger subjects in setting stricter criteria for more nameable tunes. Distinguishing different sources of global familiarity is a factor in tune recognition, and the data suggest that this type of source monitoring is impaired in AD and involves different strategies in younger and older adults. PMID:7476239

  12. Emotional processing of odors: evidence for a nonlinear relation between pleasantness and familiarity evaluations.

    PubMed

    Delplanque, Sylvain; Grandjean, Didier; Chrea, Christelle; Aymard, Laurence; Cayeux, Isabelle; Le Calvé, Bénédicte; Velazco, Maria Inés; Scherer, Klaus R; Sander, David

    2008-06-01

    Pleasantness, familiarity, and intensity are 3 interdependent dimensions commonly used to describe the perceived qualities of an odor. In particular, many empirical studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between familiarity and pleasantness. However, on the basis of both theoretical and methodological perspectives, we questioned the validity of such a relation for malodors. We report 2 studies based on subjective judgments of a large sample of odorants (Experiment 1) associated with autonomic recordings (Experiment 2). Multivariate exploratory analysis performed on the data splits the whole odorant set into 2 subsets composed, respectively, of unpleasant and pleasant odorants. Subsequent correlation analyses have shown that the relation between pleasantness and familiarity is specific for the pleasant odors in the 2 experiments. Moreover, autonomic activity was more important in response to malodors than to pleasant odors and was significantly correlated with unpleasantness ratings in the subset of unpleasant odors. These 2 studies argue in favor of a functional dissociation in the relations between both subjective and autonomic responses to odors as a function of pleasantness and indicate that researchers in the olfactory domain should consider the relations between pleasantness and familiarity as more complex than linear. PMID:18403383

  13. The Effect of Processing Fluency on Impressions of Familiarity and Liking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Deanne L.; Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Processing fluency has been shown to have wide-ranging effects on disparate evaluative judgments, including judgments of liking and familiarity. One account of such effects is the hedonic marking hypothesis (Winkielman, Schwarz, Fazendeiro, & Reber, 2003), which posits that fluency is directly linked to affective preferences via a positive…

  14. Children with Autism Show Altered Autonomic Adaptation to Novel and Familiar Social Partners.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Emily; Bernier, Raphael A; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2016-05-01

    Social deficits are fundamental to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and a growing body of research implicates altered functioning of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), including both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches. However, few studies have explored both branches concurrently in ASD, particularly within the context of social interaction. The current study investigates patterns of change in indices of sympathetic (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) cardiac influence as boys (ages 8-11 years) with (N = 18) and without (N = 18) ASD engage in dyadic social interaction with novel and familiar social partners. Groups showed similar patterns of autonomic change during interaction with the novel partner, but differed in heart rate, PEP, and RSA reactivity while interacting with a familiar partner. Boys without ASD evinced decreasing sympathetic and increasing parasympathetic influence, whereas boys with ASD increased in sympathetic influence. Boys without ASD also demonstrated more consistent ANS responses across partners than those with ASD, with parasympathetic responding differentiating familiar and novel interaction partners. Finally, PEP slopes with a familiar partner correlated with boys' social skills. Implications include the importance of considering autonomic state during clinical assessment and treatment, and the potential value of regulation strategies as a complement to intervention programs aiming to support social cognition and behavior. Autism Res 2016, 9: 579-591. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26305051

  15. L'univers familier de l'enfant africain (The Familiar Surroundings of the African Child).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njock, Pierre-Emmanuel

    This study on the African child had three objectives: (1) to become familiar with the environment of the African child, (2) to investigate the vocabulary to which the child is exposed at home and at school, and (3) to compare the vocabulary of the native language with that of the school. The first part of the study constituted a linguistic study…

  16. The Persistence of Erroneous Familiarity in an Epileptic Male: Challenging Perceptual Theories of Deja Vu Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of deja vu. Data-driven theories of deja vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the…

  17. Effects of Interlocutor Familiarity on Second Language Learning in Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteau, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in second language acquisition has focused on the effects of group work on learning by examining various factors (i.e., motivation, age, task, gender differences, etc.). One particular factor that has not been heavily investigated is interlocutor familiarity, which is at the forefront of the present study. Two separate classes (in…

  18. The Representation and Processing of Familiar Faces in Dyslexia: Differences in Age of Acquisition Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Spark, James H.; Moore, Viv

    2009-01-01

    Two under-explored areas of developmental dyslexia research, face naming and age of acquisition (AoA), were investigated. Eighteen dyslexic and 18 non-dyslexic university students named the faces of 50 well-known celebrities, matched for facial distinctiveness and familiarity. Twenty-five of the famous people were learned early in life, while the…

  19. Comprehension of Familiar and Unfamiliar Native Accents under Adverse Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adank, Patti; Evans, Bronwen G.; Stuart-Smith, Jane; Scott, Sophie K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative processing cost associated with comprehension of an unfamiliar native accent under adverse listening conditions. Two sentence verification experiments were conducted in which listeners heard sentences at various signal-to-noise ratios. In Experiment 1, these sentences were spoken in a familiar or an…

  20. Toddlers' Reactions to the Distress of Familiar Peers: The Importance of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Helen; Hay, Dale F.

    2004-01-01

    Reactions to peers' distress were recorded for 52 toddlers (hosts), 18 to 36 months old, who were observed playing with familiar peers in their own homes during 2 sessions, 6 months apart. Four contextual factors were explored: the host's responsibility for the guest's distress, similarity between the toddler and the distressed peer, relative…

  1. Song Recognition without Identification: When People Cannot "Name that Tune" but Can Recognize It as Familiar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between…

  2. Improving Students' Familiarity with the Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jane; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay; Lee, Sung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Because the family and consumer sciences body of knowledge (FCS-BOK) is the framework for the profession, students' familiarity with the FCS-BOK has implications for the profession. Using pre- (N = 78) and posttest (N = 43) data from students enrolled in an "Introduction to Family and Consumer Sciences" (FCS 160) undergraduate student…

  3. Assessing Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Students' Familiarity with the FCS-BOK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sung-Jin; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay; Walker, Jane

    2015-01-01

    University faculty who are teaching courses in family and consumer sciences (FCS) have sought to integrate the body of knowledge (BOK) in their curricula. This article reports on a study assessing the familiarity of Historically Black College and University (HBCU) students with the FCS-BOK by their major (specialized area) and classification…

  4. Novelty and Familiarity as Determinants of Infant Attention within the First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    Three related experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of novel and familiar stimuli on infant attention. The procedure in each of the experiments was to place an infant before a matrix panel composed of six rows of six lights. Two patterns of lights were used to obtain the infants' fixation time: (1) a point pattern, a single…

  5. Familiarity effects in the construction of facial-composite images using modern software systems.

    PubMed

    Frowd, Charlie D; Skelton, Faye C; Butt, Neelam; Hassan, Amal; Fields, Stephen; Hancock, Peter J B

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the effect of target familiarity on the construction of facial composites, as used by law enforcement to locate criminal suspects. Two popular software construction methods were investigated. Participants were shown a target face that was either familiar or unfamiliar to them and constructed a composite of it from memory using a typical 'feature' system, involving selection of individual facial features, or one of the newer 'holistic' types, involving repeated selection and breeding from arrays of whole faces. This study found that composites constructed of a familiar face were named more successfully than composites of an unfamiliar face; also, naming of composites of internal and external features was equivalent for construction of unfamiliar targets, but internal features were better named than the external features for familiar targets. These findings applied to both systems, although benefit emerged for the holistic type due to more accurate construction of internal features and evidence for a whole-face advantage. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work is of relevance to practitioners who construct facial composites with witnesses to and victims of crime, as well as for software designers to help them improve the effectiveness of their composite systems. PMID:22103723

  6. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Regulation to Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Lebow, Jocelyn; Bal, Elgiz; Lamb, Damon; Harden, Emily; Kramer, Alexis; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga; Porges, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether familiarity of partner affects social responses in children with autism. This study investigated heart rate regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: The myelinated vagus nerve's regulation of heart rate) and temporal-parietal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while nineteen 8- to 12-year-old children with…

  7. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words. PMID:18942034

  8. Effects of prospective thinking on intertemporal choice: The role of familiarity.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Laura K; Peters, Jan; Büchel, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie

    2015-10-01

    Imagining future events while performing an intertemporal choice task can attenuate the devaluation of future rewards. Here, we investigated whether this effect and its neural basis depend on the degree of personal prior experience associated with the simulated future scenarios. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was combined with a modified intertemporal choice task in which the delayed options were either purely monetary, or linked with a social event. Subject-specific events differed regarding familiarity, that is, meeting a close, familiar person or a celebrity in a café. In line with recent hypotheses on episodic construction, the simulation of future familiar and unfamiliar events equally attenuated delay discounting behavior in comparison with the control condition and both were imagined with similar richness. Imaging data, however, indicate that these results rely on differential neural activation patterns. The hippocampus was particularly involved in the simulation of unfamiliar future scenarios, probably reflecting enhanced construction processes when personal experience with similar past events is lacking. Consequently, functional coupling of the hippocampus with neural valuation signals in the anterior cingulate cortex predicted the subjective value only of rewards offered in the unfamiliar context. In contrast, valuation of rewards in a familiar context was predicted by activation in key nodes of emotional and autobiographical memory retrieval and dynamically modulated by frontal-striatal connectivity. The present data emphasize that the mechanisms underlying neural valuation of prospective rewards largely depend on the pre-experience with the context in which they are offered. PMID:26219923

  9. The effect of word familiarity on actual and perceived text difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence that readability formula outcomes relate to text understanding. The potential cause may lie in their strong reliance on word and sentence length. We evaluated word familiarity rather than word length as a stand-in for word difficulty. Word familiarity represents how well known a word is, and is estimated using word frequency in a large text corpus, in this work the Google web corpus. We conducted a study with 239 people, who provided 50 evaluations for each of 275 words. Our study is the first study to focus on actual difficulty, measured with a multiple-choice task, in addition to perceived difficulty, measured with a Likert scale. Actual difficulty was correlated with word familiarity (r=0.219, p<0.001) but not with word length (r=−0.075, p=0.107). Perceived difficulty was correlated with both word familiarity (r=−0.397, p<0.001) and word length (r=0.254, p<0.001). PMID:24100710

  10. Differences in How Monolingual and Bilingual Children Learn Second Labels for Familiar Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Lindsey; Jacobson, Rebecca; Saylor, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Monolingual children sometimes resist learning second labels for familiar objects. One explanation is that they are guided by word learning constraints that lead to the assumption that objects have only one name. It is less clear whether bilingual children observe this constraint. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that bilingual…

  11. Position Distinctiveness, Item Familiarity, and Presentation Frequency Affect Reconstruction of Order in Immediate Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Alice F.; Shea, Kathleen M.; Kole, James A.; Cunningham, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of position distinctiveness, item familiarity, and frequency of presentation on serial position functions in a task involving reconstructing the order of a subset of 12 names in a list of 20 names. Three different serial position conditions were compared in which the subset of names occurred in Positions…

  12. Evidence for a Non-Lexical Influence on Children's Auditory Repetition of Familiar Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Mary-Jane; Hanley, J. Richard; Nozari, Nazbanou

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines evidence for a nonlexical influence on children's repetition of real words. We investigate the extent to which two computational models of auditory repetition can simulate the performance of 68 children aged between 5 and 11 years-old when they are attempting to repeat familiar words. Both computational accounts were derived…

  13. Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

  14. Unfolding the spatial and temporal neural processing of lying about face familiarity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Delin; Lee, Tatia M C; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2015-04-01

    To understand the neural processing underpinnings of deception, this study employed both neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and neurophysiological (event-related potential, ERP) methodologies to examine the temporal and spatial coupling of the neural correlates and processes that occur when one lies about face familiarity. This was performed using simple directed lying tasks. According to cues provided by the researchers, the 17 participants were required to respond truthfully or with lies to a series of faces. The findings confirmed that lie and truth conditions are associated with different fMRI activations in the ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and dorsal medial-frontal cortices; premotor cortex, and inferior parietal gyrus. They are also associated with different amplitudes within the time interval between 300 and 1000 ms post face stimulus, after the initiation (270 ms) of face familiarity processing. These results support the cognitive model that suggests representations of truthful information are first aroused and then manipulated during deception. Stronger fMRI activations at the left inferior frontal gyrus and more positive-going ERP amplitudes within [1765, 1800] ms were observed in the contrast between lie and truth for familiar than for unfamiliar faces. The fMRI and ERP findings, together with ERP source reconstruction, clearly delineate the neural processing of face familiarity deception. PMID:24186897

  15. Brain Dynamics of Word Familiarization in 20-Month-Olds: Effects of Productive Vocabulary Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Hansen, Hanna Friis; Svangstu, Janne Mari; Smith, Lars; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Moen, Inger; Lindgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the brain mechanisms involved during young children's receptive familiarization with new words, and whether the dynamics of these mechanisms are related to the child's productive vocabulary size. To this end, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 20-month-old children in a pseudoword repetition task.…

  16. Interactive Effects of Age and Familiarization in Paired-Associate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Maisto, Albert A.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a study of paired-associative learning involving a total of 80 preschool and second grade children. Four familiarization categories of pretraining were utilized; results are discussed in terms of the effects of pretraining conditions and age on paired-associative learning and their consistency with some developmental hypotheses and phase…

  17. Effects of Word and Morpheme Familiarity on Reading of Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Katz, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence students' reading of derived words. Recent research suggests that the lexical quality of a derived word depends on the familiarity of the word, its morphemic constituents (i.e., base word and affixes), and the frequency with which the base word appears in other words (i.e., members of…

  18. "Pass the ketchup, please": familiar flavors increase children's willingness to taste novel foods.

    PubMed

    Pliner, P; Stallberg-White, C

    2000-02-01

    Rozin & Rozin (1981) have suggested that the addition of flavour principles (the distinctive combinations of seasonings which characterize many cuisines) may facilitate the introduction of a new staple food into a culture. That is, the reluctance of omnivores to approach novel foods can be reduced by adding the familiar flavor principle to the unfamiliar food. To test this hypothesis, we "created" flavor principles in the laboratory by exposing children repeatedly to one of two initially novel chip dips. After the exposure phase, they were offered familiar and unfamiliar chips and asked about their willingness to taste each, alone, with the exposed dip, the unexposed dip, and several other dips. The main prediction was that addition of the exposed dip to the unfamiliar chip would increase children's willingness to taste it. Since individuals are not reluctant to taste familiar foods, addition of the exposed dip to the familiar chip was not expected to increase willingness to taste it. The results confirmed this prediction. Practical and theoretical implications of this finding were discussed. PMID:10744896

  19. Sex differences on a computerized mental rotation task disappear with computer familiarization.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J E; Bell, M A

    2000-12-01

    The area of cognitive research that has produced the most consistent sex differences is spatial ability. Particularly, men consistently perform better on mental rotation tasks than do women. This study examined the effects of familiarization with a computer on performance of a computerized two-dimensional mental rotation task. Two groups of college students (N=44) performed the rotation task, with one group performing a color-matching task that allowed them to be familiarized with the computer prior to the rotation task. Among the participants who only performed the rotation task, the 11 men performed better than the 11 women. Among the participants who performed the computer familiarization task before the rotation task, how ever, there were no sex differences on the mental rotation task between the 10 men and 12 women. These data indicate that sex differences on this two-dimensional task may reflect familiarization with the computer, not the mental rotation component of the task. Further research with larger samples and increased range of task difficulty is encouraged. PMID:11219644

  20. Aspects of Performance on Line Graph Description Tasks: Influenced by Graph Familiarity and Different Task Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by cognitive theories of graph comprehension, this study systematically manipulated characteristics of a line graph description task in a speaking test in ways to mitigate the influence of graph familiarity, a potential source of construct-irrelevant variance. It extends Xi (2005), which found that the differences in holistic scores on…

  1. Effect of Relation Availability on the Interpretation and Access of Familiar Noun-Noun Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments investigate whether relations that link the constituents of compounds during compound formation (e.g., "teapot" is formed by combining "tea" and "pot" using the relation "head noun FOR modifier") also influence the processing of familiar compounds. Although there is evidence for the use of such relations in forming compounds,…

  2. Familiar trajectories facilitate the interpretation of physical forces when intercepting a moving target.

    PubMed

    Mijatović, Antonija; La Scaleia, Barbara; Mercuri, Nicola; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Zago, Myrka

    2014-12-01

    Familiarity with the visual environment affects our expectations about the objects in a scene, aiding in recognition and interaction. Here we tested whether the familiarity with the specific trajectory followed by a moving target facilitates the interpretation of the effects of underlying physical forces. Participants intercepted a target sliding down either an inclined plane or a tautochrone. Gravity accelerated the target by the same amount in both cases, but the inclined plane represented a familiar trajectory whereas the tautochrone was unfamiliar to the participants. In separate sessions, the gravity field was consistent with either natural gravity or artificial reversed gravity. Target motion was occluded from view over the last segment. We found that the responses in the session with unnatural forces were systematically delayed relative to those with natural forces, but only for the inclined plane. The time shift is consistent with a bias for natural gravity, in so far as it reflects an a priori expectation that a target not affected by natural forces will arrive later than one accelerated downwards by gravity. Instead, we did not find any significant time shift with unnatural forces in the case of the tautochrone. We argue that interception of a moving target relies on the integration of the high-level cue of trajectory familiarity with low-level cues related to target kinematics. PMID:25142150

  3. Disorders of representation and control in semantic cognition: Effects of familiarity, typicality, and specificity

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Timothy T.; Patterson, Karalyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case-series comparison of patients with cross-modal semantic impairments consequent on either (a) bilateral anterior temporal lobe atrophy in semantic dementia (SD) or (b) left-hemisphere fronto-parietal and/or posterior temporal stroke in semantic aphasia (SA). Both groups were assessed on a new test battery designed to measure how performance is influenced by concept familiarity, typicality and specificity. In line with previous findings, performance in SD was strongly modulated by all of these factors, with better performance for more familiar items (regardless of typicality), for more typical items (regardless of familiarity) and for tasks that did not require very specific classification, consistent with the gradual degradation of conceptual knowledge in SD. The SA group showed significant impairments on all tasks but their sensitivity to familiarity, typicality and specificity was more variable and governed by task-specific effects of these factors on controlled semantic processing. The results are discussed with reference to theories about the complementary roles of representation and manipulation of semantic knowledge. PMID:25934635

  4. Recognition Errors Suggest Fast Familiarity and Slow Recollection in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses…

  5. Learning to Interpret Cultural Meaning through an Etic Description of a Familiar Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate students often have trouble interpreting cultures other than that with which they are familiar in a way that takes into account the symbols and meanings that explain behaviors, objects, and ideologies. Instead, many fall into the trap of making ethnocentric assumptions and coming to conclusions that are informed by their own cultural…

  6. The Influence of Test Familiarity and Student Disability Status upon Teachers' Judgments of Students' Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Jason T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Braden, Jeffery P.

    2007-01-01

    Two questions motivated this study: (a) Does test familiarity influence teachers' judgments of their students' test performance? and (b) Does the disability status of students influence their teachers' judgments? Teachers (n=19) judged item performances for one student with disabilities and one student without disabilities (n pairs=19) from their…

  7. Action Prediction in Younger versus Older Adults: Neural Correlates of Motor Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Diersch, Nadine; Mueller, Karsten; Cross, Emily S.; Stadler, Waltraud; Rieger, Martina; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON), consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises). All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer. PMID:23704980

  8. Enhancing Negotiation of Meaning through Task Familiarity Using Subtitled Videos in an Online TBLL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslanyilmaz, Abdurrahman; Pedersen, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of task familiarity through the use of subtitled videos on negotiation of meaning in an online task-based language learning (TBLL) environment. It explores the amount of negotiation of meaning produced by non-native speakers (NNSs) aimed at improving input comprehension to enhance second language acquisition. Ten…

  9. Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. White rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. Chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. However, no studies have investigated up until now the olfactory discrimination in any rhinoceros species in the wild. We have experimentally studied the reactions of the wild southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) to the dung of familiar and unfamiliar adult females and adult territorial males. We registered the number of sniffing events, the duration of sniffing and the latency of the vigilance posture from the onset of sniffing. The dung of unfamiliar rhinos was sniffed longer than that of familiar rhinos. The rhinos showed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to the familiar dung of males than that of females. For unfamiliar dung, they displayed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to female than male dung. Our results indicate that the rhinos are able to discriminate the familiarity and sex of conspecifics from the smell of their dung. Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros. PMID:25273823

  10. New Uses for a Familiar Technology: Introducing Mobile Phone Polling in Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkel, Susanne; Bennett, Daimark

    2014-01-01

    We have introduced a real-time polling system to support student engagement and feedback in four large Level 1 and 2 modules in Biological Sciences. The audience response system makes use of a technology that is ubiquitous and familiar to the students. To participate, students send text messages using their mobile phones or send a message via…

  11. Relationship between Familiarity, Attitudes and Preferences: Assisted Living Facilities as Compared to Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imamoglu, Cagri; Imamoglu, E. Olcay

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors aim to (a) explore attitudes toward and preferences for living in the newly emerging place type of assisted living facilities in comparison to nursing homes, and (b) assess the possible impact of familiarity on those attitudes and preferences. Ninety-eight respondents (with a mean age of 62) were surveyed. Respondents…

  12. The Relationship between Text Comprehension and Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: A Matter of Topic Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Diana

    2004-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between second language (L2) passage comprehension and intake (form recognition), gain (meaning recognition and production), and retention of new lexical items from the passages. The effect of topic familiarity on the above relationships is also examined. Participants were a cross-sectional sample of L2…

  13. Processing Social Information in Messages: Social Group Familiarity, Fiction/Non-fiction Labels, and Subsequent Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.

    A study examined how the relative familiarity of a social group described in a message may affect the impact of ostensibly fiction and nonfiction messages on subsequent beliefs about social groups. The 24 paid subjects each received one of four sets of prose excerpts. Each set consisted of four excerpts that were labelled as fiction or nonfiction…

  14. No Measured Effect of a Familiar Contextual Object on Color Constancy

    PubMed Central

    Kanematsu, Erika; Brainard, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Some familiar objects have a typical color, such as the yellow of a banana. The presence of such objects in a scene is a potential cue to the scene illumination, since the light reflected from them should on average be consistent with their typical surface reflectance. Although there are many studies on how the identity of an object affects how its color is perceived, little is known about whether the presence of a familiar object in a scene helps the visual system stabilize the color appearance of other objects with respect to changes in illumination. We used a successive color matching procedure in three experiments designed to address this question. Across the experiments we studied a total of 6 subjects (2 in Experiment 1, 3 in Experiment 2, and 4 in Experiment 3) with partial overlap of subjects between experiments. We compared measured color constancy across conditions in which a familiar object cue to the illuminant was available with conditions in which such a cue was not present. Overall, our results do not reveal a reliable improvement in color constancy with the addition of a familiar object to a scene. An analysis of the experimental power of our data suggests that if there is such an effect, it is small: less than approximately a change of 0.09 in a constancy index where an absence of constancy corresponds to an index value of 0 and perfect constancy corresponds to an index value of 1. PMID:25313267

  15. Acquiring Noun Plurals in Palestinian Arabic: Morphology, Familiarity, and Pattern Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Hadieh, Areen; Ravid, Dorit

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the acquisition of two morphological procedures of noun pluralization in Palestinian Arabic: "Sound Feminine Plural" (SFP) and "Broken Plural" (BP). We tested if noun pluralization was affected by (1) the type of morphological procedure, (2) the degree of familiarity with the singular noun stem, and (3) the frequency of plural…

  16. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement. PMID:24853629

  17. The Role of Familiarity in Daily Well-Being: Developmental and Cultural Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kurtz, Jaime L.; Miao, Felicity F.; Park, Jina; Whitchurch, Erin

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined life stage and cultural differences in the degree to which familiarity of one's physical location and interaction partner is associated with daily well-being. Participants reported all the activities they engaged in and how they felt during these activities on a previous day using the Day Reconstruction Method (Kahneman,…

  18. Social learning in nest-building birds: a role for familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, Lauren M.; Scott, Alice C. Y.; Healy, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that birds learn from their own experiences of nest building. What is not clear is whether birds can learn from watching conspecifics build. As social learning allows an animal to gain information without engaging in costly trial-and-error learning, first-time builders should exploit the successful habits of experienced builders. We presented first-time nest-building male zebra finches with either a familiar or an unfamiliar conspecific male building with material of a colour the observer did not like. When given the opportunity to build, males that had watched a familiar male build switched their material preference to that used by the familiar male. Males that observed unfamiliar birds did not. Thus, first-time nest builders use social information and copy the nest material choices when demonstrators are familiar but not when they are strangers. The relationships between individuals therefore influence how nest-building expertise is socially transmitted in zebra finches. PMID:27009230

  19. Online and Offline Conversations About Alcohol: Comparing the Effects of Familiar and Unfamiliar Discussion Partners.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Hanneke; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Meehan, Orla; van den Putte, Bas

    2016-07-01

    Although research has demonstrated that interpersonal communication about alcohol influences drinking behaviors, this notion has mainly been examined in offline contexts with familiar conversation partners. The present study investigated how communication mode and familiarity influence conversational valence (i.e., how negatively or positively people talk) and binge drinking norms. During a 2 (offline vs. online communication) × 2 (unfamiliar vs. familiar conversation partner) lab experiment, participants (N = 76) were exposed to an anti-binge drinking campaign, after which they discussed binge drinking and the campaign. Binge drinking norms were measured 1 week before and directly after the discussion. Results revealed that conversations between unfamiliar conversation partners were positive about the campaign, especially in offline settings, subsequently leading to healthier binge drinking norms. We recommend that researchers further investigate the influence of communication mode and familiarity on discussion effects, and we suggest that health promotion attempts might benefit from eliciting conversations about anti-binge drinking campaigns between unfamiliar persons. PMID:27216371

  20. Cross-modal individual recognition in domestic horses (Equus caballus) extends to familiar humans.

    PubMed

    Proops, Leanne; McComb, Karen

    2012-08-22

    It has recently been shown that some non-human animals can cross-modally recognize members of their own taxon. What is unclear is just how plastic this recognition system can be. In this study, we investigate whether an animal, the domestic horse, is capable of spontaneous cross-modal recognition of individuals from a morphologically very different species. We also provide the first insights into how cross-modal identity information is processed by examining whether there are hemispheric biases in this important social skill. In our preferential looking paradigm, subjects were presented with two people and playbacks of their voices to determine whether they were able to match the voice with the person. When presented with familiar handlers subjects could match the specific familiar person with the correct familiar voice. Horses were significantly better at performing the matching task when the congruent person was standing on their right, indicating marked hemispheric specialization (left hemisphere bias) in this ability. These results are the first to demonstrate that cross-modal recognition in animals can extend to individuals from phylogenetically very distant species. They also indicate that processes governed by the left hemisphere are central to the cross-modal matching of visual and auditory information from familiar individuals in a naturalistic setting. PMID:22593108

  1. The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

  2. Perceptual Asymmetries Are Preserved in Memory for Highly Familiar Faces of Self and Friend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, N.; Campbell, M.; Flaherty, M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of familiarity on people's perception of facial likeness by asking participants to choose which of two mirror-symmetric chimeric images (made from the left or right half of a photograph of a face) looked more like an original image. In separate trials the participants made this judgment for their own face and for the…

  3. The Effects of Familiarization with Oral Expository Text on Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text type and early familiarization with oral expository text structures on listening and reading comprehension levels. Second-grade students read and listened to narrative and expository texts, and their comprehension was assessed with a sentence verification task. Half of the students had participated in a…

  4. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music. PMID:25056004

  5. The Role of Familiarity in Episodic Memory and Metamemory for Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenman, Lisa M.; Peynircioglu, Zehra F.

    2005-01-01

    Participants heard music snippets of varying melodic and instrumental familiarity paired with animal-name titles. They then recalled the target when given either the melody or the title as a cue, or they gave name feeling-of-knowing (FOK) ratings. In general, recall for titles was better than it was for melodies, and recall was enhanced with…

  6. Effects of Familiarity with a Melody Prior to Instruction on Children's Piano Performance Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frewen, Katherine Goins

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of familiarity with the sound of a melody on children's performance of the melody. Children in kindergarten through fourth grade (N = 97) with no previous formal instrumental instruction were taught to play a four-measure melody on a keyboard during an individual instruction session. Before…

  7. When Familiar Is Not Better: 12-Month-Old Infants Respond to Talk about Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osina, Maria A.; Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments that demonstrate a novel constraint on infants' language skills are described. Across the experiments it is shown that as babies near their 1st birthday, their ability to respond to talk about an absent object is influenced by a referent's spatiotemporal history: familiarizing infants with an object in 1 or several nontest…

  8. Something Old, Something New: A Developmental Transition from Familiarity to Novelty Preferences with Hidden Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Munakata, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    Novelty seeking is viewed as adaptive, and novelty preferences in infancy predict cognitive performance into adulthood. Yet 7-month-olds prefer familiar stimuli to novel ones when searching for hidden objects, in contrast to their strong novelty preferences with visible objects (Shinskey & Munakata, 2005). According to a graded representations…

  9. Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

    2010-01-01

    Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

  10. Medical School Students' Knowledge of and Familiarity with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Amy R.; Henzi, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of research has been conducted on the knowledge of and familiarity with individuals with disabilities of medical students. There have been studies on these individuals' satisfaction with medical services and the accessibility of medical services to them, the role of health care providers in working with these individuals, and the…

  11. The brain response to personally familiar faces in autism: findings of fusiform activity and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Karen; Haist, Frank; Sedaghat, Farshad; Courchesne, Eric

    2004-12-01

    Past functional MRI (FMRI) studies of autism have reported reduced activation in response to the faces of strangers primarily in the 'fusiform face area' (FFA). An alternative and potentially stronger test of FFA function in autism is one that attempts to affect levels of FFA activity using factors believed to modulate function in this brain region, such as face familiarity and the perception of face identity. The current study presented personally meaningful faces, such as mother and co-worker, as well as stranger faces in a rapid event-related FMRI design. Seven autistic and nine normal control adults participated and pressed a button in response to all female faces. A deconvolution analysis revealed significant FFA activity in response to familiar and stranger faces in both autism and normal control groups. Individuals with autism also showed greater fusiform activity in response to familiar faces than stranger faces, as well as the prototypical right hemisphere dominance in response to both types of faces. Normal subjects showed additional activation to familiar faces in the posterior cingulate, amygdala and medial frontal lobes, including the anterior cingulate. Subjects with autism showed a similar, but more limited, network in response to familiar faces. This network included the amygdala and implies that this structure, involved in multiple socio-emotional functions, can be responsive in autism in the presence of stimuli that represent high reward value, such as mother's face. Furthermore, the presence of a distinct network to process familiar faces in autism, one that included limbic structures and was not found in response to the faces of strangers, suggests socio-emotional processing in autism. A potentially noteworthy trend, however, was evidence for a reduction in medial frontal lobe function in the autism group. The main finding of FFA activity in autism stands in contrast to most past FMRI studies of face processing in this disorder. This positive

  12. Attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar foods in children. The role of food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Maratos, Frances A; Staples, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Familiarity of food stimuli is one factor that has been proposed to explain food preferences and food neophobia in children, with some research suggesting that food neophobia (and familiarity) is at first a predominant of the visual domain. Considering visual attentional biases are a key factor implicated in a majority of fear-related phobias/anxieties, the purpose of this research was to investigate attentional biases to familiar and unfamiliar fruit and vegetables in 8 to 11 year old children with differing levels of food neophobia. To this end, 70 primary aged children completed a visual-probe task measuring attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar fruit/vegetables, as well as the food neophobia, general neophobia and willingness to try self-report measures. Results revealed that as an undifferentiated population all children appeared to demonstrate an attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruit and vegetable stimuli. However, when considering food neophobia, this bias was significantly exaggerated for children self-reporting high food neophobia and negligible for children self-reporting low food neophobia. In addition, willingness to try the food stimuli was inversely correlated with attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruits/vegetables. Our results demonstrate that visual aspects of food stimuli (e.g. familiarity) play an important role in childhood food neophobia. This study provides the first empirical test of recent theory/models of food neophobia (e.g. Brown & Harris, 2012). Findings are discussed in light of these models and related anxiety models, along with implications concerning the treatment of childhood food neophobia. PMID:25862982

  13. The impact of team familiarity and surgical experience on operative efficiency: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Duclos, Antoine; Zhou, Charlie D; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Wright, John; Orgill, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives The independent impact of individual surgical experience and team familiarity on surgical performance has been widely studied; however, the interplay of these factors and their relative, quantified, contributions to performance is poorly understood. We determined the impact of team familiarity and surgeon, and cumulative team experience on operative efficiency in total knee replacement. Design Retrospective analysis of all total knee replacements conducted at the host institution in 1996–2009. Multivariate generalised-estimating-equation regression models were used to adjust for patient risk and clustering. Setting Tertiary care academic hospital. Participants All patients undergoing TKR at the host institution in 1996–2009. Main outcome measure Operative efficiency. Results A total of 4276 total knee replacements were completed by 1163 different surgical teams. The median experience level was 17.6 years for consultant surgeons and 3.7 years for trainee surgeons. After patient-risk adjustment, consultant surgical experience (p < 0.0001), trainee surgical experience (p < 0.05), cumulative team operative experience (p < 0.0001) and team familiarity (p < 0.0001) were associated with significant reductions in operative time. Surgical experience and team familiarity demonstrated concave and linear relationships with operative time, respectively. For a consultant surgeon, the expected reduction in operative time after 25 years in practice was 51 min, compared to a 21-min reduction over the span of 40 collaborations with the same team members. Conclusions Surgical experience and team familiarity display important and distinct relationships with operative time in total knee replacement. Appreciation of this interplay may serve to guide implementation and allocation of procedure-specific quality improvement strategies in surgery. PMID:27053357

  14. The effects of item familiarity on the neural correlates of successful associative memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Nancy A; Turney, Indira C; Webb, Christina E; Overman, Amy A

    2015-12-01

    Associative memory is considered to be resource-demanding, requiring individuals to learn individual items and the specific relationships between those items. Previous research has shown that prior studying of items aids in associative memory for pairs composed of those same items, as compared to pairs of items that have not been prelearned (e.g., Kilb & Naveh-Benjamin, 2011). In the present study, we sought to elucidate the neural correlates mediating this memory facilitation. After being trained on individual items, participants were scanned while encoding item pairs composed of items from the pretrained phase (familiarized-item pairs) and pairs whose items had not been previously learned (unfamiliarized-item pairs). Consistent with previous findings, the overall subsequent recollection showed the engagement of bilateral parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and hippocampus, when compared to subsequent forgetting. However, a direct comparison between familiarized- and unfamiliarized-item pairs showed that subsequently recollected familiarized-item pairs were associated with decreased activity across much of the encoding network, including bilateral PHG, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and regions associated with item-specific processing within occipital cortex. Increased activity for familiarized-item pairs was found in a more limited set of regions, including bilateral parietal cortex, which has been associated with the formation of novel associations. Additionally, activity in the right parietal cortex correlated with associative memory success in the familiarized condition. Taken together, these results suggest that prior exposure to items can reduce the demands incurred on neural processing throughout the associative encoding network and can enhance associative memory performance by focusing resources within regions supporting the formation of associative links. PMID:25939781

  15. Self-testing produces superior recall of both familiar and unfamiliar muscle information.

    PubMed

    Dobson, John L; Linderholm, Tracy; Yarbrough, Mary Beth

    2015-12-01

    Dozens of studies have found learning strategies based on the "testing effect" promote greater recall than those that rely solely on reading; however, the advantages of testing are often only observed after a delay (e.g., 2-7 days later). In contrast, our research, which has focused on kinesiology students learning kinesiology information that is generally familiar to them, has consistently demonstrated that testing-based strategies produce greater recall both immediately and after a delay. In an attempt to understand the discrepancies in the literature, the purpose of the present study was to determine if the time-related advantages of a testing-based learning strategy vary with one's familiarity with the to-be-learned information. Participants used both read-only and testing-based strategies to repeatedly study three different sets of information: 1) previously studied human muscle information (familiar information), 2) a mix of previously studied and previously unstudied human muscle information (mixed information), and 3) previously unstudied muscle information that is unique to sharks (unfamiliar information). Learning was evaluated via free recall assessments administered immediately after studying and again after a 1-wk delay and a 3-wk delay. Across those three assessments, the read-only strategy resulted in mean scores of 29.26 ± 1.43, 15.17 ± 1.29, and 5.33 ± 0.77 for the familiar, mixed, and unfamiliar information, respectively, whereas the testing-based strategy produced scores of 34.57 ± 1.58, 16.90 ± 1.31, and 8.33 ± 0.95, respectively. The results indicate that the testing-based strategy produced greater recall immediately and up through the 3-wk delay regardless of the participants' level of familiarity with the muscle information. PMID:26628653

  16. Neural substrates for semantic memory of familiar songs: is there an interface between lyrics and melodies?

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakuma, Naoko; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing "song lexicon" as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET). We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song), sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics), and the sung syllable 'la' on original pitches (melody). The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control) that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control) showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition. PMID:23029492

  17. Mechanisms of Visual Object Recognition in Infancy: Five-Month-Olds Generalize beyond the Interpolation of Familiar Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Clay; Arterberry, Martha E.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2007-01-01

    This work examined predictions of the interpolation of familiar views (IFV) account of object recognition performance in 5-month-olds. Infants were familiarized to an object either from a single viewpoint or from multiple viewpoints varying in rotation around a single axis. Object recognition was then tested in both conditions with the same object…

  18. Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

  19. Many Roads Lead to Recognition: Electrophysiological Correlates of Familiarity Derived from Short-Term Masked Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Heather D.; Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.; Paller, Ken A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender…

  20. Familiar Verbs Are Not Always Easier than Novel Verbs: How German Pre-School Children Comprehend Active and Passive Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis…

  1. Text Familiarity, Reading Tasks, and ESP Test Performance: A Study on Iranian LEP and Non-LEP University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Muhammad Ali

    2003-01-01

    Studied the effects of text familiarity, task type, and language proficiency on university students' language for specific purposes test and task performances. Students majoring in electronics took the the Task Based Reading Test. Analyses indicated that text familiarity, task type, and language proficiency resulted in significant differences in…

  2. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  3. Effects On Achievement from Programmed Instruction of Experimentally Induced Familiarization of Content and Different Response Modes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Theodore; Kagen, Edward

    A study of programed instruction sought to establish an attribute by treatment interaction (ATI) between prior familiarity of material and response mode. Two experimental variables (familiarization and response mode) and two subject attributes (sex and I.Q.) were employed. Junior High (JH) and graduate student (GS) were assigned to familiarization…

  4. Deja Vu in Unilateral Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy Is Associated with Selective Familiarity Impairments on Experimental Tasks of Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Chris B.; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G.; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Kohler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In deja vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding deja vu. Some…

  5. Effects of Familiarity on the Perceptual Integrality of the Identity and Expression of Faces: The Parallel-Route Hypothesis Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganel, Tzvi; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of familiarity on selective attention for the identity and expression of faces were tested using Garner's speeded-classification task. In 2 experiments, participants classified expression (or identity) of familiar and unfamiliar faces while the irrelevant dimension of identity (or expression) was either held constant (baseline…

  6. Role of Visual Familiarity in the Word-Superiority Effects Obtained with the Simultaneous-Matching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruder, Gail A.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the effect of visual familiarity of words on "same-different" reaction times (RTs) in a simultaneous-matching task. All three studies showed visual familiarity to be responsible for differences in slope over sequence length between words and nonwords. (Editor/RK)

  7. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. PMID:26854662

  8. Reactivity to fearful expressions of familiar and unfamiliar people in children with autism: an eye-tracking pupillometry study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with autism are often reported to have difficulty with emotion processing. However, clinical and experimental data show that they are sensitive to familiarity; for example, they show normative attachment to familiar people, and have normative brain activity in response to familiar faces. To date, no study has measured their reactivity to the emotions of familiar vs. unfamiliar people. Thus, our aim was to determine whether individuals with autism would show normative reactivity to emotion in familiar people. Methods Participants were 21 children with autism and 21 children with typical development, aged two to five years, matched on age and gender. The children observed videos of familiar people (their child-care teachers) and unfamiliar people expressing fear, whilst their visual attention and pupillary reactions were recorded (the latter as an index of emotional reactivity), using eye tracking technology. Results The children with autism showed normative pupillary reactions (peak magnitude) to fear expressed by familiar people, but a reduced response to fear expressed by unfamiliar people. However, across familiarity conditions, the children with autism had longer latency peak responses than the typically developing children. This pattern of findings was independent of cognitive factors or visual attention as visual attention by group was not related to familiarity condition. The children with autism had reduced visual attention to neutral faces; however, on fearful faces there were no group differences. Abnormalities in pupillary reactivity in the autism group were related to less prosocial behaviour and more severe play and communication deficits. Conclusions Children with autism were less atypical in their responses to fearful expressions of people they know, arguing against a pervasive emotional impairment in autism, but rather one that may be mediated by familiarity. PMID:24982695

  9. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  10. Familiarity with Interest Breeds Gossip: Contributions of Emotion, Expectation, and Reputation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bo; Scott, Graham G.; McAleer, Phil; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2014-01-01

    Although gossip serves several important social functions, it has relatively infrequently been the topic of systematic investigation. In two experiments, we advance a cognitive-informational approach to gossip. Specifically, we sought to determine which informational components engender gossip. In Experiment 1, participants read brief passages about other people and indicated their likelihood to share this information. We manipulated target familiarity (celebrity, non-celebrity) and story interest (interesting, boring). While participants were more likely to gossip about celebrity than non-celebrity targets and interesting than boring stories, they were even more likely to gossip about celebrity targets embedded within interesting stories. In Experiment 2, we additionally probed participants' reactions to the stories concerning emotion, expectation, and reputation information conveyed. Analyses showed that while such information partially mediated target familiarity and story interest effects, only expectation and reputation accounted for the interactive pattern of gossip behavior. Our findings provide novel insights into the essential components and processing mechanisms of gossip. PMID:25119267

  11. Electroencephalogram and heart rate regulation to familiar and unfamiliar people in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vaughan Van Hecke, Amy; Lebow, Jocelyn; Bal, Elgiz; Lamb, Damon; Harden, Emily; Kramer, Alexis; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga; Porges, Stephen W

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether familiarity of partner affects social responses in children with autism. This study investigated heart rate regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: The myelinated vagus nerve's regulation of heart rate) and temporal-parietal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while nineteen 8- to 12-year-old children with autism and 14 controls viewed videos of a familiar and an unfamiliar person reading a story. Children with autism had lower overall RSA levels and exhibited decreased RSA to the unfamiliar person, versus control children. Both groups decreased temporal-parietal EEG activity to the unfamiliar person. Higher RSA was related to higher social skill ratings and fewer problem behaviors. Thus, the social difficulties of children with autism may be characterized by specific mobilization to unfamiliar people. PMID:19630897

  12. Retrieval dynamics in recognition and list discrimination: further evidence of separate processes of familiarity and recall.

    PubMed

    Hintzman, D L; Caulton, D A; Levitin, D J

    1998-05-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that the time course of retrieval from memory is different for familiarity and recall. The response-signal method was used to compare memory retrieval dynamics in yes-no recognition memory, as a measure of familiarity, with those of list discrimination, as a measure of contextual recall. Responses were always made with regard to membership in two previous study lists. In Experiment 1 an exclusion task requiring positive responses to words from one list and negative responses to new words and words from the nontarget list was used. In Experiment 2, recognition and list discrimination were separate tasks. Retrieval curves from both experiments were consistent, showing that the minimal retrieval time for recognition was about 100 msec faster than that for list discrimination. Repetition affected asymptotic performance but had no reliable effects on retrieval dynamics in either the recognition or the list-discrimination task. PMID:9610117

  13. [Influence of survival processing and delay on recollection and familiarity in recognition].

    PubMed

    Munetsugu, Tetsuya; Horiuchi, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The survival processing effect is a robust memory phenomenon of memory whereby encouraging participants to judge words for relevance to a survival situation produces better recall than other processing tasks such as semantic or self-reference tasks (Nairne, Thompson, & Pandeirada, 2007). The present study separated memory performance into recollection and familiarity, and estimated the contribution of these two factors to the survival processing effect as adaptive memory by using a recognition test based on the dual-process signal detection model. This study also examined the long-term persistence of the effect by delay manipulation (immediate, after a week, after five weeks) of the recognition test. Under delayed conditions (after a week and five weeks), survival processing advantage occurred on recollection, but semantic processing had no effect. In contrast, for familiarity, there was no significant difference between survival and semantic processing. These findings suggest that the survival processing effect mainly relies on recollection. PMID:26402958

  14. Spontaneous voice–face identity matching by rhesus monkeys for familiar conspecifics and humans

    PubMed Central

    Sliwa, Julia; Duhamel, Jean-René; Pascalis, Olivier; Wirth, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of a particular individual occurs when we reactivate links between current perceptual inputs and the previously formed representation of that person. This recognition can be achieved by identifying, separately or simultaneously, distinct elements such as the face, silhouette, or voice as belonging to one individual. In humans, those different cues are linked into one complex conceptual representation of individual identity. Here we tested whether rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) also have a cognitive representation of identity by evaluating whether they exhibit cross-modal individual recognition. Further, we assessed individual recognition of familiar conspecifics and familiar humans. In a free preferential looking time paradigm, we found that, for both species, monkeys spontaneously matched the faces of known individuals to their voices. This finding demonstrates that rhesus macaques possess a cross-modal cognitive representation of individuals that extends from conspecifics to humans, revealing the adaptive potential of identity recognition for individuals of socioecological relevance. PMID:21220340

  15. Picture Norms for Chinese Preschool Children: Name Agreement, Familiarity, and Visual Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lamei; Chen, Chia-Wen; Zhu, Liqi

    2014-01-01

    Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language. PMID:24599271

  16. Does the compatibility effect in the race Implicit Association Test reflect familiarity or affect?

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Peek-O'Leary, Marie

    2005-06-01

    In the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) involving race classification (white vs. black), an apparent compatibility effect is found between the "pleasant" attribute and the "white" category. This race IAT effect has been interpreted in terms of "implicit prejudice"--that is, more positive evaluation of whites than of blacks that is not open to consciousness. We suggested instead that the race IAT effect is better interpreted in terms of the salience asymmetry account proposed by Rothermund and Wentura (2004), whereby greater familiarity with the white category makes it more salient. Evidence that has been presented against the familiarity interpretation is considered, and alternative interpretations of findings related to the race IAT effect are discussed. PMID:16235627

  17. Familiarity with interest breeds gossip: contributions of emotion, expectation, and reputation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Scott, Graham G; McAleer, Phil; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2014-01-01

    Although gossip serves several important social functions, it has relatively infrequently been the topic of systematic investigation. In two experiments, we advance a cognitive-informational approach to gossip. Specifically, we sought to determine which informational components engender gossip. In Experiment 1, participants read brief passages about other people and indicated their likelihood to share this information. We manipulated target familiarity (celebrity, non-celebrity) and story interest (interesting, boring). While participants were more likely to gossip about celebrity than non-celebrity targets and interesting than boring stories, they were even more likely to gossip about celebrity targets embedded within interesting stories. In Experiment 2, we additionally probed participants' reactions to the stories concerning emotion, expectation, and reputation information conveyed. Analyses showed that while such information partially mediated target familiarity and story interest effects, only expectation and reputation accounted for the interactive pattern of gossip behavior. Our findings provide novel insights into the essential components and processing mechanisms of gossip. PMID:25119267

  18. Influence of familiarity with goat meat on liking and preference for capretto and chevon.

    PubMed

    Borgogno, Monica; Corazzin, Mirco; Saccà, Elena; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2015-08-01

    The research aimed at assessing liking and preference for capretto and chevon as a function of consumer familiarity with goat meat. Five meats were produced: traditional milk capretto (MC), heavy summer capretto (HSC), summering (SCh), fall (FCh) and late fall chevon (LFCh). HSC was the most tender meat, having less cooking losses than both MC and redder chevon types. The instrumental profile corresponded with the appearance and texture attributes perceived by panellists. With aging of kids, meat lost its milk aroma (MC) and sweet taste (HSC) and acquired an increasing intensity of goat flavour and livery notes, partially related to feeding regime and fatty acid profile. A niche market preferred chevon over capretto, while the cluster of consumers who were unfamiliar with chevon showed a decrease in pleasantness when tasting chevon, the familiar group reduced their ratings only for meat from the oldest kids. PMID:25900784

  19. Lexical familiarity and processing efficiency: individual differences in naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization.

    PubMed

    Lewellen, M J; Goldinger, S D; Pisoni, D B; Greene, B G

    1993-09-01

    College students were separated into 2 groups (high and low) on the basis of 3 measures: subjective familiarity ratings of words, self-reported language experiences, and a test of vocabulary knowledge. Three experiments were conducted to determine if the groups also differed in visual word naming, lexical decision, and semantic categorization. High Ss were consistently faster than low Ss in naming visually presented words. They were also faster and more accurate in making difficult lexical decisions and in rejecting homophone foils in semantic categorization. Taken together, the results demonstrate that Ss who differ in lexical familiarity also differ in processing efficiency. The relationship between processing efficiency and working memory accounts of individual differences in language processing is also discussed. PMID:8371087

  20. The effects of familiarity and group size on mating preferences in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Mariette, M M; Zajitschek, S R K; Garcia, C M; Brooks, R C

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that frequency dependence in the attractiveness of a particular phenotype to mates can contribute to the maintenance of polymorphism. However, these preferences for rare and unfamiliar male phenotypes have only been demonstrated in small, controlled experiments. Here, we tested the preference for unfamiliar mates in groups of six to 96 individuals over 13 days, in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). We observed individual behaviour in situ to test whether fish discriminate two unfamiliar individuals among many familiar ones. We found that unfamiliar males and females were preferred over the familiar fishes in all groups and that this effect decayed over time. Increasing group sizes and levels of sexual activity did not hamper the preference for unfamiliar mates, providing further support for the role of frequency dependent mate choice in the maintenance of trait polymorphism in natural populations. PMID:20626544

  1. Song recognition without identification: when people cannot "name that tune" but can recognize it as familiar.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M

    2009-02-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between studied and unstudied test items. The present study demonstrates this finding in the realm of music. A song RWI effect is reported across 4 experiments, despite very low identification rates in each. The effect was found with unidentifiable song fragments (Experiment 1), with song notes removed from their original rhythms (Experiment 2), and with songs unidentifiable from their tapped out rhythms (Experiments 3 and 4). Theoretical implications of these results are relevant to both the study of familiarity-based recognition and the study of music cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19203174

  2. Melody recognition at fast and slow tempos: effects of age, experience, and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Dowling, W Jay; Bartlett, James C; Halpern, Andrea R; Andrews, W Melinda

    2008-04-01

    Eighty-one listeners defined by three age ranges (18-30, 31-59, and over 60 years) and three levels of musical experience performed an immediate recognition task requiring the detection of alterations in melodies. On each trial, a brief melody was presented, followed 5 sec later by a test stimulus that either was identical to the target or had two pitches changed, for a same-different judgment. Each melody pair was presented at 0.6 note/sec, 3.0 notes/sec, or 6.0 notes/sec. Performance was better with familiar melodies than with unfamiliar melodies. Overall performance declined slightly with age and improved substantially with increasing experience, in agreement with earlier results in an identification task. Tempo affected performance on familiar tunes (moderate was best), but not on unfamiliar tunes. We discuss these results in terms of theories of dynamic attending, cognitive slowing, and working memory in aging. PMID:18459260

  3. Many roads lead to recognition: Electrophysiological correlates of familiarity derived from short-term masked repetition priming

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Heather D.; Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.; Paller, Ken A.

    2015-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender familiarity. One underappreciated implication of this account is that patterns of neural activity that appear to index familiarity in a generic sense may instead reflect fluency-related precursors of recognition. In a novel illustration of this principle, we examined brain potentials during recognition tests for visual words. In two experiments, fluency was selectively enhanced for half of the test cues via masked repetition priming. Replicating previous findings, the proportion of words endorsed as “old” was greater for words immediately preceded by a matching masked word versus an unrelated one. In addition, N400 potentials were more positive for test cues preceded by matching versus unrelated masked words. Similar N400 differences were observed when false alarms were compared to correct rejections for the subset of unstudied words that were preceded by matching masked words. These N400 effects were topographically dissociable from other potentials that correlated with familiarity for studied words. We conclude that experiences of familiarity can have different neural correlates that signal the operation of distinct neurocognitive precursors of recognition judgments. Conceptualizations of the neural basis of recognition memory must account for a plurality of mechanisms that produce familiarity memory. PMID:23010141

  4. Many roads lead to recognition: electrophysiological correlates of familiarity derived from short-term masked repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Heather D; Taylor, Jason R; Henson, Richard N; Paller, Ken A

    2012-11-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender familiarity. One underappreciated implication of this account is that patterns of neural activity that appear to index familiarity in a generic sense may instead reflect fluency-related precursors of recognition. In a novel illustration of this principle, we examined brain potentials during recognition tests for visual words. In two experiments, fluency was selectively enhanced for half of the test cues via masked repetition priming. Replicating previous findings, the proportion of words endorsed as "old" was greater for words immediately preceded by a matching masked word versus an unrelated one. In addition, N400 potentials were more positive for test cues preceded by matching versus unrelated masked words. Similar N400 differences were observed when false alarms were compared to correct rejections for the subset of unstudied words that were preceded by matching masked words. These N400 effects were topographically dissociable from other potentials that correlated with familiarity for studied words. We conclude that experiences of familiarity can have different neural correlates that signal the operation of distinct neurocognitive precursors of recognition judgments. Conceptualizations of the neural basis of recognition memory must account for a plurality of mechanisms that produce familiarity memory. PMID:23010141

  5. Tactile Object Familiarity in the Blind Brain Reveals the Supramodal Perceptual-Mnemonic Nature of the Perirhinal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Cacciamani, Laura; Likova, Lora T

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the neural underpinnings of tactile object familiarity in the blind during both perception and memory. In the sighted, the perirhinal cortex (PRC) has been implicated in the assessment of visual object familiarity-a crucial everyday task-as evidenced by reduced activation when an object becomes familiar. Here, to examine the PRC's role in tactile object familiarity in the absence of vision, we trained blind participants on a unique memory-guided drawing technique and measured brain activity while they perceptually explored raised-line drawings, drew them from tactile memory, and scribbled (control). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a week of training revealed a significant decrease in PRC activation from pre- to post-training (i.e., from unfamiliar to familiar) during perceptual exploration as well as memory-guided drawing, but not scribbling. This familiarity-based reduction is the first evidence that the PRC represents tactile object familiarity in the blind. Furthermore, the finding of this effect during both tactile perception and tactile memory provides the critical link in establishing the PRC as a structure whose representations are supramodal for both perception and memory. PMID:27148002

  6. Perirhinal cortex lesions uncover subsidiary systems in the rat for the detection of novel and familiar objects

    PubMed Central

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Amin, Eman; Iordanova, Mihaela D; Brown, Malcolm W; Pearce, John M; Aggleton, John P

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of perirhinal cortex lesions on tests of object recognition. Object recognition was tested directly by looking at the preferential exploration of novel objects over simultaneously presented familiar objects. Object recognition was also tested indirectly by presenting just novel objects or just familiar objects, and recording exploration levels. Rats with perirhinal cortex lesions were severely impaired at discriminating a novel object from a simultaneously presented familiar object (direct test), yet displayed normal levels of exploration to novel objects presented on their own and showed normal declines in exploration times for familiar objects that were repeatedly presented (indirect tests). This effective reduction in the exploration of familiar objects after perirhinal cortex lesions points to the sparing of some recognition mechanisms. This possibility led us to determine whether rats with perirhinal cortex lesions can overcome their preferential exploration deficits when given multiple object familiarisation trials prior to that same (familiar) object being paired with a novel object. It was found that after multiple familiarisation trials, objects could now successfully be recognised as familiar by rats with perirhinal cortex lesions, both following a 90-min delay (the longest delay tested) and when object recognition was tested in the dark after familiarisation trials in the light. These latter findings reveal: (i) the presumed recruitment of other regions to solve recognition memory problems in the absence of perirhinal cortex tissue; and (ii) that these additional recognition mechanisms require more familiarisation trials than perirhinal-based recognition mechanisms. PMID:21707792

  7. Detecting personal familiarity depends on static frames in "thin slices" of behavior.

    PubMed

    Saville, Alyson; Balas, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Brief glimpses of nonverbal behavior (or "thin slices") offer ample visual information to make reliable judgments about individuals. Previous work has largely focused on the personality characteristics and traits of individuals; however, the nature of dyadic relationships (strangers, lovers, or friends) can also be determined (Ambady & Gray, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 947-961 2002). Judgments from thin slices are known to be accurate, but the motion features supporting accurate performance are unknown. We explored whether personal familiarity was detectable within the context of "thin slices" of genuine interaction, as well as the invariant properties of thin-slice recognition. In two experiments, participants sequentially viewed two 6-s silent videos on each trial of an individual interacting with an unfamiliar partner; the other depicted the same person interacting with a personally familiar partner. All sequences were cropped so that only the target individual was visible. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either the original sequences, reversed sequences, a static-image "slideshow" of the sequence, or a static-image slideshow with blank frames separating the images. In Experiment 2, all participants viewed the original sequences and clips played at either double speed or half speed. Participants' performance was above chance in the forward and reverse conditions, but was significantly better in both the static-image slideshow conditions. When task speed was manipulated, we found a larger performance cost for fast than for slow videos. Detecting personal familiarity via spontaneous natural gestures depends on information in static images more than on face or body movement. Although static images are typically less important for recognizing nonverbal behavior, we argue they may be valuable for making familiarity judgments from thin slices. PMID:24683099

  8. Familiarity differentially affects right hemisphere contributions to processing metaphors and literals

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Vicky T.; van Dam, Wessel; Conant, Lisa L.; Binder, Jeffrey R.; Desai, Rutvik H.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in processing metaphoric language is controversial. While some studies have reported a special role of the right hemisphere (RH) in processing metaphors, others indicate no difference in laterality relative to literal language. Some studies have found a role of the RH for novel/unfamiliar metaphors, but not conventional/familiar metaphors. It is not clear, however, whether the role of the RH is specific to metaphor novelty, or whether it reflects processing, reinterpretation or reanalysis of novel/unfamiliar language in general. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of familiarity in both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences. A left lateralized network containing the middle and inferior frontal gyri, posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (LH), and inferior frontal regions in the RH, was engaged across both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences; engagement of this network decreased as familiarity decreased. No region was engaged selectively for greater metaphoric unfamiliarity. An analysis of laterality, however, showed that the contribution of the RH relative to that of LH does increase in a metaphor-specific manner as familiarity decreases. These results show that RH regions, taken by themselves, including commonly reported regions such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), are responsive to increased cognitive demands of processing unfamiliar stimuli, rather than being metaphor-selective. The division of labor between the two hemispheres, however, does shift towards the right for metaphoric processing. The shift results not because the RH contributes more to metaphoric processing. Rather, relative to its contribution for processing literals, the LH contributes less. PMID:25713522

  9. Does the Structure of Female Rhesus Macaque Coo Calls Reflect Relatedness and/or Familiarity?

    PubMed

    Pfefferle, Dana; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Mundry, Roger; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Fischer, Julia; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    In social animals, kin relations strongly shape the social structure of a group. In female-bonded species, maternal relatedness is likely to be mediated via familiarity, but evidence is accumulating that non-human primates are able to recognize kin that they are not familiar with and adjust their behavior accordingly. In playback experiments, female rhesus macaques showed increased interest in 'coo' calls produced by unfamiliar paternal half-sisters compared to 'coo' calls produced by unfamiliar unrelated females, suggesting that these calls should have some common structural characteristics that facilitate the discrimination of kin from non-kin. Here we analyzed 'coo' calls of 67 adult female rhesus macaques from four groups and seven matrilines living on the island of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico). We tested whether the call structure of closely maternal and/or paternal related females, as determined from extensive pedigree data, differed from the call structure of unrelated females, while controlling for familiarity (i.e., group-matrilineal membership and age difference) of subjects. In contrast to our expectation, kinship did not predict similarities in 'coo' call structure, whereas 'coo' structure was more similar when produced by females of similar age as well as by females with higher familiarity, suggesting that experience is more decisive than genetic background. The high number of individuals in the analysis and the high accuracy of the assignment of calls to individuals render a lack of power as an unlikely explanation. Thus, based on the results of this study, kin recognition in rhesus monkeys does neither appear to be based on the assessment of self-similarity, nor on the comparison among related subjects (i.e., acoustic phenotype matching), but appears to be mediated by different or multiple cues. Furthermore, the results support the notion that frequent social interactions result in increasing acoustic similarity within largely innate call types

  10. Distinguishing familiarity-based from source-based memory performance in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Anthony P.; Goff, Donald C.; Duff, Margaret; Roffman, Joshua L.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Background There is substantial current interest in the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia, particularly those in the realm of memory. Yet the exact nature of these deficits remains a matter of some debate. This study sought to examine performance on two distinct aspects of memory performance: familiarity-based and source-based memory processes. Methods Eighteen medicated outpatients with schizophrenia and eighteen healthy adult control subjects performed an external source memory task. Key measures included the ability to distinguish old (previously experienced) items from new items, the ability to correctly identify the source (male voice or female voice) of previously experienced items, and the reaction time associated with these responses. Results Patients with schizophrenia showed an impaired ability to distinguish old from new items, but intact performance in correctly identifying the source of items recognized as old. Whereas control subjects showed a rapid response to items deemed unfamiliar, particularly in rejecting novel items, these responses were slowed in patients with schizophrenia. This was not attributable to a generalized diminution in processing speed, as reaction times to correctly recognized old items (regardless of source accuracy) did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated impaired familiarity-based and intact source-based memory performance. In addition, the reaction time for novelty detection, an important component of familiarity-based memory, was significantly delayed in patients compared to controls, while the response times for source-based decisions were completely overlapping. Considered together, these findings suggest a deficit in the familiarity-based aspect of episodic memory in at least some patients with schizophrenia. PMID:17629463

  11. Separate encoding of identity and similarity of complex familiar odors in piriform cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kadohisa, Mikiko; Wilson, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    Piriform cortical circuits are hypothesized to form perceptions from responses to specific odorant features, but the anterior piriform cortex (aPCX) and posterior piriform cortex (pPCX) differ markedly in their anatomical organization, differences that could lead to distinct roles in odor encoding. Here, we tested whether experience with a complex odorant mixture would modify encoding of the mixture and its components in aPCX and pPCX. Rats were exposed to an odorant mixture and its components in a go/no-go rewarded odor discrimination task. After reaching behavioral performance criterion, single-unit recordings were made from the aPCX and pPCX in these rats and in odor-naïve, control, urethane-anesthetized rats. After odor experience, aPCX neurons were more narrowly tuned to the test odorants, and there was a decorrelation in aPCX population responses to the mixture and its components, suggesting a more distinct encoding of the familiar mixture from its components. In contrast, pPCX neurons were more broadly tuned to the familiar odorants, and pPCX population responses to the mixture and its components became more highly correlated, suggesting a pPCX encoding of similarity between familiar stimuli. The results suggest aPCX and pPCX play different roles in the processing of familiar odors and are consistent with an experience-dependent encoding (perceptual learning) of synthetic odorant identity in aPCX and an experience-dependent encoding of odor similarity or odor quality in pPCX. PMID:17005727

  12. Detecting Personal Familiarity Depends on Static Frames in “Thin Slices” of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saville, Alyson; Balas, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Brief glimpses of nonverbal behavior (or ‘thin slices’) offer ample visual information to make reliable judgments about individuals. Previous work has largely focused on personality characteristics and traits of the individual; however the nature of dyadic relationships (strangers, lovers, or friends) can also be determined (Ambady & Gray, 2002). Judgments from thin slices are known to be accurate, but the motion features supporting accurate performance are unknown. We explored whether personal familiarity was detectable within the context of ‘thin slices’ of genuine interaction and, the invariant properties of thin-slice recognition. In two experiments, participants sequentially viewed two 6-s silent videos on each trial of an individual interacting with an unfamiliar partner; the other depicted the same person interacting with a personally-familiar partner. All sequences were cropped so that only the target individual was visible. In Experiment 1, participants either viewed the original sequences, reversed sequences, a static-image “slideshow” of the sequence, or a static-image slideshow with blank frames separating each image. In Experiment 2, all participants viewed the original sequences and either clips played at double-speed or half-speed. Participants’ performance was above chance in the forward and reverse conditions, but was significantly better in both the static-image slideshow conditions. When task speed was manipulated, we found a larger performance cost for fast videos compared to slow videos. Detecting personal familiarity via spontaneous natural gesture depends on information in static images more than face or body movement. While static images are typically less important for recognizing nonverbal behavior, we argue they may be valuable for making familiarity judgments from thin slices. PMID:24683099

  13. How dogs scan familiar and inverted faces: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi

    2014-05-01

    Faces play an important role in communication and identity recognition in social animals. Domestic dogs often respond to human facial cues, but their face processing is weakly understood. In this study, facial inversion effect (deficits in face processing when the image is turned upside down) and responses to personal familiarity were tested using eye movement tracking. A total of 23 pet dogs and eight kennel dogs were compared to establish the effects of life experiences on their scanning behavior. All dogs preferred conspecific faces and showed great interest in the eye area, suggesting that they perceived images representing faces. Dogs fixated at the upright faces as long as the inverted faces, but the eye area of upright faces gathered longer total duration and greater relative fixation duration than the eye area of inverted stimuli, regardless of the species (dog or human) shown in the image. Personally, familiar faces and eyes attracted more fixations than the strange ones, suggesting that dogs are likely to recognize conspecific and human faces in photographs. The results imply that face scanning in dogs is guided not only by the physical properties of images, but also by semantic factors. In conclusion, in a free-viewing task, dogs seem to target their fixations at naturally salient and familiar items. Facial images were generally more attractive for pet dogs than kennel dogs, but living environment did not affect conspecific preference or inversion and familiarity responses, suggesting that the basic mechanisms of face processing in dogs could be hardwired or might develop under limited exposure. PMID:24305996

  14. STS-54 MS1 Runco participates in camera familiarization in JSC's CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-54 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Mario Runco, Jr holds a CANNON video camcorder on the middeck of JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) during a camera familiarization session. Runco is seated on a stowed mission specialist seat in front of the forward middeck lockers as he contemplates how to best capture the subject (activity). The CCT is located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

  15. Do familiar landmarks reset the global path integration system of desert ants?

    PubMed

    Collett, M; Collett, T S; Chameron, S; Wehner, R

    2003-03-01

    It is often suggested that animals may link landmark memories to a global coordinate system provided by path integration, thereby obtaining a map-like representation of familiar terrain. In an attempt to discover if desert ants form such associations we have performed experiments that test whether desert ants recall a long-term memory of a global path integration vector on arriving at a familiar food site. Ants from three nests were trained along L-shaped routes to a feeder. Each route was entirely within open-topped channels that obscured all natural landmarks. Conspicuous artificial landmarks were attached to the channelling that formed the latter part of the route. The homeward vectors of ants accustomed to the route were tested with the foodward route, either as in training, or with the first leg of the L shortened or extended. These ants were taken from the feeder to a test area and released, whereupon they performed a home vector. If travelling the latter part of a familiar route and arriving at a familiar food site triggers the recall of an accustomed home vector, then the home vector should be the same under both test conditions. We find instead that the home vector tended to reflect the immediately preceding outward journey. In conjunction with earlier work, these experiments led us to conclude in the case of desert ants that landmark memories do not prime the recall of long-term global path integration memories. On the other hand, landmark memories are known to be linked to local path integration vectors that guide ants along a segment of a route. Landmarks thus seem to provide procedural information telling ants what action to perform next but not the positional information that gives an ant its location relative to its nest. PMID:12547942

  16. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

  17. Familiarity differentially affects right hemisphere contributions to processing metaphors and literals.

    PubMed

    Lai, Vicky T; van Dam, Wessel; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Desai, Rutvik H

    2015-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in processing metaphoric language is controversial. While some studies have reported a special role of the right hemisphere (RH) in processing metaphors, others indicate no difference in laterality relative to literal language. Some studies have found a role of the RH for novel/unfamiliar metaphors, but not conventional/familiar metaphors. It is not clear, however, whether the role of the RH is specific to metaphor novelty, or whether it reflects processing, reinterpretation or reanalysis of novel/unfamiliar language in general. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the effects of familiarity in both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences. A left lateralized network containing the middle and inferior frontal gyri, posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (LH), and inferior frontal regions in the RH, was engaged across both metaphoric and non-metaphoric sentences; engagement of this network decreased as familiarity decreased. No region was engaged selectively for greater metaphoric unfamiliarity. An analysis of laterality, however, showed that the contribution of the RH relative to that of LH does increase in a metaphor-specific manner as familiarity decreases. These results show that RH regions, taken by themselves, including commonly reported regions such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), are responsive to increased cognitive demands of processing unfamiliar stimuli, rather than being metaphor-selective. The division of labor between the two hemispheres, however, does shift towards the right for metaphoric processing. The shift results not because the RH contributes more to metaphoric processing. Rather, relative to its contribution for processing literals, the LH contributes less. PMID:25713522

  18. A cultural side effect: learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects

    PubMed Central

    Kolinsky, Régine; Fernandes, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene and Cohen, 2007), we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of non-linguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the non-linguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age), and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond “same” to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1) or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2). Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation. PMID:25400605

  19. Could masked conceptual primes increase recollection? The subtleties of measuring recollection and familiarity in recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection rather than familiarity. We then report a series of experiments in which two different types of masked prime, presented immediately prior to the test cue in a recognition memory paradigm, produced opposite effects on Remember vs. Know judgments. More specifically, primes that were conceptually related to the test item increased the incidence of Remember judgments, though only when intermixed with repetition primes (which increased the incidence of Know judgments instead, as in prior studies). One possible explanation—that the fluency of retrieval of item–context associations can be experienced as recollection, even when the source of that fluency is unknown—is counter to conventional views of recollection and familiarity, though it was anticipated by Andrew in his writings nearly two decades ago. PMID:22898644

  20. Familiarity and recollection processes in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and their unaffected parents

    PubMed Central

    Lefèbvre, Andrée-Anne; Cellard, Caroline; Tremblay, Sébastien; Achim, Amélie; Rouleau, Nancie; Maziade, Michel; Roy, Marc-André

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory deficits are present in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and their unaffected relatives and could be considered as a cognitive indicator of genetic vulnerability to SZ. The present study, involving patients with SZ as well as their parents, used experimental tasks specifically designed to disentangle the contribution of familiarity and recollection processes to episodic memory. The performance of patients with SZ (n=26) and their unaffected parents (n=35) was compared with that of healthy control groups matched on socio-demographic variables (controls of patients, n=26; controls of parents, n=35) on two memory tasks assessing recollection and familiarity. The first task was designed to investigate item recognition and memory for item-spatial context associations whereas the second targeted item-item associations. The results revealed an overall episodic memory deficit in patients with SZ, encompassing both familiarity and recollection, while unaffected parents showed a dysfunction restricted to the recollection process. Our study highlights differences and similarities in the source of the episodic memory deficit found in patients with SZ and their unaffected parents, and it suggests that recollection could act as a cognitive endophenotype of SZ. The results also suggest that use of experimental tasks represents a promising method in the search of cognitive endophenotypes in SZ. PMID:19945175

  1. Threat perception and familiarity moderate the androgen response to competition in women

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia; Fernandes, Alexandre; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2013-01-01

    Social interactions elicit androgen responses whose function has been posited to be the adjustment of androgen-dependent behaviors to social context. The activation of this androgen response is known to be mediated and moderated by psychological factors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the testosterone (T) changes after a competition are not simply related to its outcome, but rather to the way the subject evaluates the event. In particular we tested two evaluative dimensions of a social interaction: familiarity with the opponent and the subjective evaluation of the outcome as threat or challenge. Challenge/threat occurs in goal relevant situations and represent different motivational states arising from the individuals’ subjective evaluation of the interplay between the task demands and coping resources possessed. For challenge the coping resources exceed the task demands, while threat represents a state where coping resources are insufficient to meet the task demands. In this experiment women competed in pairs, against a same sex opponent using the number tracking test as a competitive task. Losers appraised the competition outcome as more threatening than winners, and displayed higher post-competition T levels than winners. No differences were found either for cortisol (C) or for dehydroepiandrosterone. Threat, familiarity with the opponent and T response were associated only in the loser condition. Moderation analysis suggests that for the women that lost the competition the effect of threat on T is moderated by familiarity with the opponent. PMID:23847564

  2. The N250 Brain Potential to Personally Familiar and Newly Learned Faces and Objects

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Lara J.; Scott, Lisa S.; Boddington, Sophie; Droucker, Danielle; Curran, Tim; Tanaka, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing event-related potentials have shown that when participants are monitoring for a novel target face, the presentation of their own face elicits an enhanced negative brain potential in posterior channels approximately 250 ms after stimulus onset. Here, we investigate whether the own face N250 effect generalizes to other highly familiar objects, specifically, images of the participant’s own dog and own car. In our experiments, participants were asked to monitor for a pre-experimentally unfamiliar target face (Joe), a target dog (Experiment 1: Joe’s Dog) or a target car (Experiment 2: Joe’s Car). The target face and object stimuli were presented with non-target foils that included novel face and object stimuli, the participant’s own face, their own dog (Experiment 1), and their own car (Experiment 2). The consistent findings across the two experiments were the following: (1) the N250 potential differentiated the target faces and objects from the non-target face and object foils and (2) despite being non-targets, the own face and own objects produced an N250 response that was equal in magnitude to the target faces and objects by the end of the experiment. Thus, as indicated by its response to personally familiar and recently familiarized faces and objects, the N250 component is a sensitive index of individuated representations in visual memory. PMID:22059071

  3. Estimating Consumer Familiarity with Health Terminology: A Context-based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Goryachev, Sergey; Tse, Tony; Keselman, Alla; Boxwala, Aziz

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Effective health communication is often hindered by a “vocabulary gap” between language familiar to consumers and jargon used in medical practice and research. To present health information to consumers in a comprehensible fashion, we need to develop a mechanism to quantify health terms as being more likely or less likely to be understood by typical members of the lay public. Prior research has used approaches including syllable count, easy word list, and frequency count, all of which have significant limitations. Design In this article, we present a new method that predicts consumer familiarity using contextual information. The method was applied to a large query log data set and validated using results from two previously conducted consumer surveys. Measurements We measured the correlation between the survey result and the context-based prediction, syllable count, frequency count, and log normalized frequency count. Results The correlation coefficient between the context-based prediction and the survey result was 0.773 (p < 0.001), which was higher than the correlation coefficients between the survey result and the syllable count, frequency count, and log normalized frequency count (p ≤ 0.012). Conclusions The context-based approach provides a good alternative to the existing term familiarity assessment methods. PMID:18308983

  4. Autonomous visual exploration creates developmental change in familiarity and novelty seeking behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Sammy; Spencer, John P.

    2013-01-01

    What motivates children to radically transform themselves during early development? We addressed this question in the domain of infant visual exploration. Over the first year, infants' exploration shifts from familiarity to novelty seeking. This shift is delayed in preterm relative to term infants and is stable within individuals over the course of the first year. Laboratory tasks have shed light on the nature of this familiarity-to-novelty shift, but it is not clear what motivates the infant to change her exploratory style. We probed this by letting a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model of visual exploration develop itself via accumulating experience in a virtual world. We then situated it in a canonical laboratory task. Much like infants, the model exhibited a familiarity-to-novelty shift. When we manipulated the initial conditions of the model, the model's performance was developmentally delayed much like preterm infants. This delay was overcome by enhancing the model's experience during development. We also found that the model's performance was stable at the level of the individual. Our simulations indicate that novelty seeking emerges with no explicit motivational source via the accumulation of visual experience within a complex, dynamical exploratory system. PMID:24065948

  5. Asymmetric effect of automatic deviant detection: The effect of familiarity in visual mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Sulykos, István; Kecskés-Kovács, Krisztina; Czigler, István

    2015-11-11

    The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) component is regarded as a prediction error signal elicited by events violating the sequential regularities of environmental stimulation. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of familiarity on the vMMN. Stimuli were patterns comprised of familiar (N) or unfamiliar (И) letters. In a passive oddball paradigm, letters (N and И) were presented as either standard or deviant in separate conditions. VMMNs emerged in both conditions; peak latency of vMMN was shorter to the И deviant compared to the vMMN elicited by the N deviant. To test the orientation-specific effect of the oblique lines on the vMMN, we introduced a control experiment. In the control experiment, the patterns were constructed solely from oblique lines, identical to the oblique lines of the N and И stimuli. Contrary to the first experiment, there was no significant difference between the vMNNs elicited by the two orientations. Therefore, the differences in vMMNs to И and N deviants are not attributable to the physical difference between the И and N stimuli. Consequently, the vMMN is sensitive to the familiarity of the stimuli. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25724142

  6. Dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia: the role of song familiarity.

    PubMed

    Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Alexander; Geipel, Katja; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2008-04-01

    There are several reports on the ability aphasic patients have to sing familiar songs, despite having severe speech impairments. Based on these observations it was also suggested that singing might improve speech production. However, recent experimental studies with aphasic patients found no evidence to illustrate that singing improves word production under controlled experimental conditions. This study investigated the role of singing during repetition of word phrases in a patient severely affected with non-fluent aphasia (GS) who had an almost complete lesion of the left hemisphere. GS showed a pronounced increase in the number of correctly reproduced words during singing as compared to speaking excerpts of familiar lyrics. This dissociation between singing and speaking was not seen for novel song lyrics, regardless of whether these were coupled with an unfamiliar, a familiar, or a spontaneously generated melody during the singing conditions. These findings propose that singing might help word phrase production in at least some cases of severe expressive aphasia. However, the association of melody and text in long-term memory seems to be responsible for this effect. PMID:18294661

  7. [Image and familiarity of student counseling service and willingness to use the service].

    PubMed

    Ito, Naoki

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between image and familiarity that college students had about student counseling service and their willingness to make use of the service. A questionnaire was administered to 421 college students. Factor analysis of the image found two positive sides: helpfulness and support in crisis, and two negative ones: disadvantage and uneasiness. Men had an image that was higher on support in crisis and disadvantage than women. Women were more familiar with the service, but no sex difference was found in the willingness to visit it. First-year students were lower in terms of their familiarity, but no image differences were found among students of different years. Regression analysis of the willingness indicated that different predictors became significant, depending on the sex and year of the respondents. It was suggested that different information about counseling service should be disseminated, so as to maximize the willingness, depending on the sex and year of the students. PMID:16566235

  8. Two-year-olds interpret novel phonological neighbors as familiar words.

    PubMed

    Swingley, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    When children hear a novel word in a context presenting a novel object and a familiar one, they usually assume that the novel word refers to the novel object. In a series of experiments, we tested whether this behavior would be found when 2-year-olds interpreted novel words that differed phonologically from familiar words in only 1 sound, either a vowel or consonant. Under these conditions children almost always chose the familiar object, though examination of eye movements showed that children did detect the tested phonological distinctions. Thus, children discounted perceptible phonological variations when doing so permitted a resolution of the speaker's meaning without postulating a new word. Children with larger vocabularies made novel-word interpretations more often than children with smaller vocabularies did. The results suggest that although young children do interpret speech in terms of a learned phonological system, this does not mean that children assume that phonological distinctions imply lexical distinctions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337510

  9. The effects of timbre on melody recognition are mediated by familiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuley, J. Devin; Ayala, Chris

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments examined the role of timbre in music recognition. In both experiments, participants rated the familiarity of a set of novel and well-known musical excerpts during a study phase and then were given a surprise old/new recognition test after a retention interval. The recognition test was comprised of the target melodies and an equal number of distractors; participants were instructed to respond yes to the targets and no to the distractors. In experiment 1, the timbre of the melodies was held constant throughout the study and then either stayed the same or switched to a different instrument sound during the test. In experiment 2, timbre varied randomly from trial to trial between the same two instruments used in experiment 1, yielding target melodies that were either mismatched or matched in their timbre. Switching timbre between study and test in experiment 1 was found to hurt the recognition of the novel melodies, but not the familiar melodies. The mediating effect of familiarity was eliminated in experiment 2 when timbre varied randomly from trial to trial rather than remaining constant. Possible reasons for the difference between studies will be discussed.

  10. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  11. Familiar faces rendered strange: Why inconsistent realism drives characters into the uncanny valley.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Debaleena; MacDorman, Karl F

    2016-09-01

    Computer-modeled characters resembling real people sometimes elicit cold, eerie feelings. This effect, called the uncanny valley, has been attributed to uncertainty about whether the character is human or living or real. Uncertainty, however, neither explains why anthropomorphic characters lie in the uncanny valley nor their characteristic eeriness. We propose that realism inconsistency causes anthropomorphic characters to appear unfamiliar, despite their physical similarity to real people, owing to perceptual narrowing. We further propose that their unfamiliar, fake appearance elicits cold, eerie feelings, motivating threat avoidance. In our experiment, 365 participants categorized and rated objects, animals, and humans whose realism was manipulated along consistency-reduced and control transitions. These data were used to quantify a Bayesian model of categorical perception. In hypothesis testing, we found reducing realism consistency did not make objects appear less familiar, but only animals and humans, thereby eliciting cold, eerie feelings. Next, structural equation models elucidated the relation among realism inconsistency (measured objectively in a two-dimensional Morlet wavelet domain inspired by the primary visual cortex), realism, familiarity, eeriness, and warmth. The fact that reducing realism consistency only elicited cold, eerie feelings toward anthropomorphic characters, and only when it lessened familiarity, indicates the role of perceptual narrowing in the uncanny valley. PMID:27611063

  12. The feeling of familiarity for music in patients with a unilateral temporal lobe lesion: A gating study.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Josefien; Dellacherie, Delphine; Tillmann, Barbara; Clément, Sylvain; Bigand, Emmanuel; Dupont, Sophie; Samson, Séverine

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that the medial temporal lobe (MTL), and more specifically the perirhinal cortex, plays a role in the feeling of familiarity for non-musical stimuli. Here, we examined contribution of the MTL to the feeling of familiarity for music by testing patients with unilateral MTL lesions. We used a gating paradigm: segments of familiar and unfamiliar musical excerpts were played with increasing durations (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 ms and complete excerpts), and participants provided familiarity judgments for each segment. Based on the hypothesis that patients might need longer segments than healthy controls (HC) to identify excerpts as familiar, we examined the onset of the emergence of familiarity in HC, patients with a right MTL resection (RTR), and patients with a left MTL resection (LTR). In contrast to our hypothesis, we found that the feeling of familiarity was relatively spared in patients with a right or left MTL lesion, even for short excerpts. All participants were able to differentiate familiar from unfamiliar excerpts as early as 500 ms, although the difference between familiar and unfamiliar judgements was greater in HC than in patients. These findings suggest that a unilateral MTL lesion does not impair the emergence of the feeling of familiarity. We also assessed whether the dynamics of the musical excerpt (linked to the type and amount of information contained in the excerpts) modulated the onset of the feeling of familiarity in the three groups. The difference between familiar and unfamiliar judgements was greater for high than for low-dynamic excerpts for HC and RTR patients, but not for LTR patients. This indicates that the LTR group did not benefit in the same way from dynamics. Overall, our results imply that the recognition of previously well-learned musical excerpts does not depend on the integrity of either right or the left MTL structures. Patients with a unilateral MTL resection may compensate for the effects of

  13. Event-related potential (ERP) indices of infants’ recognition of familiar and unfamiliar objects in two and three dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Leslie J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2006-01-01

    We measured infants’ recognition of familiar and unfamiliar 3-D objects and their 2-D representations using event-related potentials (ERPs). Infants differentiated familiar from unfamiliar objects when viewing them in both two and three dimensions. However, differentiation between the familiar and novel objects occurred more quickly when infants viewed the object in 3-D than when they viewed 2-D representations. The results are discussed with respect to infants’ recognition abilities and their understanding of real objects and representations. This is the first study using 3-D objects in conjunction with ERPs in infants, and it introduces an interesting new methodology for assessing infants’ electrophysiological responses to real objects. PMID:16445396

  14. Mechanisms supporting superior source memory for familiar items: a multi-voxel pattern analysis study.

    PubMed

    Poppenk, Jordan; Norman, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Recent cognitive research has revealed better source memory performance for familiar relative to novel stimuli. Here we consider two possible explanations for this finding. The source memory advantage for familiar stimuli could arise because stimulus novelty induces attention to stimulus features at the expense of contextual processing, resulting in diminished overall levels of contextual processing at study for novel (vs. familiar) stimuli. Another possibility is that stimulus information retrieved from long-term memory (LTM) provides scaffolding that facilitates the formation of item-context associations. If contextual features are indeed more effectively bound to familiar (vs. novel) items, the relationship between contextual processing at study and subsequent source memory should be stronger for familiar items. We tested these possibilities by applying multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to a recently collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset, with the goal of measuring contextual processing at study and relating it to subsequent source memory performance. Participants were scanned with fMRI while viewing novel proverbs, repeated proverbs (previously novel proverbs that were shown in a pre-study phase), and previously known proverbs in the context of one of two experimental tasks. After scanning was complete, we evaluated participants' source memory for the task associated with each proverb. Drawing upon fMRI data from the study phase, we trained a classifier to detect on-task processing (i.e., how strongly was the correct task set activated). On-task processing was greater for previously known than novel proverbs and similar for repeated and novel proverbs. However, both within and across participants, the relationship between on-task processing and subsequent source memory was stronger for repeated than novel proverbs and similar for previously known and novel proverbs. Finally, focusing on the repeated condition, we found that higher

  15. A single-rate context-dependent learning process underlies rapid adaptation to familiar object dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ingram, James N; Howard, Ian S; Flanagan, J Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    Motor learning has been extensively studied using dynamic (force-field) perturbations. These induce movement errors that result in adaptive changes to the motor commands. Several state-space models have been developed to explain how trial-by-trial errors drive the progressive adaptation observed in such studies. These models have been applied to adaptation involving novel dynamics, which typically occurs over tens to hundreds of trials, and which appears to be mediated by a dual-rate adaptation process. In contrast, when manipulating objects with familiar dynamics, subjects adapt rapidly within a few trials. Here, we apply state-space models to familiar dynamics, asking whether adaptation is mediated by a single-rate or dual-rate process. Previously, we reported a task in which subjects rotate an object with known dynamics. By presenting the object at different visual orientations, adaptation was shown to be context-specific, with limited generalization to novel orientations. Here we show that a multiple-context state-space model, with a generalization function tuned to visual object orientation, can reproduce the time-course of adaptation and de-adaptation as well as the observed context-dependent behavior. In contrast to the dual-rate process associated with novel dynamics, we show that a single-rate process mediates adaptation to familiar object dynamics. The model predicts that during exposure to the object across multiple orientations, there will be a degree of independence for adaptation and de-adaptation within each context, and that the states associated with all contexts will slowly de-adapt during exposure in one particular context. We confirm these predictions in two new experiments. Results of the current study thus highlight similarities and differences in the processes engaged during exposure to novel versus familiar dynamics. In both cases, adaptation is mediated by multiple context-specific representations. In the case of familiar object dynamics

  16. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Scott A.; Miranda, Robbin A.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  17. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies.

    PubMed

    Miles, Scott A; Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  18. Episodic feeling-of-knowing relies on noncriterial recollection and familiarity: Evidence using an online remember-know procedure.

    PubMed

    Isingrini, Michel; Sacher, Mathilde; Perrotin, Audrey; Taconnat, Laurence; Souchay, Céline; Stoehr, Hélène; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa

    2016-04-01

    We examined the hypothesis that feeling-of-knowing judgments rely on recollection as well as on familiarity prompted by the cue presentation. A remember-know-no memory procedure was combined with the episodic FOK procedure employing a cue-target pair memory task. The magnitude of FOK judgments and FOK accuracy were examined as a function of recollection, familiarity, or the "no memory" option. Results showed that the proportion of R and K responses was similar. FOK accuracy and magnitude of FOK judgments were higher for R and K responses than for N responses. FOK accuracy related to R and K responses were above chance level, but FOK was not accurate in the "no memory" condition. Finally, both FOK magnitude and FOK accuracy were related more to recollection than to familiarity. These results support the hypothesis that both recollection and familiarity are determinants of the FOK process, although they suggest that recollection has a stronger influence. PMID:26849420

  19. Easy on the mind, easy on the wallet: the roles of familiarity and processing fluency in valuation judgments.

    PubMed

    Alter, Adam L; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2008-10-01

    Although people routinely estimate the value of items in their environment, from goods and services to natural resources and lost earnings following an accident, the processes that underlie human valuation estimates are not well understood. We show that people use familiarity and fluency-the ease with which they process information-to determine an item's value. In three experiments, participants believed that familiar forms of currency (e.g., a familiar $1 bill) had greater purchasing power than their unfamiliar counterparts (e.g., a rare and unfamiliar coin). Mechanistic analyses showed a positive correlation between participants' familiarity with the unfamiliar currency and their estimates of its value. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of our findings for researchers, marketing experts, and policymakers alike. PMID:18926993

  20. The influence of job familiarity and impression management on self-report measure scale scores and response latencies.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulos, N L; Reilly, R R; Leaman, J A

    2000-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of job familiarity and impression management on response latencies and scale scores for measures of personality and situational judgment. In a laboratory study using university students and a field study using U.S. Border Patrol Agent applicants, impression management was generally associated with faster personality item responses when job familiarity was high and with slower responses when job familiarity was low. Both impression management and job familiarity were associated with personality item responses that were more likely to lead to a job offer. The field study revealed a similar pattern of results for situational judgment scale response latencies, although only impression management was associated with item responses that were more likely to lead to a job offer. The implications for using response latencies to detect impression management on self-report measures are discussed. PMID:10740956

  1. Cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of the conceptual knowledge for common objects and familiar people: a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the issue of how knowledge of common objects is organized in the brain, whereas the cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of familiar people knowledge have been less explored. Here we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right temporal poles before asking healthy individuals to perform a speeded word-to-picture matching task using familiar people and common objects as stimuli. We manipulated two widely used semantic variables, namely the semantic distance and the familiarity of stimuli, to assess whether the semantic organization of familiar people knowledge is similar to that of common objects. For both objects and faces we reliably found semantic distance and familiarity effects, with less accurate and slower responses for stimulus pairs that were more closely related and less familiar. However, the effects of semantic variables differed across categories, with semantic distance effects larger for objects and familiarity effects larger for faces, suggesting that objects and faces might share a partially comparable organization of their semantic representations. The application of rTMS to the left temporal pole modulated, for both categories, semantic distance, but not familiarity effects, revealing that accessing object and face concepts might rely on overlapping processes within left anterior temporal regions. Crucially, rTMS of the left temporal pole affected only the recognition of pairs of stimuli that could be discriminated at specific levels of categorization (e.g., two kitchen tools or two famous persons), with no effect for discriminations at either superordinate or individual levels. Conversely, rTMS of the right temporal pole induced an overall slowing of reaction times that positively correlated with the visual similarity of the stimuli, suggesting a more perceptual rather than semantic role of the right anterior temporal regions. Results are discussed in the light of current

  2. Cognitive and Anatomical Underpinnings of the Conceptual Knowledge for Common Objects and Familiar People: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the issue of how knowledge of common objects is organized in the brain, whereas the cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of familiar people knowledge have been less explored. Here we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right temporal poles before asking healthy individuals to perform a speeded word-to-picture matching task using familiar people and common objects as stimuli. We manipulated two widely used semantic variables, namely the semantic distance and the familiarity of stimuli, to assess whether the semantic organization of familiar people knowledge is similar to that of common objects. For both objects and faces we reliably found semantic distance and familiarity effects, with less accurate and slower responses for stimulus pairs that were more closely related and less familiar. However, the effects of semantic variables differed across categories, with semantic distance effects larger for objects and familiarity effects larger for faces, suggesting that objects and faces might share a partially comparable organization of their semantic representations. The application of rTMS to the left temporal pole modulated, for both categories, semantic distance, but not familiarity effects, revealing that accessing object and face concepts might rely on overlapping processes within left anterior temporal regions. Crucially, rTMS of the left temporal pole affected only the recognition of pairs of stimuli that could be discriminated at specific levels of categorization (e.g., two kitchen tools or two famous persons), with no effect for discriminations at either superordinate or individual levels. Conversely, rTMS of the right temporal pole induced an overall slowing of reaction times that positively correlated with the visual similarity of the stimuli, suggesting a more perceptual rather than semantic role of the right anterior temporal regions. Results are discussed in the light of current

  3. Is the desire to eat familiar and unfamiliar meat products influenced by the emotions expressed on eaters' faces?

    PubMed

    Rousset, S; Schlich, P; Chatonnier, A; Barthomeuf, L; Droit-Volet, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test if the social context represented by eaters' faces expressing emotions can modulate the desire to eat meat, especially for unfamiliar meat products. Forty-four young men and women were presented with two series of photographs. The first series (non-social context) was composed of eight meat pictures, four unfamiliar and four familiar. The second series (social context) consisted of the same pictures presented with eaters expressing three different emotions: disgust, pleasure or neutrality. For every picture, the participants were asked to estimate the intensity of their desire to eat the meat product viewed on the picture. Results showed that meat desire depended on interactions between product familiarity, social context and the participant's gender. In the non-social context, the men liked the familiar meat products more than the women, whereas their desire to eat unfamiliar meat products was similar. Compared to the non-social context, viewing another person eating with a neutral and a happy facial expression increased the desire to eat. Furthermore, the increase in the desire to eat meat associated with happy faces was greater for the unfamiliar than for the familiar meat products in men, and greater for the familiar than for the unfamiliar meats in women. In the presence of disgusted faces, the desire to eat meat remained constant for unfamiliar products in all participants whereas it only decreased for familiar products in men. PMID:17655970

  4. Tactile Object Familiarity in the Blind Brain Reveals the Supramodal Perceptual-Mnemonic Nature of the Perirhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cacciamani, Laura; Likova, Lora T.

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the neural underpinnings of tactile object familiarity in the blind during both perception and memory. In the sighted, the perirhinal cortex (PRC) has been implicated in the assessment of visual object familiarity—a crucial everyday task—as evidenced by reduced activation when an object becomes familiar. Here, to examine the PRC’s role in tactile object familiarity in the absence of vision, we trained blind participants on a unique memory-guided drawing technique and measured brain activity while they perceptually explored raised-line drawings, drew them from tactile memory, and scribbled (control). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a week of training revealed a significant decrease in PRC activation from pre- to post-training (i.e., from unfamiliar to familiar) during perceptual exploration as well as memory-guided drawing, but not scribbling. This familiarity-based reduction is the first evidence that the PRC represents tactile object familiarity in the blind. Furthermore, the finding of this effect during both tactile perception and tactile memory provides the critical link in establishing the PRC as a structure whose representations are supramodal for both perception and memory. PMID:27148002

  5. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  6. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  7. Orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours affect the onset of ERP lexical effects

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that the variability among studies in the onset of lexical effects may be due to a series of methodological differences. In this study we investigated the role of orthographic familiarity, phonological legality and number of orthographic neighbours of words in determining the onset of word/non-word discriminative responses. Methods ERPs were recorded from 128 sites in 16 Italian University students engaged in a lexical decision task. Stimuli were 100 words, 100 quasi-words (obtained by the replacement of a single letter), 100 pseudo-words (non-derived) and 100 illegal letter strings. All stimuli were balanced for length; words and quasi-words were also balanced for frequency of use, domain of semantic category and imageability. SwLORETA source reconstruction was performed on ERP difference waves of interest. Results Overall, the data provided evidence that the latency of lexical effects (word/non-word discrimination) varied as a function of the number of a word's orthographic neighbours, being shorter to non-derived than to derived pseudo-words. This suggests some caveats about the use in lexical decision paradigms of quasi-words obtained by transposing or replacing only 1 or 2 letters. Our findings also showed that the left-occipito/temporal area, reflecting the activity of the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) of the temporal lobe, was affected by the visual familiarity of words, thus explaining its lexical sensitivity (word vs. non-word discrimination). The temporo-parietal area was markedly sensitive to phonological legality exhibiting a clear-cut discriminative response between illegal and legal strings as early as 250 ms of latency. Conclusion The onset of lexical effects in a lexical decision paradigm depends on a series of factors, including orthographic familiarity, degree of global lexical activity, and phonologic legality of non-words. PMID:18601726

  8. Electrophysiological correlates associated with contributions of perceptual and conceptual fluency to familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Bingbing; Gao, Chuanji; Xiao, Xin; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    The present research manipulated the fluency of unstudied items using masked repetition priming procedures during an explicit recognition test. Based on fluency-attribution accounts, which posit that familiarity can be driven by multiple forms of fluency, the relationship between masked priming-induced fluency and familiarity was investigated. We classified pictographic characters into High-Meaningfulness (High-M) and Low-Meaningfulness (Low-M) categories on the basis of subjective meaningfulness ratings and identified the distinct electrophysiological correlates of perceptual and conceptual fluency. The two types of fluency differed in associated ERP effects: 150–250 ms effects for perceptual fluency and FN400 effects for conceptual fluency. The ERPs of Low-M MP-same (items that were preceded by matching masked items) false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 150–250 ms, whereas the ERPs of High-M MP-same false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 300–500 ms. The topographic patterns of FN400 effects between High-M MP-same false alarms and Low-M MP-same false alarms were not different from those of High-M hits and Low-M hits. These results indicate that both forms of fluency can contribute to familiarity, and the neural correlates of conceptual fluency are not different from those of conceptual priming induced by prior study-phase exposure. We conclude that multiple neural signals potentially contribute to recognition memory, such as numerous forms of fluency differing in terms of their time courses. PMID:26097450

  9. Effect of training and familiarity on responsiveness to human cues in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Clare L; Ramos, Mari F

    2014-05-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) seem to possess an evolved competency to follow human-given cues, often out-performing their wild progenitor the wolf (Canis lupus) on cue-following tasks. However, domestication may not be solely responsible for the socio-cognitive skills of dogs, with ontogenetic experience also playing a role. This research evaluated the effects of intensive training on cue-following behaviour using an unreinforced object-choice paradigm. The responses of dogs that were trained to competitive levels were compared to those of pet dogs with only basic training, and dogs living in an animal shelter that demonstrated no or only rudimentary following of basic commands. Using a cue-following task where three types of cues were presented by familiar and unfamiliar human partners, the number of cues followed by each training group were recorded. All dogs found cues where gesture was combined with a congruent head and eye movement easier to follow than either gesture or eye gaze alone. Whether the cue-giver was familiar or not had a significant effect on number of cues followed in homed dogs, and the performance of shelter dogs was comparable to the other groups when faced with an unfamiliar cue-giver. Contrary to predictions, level of training did not improve performance on the cue-following task. This work does provide support for the presence of an evolved adaptation to exploit social cues provided by humans that can be augmented by familiarity with the cue giver. However, additional joint activity as experienced in an intensive training regime does not seem to increase accuracy in following human-given cues. PMID:24318516

  10. Segmentation of dance movement: effects of expertise, visual familiarity, motor experience and music

    PubMed Central

    Bläsing, Bettina E.

    2015-01-01

    According to event segmentation theory, action perception depends on sensory cues and prior knowledge, and the segmentation of observed actions is crucial for understanding and memorizing these actions. While most activities in everyday life are characterized by external goals and interaction with objects or persons, this does not necessarily apply to dance-like actions. We investigated to what extent visual familiarity of the observed movement and accompanying music influence the segmentation of a dance phrase in dancers of different skill level and non-dancers. In Experiment 1, dancers and non-dancers repeatedly watched a video clip showing a dancer performing a choreographed dance phrase and indicated segment boundaries by key press. Dancers generally defined less segment boundaries than non-dancers, specifically in the first trials in which visual familiarity with the phrase was low. Music increased the number of segment boundaries in the non-dancers and decreased it in the dancers. The results suggest that dance expertise reduces the number of perceived segment boundaries in an observed dance phrase, and that the ways visual familiarity and music affect movement segmentation are modulated by dance expertise. In a second experiment, motor experience was added as factor, based on empirical evidence suggesting that action perception is modified by visual and motor expertise in different ways. In Experiment 2, the same task as in Experiment 1 was performed by dance amateurs, and was repeated by the same participants after they had learned to dance the presented dance phrase. Less segment boundaries were defined in the middle trials after participants had learned to dance the phrase, and music reduced the number of segment boundaries before learning. The results suggest that specific motor experience of the observed movement influences its perception and anticipation and makes segmentation broader, but not to the same degree as dance expertise on a professional

  11. Been there before? Examining "familiarity" as a moderator for discriminating between true and false intentions.

    PubMed

    Knieps, Melanie; Granhag, Pär A; Vrij, Aldert

    2014-01-01

    Prospection is thinking about possible future states of the world. Commitment to perform a future action-commonly referred to as intention-is a specific type of prospection. This knowledge is relevant when trying to assess whether a stated intention is a lie or the truth. An important observation is that thinking of, and committing to, future actions often evoke vivid and detailed mental images. One factor that affects how specific a person experiences these simulations is location-familiarity. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent location-familiarity moderates how liars and truth tellers describe a mental image in an investigative interview. Liars were instructed to plan a criminal act and truth tellers were instructed to plan a non-criminal act. Before they could carry out these acts, the participants were intercepted and interviewed about the mental images they may have had experienced in this planning phase. Truth tellers told the truth whereas liars used a cover story to mask their criminal intentions. As predicted, the results showed that the truth tellers reported a mental image significantly more often than the liars. If a mental image was reported, the content of the descriptions did not differ between liars and truth tellers. In a post interview questionnaire, the participants rated the vividness (i.e., content and clarity) of their mental images. The ratings revealed that the truth tellers had experienced their mental images more vividly during the planning phase than the liars. In conclusion, this study indicates that both prototypical and specific representations play a role in prospection. Although location-familiarity did not moderate how liars and truth tellers describe their mental images of the future, this study allows some interesting insights into human future thinking. How these findings can be helpful for distinguishing between true and false intentions will be discussed. PMID:25071648

  12. Perceptual discrimination difficulty and familiarity in the Uncanny Valley: more like a “Happy Valley”

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jancke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) predicts that greater difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot) evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny) affect. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine the profile of perceptual discrimination (PD) difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This was represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 showed that PD difficulty was reduced for categorically ambiguous faces but, notably, enhanced for human faces. Rejecting the UVH' predicted relationship between PD difficulty and negative affect (assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension), Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively valenced affect. Critically, this effect was strongest for the ambiguous faces, suggesting a correlative relationship between PD difficulty and feelings of familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. This relationship is also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence that the asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing bias (cf. other-race effect), i.e., processing avatars at a category level but human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, the present data for static faces show clear effects that, however, strongly challenge the UVH' implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and feelings of familiarity. PMID:25477829

  13. Strategies for object identification and confidence: influence of appearance, amount of context, and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Kleine, R E; Kernan, J B

    1992-12-01

    In an experimental study of the everyday, what-is-this? perceptual encounter, the strategies subjects used to identify a focal object were influenced by the object's physical appearance, the amount of context in which it was displayed, and subjects' familiarity with the object. These factors also affected subjects' confidence in the accuracy of their identifications. The results appear to support the contention that visual processing is a middle-out rather than either a top-down or bottom-up sequence. PMID:1454469

  14. Political efficacy and familiarity as predictors of attitudes towards electric transmission lines in the United States

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Joe, Jeffrey C.; Hendrickson, Kelsie; Wong, Maria; Kane, Stephanie L.; Solan, David; Carlisle, Juliet E.; Koehler, David; Ames, Daniel P.; Beazer, Robert

    2016-05-18

    Public opposition to the construction (i.e., siting) of new high voltage overhead transmission lines is not a new or isolated phenomenon. Past research has posited a variety of reasons, applied general theories, and has provided empirical evidence to explain public opposition. The existing literature, while clarifying many elements of the issue, does not yet fully explain the complexities underlying this public opposition phenomenon. As a result, the current study demonstrated how two overlooked factors, people’s sense of political efficacy and their familiarity (i.e., prior exposure) with transmission lines, explained attitudes of support and opposition to siting new power lines.

  15. In live interaction, does familiarity promote attraction or contempt? Reply to Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2011).

    PubMed

    Reis, Harry T; Maniaci, Michael R; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2011-09-01

    In this reply, we address and refute each of Norton, Frost, and Ariely's (see record 2011-18560-001) specific objections to the conclusion that, ceteris paribus, familiarity breeds liking in live interaction. In particular, we reiterate the importance of studying live interaction rather than decontextualized processes. These rebuttals notwithstanding, we concur with Norton et al.'s call for an integrative model that encompasses both Norton, Frost, and Ariely's (see record 2006-23056-008) results and ours (see record 2011-04644-001), and we point readers toward a description of a possible model presented in our original article. PMID:21859228

  16. Ability of heifers to discriminate between familiar herdmates and members of an unfamiliar group: preference test and operant conditioning test.

    PubMed

    Koba, Yuki; Munksgaard, Lene; Tanida, Hajime; Pedersen, Lene

    2009-02-01

    Using a preference test and operant conditioning in a Y-maze, this experiment examined the ability of heifers to discriminate between their own familiar herdmates and member(s) of an unfamiliar group. Sixteen Danish Friesian heifers, eight older animals (360.6 +/- 24.2 days of age) and eight younger ones (190.1 +/- 14.1 days of age) were used. Each age group was further divided into two experimental groups. Members of each of these groups were housed together in small pens before the experiments began. In experiment 1, each of the 16 animals was allowed to approach either a familiar or an unfamiliar individual in the Y-maze. The test was repeated 12 times, with a different unfamiliar subject for each test. In experiment 2, eight heifers were individually tested in a conditioning experiment to examine whether they could learn to discriminate between a group of their three herdmates and a group of three unfamiliar heifers. Test animals were rewarded when they chose their own group. In experiment 1, heifers did not show a preference between familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Interestingly the younger stimulus heifers but not the test animals showed an ability to discriminate between unfamiliar animals by vocalizing. In experiment 2, four of the eight test animals achieved the criterion for successful discrimination between the familiar and unfamiliar group (P < 0.003: binomial law). There was no age group difference in the ability to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar animals. In conclusion, heifers did not show a preference toward familiar or unfamiliar individuals; but after conditioning, some heifers could learn to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar groups. PMID:20163475

  17. Overcoming the Effects of Variation in Infant Speech Segmentation: Influences of Word Familiarity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Nestor, Sarah S; Bortfeld, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that 7.5-month-olds can track and encode words in fluent speech, but they fail to equate instances of a word that contrast in talker gender, vocal affect, and fundamental frequency. By 10.5 months, they succeed at generalizing across such variability, marking a clear transition period during which infants' word recognition skills become qualitatively more mature. Here we explore the role of word familiarity in this critical transition and, in particular, whether words that occur frequently in a child's listening environment (i.e., "Mommy" and "Daddy") are more easily recognized when they differ in surface characteristics than those that infants have not previously encountered (termed nonwords). Results demonstrate that words are segmented from continuous speech in a more linguistically mature fashion than nonwords at 7.5 months, but at 10.5 months, both words and nonwords are segmented in a relatively mature fashion. These findings suggest that early word recognition is facilitated in cases where infants have had significant exposure to items, but at later stages, infants are able to segment items regardless of their presumed familiarity. PMID:21088702

  18. “Taller and Shorter”: Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Thomas; Huber, Markus; Schramm, Hannah; Kugler, Günter; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants’ drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings. PMID:26509927

  19. What's that smell? An ecological approach to understanding preferences for familiar odors.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Goldberger, Carolyn S; Palmer, Stephen E; Levitan, Carmel A

    2015-01-01

    How do odor preferences arise? Following Palmer and Schloss's (2010, PNAS, 107, 8877-8882) ecological valence theory of color preferences, we propose that preference for an odor is determined by preferences for all objects and/or entities associated with that odor. The present results showed that preferences for familiar odors were strongly predicted by average preferences for all things associated with the odors (eg people liked the apple odor which was associated with mostly positive things, such as apples, soap, and candy, but disliked the fish odor, which was associated with mostly negative things, such as dead fish, trash, and vomit). The odor WAVEs (weighted affective valence estimates) performed significantly better than one based on preference for only the namesake object (eg predicting preference for the apple odor based on preference for apples). These results suggest that preferences for familiar odors are based on a summary statistic, coding the valence of previous odor-related experiences. We discuss how this account of odor preferences is consistent with the idea that odor preferences exist to guide organisms to approach beneficial objects and situations and avoid harmful ones. PMID:26489214

  20. Unconscious Familiarity-based Color-Form Binding: Evidence from Visual Extinction.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Sarah J; Riddoch, M Jane; Chechlacz, Magda; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2016-03-01

    There is good evidence that early visual processing involves the coding of different features in independent brain regions. A major question, then, is how we see the world in an integrated manner, in which the different features are "bound" together. A standard account of this has been that feature binding depends on attention to the stimulus, which enables only the relevant features to be linked together [Treisman, A., & Gelade, G. A feature-integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97-136, 1980]. Here we test this influential idea by examining whether, in patients showing visual extinction, the processing of otherwise unconscious (extinguished) stimuli is modulated by presenting objects in their correct (familiar) color. Correctly colored objects showed reduced extinction when they had a learned color, and this color matched across the ipsi- and contralesional items (red strawberry + red tomato). In contrast, there was no reduction in extinction under the same conditions when the stimuli were colored incorrectly (blue strawberry + blue tomato; Experiment 1). The result was not due to the speeded identification of a correctly colored ipsilesional item, as there was no benefit from having correctly colored objects in different colors (red strawberry + yellow lemon; Experiment 2). There was also no benefit to extinction from presenting the correct colors in the background of each item (Experiment 3). The data suggest that learned color-form binding can reduce extinction even when color is irrelevant for the task. The result is consistent with preattentive binding of color and shape for familiar stimuli. PMID:26679213

  1. Exploring the influence of cultural familiarity and expertise on neurological responses to music.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J

    2003-11-01

    Contemporary music education in many countries has begun to incorporate not only the dominant music of the culture, but also a variety of music from around the world. Although the desirability of such a broadened curriculum is virtually unquestioned, the specific function of these musical encounters and their potential role in children's cognitive development remain unclear. We do not know if studying a variety of world music traditions involves the acquisition of new skills or an extension and refinement of traditional skills long addressed by music teachers. Is a student's familiarity with a variety of musical traditions a manifestation of a single overarching "musicianship" or is knowledge of these various musical styles more similar to a collection of discrete skills much like learning a second language? Research on the comprehension of spoken language has disclosed a neurologically distinct response among subjects listening to their native language rather than an unfamiliar language. In a recent study comparing Western subjects' responses to music of their native culture and music of an unfamiliar culture, we found that subjects' activation did not differ on the basis of the cultural familiarity of the music, but on the basis of musical expertise. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings in relation to the concept of musical universals, cross-cultural stimulus characteristics, cross-cultural judgment tasks, and the influence of musical expertise. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:14681123

  2. Norms for name agreement, familiarity, subjective frequency, and imageability for 348 object names in Tunisian Arabic.

    PubMed

    Boukadi, Mariem; Zouaidi, Cirine; Wilson, Maximiliano A

    2016-06-01

    Normative databases for pictorial stimuli are widely used in research on language processing in order to control for a number of psycholinguistic variables in the selected stimuli. Such resources are lacking for Arabic and its dialectal varieties. In the present study, we aimed to provide Tunisian Arabic (TA) normative data for 348 line drawings taken from Cycowicz, Friedman, Rothstein, and Snodgrass (1997), which include Snodgrass and Vanderwart's (1980) 260 pictures. Norms were collected for the following psycholinguistic variables: name agreement, familiarity, subjective frequency, and imageability. Word length data (in numbers of phonemes and syllables) are also listed in the database. We investigated the effects of these variables on word reading in TA. We found that word length and frequency were the best predictors of word-reading latencies in TA. Name agreement was also a significant predictor of word-reading latencies. A particularly interesting finding was that the semantic variables, imageability and familiarity, affected word-reading latencies in TA. Thus, it would seem that TA readers rely on semantics even when reading individual Arabic words that are transparent in terms of orthography-to-phonology mappings. This database represents a precious and much-needed psycholinguistic resource for researchers investigating language processing in Arabic-speaking populations. PMID:26019005

  3. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia F; Fernandes, Alexandre C; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads) were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured before and 20 min after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans. PMID:25404923

  4. "Taller and Shorter": Human 3-D Spatial Memory Distorts Familiar Multilevel Buildings.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Thomas; Huber, Markus; Schramm, Hannah; Kugler, Günter; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments report contradictory findings on the presence of a behavioural and neuronal anisotropy exhibited in vertical and horizontal capabilities of spatial orientation and navigation. We performed a pointing experiment in humans on the imagined 3-D direction of the location of various invisible goals that were distributed horizontally and vertically in a familiar multilevel hospital building. The 21 participants were employees who had worked for years in this building. The hypothesis was that comparison of the experimentally determined directions and the true directions would reveal systematic inaccuracy or dimensional anisotropy of the localizations. The study provides first evidence that the internal representation of a familiar multilevel building was distorted compared to the dimensions of the true building: vertically 215% taller and horizontally 51% shorter. This was not only demonstrated in the mathematical reconstruction of the mental model based on the analysis of the pointing experiments but also by the participants' drawings of the front view and the ground plan of the building. Thus, in the mental model both planes were altered in different directions: compressed for the horizontal floor plane and stretched for the vertical column plane. This could be related to human anisotropic behavioural performance of horizontal and vertical navigation in such buildings. PMID:26509927

  5. Cold-pressor stress after learning enhances familiarity-based recognition memory in men.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Andrew M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-11-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-h and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

  6. Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the Fortalezas Familiares intervention for Latino families facing maternal depression

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Moore, Sarah; Magaña, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a linguistically- and culturally-adapted intervention for immigrant Latina mothers with depression and their families. Fortalezas Familiares (Family Strengths) is a community-based, 12-week, multi-family group intervention that aims to increase communication about family processes leading up to and affected by the mother’s depression, build child coping and efficacy, enhance parenting competence and skills, and promote cultural and social assets within the family. In terms of feasibility, of 16 families who enrolled and participated in the intervention, 13 families attended more than 90% of meetings and completed the intervention. Post-tests reported positive changes following the intervention, including improved psychological functioning, increased family and marital support, and enhanced family functioning, as reported by mothers and other caregivers. Mothers also reported decreased conduct and hyperactivity problems among their children. Children reported positive changes in their psychological functioning and coping, peer relations, parenting warmth and acceptance, and overall family functioning. Post-intervention focus groups and surveys measuring acceptability revealed families’ satisfaction with the intervention and suggested areas of improvement. We discuss similarities and differences in outcomes between the adapted intervention, Fortalezas Familiares, and the original intervention, Keeping Families Strong, and propose future areas of intervention adaptation and development. PMID:24033238

  7. Feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the Fortalezas Familiares intervention for latino families facing maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Padilla, Brian; Moore, Sarah McArdell; Magaña, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a linguistically and culturally adapted intervention for immigrant Latina mothers with depression and their families. Fortalezas Familiares (Family Strengths) is a community-based, 12-week, multifamily group intervention that aims to increase communication about family processes leading up to and affected by the mother's depression, build child coping and efficacy, enhance parenting competence and skills, and promote cultural and social assets within the family. In terms of feasibility, of 16 families who enrolled and participated in the intervention, 13 families attended more than 90% of meetings and completed the intervention. Posttests reported positive changes following the intervention, including improved psychological functioning, increased family and marital support, and enhanced family functioning, as reported by mothers and other caregivers. Mothers also reported decreased conduct and hyperactivity problems among their children. Children reported positive changes in their psychological functioning and coping, parenting warmth and acceptance, and overall family functioning. Postintervention focus groups and surveys measuring acceptability revealed families' satisfaction with the intervention and suggested areas of improvement. We discuss similarities and differences in outcomes between the adapted intervention, Fortalezas Familiares, and the original intervention, Keeping Families Strong, and propose future areas of intervention adaptation and development. PMID:24033238

  8. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Fernandes, Alexandre C.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads) were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured before and 20 min after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans. PMID:25404923

  9. Cold-Pressor Stress After Learning Enhances Familiarity-Based Recognition Memory in Men

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-hour and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

  10. When that tune runs through your head: a PET investigation of auditory imagery for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Halpern, A R; Zatorre, R J

    1999-01-01

    The present study used positron emission tomography (PET) to examine the cerebral activity pattern associated with auditory imagery for familiar tunes. Subjects either imagined the continuation of nonverbal tunes cued by their first few notes, listened to a short sequence of notes as a control task, or listened and then reimagined that short sequence. Subtraction of the activation in the control task from that in the real-tune imagery task revealed primarily right-sided activation in frontal and superior temporal regions, plus supplementary motor area (SMA). Isolating retrieval of the real tunes by subtracting activation in the reimagine task from that in the real-tune imagery task revealed activation primarily in right frontal areas and right superior temporal gyrus. Subtraction of activation in the control condition from that in the reimagine condition, intended to capture imagery of unfamiliar sequences, revealed activation in SMA, plus some left frontal regions. We conclude that areas of right auditory association cortex, together with right and left frontal cortices, are implicated in imagery for familiar tunes, in accord with previous behavioral, lesion and PET data. Retrieval from musical semantic memory is mediated by structures in the right frontal lobe, in contrast to results from previous studies implicating left frontal areas for all semantic retrieval. The SMA seems to be involved specifically in image generation, implicating a motor code in this process. PMID:10554992

  11. An image-dependent representation of familiar and unfamiliar faces in the human ventral stream.

    PubMed

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Gouws, André; Andrews, Timothy J

    2009-05-01

    People are extremely proficient at recognizing faces that are familiar to them, but are much worse at matching unfamiliar faces. We used fMR-adaptation to ask whether this difference in recognition might be reflected by an image-invariant representation for familiar faces in face-selective regions of the human ventral visual processing stream. Consistent with models of face processing, we found adaptation to repeated images of the same face image in the fusiform face area (FFA), but not in the superior-temporal face region (STS). To establish if the neural representation in the FFA was invariant to changes in view, we presented different images of the same face. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the response in the FFA to different images of the same person was the same as the response to images of different people. A group analysis showed a distributed pattern of adaptation to the same image of a face, which extended beyond the face-selective areas, including other regions of the ventral visual stream. However, this analysis failed to reveal any regions showing significant image-invariant adaptation. These results suggest that information about faces is represented in a distributed network using an image-dependent neural code. PMID:19428408

  12. An image-dependent representation of familiar and unfamiliar faces in the human ventral stream

    PubMed Central

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Gouws, André; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    People are extremely proficient at recognizing faces that are familiar to them, but are much worse at matching unfamiliar faces. We used fMR-adaptation to ask whether this difference in recognition might be reflected by an image-invariant representation for familiar faces in face-selective regions of the human ventral visual processing stream. Consistent with models of face processing, we found adaptation to repeated images of the same face image in the fusiform face area (FFA), but not in the superior-temporal face region (STS). To establish if the neural representation in the FFA was invariant to changes in view, we presented different images of the same face. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the response in the FFA to different images of the same person was the same as the response to images of different people. A group analysis showed a distributed pattern of adaptation to the same image of a face, which extended beyond the face-selective areas, including other regions of the ventral visual stream. However, this analysis failed to reveal any regions showing significant image-invariant adaptation. These results suggest that information about faces is represented in a distributed network using an image-dependent neural code. PMID:19428408

  13. Kindergarten food familiarization. An exploratory study of teachers' perspectives on food and nutrition in kindergartens.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    This exploratory study employed a netnographic approach (netnography being a research methodology that adopts the practices of ethnography in an Internet-based setting) to reveal opportunities for kindergarten food familiarization. The study analyses kindergarten teachers' discussions on seven Internet message boards regarding the various food and nutrition experiences in their classes. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with seven kindergarten teachers to explore further the message board findings. Five opportunities for how food familiarization occurs in kindergartens emerged from the analysis. These opportunities were categorized as being either "overt": (1) nutrition lessons, (2) snack times, (3) cooking experiences, or "covert" (4) food as teaching materials, and (5) dramatic play centres. Overt refers to any opportunity centred on food, healthy eating, or nutrition, whereas covert refers to opportunities where food was involved but in a non-exclusive manner. The five opportunities are examined and discussed in terms of their implications for children's food preference development. Results should be useful for future researchers for two main reasons. First, the results demonstrate the wide variety of food and nutrition experiences kindergarten students encounter throughout the day, beyond healthy eating interventions or foods served during meals. And second, because the findings are preliminary they require further research using various methods of data collection and samples of teachers. PMID:25526827

  14. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  15. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

    2013-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  16. Intuitively detecting what is hidden within a visual mask: familiar-novel discrimination and threat detection for unidentified stimuli.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Nomi, Jason S

    2013-10-01

    Recognition without identification is the finding that, among recognition test items that go unidentified (as when a word is unidentified from a fragment), participants can discriminate those that were studied from those that were unstudied. In the present study, we extended this phenomenon to the more life-like situation of discriminating known from novel stimuli. Pictures of famous and nonfamous faces (Exp. 1), famous and nonfamous scenes (Exp. 2), and threatening and nonthreatening images (Exp. 3) were filtered in order to impede identification. As in list-learning recognition-without-identification paradigms, participants attempted to identify each image (e.g., whose face it was, what scene it was, or what was in the picture) and rated how familiar the image seemed on a scale of 0 (very unfamiliar) to 10 (very familiar). Among the unidentified stimuli, higher familiarity ratings were given to famous than to nonfamous faces (Exp. 1) and scenes (Exp. 2), and to threatening than to nonthreatening living/animate (but not to nonliving/nonanimate) images (Exp. 3). These findings suggest that even when a stimulus is too occluded to allow for conscious identification, enough information can be processed to allow a sense of familiarity or novelty with it, which appears also to be related to the sense of whether or not a living creature is a threat. That the sense of familiarity for unidentified stimuli may be related to threat detection for living or animate things suggests that it may be an adaptive aspect of human memory. PMID:23606041

  17. The awareness of novelty for strangely familiar words: a laboratory analogue of the déjà vu experience.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Josephine A; O'Connor, Akira R

    2014-01-01

    Déjà vu is a nebulous memory experience defined by a clash between evaluations of familiarity and novelty for the same stimulus. We sought to generate it in the laboratory by pairing a DRM recognition task, which generates erroneous familiarity for critical words, with a monitoring task by which participants realise that some of these erroneously familiar words are in fact novel. We tested 30 participants in an experiment in which we varied both participant awareness of stimulus novelty and erroneous familiarity strength. We found that déjà vu reports were most frequent for high novelty critical words (∼25%), with low novelty critical words yielding only baseline levels of déjà vu report frequency (∼10%). There was no significant variation in déjà vu report frequency according to familiarity strength. Discursive accounts of the experimentally-generated déjà vu experience suggest that aspects of the naturalistic déjà vu experience were captured by this analogue, but that the analogue was also limited in its focus and prone to influence by demand characteristics. We discuss theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to further development of this procedure and propose that verifiable novelty is an important component of both naturalistic and experimental analogues of déjà vu. PMID:25401055

  18. The role of chunk tightness and chunk familiarity in problem solving: evidence from ERPs and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lili; Knoblich, Guenther; Luo, Jing

    2013-05-01

    Multiple factors of task difficulty keep problem solvers from finding the crucial thinking steps required to solve insight problems. In this study, we distinguished two difficulty factors, chunk familiarity and chunk tightness, and investigated their effects on chunk decomposition--a specific type of insight that depends on the process of breaking up perceptual patterns or chunks into elements so that they can be reorganized to form a new meaning. Subjects solved problems that required decomposing Chinese characters that differed in chunk familiarity and chunk tightness. Brain activity was recorded using the electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that chunk familiarity could be overcome through an inhibition of familiar meanings, whereas overcoming chunk tightness required visual-spatial processing. Furthermore, chunk familiarity posed an additional difficulty when chunk tightness was high. This result demonstrates that the difficulty sources in a problem do not always simply add up. Rather, the difficulty of a problem can reside in the interaction of particular sources of difficulty. PMID:22328466

  19. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    PubMed

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction. PMID:11140256

  20. Face learning with multiple images leads to fast acquisition of familiarity for specific individuals.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, A J; Sandford, A; Burton, A Mike

    2016-01-01

    Matching unfamiliar faces is a difficult task. Here we ask whether it is possible to improve performance by providing multiple images to support matching. In two experiments we observe that accuracy improves as viewers are provided with additional images on which to base their match. This technique leads to fast learning of an individual, but the effect is identity-specific: Despite large improvements in viewers' ability to match a particular person's face, these improvements do not generalize to other faces. Experiment 2 demonstrated that trial-by-trial feedback provided no additional benefits over the provision of multiple images. We discuss these results in terms of familiar and unfamiliar face processing and draw out some implications for training regimes. PMID:25671778

  1. Manipulation of familiarity reveals a necessary lexical component of the word-stem completion priming effect.

    PubMed

    Postle, B R; Corkin, S

    1999-01-01

    These experiments were motivated by the idea that many types of nondeclarative memory are by-products arising from the plasticity that is inherent in much of the nervous system. We hypothesized that two types of repetition priming, word-stem completion (WSC) priming and perceptual identification (PI) priming, rely on different mechanisms because the WSC task and the PI task engage different cognitive and brain processes. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating word familiarity. The results, impaired WSC priming but intact PI priming with unfamiliar words, indicate that WSC priming relies primarily on a modification mechanism, whereas PI priming relies primarily on an acquisition mechanism. Our conclusions are consistent with component processes theories of nondeclarative memory. PMID:10087852

  2. Familiarity and anticipation of negative life events as moderator variables in predicting illness.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R M; Ostrowski, T A; Pino, R D; Morrell, J A; Kochevar, R

    1992-09-01

    A 10-month longitudinal study with 79 university students examined the role of positive and negative life experiences on the subsequent development of health problems. The Life Experiences Survey (LES; Sarason, Johnson & Siegel, 1978) was modified to measure the potential role of five moderating variables on illness. Students gave monthly reports of life events experienced, as well as health status, on the Seriousness of Illness Rating Scale (Wyler, Masuda & Holmes, 1968). Results indicated that both positive and negative life events were predictors of subsequent health problems. Negative life events that were familiar to the students and were unanticipated proved to be significant moderator variables; both factors were significant predictors of the number of health problems subsequently experienced. PMID:1401142

  3. Familiarity promotes the blurring of self and other in the neural representation of threat.

    PubMed

    Beckes, Lane; Coan, James A; Hasselmo, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Neurobiological investigations of empathy often support an embodied simulation account. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we monitored statistical associations between brain activations indicating self-focused threat to those indicating threats to a familiar friend or an unfamiliar stranger. Results in regions such as the anterior insula, putamen and supramarginal gyrus indicate that self-focused threat activations are robustly correlated with friend-focused threat activations but not stranger-focused threat activations. These results suggest that one of the defining features of human social bonding may be increasing levels of overlap between neural representations of self and other. This article presents a novel and important methodological approach to fMRI empathy studies, which informs how differences in brain activation can be detected in such studies and how covariate approaches can provide novel and important information regarding the brain and empathy. PMID:22563005

  4. Familiarity promotes the blurring of self and other in the neural representation of threat

    PubMed Central

    Beckes, Lane; Hasselmo, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Neurobiological investigations of empathy often support an embodied simulation account. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we monitored statistical associations between brain activations indicating self-focused threat to those indicating threats to a familiar friend or an unfamiliar stranger. Results in regions such as the anterior insula, putamen and supramarginal gyrus indicate that self-focused threat activations are robustly correlated with friend-focused threat activations but not stranger-focused threat activations. These results suggest that one of the defining features of human social bonding may be increasing levels of overlap between neural representations of self and other. This article presents a novel and important methodological approach to fMRI empathy studies, which informs how differences in brain activation can be detected in such studies and how covariate approaches can provide novel and important information regarding the brain and empathy. PMID:22563005

  5. Differences in how monolingual and bilingual children learn second labels for familiar objects.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Lindsey; Jacobson, Rebecca; Saylor, Megan M

    2015-11-01

    Monolingual children sometimes resist learning second labels for familiar objects. One explanation is that they are guided by word learning constraints that lead to the assumption that objects have only one name. It is less clear whether bilingual children observe this constraint. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that bilingual children might be more willing to accept second labels for objects and ask how they are affected by different amounts of information relevant to the second label. Although monolingual and bilingual children benefited from increased levels of information, only bilingual children chose the referent at above chance levels when they were offered increased levels of information. They were also more likely than monolingual children to accept second labels. Differences emerged even when English language vocabulary size was controlled for in the analyses. PMID:25630837

  6. Childhood Cancer Survivors' Familiarity With and Opinions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Echo L.; Park, Elyse R.; Stroup, Antoinette; Kinney, Anita Y.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) offers avenues to increase insurance options and access to care; however, it is unknown whether populations with pre-existing conditions, such as cancer survivors, will benefit from the expanded coverage options. We explored childhood cancer survivors' familiarity with and opinion of the ACA to understand how survivors' insurance coverage may be affected. Materials and Methods: From April to July 2012 we conducted in-depth, semistructured telephone interviews with 53 adult survivors recruited from the Utah Cancer SEER Registry. Participants were randomly selected from sex, age, and rural/urban strata and were younger than 21 years at time of diagnosis. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with NVivo 9 by two coders (kappa = 0.94). We report on the 49 participants who had heard of the ACA. Results: Most survivors were unaware of ACA provisions beyond the insurance mandate. Few knew about coverage for children up to age 26 or pre-existing insurance options. Although one third believed the ACA could potentially benefit them via expanded insurance coverage, many were concerned that the ACA would lead to rising health care costs and decreasing quality of care. Survivors had concerns specific to their cancer history, including fears of future health care rationing if they developed subsequent health problems. Conclusion: Childhood cancer survivors have a low level of familiarity with the ACA and are unaware of how it may affect them given their cancer history. These survivors require targeted education to increase knowledge about the ACA. PMID:23943900

  7. Familiarity modulates the functional relationship between theory of mind and autobiographical memory

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, J. S.; Rosenbaum, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative reviews of the neuroimaging literature show that overlapping brain regions support theory of mind (ToM) and autobiographical memory (AM). This overlap has been taken to suggest that individuals draw on past personal experiences to infer others’ mental states, but work with amnesic people shows that ToM does not always depend on AM. One variable that may determine the extent to which one relies on AM when inferring another’s thoughts and feelings during ToM is whether that individual is personally known. To test this possibility, participants were scanned with fMRI as they remembered past experiences in response to personal photos (‘AM’ condition) and imagined others’ experiences in response to photos of personally familiar (‘pToM’ condition) and unfamiliar (‘ToM’ condition) others. Spatiotemporal Partial Least Squares was used to identify the spatial and temporal characteristics of neural activation patterns associated with AM, pToM, and ToM. We found that the brain regions supporting pToM more closely resembled those supporting AM relative to ToM involving unfamiliar others, with the greatest degree of overlap within midline regions. A complementary finding was the observation of striking differences between pToM and ToM such that midline regions associated with AM predominated during pToM, whereas more lateral regions associated with social semantic memory predominated during ToM. Overall, this study demonstrates that ToM involves a dynamic interplay between AM and social semantic memory that is biased towards AM when a personally familiar other is the subject of the mental state inference. PMID:22584225

  8. Autonomous Visual Navigation of an Indoor Environment Using a Parsimonious, Insect Inspired Familiarity Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Brayfield, Brad P.

    2016-01-01

    The navigation of bees and ants from hive to food and back has captivated people for more than a century. Recently, the Navigation by Scene Familiarity Hypothesis (NSFH) has been proposed as a parsimonious approach that is congruent with the limited neural elements of these insects’ brains. In the NSFH approach, an agent completes an initial training excursion, storing images along the way. To retrace the path, the agent scans the area and compares the current scenes to those previously experienced. By turning and moving to minimize the pixel-by-pixel differences between encountered and stored scenes, the agent is guided along the path without having memorized the sequence. An important premise of the NSFH is that the visual information of the environment is adequate to guide navigation without aliasing. Here we demonstrate that an image landscape of an indoor setting possesses ample navigational information. We produced a visual landscape of our laboratory and part of the adjoining corridor consisting of 2816 panoramic snapshots arranged in a grid at 12.7-cm centers. We show that pixel-by-pixel comparisons of these images yield robust translational and rotational visual information. We also produced a simple algorithm that tracks previously experienced routes within our lab based on an insect-inspired scene familiarity approach and demonstrate that adequate visual information exists for an agent to retrace complex training routes, including those where the path’s end is not visible from its origin. We used this landscape to systematically test the interplay of sensor morphology, angles of inspection, and similarity threshold with the recapitulation performance of the agent. Finally, we compared the relative information content and chance of aliasing within our visually rich laboratory landscape to scenes acquired from indoor corridors with more repetitive scenery. PMID:27119720

  9. Familiarity bias and physiological responses in contagious yawning by dogs support link to empathy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  10. Familiarity Bias and Physiological Responses in Contagious Yawning by Dogs Support Link to Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Konno, Akitsugu; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response) could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response). Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog’s owner) and unfamiliar human models (experimenter) acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate) were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects’ heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs. PMID:23951146

  11. Autonomous Visual Navigation of an Indoor Environment Using a Parsimonious, Insect Inspired Familiarity Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gaffin, Douglas D; Brayfield, Brad P

    2016-01-01

    The navigation of bees and ants from hive to food and back has captivated people for more than a century. Recently, the Navigation by Scene Familiarity Hypothesis (NSFH) has been proposed as a parsimonious approach that is congruent with the limited neural elements of these insects' brains. In the NSFH approach, an agent completes an initial training excursion, storing images along the way. To retrace the path, the agent scans the area and compares the current scenes to those previously experienced. By turning and moving to minimize the pixel-by-pixel differences between encountered and stored scenes, the agent is guided along the path without having memorized the sequence. An important premise of the NSFH is that the visual information of the environment is adequate to guide navigation without aliasing. Here we demonstrate that an image landscape of an indoor setting possesses ample navigational information. We produced a visual landscape of our laboratory and part of the adjoining corridor consisting of 2816 panoramic snapshots arranged in a grid at 12.7-cm centers. We show that pixel-by-pixel comparisons of these images yield robust translational and rotational visual information. We also produced a simple algorithm that tracks previously experienced routes within our lab based on an insect-inspired scene familiarity approach and demonstrate that adequate visual information exists for an agent to retrace complex training routes, including those where the path's end is not visible from its origin. We used this landscape to systematically test the interplay of sensor morphology, angles of inspection, and similarity threshold with the recapitulation performance of the agent. Finally, we compared the relative information content and chance of aliasing within our visually rich laboratory landscape to scenes acquired from indoor corridors with more repetitive scenery. PMID:27119720

  12. Disentangling the influence of salience and familiarity on infant word learning: methodological advances.

    PubMed

    Bortfeld, Heather; Shaw, Katie; Depowski, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment that the child is in. The application of neurophysiological techniques to the study of early development has been augmenting these findings at a rapid pace. While the result is an accrual of data bridging the gap between brain and behavior, much work remains to make the link between behavioral evidence of infants' emerging sensitivities and neurophysiological evidence of changes in how their brains process information. Here we review the background behavioral data on how salience and familiarity in the auditory signal shape initial language learning. We follow this with a summary of more recent evidence of changes in infants' brain activity in response to specific aspects of speech. Our goal is to examine language learning through the lens of brain/environment interactions, ultimately focusing on changes in cortical processing of speech across the first year of life. We will ground our examination of recent brain data in the two auditory features initially outlined: salience and familiarity. Our own and others' findings on the influence of these two features reveal that they are key parameters in infants' emerging recognition of structure in the speech signal. Importantly, the evidence we review makes the critical link between behavioral and brain data. We discuss the importance of future work that makes this bridge as a means of moving the study of language development solidly into the domain of brain science. PMID:23616775

  13. Familiarization Effects of an Elliptical All-out Test and the Wingate Test Based on Mechanical Power Indices.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    The Wingate all-out test (WAT) is commonly used to estimate anaerobic capabilities of athletes by using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer, however, a new test modality called elliptical all-out test (EAT) which measures activated whole-body locomotor tasks has recently been proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familiarization effects of a 30-s EAT versus WAT. Twenty male trained athletes performed pre-familiarization (Trial- I), post-familiarization (Trial-II) and retest of Trial-II (Trial-III) sessions on both cycle ergometer and elliptical trainer. Peak power (PP), average power (AP), power drop (PD) and fatigue index ratio (FI%) were analyzed using student's t-test for paired samples and correlated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Moreover, an error detection procedure was administered using data attained from illogical interrelations among 5-s segments of 30-s tests. The main results showed that there were significant familiarization effects in all mechanical power outputs obtained from Trial-I and Trial-II in both EAT (ICC = 0.49-0.55) and WAT (ICC = 0.50-0.57) performances (p ≤ 0.01). Significant segmental disorders were detected in power production during Trial-I of EAT, however, none existed in any of test trails in the WAT (p ≤ 0.001). After familiarization sessions, reliability coefficients between Trial-II and Trial-III showed moderate to strong-level agreements for both EAT (ICC = 0.74-0.91) and the WAT (ICC=0.76-0.93). Our results suggested that prior to the performance tests, combination of a well designed familiarization session with one full all-out test administration is necessary to estimate the least moderately reliable and accurate test indices for both WAT and EAT. Key PointsA well designed familiarization session, and then, one additional all-out test administration, several days prior to main test, is suggested to estimate more accurate and reliable retest correlations for both cycling and elliptical

  14. Familiarity to a Feed Additive Modulates Its Effects on Brain Responses in Reward and Memory Regions in the Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, David; Meurice, Paul; Clouard, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Brain responses to feed flavors with or without a feed additive (FA) were investigated in piglets familiarized or not with this FA. Sixteen piglets were allocated to 2 dietary treatments from weaning until d 37: the naive group (NAI) received a standard control feed and the familiarized group (FAM) received the same feed added with a FA mainly made of orange extracts. Animals were subjected to a feed transition at d 16 post-weaning, and to 2-choice feeding tests at d 16 and d 23. Production traits of the piglets were assessed up to d 28 post-weaning. From d 26 onwards, animals underwent 2 brain imaging sessions (positron emission tomography of 18FDG) under anesthesia to investigate the brain activity triggered by the exposure to the flavors of the feed with (FA) or without (C) the FA. Images were analyzed with SPM8 and a region of interest (ROI)-based small volume correction (p < 0.05, k ≥ 25 voxels per cluster). The brain ROI were selected upon their role in sensory evaluation, cognition and reward, and included the prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, fusiform gyrus, limbic system and corpus striatum. The FAM animals showed a moderate preference for the novel post-transition FA feed compared to the C feed on d 16, i.e., day of the feed transition (67% of total feed intake). The presence or absence of the FA in the diet from weaning had no impact on body weight, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of the animals over the whole experimental period (p ≥ 0.10). Familiar feed flavors activated the prefrontal cortex. The amygdala, insular cortex, and prepyriform area were only activated in familiarized animals exposed to the FA feed flavor. The perception of FA feed flavor in the familiarized animals activated the dorsal striatum differently than the perception of the C feed flavor in naive animals. Our data demonstrated that the perception of FA in familiarized individuals induced different brain responses in regions involved in reward anticipation and

  15. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  16. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  17. Five- and Eight-Month-Old Infants Recognize Their Faces and Voices as Familiar and Social Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerstee, Maria; Anderson, Diane; Schaffer, Alliza

    1998-01-01

    Presented five- and eight-month olds with silent moving and static video images of self, peer, and doll, and sounds of self and nonsocial objects. Found that recognition of one's image develops through experience with dynamic facial stimulation during first eight months. By five months, infants treat their faces and voices as familiar and social…

  18. Viewers base estimates of face matching accuracy on their own familiarity: Explaining the photo-ID paradox.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Kay L; Smith, Finlay G; Jenkins, Rob; Bindemann, Markus; White, David; Burton, A Mike

    2015-08-01

    Matching two different images of a face is a very easy task for familiar viewers, but much harder for unfamiliar viewers. Despite this, use of photo-ID is widespread, and people appear not to know how unreliable it is. We present a series of experiments investigating bias both when performing a matching task and when predicting other people's performance. Participants saw pairs of faces and were asked to make a same/different judgement, after which they were asked to predict how well other people, unfamiliar with these faces, would perform. In four experiments we show different groups of participants familiar and unfamiliar faces, manipulating this in different ways: celebrities in experiments 1-3 and personally familiar faces in experiment 4. The results consistently show that people match images of familiar faces more accurately than unfamiliar faces. However, people also reliably predict that the faces they themselves know will be more accurately matched by different viewers. This bias is discussed in the context of current theoretical debates about face recognition, and we suggest that it may underlie the continued use of photo-ID, despite the availability of evidence about its unreliability. PMID:25988915

  19. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  20. Children’s level of word knowledge predicts their exclusion of familiar objects as referents of novel words

    PubMed Central

    Grassmann, Susanne; Schulze, Cornelia; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    When children are learning a novel object label, they tend to exclude as possible referents familiar objects for which they already have a name. In the current study, we wanted to know if children would behave in this same way regardless of how well they knew the name of potential referent objects, specifically, whether they could only comprehend it or they could both comprehend and produce it. Sixty-six monolingual German-speaking 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children participated in two experimental sessions. In one session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were in the children’s productive vocabularies, and in the other session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were only in the children’s receptive vocabularies. Results indicated that children at all three ages were more likely to exclude a familiar object as the potential referent of the novel word if they could comprehend and produce its name rather than comprehend its name only. Indeed, level of word knowledge as operationalized in this way was a better predictor than was age. These results are discussed in the context of current theories of word learning by exclusion. PMID:26322005