Science.gov

Sample records for design change process

  1. The Changing Metropolitan Designation Process and Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Randolph, Randy; Ricketts, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) released new county-based designations of Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs), replacing Metropolitan Statistical Area designations that were last revised in 1990. In this article, the new designations are briefly described, and counties that have changed classifications are identified.…

  2. Innovation Process Design: A Change Management and Innovation Dimension Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peisl, Thomas; Reger, Veronika; Schmied, Juergen

    The authors propose an innovative approach to the management of innovation integrating business, process, and maturity dimensions. Core element of the concept is the adaptation of ISO/IEC 15504 to the innovation process including 14 innovation drivers. Two managerial models are applied to conceptualize and visualize the respective innovation strategies, the Balanced Scorecard and a Barriers in Change Processes Model. An illustrative case study shows a practical implementation process.

  3. Intentional Design and the Process of Change: Strategies for Successful Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanaghan, Patrick; Napier, Rod

    This guide to successful change at colleges and universities has two parts. Part 1 explores the process of change at institutions of higher education, focusing on some of the underlying factors and issues that have proven vital to long-term success. In part 1, the first section discusses collaboration, key to a successful change process at any…

  4. Collaborative Course Design: Changing the Process, Acknowledging the Context, and Implications for Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegenfuss, Donna Harp; Lawler, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    This research study describes the experiences and perceptions of an instructor and an instructional design specialist who collaborated on the design and implementation of a university course using a new course design process. Findings uncovered differences between an informal collaboration process and the adaptation of that process for…

  5. Dealing with change in process choreographies: Design and implementation of propagation algorithms☆

    PubMed Central

    Fdhila, Walid; Indiono, Conrad; Rinderle-Ma, Stefanie; Reichert, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Enabling process changes constitutes a major challenge for any process-aware information system. This not only holds for processes running within a single enterprise, but also for collaborative scenarios involving distributed and autonomous partners. In particular, if one partner adapts its private process, the change might affect the processes of the other partners as well. Accordingly, it might have to be propagated to concerned partners in a transitive way. A fundamental challenge in this context is to find ways of propagating the changes in a decentralized manner. Existing approaches are limited with respect to the change operations considered as well as their dependency on a particular process specification language. This paper presents a generic change propagation approach that is based on the Refined Process Structure Tree, i.e., the approach is independent of a specific process specification language. Further, it considers a comprehensive set of change patterns. For all these change patterns, it is shown that the provided change propagation algorithms preserve consistency and compatibility of the process choreography. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype of a change propagation framework for process choreographies is presented. Overall, comprehensive change support in process choreographies will foster the implementation and operational support of agile collaborative process scenarios. PMID:25892843

  6. The full-scale process and design changes for elimination of insulation edge separations and voids in tang flap area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danforth, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Qualification of the full-scale process and design changes for elimination of redesigned solid rocket motor tang nitrile butadiene rubber insulation edge separations and voids was performed from 24 March to 3 December 1990. The objectives of this test were: to qualify design and process changes on flight hardware using a tie ply between the redesigned solid rocket motor steel case and the nitrile butadiene rubber insulation over the tang capture features; to qualify the use of methyl ethyl ketone in the tang flap region to reduce voids; and to determine if holes in the separator film reduce voids in the tang flap region. The tie ply is intended to aid insulation flow during the insulation cure process, and thus reduce or eliminate edge unbonds. Methyl ethyl ketone is intended to reduce voids in the tang flap area by providing better tacking characteristics. The perforated film was intended to provide possible vertical breathe paths to reduce voids in the tang area. Tang tie ply testing consisted of 270 deg of the tang circumference using a new layup method and 90 deg of the tang circumference using the current layup methods. Tie ply process success was defined as a reduction of insulation unbonds. Lack of any insulation edge unbonds on the tang area where the new process was used, and the presence of 17 unbonds with the current process, proves the test to be a success. Successful completion of this test has qualified the new processes.

  7. Future integrated design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

  8. Reengineering the Project Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casani, E.; Metzger, R.

    1994-01-01

    In response to NASA's goal of working faster, better and cheaper, JPL has developed extensive plans to minimize cost, maximize customer and employee satisfaction, and implement small- and moderate-size missions. These plans include improved management structures and processes, enhanced technical design processes, the incorporation of new technology, and the development of more economical space- and ground-system designs. The Laboratory's new Flight Projects Implementation Office has been chartered to oversee these innovations and the reengineering of JPL's project design process, including establishment of the Project Design Center and the Flight System Testbed. Reengineering at JPL implies a cultural change whereby the character of its design process will change from sequential to concurrent and from hierarchical to parallel. The Project Design Center will support missions offering high science return, design to cost, demonstrations of new technology, and rapid development. Its computer-supported environment will foster high-fidelity project life-cycle development and cost estimating.

  9. Change Processes in Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on change processes in organizations. "Mid-stream Corrections: Decisions Leaders Make during Organizational Change Processes" (David W. Frantz) analyzes three organizational leaders to determine whether and how they take corrective actions or adapt their decision-making processes when…

  10. Change Processes in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "The Role of the Survey in the Assessment of an Organization for High Performance Redesign: A Case Study" (Teresa K. Moyers, Oris T. Griffin), looks at how one company used a survey to analyze the way the social system currently is designed and operates. "Thriving on Change: An Organizational…

  11. Mistake proofing: changing designs to reduce error

    PubMed Central

    Grout, J R

    2006-01-01

    Mistake proofing uses changes in the physical design of processes to reduce human error. It can be used to change designs in ways that prevent errors from occurring, to detect errors after they occur but before harm occurs, to allow processes to fail safely, or to alter the work environment to reduce the chance of errors. Effective mistake proofing design changes should initially be effective in reducing harm, be inexpensive, and easily implemented. Over time these design changes should make life easier and speed up the process. Ideally, the design changes should increase patients' and visitors' understanding of the process. These designs should themselves be mistake proofed and follow the good design practices of other disciplines. PMID:17142609

  12. 77 FR 41248 - Disaster Designation Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... designation regulations to provide for changes in the designation process (76 FR 70368-70374). In general, that rule proposed to simplify the disaster designation process and to delegate the authority for... 759.6 has also been changed from the proposed rule to remove proposed language referring to a...

  13. [Signal Processing Suite Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahr, John D.; Mir, Hasan; Morabito, Andrew; Grossman, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Our role in this project was to participate in the design of the signal processing suite to analyze plasma density measurements on board a small constellation (3 or 4) satellites in Low Earth Orbit. As we are new to space craft experiments, one of the challenges was to simply gain understanding of the quantity of data which would flow from the satellites, and possibly to interact with the design teams in generating optimal sampling patterns. For example, as the fleet of satellites were intended to fly through the same volume of space (displaced slightly in time and space), the bulk plasma structure should be common among the spacecraft. Therefore, an optimal, limited bandwidth data downlink would take advantage of this commonality. Also, motivated by techniques in ionospheric radar, we hoped to investigate the possibility of employing aperiodic sampling in order to gain access to a wider spatial spectrum without suffering aliasing in k-space.

  14. Reengineering the JPL Spacecraft Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, C.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation describes the factors that have emerged in the evolved process of reengineering the unmanned spacecraft design process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Topics discussed include: New facilities, new design factors, new system-level tools, complex performance objectives, changing behaviors, design integration, leadership styles, and optimization.

  15. Designing Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

    2012-12-01

    In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

  16. Automation of Design Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrey, Glenn; Sawasky, Gerald; Courey, Karim

    2004-01-01

    A method, and a computer program that helps to implement the method, have been developed to automate and systematize the retention and retrieval of all the written records generated during the process of designing a complex engineering system. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that all the written records as used here is meant to be taken literally: it signifies not only final drawings and final engineering calculations but also such ancillary documents as minutes of meetings, memoranda, requests for design changes, approval and review documents, and reports of tests. One important purpose served by the method is to make the records readily available to all involved users via their computer workstations from one computer archive while eliminating the need for voluminous paper files stored in different places. Another important purpose served by the method is to facilitate the work of engineers who are charged with sustaining the system and were not involved in the original design decisions. The method helps the sustaining engineers to retrieve information that enables them to retrace the reasoning that led to the original design decisions, thereby helping them to understand the system better and to make informed engineering choices pertaining to maintenance and/or modifications of the system. The software used to implement the method is written in Microsoft Access. All of the documents pertaining to the design of a given system are stored in one relational database in such a manner that they can be related to each other via a single tracking number.

  17. A Process for Design Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Design Engineering Technical Committee has developed a draft Design Engineering Process with the participation of the technical community. This paper reviews similar engineering activities, lays out common terms for the life cycle and proposes a Design Engineering Process.

  18. Ethylene process design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Integration of Advanced Technologies will Update Ethylene Plants. Nearly 93 million tons of ethylene are produced annually in chemical plants worldwide, using an energy intensive process that consumes 2.5 quadrillion Btu per year.

  19. Managing Software Design and Design Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loesh, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor-based system for document production work scheduling, and change control and management information aids in design, development, and control of software. Main components Z80 microprocessor, floppydisk and hard-disk drives, and a character printer. System linked to large computer. Major software components are control program monitor (CP/M), text-editing and wordprocessing system, workbreakdown-schedule processor, and data-base management tool.

  20. DESIGNING PROCESSES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing for the environment requires consideration of environmental impacts. The Generalized WAR Algorithm is the methodology that allows the user to evaluate the potential environmental impact of the design of a chemical process. In this methodology, chemicals are assigned val...

  1. SAPHIRE Change Design and Testing Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith

    2010-02-01

    This document describes the procedure software developers of SAPHIRE follow when adding a new feature or revising an existing capability. This procedure first describes the general approach to changes, and then describes more specific processes. The process stages include design and development, testing, and documentation.

  2. Book Processing Facility Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheahan (Drake)-Stewart Dougall, Marketing and Physical Distribution Consultants, New York, NY.

    The Association of New York Libraries for Technical Services (ANYLTS) is established to develop and run a centralized book processing facility for the public library systems in New York State. ANYLTS plans to receive book orders from the 22 library systems, transmit orders to publishers, receive the volumes from the publishers, print and attach…

  3. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  4. DECA - The design change assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Brtis, J.S.; Dickson, A.C. ); Beasant, R.P.; Waninski, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the design change assistant (DECA), an expert-system-based program that allows the computerization of engineering design reviews. Included in the discussion are what DECA is, how it works, what its benefits are, and how it has been applied to Commonwealth Edison's engineering design reviews, which are part of their design change packages for modifications. Preparing plant modifications is one important example of proceduralized engineering activities that require complex reviews and documentation. Preparing for plant modifications requires the determination that the modification does not adversely affect safety or operations or deviate from standard station practices. Performing such reviews adds significantly to the expense and lead time of even simple modifications. Indirect burdens of these reviews include the time and expense of training the reviewers.

  5. Planning for Change: Flexible Design Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The intersection of technology and the 21st Century learner has challenged many school districts to rethink their approach to the design of school facilities and the definition of "classroom." To strategically plan for the future, districts must not only consider facilities and curriculum, but understand a process of change that is continually…

  6. Designing Hydroecologic - Geomorphic Monitoring Networks to Capture Heterogeneity and Predict the Influence of Climate Change on Hydrologic, Ecologic and Geomorphic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, C. J.; Crosby, B. T.

    2010-12-01

    Regional differences in topography and climate in mountainous catchments cause heterogeneity in hydrologic and geomorphic processes and complicate the prediction of climate change impacts on anthropogenic and ecologic systems. To elucidate these complexities and provide measurements that strengthen our predictive power of the influence of climate change on hydrologic, ecologic and geomorphic processes we have designed and implemented a monitoring network that encompasses large elevation, climatic and orographic gradients in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho. Our methodology places strong influence on understanding and characterizing the range and distribution of physical elements across a landscape. Elevation is a characteristic of landscapes that can vary a great deal within a single drainage and exerts strong control on precipitation phase and magnitude, affecting hydroecologic and geomorphic processes. We use hypsometry to characterize elevation distributions and provide a novel method to assess the sensitivity of a landscape to rising snowlines. For example, hypsometry can be used to identify landscape features such as large plateaus or valleys that make up a significant percentage of a watershed’s total land area yet are confined within a small elevation range. These types of landscape elements that are close to freezing line elevations can be thought of as thresholds that will yield non-linear responses to rising snowlines. They will produce disproportionate affects on the percentage of a basin that transitions from snow, to rain domination. In addition, we have used hypsometry to identify sub-basins of the Salmon River that are contained entirely within distinct elevation zones. The low (400 - 1800 m), mid (1000 - 2200 m) and high (2200 - 3200 m) elevation ranges correspond to distinct precipitation regimes (liquid, mixed-phase, and solid phase respectively). From our hydrologic monitoring network we have learned that the frequency, duration and

  7. The Process of Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Solomon, Monica; Caine, Geoffrey; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Almeida, Luis; Frick, Theodore; Thompson, Kenneth; Koh, Joyce; Ryan, Christopher D.; DeMars, Shane

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents several brief papers about the process of systemic change. These are: (1) Step-Up-To-Excellence: A Protocol for Navigating Whole-System Change in School Districts by Francis M. Duffy; (2) The Guidance System for Transforming Education by Charles M. Reigeluth; (3) The Schlechty Center For Leadership In School Reform by Monica…

  8. Optimization process in helicopter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, A. H.; Banerjee, D.

    1984-01-01

    In optimizing a helicopter configuration, Hughes Helicopters uses a program called Computer Aided Sizing of Helicopters (CASH), written and updated over the past ten years, and used as an important part of the preliminary design process of the AH-64. First, measures of effectiveness must be supplied to define the mission characteristics of the helicopter to be designed. Then CASH allows the designer to rapidly and automatically develop the basic size of the helicopter (or other rotorcraft) for the given mission. This enables the designer and management to assess the various tradeoffs and to quickly determine the optimum configuration.

  9. Implementing Technology: A Change Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Nedra; Maxwell, Marge; Romero, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The state of Kentucky has embarked upon a large scale systems change effort to integrate Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles, including use of digital curriculum and computerized reading supports to improve overall student achievement. A major component of this initiative is the use of Read & Write Gold. As higher expectations are…

  10. Planning for Educational Change. A Process Model for Designing Future Forms of Educational Facilities. Research Report No. 5 of Project SIMU School: Santa Clara County Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leu, Donald J.; And Others

    This position paper argues that education should be planned, designed, operationalized, and continuously modified to serve effectively the defined human and educational needs of a rapidly changing world. It focuses on emerging contemporary societal changes impacting learning theory, curriculum, and teaching methodology; and it outlines the…

  11. The Process Design Courses at Pennsylvania: Impact of Process Simulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Warren D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the use and impact of process design simulators in process design courses. Discusses topics covered, texts used, computer design simulations, and how they are integrated into the process survey course as well as in plant design projects. (JM)

  12. Hydroforming design and process advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, J.T.; Ni, C.M.

    1996-10-10

    The hydroforming process involves hydraulically forming components by conforming them to the inner contours of a die. These contours can be complex and can often cause the material being formed to be stressed to rupture. Considerable process knowledge and materials modeling expertise is required to design hydroform dies and hydroformed parts that are readily formed without being overly stressed. For this CRADA, materials properties for steel tubes subjected to hydraulic stresses were collected; algorithms were developed which combined the materials properties data with process knowledge; and a user friendly graphical interface was utilized to make the system usable by a design engineer. A prototype hydroforming advisor was completed and delivered to GM. The technical objectives of the CRADA were met allowing for the development of an intelligent design systems, prediction of forming properties related to hydroforming, simulation and modeling of process execution, and design optimization. The design advisor allows a rapid and seamless approach to integration an otherwise enormous and onerous task of analysis and evaluation.

  13. Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.

  14. Changing PLA Processes, Not PLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suopis, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    Margaret J. Wheatley, the organizational consultant who wrote the 1999 classic, "Leadership and the New Science: Discovering Order in a Chaotic World," laments about the rigid structures and processes that often strangle organizations rendering them incapable of change. Wheatley asserts that organizations lack faith that their purpose can be…

  15. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design of a chemical process involves many aspects: from profitability, flexibility and reliability to safety to the environment. While each of these is important, in this work, the focus will be on profitability and the environment. Key to the study of these aspects is the ...

  16. 14 CFR 21.319 - Design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design changes. 21.319 Section 21.319... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Parts Manufacturer Approvals § 21.319 Design changes. (a) Classification of design changes. (1) A “minor change” to the design of an article produced under a PMA is one that has...

  17. 14 CFR 21.319 - Design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design changes. 21.319 Section 21.319... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Parts Manufacturer Approvals § 21.319 Design changes. (a) Classification of design changes. (1) A “minor change” to the design of an article produced under a PMA is one that has...

  18. 14 CFR 21.319 - Design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design changes. 21.319 Section 21.319... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Parts Manufacturer Approvals § 21.319 Design changes. (a) Classification of design changes. (1) A “minor change” to the design of an article produced under a PMA is one that has...

  19. 14 CFR 21.619 - Design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design changes. 21.619 Section 21.619... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical Standard Order Approvals § 21.619 Design changes. (a) Minor... authorization issued under this part may make minor design changes (any change other than a major...

  20. 14 CFR 21.619 - Design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design changes. 21.619 Section 21.619... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical Standard Order Approvals § 21.619 Design changes. (a) Minor... authorization issued under this part may make minor design changes (any change other than a major...

  1. 14 CFR 21.619 - Design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design changes. 21.619 Section 21.619... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical Standard Order Approvals § 21.619 Design changes. (a) Minor... authorization issued under this part may make minor design changes (any change other than a major...

  2. 14 CFR 21.611 - Design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design changes. 21.611 Section 21.611... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical Standard Order Authorizations § 21.611 Design changes. (a) Minor... authorization issued under this part may make minor design changes (any change other than a major...

  3. ESS Cryogenic System Process Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, P.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Su, X. T.; Wang, X. L.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron-scattering facility funded and supported in collaboration with 17 European countries in Lund, Sweden. Cryogenic cooling at ESS is vital particularly for the linear accelerator, the hydrogen target moderators, a test stand for cryomodules, the neutron instruments and their sample environments. The paper will focus on specific process design criteria, design decisions and their motivations for the helium cryoplants and auxiliary equipment. Key issues for all plants and their process concepts are energy efficiency, reliability, smooth turn-down behaviour and flexibility. The accelerator cryoplant (ACCP) and the target moderator cryoplant (TMCP) in particular need to be prepared for a range of refrigeration capacities due to the intrinsic uncertainties regarding heat load definitions. Furthermore the paper addresses questions regarding process arrangement, 2 K cooling methodology, LN2 precooling, helium storage, helium purification and heat recovery.

  4. 14 CFR 21.319 - Design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... an article produced under a PMA is one that has no appreciable effect on the approval basis. (2) A “major change” to the design of an article produced under a PMA is any change that is not minor. (b) Approval of design changes. (1) Minor changes to the basic design of a PMA may be approved using a...

  5. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Facility changes and change process. 70.72 Section 70.72... Material § 70.72 Facility changes and change process. (a) The licensee shall establish a configuration management system to evaluate, implement, and track each change to the site, structures, processes,...

  6. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facility changes and change process. 70.72 Section 70.72... Material § 70.72 Facility changes and change process. (a) The licensee shall establish a configuration...) The technical basis for the change; (2) Impact of the change on safety and health or control...

  7. GAX absorption cycle design process

    SciTech Connect

    Priedeman, D.K.; Christensen, R.N.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an absorption system design process that relies on computer simulations that are validated by experimental findings. An ammonia-water absorption heat pump cycle at 3 refrigeration tons (RT) and chillers at 3.3 RT and 5 RT (10.5 kW, 11.6 kW, and 17.6 kW) were initially modeled and then built and tested. The experimental results were used to calibrate both the cycle simulation and the component simulations, yielding computer design routines that could accurately predict component and cycle performance. Each system was a generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle, and all were sized for residential and light commercial use, where very little absorption equipment is currently used. The specific findings of the 5 RT (17.6 kW) chiller are presented. Modeling incorporated a heat loss from the gas-fired generator and pressure drops in both the evaporator and absorber. Simulation results and experimental findings agreed closely and validated the modeling method and simulation software.

  8. A Review of Literature: Training and the Change Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Maurice

    This document is a review of literature on the educational change process; it is designed to detail the role of training in the process of dissemination in a changing climate of education. To do this, it gives attention to defining educational change. The document is divided into five chapters. Chapter one, entitled "Defining the Change…

  9. Re: Design Changing the Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  10. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Executive Summary For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win–win for productivity and employees’ well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today’s U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  11. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win-win for productivity and employees' well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today's U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  12. Design Thinking in Elementary Students' Collaborative Lamp Designing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…

  13. User Design: A Case Study on Corporate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastore, Raymond S.; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Lohmann, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementing user design strategies within the corporate culture. Using a case study design approach, this article explores the change process within a "Fortune" 100 company in which users were given significant decision-making powers. The main focus is on the unique nature of user design in…

  14. ESS Accelerator Cryoplant Process Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Arnold, P.; Hees, W.; Hildenbeutel, J.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron-scattering facility being built with extensive international collaboration in Lund, Sweden. The ESS accelerator will deliver protons with 5 MW of power to the target at 2.0 GeV, with a nominal current of 62.5 mA. The superconducting part of the accelerator is about 300 meters long and contains 43 cryomodules. The ESS accelerator cryoplant (ACCP) will provide the cooling for the cryomodules and the cryogenic distribution system that delivers the helium to the cryomodules. The ACCP will cover three cryogenic circuits: Bath cooling for the cavities at 2 K, the thermal shields at around 40 K and the power couplers thermalisation with 4.5 K forced helium cooling. The open competitive bid for the ACCP took place in 2014 with Linde Kryotechnik AG being selected as the vendor. This paper summarizes the progress in the ACCP development and engineering. Current status including final cooling requirements, preliminary process design, system configuration, machine concept and layout, main parameters and features, solution for the acceptance tests, exergy analysis and efficiency is presented.

  15. Optimal design of solidification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.

    1991-01-01

    An optimal design algorithm is presented for the analysis of general solidification processes, and is demonstrated for the growth of GaAs crystals in a Bridgman furnace. The system is optimal in the sense that the prespecified temperature distribution in the solidifying materials is obtained to maximize product quality. The optimization uses traditional numerical programming techniques which require the evaluation of cost and constraint functions and their sensitivities. The finite element method is incorporated to analyze the crystal solidification problem, evaluate the cost and constraint functions, and compute the sensitivities. These techniques are demonstrated in the crystal growth application by determining an optimal furnace wall temperature distribution to obtain the desired temperature profile in the crystal, and hence to maximize the crystal's quality. Several numerical optimization algorithms are studied to determine the proper convergence criteria, effective 1-D search strategies, appropriate forms of the cost and constraint functions, etc. In particular, we incorporate the conjugate gradient and quasi-Newton methods for unconstrained problems. The efficiency and effectiveness of each algorithm is presented in the example problem.

  16. 43 CFR 8342.3 - Designation changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation changes. 8342.3 Section 8342.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Designation changes. Monitoring use. The authorized officer shall monitor effects of the use of...

  17. 43 CFR 8342.3 - Designation changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation changes. 8342.3 Section 8342.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Designation changes. Monitoring use. The authorized officer shall monitor effects of the use of...

  18. 43 CFR 8342.3 - Designation changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation changes. 8342.3 Section 8342.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Designation changes. Monitoring use. The authorized officer shall monitor effects of the use of...

  19. 43 CFR 8342.3 - Designation changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation changes. 8342.3 Section 8342.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Designation changes. Monitoring use. The authorized officer shall monitor effects of the use of...

  20. 21 CFR 1271.225 - Process changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Process changes. 1271.225 Section 1271.225 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.225 Process changes. Any change to a process must be verified or validated in accordance with § 1271.230, to ensure that...

  1. 21 CFR 1271.225 - Process changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Process changes. 1271.225 Section 1271.225 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.225 Process changes. Any change to a process must be verified or validated in accordance with § 1271.230, to ensure that...

  2. 21 CFR 1271.225 - Process changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Process changes. 1271.225 Section 1271.225 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.225 Process changes. Any change to a process must be verified or validated in accordance with § 1271.230, to ensure that...

  3. 21 CFR 1271.225 - Process changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Process changes. 1271.225 Section 1271.225 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.225 Process changes. Any change to a process must be verified or validated in accordance with § 1271.230, to ensure that...

  4. Managing Analysis Models in the Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2006-01-01

    Design of large, complex space systems depends on significant model-based support for exploration of the design space. Integrated models predict system performance in mission-relevant terms given design descriptions and multiple physics-based numerical models. Both the design activities and the modeling activities warrant explicit process definitions and active process management to protect the project from excessive risk. Software and systems engineering processes have been formalized and similar formal process activities are under development for design engineering and integrated modeling. JPL is establishing a modeling process to define development and application of such system-level models.

  5. 76 FR 70368 - Disaster Designation Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... USDA Secretarial disaster designation process. FSA proposes to simplify the processes and delegate them... rule would update the language to reflect current practice. The current regulations require that a... proposes to simplify the USDA Secretarial designation process from a six-step process to a two-step...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4112 - Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changing Hg designated representative and alternate Hg designated representative; changes in owners and operators. 60.4112 Section 60.4112... Generating Units Hg Designated Representative for Hg Budget Sources § 60.4112 Changing Hg...

  7. Photonic IC design software and process design kits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korthorst, Twan; Stoffer, Remco; Bakker, Arjen

    2015-04-01

    This review discusses photonic IC design software tools, examines existing design flows for photonics design and how these fit different design styles and describes the activities in collaboration and standardization within the silicon photonics group from Si2 and by members of the PDAFlow Foundation to improve design flows. Moreover, it will address the lowering of access barriers to the technology by providing qualified process design kits (PDKs) and improved integration of photonic integrated circuit simulations, physical simulations, mask layout, and verification.

  8. Wheelchair Design Changes: New Opportunities for Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Changes in wheelchair design (such as larger tires and lighter overall weight) make it possible for disabled persons to exercise more mobility and control and participate in a greater variety of recreational activities. (CL)

  9. Leadership in the Change Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to manage change at Bennington College (Vermont) in the face of financial problems, its trustees engaged in an institutional symposium for a year and a half and issued a report addressing some significant questions in liberal education, including pressures for political correctness, the relativity of truth, individual responsibility,…

  10. Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

  11. Instructional Design Processes and Traditional Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasser, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Traditional colleges who have implemented distance education programs would benefit from using instructional design processes to develop their courses. Instructional design processes provide the framework for designing and delivering quality online learning programs in a highly-competitive educational market. Traditional college leaders play a…

  12. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  13. Information-Processing Models and Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calfee, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    "This paper consists of three sections--(a) the relation of theoretical analyses of learning to curriculum design, (b) the role of information-processing models in analyses of learning processes, and (c) selected examples of the application of information-processing models to curriculum design problems." (Author)

  14. 14 CFR 21.611 - Design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design changes. 21.611 Section 21.611 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION... changes by the manufacturer holding a TSO authorization. The manufacturer of an article under...

  15. Teachers' Voices: Curriculum Design and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Anne

    The role of collaborative research to support curriculum change is discussed, drawing on experiences with the Australian Adult Migrant English Program during a period of extensive change. The research undertaken was to assess the impact of competency-based curriculum on classroom practice and course design. The research project engaged 30…

  16. The Architectural and Interior Design Planning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Explains the planning process in designing effective library facilities and discusses library building requirements that result from electronic information technologies. Highlights include historical structures; Americans with Disabilities Act; resource allocation; electrical power; interior spaces; lighting; design development; the roles of…

  17. NANEX: Process design and optimization.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Ramona; Matić, Josip; Schrank, Simone; Laske, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes; Roblegg, Eva

    2016-06-15

    Previously, we introduced a one-step nano-extrusion (NANEX) process for transferring aqueous nano-suspensions into solid formulations directly in the liquid phase. Nano-suspensions were fed into molten polymers via a side-feeding device and excess water was eliminated via devolatilization. However, the drug content in nano-suspensions is restricted to 30 % (w/w), and obtaining sufficiently high drug loadings in the final formulation requires the processing of high water amounts and thus a fundamental process understanding. To this end, we investigated four polymers with different physicochemical characteristics (Kollidon(®) VA64, Eudragit(®) E PO, HPMCAS and PEG 20000) in terms of their maximum water uptake/removal capacity. Process parameters as throughput and screw speed were adapted and their effect on the mean residence time and filling degree was studied. Additionally, one-dimensional discretization modeling was performed to examine the complex interactions between the screw geometry and the process parameters during water addition/removal. It was established that polymers with a certain water miscibility/solubility can be manufactured via NANEX. Long residence times of the molten polymer in the extruder and low filling degrees in the degassing zone favored the addition/removal of significant amounts of water. The residual moisture content in the final extrudates was comparable to that of extrudates manufactured without water. PMID:27090153

  18. Designing Control System Application Software for Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) was used to design the Environmental Systems Test Stand (ESTS) control system software. The UML was chosen for its ability to facilitate a clear dialog between software designer and customer, from which requirements are discovered and documented in a manner which transposes directly to program objects. Applying the UML to control system software design has resulted in a baseline set of documents from which change and effort of that change can be accurately measured. As the Environmental Systems Test Stand evolves, accurate estimates of the time and effort required to change the control system software will be made. Accurate quantification of the cost of software change can be before implementation, improving schedule and budget accuracy.

  19. A Review of the Design Process for Implantable Orthopedic Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Aitchison, G.A; Hukins, D.W.L; Parry, J.J; Shepherd, D.E.T; Trotman, S.G

    2009-01-01

    The design process for medical devices is highly regulated to ensure the safety of patients. This paper will present a review of the design process for implantable orthopedic medical devices. It will cover the main stages of feasibility, design reviews, design, design verification, manufacture, design validation, design transfer and design changes. PMID:19662153

  20. Context-Aware Design for Process Flexibility and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Today's organizations face continuous and unprecedented changes in their business environment. Traditional process design tools tend to be inflexible and can only support rigidly defined processes (e.g., order processing in the supply chain). This considerably restricts their real-world applications value, especially in the dynamic and…

  1. Forging process design for risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yongning

    In this dissertation, forging process design has been investigated with the primary concern on risk reduction. Different forged components have been studied, especially those ones that could cause catastrophic loss if failure occurs. As an effective modeling methodology, finite element analysis is applied extensively in this work. Three examples, titanium compressor disk, superalloy turbine disk, and titanium hip prosthesis, have been discussed to demonstrate this approach. Discrete defects such as hard alpha anomalies are known to cause disastrous failure if they are present in those stress critical components. In this research, hard-alpha inclusion movement during forging of titanium compressor disk is studied by finite element analysis. By combining the results from Finite Element Method (FEM), regression modeling and Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown that changing the forging path is able to mitigate the failure risk of the components during the service. The second example goes with a turbine disk made of superalloy IN 718. The effect of forging on microstructure is the main consideration in this study. Microstructure defines the as-forged disk properties. Considering specific forging conditions, preform has its own effect on the microstructure. Through a sensitivity study it is found that forging temperature and speed have significant influence on the microstructure. In order to choose the processing parameters to optimize the microstructure, the dependence of microstructure on die speed and temperature is thoroughly studied using design of numerical experiments. For various desired goals, optimal solutions are determined. The narrow processing window of titanium alloy makes the isothermal forging a preferred way to produce forged parts without forging defects. However, the cost of isothermal forging (dies at the same temperature as the workpiece) limits its wide application. In this research, it has been demonstrated that with proper process design, the die

  2. Process Design Manual for Nitrogen Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Denny S.; And Others

    This manual presents theoretical and process design criteria for the implementation of nitrogen control technology in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Design concepts are emphasized through examination of data from full-scale and pilot installations. Design data are included on biological nitrification and denitrification, breakpoint…

  3. Reinventing The Design Process: Teams and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    The future of space mission designing will be dramatically different from the past. Formerly, performance-driven paradigms emphasized data return with cost and schedule being secondary issues. Now and in the future, costs are capped and schedules fixed-these two variables must be treated as independent in the design process. Accordingly, JPL has redesigned its design process. At the conceptual level, design times have been reduced by properly defining the required design depth, improving the linkages between tools, and managing team dynamics. In implementation-phase design, system requirements will be held in crosscutting models, linked to subsystem design tools through a central database that captures the design and supplies needed configuration management and control. Mission goals will then be captured in timelining software that drives the models, testing their capability to execute the goals. Metrics are used to measure and control both processes and to ensure that design parameters converge through the design process within schedule constraints. This methodology manages margins controlled by acceptable risk levels. Thus, teams can evolve risk tolerance (and cost) as they would any engineering parameter. This new approach allows more design freedom for a longer time, which tends to encourage revolutionary and unexpected improvements in design.

  4. Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

  5. Perceptions of Changes in Phonological Processing, Oral Fluency, and Spelling Ability after a Program for Dyslexics Designed to Improve Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Donna T.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 15-20% of the U.S. population has been diagnosed with dyslexia. The theory of automaticity implies that automatic decoding precedes fluency in reading, leading to better comprehension. The "Reading from Scratch" program is designed to assist dyslexics improve their reading ability. Research questions for this case study included…

  6. What a Community Will Bear: Leadership and the Change Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Barbara; Lowery, Lillian M.; Loftus, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the dynamics between innovators and the communities they attempt to change. Design/methodology/approach: The paper offers brief case studies/vignettes that demonstrate the theoretical construct: "what communities will always negotiate to what they can bear during the change process." Findings: Experiences of…

  7. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  8. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  9. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  10. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  11. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  12. WORKSHOP ON ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    To encourage the consideration of environmental issues during chemical process design, the USEPA has developed techniques and software tools to evaluate the relative environmental impact of a chemical process. These techniques and tools aid in the risk management process by focus...

  13. AN APPROACH TO SAFETY DESIGN BASIS DOCUMENTATION CHANGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    RYAN GW

    2008-05-15

    This paper describes a safety design basis documentation change control process. The process identifies elements that can be used to manage the project/facility configuration during design evolution through the Initiation, Definition, and Execution project phases. The project phases addressed by the process are defined in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, in support of DOE project Critical Decisions (CD). This approach has been developed for application to two Hanford Site projects in their early CD phases and is considered to be a key element of safety and design integration. As described in the work that has been performed, the purpose of change control is to maintain consistency among design requirements, the physical configuration, related facility documentation, and the nuclear safety basis during the evolution of the design. The process developed (1) ensures an appropriate level of rigor is applied at each project phase and (2) is considered to implement the requirements and guidance provided in DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. Presentation of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008 or managing nuclear safety documentation in support of projects in-process.

  14. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

  15. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Facility changes and change process. 70.72 Section 70.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special...

  16. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Facility changes and change process. 70.72 Section 70.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special...

  17. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Facility changes and change process. 70.72 Section 70.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special...

  18. Engineering design: A cognitive process approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strimel, Greg Joseph

    The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning to end. Additionally, it was unclear how a student thinks and acts throughout their design process and how this affects the viability of their solution. Therefore, Research Objective 1 was to identify the fundamental cognitive processes students use to design, construct, and evaluate operational solutions to engineering design problems. Research Objective 2 was to determine identifiers within student cognitive processes for monitoring aptitude to successfully design, construct, and evaluate technological solutions. Lastly, Research Objective 3 was to create a conceptual technological and engineering problem-solving model integrating student cognitive processes for the improved development of problem-solving abilities. The methodology of this study included multiple forms of data collection. The participants were first given a survey to determine their prior experience with engineering and to provide a description of the subjects being studied. The participants were then presented an engineering design challenge to solve individually. While they completed the challenge, the participants verbalized their thoughts using an established "think aloud" method. These verbalizations were captured along with participant observational recordings using point-of-view camera technology. Additionally, the participant design journals, design artifacts, solution effectiveness data, and teacher evaluations were collected for analysis to help achieve the

  19. 40 CFR 97.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 97.312 Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR... superseding complete certificate of representation under § 97.313. Notwithstanding any such change, all... Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate CAIR...

  20. 40 CFR 97.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 97.312 Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR... superseding complete certificate of representation under § 97.313. Notwithstanding any such change, all... Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate CAIR...

  1. 40 CFR 97.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 97.312 Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR... superseding complete certificate of representation under § 97.313. Notwithstanding any such change, all... Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate CAIR...

  2. 40 CFR 97.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 97.312 Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR... superseding complete certificate of representation under § 97.313. Notwithstanding any such change, all... Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate CAIR...

  3. 40 CFR 97.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 97.312 Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR... superseding complete certificate of representation under § 97.313. Notwithstanding any such change, all... Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate CAIR...

  4. Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

  5. Molecular Thermodynamics for Chemical Process Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prausnitz, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses that aspect of thermodynamics which is particularly important in chemical process design: the calculation of the equilibrium properties of fluid mixtures, especially as required in phase-separation operations. (MLH)

  6. Numerical simulations supporting the process design of ring rolling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkouk, V.; Hirt, G.; Seitz, J.

    2013-05-01

    In conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of radial-axial ring rolling (RAR) the motions of all tools are usually defined prior to simulation in the preprocessing step. However, the real process holds up to 8 degrees of freedom (DOF) that are controlled by industrial control systems according to actual sensor values and preselected control strategies. Since the histories of the motions are unknown before the experiment and are dependent on sensor data, the conventional FEA cannot represent the process before experiment. In order to enable the usage of FEA in the process design stage, this approach integrates the industrially applied control algorithms of the real process including all relevant sensors and actuators into the FE model of ring rolling. Additionally, the process design of a novel process 'the axial profiling', in which a profiled roll is used for rolling axially profiled rings, is supported by FEA. Using this approach suitable control strategies can be tested in virtual environment before processing.

  7. The Engineering Process in Construction & Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Melissa A.; Stuby, Kristin T.; Szczepanski, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-impact activities in science and math classes promote positive attitudinal shifts in students. By implementing high-impact activities, such as designing a school and a skate park, mathematical thinking can be linked to the engineering design process. This hands-on approach, when possible, to demonstrate or…

  8. Distributed Group Design Process: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Ganesan, Radha

    A typical Web-based training development team consists of a project manager, an instructional designer, a subject-matter expert, a graphic artist, and a Web programmer. The typical scenario involves team members working together in the same setting during the entire design and development process. What happens when the team is distributed, that is…

  9. Change Process in Organizations [in HRD].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These four papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by Toni Powell on the change process in organizations at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD) conference. "The Effectiveness of Change Agents as Affected by Strategic Interactions" (Marie A. George) explores the nature of strategic interactions exhibited by a chief…

  10. Communication and the Process of Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannefer, Elaine F.; Johnston, Mary Anne; Krackov, Sharon K.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of organizational communication in the process of curricular reform at eight medical schools participating in a large-scale medical curriculum development project, particularly during four stages of change: recognizing the need for change; planning; implementation; institutionalization. Communication strategies for promoting a…

  11. HYNOL PROCESS ENGINEERING: PROCESS CONFIGURATION, SITE PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the design of the hydropyrolysis reactor system of the Hynol process. (NOTE: A bench scale methanol production facility is being constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing methanol from biomass using the Hynol process. The plant is bein...

  12. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  13. Which Events Can Cause Iteration in Instructional Design? An Empirical Study of the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, D. M. L.; Barnard, Y. F.; Pilot, A.

    2006-01-01

    Instructional design is not a linear process: designers have to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions, taking into account different kinds of conflicting and changing constraints. To make sure that they eventually choose the most optimal one, they have to keep on collecting information, reconsidering continuously whether…

  14. 40 CFR 97.515 - Changing designated representative and alternate designated representative; changes in owners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season... the new designated representative and the owners and operators of the TR NOX Ozone Season source and the TR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate designated representative....

  15. 40 CFR 97.515 - Changing designated representative and alternate designated representative; changes in owners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season... the new designated representative and the owners and operators of the TR NOX Ozone Season source and the TR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate designated representative....

  16. 40 CFR 97.515 - Changing designated representative and alternate designated representative; changes in owners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season... the new designated representative and the owners and operators of the TR NOX Ozone Season source and the TR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate designated representative....

  17. Scaling Properties of Shoreline Change: Process Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A.; Lazarus, E.; Ashton, A. D.; Tebbens, S. F.; Burroughs, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Using shoreline-change measurements of two open-ocean reaches of the North Carolina Outer Banks, U.S.A., we explore an existing premise that shoreline change on a sandy coast is a self-affine signal, wherein patterns of change are scale-invariant. Wavelet analysis confirms that the mean variance (spectral power) of shoreline change can be approximated by a power law at alongshore scales from tens of m up to a few kilometers. In some systems, a power law reflects the presence of a unifying process or interaction that spans the scales of the power law. Classic examples include turbulent fluids, networks of interacting faults/Earthquakes, and fluvially sculpted landscapes. However, an approximately linear portion of a spectrum in a log-log plot does not necessarily indicate a scale-free, dominant process, as the shoreline-change spectrum exemplifies; distinct processes dominate different scale ranges within the range of the approximate power law. Why an amalgamation scale-dependent processes often produces an approximately linear portion of a spectrum remains an intriguing question. The shoreline-change spectra also illustrates the point that deviations from approximate power-law scaling can also be interesting. At scales of kilometers to tens of kilometers, the spectra exhibit a maximum of the variance (not related to finite-domain-size effects). Both the magnitude of the variance in this broad peak, and the spatial scale at which that maximum occurs, increase when shoreline change is measured over longer time scales (up to decadal). The scaling relationship between the time and spatial scales of this peak suggest a large-scale diffusion of coastline shape (possibly driven by gradients in alongshore sediment flux related to large-scale coastline curvature). Recent analysis of shoreline curvature and change in curvature for shoreline changes spanning hurricane-related wave events shows that large-scale coastline-shape anti-diffusion can occur during extreme storms

  18. Macrocell design for concurrent signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, S.P.; Brodersen, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Macrocells serve as subsystems at the top level of the hardware design hierarchy. The authors present the macrocell design technique as applied to the implementation of real-time, sampled-data signal processing functions. The design of such circuits is particularly challenging due to the computationally intensive nature of signal-processing algorithms and the constraints of real-time operation. The most efficient designs make use of a high degree of concurrency-a property facilitated by the microcell approach. Two circuit projects whose development resulted largely from the macrocell methodology described are used as examples throughout the report: a linear-predictive vocoder circuit, and a front-end filter-bank chip for a speech recognition system. Both are monolithic multiprocessor implementations: the lpc vocoder circuit contains three processors, the filter-bank chip two processors. 10 references.

  19. Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

    2011-10-01

    Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

  20. Teaching sustainable design: A collaborative process

    SciTech Connect

    Theis, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a collaborative educational experience in the Schools of Architecture and Landscape Architecture at Louisiana State University. During the Fall Semester of 1996 an upper-level architectural design studio worked with a peer group of landscape architecture students on the design of a master plan for an environmentally sensitive residential development on Cat Island, a barrier island located approximately eight miles south of Gulfport, Mississippi. This paper presents the methodology and results of the project, describes the collaborative process, and assesses both the viability of the design solutions and the value of the educational experience.

  1. Design, Control and in Situ Visualization of Gas Nitriding Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ratajski, Jerzy; Olik, Roman; Suszko, Tomasz; Dobrodziej, Jerzy; Michalski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of time, as well as possibilities to predict the properties of nitrided layers. For in situ visualization of the growth of the nitrided layer, computer procedures were developed which make use of the results of the correlations of direct and differential voltage and time runs of the process result sensor (magnetic sensor), with the proper layer growth stage. Computer procedures make it possible to combine, in the duration of the process, the registered voltage and time runs with the models of the process. PMID:22315536

  2. Design, control and in situ visualization of gas nitriding processes.

    PubMed

    Ratajski, Jerzy; Olik, Roman; Suszko, Tomasz; Dobrodziej, Jerzy; Michalski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of time, as well as possibilities to predict the properties of nitrided layers. For in situ visualization of the growth of the nitrided layer, computer procedures were developed which make use of the results of the correlations of direct and differential voltage and time runs of the process result sensor (magnetic sensor), with the proper layer growth stage. Computer procedures make it possible to combine, in the duration of the process, the registered voltage and time runs with the models of the process. PMID:22315536

  3. Time-changed Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Janusz; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka

    2015-04-01

    The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is one of the most popular systems used for financial data description. However, this process has also been examined in the context of many other phenomena. In this paper we consider the so-called time-changed Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in which time is replaced by an inverse subordinator of general infinite divisible distribution. Time-changed processes nowadays play an important role in various fields of mathematical physics, chemistry, and biology as well as in finance. In this paper we examine the main characteristics of the time-changed Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, such as the covariance function. Moreover, we also prove the formula for a generalized fractional Fokker-Planck equation that describes the one-dimensional probability density function of the analyzed system. For three cases of subordinators we show the special forms of obtained general formulas. Furthermore, we mention how to simulate the trajectory of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process delayed by a general inverse subordinator.

  4. Process design for Al backside contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Chalfoun, L.L.; Kimerling, L.C.

    1995-08-01

    It is known that properly alloyed aluminum backside contacts can improve silicon solar cell efficiency. To use this knowledge to fullest advantage, we have studied the gettering process that occurs during contact formation and the microstructure of the contact and backside junction region. With an understanding of the alloying step, optimized fabrication processes can be designed. To study gettering, single crystal silicon wafers were coated with aluminim on both sides and subjected to heat treatments. Results are described.

  5. Tracking Hazard Analysis Data in a Jungle of Changing Design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Young, Jonathan

    2006-05-14

    The biggest fear of the hazard analyst is the loss of data in the middle of the design jungle. When project schedules are demanding and design is changing rapidly it is essential that the hazard analysis data be tracked and kept current in order to provide the required project design, development, and regulatory support. Being able to identify the current information, as well as the past archived information, as the design progresses and to be able to show how the project is designing in safety through modifications based on hazard analysis results is imperative. At the DOE Hanford site in Washington State, Flour Hanford Inc is in the process of the removal and disposition of sludge from the 100 Area K Basins. The K Basins were used to store spent fuel from the operating reactors at the Hanford Site. The sludge is a by-product from the corrosion of the fuel and fuel storage canisters. The sludge removal project has been very dynamic involving the design, procurement and, more recently, the operation of processes at two basins, K East and K West. The project has an ambitious schedule with a large number of changes to design concepts. In order to support the complex K Basins project a technique to track the status of the hazard analysis data was developed. This paper will identify the most important elements of the tracking system and how it was used to assist the project in ensuring that current design data was reflected in a specific version of the hazard analysis and to show how the project was keeping up with the design and ensuring compliance with the requirements to design in safety. While the specifics of the data tracking strategy for the K Basins sludge removal project will be described in the paper, the general concepts of the strategy are applicable to similar projects requiring iteration of hazard analysis and design.

  6. Facilitating the Concept of Universal Design Among Design Students - Changes in Teaching in the Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Vavik, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This short paper describes and reflects on how the teaching of the concept of Universal Design (UD) has developed in the last decade at the Institute of Design at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO). Four main changes are described. Firstly, the curriculum has evolved from teaching guidelines and principles to focusing on design processes. Secondly, an increased emphasis is put on cognitive accessibility. Thirdly, non-stigmatizing aesthetics expressions and solutions that communicate through different senses have become more important subjects. Fourthly the teaching of UD has moved from the second to the first year curriculum. PMID:27534301

  7. 21 CFR 1271.225 - Process changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Process changes. 1271.225 Section 1271.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS,...

  8. Clinical Application of "The Change Process".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary L.

    A change process described in the work of Yochelson and Samenow was adapted to students committed as delinquents to a state correctional facility. Their criminal profile accurately described the majority of the offenders. While minor problems continued, their frequency was reduced by as much as nine times. Serious incidents occurred only after the…

  9. Cognitive and Affective Processes Underlying Career Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muja, Naser; Appelbaum, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Aligning social identity and career identity has become increasingly complex due to growth in the pursuit of meaningful careers that offer very long-term personal satisfaction and stability. This paper aims to explore the complex cognitive and affective thought process involved in the conscious planning of voluntary career change.…

  10. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  11. Dynamic Process Simulation for Analysis and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Herbert E., Jr.; Himmelblau, David M.

    A computer program for the simulation of complex continuous process in real-time in an interactive mode is described. The program is user oriented, flexible, and provides both numerical and graphic output. The program has been used in classroom teaching and computer aided design. Typical input and output are illustrated for a sample problem to…

  12. Interface design in the process industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaverstock, M. C.; Stassen, H. G.; Williamson, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Every operator runs his plant in accord with his own mental model of the process. In this sense, one characteristic of an ideal man-machine interface is that it be in harmony with that model. With this theme in mind, the paper first reviews the functions of the process operator and compares them with human operators involved in control situations previously studied outside the industrial environment (pilots, air traffic controllers, helmsmen, etc.). A brief history of the operator interface in the process industry and the traditional methodology employed in its design is then presented. Finally, a much more fundamental approach utilizing a model definition of the human operator's behavior is presented.

  13. Using scoping as a design process

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvihill, P.R. ); Jacobs, P. )

    1998-07-01

    Skillful use of the scoping phase of environment assessment (EA) is critical in cases involving a wide diversity of stakeholders and perspectives. Scoping can exert a strong influence in shaping a relevant impact assessment and increasing the probability of a process that satisfies stakeholders. This article explores key challenges facing scoping processes conducted in highly pluralistic settings. Elements of a notable case study--the scoping process conducted in 1992 for the proposed Great Whale Hydroelectric project in Northern Quebec--are discussed to illustrate innovative approaches. When used as a design process, scoping can ensure that EA reflects the different value sets and cultures that are at play, particularly where diverse knowledge systems and ways of describing environmental components and impacts exist. As it sets the stage for subsequent steps in the EA process, scoping needs to be a sufficiently broad umbrella that accommodates diverse approaches to identifying, classifying, and assessing impacts.

  14. Blueprint for design: creating models that direct change.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Gail A; Greenhouse, Pamela K

    2007-09-01

    The need for healthcare system change is overwhelming: broken systems, an inadequate workforce, patient safety failures, and lack of access to healthcare are but a few of the significant problems confronting healthcare today. Most people agree that things need to change, but they are not sure on what to change or how to change them. A well-developed model can serve as the currency for that change. By considering the evidence of what has worked well in the past and marrying that with what the future will require, we can create a strong sustainable model for professional practice. The authors explore that evidence and discuss the structure, process, and outcomes that should be considered in designing care delivery models for the future. PMID:17823570

  15. Design of intelligent controllers for exothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Ramachandran; Yaacob, Sazali

    2001-10-01

    Chemical Industries such as resin or soap manufacturing industries have reaction systems which work with at least two chemicals. Mixing of chemicals even at room temperature can create the process of exothermic reaction. This processes produces a sudden increase of heat energy within the mixture. The quantity of heat and the dynamics of heat generation are unknown, unpredictable and time varying. Proper control of heat has to be accomplished in order to achieve a high quality of product. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled heat causes another unusable product and the process may damage materials and systems and even human being may be harmed. Controlling of heat due to exothermic reaction cannot be achieved using conventional control methods such as PID control, identification and control etc. All of the conventional methods require at least approximate mathematical model of the exothermic process. Modeling an exothermal process is yet to be properly conceived. This paper discusses a design methodology for controlling such a process. A pilot plant of a reaction system has been constructed and utilized for designing and incorporating the proposed fuzzy logic based intelligent controller. Both the conventional and then an adaptive form of fuzzy logic control were used in testing the performance. The test results ensure the effectiveness of controllers in controlling exothermic heat.

  16. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  17. Instructional design strategies for health behavior change.

    PubMed

    Kinzie, Mable B

    2005-01-01

    To help health educators build upon the best of different health behavior change theories, this paper offers a unified set of instructional design strategies for health education interventions. This set draws upon the recommendations of Rosenstock (Health Belief Model), Bandura (Social Cognitive Theory), and Dearing (Diffusion Theory), and uses a modified Events of Instruction framework (adapted from Robert Gagne): gain attention (convey health threats and benefits), present stimulus material (tailor message to audience knowledge and values, demonstrate observable effectiveness, make behaviors easy-to-understand and do), provide guidance (use trustworthy models to demonstrate), elicit performance and provide feedback (to enhance trialability, develop proficiency and self-efficacy), enhance retention and transfer (provide social supports and deliver behavioral cues). Sample applications of these strategies are provided. A brief review of research on adolescent smoking prevention enables consideration of the frequency with which these strategies are used, and possible patterns between strategy use and behavioral outcomes. PMID:15590217

  18. 14 CFR 21.99 - Required design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required design changes. 21.99 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Changes to Type Certificates § 21.99 Required design changes. (a... product concerned must— (1) If the FAA finds that design changes are necessary to correct the...

  19. 14 CFR 21.99 - Required design changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required design changes. 21.99 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Changes to Type Certificates § 21.99 Required design changes. (a... product concerned must— (1) If the Administrator finds that design changes are necessary to correct...

  20. Process Improvement in a Radically Changing Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varga, Denise M.; Wilson, Barbara M.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes how the NASA Glenn Research Center planned and implemented a process improvement effort in response to a radically changing environment. As a result of a presidential decision to redefine the Agency's mission, many ongoing projects were canceled and future workload would be awarded based on relevance to the Exploration Initiative. NASA imposed a new Procedural Requirements standard on all future software development, and the Center needed to redesign its processes from CMM Level 2 objectives to meet the new standard and position itself for CMMI. The intended audience for this presentation is systems/software developers and managers in a large, research-oriented organization that may need to respond to imposed standards while also pursuing CMMI Maturity Level goals. A set of internally developed tools will be presented, including an overall Process Improvement Action Item database, a formal inspection/peer review tool, metrics collection spreadsheet, and other related technologies. The Center also found a need to charter Technical Working Groups (TWGs) to address particular Process Areas. In addition, a Marketing TWG was needed to communicate the process changes to the development community, including an innovative web site portal.

  1. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  2. Multiwavelet design for cardiac signal processing.

    PubMed

    Peelers, R L M; Karel, J M H; Westra, R L; Haddad, S A P; Serdijn, W A

    2006-01-01

    An approach for designing multiwavelets is introduced, for use in cardiac signal processing. The parameterization of the class of multiwavelets is in terms of associated FIR polyphase all-pass filters. Orthogonality and a balanced vanishing moment of order 1 are built into the parameterization. An optimization criterion is developed to associate the wavelets with different meaningful segments of a signal. This approach is demonstrated on the simultaneous detection of QRS-complexes and T-peaks in ECG signals. PMID:17946917

  3. Engineering Antifragile Systems: A Change In Design Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.

    2014-01-01

    While technology has made astounding advances in the last century, problems are confronting the engineering community that must be solved. Cost and schedule of producing large systems are increasing at an unsustainable rate and these systems often do not perform as intended. New systems are required that may not be achieved by current methods. To solve these problems, NASA is working to infuse concepts from Complexity Science into the engineering process. Some of these problems may be solved by a change in design philosophy. Instead of designing systems to meet known requirements that will always lead to fragile systems at some degree, systems should be designed wherever possible to be antifragile: designing cognitive cyberphysical systems that can learn from their experience, adapt to unforeseen events they face in their environment, and grow stronger in the face of adversity. Several examples are presented of on ongoing research efforts to employ this philosophy.

  4. Does facial processing prioritize change detection?: change blindness illustrates costs and benefits of holistic processing.

    PubMed

    Wilford, Miko M; Wells, Gary L

    2010-11-01

    There is broad consensus among researchers both that faces are processed more holistically than other objects and that this type of processing is beneficial. We predicted that holistic processing of faces also involves a cost, namely, a diminished ability to localize change. This study (N = 150) utilized a modified change-blindness paradigm in which some trials involved a change in one feature of an image (nose, chin, mouth, hair, or eyes for faces; chimney, porch, window, roof, or door for houses), whereas other trials involved no change. People were better able to detect the occurrence of a change for faces than for houses, but were better able to localize which feature had changed for houses than for faces. Half the trials used inverted images, a manipulation that disrupts holistic processing. With inverted images, the critical interaction between image type (faces vs. houses) and task (change detection vs. change localization) disappeared. The results suggest that holistic processing reduces change-localization abilities. PMID:20935169

  5. Design of launch systems using continuous improvement process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify a systematic process for improving ground operations for future launch systems. This approach is based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) continuous improvement process. While the continuous improvement process is normally identified with making incremental changes to an existing system, it can be used on new systems if they use past experience as a knowledge base. In the case of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the Space Shuttle operations provide many lessons. The TQM methodology used for this paper will be borrowed from the United States Air Force 'Quality Air Force' Program. There is a general overview of the continuous improvement process, with concentration on the formulation phase. During this phase critical analyses are conducted to determine the strategy and goals for the remaining development process. These analyses include analyzing the mission from the customers point of view, developing an operations concept for the future, assessing current capabilities and determining the gap to be closed between current capabilities and future needs and requirements. A brief analyses of the RLV, relative to the Space Shuttle, will be used to illustrate the concept. Using the continuous improvement design concept has many advantages. These include a customer oriented process which will develop a more marketable product and a better integration of operations and systems during the design phase. But, the use of TQM techniques will require changes, including more discipline in the design process and more emphasis on data gathering for operational systems. The benefits will far outweigh the additional effort.

  6. Chip Design Process Optimization Based on Design Quality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, Stefan; Blaschke, Jana; Sebeke, Christian; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Hahn, Axel

    2010-06-01

    Nowadays, the managing of product development projects is increasingly challenging. Especially the IC design of ASICs with both analog and digital components (mixed-signal design) is becoming more and more complex, while the time-to-market window narrows at the same time. Still, high quality standards must be fulfilled. Projects and their status are becoming less transparent due to this complexity. This makes the planning and execution of projects rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need for efficient project control. A main challenge is the objective evaluation of the current development status. Are all requirements successfully verified? Are all intermediate goals achieved? Companies often develop special solutions that are not reusable in other projects. This makes the quality measurement process itself less efficient and produces too much overhead. The method proposed in this paper is a contribution to solve these issues. It is applied at a German design house for analog mixed-signal IC design. This paper presents the results of a case study and introduces an optimized project scheduling on the basis of quality assessment results.

  7. Thinking and the Design Process. DIUL-RR-8414.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulin, Bernard

    Designed to focus attention on the design process in such computer science activities as information systems design, database design, and expert systems design, this paper examines three main phases of the design process: understanding the context of the problem, identifying the problem, and finding a solution. The processes that these phases…

  8. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  9. Corrosion resistant process piping changes in economics

    SciTech Connect

    Lain, E.H. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    In recent years, the process piping industry has seen dramatic changes occur in corrosion resistant materials. Some changes have occurred in the form of new and modified materials becoming available. However, the most dramatic changes have occurred in the pricing of some older and well known materials. These economic changes have been dramatic and quick, so much so that the old established budget pricing ``rules of thumb`` used for many years to estimate piping projects are no longer valid. In many instances, the prices of some premium metals (titanium, for example) are now on a comparatively equal basis even with high alloys when all factors including densities, special fabrication requirements and service life are taken into account. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some commonly encountered corrosion resistant piping materials, a brief summary of their chemical and mechanical properties and usage. However, the focus of the paper presented will be economic. It will detail the current raw material prices for high alloys including duplex stainless steels, nickel and nickel alloys, Hastelloys+, as well as the reactive metals, zirconium and titanium. In addition, a typical fabricated piping spool in various diameters will be estimated for all of the above metals and the results plotted in graphical format for quick comparison. Last, a quick method will be presented to estimate as fabricated piping costs if the base material price for pipe is known.

  10. Rethinking ASIC design with next generation lithography and process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik; Liu, Renzhi; Liebmann, Lars; Lai, Kafai; Strojwas, Andrzej; Pileggi, Larry

    2013-03-01

    Given the deployment delays for EUV, several next generation lithography (NGL) options are being actively researched. Several cost-effective NGL solutions, such as self-aligned double patterning through sidewall image transfer (SIT) and directed self-assembly (DSA), in conjunction with process integration challenges, mandate grating-like pattern design. As part of the GRATEdd project, we have evaluated the design cost of grating-based design for ASICs (application specific ICs). Based on our observations we have engineered fundamental changes to the primary ASIC design components to make scaling affordable and useful in deeply scaled sub-20 nm technologies: unidirectional-M1 based standard cells, application-specific smart SRAM synthesis, and statistical and self-healing analog design.

  11. Reliability Methods for Shield Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space operations. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. An important component of this technology is the estimation of two most commonly identified uncertainties in radiation shield design, the shielding properties of materials used and the understanding of the biological response of the astronaut to the radiation leaking through the materials into the living space. The largest uncertainty, of course, is in the biological response to especially high charge and energy (HZE) ions of the galactic cosmic rays. These uncertainties are blended with the optimization design procedure to formulate reliability-based methods for shield design processes. The details of the methods will be discussed.

  12. Phase change water processing for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdankiewicz, E. M.; Price, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a vapor compression distillation subsystem (VCDS) for water recovery on the Space Station is analyzed. The self-contained automated system can process waste water at a rate of 32.6 kg/day and requires only 115 W of electric power. The improvements in the mechanical components of VCDS are studied. The operation of VCDS in the normal mode is examined. The VCDS preprototype is evaluated based on water quality, water production rate, and specific energy. The relation between water production rate and fluids pump speed is investigated; it is concluded that a variable speed fluids pump will optimize water production. Components development and testing currently being conducted are described. The properties and operation of the proposed phase change water processing system for the Space Station, based on vapor compression distillation, are examined.

  13. Chang'E-3 data pre-processing system based on scientific workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tan, xu; liu, jianjun; wang, yuanyuan; yan, wei; zhang, xiaoxia; li, chunlai

    2016-04-01

    The Chang'E-3(CE3) mission have obtained a huge amount of lunar scientific data. Data pre-processing is an important segment of CE3 ground research and application system. With a dramatic increase in the demand of data research and application, Chang'E-3 data pre-processing system(CEDPS) based on scientific workflow is proposed for the purpose of making scientists more flexible and productive by automating data-driven. The system should allow the planning, conduct and control of the data processing procedure with the following possibilities: • describe a data processing task, include:1)define input data/output data, 2)define the data relationship, 3)define the sequence of tasks,4)define the communication between tasks,5)define mathematical formula, 6)define the relationship between task and data. • automatic processing of tasks. Accordingly, Describing a task is the key point whether the system is flexible. We design a workflow designer which is a visual environment for capturing processes as workflows, the three-level model for the workflow designer is discussed:1) The data relationship is established through product tree.2)The process model is constructed based on directed acyclic graph(DAG). Especially, a set of process workflow constructs, including Sequence, Loop, Merge, Fork are compositional one with another.3)To reduce the modeling complexity of the mathematical formulas using DAG, semantic modeling based on MathML is approached. On top of that, we will present how processed the CE3 data with CEDPS.

  14. Innovative machine designs for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vroom, David

    2007-12-01

    In the 1990s Raychem Corporation established a program to investigate the commercialization of several promising applications involving the combined use of its core competencies in materials science, radiation chemistry and e-beam radiation technology. The applications investigated included those that would extend Raychem's well known heat recoverable polymer and wire and cable product lines as well as new potential applications such as remediation of contaminated aqueous streams. A central part of the program was the development of new accelerator technology designed to improve quality, lower processing costs and efficiently process conformable materials such at liquids. A major emphasis with this new irradiation technology was to look at the accelerator and product handling systems as one integrated, not as two complimentary systems.

  15. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Robert W; Wang, Baojun

    2015-12-25

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field. PMID:25579192

  16. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert W.; Wang, Baojun

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field. PMID:25579192

  17. Leading a change process to improve health service delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Bahamon, Claire; Dwyer, Joseph; Buxbaum, Ann

    2006-01-01

    In the fields of health and development, donors channel multiple resources into the design of new practices and technologies, as well as small-scale programmes to test them. But successful practices are rarely scaled up to the level where they beneficially impact large, impoverished populations. An effective process for change is to use the experiences of new practices gained at the programme level for full-scale implementation. To make an impact, new practices need to be applied, and supported by management systems, at many organizational levels. At every level, potential implementers and likely beneficiaries must first recognize some characteristics that would benefit them in the new practices. An effective change process, led by a dedicated internal change agent, comprises several well-defined phases that successively broaden and institutionalize the use of new practices. PMID:16917654

  18. The role of CFD in the design process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennions, Ian K.

    1994-05-01

    Over the last decade the role played by CFD codes in turbomachinery design has changed remarkably. While convergence/stability or even the existence of unique solutions was discussed fervently ten years ago, CFD codes now form a valuable part of an overall integrated design system and have caused us to re-think much of what we do. The geometric and physical complexities addressed have also evolved, as have the number of software houses competing with in-house developers to provide solutions to daily design problems. This paper reviews how GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) uses CFD in the turbomachinery design process and examines many of the issues faced in successful code implementation.

  19. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods. PMID:7703003

  20. 42 CFR 418.30 - Change of the designated hospice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Change of the designated hospice. 418.30 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.30 Change of the designated hospice. (a) An individual or representative may change, once in each election...

  1. Design of Nanomaterial Synthesis by Aerosol Processes

    PubMed Central

    Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO2, pigmentary TiO2, ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

  2. Parametric Design within an Atomic Design Process (ADP) applied to Spacecraft Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Alarcon, Rafael

    This thesis describes research investigating the development of a model for the initial design of complex systems, with application to spacecraft design. The design model is called an atomic design process (ADP) and contains four fundamental stages (specifications, configurations, trade studies and drivers) that constitute the minimum steps of an iterative process that helps designers find a feasible solution. Representative design models from the aerospace industry are reviewed and are compared with the proposed model. The design model's relevance, adaptability and scalability features are evaluated through a focused design task exercise with two undergraduate teams and a long-term design exercise performed by a spacecraft payload team. The implementation of the design model is explained in the context in which the model has been researched. This context includes the organization (a student-run research laboratory at the University of Michigan), its culture (academically oriented), members that have used the design model and the description of the information technology elements meant to provide support while using the model. This support includes a custom-built information management system that consolidates relevant information that is currently being used in the organization. The information is divided in three domains: personnel development history, technical knowledge base and laboratory operations. The focused study with teams making use of the design model to complete an engineering design exercise consists of the conceptual design of an autonomous system, including a carrier and a deployable lander that form the payload of a rocket with an altitude range of over 1000 meters. Detailed results from each of the stages of the design process while implementing the model are presented, and an increase in awareness of good design practices in the teams while using the model are explained. A long-term investigation using the design model consisting of the

  3. High Lifetime Solar Cell Processing and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to maximize efficiency a solar cell must: (1) absorb as much light as possible in electron-hole production, (2) transport as large a fraction as possible of the electrons to the n-type terminal and holes to the p-type terminal without their first recombining, and (3) produce as high as possible terminal voltage. Step (1) is largely fixed by the spectrum of sunlight and the fundamental absorption characteristics of silicon, although some improvements are possible through texturizing induced light trapping and back surface reflectors. Steps (2) and (3) are, however, dependent on the recombination mechanisms of the cell. The recombination, on the contrary, is strongly influenced by cell processing and design. Some of the lessons during the development of point-contact-cell are discussed. Cell dependence on recombination, surface recombination, and contact recombination are discussed. Results show the overwhelming influence of contact recombination on the operation of the cell when the other sources of recombination are reduced by careful processing.

  4. 46 CFR 164.019-9 - Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) The manufacturer shall not change the design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a... requests for acceptance of revisions in design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a non... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design,...

  5. 46 CFR 164.019-9 - Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) The manufacturer shall not change the design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a... requests for acceptance of revisions in design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a non... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design,...

  6. 46 CFR 164.019-9 - Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) The manufacturer shall not change the design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a... requests for acceptance of revisions in design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a non... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design,...

  7. 46 CFR 164.019-9 - Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) The manufacturer shall not change the design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a... requests for acceptance of revisions in design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a non... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design,...

  8. 46 CFR 164.019-9 - Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design, process, or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) The manufacturer shall not change the design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a... requests for acceptance of revisions in design, material, manufacturing process, or construction of a non... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedure for acceptance of revisions of design,...

  9. Universal Design: Process, Principles, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgstahler, Sheryl

    2009-01-01

    Designing any product or environment involves the consideration of many factors, including aesthetics, engineering options, environmental issues, safety concerns, industry standards, and cost. Typically, designers focus their attention on the average user. In contrast, universal design (UD), according to the Center for Universal Design," is the…

  10. The Social Problem Solver for Designing Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawski, Carl

    The aim of this paper is to summarize and tentatively synthesize a number of theories, typologies, and statements about systems and procedures for planned change in small groups, large organizations, and whole societies. Concepts are brought together from psychology, applied sociology, and business management, as well as diplomatic negotiation at…

  11. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 2: The design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillette, W. B.; Turner, M. J.; Southall, J. W.; Whitener, P. C.; Kowalik, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The extent to which IPAD is to support the design process is identified. Case studies of representative aerospace products were developed as models to characterize the design process and to provide design requirements for the IPAD computing system.

  12. Changes in the PHOBOS magnet design

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, J.Y.; Mignerey, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    After more sophisticated simulation and calculation work, it was realized that the design of the PHOBOS magnet could not create a {open_quotes}field free{close_quotes} region for the first four silicon planes for the purpose of tracking. The cut of the pole face was pushed back towards the center of the magnet by 10 cm. The new results from TOSCA were considered acceptable for the purpose of the PHOBOS tracking equipment.

  13. System design and performances of ASTER Level-1 data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Sumiyuki; Hachiya, Jun; Matsumoto, Ken; Fujisada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masatane

    1998-12-01

    ASTER is a multispectral imager which covers wide spectral region from visible to thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands, and will fly on EOS-AM1 in 1999. To meet this wide spectral coverage, ASTER has three optical sensing subsystems (multi-telescope system), VNIR, SWIR and TIR. This multi- telescope configuration requires highly refined ground processing for the generation of Level-1 data products that are radiometrically calibrated and geometrically corrected. A prototype Level-1 processing software system is developed to satisfy these requirements. System design concept adopted includes; (1) 'Automatic Processing,' (2)'ALL-IN-ONE-CONCEPT' in which the processing is carried out using information included in Level-0 data product only, (3) 'MODULE INDEPENDENCE' in which only process control module independently control other modules to change any operational conditions. (4) 'FLEXIBILITY' in which important operation parameters are set from an external component to make the processing condition change easier. The adaptability and the performance of the developed software system are evaluated using simulation data.

  14. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR STRIPPING OF ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures and correlations for designing and costing stripping towers for the removal of organics from aqueous streams are presented. The emphasis is on practical methods suitable for engineering estimates. The designs cover steam strippers with and without condensers and reflux...

  15. Using Instructional Design Process to Improve Design and Development of Internet Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hilgart, Michelle M; Thorndike, Frances P; Kinzie, Mable B

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, it is increasingly being used to deliver comprehensive behavioral and mental health intervention and prevention programs. Their goals are to change user behavior, reduce unwanted complications or symptoms, and improve health status and health-related quality of life. Internet interventions have been found efficacious in addressing a wide range of behavioral and mental health problems, including insomnia, nicotine dependence, obesity, diabetes, depression, and anxiety. Despite the existence of many Internet-based interventions, there is little research to inform their design and development. A model for behavior change in Internet interventions has been published to help guide future Internet intervention development and to help predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement outcomes through the use of Internet interventions. An argument is made for grounding the development of Internet interventions within a scientific framework. To that end, the model highlights a multitude of design-related components, areas, and elements, including user characteristics, environment, intervention content, level of intervention support, and targeted outcomes. However, more discussion is needed regarding how the design of the program should be developed to address these issues. While there is little research on the design and development of Internet interventions, there is a rich, related literature in the field of instructional design (ID) that can be used to inform Internet intervention development. ID models are prescriptive models that describe a set of activities involved in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional programs. Using ID process models has been shown to increase the effectiveness of learning programs in a broad range of contexts. ID models specify a systematic method for assessing the needs of learners (intervention users) to determine the gaps between current

  16. Using instructional design process to improve design and development of Internet interventions.

    PubMed

    Hilgart, Michelle M; Ritterband, Lee M; Thorndike, Frances P; Kinzie, Mable B

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, it is increasingly being used to deliver comprehensive behavioral and mental health intervention and prevention programs. Their goals are to change user behavior, reduce unwanted complications or symptoms, and improve health status and health-related quality of life. Internet interventions have been found efficacious in addressing a wide range of behavioral and mental health problems, including insomnia, nicotine dependence, obesity, diabetes, depression, and anxiety. Despite the existence of many Internet-based interventions, there is little research to inform their design and development. A model for behavior change in Internet interventions has been published to help guide future Internet intervention development and to help predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement outcomes through the use of Internet interventions. An argument is made for grounding the development of Internet interventions within a scientific framework. To that end, the model highlights a multitude of design-related components, areas, and elements, including user characteristics, environment, intervention content, level of intervention support, and targeted outcomes. However, more discussion is needed regarding how the design of the program should be developed to address these issues. While there is little research on the design and development of Internet interventions, there is a rich, related literature in the field of instructional design (ID) that can be used to inform Internet intervention development. ID models are prescriptive models that describe a set of activities involved in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional programs. Using ID process models has been shown to increase the effectiveness of learning programs in a broad range of contexts. ID models specify a systematic method for assessing the needs of learners (intervention users) to determine the gaps between current

  17. Focusing on the Individual Change Process in School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peca, Kathy

    Understanding what change is and how schools change determines the success of school reform. This paper addresses the nature of the change process at the individual level. Two assumptions are made about change. First, behavior is based on beliefs and values, and individuals, not groups or organizations, change. Second, change must satisfy the…

  18. Automating the packing heuristic design process with genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Burke, Edmund K; Hyde, Matthew R; Kendall, Graham; Woodward, John

    2012-01-01

    The literature shows that one-, two-, and three-dimensional bin packing and knapsack packing are difficult problems in operational research. Many techniques, including exact, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, have been investigated to solve these problems and it is often not clear which method to use when presented with a new instance. This paper presents an approach which is motivated by the goal of building computer systems which can design heuristic methods. The overall aim is to explore the possibilities for automating the heuristic design process. We present a genetic programming system to automatically generate a good quality heuristic for each instance. It is not necessary to change the methodology depending on the problem type (one-, two-, or three-dimensional knapsack and bin packing problems), and it therefore has a level of generality unmatched by other systems in the literature. We carry out an extensive suite of experiments and compare with the best human designed heuristics in the literature. Note that our heuristic design methodology uses the same parameters for all the experiments. The contribution of this paper is to present a more general packing methodology than those currently available, and to show that, by using this methodology, it is possible for a computer system to design heuristics which are competitive with the human designed heuristics from the literature. This represents the first packing algorithm in the literature able to claim human competitive results in such a wide variety of packing domains. PMID:21609273

  19. ECO fill: automated fill modification to support late-stage design changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Greg; Wilson, Jeff; Yu, J. J.; Chiu, Anderson; Chuang, Yao-Jen; Yang, Ricky

    2014-03-01

    One of the most critical factors in achieving a positive return for a design is ensuring the design not only meets performance specifications, but also produces sufficient yield to meet the market demand. The goal of design for manufacturability (DFM) technology is to enable designers to address manufacturing requirements during the design process. While new cell-based, DP-aware, and net-aware fill technologies have emerged to provide the designer with automated fill engines that support these new fill requirements, design changes that arrive late in the tapeout process (as engineering change orders, or ECOs) can have a disproportionate effect on tapeout schedules, due to the complexity of replacing fill. If not handled effectively, the impacts on file size, run time, and timing closure can significantly extend the tapeout process. In this paper, the authors examine changes to design flow methodology, supported by new fill technology, that enable efficient, fast, and accurate adjustments to metal fill late in the design process. We present an ECO fill methodology coupled with the support of advanced fill tools that can quickly locate the portion of the design affected by the change, remove and replace only the fill in that area, while maintaining the fill hierarchy. This new fill approach effectively reduces run time, contains fill file size, minimizes timing impact, and minimizes mask costs due to ECO-driven fill changes, all of which are critical factors to ensuring time-to-market schedules are maintained.

  20. Creativity Processes of Students in the Design Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Amy Mattingly; Leigh, Katharine E.; Tremblay, Kenneth R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The creative process is a multifaceted and dynamic path of thinking required to execute a project in design-based disciplines. The goal of this research was to test a model outlining the creative design process by investigating student experiences in a design project assignment. The study used an exploratory design to collect data from student…

  1. Climate change effects on watershed hydrological and biogeochemical processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Projected changes in climate are widely expected to alter watershed processes. However, the extent of these changes is difficult to predict because complex interactions among affected hydrological and biogeochemical processes will likely play out over many decades and spatial sc...

  2. Empiric validation of a process for behavior change.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; MacKinnon, David P; Ranby, Krista W; Kuehl, Kerry S; Moe, Esther L

    2016-09-01

    Most behavior change trials focus on outcomes rather than deconstructing how those outcomes related to programmatic theoretical underpinnings and intervention components. In this report, the process of change is compared for three evidence-based programs' that shared theories, intervention elements and potential mediating variables. Each investigation was a randomized trial that assessed pre- and post- intervention variables using survey constructs with established reliability. Each also used mediation analyses to define relationships. The findings were combined using a pattern matching approach. Surprisingly, knowledge was a significant mediator in each program (a and b path effects [p<0.01]). Norms, perceived control abilities, and self-monitoring were confirmed in at least two studies (p<0.01 for each). Replication of findings across studies with a common design but varied populations provides a robust validation of the theory and processes of an effective intervention. Combined findings also demonstrate a means to substantiate process aspects and theoretical models to advance understanding of behavior change. PMID:27528533

  3. Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Humphries, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    Engineering design is a challenging activity for any product. Since launch vehicles are highly complex and interconnected and have extreme energy densities, their design represents a challenge of the highest order. The purpose of this document is to delineate and clarify the design process associated with the launch vehicle for space flight transportation. The goal is to define and characterize a baseline for the space transportation design process. This baseline can be used as a basis for improving effectiveness and efficiency of the design process. The baseline characterization is achieved via compartmentalization and technical integration of subsystems, design functions, and discipline functions. First, a global design process overview is provided in order to show responsibility, interactions, and connectivity of overall aspects of the design process. Then design essentials are delineated in order to emphasize necessary features of the design process that are sometimes overlooked. Finally the design process characterization is presented. This is accomplished by considering project technical framework, technical integration, process description (technical integration model, subsystem tree, design/discipline planes, decision gates, and tasks), and the design sequence. Also included in the document are a snapshot relating to process improvements, illustrations of the process, a survey of recommendations from experienced practitioners in aerospace, lessons learned, references, and a bibliography.

  4. The Process of Transformation: Steps toward Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarule, Jill Mattuck

    1980-01-01

    A study of adult learners reveals four steps of transformative change in adult life: diffusion, dissonance, differentiation, and coherence. The educational implications of these steps are explored through case studies, and it is argued that these transformative changes affect not only the individual and the nature of adult education, but the…

  5. Conceptual design of a measurement network of the global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hari, P.; Petäjä, T.; Bäck, J.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Vihma, T.; Laurila, T.; Viisanen, Y.; Vesala, T.; Kulmala, M.

    2016-01-01

    The global environment is changing rapidly due to anthropogenic emissions and actions. Such activities modify aerosol and greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, leading to regional and global climate change and affecting, e.g., food and fresh-water security, sustainable use of natural resources and even demography. Here we present a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network that can provide tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. The philosophy behind the conceptual design relies on physical conservation laws of mass, energy and momentum, as well as on concentration gradients that act as driving forces for the atmosphere-biosphere exchange. The network is composed of standard, flux and/or advanced and flagship stations, each of which having specific and identified tasks. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that have to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network as a whole is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity. The most comprehensive observations are envisioned to occur in flagship stations, with which the process-level understanding can be expanded to continental and global scales together with advanced data analysis, Earth system modelling and satellite remote sensing. The denser network of the flux and standard stations allows application and up-scaling of the results obtained from flagship stations to the global level.

  6. Space bioreactor: Design/process flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

  7. Computer Applications in the Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchip, Susan

    Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

  8. Lunar fiberglass: Properties and process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Robert; Nichols, Todd

    1987-01-01

    A Clemson University ceramic engineering design for a lunar fiberglass plant is presented. The properties of glass fibers and metal-matrix composites are examined. Lunar geology is also discussed. A raw material and site are selected based on this information. A detailed plant design is presented, and summer experiments to be carried out at Johnson Space Center are reviewed.

  9. Maintaining Change: The Maintenance Function and the Change Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Fang Lee

    2003-01-01

    Explores the organization of the maintenance function of five manufacturing and utility companies and the involvement of maintenance workers in plant improvement. Highlights the role of tacit skills of maintenance workers and of the maintenance function on technological change and organizational performance. (Contains 41 references.) (JOW)

  10. Climate change impacts on the design of stormwater drainage infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Macário, Eduarda; Gaspar, Sónia; Fernandes, Luís; Pinto, Joaquim

    2013-04-01

    In Portugal, as in many other countries of the world, the design of stormwater drainage infrastructure relies on the implicit assumption that the intense precipitation distribution is statistically stationary and based on the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. However, observed changes in recent past climate and projections for future climate suggest differences in precipitation regime in Portugal, in particular, in what respects to the frequency and intensity of extreme events, thus leading to the need to evaluate the impact of potential climate change on IDF curves. The objective of this study is to assess the potential consequences of climate change in the design of drainage systems for rainwater and hence the need to review rules and legislation on this design, based on a comparative analysis between Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves defined in the Regulatory Decree n ° 23/95 of 23rd August, proposed by Matos and Silva (1986), and those obtained with observed data in meteorological stations representing the three rainfall zones recommended for Portugal and with data simulated by the COSMO-CLM regional climate model for recent past (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios. The methodology adopted for the delineation of IDF curves, is based on study of Brandão et al. (2001) and includes: (i) precipitation disaggregation process for sub-daily (method fragments) and sub-hourly (disaggregation coefficients suggested by Brandão et al. 2001) scales; (ii) preliminary statistical exploratory analysis and fitting of the Gumbel distribution function to time series of maximum precipitation intensity for each of the ten durations; (iii) the use of the Gumbel inverse probability distribution to estimate maximum precipitation intensity values for eight return periods; (iv) linearization of IDF curves with logarithms and the estimation of the parameters a and b with robust regression after; and (v) correction of the bias introduced by the COSMO

  11. Instructional Design and Directed Cognitive Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovy, Ruth Colvin

    This paper argues that the information processing model provides a promising basis on which to build a comprehensive theory of instruction. Characteristics of the major information processing constructs are outlined including attention, encoding and rehearsal, working memory, long term memory, retrieval, and metacognitive processes, and a unifying…

  12. Design, Participation, and Social Change: What Design in Grassroots Spaces Can Teach Learning Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    While a science of design (and theory of learning) is certainly useful in design-based research, a participatory design research framework presents an opening for learning scientists to rethink design and learning as processes. Grounded in the autoethnographic investigation of a grassroots organization's design of a local campaign, the author…

  13. Designed CVD growth of graphene via process engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kai; Fu, Lei; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2013-10-15

    Graphene, the atomic thin carbon film with honeycomb lattice, holds great promise in a wide range of applications, due to its unique band structure and excellent electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Scientists are researching this star material because of the development of various emerging preparation techniques, among which chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has received the fastest advances in the past few years. For the CVD growth of graphene, the ultimate goal is to achieve the highest quality in the largest scale and lowest cost with a precise control of layer thickness, stacking order, and crystallinity. To meet this goal, researchers need a comprehensive understanding and effective controlling of the growth process, especially to its elementary steps. In this Account, we focus on our recent progresses toward the controlled surface growth of graphene and its two-dimensional (2D) hybrids via rational designs of CVD elementary processes, namely, process engineering. A typical CVD process consists of four main elementary steps: (A) adsorption and catalytic decomposition of precursor gas, (B) diffusion and dissolution of decomposed carbon species into bulk metal, (C) segregation of dissolved carbon atoms onto the metal surface, and finally, (D) surface nucleation and growth of graphene. Absence or enhancement of each elementary step would lead to significant changes in the whole growth process. Metals with certain carbon solubility, such as nickel and cobalt, involve all four elementary steps in a typical CVD process, thus providing us an ideal system for process engineering. The elementary segregation process can be completely blocked if molybdenum is introduced into the system as an alloy catalyst, yielding perfect monolayer graphene almost independent of growth parameters. On the other hand, the segregation-only process of predissolved solid carbons is also capable of high-quality graphene growth. By using a synergetic Cu-Ni alloy, we are

  14. A Speeded Item Response Model with Gradual Process Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goegebeur, Yuri; De Boeck, Paul; Wollack, James A.; Cohen, Allan S.

    2008-01-01

    An item response theory model for dealing with test speededness is proposed. The model consists of two random processes, a problem solving process and a random guessing process, with the random guessing gradually taking over from the problem solving process. The involved change point and change rate are considered random parameters in order to…

  15. Developmental Changes in Face Processing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Geldart, Sybil; Maurer, Daphne; Le Grand, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of slow development of processing differences among faces in the spacing among facial features (second-order relations). Computerized tasks involving various face-processing skills were used. Results of experiment with 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds and with adults indicated that slow development of sensitivity to…

  16. Conceptual Change through Changing the Process of Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasmann-Frahm, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Classification can serve as a tool for conceptualising ideas about vertebrates. Training enhances classification skills as well as sharpening concepts. The method described in this paper is based on the "hybrid-model" of comparison that proposes two independently working processes: associative and theory-based. The two interact during a…

  17. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  18. Three-Step Validation of Exercise Behavior Processes of Change in an Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Berry, Tanya; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Higgins, S. Joan Wharf

    2004-01-01

    Though the processes of change are conceived as the core constructs of the transtheoretical model (TTM), few researchers have examined their construct validity in the physical activity domain. Further, only 1 study was designed to investigate the processes of change in an adolescent sample. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise…

  19. Adapting Dam and Reservoir Design and Operations to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, René; Braun, Marco; Chaumont, Diane

    2013-04-01

    In order to identify the potential initiatives that the dam, reservoir and water resources systems owners and operators may undertake to cope with climate change issues, it is essential to determine the current state of knowledge of their impacts on hydrological variables at regional and local scales. Future climate scenarios derived from climate model simulations can be combined with operational hydrological modeling tools and historical observations to evaluate realistic pathways of future hydrological conditions for specific drainage basins. In the case of hydropower production those changes in hydrological conditions may have significant economic impacts. For over a decade the state owned hydropower producer Hydro Québec has been exploring the physical impacts on their watersheds by relying on climate services in collaboration with Ouranos, a consortium on regional climatology and adaptation to climate change. Previous climate change impact analysis had been including different sources of climate simulation data, explored different post-processing approaches and used hydrological impact models. At a new stage of this collaboration the operational management of Hydro Quebec aspired to carry out a cost-benefit analysis of considering climate change in the refactoring of hydro-power installations. In the process of the project not only a set of scenarios of future runoff regimes had to be defined to support long term planning decisions of a dam and reservoir operator, but also the significance of uncertainties needed to be communicated and made understood. We provide insight into a case study that took some unexpected turns and leaps by bringing together climate scientists, hydrologists and hydro-power operation managers. The study includes the selection of appropriate climate scenarios, the correction of biases, the application of hydrological models and the assessment of uncertainties. However, it turned out that communicating the science properly and

  20. Automating the design process - Progress, problems, prospects, potential.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The design process for large aerospace vehicles is discussed, with particular emphasis on structural design. Problems with current procedures are identified. Then, the contributions possible from automating the design process (defined as the best combination of men and computers) are considered. Progress toward automated design in the aerospace and other communities is reviewed, including NASA studies of the potential development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD). The need for and suggested directions of future research on the design process, both technical and social, are discussed. Although much progress has been made to exploit the computer in design, it is concluded that technology is available to begin using the computer to speed communications and management as well as calculations in the design process and thus build man-computer teams that can design better, faster and cheaper.

  1. Study on Product Innovative Design Process Driven by Ideal Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuying; Lu, Ximei; Wang, Ping; Liu, Hui

    Product innovative design in companies today relies heavily on individual members’ experience and creative ideation as well as their skills of integrating creativity and innovation tools with design methods agilely. Creative ideation and inventive ideas generation are two crucial stages in product innovative design process. Ideal solution is the desire final ideas for given problem, and the striving reaching target for product design. In this paper, a product innovative design process driven by ideal solution is proposed. This design process encourages designers to overcome their psychological inertia, to foster creativity in a systematic way for acquiring breakthrough creative and innovative solutions in a reducing sphere of solution-seeking, and results in effective product innovative design rapidly. A case study example is also presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design process.

  2. Incorporating climate change projections into riparian restoration planning and design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Laura G.; Lindsay V. Reynolds; Beechie, Timothy J.; Collins, Mathias J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services. In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.

  3. A Framework for Business Process Change Requirements Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Varun; Otim, Samuel

    The ability to quickly and continually adapt business processes to accommodate evolving requirements and opportunities is critical for success in competitive environments. Without appropriate linkage between redesign decisions and strategic inputs, identifying processes that need to be modified will be difficult. In this paper, we draw attention to the analysis of business process change requirements in support of process change initiatives. Business process redesign is a multifaceted phenomenon involving processes, organizational structure, management systems, human resource architecture, and many other aspects of organizational life. To be successful, the business process initiative should focus not only on identifying the processes to be redesigned, but also pay attention to various enablers of change. Above all, a framework is just a blueprint; management must lead change. We hope our modest contribution will draw attention to the broader framing of requirements for business process change.

  4. Structures and Processes of Planned Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Currently, two parallel structures can be found in public school systems: the conventional bureaucratic apparatus and a more loosely structured network of collaborative enterprises. The nature of collaborative leadership and followership in settings of planned change is examined, particularly interactions among key actors (teachers,…

  5. Designing Educative Curriculum Materials: A Theoretically and Empirically Driven Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Arias, Anna Maria; Bismack, Amber Schultz; Marulis, Loren M.; Iwashyna, Stefanie K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a design process in the development of educative curriculum materials that is theoretically and empirically driven. Using a design-based research approach, they describe their design process for incorporating educative features intended to promote teacher learning into existing, high-quality curriculum…

  6. VCM Process Design: An ABET 2000 Fully Compliant Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyahia, Farid

    2005-01-01

    A long experience in undergraduate vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) process design projects is shared in this paper. The VCM process design is shown to be fully compliant with ABET 2000 criteria by virtue of its abundance in chemical engineering principles, integration of interpersonal and interdisciplinary skills in design, safety, economics, and…

  7. Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branon, Rovy F., III

    2011-01-01

    Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

  8. Information Architecture without Internal Theory: An Inductive Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverty, Marsha

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that information architecture design is primarily an inductive process, partly because it lacks internal theory and partly because it is an activity that supports emergent phenomena (user experiences) from basic design components. Suggests a resemblance to Constructive Induction, a design process that locates the best representational…

  9. Optimality criteria design and stress constraint processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for pre-screening stress constraints into either primary or side-constraint categories are reviewed; a projection method, which is developed from prior cycle stress resultant history, is introduced as an additional screening parameter. Stress resultant projections are also employed to modify the traditional stress-ratio, side-constraint boundary. A special application of structural modification reanalysis is applied to the critical stress constraints to provide feasible designs that are preferable to those obtained by conventional scaling. Sample problem executions show relatively short run times and fewer design cycle iterations to achieve low structural weights; those attained are comparable to the minimum values developed elsewhere.

  10. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change

  11. Erlang Behaviours: Programming with Process Design Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarini, Francesco; Thompson, Simon

    Erlang processes run independently of each other, each using separate memory and communicating with each other by message passing. These processes, while executing different code, do so following a number of common patterns. By examining different examples of Erlang-style concurrency in client/server architectures, we identify the generic and specific parts of the code and extract the generic code to form a process skeleton. In Erlang, the most commonly used patterns have been implemented in library modules, commonly referred to as OTP behaviours. They contain the generic code framework for concurrency and error handling, simplifying the complexity of concurrent programming and protecting the developer from many common pitfalls.

  12. Design Science Research for Business Process Design: Organizational Transition at Intersport Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Mikael; Rudmark, Daniel; Seigerroth, Ulf

    Business processes need to be aligned with business strategies. This paper elaborates on experiences from a business process design effort in an action research project performed at Intersport Sweden. The purpose with this project was to create a solid base for taking the retail chain Intersport into a new organizational state where the new process design is aligned with strategic goals. Although business process modeling is concerned with creating artifacts, traditionally information systems design science research has had little impact on research on business process models. In this paper, we address the question of how design science research can contribute to business process design. Three heuristic guidelines for creating organizational commitment and strategic alignment in process design are presented. The guidelines are derived from the successful actions taken in the research project. The development of these guidelines is used as a basis to reflect upon the contribution of design science research to business process design.

  13. 40 CFR 97.615 - Changing designated representative and alternate designated representative; changes in owners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading... new designated representative and the owners and operators of the TR SO2 Group 1 source and the TR SO2... alternate designated representative, the designated representative, and the owners and operators of the...

  14. 40 CFR 97.615 - Changing designated representative and alternate designated representative; changes in owners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading... new designated representative and the owners and operators of the TR SO2 Group 1 source and the TR SO2... alternate designated representative, the designated representative, and the owners and operators of the...

  15. 40 CFR 97.415 - Changing designated representative and alternate designated representative; changes in owners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading... new designated representative and the owners and operators of the TR NOX Annual source and the TR NOX... alternate designated representative, the designated representative, and the owners and operators of the...

  16. 40 CFR 97.415 - Changing designated representative and alternate designated representative; changes in owners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading... new designated representative and the owners and operators of the TR NOX Annual source and the TR NOX... alternate designated representative, the designated representative, and the owners and operators of the...

  17. 40 CFR 97.615 - Changing designated representative and alternate designated representative; changes in owners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading... new designated representative and the owners and operators of the TR SO2 Group 1 source and the TR SO2... alternate designated representative, the designated representative, and the owners and operators of the...

  18. 40 CFR 97.415 - Changing designated representative and alternate designated representative; changes in owners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading... new designated representative and the owners and operators of the TR NOX Annual source and the TR NOX... alternate designated representative, the designated representative, and the owners and operators of the...

  19. Processes and Knowledge in Designing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, James G.; And Others

    Results from a study of problem solving in the domain of instructional design are presented. Subjects were eight teacher trainees who were recent graduates of or were enrolled in the Stanford Teacher Education Program at Stanford University (California). Subjects studied a computer-based tutorial--the VST2000--about a fictitious vehicle. The…

  20. Biochemical Engineering. Part II: Process Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes types of industrial techniques involving biochemical products, specifying the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous processes, and contrasting biochemical and chemical engineering. See SE 506 318 for Part I. (AL)

  1. Understanding the Processes behind Student Designing: Cases from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Susan Siok Hiang; Lim-Ratnam, Christina; Atencio, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A common perception of designing is that it represents a highly complex activity that is manageable by only a few. However it has also been argued that all individuals are innately capable of designing. Taking up this latter view, we explored the processes behind student designing in the context of Design and Technology (D&T), a subject taught at…

  2. Process Induced Changes in Resveratrol in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin that is thought to have a variety of beneficial health effects. Fresh peanuts have been found to contain levels up to several ppm. Processing of peanuts for human consumption involves heat from roasting. Mechanical pressure and solvents are used to extract oil to prod...

  3. Reducing Design Cycle Time and Cost Through Process Resequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    2004-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, companies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of their design cycle. One method for reducing both time and cost is to develop an understanding of the flow of the design processes and the effects of the iterative subcycles that are found in complex design projects. Once these aspects are understood, the design manager can make decisions that take advantage of decomposition, concurrent engineering, and parallel processing techniques to reduce the total time and the total cost of the design cycle. One software tool that can aid in this decision-making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). The DeMAID software minimizes the feedback couplings that create iterative subcycles, groups processes into iterative subcycles, and decomposes the subcycles into a hierarchical structure. The real benefits of producing the best design in the least time and at a minimum cost are obtained from sequencing the processes in the subcycles.

  4. "Conceptual Change" as both Revolutionary and Evolutionary Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiny, Shoshana

    2008-01-01

    Our argument concerning the debate around the process of "conceptual change" is that it is both an evolutionary learning process and a revolutionary paradigm change. To gain a deeper understanding of the process, the article focuses on the discourse of educational facilitators participating in a community of learners. Applying the methodology of…

  5. NASA Now: Engineering Design Process: Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, NASA engineer Russ Werneth discusses the continuous nature of the engineering design process and shares what it was like to design and plan the spacewalks that were key...

  6. Integrating Thermal Tools Into the Mechanical Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Siebes, Georg; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    The intent of mechanical design is to deliver a hardware product that meets or exceeds customer expectations, while reducing cycle time and cost. To this end, an integrated mechanical design process enables the idea of parallel development (concurrent engineering). This represents a shift from the traditional mechanical design process. With such a concurrent process, there are significant issues that have to be identified and addressed before re-engineering the mechanical design process to facilitate concurrent engineering. These issues also assist in the integration and re-engineering of the thermal design sub-process since it resides within the entire mechanical design process. With these issues in mind, a thermal design sub-process can be re-defined in a manner that has a higher probability of acceptance, thus enabling an integrated mechanical design process. However, the actual implementation is not always problem-free. Experience in applying the thermal design sub-process to actual situations provides the evidence for improvement, but more importantly, for judging the viability and feasibility of the sub-process.

  7. The management of change: using a model to evaluate the change process.

    PubMed

    Carney, Marie

    2002-09-01

    This article presents a change management model that may be used in the evaluation of the change process. The model may be used to evaluate how well change is being managed or has been managed. The Change Management Model developed by the author aims to provide nurse managers or change agents with a structured and measurable model for managing change, and to allow the change process to be evaluated. A measurement constructs tool also has been developed to further assist the evaluation process. The author argues that certain key variables can be identified that contribute to the successful implementation of change. These include critical success factors for change, communication issues, change dynamics that include resistance or acceptance of change, and the management of the implementation and evaluation stages of the change process. PMID:12271767

  8. CASE STUDY FOR ENHANCED ACCIDENT TOLERANCE DESIGN CHANGES

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Steven; Smith, Curtis; Koonce, Tony

    2014-09-01

    The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about Light Water Reactor (LWR) design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as risk informed margins management (RIMM) strategies. The methods and tools provided by RISMC are essential to a comprehensive and integrated RIMM approach that supports effective preservation of margin for both active and passive SSCs. In this report, we discuss the methods and technologies behind RIMM for an application focused on enhanced accident tolerance design changes for a representative nuclear power plant. We look at a variety of potential plant modifications and evaluate, using the RISMC approach, the implications to safety margin for the various strategies.

  9. Authentic Design in Gaming: Changing the Rules of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manusos, Dominick O.; Busby, Joe R.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2013-01-01

    The article provides information on the changing rules in the authentic designs in gaming. It states that board games have been used to teach before a traditional classroom setting was ever put in place. It mentions that technology, engineering, and design education teachers would do well to develop their assignments to lead students into…

  10. The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

    2011-02-01

    In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

  11. Relative Saliency in Change Signals Affects Perceptual Comparison and Decision Processes in Change Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Change detection requires perceptual comparison and decision processes on different features of multiattribute objects. How relative salience between two feature-changes influences the processes has not been addressed. This study used the systems factorial technology to investigate the processes when detecting changes in a Gabor patch with visual…

  12. INTEGRATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND PROCESS INTENSIFICATION IN THE DESIGN OF PROCESSES FOR UTILIZING BIOBASED GLYCEROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected results include an integrated process and mechanical design including a fabrication plan for the glycerol dehydration reactor, comprehensive heat and material balance, environmental impact assessment and comprehensive safety review. The resulting process design w...

  13. Olfactory processing: detection of rapid changes.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Krone, Franziska; Walker, Susannah; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the olfactory environment have a rather poor chance of being detected. Aim of the present study was to determine, whether the same (cued) or different (uncued) odors can generally be detected at short inter stimulus intervals (ISI) below 2.5 s. Furthermore we investigated, whether inhibition of return, an attentional phenomenon facilitating the detection of new stimuli at longer ISI, is present in the domain of olfaction. Thirteen normosmic people (3 men, 10 women; age range 19-27 years; mean age 23 years) participated. Stimulation was performed using air-dilution olfactometry with 2 odors: phenylethylalcohol and hydrogen disulfide. Reaction time to target stimuli was assessed in cued and uncued conditions at ISIs of 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 s. There was a significant main effect of ISI, indicating that odors presented only 1 s apart are missed frequently. Uncued presentation facilitated detection at short ISIs, implying that changes of the olfactory environment are detected better than presentation of the same odor again. Effects in relation to "olfactory inhibition of return," on the other hand, are not supported by our results. This suggests that attention works different for the olfactory system compared with the visual and auditory systems. PMID:25911421

  14. Algorithmic Processes for Increasing Design Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, William R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the role of algorithmic processes as a supplementary method for producing cost-effective and efficient instructional materials. Examines three approaches to problem solving in the context of developing training materials for the Naval Training Command: application of algorithms, quasi-algorithms, and heuristics. (EAO)

  15. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  16. A design optimization process for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.; Fox, George; Duquette, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is used to develop and implement a process for design optimization. Because the relative worth of arbitrary design concepts cannot be assessed directly, comparisons must be based on designs that provide the same performance from the point of view of station users; such designs can be compared in terms of life cycle cost. Since the technology required to produce a space station is widely dispersed, a decentralized optimization process is essential. A formulation of the optimization process is provided and the mathematical models designed to facilitate its implementation are described.

  17. Estimating Slope and Level Change in N = 1 Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanas, Antonio; Manolov, Rumen; Onghena, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The current study proposes a new procedure for separately estimating slope change and level change between two adjacent phases in single-case designs. The procedure eliminates baseline trend from the whole data series before assessing treatment effectiveness. The steps necessary to obtain the estimates are presented in detail, explained, and…

  18. CAD tool environment for MEMS process design support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Wagener, A.; Popp, J.; Hahn, K.; Bruck, R.

    2005-07-01

    MEMS fabrication processes are characterized by a numerous useable process steps, materials and effects to fabricate the intended microstructure. Up to now CAD support in this domain concentrates mainly on the structural design (e.g. simulation programs on FEM basis). These tools often assume fixed interfaces to fabrication process like material parameters or design rules. Taking into account that MEMS design requires concurrently structural design (defining the lateral 2-dim shapes) as well as process design (responsible for the third dimension) it turns out that technology interfaces consisting only of sets of static data are no longer sufficient. For successful design flows in these areas it is necessary to incorporate a higher degree of process related data. A broader interface between process configuration on the one side and the application design on the other side seems to be needed. This paper proposes a novel approach. A process management system is introduced. It allows the specification of processes for specific applications. The system is based on a dedicated database environment that is able to store and manage all process related design constraints linked to the fabrication process data itself. The interdependencies between application specific processes and all stages of the design flow will be discussed and the complete software system PRINCE will be introduced meeting the requirements of this new approach. Based on a concurrent design methodology presented in the beginning of this paper, a system is presented that supports application specific process design. The paper will highlight the incorporated tools and the present status of the software system. A complete configuration of an Si-thin film process example will demonstrate the usage of PRINCE.

  19. Launch Vehicle Design Process Description and Training Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atherton, James; Morris, Charles; Settle, Gray; Teal, Marion; Schuerer, Paul; Blair, James; Ryan, Robert; Schutzenhofer, Luke

    1999-01-01

    A primary NASA priority is to reduce the cost and improve the effectiveness of launching payloads into space. As a consequence, significant improvements are being sought in the effectiveness, cost, and schedule of the launch vehicle design process. In order to provide a basis for understanding and improving the current design process, a model has been developed for this complex, interactive process, as reported in the references. This model requires further expansion in some specific design functions. Also, a training course for less-experienced engineers is needed to provide understanding of the process, to provide guidance for its effective implementation, and to provide a basis for major improvements in launch vehicle design process technology. The objective of this activity is to expand the description of the design process to include all pertinent design functions, and to develop a detailed outline of a training course on the design process for launch vehicles for use in educating engineers whose experience with the process has been minimal. Building on a previously-developed partial design process description, parallel sections have been written for the Avionics Design Function, the Materials Design Function, and the Manufacturing Design Function. Upon inclusion of these results, the total process description will be released as a NASA TP. The design function sections herein include descriptions of the design function responsibilities, interfaces, interactive processes, decisions (gates), and tasks. Associated figures include design function planes, gates, and tasks, along with other pertinent graphics. Also included is an expanded discussion of how the design process is divided, or compartmentalized, into manageable parts to achieve efficient and effective design. A detailed outline for an intensive two-day course on the launch vehicle design process has been developed herein, and is available for further expansion. The course is in an interactive lecture

  20. Physical processes mediating climate change impacts on regional sea ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J.; Schrum, C.; Cannaby, H.; Daewel, U.; Allen, I.; Artioli, Y.; Bopp, L.; Butenschon, M.; Fach, B. A.; Harle, J.; Pushpadas, D.; Salihoglu, B.; Wakelin, S.

    2014-02-01

    Regional seas are exceptionally vulnerable to climate change, yet are the most directly societally important regions of the marine environment. The combination of widely varying conditions of mixing, forcing, geography (coastline and bathymetry) and exposure to the open-ocean makes these seas subject to a wide range of physical processes that mediates how large scale climate change impacts on these seas' ecosystems. In this paper we explore these physical processes and their biophysical interactions, and the effects of atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial change on them. Our aim is to elucidate the controlling dynamical processes and how these vary between and within regional seas. We focus on primary production and consider the potential climatic impacts: on long term changes in elemental budgets, on seasonal and mesoscale processes that control phytoplankton's exposure to light and nutrients, and briefly on direct temperature response. We draw examples from the MEECE FP7 project and five regional models systems using ECOSMO, POLCOMS-ERSEM and BIMS_ECO. These cover the Barents Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Seas, and a region of the Northeast Atlantic, using a common global ocean-atmosphere model as forcing. We consider a common analysis approach, and a more detailed analysis of the POLCOMS-ERSEM model. Comparing projections for the end of the 21st century with mean present day conditions, these simulations generally show an increase in seasonal and permanent stratification (where present). However, the first order (low- and mid-latitude) effect in the open ocean projections of increased permanent stratification leading to reduced nutrient levels, and so to reduced primary production, is largely absent, except in the NE Atlantic. Instead, results show a highly heterogeneous picture of positive and negative change arising from the varying mixing and circulation conditions. Even in the two highly stratified, deep water seas (Black and Baltic Seas) the

  1. The Impact of Building Information Modeling on the Architectural Design Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, P. F.; Silva, Neander F.; Lima, Ecilamar M.

    Many benefits of Building Information Modeling, BIM, have been suggested by several authors and by software vendors. In this paper we describe an experiment in which two groups of designers were observed developing an assigned design task. One of the groups used a BIM system, while the other used a standard computer-aided drafting system. The results show that some of the promises of BIM hold true, such as consistency maintenance and error avoidance in the design documentation process. Other promises such as changing the design process itself seemed also promising but they need more research to determine to greater extent the depth of such changes.

  2. Processes Controlling Temporal Changes in Agriculturally-Affected Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burow, K. R.; Belitz, K.; Jurgens, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    The National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey includes assessment of groundwater-quality changes with time. To better understand changes at a national scale, NAWQA has implemented smaller scale flow-path studies to evaluate the processes affecting these changes. Flow path studies are designed to sample groundwater of different ages. Wells are sampled for a suite of constituents, including tracers of groundwater age. In the 1990s, a 4.6 km transect of monitoring wells was installed near Fresno in the southern Central Valley of California. The region is dominated by intensive agriculture. The wells were sampled in 1994-95, 2003, and 2013 to provide data on changes in water quality and groundwater age. In 2013, the flow path was extended to a regional scale (30 km) by using existing production wells. Preliminary interpretation of the local-scale flow path indicates that nitrate concentrations in the upper 25 m of the aquifer are higher than the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water and variably increase or decrease with time. At intermediate depths (25-40 m), nitrate concentrations are lower and show small to moderate increases. The legacy pesticide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) is degrading at a half-life of about 4-6 years. DBCP is present above the MCL at intermediate depths even though it is has been banned from use for more than 30 years. Both nitrate and DBCP appear to be moving vertically downward through the aquifer. Whereas uranium concentrations are generally below the MCL in the local-scale flow path, concentrations increase along the regional transect, with concentrations nearly an order of magnitude above the MCL in some wells. Further evaluation of processes affecting these constituents (such as source, redox, and mobilization factors) will provide important insight that can be applied to other regions and will assist local water managers.

  3. Posthypnotic state changes and flashbacks: analogous processes?

    PubMed

    Lovern, John

    2012-01-01

    Careful study of the posttraumatic stress disorder and hypnosis literatures reveals some parallels between posttraumatic flashbacks and responses to posthypnotic suggestions. Highly susceptible subjects can slip into hypnosis spontaneously and accept and respond to implied or inadvertent suggestions, some of which may operate in a manner equivalent to posthypnotic suggestions. Later, exposure to appropriate cues may trigger an intrusive revivification of the hypnotic state in which the suggestion occurred. This sequence of events closely resembles the sequence of reactions that some individuals have to trauma that ultimately leads to flashbacks. Thus, flashbacks may be conceived of as intrusive posttraumatic revivifications of trauma-induced hypnosis-like states that are reactivated by trauma-reminiscent cues operating similarly to posthypnotic signals. Implications of viewing flashbacks in this way, especially if this view is supported by future research, could include significant changes in how posttraumatic stress disorder is conceptualized and treated. PMID:22989244

  4. Training's Role in the Process of Planned Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Conrad N.

    1985-01-01

    Individual change is the key to organizational change. A seven-step model of individual change--awareness, understanding, belief, effort, reward, feedback, and system accommodation--provides a structure for the design and content of training programs that will ensure transfer of learning to the workplace. (SK)

  5. MIDAS: a framework for integrated design and manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Moon Jung; Kwon, Patrick; Pentland, Brian

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, we present a development of a framework for managing design and manufacturing process in a distributed environment. The framework offers the following facilities: (1) to represent the complicated engineering design processes (2) to coordinate design activities and execute the process in a distributed environment and (3) to support a collaborative design by sharing data and processes. In this paper, the process flow graphs, which consist in tasks and the corresponding input and output data, are used to depict the engineering design process on a process modeling browser. The engineering activities in the represented processes can be executed in a distributed environment through the cockpit of the framework. The communication among the related engineers to support a collaborative design is made on the collaborative design browser with SML underlying data structures of representing process information to make the framework extensible and platform- independent. The formal and flexible approach of the proposed framework to integrate the engineering design processes can be also effectively applied to coordinate concurrent engineering activities in a distributed environment.

  6. Ceramic processing: Experimental design and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Martin W.; Lauben, David N.; Madrid, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to: (1) gain insight into the processing of ceramics and how green processing can affect the properties of ceramics; (2) investigate the technique of slip casting; (3) learn how heat treatment and temperature contribute to density, strength, and effects of under and over firing to ceramic properties; (4) experience some of the problems inherent in testing brittle materials and learn about the statistical nature of the strength of ceramics; (5) investigate orthogonal arrays as tools to examine the effect of many experimental parameters using a minimum number of experiments; (6) recognize appropriate uses for clay based ceramics; and (7) measure several different properties important to ceramic use and optimize them for a given application.

  7. Clutter suppression interferometry system design and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Chad; Deming, Ross; Gunther, Jake

    2015-05-01

    Clutter suppression interferometry (CSI) has received extensive attention due to its multi-modal capability to detect slow-moving targets, and concurrently form high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from the same data. The ability to continuously augment SAR images with geo-located ground moving target indicators (GMTI) provides valuable real-time situational awareness that is important for many applications. CSI can be accomplished with minimal hardware and processing resources. This makes CSI a natural candidate for applications where size, weight and power (SWaP) are constrained, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and small satellites. This paper will discuss the theory for optimal CSI system configuration focusing on sparse time-varying transmit and receive array manifold due to SWaP considerations. The underlying signal model will be presented and discussed as well as the potential benefits that a sparse time-varying transmit receive manifold provides. The high-level processing objectives will be detailed and examined on simulated data. Then actual SAR data collected with the Space Dynamic Laboratory (SDL) FlexSAR radar system will be analyzed. The simulated data contrasted with actual SAR data helps illustrate the challenges and limitations found in practice vs. theory. A new novel approach incorporating sparse signal processing is discussed that has the potential to reduce false- alarm rates and improve detections.

  8. H-Coal process and plant design

    DOEpatents

    Kydd, Paul H.; Chervenak, Michael C.; DeVaux, George R.

    1983-01-01

    A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator successively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residuals to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom and recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated into separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

  9. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICAL PROCESSES WITH FUGITIVE AND OPEN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designing a chemical process normally includes aspects of economic and environmental disciplines. In this work we describe methods to quickly and easily evaluate the economics and potential environmental impacts of a process, with the hydrodealkylation of toluene as an example. ...

  10. Experimental design for improved ceramic processing, emphasizing the Taguchi Method

    SciTech Connect

    Weiser, M.W. . Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Fong, K.B. )

    1993-12-01

    Ceramic processing often requires substantial experimentation to produce acceptable product quality and performance. This is a consequence of ceramic processes depending upon a multitude of factors, some of which can be controlled and others that are beyond the control of the manufacturer. Statistical design of experiments is a procedure that allows quick, economical, and accurate evaluation of processes and products that depend upon several variables. Designed experiments are sets of tests in which the variables are adjusted methodically. A well-designed experiment yields unambiguous results at minimal cost. A poorly designed experiment may reveal little information of value even with complex analysis, wasting valuable time and resources. This article will review the most common experimental designs. This will include both nonstatistical designs and the much more powerful statistical experimental designs. The Taguchi Method developed by Grenichi Taguchi will be discussed in some detail. The Taguchi method, based upon fractional factorial experiments, is a powerful tool for optimizing product and process performance.