Engineering materials-design parameters of the Mg-Li Alloy System from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Counts, William; Friak, Martin; Raabe, Dierk; Neugebauer, Jorg
2008-03-01
Ab initio calculations are becoming increasingly useful to engineers interested in designing new alloys because these calculations are able to accurately predict basic material properties only knowing the atomic composition of the material. Fundamental physical properties (like formation energy and elastic constants) of 11 bcc magnesium-lithium alloys were calculated using density-functional theory (DFT) and compared with available experimental data. These DFT determined properties were in turn used to calculate engineering parameters like the bulk modulus/shear modulus (B/G) and Young's modulus/density (E/ρ). From these engineering parameters, alloys with optimal mechanical properties need for a light weight structural material were identified. It was found that the stiffest bcc magnesium-lithium alloys contain about 70 at.% magnesium while the most ductile alloys have 0-20 at.% magnesium. In addition, the specific modulus for alloys with 70 at.% magnesium was found to be equal to that of aluminum-magnesium alloys and slightly lower than that of aluminum-lithium alloys.
Calculation of Design Parameters for an Equilibrium LEU Core in the NBSR
Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.
2011-09-30
A plan is being developed for the conversion of the NIST research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Previously, the design of the LEU fuel had been determined in order to provide the users of the NBSR with the same cycle length as exists for the current HEU fueled reactor. The fuel composition at different points within an equilibrium fuel cycle had also been determined. In the present study, neutronics parameters have been calculated for these times in the fuel cycle for both the existing HEU and the proposed LEU equilibrium cores. The results showed differences between the HEU and LEU cores that would not lead to any significant changes in the safety analysis for the converted core. In general the changes were reasonable except that the figure-of-merit for neutrons that can be used by experimentalists shows there will be a 10% reduction in performance. The calculations included kinetics parameters, reactivity coefficients, reactivity worths of control elements and abnormal configurations, and power distributions.
Calculation of shielding parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montoya, Zeferino Jorge
Within the nuclear reaction exists three types of energy producing reactions: (1) radioactive disintegration; (2) fission; and (3) fusion. Besides the radiation produced in these reactions there are radioactive emissions of a different type, and in some of these cases they are of great penetration power and scope. The radiation produces great damage when interacted with materials, in particular the most dangerous are neutrons and gamma photons. For this reason it is necessary to protect people who work in places which operate with radioactive sources from the radiation, in addition to reducing the radiation doses to the most reasonably possible, considering the circumstances of the installations. The three determining factors in the proposition of reducing exposure to radiation are: (1) to maintain control over the reduced exposure in the time of the permanence in the irradiated areas; (2) to increase the distance between the source and the operating personnel as much as possible; and (3) to place an armor-plate between the source and the receptor. The work described in this paper has its objective a calculation of the parameters of an armor-plate in radioactive sources, with the goal of estimating the doses of radiation in protecting people and other biological systems from exposure to radiation produced during the nuclear reactions. The parameters to be principally considered are: (1) characteristics of the source; (2) geometry of the source at the point of exposure; and (3) material and thickness of the armor-plate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merchant, D. H.
1976-01-01
Methods are presented for calculating design limit loads compatible with probabilistic structural design criteria. The approach is based on the concept that the desired limit load, defined as the largest load occurring in a mission, is a random variable having a specific probability distribution which may be determined from extreme-value theory. The design limit load, defined as a particular of this random limit load, is the value conventionally used in structural design. Methods are presented for determining the limit load probability distributions from both time-domain and frequency-domain dynamic load simulations. Numerical demonstrations of the method are also presented.
Hanson A. L.; Diamond D.
2014-06-30
A plan is being developed for the conversion of the NIST research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The LEU fuel may be a monolithic foil (LEUm) of U10Mo (10% molybdenum by weight in an alloy with uranium) or a dispersion of U7Mo in aluminum (LEUd). A previous report provided neutronic calculations for the LEUm fuel and this report presents the neutronics parameters for the LEUd fuel. The neutronics parameters for the LEUd fuel are compared to those previously obtained for the present HEU fuel and the proposed LEUm fuel. The results show no significant differences between the LEUm and the LEUd other than the LEUd fuel requires slightly less uranium than the LEUm fuel due to less molybdenum being present. The calculations include kinetics parameters, reactivity coefficients, reactivity worths of control elements and abnormal configurations, and power distributions under normal operation and with misloaded fuel elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazyuk, S. S.; Ignat'ev, D. N.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Popov, E. B.; Soldatkin, D. M.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.
2013-05-01
A balance procedure is proposed for estimating the main parameters characterizing the process of model fuel assemblies reflooding of a VVER reactor made on different scales under the conditions of a design basis accident by subjecting them to bottom reflooding1. The proposed procedure satisfactorily describes the experimental data obtained on PARAMETER test facility in the temperature range up to 1200°C. The times of fuel assemblies quenching by bottom reflooding calculated using the proposed procedure are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data obtained on model fuel assemblies of VVER- and PWR-type reactors and can be used in developing measures aimed at enhancing the safety of nuclear power stations.
Gerassimenko, M.
2000-07-27
In an earlier report, we presented results of modeling calculations for one simple geometry that represents an experiment potentially to be performed at Sandia National Laboratory, which is examining equation of state issues of interest to the National Missile Defense Program. In the earlier report, we showed snapshots of calculations with two different initial zone dimensions for Gruneisen EOS and LEOS. We also showed pressure profiles at various locations in a witness plate out of the way of direct projectile impact, but hit by shrapnel generated during impact. It was found that the pressure profiles exhibit strong dependence on location, zone size, and equation of state. In this report we examine the overall momentum impacted to the witness plate. This momentum shows negligible dependence on the equation of state and some dependence on zone size.
Design Optimization Programmable Calculators versus Campus Computers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savage, Michael
1982-01-01
A hypothetical design optimization problem and technical information on the three design parameters are presented. Although this nested iteration problem can be solved on a computer (flow diagram provided), this article suggests that several hand held calculators can be used to perform the same design iteration. (SK)
Calculation and Updating of Reliability Parameters in Probabilistic Safety Assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zubair, Muhammad; Zhang, Zhijian; Khan, Salah Ud Din
2011-02-01
The internal events of nuclear power plant are complex and include equipment maintenance, equipment damage etc. These events will affect the probability of the current risk level of the system as well as the reliability of the equipment parameter values so such kind of events will serve as an important basis for systematic analysis and calculation. This paper presents a method for reliability parameters calculation and their updating. The method is based on binomial likelihood function and its conjugate beta distribution. For update parameters Bayes' theorem has been selected. To implement proposed method a computer base program is designed which provide help to estimate reliability parameters.
Closure and Sealing Design Calculation
T. Lahnalampi; J. Case
2005-08-26
The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not
Brachytherapy dosimetry parameters calculated for a new 103Pd source.
Rivard, Mark J; Melhus, Christopher S; Kirk, Bernadette L
2004-09-01
A new brachytherapy source having 103Pd adsorbed onto silver beads has been designed. The dose distributions of this source have been characterized using version 5 of the MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport code available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These results are presented in terms of the updated AAPM Task Group No. 43 (TG-43U1) formalism, dosimetry parameters, and recommended calculation methodology. PMID:15487726
Calculation of Kinetics Parameters for the NBSR
Hanson A. L.; Diamond D.
2012-03-06
The delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron lifetime have been calculated at different times in the fuel cycle for the NBSR when fueled with both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The best-estimate values for both the delayed neutron fraction and the prompt neutron lifetime are the result of calculations using MCNP5-1.60 with the most recent ENDFB-VII evaluations. The best-estimate values for the total delayed neutron fraction from fission products are 0.00665 and 0.00661 for the HEU fueled core at startup and end-of-cycle, respectively. For the LEU fuel the best estimate values are 0.00650 and 0.00648 at startup and end-of-cycle, respectively. The present recommendations for the delayed neutron fractions from fission products are smaller than the value reported previously of 0.00726 for the HEU fuel. The best-estimate values for the contribution from photoneutrons will remain as 0.000316, independent of the fuel or time in the cycle.The values of the prompt neutron lifetime as calculated with MCNP5-1.60 are compared to values calculated with two other independent methods and the results are in reasonable agreement with each other. The recommended, conservative values of the neutron lifetime for the HEU fuel are 650 {micro}s and 750 {micro}s for the startup and end-of-cycle conditions, respectively. For LEU fuel the recommended, conservative values are 600 {micro}s and 700 {micro}s for the startup and end-of-cycle conditions, respectively. In all three calculations, the prompt neutron lifetime was determined to be longer for the end-of-cycle equilibrium condition when compared to the startup condition. The results of the three analyses were in agreement that the LEU fuel will exhibit a shorter prompt neutron lifetime when compared to the HEU fuel.
Design Calculations for NIF Convergent Ablator Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hicks, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Langer, S. H.; Meezan, N. B.; Spears, B. K.; Widmann, K.; Kline, J. L.; Wilson, D. C.; Petrasso, R. D.; Leeper, R. J.
2010-11-01
Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments will be described. The convergent ablator experiments measure the implosion trajectory, velocity, and ablation rate of an x-ray driven capsule and are a important component of the U. S. National Ignition Campaign at NIF. The design calculations are post-processed to provide simulations of the key diagnostics -- 1) Dante measurements of hohlraum x-ray flux and spectrum, 2) streaked radiographs of the imploding ablator shell, 3) wedge range filter measurements of D-He3 proton output spectra, and 4) GXD measurements of the imploded core. The simulated diagnostics will be compared to the experimental measurements to provide an assessment of the accuracy of the design code predictions of hohlraum radiation temperature, capsule ablation rate, implosion velocity, shock flash areal density, and x-ray bang time. Post-shot versions of the design calculations are used to enhance the understanding of the experimental measurements and will assist in choosing parameters for subsequent shots and the path towards optimal ignition capsule tuning. *SNL, LLNL, and LANL are operated under US DOE contracts DE-AC04-94AL85000. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments.
Callahan, Debra; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Spears, B. K.; Zylstra, A.; Seguin, F.; Landen, Otto L.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rinderknecht, H.; Kline, J. L.; Frenje, J.; Wilson, D. C.; Langer, S. H.; Widmann, K.; Meezan, Nathan B.; Hicks, Damien G.; Olson, Richard Edward
2010-11-01
Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments will be described. The convergent ablator experiments measure the implosion trajectory, velocity, and ablation rate of an x-ray driven capsule and are a important component of the U. S. National Ignition Campaign at NIF. The design calculations are post-processed to provide simulations of the key diagnostics: (1) Dante measurements of hohlraum x-ray flux and spectrum, (2) streaked radiographs of the imploding ablator shell, (3) wedge range filter measurements of D-He3 proton output spectra, and (4) GXD measurements of the imploded core. The simulated diagnostics will be compared to the experimental measurements to provide an assessment of the accuracy of the design code predictions of hohlraum radiation temperature, capsule ablation rate, implosion velocity, shock flash areal density, and x-ray bang time. Post-shot versions of the design calculations are used to enhance the understanding of the experimental measurements and will assist in choosing parameters for subsequent shots and the path towards optimal ignition capsule tuning.
Math software for calculating design constraints
Deitz, D.
1995-02-01
This article describes how, to determine the specifications for a combustor in a high-speed civil transport plane, mechanical engineers are using a commercial math program to solve hundreds of complex equations. Since the demise of the slide rule, many engineers have created math routines from scratch or adapted spreadsheet programs when they needed to calculate design parameters. Commercial math programs, however, are more flexible than homemade routines or jury-rigged spreadsheet calculators, and therefore make it easier to solve complex equations. They can also cut the time it takes to determine key parameters early in the design process, when time savings can translate into big cost savings. Engineers working on Pratt and Whitney`s portion of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s high-speed civil transport (HSCT) project estimated that they were able to cut in half the time needed to solve equations in the preliminary design process by using a commercial math program, TK Solver, from Universal Technical Systems Inc. in Rockford, Ill. The time savings resulted from the program`s ability to solve any equation for any variable, relieving engineers of the need to rewrite or reenter equations.
Design Calculations for Thermoelectric Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeldin, B.
1983-01-01
Nine simplified analytic models based on average properties accurately predict heat rates for silicon/germanium thermoelectric generators. Solutions from simplified models were compared with those obtained using sophisticated numerical analysis. Maximum errors in calculated heat rate range from about 4 percent to about 0.2 percent. Models also used to calculate power delivered to load and thermodynamic efficiency.
Design parameters for borehole strain instrumentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladwin, Michael T.; Hart, Rhodes
1985-01-01
The response of a borehole strain meter to hydrostatic and shear deformations in an isotropic medium is calculated to facilitate optimum instrument design and produce instrument response factors for parameters typically encountered in installed instruments. Results for an empty borehole are first compared with results for an instrument in intimate contact with the surrounding rock. The effects of the grout used to install the instrument are then examined. Where possible, analytic forms for the response factors are given. Results for typical installations are then presented in graphical form for optimizing instrument design in an environment of known elastic parameters. Alternatively, the results may be applied in the measurement of unknown strain signals, to correct for instrument response or to provide in-situ estimates of the elastic properties of the environment by examination of observed strain response to known strain signals.
The calculation of thin film parameters from spectroscopic ellipsometry data
Jellison, G.E. Jr.
1996-02-01
Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has proven to be a very powerful diagnostic for thin film characterization, but the results of SE experiments must first be compared with calculations to determine thin film parameters such as film thickness and optical functions. This process requires 4 steps: (1) The quantities measured must be specified and the equivalent calculated parameters identified. (2) The film structure must be modeled, where the number of films is specified and certain characteristics of each layer specified, such as whether or not the film is isotropic or anisotropic, homogeneous or graded. (3) The optical functions of each layer must be specified or parameterized. (4) The data must be compared with the calculated spectra, where a quantifiable figure of merit is used for the comparison. The last step is particularly important because without it, no {open_quotes}goodness of fit{close_quotes} parameter is calculated and one does not know whether or not the calculated spectrum fits the data.
Design parameters for toroidal and bobbin magnetics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclyman, W. T.
1974-01-01
Handbook has been published to facilitate conversion to metric system. Conversion data makes it possible for transformer designers to obtain fast and close approximation of significant parameters. For greater convenience, derivations of some transformer and inductor parameters are also presented.
Sensitivity analysis of Stirling engine design parameters
Naso, V.; Dong, W.; Lucentini, M.; Capata, R.
1998-07-01
In the preliminary Stirling engine design process, the values of some design parameters (temperature ratio, swept volume ratio, phase angle and dead volume ratio) have to be assumed; as a matter of fact it can be difficult to determine the best values of these parameters for a particular engine design. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to analyze the sensitivity of engine's performance variations corresponding to variations of these parameters.
Microbial Communities Model Parameter Calculation for TSPA/SR
D. Jolley
2001-07-16
This calculation has several purposes. First the calculation reduces the information contained in ''Committed Materials in Repository Drifts'' (BSC 2001a) to useable parameters required as input to MING V1.O (CRWMS M&O 1998, CSCI 30018 V1.O) for calculation of the effects of potential in-drift microbial communities as part of the microbial communities model. The calculation is intended to replace the parameters found in Attachment II of the current In-Drift Microbial Communities Model revision (CRWMS M&O 2000c) with the exception of Section 11-5.3. Second, this calculation provides the information necessary to supercede the following DTN: M09909SPAMING1.003 and replace it with a new qualified dataset (see Table 6.2-1). The purpose of this calculation is to create the revised qualified parameter input for MING that will allow {Delta}G (Gibbs Free Energy) to be corrected for long-term changes to the temperature of the near-field environment. Calculated herein are the quadratic or second order regression relationships that are used in the energy limiting calculations to potential growth of microbial communities in the in-drift geochemical environment. Third, the calculation performs an impact review of a new DTN: M00012MAJIONIS.000 that is intended to replace the currently cited DTN: GS9809083 12322.008 for water chemistry data used in the current ''In-Drift Microbial Communities Model'' revision (CRWMS M&O 2000c). Finally, the calculation updates the material lifetimes reported on Table 32 in section 6.5.2.3 of the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' AMR (CRWMS M&O 2000c) based on the inputs reported in BSC (2001a). Changes include adding new specified materials and updating old materials information that has changed.
Dissipative Particle Dynamics interaction parameters from ab initio calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepehr, Fatemeh; Paddison, Stephen J.
2016-02-01
Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is a commonly employed coarse-grained method to model complex systems. Presented here is a pragmatic approach to connect atomic-scale information to the meso-scale interactions defined between the DPD particles or beads. Specifically, electronic structure calculations were utilized for the calculation of the DPD pair-wise interaction parameters. An implicit treatment of the electrostatic interactions for charged beads is introduced. The method is successfully applied to derive the parameters for a hydrated perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer with absorbed vanadium cations.
Heat Exchanger Support Bracket Design Calculations
Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab
1995-01-12
This engineering note documents the design of the heat exchanger support brackets. The heat exchanger is roughly 40 feet long, 22 inches in diameter and weighs 6750 pounds. It will be mounted on two identical support brackets that are anchored to a concrete wall. The design calculations were done for one bracket supporting the full weight of the heat exchanger, rounded up to 6800 pounds. The design follows the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of steel construction, Eighth edition. All calculated stresses and loads on welds were below allowables.
Design Parameters in Multimodal Games for Rehabilitation.
Shah, Nauman; Basteris, Angelo; Amirabdollahian, Farshid
2014-02-01
Objectives: The repetitive and sometimes mundane nature of conventional rehabilitation therapy provides an ideal opportunity for development of interactive and challenging therapeutic games that have the potential to engage and motivate the players. Certain game design parameters that may encourage patients to actively participate by making the games more enjoyable have been identified. In this article, we describe a formative study in which we designed and evaluated some of these parameters with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: The "operant conditioning" and "scoring" design parameters were incorporated in a remake of a classic labyrinth game, "Marble Maze." A group of participants (n=37) played the game twice: Once in the control condition without both modalities and then with either one of the parameters or with both. Measures of game duration and number of fails in the game were recorded along with survey questionnaires to measure player perceptions of intrinsic motivation on the game. Results: Longer playtimes, higher levels of interest/enjoyment, and effort to play the game were recorded with the introduction of these parameters. Conclusions: This study provides an understanding on how game design parameters can be used to motivate and encourage people to play longer. With these positive results, future aims are to test the parameters with stroke patients, providing much clearer insight as to what influences these parameters have on patients undergoing therapy. The ultimate goal is to utilize game design in order to maintain longer therapeutic interaction between a patient and his or her therapy medium. PMID:24761328
Calculator program helps set offshore design criteria
Tran, V.B.
1983-01-10
Describes a new program for the Hewlett-Packard HP 41C (or HP-41C) hand-held programmable calculator which predicts the design criteria for building offshore facilities. Points out that the ''wind and wave'' (WIWA) program can quickly provide the calculations necessary for proper design involving wind forces, wave forces, and stress acting on the hydrostatic pressure case of a submerged system. Presents a flow diagram of the program and the program listing. Explains the equations used as the basis of the program.
Program Calculates Power Demands Of Electronic Designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, Brian
1995-01-01
CURRENT computer program calculates power requirements of electronic designs. For given design, CURRENT reads in applicable parts-list file and file containing current required for each part. Program also calculates power required for circuit at supply potentials of 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5 volts. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. Sun version of program (NPO-19590). PC version of program (NPO-19111).
Rigorous calculation of nonlinear parameters in graphene-comprising waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatzidimitriou, Dimitrios; Pitilakis, Alexandros; Kriezis, Emmanouil E.
2015-07-01
We describe a rigorous formalism for the calculation of the nonlinear parameter of arbitrary three-dimensional nanophotonic graphene-comprising waveguides. Graphene is naturally implemented as a zero-thickness conductive sheet, modeled solely by complex linear and nonlinear surface conductivity tensors, whose values are extracted from theoretical models. This representation is compared to the more commonly employed equivalent bulk-medium representation and is found superior. We numerically calculate the nonlinear parameters of several optical waveguide archetypes overlaid with infinite graphene monolayers, including silicon-wire and plasmonic metal-slot and metal-stripe configurations. The metal-slot configuration offers the most promising performance for Kerr-type nonlinear applications. Finally, we apply the same formalism to probe the potential of graphene nanoribbon waveguide nonlinearity in the terahertz band.
Density functional calculations of Hubbard parameter in actinide series
Puri, A.; Sen, K.D.
1993-05-01
The calculations of Hubbard parameter, U, which defines the polar state formation energy of the reaction 2(5f{sup n} 6d{sup 1} 7d{sup 2}) {yields} 5f{sup n-1} 6d{sup 2}7s{sup 2} + 5f{sup n+1} 7s{sup 2} for the actinide atoms, Th-No, have been carried out using the self-interaction-corrected (SIC) quasi-relativistic local spin density (LSD) functional due to Perdew and Zunger. Based on the available bandwidth calculations for the 5f metals and its monotonically decreasing trend with increasing nuclear charge it is predicted that the 5f state is iterent in Th-Np beyond which it becomes localized. These calculations agree with the conclusions drawn earlier by Johansson using the semiempirical data.
HOM study and parameter calculation of the TESLA cavity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Ri-Hua; Schuh, Marcel; Gerigk, Frank; Wegner, Rolf; Pan, Wei-Min; Wang, Guang-Wei; Liu, Rong
2010-01-01
The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) is the project for a superconducting, high current H-accelerator at CERN. To find dangerous higher order modes (HOMs) in the SPL superconducting cavities, simulation and analysis for the cavity model using simulation tools are necessary. The existing TESLA 9-cell cavity geometry data have been used for the initial construction of the models in HFSS. Monopole, dipole and quadrupole modes have been obtained by applying different symmetry boundaries on various cavity models. In calculation, scripting language in HFSS was used to create scripts to automatically calculate the parameters of modes in these cavity models (these scripts are also available in other cavities with different cell numbers and geometric structures). The results calculated automatically are then compared with the values given in the TESLA paper. The optimized cavity model with the minimum error will be taken as the base for further simulation of the SPL cavities.
Parameter uncertainty in chemical equilibrium calculations using fuzzy set theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, K.; Huwe, B.; Peiffer, S.
1999-04-01
A method based on fuzzy set theory is presented to incorporate imprecise thermodynamic parameters into chemical equilibrium calculations of aqueous systems. Imprecision may arise from uncertainties in experimental parameter determination as well as from inconsistency of available data in the literature. Fuzzy numbers with different shapes of membership functions are used to express imprecision in a non-probabilistic sense. A solution algorithm for a system of nonlinear algebraic equations calculating the chemical equilibrium composition is combined with level set operations to solve the fuzzy chemical equlibrium problem. The method results in multiple minimizing/maximizing procedures from which the membership functions of equilibrium species concentrations are determined. An application of the proposed method to an aqueous cadmium-sulfide system illustrates the acquisition of membership functions for the thermodynamic constants out of given information. Stochastic information on measurement data are appropriately transformed into fuzzy numbers to allow for the combined calculation of different kinds of uncertainty. The results of four calculation scenarios show their strong impact on the resulting membership functions of chemical equilibrium composition and are discussed in the context of data evaluation and decision making in geochemistry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anisuzzaman Talukder, Muhammad; Menyuk, Curtis R.
2013-05-01
A model to calculate the microscopic parameters of self-induced transparency (SIT) modelocked quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented and the parameters are then calculated for a particular structure. These parameters are then used to calculate the gain to absorption ratio that is required to determine the required ratio of gain periods to absorbing periods that must be grown in order to obtain stable modelocked pulses. The modelocked pulse parameters, along with the stability limits are then calculated as the ratio of gain to absorption varies. For the SIT modelocked QCL design that we examined, we found that three to five gain periods must be grown for each absorbing period in order to ensure stable operation.
Design parameters of toroidal and bobbin magnetics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclyman, W. T.
1973-01-01
The adoption by NASA of the metric system for dimensioning to replace the long-used English units imposes a requirement on the U.S. transformer designer to convert from the familiar units to the less familiar metric equivalents. Material is presented to assist in that transition in the field of transformer design and fabrication. The conversion data makes it possible for the designer to obtain a fast and close approximation of significant parameters such as size, weight, and temperature rise. Nomographs are included to provide a close approximation for breadboarding purposes. For greater convenience, derivations of some of the parameters are also presented.
Design Parameters in Multimodal Games for Rehabilitation
Basteris, Angelo; Amirabdollahian, Farshid
2014-01-01
Abstract Objectives: The repetitive and sometimes mundane nature of conventional rehabilitation therapy provides an ideal opportunity for development of interactive and challenging therapeutic games that have the potential to engage and motivate the players. Certain game design parameters that may encourage patients to actively participate by making the games more enjoyable have been identified. In this article, we describe a formative study in which we designed and evaluated some of these parameters with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: The “operant conditioning” and “scoring” design parameters were incorporated in a remake of a classic labyrinth game, “Marble Maze.” A group of participants (n=37) played the game twice: Once in the control condition without both modalities and then with either one of the parameters or with both. Measures of game duration and number of fails in the game were recorded along with survey questionnaires to measure player perceptions of intrinsic motivation on the game. Results: Longer playtimes, higher levels of interest/enjoyment, and effort to play the game were recorded with the introduction of these parameters. Conclusions: This study provides an understanding on how game design parameters can be used to motivate and encourage people to play longer. With these positive results, future aims are to test the parameters with stroke patients, providing much clearer insight as to what influences these parameters have on patients undergoing therapy. The ultimate goal is to utilize game design in order to maintain longer therapeutic interaction between a patient and his or her therapy medium. PMID:24761328
Design Criteria for Low Profile Flange Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leimbach, K. R.
1973-01-01
An analytical method and a design procedure to develop flanged separable pipe connectors are discussed. A previously established algorithm is the basis for calculating low profile flanges. The characteristics and advantages of the low profile flange are analyzed. The use of aluminum, titanium, and plastics for flange materials is described. Mathematical models are developed to show the mechanical properties of various flange configurations. A computer program for determining the structural stability of the flanges is described.
Computer program for calculating flow parameters and power requirements for cryogenic wind tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dress, D. A.
1985-01-01
A computer program has been written that performs the flow parameter calculations for cryogenic wind tunnels which use nitrogen as a test gas. The flow parameters calculated include static pressure, static temperature, compressibility factor, ratio of specific heats, dynamic viscosity, total and static density, velocity, dynamic pressure, mass-flow rate, and Reynolds number. Simplifying assumptions have been made so that the calculations of Reynolds number, as well as the other flow parameters can be made on relatively small desktop digital computers. The program, which also includes various power calculations, has been developed to the point where it has become a very useful tool for the users and possible future designers of fan-driven continuous-flow cryogenic wind tunnels.
WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations
Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B.; Pfeifle, T.W.
1997-12-01
The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system.
Physiological parameters in space settlement design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Billingham, J.
1977-01-01
One of the major goals of space settlement design is the provision of an environment which will allow full health and effective performance for all members of the population. Attention is given to questions concerning an alternation of 1 G-0 G environment, the physiology of weightlessness, the transit between earth and settlement, research on physiological parameters, and the need for a sensitivity analysis.
A Multi-Parameter Approach for Calculating Crack Instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zanganeh, M.; Forman, R. G.
2014-01-01
An accurate fracture control analysis of spacecraft pressure systems, boosters, rocket hardware and other critical low-cycle fatigue cases where the fracture toughness highly impacts cycles to failure requires accurate knowledge of the material fracture toughness. However, applicability of the measured fracture toughness values using standard specimens and transferability of the values to crack instability analysis of the realistically complex structures is refutable. The commonly used single parameter Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) approach which relies on the key assumption that the fracture toughness is a material property would result in inaccurate crack instability predictions. In the past years extensive studies have been conducted to improve the single parameter (K-controlled) LEFM by introducing parameters accounting for the geometry or in-plane constraint effects]. Despite the importance of the thickness (out-of-plane constraint) effects in fracture control problems, the literature is mainly limited to some empirical equations for scaling the fracture toughness data] and only few theoretically based developments can be found. In aerospace hardware where the structure might have only one life cycle and weight reduction is crucial, reducing the design margin of safety by decreasing the uncertainty involved in fracture toughness evaluations would result in lighter hardware. In such conditions LEFM would not suffice and an elastic-plastic analysis would be vital. Multi-parameter elastic plastic crack tip field quantifying developments combined with statistical methods] have been shown to have the potential to be used as a powerful tool for tackling such problems. However, these approaches have not been comprehensively scrutinized using experimental tests. Therefore, in this paper a multi-parameter elastic-plastic approach has been used to study the crack instability problem and the transferability issue by considering the effects of geometrical
Two space scatterer formalism calculation of bulk parameters of thunderclouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phanord, Dieudonne D.
1994-01-01
In a previous study, we used a modified two-space scatterer formalism of Twersky to establish for a cloud modeled as a statistically homogeneous distribution of spherical water droplets, the dispersion relations that determine its bulk propagation numbers and bulk indexes of refraction in terms of the vector equivalent scattering amplitude and the dyadic scattering amplitude of the single water droplet in isolation. The results were specialized to the forward direction of scattering while demanding that the scatterers preserve the incident polarization. We apply this approach to obtain specific numerical values for the macroscopic parameters of the cloud. We work with a cloud of density rho = 100 cm(exp -3), a wavelength lambda = 0.7774 microns, and with spherical water droplets of common radius alpha = 10 microns. In addition, the scattering medium is divided into three parts, the medium outside the cloud, moist air (the medium inside the cloud but outside the droplets), and the medium inside the spherical water droplets. The results of this report are applicable to a cloud of any geometry since the boundary does not interfere with the calculations. Also, it is important to notice the plane wave nature of the incidence wave in the moist atmosphere.
Parameter estimation and optimal experimental design.
Banga, Julio R; Balsa-Canto, Eva
2008-01-01
Mathematical models are central in systems biology and provide new ways to understand the function of biological systems, helping in the generation of novel and testable hypotheses, and supporting a rational framework for possible ways of intervention, like in e.g. genetic engineering, drug development or treatment of diseases. Since the amount and quality of experimental 'omics' data continue to increase rapidly, there is great need for methods for proper model building which can handle this complexity. In the present chapter we review two key steps of the model building process, namely parameter estimation (model calibration) and optimal experimental design. Parameter estimation aims to find the unknown parameters of the model which give the best fit to a set of experimental data. Optimal experimental design aims to devise the dynamic experiments which provide the maximum information content for subsequent non-linear model identification, estimation and/or discrimination. We place emphasis on the need for robust global optimization methods for proper solution of these problems, and we present a motivating example considering a cell signalling model. PMID:18793133
Design parameters for rotating cylindrical filtration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwille, John A.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Lueptow, Richard M.
2002-01-01
Rotating cylindrical filtration displays significantly reduced plugging of filter pores and build-up of a cake layer, but the number and range of parameters that can be adjusted complicates the design of these devices. Twelve individual parameters were investigated experimentally by measuring the build-up of particles on the rotating cylindrical filter after a fixed time of operation. The build-up of particles on the filter depends on the rotational speed, the radial filtrate flow, the particle size and the gap width. Other parameters, such as suspension concentration and total flow rate are less important. Of the four mechanisms present in rotating filters to reduce pore plugging and cake build-up, axial shear, rotational shear, centrifugal sedimentation and vortical motion, the evidence suggests rotational shear is the dominant mechanism, although the other mechanisms still play minor roles. The ratio of the shear force acting parallel to the filter surface on a particle to the Stokes drag acting normal to the filter surface on the particle due to the difference between particle motion and filtrate flow can be used as a non-dimensional parameter that predicts the degree of particle build-up on the filter surface for a wide variety of filtration conditions. c2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Design sensitivity analysis using EAL. Part 1: Conventional design parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dopker, B.; Choi, Kyung K.; Lee, J.
1986-01-01
A numerical implementation of design sensitivity analysis of builtup structures is presented, using the versatility and convenience of an existing finite element structural analysis code and its database management system. The finite element code used in the implemenatation presented is the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL), which is based on a hybrid method of analysis. It was shown that design sensitivity computations can be carried out using the database management system of EAL, without writing a separate program and a separate database. Conventional (sizing) design parameters such as cross-sectional area of beams or thickness of plates and plane elastic solid components are considered. Compliance, displacement, and stress functionals are considered as performance criteria. The method presented is being extended to implement shape design sensitivity analysis using a domain method and a design component method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zubko, V.; Kozub, S.; Tkachenko, L.
SIS300 fast-cycling superconducting quadrupole magnet is developed at IHEP. Temperature margin and minimum quench energy are main parameters of stability of superconducting magnets. These parameters are important for the design and safe operation of superconducting magnets. But additional understanding for fast-cycling superconducting magnets is needed. To calculate the temperature margin one needs coupled numerical transient simulation of electromagnetic and thermal processes in the coil because critical temperature, operating temperature and AC losses are nonuniform over turns and their magnitudes vary in time during accelerator cycles. For calculation of the minimum quench energy the combination of the network model with thermal analysis is necessary, which allows one to model quench dynamics, including the effects of a current redistribution between strands of cable and spatial inhomogeneity of cable. Results for the temperature margin and the minimum quench energy for the magnet are presented and theirs dependence on various parameters is discussed.
Code System to Calculate Integral Parameters with Reaction Rates from WIMS Output.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1994-10-25
Version 00 REACTION calculates different integral parameters related to neutron reactions on reactor lattices, from reaction rates calculated with WIMSD4 code, and comparisons with experimental values.
Continuous damage parameter calculation under thermo-mechanical random loading
Nagode, Marko
2014-01-01
The paper presents a method on how the mean stress effect on fatigue damage can be taken into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. From known stress, elastoplastic strain and temperature histories the cycle amplitudes and cycle mean values are extracted and the damage parameter is computed. In contrast to the existing methods the proposed method enables continuous damage parameter computation without the need of waiting for the cycles to close. The limitations of the standardized damage parameters are thus surpassed. The damage parameters derived initially for closed and isothermal cycles assuming that the elastoplastic stress–strain response follows the Masing and memory rules can now be used to take the mean stress effect into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. The method includes:•stress and elastoplastic strain history transformation into the corresponding amplitude and mean values;•stress and elastoplastic strain amplitude and mean value transformation into the damage parameter amplitude history;•damage parameter amplitude history transformation into the damage parameter history. PMID:26150939
CMBFIT: Rapid WMAP likelihood calculations with normal parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandvik, Håvard B.; Tegmark, Max; Wang, Xiaomin; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2004-03-01
We present a method for ultrafast confrontation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) cosmic microwave background observations with theoretical models, implemented as a publicly available software package called CMBFIT, useful for anyone wishing to measure cosmological parameters by combining WMAP with other observations. The method takes advantage of the underlying physics by transforming into a set of parameters where the WMAP likelihood surface is accurately fit by the exponential of a quartic or sextic polynomial. Building on previous physics based approximations by Hu et al., Kosowsky et al., and Chu et al., it combines their speed with precision cosmology grade accuracy. A FORTRAN code for computing the WMAP likelihood for a given set of parameters is provided, precalibrated against CMBFAST, accurate to Δ ln L˜0.05 over the entire 2σ region of the parameter space for 6 parameter “vanilla” ΛCDM models. We also provide 7-parameter fits including spatial curvature, gravitational waves and a running spectral index.
Microcomputer Calculation of Thermodynamic Properties from Molecular Parameters of Gases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Venugopalan, Mundiyath
1990-01-01
Described in this article is a problem-solving activity which integrates the application of microcomputers with the learning of physical chemistry. Students use the program with spectroscopic data to calculate the thermodynamic properties and compare them with the values from the thermochemical tables. (Author/KR)
Calculation and optimization of parameters in low-flow pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraeva, E. M.; Masich, I. S.
2016-04-01
The materials on balance tests of high-speed centrifugal pumps with low flow rate are presented. On the bases of analysis and research synthesis, we demonstrate the rational use of impellers of semi-open and open types providing high values for energy parameters of feed system of low-flow pumps.
Atomic Calculations with a One-Parameter, Single Integral Method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baretty, Reinaldo; Garcia, Carmelo
1989-01-01
Presents an energy function E(p) containing a single integral and one variational parameter, alpha. Represents all two-electron integrals within the local density approximation as a single integral. Identifies this as a simple treatment for use in an introductory quantum mechanics course. (MVL)
The Calculation of Physiological Parameters Using Sequential Angiographic Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ergener, Deniz; Trefler, Martin; Gunasekaran, Seetharaman; Young, Tzay S.
1989-05-01
We have developed a rule-based, expert system for the analysis of digital angiographic images. The standard method of analyzing the sequence of images from an injection of contrast material ignores the information contained in the time sequence. This results in significant errors in the calculation of percent stenosis -particularly in vessels sloped with respect to the image plane. We have aimed at using the complete time sequence to improve the accuracy of detection and quantification of stenosis in arteries.
Machine learning of parameters for accurate semiempirical quantum chemical calculations
Dral, Pavlo O.; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Thiel, Walter
2015-04-14
We investigate possible improvements in the accuracy of semiempirical quantum chemistry (SQC) methods through the use of machine learning (ML) models for the parameters. For a given class of compounds, ML techniques require sufficiently large training sets to develop ML models that can be used for adapting SQC parameters to reflect changes in molecular composition and geometry. The ML-SQC approach allows the automatic tuning of SQC parameters for individual molecules, thereby improving the accuracy without deteriorating transferability to molecules with molecular descriptors very different from those in the training set. The performance of this approach is demonstrated for the semiempiricalmore » OM2 method using a set of 6095 constitutional isomers C7H10O2, for which accurate ab initio atomization enthalpies are available. The ML-OM2 results show improved average accuracy and a much reduced error range compared with those of standard OM2 results, with mean absolute errors in atomization enthalpies dropping from 6.3 to 1.7 kcal/mol. They are also found to be superior to the results from specific OM2 reparameterizations (rOM2) for the same set of isomers. The ML-SQC approach thus holds promise for fast and reasonably accurate high-throughput screening of materials and molecules.« less
Machine learning of parameters for accurate semiempirical quantum chemical calculations
Dral, Pavlo O.; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Thiel, Walter
2015-04-14
We investigate possible improvements in the accuracy of semiempirical quantum chemistry (SQC) methods through the use of machine learning (ML) models for the parameters. For a given class of compounds, ML techniques require sufficiently large training sets to develop ML models that can be used for adapting SQC parameters to reflect changes in molecular composition and geometry. The ML-SQC approach allows the automatic tuning of SQC parameters for individual molecules, thereby improving the accuracy without deteriorating transferability to molecules with molecular descriptors very different from those in the training set. The performance of this approach is demonstrated for the semiempirical OM2 method using a set of 6095 constitutional isomers C_{7}H_{10}O_{2}, for which accurate ab initio atomization enthalpies are available. The ML-OM2 results show improved average accuracy and a much reduced error range compared with those of standard OM2 results, with mean absolute errors in atomization enthalpies dropping from 6.3 to 1.7 kcal/mol. They are also found to be superior to the results from specific OM2 reparameterizations (rOM2) for the same set of isomers. The ML-SQC approach thus holds promise for fast and reasonably accurate high-throughput screening of materials and molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finchenko, V. S.; Ivankov, A. A.; Shmatov, S. I.; Mordvinkin, A. S.
2015-12-01
The article presents the initial data for the ExoMars landing module aerothermodynamic calculations, used calculation methods, the calculation results of aerodynamic characteristics of the landing module shape and structural parameters of thermal protection selected during the conceptual design phase. Also, the test results of the destruction of the thermal protection material and comparison of the basic characteristics of the landing module with a front shield in the form of a cone and a spherical segment are presented.
Shielding design at Fermilab: Calculations and measurements
Cossairt, J.D.
1986-11-01
The development of the Fermilab accelerator complex during the past two decades from its concept as the ''200 BeV accelerator'' to that of the present tevatron, designed to operate at energies as high as 1 TeV, has required a coincidental refinement and development in methods of shielding design. In this paper I describe these methods as used by the radiation protection staff of Fermilab. This description will review experimental measurements which substantiate these techniques in realistic situations. Along the way, observations will be stated which likely are applicable to other protron accelerators in the multi-hundred GeV energy region, including larger ones yet to be constructed.
Calculating room acoustic parameters from pseudo-impulsive acoustic sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
San Martin, Maria L.; Vela, Antonio; San Martin, Ricardo; Arana, Miguel A.
2002-11-01
The impulse response function provides complete information to predict the acoustic response of a room to an acoustic input of arbitrary characteristics. At this job study, small explosions of firecrackers are proposed to be used as pseudo-impulsive acoustics sources to determine some acoustic parameters of a room such as reverberation time, definition, and clarity, comparing these results to those obtained with other techniques. A previous characterization of these sources allows us to state that they can be used for this purpose because they are, in practice, omnidirectional, their temporary pattern is highly repetitive and their spectral power is, as well, repetitive and with enough power in octave bands from 125 Hz to 8 kHz. If the linear time-invariant system impulse response h(t) is known, output signal s(t) regarding any arbitrary signal s(t) can be obtained. For our pseudo-impulsive sources, the output signal s(t) has been taken as impulse response h(t). Using the integrated impulse response method suggested by Schroeder, it has been stated that both the mean values and standard deviations for some parameters are practically identical to results obtained with other usual techniques. (To be presented in Spanish.)
FEM numerical model study of electrosurgical dispersive electrode design parameters.
Pearce, John A
2015-08-01
Electrosurgical dispersive electrodes must safely carry the surgical current in monopolar procedures, such as those used in cutting, coagulation and radio frequency ablation (RFA). Of these, RFA represents the most stringent design constraint since ablation currents are often more than 1 to 2 Arms (continuous) for several minutes depending on the size of the lesion desired and local heat transfer conditions at the applicator electrode. This stands in contrast to standard surgical activations, which are intermittent, and usually less than 1 Arms, but for several seconds at a time. Dispersive electrode temperature rise is also critically determined by the sub-surface skin anatomy, thicknesses of the subcutaneous and supra-muscular fat, etc. Currently, we lack fundamental engineering design criteria that provide an estimating framework for preliminary designs of these electrodes. The lack of a fundamental design framework means that a large number of experiments must be conducted in order to establish a reasonable design. Previously, an attempt to correlate maximum temperatures in experimental work with the average current density-time product failed to yield a good match. This paper develops and applies a new measure of an electrode stress parameter that correlates well with both the previous experimental data and with numerical models of other electrode shapes. The finite element method (FEM) model work was calibrated against experimental RF lesions in porcine skin to establish the fundamental principle underlying dispersive electrode performance. The results can be used in preliminary electrode design calculations, experiment series design and performance evaluation. PMID:26736814
Design Calculations For NIF Convergent Ablator Experiments
Olson, R E; Hicks, D G; Meezan, N B; Callahan, D A; Landen, O L; Jones, O S; Langer, S H; Kline, J L; Wilson, D C; Rinderknecht, H; Zylstra, A; Petrasso, R D
2011-10-25
The NIF convergent ablation tuning effort is underway. In the early experiments, we have discovered that the design code simulations over-predict the capsule implosion velocity and shock flash rhor, but under-predict the hohlraum x-ray flux measurements. The apparent inconsistency between the x-ray flux and radiography data implies that there are important unexplained aspects of the hohlraum and/or capsule behavior.
Statistical learning for alloy design from electronic structure calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broderick, Scott R.
The objective of this thesis is to explore how statistical learning methods can contribute to the interpretation and efficacy of electronic structure calculations. This study develops new applications of statistical learning and data mining methods to both semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Each of these classes of electronic structure calculations serves as templates for different data driven discovery strategies for materials science applications. In our study of semi-empirical methods, we take advantage of the ability of data mining methods to quantitatively assess high dimensional parameterization schemes. The impact of this work includes the development of accelerated computational schemes for developing reduced order models. Another application is the use of these informatics based techniques to serve as a means for estimating parameters when data for such calculations are not available. Using density of states (DOS) spectra derived from DFT calculations we have demonstrated the classification power of singular value decomposition methods to accurately develop structural and stoichiometric classifications of compounds. Building on this work we have extended this analytical strategy to apply the predictive capacity of informatics methods to develop a new and far more robust modeling approach for DOS spectra, addressing an issue that has gone relatively unchallenged over two decades. By exploring a diverse array of materials systems (metals, ceramics, different crystal structures) this work has laid the foundations for expanding the linkages between statistical learning and statistical thermodynamics. The results of this work provide exciting new opportunities in computational based design of materials that have not been explored before.
Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters
Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. ); Davis, J.S. )
1993-03-01
This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.
Design of initial dosage regimen using a programmable calculator.
Ritschel, W A; Eldon, M A
1985-07-01
A programmable calculator procedure for the determination of dosage regimens to achieve desired steady state concentrations is described. The dosage regimen prediction is based on data from the literature on pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs and correction factors specific for the patient's condition, such as renal failure, geriatric patient and congestive heart failure. The program is designed to generate dosage regimens based on desired steady state trough level, desired steady state peak level, desired mean steady state level, or to fluctuate between desired steady state peak and trough levels. The program can be used for I.V. and extravascular route of administration. A detailed program description and user instructions are presented and illustrated by three examples. PMID:3840551
AWG-Parameters: new software tool to design arrayed waveguide gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seyringer, D.; Bielik, M.
2013-03-01
A new software tool and its application in the design of optical multiplexers/demultiplexers based on arrayed waveguide gratings is presented. The motivation for this work is the fact that when designing arrayed waveguide gratings a set of geometrical parameters must be first calculated. These parameters are the input for AWG layout that will be created and simulated using commercial photonic design tools. It is important to point out that these parameters influence strongly correct AWG demultiplexing properties and therefore have to be calculated very carefully. However, most of the commercial photonic design tools do not support this fundamental calculation. To be able to design any AWG, with any software tool and particularly to save the time needed for AWG design a new software tool was developed. The tool was already applied in various AWG designs and also technologically well-proven.
Calculating background levels for ecological risk parameters in toxic harbor sediment
Leadon, C.J.; McDonnell, T.R.; Lear, J.; Barclift, D.
2007-01-01
Establishing background levels for biological parameters is necessary in assessing the ecological risks from harbor sediment contaminated with toxic chemicals. For chemicals in sediment, the term contaminated is defined as having concentrations above background and significant human health or ecological risk levels. For biological parameters, a site could be considered contaminated if levels of the parameter are either more or less than the background level, depending on the specific parameter. Biological parameters can include tissue chemical concentrations in ecological receptors, bioassay responses, bioaccumulation levels, and benthic community metrics. Chemical parameters can include sediment concentrations of a variety of potentially toxic chemicals. Indirectly, contaminated harbor sediment can impact shellfish, fish, birds, and marine mammals, and human populations. This paper summarizes the methods used to define background levels for chemical and biological parameters from a survey of ecological risk investigations of marine harbor sediment at California Navy bases. Background levels for regional biological indices used to quantify ecological risks for benthic communities are also described. Generally, background stations are positioned in relatively clean areas exhibiting the same physical and general chemical characteristics as nearby areas with contaminated harbor sediment. The number of background stations and the number of sample replicates per background station depend on the statistical design of the sediment ecological risk investigation, developed through the data quality objective (DQO) process. Biological data from the background stations can be compared to data from a contaminated site by using minimum or maximum background levels or comparative statistics. In Navy ecological risk assessments (ERA's), calculated background levels and appropriate ecological risk screening criteria are used to identify sampling stations and sites with contaminated
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, D. L.; Ray, R. J.; Walton, J. T.
1985-01-01
The calculated value of net thrust of an aircraft powered by a General Electric F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofan engine was evaluated for its sensitivity to various input parameters. The effects of a 1.0-percent change in each input parameter on the calculated value of net thrust with two calculation methods are compared. This paper presents the results of these comparisons and also gives the estimated accuracy of the overall net thrust calculation as determined from the influence coefficients and estimated parameter measurement accuracies.
SAMDIST: A Computer Code for Calculating Statistical Distributions for R-Matrix Resonance Parameters
Leal, L.C.
1995-01-01
The: SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.
SAMDIST: A computer code for calculating statistical distributions for R-matrix resonance parameters
Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.
1995-09-01
The SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furer, V. L.
1992-03-01
Force and electro-optical parameters of haloid ethers, esters, amides and carbamates were calculated using the MINDO/3 method. The obtained values of parameters, frequencies and intensities of bands in IR spectra are in good accordance with experiment. The changes of molecular parameters due to the electronic interactions and conformational transitions are discussed.
M. Gross
2004-09-01
The purpose of this scientific analysis is to define the sampled values of stochastic (random) input parameters for (1) rockfall calculations in the lithophysal and nonlithophysal zones under vibratory ground motions, and (2) structural response calculations for the drip shield and waste package under vibratory ground motions. This analysis supplies: (1) Sampled values of ground motion time history and synthetic fracture pattern for analysis of rockfall in emplacement drifts in nonlithophysal rock (Section 6.3 of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'', BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]); (2) Sampled values of ground motion time history and rock mechanical properties category for analysis of rockfall in emplacement drifts in lithophysal rock (Section 6.4 of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'', BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]); (3) Sampled values of ground motion time history and metal to metal and metal to rock friction coefficient for analysis of waste package and drip shield damage to vibratory motion in ''Structural Calculations of Waste Package Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167083]) and in ''Structural Calculations of Drip Shield Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163425]). The sampled values are indices representing the number of ground motion time histories, number of fracture patterns and rock mass properties categories. These indices are translated into actual values within the respective analysis and model reports or calculations. This report identifies the uncertain parameters and documents the sampled values for these parameters. The sampled values are determined by GoldSim V6.04.007 [DIRS 151202] calculations using appropriate distribution types and parameter ranges. No software development or model development was required for these calculations. The calculation of the sampled values allows parameter uncertainty to be incorporated into the rockfall and structural response calculations that support development of the seismic scenario for the
Simultaneous optimal experimental design for in vitro binding parameter estimation.
Ernest, C Steven; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C
2013-10-01
Simultaneous optimization of in vitro ligand binding studies using an optimal design software package that can incorporate multiple design variables through non-linear mixed effect models and provide a general optimized design regardless of the binding site capacity and relative binding rates for a two binding system. Experimental design optimization was employed with D- and ED-optimality using PopED 2.8 including commonly encountered factors during experimentation (residual error, between experiment variability and non-specific binding) for in vitro ligand binding experiments: association, dissociation, equilibrium and non-specific binding experiments. Moreover, a method for optimizing several design parameters (ligand concentrations, measurement times and total number of samples) was examined. With changes in relative binding site density and relative binding rates, different measurement times and ligand concentrations were needed to provide precise estimation of binding parameters. However, using optimized design variables, significant reductions in number of samples provided as good or better precision of the parameter estimates compared to the original extensive sampling design. Employing ED-optimality led to a general experimental design regardless of the relative binding site density and relative binding rates. Precision of the parameter estimates were as good as the extensive sampling design for most parameters and better for the poorly estimated parameters. Optimized designs for in vitro ligand binding studies provided robust parameter estimation while allowing more efficient and cost effective experimentation by reducing the measurement times and separate ligand concentrations required and in some cases, the total number of samples. PMID:23943088
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jung-Ha; Hill, Robin; Kuncic, Zdenka
2012-07-01
The Monte Carlo (MC) method has proven invaluable for radiation transport simulations to accurately determine radiation doses and is widely considered a reliable computational measure that can substitute a physical experiment where direct measurements are not possible or feasible. In the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc MC codes, there are several user-specified parameters and customized transport algorithms, which may affect the calculation results. In order to fully utilize the MC methods available in these codes, it is essential to understand all these options and to use them appropriately. In this study, the effects of the electron transport algorithms in EGSnrc/BEAMnrc, which are often a trade-off between calculation accuracy and efficiency, were investigated in the buildup region of a homogeneous water phantom and also in a heterogeneous phantom using the DOSRZnrc user code. The algorithms and parameters investigated include: boundary crossing algorithm (BCA), skin depth, electron step algorithm (ESA), global electron cutoff energy (ECUT) and electron production cutoff energy (AE). The variations in calculated buildup doses were found to be larger than 10% for different user-specified transport parameters. We found that using BCA = EXACT gave the best results in terms of accuracy and efficiency in calculating buildup doses using DOSRZnrc. In addition, using the ESA = PRESTA-I option was found to be the best way of reducing the total calculation time without losing accuracy in the results at high energies (few keV ∼ MeV). We also found that although choosing a higher ECUT/AE value in the beam modelling can dramatically improve computation efficiency, there is a significant trade-off in surface dose uncertainty. Our study demonstrates that a careful choice of user-specified transport parameters is required when conducting similar MC calculations.
Aberration analysis calculations for synchrotron radiation beamline design
McKinney, W.R.; Howells, M.; Padmore, H.A.
1997-09-01
The application of ray deviation calculations based on aberration coefficients for a single optical surface for the design of beamline optical systems is reviewed. A systematic development is presented which allows insight into which aberration may be causing the rays to deviate from perfect focus. A new development allowing analytical calculation of line shape is presented.
Robust design of configurations and parameters of adaptable products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yongliang; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua
2014-03-01
An adaptable product can satisfy different customer requirements by changing its configuration and parameter values during the operation stage. Design of adaptable products aims at reducing the environment impact through replacement of multiple different products with single adaptable ones. Due to the complex architecture, multiple functional requirements, and changes of product configurations and parameter values in operation, impact of uncertainties to the functional performance measures needs to be considered in design of adaptable products. In this paper, a robust design approach is introduced to identify the optimal design configuration and parameters of an adaptable product whose functional performance measures are the least sensitive to uncertainties. An adaptable product in this paper is modeled by both configurations and parameters. At the configuration level, methods to model different product configuration candidates in design and different product configuration states in operation to satisfy design requirements are introduced. At the parameter level, four types of product/operating parameters and relations among these parameters are discussed. A two-level optimization approach is developed to identify the optimal design configuration and its parameter values of the adaptable product. A case study is implemented to illustrate the effectiveness of the newly developed robust adaptable design method.
Calculation of shock-wave parameters far from origination by combined numerical-analytical methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potapkin, A. V.; Moskvichev, D. Yu.
2011-03-01
An algorithm is proposed for calculating the parameters of weak shock waves at large distances from their origination. In chosen meridional planes, the parameters of the near field of the three-dimensional flow are used to determine the streamwise coordinates of "phantom bodies" by linear relations. When the initial body is replaced by a system of "phantom bodies" for which discrete values of the Whitham function are found, the far-field parameters are calculated by the Whitham theory, independently in each meridional plane. Results calculated for a body with axial symmetry and for bodies with spatial symmetry are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andrews, Steven S.
2004-01-01
The mathematics behind the average absorption cross-section is exactly one third of the maximum value described. The goal is to calculate experimental observables, or other properties of bulk sample, in terms of microscopic molecular parameters.
Tuning Parameters in Heuristics by Using Design of Experiments Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arin, Arif; Rabadi, Ghaith; Unal, Resit
2010-01-01
With the growing complexity of today's large scale problems, it has become more difficult to find optimal solutions by using exact mathematical methods. The need to find near-optimal solutions in an acceptable time frame requires heuristic approaches. In many cases, however, most heuristics have several parameters that need to be "tuned" before they can reach good results. The problem then turns into "finding best parameter setting" for the heuristics to solve the problems efficiently and timely. One-Factor-At-a-Time (OFAT) approach for parameter tuning neglects the interactions between parameters. Design of Experiments (DOE) tools can be instead employed to tune the parameters more effectively. In this paper, we seek the best parameter setting for a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem in which n jobs must be scheduled on a single machine without preemption, and the objective is to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Benchmark instances for the problem are available in the literature. To fine tune the GA parameters in the most efficient way, we compare multiple DOE models including 2-level (2k ) full factorial design, orthogonal array design, central composite design, D-optimal design and signal-to-noise (SIN) ratios. In each DOE method, a mathematical model is created using regression analysis, and solved to obtain the best parameter setting. After verification runs using the tuned parameter setting, the preliminary results for optimal solutions of multiple instances were found efficiently.
Design and minimum reflux calculations for multicomponent reactive distillation columns
Barbosa, D.; Doherty, M.F.
1987-01-01
A new set of transformed composition variables is introduced to simplify the design equations for single-feed, multicomponent reactive distillation columns. Based on these equations, a general method of calculating minimum reflux ratios for reactive distillation columns is presented. The new composition variables are also used to derive simple relationships between the dependent design variables, which are not evident when the design equations are written in terms of mole fractions.
Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo
Kiedrowski, Brian C; Brown, Forrest B; Wilson, Paul
2009-01-01
The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.
Novel parameter-based flexure bearing design method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoedo, Simon; Thebaud, Edouard; Gschwendtner, Michael; White, David
2016-06-01
A parameter study was carried out on the design variables of a flexure bearing to be used in a Stirling engine with a fixed axial displacement and a fixed outer diameter. A design method was developed in order to assist identification of the optimum bearing configuration. This was achieved through a parameter study of the bearing carried out with ANSYS®. The parameters varied were the number and the width of the arms, the thickness of the bearing, the eccentricity, the size of the starting and ending holes, and the turn angle of the spiral. Comparison was made between the different designs in terms of axial and radial stiffness, the natural frequency, and the maximum induced stresses. Moreover, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was compared to theoretical results for a given design. The results led to a graphical design method which assists the selection of flexure bearing geometrical parameters based on pre-determined geometric and material constraints.
Aerodynamic optimization by simultaneously updating flow variables and design parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizk, M. H.
1990-01-01
The application of conventional optimization schemes to aerodynamic design problems leads to inner-outer iterative procedures that are very costly. An alternative approach is presented based on the idea of updating the flow variable iterative solutions and the design parameter iterative solutions simultaneously. Two schemes based on this idea are applied to problems of correcting wind tunnel wall interference and optimizing advanced propeller designs. The first of these schemes is applicable to a limited class of two-design-parameter problems with an equality constraint. It requires the computation of a single flow solution. The second scheme is suitable for application to general aerodynamic problems. It requires the computation of several flow solutions in parallel. In both schemes, the design parameters are updated as the iterative flow solutions evolve. Computations are performed to test the schemes' efficiency, accuracy, and sensitivity to variations in the computational parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prokhorenko, V. I.
1981-01-01
Subprograms for transforming coordinates and time, for determining the position of the Moon and Sun, and for calculating the atmosphere and disturbances, which are specified by anomalies of the Earth's gravitational field are described. The subprograms are written in FORTRAN IV and form a major part of the package of applied programs for calculating the navigational parameters of artificial Earth satellites.
Calculating development parameters for chemically amplified resists by the film-reducing method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Sensu, Yoshihisa
2013-03-01
We obtained development parameters for a chemically amplified resist from calculations involving the conversion of the relationship between exposure dose and development rate to the relationship between protection ratio and development rate using the conventional ABC parameter[1] and development rate data (RDA data) [2]. However, calculations by this method require the ABC parameter. Since chemically amplified resists have no bleaching effect, the C parameter must be measured by the FT-IR [3-5] or coumarin addition method [6-8]. Given this constraint, we examined the method of obtaining development parameters based on the film reduction observed in the resist exposed or the film reduction observed after PEB, without using the ABC parameter. This paper presents the results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kripal, Ram; Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar
2015-06-01
Zero field splitting parameters (ZFSPs) D and E of Cr3+ ion doped ammonium oxalate monohydrate (AOM) are calculated with formula using the superposition model. The theoretically calculated ZFSPs for Cr3+ in AOM crystal are compared with the experimental value obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Theoretical ZFSPs are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The energy band positions of optical absorption spectra of Cr3+ in AOM crystal calculated with CFA package are in good match with the experimental values.
Rapid calculation of terrain parameters for radiation modeling from digital elevation data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dozier, Jeff; Frew, James
1990-01-01
Digital elevation models are now widely used to calculate terrain parameters to determine incoming solar and longwave radiation for use in surface climate models, interpretation of remote-sensing data, and parameters in hydrologic models. Because of the large number of points in an elevation grid, fast algorithms are useful to save computation time. A description is given of rapid methods for calculating slope and azimuth, solar illumination angle, horizons, and view factors for radiation from sky and terrain. Calculation time is reduced by fast algorithms and lookup tables.
Experimental Design and Power Calculation for RNA-seq Experiments.
Wu, Zhijin; Wu, Hao
2016-01-01
Power calculation is a critical component of RNA-seq experimental design. The flexibility of RNA-seq experiment and the wide dynamic range of transcription it measures make it an attractive technology for whole transcriptome analysis. These features, in addition to the high dimensionality of RNA-seq data, bring complexity in experimental design, making an analytical power calculation no longer realistic. In this chapter we review the major factors that influence the statistical power of detecting differential expression, and give examples of power assessment using the R package PROPER. PMID:27008024
Total energy control system autopilot design with constrained parameter optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher
1990-01-01
A description is given of the application of a multivariable control design method (SANDY) based on constrained parameter optimization to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the direct synthesis of a multiloop AFCS inner-loop feedback control system based on total energy control system (TECS) principles. The design procedure offers a structured approach for the determination of a set of stabilizing controller design gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The approach can be extended to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by proper formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Satisfactory designs are usually obtained in few iterations. Performance characteristics of the optimized TECS design have been improved, particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping and control activity in the presence of turbulence.
Performance parameters in the design of flight motion simulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, Robert W.
2012-06-01
The desired test performance parameters influence the design of a Flight Motion Simulator (FMS) and affect its size, weight, power, electro-magnetic interference, noise, and vibration. A common desire is to specify requirements beyond the immediate need for future test programs. This may directly affect cost and schedule. Critical parameters that affect the FMS design are larger payload sizes, higher accuracies, and higher dynamic requirements. This paper provides a checklist of parameters and specification tradeoffs to be considered for the overall system performance requirements.
Coupling losses of fusion conductors: Influence of some design parameters
Duchateau, J.L.; Ciazynski, D.; Martinez, A.
1996-12-31
Superconductors for fusion are subjected to fast variations of magnetic fields. The effective diameter of the strands is of great importance to limit the level of losses appearing during theses variations. Another less controlled characteristic also plays a major role: the conductor time constant. A model is given to calculate this time constant. The void fraction, the twist pitches associated to the different stages, the chromium coating and the internal resistive barriers inside the strand influence greatly this time constant. The influence of the different parameters is discussed through practical considerations depending on the kind of cable considered. This model is applied to measurements performed at the University of Twente and at CEA on Nb{sub 3}Sn subcables made of twisted strands relevant for ITER. The application of this model is also discussed for a typical NbTi strand for fusion application developed by GEC AISA. As a matter of fact, the NbTi is again present in the ITER design for most of the poloidal field coils, which represents hundreds tons of material.
Loss of Information in Estimating Item Parameters in Incomplete Designs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verelst, Norman D.
2006-01-01
In this paper, the efficiency of conditional maximum likelihood (CML) and marginal maximum likelihood (MML) estimation of the item parameters of the Rasch model in incomplete designs is investigated. The use of the concept of F-information (Eggen, 2000) is generalized to incomplete testing designs. The scaled determinant of the F-information…
Calculations allow program to design pipelines for waxy crude--
Al-Fariss, T.F.; Desouky, S.E.M. )
1990-01-08
This article reports that calculations have been derived which will permit writing of a computer program for design of a pipeline handling Newtonian, pseudoplastic, or yield-pseudoplastic crudes. Statistical analysis was used to find out the variation of rheological behavior with operating temperatures and wax content in various Saudi oils. The evaluation was carried out at a statistical confidence level of 95%. Experimental data were correlated with respect to power-law and Herschel-Bulkey law. The pipeline design calculations were carried out through a computer program. The friction factor was determined from Torrance's correlation and Dodge and Metzner correlation for yield-pseudoplastic and pseudoplastic fluids, respectively. The frictional pressure drop was calculated from Darcy-Weisbach equation.
Tavernier, Elsa; Giraudeau, Bruno
2015-01-01
We aimed to examine the extent to which inaccurate assumptions for nuisance parameters used to calculate sample size can affect the power of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In a simulation study, we separately considered an RCT with continuous, dichotomous or time-to-event outcomes, with associated nuisance parameters of standard deviation, success rate in the control group and survival rate in the control group at some time point, respectively. For each type of outcome, we calculated a required sample size N for a hypothesized treatment effect, an assumed nuisance parameter and a nominal power of 80%. We then assumed a nuisance parameter associated with a relative error at the design stage. For each type of outcome, we randomly drew 10,000 relative errors of the associated nuisance parameter (from empirical distributions derived from a previously published review). Then, retro-fitting the sample size formula, we derived, for the pre-calculated sample size N, the real power of the RCT, taking into account the relative error for the nuisance parameter. In total, 23%, 0% and 18% of RCTs with continuous, binary and time-to-event outcomes, respectively, were underpowered (i.e., the real power was < 60%, as compared with the 80% nominal power); 41%, 16% and 6%, respectively, were overpowered (i.e., with real power > 90%). Even with proper calculation of sample size, a substantial number of trials are underpowered or overpowered because of imprecise knowledge of nuisance parameters. Such findings raise questions about how sample size for RCTs should be determined. PMID:26173007
Direct calculation of Slater-Koster parameters: Fourfold-coordinated silicon/boron phases
McMahan, A.K.; Klepeis, J.E.
1997-11-01
The need for tight-binding total-energy representations of interatomic forces has renewed interest in Slater-Koster parametrization of electron band structure. For larger numbers of parameters, as in multicomponent systems, and to truly test issues of transferability, it is advantageous to have means of directly calculating these parameters. Here we derive analytic expressions for the two-center Slater-Koster hopping parameters, effective site energies, and effective crystal-field parameters in terms of the one-electron Hamiltonian {ital matrix} elements in any localized minimal basis, and analogous quantities for the overlap. We apply these expressions to the cubic diamond phases of Si and B, and the zinc-blende phase of SiB at three volumes each, using spd, nonorthogonal full potential linear muffin-tin orbital matrix elements calculated with a linked or contracted minimal basis. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
DFT calculations of EPR parameters of transition metal complexes: Implications for catalysis
Saladino, Alexander C.; Larsen, Sarah C.
2005-07-15
Transition metal and ligand hyperfine coupling constants for paramagnetic vanadium and copper model complexes have been calculated using DFT methods that are available in commercial software packages. Variations in EPR parameters with ligand identity and ligand orientation are two of the trends that have been investigated with DFT calculations. For example, the systematic variation of the vanadium hyperfine coupling constant with orientation for an imidazole ligand in a VO2+ complex has been observed experimentally and has also been reproduced by DFT calculations. Similarly, changes in the vanadium hyperfine coupling constant with ligand binding have been calculated using model complexes and DFT methods. DFT methods were also used to calculate ligand hyperfine coupling constants in transition metal systems. The variation of the proton hyperfine coupling constant with water ligand orientation was investigated for [VO(H2O)5]2+ and the results were used to interpret high resolution EPR data of VO2+-exchanged zeolites. Nitrogen hyperfine and quadrupole coupling constants for VO2+ model complexes were calculated and compared with experimental data. The computational results were used to enhance the interpretation of the EPR data for vanadium-exchanged zeolites which are promising catalytic materials. The implications of the DFT calculations of EPR parameters with respect to catalysis will be discussed
Calculated dosimetric parameters of the IoGold 125I source model 3631-A.
Wierzbicki, J G; Rivard, M J; Waid, D S; Arterbery, V E
1998-11-01
Basic dosimetric parameters as recommended by the AAPM Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) have been determined for recently available IoGold 125I brachytherapy seeds. Monte Carlo methods (MCNP) were used in the calculation of these parameters in water, and results compared with soon to be published experimental parameters also for 125I IoGold seeds as well with parameters for model 6702 and 6711 125I seeds. These parameters were the radial dose function, anisotropy factor and constant, and the dose rate constant. Using MCNP, values for the radial dose function at 0.5, 2.0, and 5.0 cm were 1.053, 0.877, and 0.443, respectively. The anisotropy factor was 0.975, 0.946, 0.945, and 0.952 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 cm, respectively, with an anisotropy constant of 0.95. The IoGold dose rate constant was determined by excluding the low energy titanium characteristic x rays produced in the IoGold titanium capsule. Using this post TG-43 revised NIST air kerma methodology, the IoGold dose rate constant was 0.96 cGy h-1 U-1. These calculatively determined parameters for IoGold seeds were compared with those determined experimentally for IoGold seeds, and also compared with parameters determined for model 6702 and 6711 seeds as presented in TG-43. PMID:9829245
A comparison of the calculated and experimental off-design performance of a radial flow turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tirres, Lizet
1992-01-01
Off design aerodynamic performance of the solid version of a cooled radial inflow turbine is analyzed. Rotor surface static pressure data and other performance parameters were obtained experimentally. Overall stage performance and turbine blade surface static to inlet total pressure ratios were calculated by using a quasi-three dimensional inviscid code. The off design prediction capability of this code for radial inflow turbines shows accurate static pressure prediction. Solutions show a difference of 3 to 5 points between the experimentally obtained efficiencies and the calculated values.
A comparison of the calculated and experimental off-design performance of a radial flow turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tirres, Lizet
1991-01-01
Off design aerodynamic performance of the solid version of a cooled radial inflow turbine is analyzed. Rotor surface static pressure data and other performance parameters were obtained experimentally. Overall stage performance and turbine blade surface static to inlet total pressure ratios were calculated by using a quasi-three dimensional inviscid code. The off design prediction capability of this code for radial inflow turbines shows accurate static pressure prediction. Solutions show a difference of 3 to 5 points between the experimentally obtained efficiencies and the calculated values.
Stereolithographic Bone Scaffold Design Parameters: Osteogenic Differentiation and Signal Expression
Kim, Kyobum; Yeatts, Andrew; Dean, David
2010-01-01
Scaffold design parameters including porosity, pore size, interconnectivity, and mechanical properties have a significant influence on osteogenic signal expression and differentiation. This review evaluates the influence of each of these parameters and then discusses the ability of stereolithography (SLA) to be used to tailor scaffold design to optimize these parameters. Scaffold porosity and pore size affect osteogenic cell signaling and ultimately in vivo bone tissue growth. Alternatively, scaffold interconnectivity has a great influence on in vivo bone growth but little work has been done to determine if interconnectivity causes changes in signaling levels. Osteogenic cell signaling could be also influenced by scaffold mechanical properties such as scaffold rigidity and dynamic relationships between the cells and their extracellular matrix. With knowledge of the effects of these parameters on cellular functions, an optimal tissue engineering scaffold can be designed, but a proper technology must exist to produce this design to specification in a repeatable manner. SLA has been shown to be capable of fabricating scaffolds with controlled architecture and micrometer-level resolution. Surgical implantation of these scaffolds is a promising clinical treatment for successful bone regeneration. By applying knowledge of how scaffold parameters influence osteogenic cell signaling to scaffold manufacturing using SLA, tissue engineers may move closer to creating the optimal tissue engineering scaffold. PMID:20504065
An equation to calculate the actual methylene middle parameter as a function of temperature.
Mohammad, Mohammad Amin
2015-08-21
Methylene middle parameter [Formula: see text] , the product of the methylene group's cross-sectional area ( [Formula: see text] ) and the root square of its dispersive free energy ( [Formula: see text] ), is the key parameter to calculate the dispersive surface components of solids (γs(d)) using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at different temperatures. The only method reported to calculate [Formula: see text] as a function of temperature is the Dorris-Gray method. However, the conventional values of [Formula: see text] calculated by the Dorris-Gray method depend heavily on theoretical aspects. This paper establishes a novel equation calculating the actual [Formula: see text] as a function of temperature using the latest and most accurate surface parameters of seven successive n-alkanes. The obtained actual [Formula: see text] values are slightly higher those of the conventional [Formula: see text] . At 20°C, the actual [Formula: see text] generates γs(d) values less than those generated using the conventional [Formula: see text] by ∼3%, and this reduction in calculated γs(d) values increases linearly to become ∼5% at 100°C. Therefore, using the new actual [Formula: see text] seems to mitigate the discrepancy between the γs(d) values measured by IGC and those measured by the contact angle method. PMID:26187766
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biagi, S. F.; Alves, L. L.; Ferreira, C. M.; Bordage, M. C.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Pitchford, L. C.; Morgan, W. L.; Phelps, A. V.; Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.
2011-10-01
Extensive data are available in the literature for cross sections for electron-neutral scattering from argon and for swarm parameters in argon and argon-containing gas mixtures. Seven independently compiled sets of cross sections in argon are presently available on the LXCat website, including one set of data derived from theory. The recent theoretical elastic momentum transfer cross section is in excellent agreement with recent results from a swarm analysis. The purpose of this communication is to show intercomparisons of swarm parameters calculated using these different sets. For the most part and within the accuracy required for plasma modeling, calculated swarm parameters using the different cross section sets agree with experiement and among themselves. Swarm parameters calculated using classic 2-term Boltzmann solvers are in good agreement with those from Monte Carlo simulations except for the diffusion coefficients, where the 2-term approximation overestimates the values by about 30% in the 5 to 100 Td range. The cross section sets and measured swarm parameters used in this work are available on-line at www.lxcat.laplace.univ-tlse.fr.
Mission design applications of QUICK. [software for interactive trajectory calculation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skinner, David L.; Bass, Laura E.; Byrnes, Dennis V.; Cheng, Jeannie T.; Fordyce, Jess E.; Knocke, Philip C.; Lyons, Daniel T.; Pojman, Joan L.; Stetson, Douglas S.; Wolf, Aron A.
1990-01-01
An overview of an interactive software environment for space mission design termed QUICK is presented. This stand-alone program provides a programmable FORTRAN-like calculator interface to a wide range of both built-in and user defined functions. QUICK has evolved into a general-purpose software environment that can be intrinsically and dynamically customized for a wide range of mission design applications. Specific applications are described for some space programs, e.g., the earth-Venus-Mars mission, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Observer, the Galileo Project, and the Magellan Spacecraft.
Dobos, A. P.
2012-05-01
This paper describes an improved algorithm for calculating the six parameters required by the California Energy Commission (CEC) photovoltaic (PV) Calculator module model. Rebate applications in California require results from the CEC PV model, and thus depend on an up-to-date database of module characteristics. Currently, adding new modules to the database requires calculating operational coefficients using a general purpose equation solver - a cumbersome process for the 300+ modules added on average every month. The combination of empirical regressions and heuristic methods presented herein achieve automated convergence for 99.87% of the 5487 modules in the CEC database and greatly enhance the accuracy and efficiency by which new modules can be characterized and approved for use. The added robustness also permits general purpose use of the CEC/6 parameter module model by modelers and system analysts when standard module specifications are known, even if the module does not exist in a preprocessed database.
Capote, R. , E-Mail: r.capotenoy@iaea.org; Herman, M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Young, P.G.; Goriely, S.; Belgya, T.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Koning, A.J.; Hilaire, S.; Plujko, V.A.; Avrigeanu, M.; Bersillon, O.; Chadwick, M.B.; Fukahori, T.; Ge, Zhigang; Han, Yinlu; Kailas, S.; Kopecky, J.; Maslov, V.M.; Reffo, G.
2009-12-15
We describe the physics and data included in the Reference Input Parameter Library, which is devoted to input parameters needed in calculations of nuclear reactions and nuclear data evaluations. Advanced modelling codes require substantial numerical input, therefore the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked extensively since 1993 on a library of validated nuclear-model input parameters, referred to as the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL). A final RIPL coordinated research project (RIPL-3) was brought to a successful conclusion in December 2008, after 15 years of challenging work carried out through three consecutive IAEA projects. The RIPL-3 library was released in January 2009, and is available on the Web through (http://www-nds.iaea.org/RIPL-3/). This work and the resulting database are extremely important to theoreticians involved in the development and use of nuclear reaction modelling (ALICE, EMPIRE, GNASH, UNF, TALYS) both for theoretical research and nuclear data evaluations. The numerical data and computer codes included in RIPL-3 are arranged in seven segments: MASSES contains ground-state properties of nuclei for about 9000 nuclei, including three theoretical predictions of masses and the evaluated experimental masses of Audi et al. (2003). DISCRETE LEVELS contains 117 datasets (one for each element) with all known level schemes, electromagnetic and {gamma}-ray decay probabilities available from ENSDF in October 2007. NEUTRON RESONANCES contains average resonance parameters prepared on the basis of the evaluations performed by Ignatyuk and Mughabghab. OPTICAL MODEL contains 495 sets of phenomenological optical model parameters defined in a wide energy range. When there are insufficient experimental data, the evaluator has to resort to either global parameterizations or microscopic approaches. Radial density distributions to be used as input for microscopic calculations are stored in the MASSES segment. LEVEL DENSITIES contains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capote, R.; Herman, M.; Obložinský, P.; Young, P. G.; Goriely, S.; Belgya, T.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Koning, A. J.; Hilaire, S.; Plujko, V. A.; Avrigeanu, M.; Bersillon, O.; Chadwick, M. B.; Fukahori, T.; Ge, Zhigang; Han, Yinlu; Kailas, S.; Kopecky, J.; Maslov, V. M.; Reffo, G.; Sin, M.; Soukhovitskii, E. Sh.; Talou, P.
2009-12-01
We describe the physics and data included in the Reference Input Parameter Library, which is devoted to input parameters needed in calculations of nuclear reactions and nuclear data evaluations. Advanced modelling codes require substantial numerical input, therefore the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked extensively since 1993 on a library of validated nuclear-model input parameters, referred to as the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL). A final RIPL coordinated research project (RIPL-3) was brought to a successful conclusion in December 2008, after 15 years of challenging work carried out through three consecutive IAEA projects. The RIPL-3 library was released in January 2009, and is available on the Web through http://www-nds.iaea.org/RIPL-3/. This work and the resulting database are extremely important to theoreticians involved in the development and use of nuclear reaction modelling (ALICE, EMPIRE, GNASH, UNF, TALYS) both for theoretical research and nuclear data evaluations. The numerical data and computer codes included in RIPL-3 are arranged in seven segments: MASSES contains ground-state properties of nuclei for about 9000 nuclei, including three theoretical predictions of masses and the evaluated experimental masses of Audi et al. (2003). DISCRETE LEVELS contains 117 datasets (one for each element) with all known level schemes, electromagnetic and γ-ray decay probabilities available from ENSDF in October 2007. NEUTRON RESONANCES contains average resonance parameters prepared on the basis of the evaluations performed by Ignatyuk and Mughabghab. OPTICAL MODEL contains 495 sets of phenomenological optical model parameters defined in a wide energy range. When there are insufficient experimental data, the evaluator has to resort to either global parameterizations or microscopic approaches. Radial density distributions to be used as input for microscopic calculations are stored in the MASSES segment. LEVEL DENSITIES contains
Capote, R.; Herman, M.; Capote,R.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Young,P.G.; Goriely,S.; Belgy,T.; Ignatyuk,A.V.; Koning,A.J.; Hilaire,S.; Pljko,V.A.; Avrigeanu,M.; Bersillon,O.; Chadwick,M.B.; Fukahori,T.; Ge, Zhigang; Han,Yinl,; Kailas,S.; Kopecky,J.; Maslov,V.M.; Reffo,G.; Sin,M.; Soukhovitskii,E.Sh.; Talou,P
2009-12-01
We describe the physics and data included in the Reference Input Parameter Library, which is devoted to input parameters needed in calculations of nuclear reactions and nuclear data evaluations. Advanced modelling codes require substantial numerical input, therefore the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked extensively since 1993 on a library of validated nuclear-model input parameters, referred to as the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL). A final RIPL coordinated research project (RIPL-3) was brought to a successful conclusion in December 2008, after 15 years of challenging work carried out through three consecutive IAEA projects. The RIPL-3 library was released in January 2009, and is available on the Web through http://www-nds.iaea.org/RIPL-3/. This work and the resulting database are extremely important to theoreticians involved in the development and use of nuclear reaction modelling (ALICE, EMPIRE, GNASH, UNF, TALYS) both for theoretical research and nuclear data evaluations. The numerical data and computer codes included in RIPL-3 are arranged in seven segments: MASSES contains ground-state properties of nuclei for about 9000 nuclei, including three theoretical predictions of masses and the evaluated experimental masses of Audi et al. (2003). DISCRETE LEVELS contains 117 datasets (one for each element) with all known level schemes, electromagnetic and {gamma}-ray decay probabilities available from ENSDF in October 2007. NEUTRON RESONANCES contains average resonance parameters prepared on the basis of the evaluations performed by Ignatyuk and Mughabghab. OPTICAL MODEL contains 495 sets of phenomenological optical model parameters defined in a wide energy range. When there are insufficient experimental data, the evaluator has to resort to either global parameterizations or microscopic approaches. Radial density distributions to be used as input for microscopic calculations are stored in the MASSES segment. LEVEL DENSITIES contains
Validity test of design calculations of a PGNAA setup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naqvi, A. A.; Garwan, M. A.
2004-01-01
A rectangular moderator has been designed for the prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) to analyze Portland cement samples. The design of the moderator assembly was obtained using Monte Carlo calculations. The design calculations of the new rectangular moderator of the KFUPM PGNAA setup have been verified experimentally through prompt gamma ray yield measurement as a function of the front moderator thickness. In this study the yield of the 3.54 and 4.94 MeV prompt gamma rays from silicon in a soil sample was measured as a function of thickness of the front moderator of the rectangular moderator. The experimental results were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. A good agreement has been achieved between the experimental results and the results of the calculations. The experimental results have provided useful information about the PGNAA setup performance, neutron moderation, and gamma ray attenuation in the PGNAA sample.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, R.; Verma, H. K.
2013-12-01
This paper presents a teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm to solve parameter identification problems in the designing of digital infinite impulse response (IIR) filter. TLBO based filter modelling is applied to calculate the parameters of unknown plant in simulations. Unlike other heuristic search algorithms, TLBO algorithm is an algorithm-specific parameter-less algorithm. In this paper big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) optimization and PSO algorithms are also applied to filter design for comparison. Unknown filter parameters are considered as a vector to be optimized by these algorithms. MATLAB programming is used for implementation of proposed algorithms. Experimental results show that the TLBO is more accurate to estimate the filter parameters than the BB-BC optimization algorithm and has faster convergence rate when compared to PSO algorithm. TLBO is used where accuracy is more essential than the convergence speed.
Design of Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Hydrodynamic Parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyons, Donald R.; Quiett, Carramah; Griffin, DeVon (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The science of optical hydrodynamics involves relating the optical properties to the fluid dynamic properties of a hydrodynamic system. Fiber-optic sensors are being designed for measuring the hydrodynamic parameters of various systems. As a flowing fluid makes an encounter with a flat surface, it forms a boundary layer near this surface. The region between the boundary layer and the flat plate contains information about parameters such as viscosity, compressibility, pressure, density, and velocity. An analytical model has been developed for examining the hydrodynamic parameters near the surface of a fiber-optic sensor. An analysis of the conservation of momentum, the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equation for compressible flow were used to develop expressions for the velocity and the density as a function of the distance along the flow and above the surface. When examining the flow near the surface, these expressions are used to estimate the sensitivity required to perform direct optical measurements and to derive the shear force for indirect optical measurements. The derivation of this result permits the incorporation of better design parameters for other fiber-based sensors. Future work includes analyzing the optical parametric designs of fiber-optic sensors, modeling sensors to utilize the parameters for hydrodynamics and applying different mixtures of hydrodynamic flow. Finally, the fabrication of fiber-optic sensors for hydrodynamic flow applications of the type described in this presentation could enhance aerospace, submarine, and medical technology.
Quantemol-N calculation of electron molecule cross sections and related parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brigg, Will; Williams, Adam; Monahan, Derek; Tennyson, Jonathan
2012-10-01
Quantemol-N was originally developed as a wrapper for the UK Molecular R-Matrix codes, significantly accelarating data production rates for electron molecule collision calculations. Since its conception Quantemol-N has continuously been developed in the direction of the plasma industry, with many features being added to produce extended cross sections sets and related parameters. Recent additions include the calculation of differential cross sections, which provide momentum transfer and rotational excitation cross sections. These are used in turn to provide transport coefficients for verification of swarm calculations. Electron collisions with water have been used as a test bed. The code has also been generalised to calculate cross sections for aligned molecules, for example ones trapped on surfaces.
A designed fluorescent anthracene derivative: Theory, calculation, synthesis, and characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uejima, Motoyuki; Sato, Tohru; Detani, Masahiro; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Suzuki, Furitsu; Suzuki, Hajime; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi; Murata, Yasujiro; Adachi, Chihaya; Kaji, Hironori
2014-05-01
5,11-Bis(phenylethynyl)benzo[1,2-f:4,5-f‧]diisoindole-1,3,7,9(2H,8H)-tetraone 1H was designed as an application of the theoretical design principle for fluorescent molecules which is derived from the vibronic coupling density analysis. For solubility reasons, tertiary-butylated 1H, 2,8-di-tert-butyl-5,11-bis(phenylethynyl)benzo[1,2-f:4,5-f‧]diisoindole-1,3,7,9(2H,8H)-tetraone 1 was synthesized and its fluorescence properties were measured. It is found that the photoluminescence quantum yield of 1 was 96%. We discuss the rationale for designing 1H as a highly efficient fluorescent molecule, and compare the theoretical calculations for 1 with the observed absorption and photoluminescence spectra.
Liu, A C Y; Tabor, R F; Bourgeois, L; de Jonge, M D; Mudie, S T; Petersen, T C
2016-05-20
The bond-orientational order parameters introduced by Steinhardt et al. [Phys. Rev. B 28, 784 (1983)] have been an invaluable measurement tool for assessing short-range order in disordered, close-packed assemblies of particles in which the particle positions are known. In many glassy systems the measurement of particle position is not possible or limited (field of view, thickness, resolution) and the bond-orientational order parameters cannot be measured, or adequately sampled. Here we calculate a set of rotationally averaged, projected bond-orientational order parameters that reflect the symmetries of close-packed particle clusters when projected onto a plane. We show by simulation that these parameters are unique fingerprints that can be directly compared to angular correlations in limited-volume, transmission geometry, diffraction patterns from close-packed glassy assemblies. PMID:27258876
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, A. C. Y.; Tabor, R. F.; Bourgeois, L.; de Jonge, M. D.; Mudie, S. T.; Petersen, T. C.
2016-05-01
The bond-orientational order parameters introduced by Steinhardt et al. [Phys. Rev. B 28, 784 (1983)] have been an invaluable measurement tool for assessing short-range order in disordered, close-packed assemblies of particles in which the particle positions are known. In many glassy systems the measurement of particle position is not possible or limited (field of view, thickness, resolution) and the bond-orientational order parameters cannot be measured, or adequately sampled. Here we calculate a set of rotationally averaged, projected bond-orientational order parameters that reflect the symmetries of close-packed particle clusters when projected onto a plane. We show by simulation that these parameters are unique fingerprints that can be directly compared to angular correlations in limited-volume, transmission geometry, diffraction patterns from close-packed glassy assemblies.
Designing Meaningful Density Functional Theory Calculations in Materials Science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattsson, A. E.
2005-07-01
Density functional theory (DFT) methods for calculating the quantum mechanical ground states of condensed matter systems are now a common and significant component of materials research. These methods are also increasingly used in Equation of State work, in particular in the warm dense matter regime. The growing importance of DFT reflects the development of sufficiently accurate functionals, efficient algorithms, and continuing improvements in computing capabilities. As the materials problems to which DFT is applied have become large and complex, so have the sets of calculations necessary to investigate a given problem. Highly versatile, powerful codes exist to serve the practitioner, but designing useful simulations is a complicated task, involving intricate manipulation of many variables, with many pitfalls for the unwary and the inexperienced. We give an overview of DFT and discuss several of the most important issues that go into designing a meaningful DFT calculation. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Robust integrated autopilot/autothrottle design using constrained parameter optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher; Sanjay, Swamy
1990-01-01
A multivariable control design method based on constrained parameter optimization was applied to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the following: (1) direct synthesis of a multivariable 'inner-loop' feedback control system based on total energy control principles; (2) synthesis of speed/altitude-hold designs as 'outer-loop' feedback/feedforward control systems around the above inner loop; and (3) direct synthesis of a combined 'inner-loop' and 'outer-loop' multivariable control system. The design procedure offers a direct and structured approach for the determination of a set of controller gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The presented approach may be applied to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by this method following careful problem formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Performance characteristics of the optimization design were improved over the current autopilot design on the B737-100 Transport Research Vehicle (TSRV) at the landing approach and cruise flight conditions; particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping, command responses, and control activity in the presence of turbulence.
k.p Parameters with Accuracy Control from Preexistent First-Principles Band Structure Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sipahi, Guilherme; Bastos, Carlos M. O.; Sabino, Fernando P.; Faria Junior, Paulo E.; de Campos, Tiago; da Silva, Juarez L. F.
The k.p method is a successful approach to obtain band structure, optical and transport properties of semiconductors. It overtakes the ab initio methods in confined systems due to its low computational cost since it is a continuum method that does not require all the atoms' orbital information. From an effective one-electron Hamiltonian, the k.p matrix representation can be calculated using perturbation theory and the parameters identified by symmetry arguments. The parameters determination, however, needs a complementary approach. In this paper, we developed a general method to extract the k.p parameters from preexistent band structures of bulk materials that is not limited by the crystal symmetry or by the model. To demonstrate our approach, we applied it to zinc blende GaAs band structure calculated by hybrid density functional theory within the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof functional (DFT-HSE), for the usual 8 ×8 k.p Hamiltonian. Our parameters reproduced the DFT-HSE band structure with great accuracy up to 20% of the first Brillouin zone (FBZ). Furthermore, for fitting regions ranging from 7-20% of FBZ, the parameters lie inside the range of values reported by the most reliable studies in the literature. The authors acknowledge financial support from the Brazilian agencies CNPq (Grant #246549/2012-2) and FAPESP (Grants #2011/19333-4, #2012/05618-0 and #2013/23393-8).
Henderson, J D; Olson, R D; Ravis, W R
1985-08-01
A polyexponential curve-stripping program, KIN, is described for use on the HP-41CV programmable calculator. The program may be used in the analysis of plasma-concentration-time curves for a three-compartment intravenous bolus or infusion model with linear elimination processes. The coefficients and hybrid rate constants of the exponential function are then used to compute pharmacokinetic parameters (volume of the central compartment, intercompartmental rate transfer constants), which may be used as initial estimates of model parameters in non-linear regression curve-fitting procedures. PMID:3839870
Effect of buoyancy and power design parameters on hybrid airship performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talbot, P. D.; Gelhausen, P. A.
1983-01-01
The effects of several design parameters on the performance of hybrid airships having rotors and propellers were examined with a simple mathematical model. The parameters included buoyancy ratio, Froude number, ratio of rotor power to total power, and rotor shaft tilt. Performance variations resulting from changes in these parameters were calculated, and are presented and discussed. Performance quantities included best climb rate, equivalent vehicle L/D, and maximum speed. Performance at all speeds between hover and maximum speed was found to be sensitive to power distribution between rotors and propellers, and to rotor shaft tilt.
Niu, Sheng-Li; Huo, Meng-Jia; Lu, Chun-Mei; Liu, Meng-Qi; Li, Hui
2014-04-01
The catalytic capacity of dolomite in transesterification was investigated and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The activated dolomites as transesterification catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and desorption and Hammett indicator method, where the original dolomite was analyzed by thermogravimetric and X-ray fluorescence in advance. Its potential catalytic capacity was validated from aspects of the activated temperature and the reused property, where the reliability of the experimental system was also examined. Then, influences of the catalyst added amount, the mole ratio of methanol to oil, the transesterification temperature and the transesterification time on the catalytic capacity were investigated. Finally, kinetic parameters of the transesterification catalyzed by the activated dolomite were calculated. PMID:24583217
Calculation Of The Judd - Ofelt Parameters Of The ZnAl2O4: Eu3+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Constantin, S.; Stanciu, M. L.
2012-12-01
Zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) doped with rare earth metal ions has been investigated most frequently because of the unique luminescent properties resulting from its stability and high emission quantum yields. The present work is devoted to calculate the Judd-Ofelt parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6) of the trivalent europium doped in ZnAl2O4 spinel, the quality factor (Q) and the branching ratio (β).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlov, A. V.; Sitnov, Iu. S.
1985-10-01
Pavlov's (1984) method is used to determine the relative errors (due to errors in measuring the input parameters of the model) in theoretical calculations of the main parameters of the daytime F2-layer under quiet conditions. The parameters calculated are the height of the F2-layer maximum and the electron density.
Parameter-free effective field theory calculation for the solar proton-fusion and hep processes
T.S. Park; L.E. Marcucci; R. Schiavilla; M. Viviani; A. Kievsky; S. Rosati; K. Kubodera; D.P. Min; M. Rho
2002-08-01
Spurred by the recent complete determination of the weak currents in two-nucleon systems up to {Omicron}(Q{sup 3}) in heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory, we carry out a parameter-free calculation of the threshold S-factors for the solar pp (proton-fusion) and hep processes in an effective field theory that combines the merits of the standard nuclear physics method and systematic chiral expansion. The power of the EFT adopted here is that one can correlate in a unified formalism the weak-current matrix elements of two-, three- and four-nucleon systems. Using the tritium {beta}-decay rate as an input to fix the only unknown parameter in the theory, we can evaluate the threshold S factors with drastically improved precision; the results are S{sub pp}(0) = 3.94 x (1 {+-} 0.004) x 10{sup -25} MeV-b and S{sub hep}(0) = (8.6 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup -20} keV-b. The dependence of the calculated S-factors on the momentum cutoff parameter {Lambda} has been examined for a physically reasonable range of {Lambda}. This dependence is found to be extremely small for the pp process, and to be within acceptable levels for the hep process, substantiating the consistency of our calculational scheme.
Calculation of pressure broadening parameters for the CO-He system at low temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, S.
1985-01-01
Theoretical pressure broadening parameters were computed for the 0-1 and 1-2 rotational transitions of CO in He at very low temperatures and compared with the recent experimental measurements at 4.2 K. The interaction potential was taken from extensive SCF-CI calculations, molecular collision dynamics were described by essentially exact converged close coupling calculations, and pressure broadening cross sections were obtained from the collisional S matrices within the accurate Fano-Ben Reuven framework. Resonances at low collision energies give rise to an increase in the thermally averaged cross sections at low temperatures. Although previous calculations for this system at higher temperatures (77-300 K) were in good accord with experiment, at 4.2 K predicted values are about two times larger than experiment; possible sources of this discrepancy are discussed.
Calculation of the limiting parameters for oxide ceramic particles during HVOF spraying
Kadyrov, V.; Evdokimenko, Y.; Kisel, V.; Kadyrov, E.
1994-12-31
The authors analyze numerically gas-dynamical schemes peculiar for HVOF spraying equipment and present methods to calculate velocity and thermal state of sprayed particles which allow one to find the limiting values of these parameters and to define the applicability limitations of modern HVOF spraying apparatus. The method includes gas dynamical calculations of gas flow in accelerating channel (AC) and calculations of sprayed particle motion and its thermal state (temperature and melted mass fraction). The calculations were performed for particles of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide with the size distributions of 10--80 {micro}m. Three different jet schemes were considered: with supersonic AC, with subsonic AC, and with combined gas dynamical path having functionally separated regions of heating and acceleration. Analysis of the results obtained at limiting parameters of jet operation suggests that energetic potentialities of HVOF method are not utilized completely. Although accelerated to a high speed the ceramic oxide particles have a thermal state which is far from optimal. It is possible to significantly increase the powder temperature and fraction of melted material by using new configuration solutions without essential constructive complications. The authors propose one of the possible solutions to optimize gas dynamical path. The results obtained for heating and acceleration in such a path suggest that the utilized approach is correct and allows one to predict the creation of a new family of more efficient HVOF torches and an expanded applicability of HVOF method.
[Procedure for calculating various parameters of the metabolism of amino acid mixtures].
Fauth, U; Heinrichs, W; Puénte-Gonzales, I; Tzanova, I; Halmágyi, M
1989-12-01
For the evaluation of indirect calorimetry, elements are used, which specify the relation between nitrogen (N) excretion and amount of oxidized amino acids (AS/N) and between nitrogen excretion and oxygen-/carbon dioxide-exchange of the corresponding amounts of amino acids (O2/N, CO2/N). These elements are only valid for the amino acid mixture which was used for their determination, and only under the condition of complete combustion of deaminized amino acid skeletons. We developed a computer program, which is able to simulate complete oxidation, maximal gluconeogenesis, and maximal lipogenesis for a given amino acid mixture of any composition. The parameters AS/N, O2/N and CO2/N were calculated by the program for various parenteral amino acid solutions. Range of error was determined exemplarily for the use of standard parameters. The calculations demonstrate errors up to 50% for the calculation of substrate turnover in indirect calorimetry, depending on composition and actual metabolism of amino acid mixtures. As long as these influencing factors are not known in stress metabolism, we recommend to use those elements, which were calculated for the amino acid solution in use, assuming complete combustion. PMID:2516505
Parsons, T.
2008-01-01
Paleoearthquake observations often lack enough events at a given site to directly define a probability density function (PDF) for earthquake recurrence. Sites with fewer than 10-15 intervals do not provide enough information to reliably determine the shape of the PDF using standard maximum-likelihood techniques (e.g., Ellsworth et al., 1999). In this paper I present a method that attempts to fit wide ranges of distribution parameters to short paleoseismic series. From repeated Monte Carlo draws, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate most likely recurrence PDF parameters, and a ranked distribution of parameters is returned that can be used to assess uncertainties in hazard calculations. In tests on short synthetic earthquake series, the method gives results that cluster around the mean of the input distribution, whereas maximum likelihood methods return the sample means (e.g., NIST/SEMATECH, 2006). For short series (fewer than 10 intervals), sample means tend to reflect the median of an asymmetric recurrence distribution, possibly leading to an overestimate of the hazard should they be used in probability calculations. Therefore a Monte Carlo approach may be useful for assessing recurrence from limited paleoearthquake records. Further, the degree of functional dependence among parameters like mean recurrence interval and coefficient of variation can be established. The method is described for use with time-independent and time-dependent PDFs, and results from 19 paleoseismic sequences on strike-slip faults throughout the state of California are given.
Parsons, Tom
2008-01-01
Paleoearthquake observations often lack enough events at a given site to directly define a probability density function (PDF) for earthquake recurrence. Sites with fewer than 10-15 intervals do not provide enough information to reliably determine the shape of the PDF using standard maximum-likelihood techniques [e.g., Ellsworth et al., 1999]. In this paper I present a method that attempts to fit wide ranges of distribution parameters to short paleoseismic series. From repeated Monte Carlo draws, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate most likely recurrence PDF parameters, and a ranked distribution of parameters is returned that can be used to assess uncertainties in hazard calculations. In tests on short synthetic earthquake series, the method gives results that cluster around the mean of the input distribution, whereas maximum likelihood methods return the sample means [e.g., NIST/SEMATECH, 2006]. For short series (fewer than 10 intervals), sample means tend to reflect the median of an asymmetric recurrence distribution, possibly leading to an overestimate of the hazard should they be used in probability calculations. Therefore a Monte Carlo approach may be useful for assessing recurrence from limited paleoearthquake records. Further, the degree of functional dependence among parameters like mean recurrence interval and coefficient of variation can be established. The method is described for use with time-independent and time-dependent PDF?s, and results from 19 paleoseismic sequences on strike-slip faults throughout the state of California are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsons, Tom
2008-03-01
Paleoearthquake observations often lack enough events at a given site to directly define a probability density function (PDF) for earthquake recurrence. Sites with fewer than 10-15 intervals do not provide enough information to reliably determine the shape of the PDF using standard maximum-likelihood techniques (e.g., Ellsworth et al., 1999). In this paper I present a method that attempts to fit wide ranges of distribution parameters to short paleoseismic series. From repeated Monte Carlo draws, it becomes possible to quantitatively estimate most likely recurrence PDF parameters, and a ranked distribution of parameters is returned that can be used to assess uncertainties in hazard calculations. In tests on short synthetic earthquake series, the method gives results that cluster around the mean of the input distribution, whereas maximum likelihood methods return the sample means (e.g., NIST/SEMATECH, 2006). For short series (fewer than 10 intervals), sample means tend to reflect the median of an asymmetric recurrence distribution, possibly leading to an overestimate of the hazard should they be used in probability calculations. Therefore a Monte Carlo approach may be useful for assessing recurrence from limited paleoearthquake records. Further, the degree of functional dependence among parameters like mean recurrence interval and coefficient of variation can be established. The method is described for use with time-independent and time-dependent PDFs, and results from 19 paleoseismic sequences on strike-slip faults throughout the state of California are given.
Bubbico, Roberto; Mazzarotta, Barbara
2008-03-01
In the present paper the accidental release of toxic chemicals has been taken into consideration, and a sensitivity analysis study of the corresponding consequences calculation has been carried out. Four different toxic chemicals have been chosen for the simulations, and the effect of the variability of the main input parameters on the extension of the impact areas has been assessed. The results show that the influence of these parameters depends on the physical properties of the released substance and that not always the widely known rules of thumb, such as the positive influence of the wind velocity on gas dispersion, apply. In particular, the boiling temperature of the chemical has revealed to be the main parameter affecting the type of dependence of the impact distances on the input variables. PMID:17630190
Robust parameter design for automatically controlled systems and nanostructure synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Tirthankar
2007-12-01
This research focuses on developing comprehensive frameworks for developing robust parameter design methodology for dynamic systems with automatic control and for synthesis of nanostructures. In many automatically controlled dynamic processes, the optimal feedback control law depends on the parameter design solution and vice versa and therefore an integrated approach is necessary. A parameter design methodology in the presence of feedback control is developed for processes of long duration under the assumption that experimental noise factors are uncorrelated over time. Systems that follow a pure-gain dynamic model are considered and the best proportional-integral and minimum mean squared error control strategies are developed by using robust parameter design. The proposed method is illustrated using a simulated example and a case study in a urea packing plant. This idea is also extended to cases with on-line noise factors. The possibility of integrating feedforward control with a minimum mean squared error feedback control scheme is explored. To meet the needs of large scale synthesis of nanostructures, it is critical to systematically find experimental conditions under which the desired nanostructures are synthesized reproducibly, at large quantity and with controlled morphology. The first part of the research in this area focuses on modeling and optimization of existing experimental data. Through a rigorous statistical analysis of experimental data, models linking the probabilities of obtaining specific morphologies to the process variables are developed. A new iterative algorithm for fitting a Multinomial GLM is proposed and used. The optimum process conditions, which maximize the above probabilities and make the synthesis process less sensitive to variations of process variables around set values, are derived from the fitted models using Monte-Carlo simulations. The second part of the research deals with development of an experimental design methodology, tailor
Investigation of design parameters in ultrasound reactors with confined channels.
Jordens, Jeroen; Honings, Aurélie; Degrève, Jan; Braeken, Leen; Van Gerven, Tom
2013-11-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional numercial simulation of sonochemical degradation upon cavitational activity. The model relates the simulation of the acoustic pressure distribution to the sonochemical reaction rate. As a case study, the thermal degradation of carbon tetrachloride during sonication is studied in a tubular milliscale reactor. The model is used to optimize the reactor diameter, ultrasound frequency and power dissipated to the ultrasound transducers. The results indicate that multiple transducers at a moderate power level are more efficient than one transducer with high power level. Furthermore, the average cavity volume fraction is proposed as a reaction independent parameter to estimate the optimal reactor design. Within the results obtained in this paper, it appears possible to optimise reactor design based on this parameter. PMID:23618851
Design parameters of a miniaturized piezoelectric underwater acoustic transmitter.
Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J
2012-01-01
PZT ceramics have been widely used in underwater acoustic transducers. However, literature available discussing the design parameters of a miniaturized PZT-based low-duty-cycle transmitter is very limited. This paper discusses some of the design parameters--the backing material, driving voltage, PZT material type, power consumption and the transducer length of a miniaturized acoustic fish tag using a PZT tube. Four different types of PZT were evaluated with respect to the source level, energy consumption and bandwidth of the transducer. The effect of the tube length on the source level is discussed. The results demonstrate that ultralow-density closed-cell foam is the best backing material for the PZT tube. The Navy Type VI PZTs provide the best source level with relatively low energy consumption and that a low transducer capacitance is preferred for high efficiency. A 35% reduction in the transducer length results in 2 dB decrease in source level. PMID:23012534
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Kilyuk; Jo, Sujang; Bang, Hyochoong
This paper presents a modified Rodrigues parameter (MRP)-based nonlinear observer design to estimate bias, scale factor and misalignment of gyroscope measurements. A Lyapunov stability analysis is carried out for the nonlinear observer. Simulation is performed and results are presented illustrating the performance of the proposed nonlinear observer under the condition of persistent excitation maneuver. In addition, a comparison between the nonlinear observer and alignment Kalman filter (AKF) is made to highlight favorable features of the nonlinear observer.
Parameters design of vibration isolation platform for control moment gyroscopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Zhang; Jingrui, Zhang; Shijie, Xu
2012-12-01
Vibration isolation is a direct and effective approach to improve the ultra-precise pointing capability of a high resolution remote sensing satellite. In this paper, a passive multi-strut vibration isolation platform for the control moment gyroscopes in a pyramid configuration on a satellite is adopted and the parameter design of this platform is discussed. The first step constructs a whole satellite dynamic model including the control moment gyroscopes and the vibration isolation platform with Newton-Euler method, while the analytical control moment gyroscopes disturbance model is derived. The transmissibility matrix of the vibration isolation platform is then obtained, and the frequency domain characteristics of the platform are described, with its influence on the attitude control system analyzed. The third part presents the parameter design method of the vibration isolation platform based on the frequency domain characteristics mentioned above. The stiffness and damping coefficients of this platform are subsequently selected with the above mentioned method. Finally, using these parameters, the performance of the vibration isolation platform on the satellite is testified by integrated simulations. The study shows that parameters of this platform selected based on this method not only satisfy the requirement of vibration isolation but also guarantee that the closed-loop attitude control system remains sufficiently stable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, G.
1982-01-01
A design methodology capable of dealing with nonlinear systems, such as a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), containing parameter uncertainty is discussed. The methodology was applied to the design of discrete time nonlinear controllers. The nonlinear controllers can be used to control either linear or nonlinear systems. Several controller strategies are presented to illustrate the design procedure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shantaram, S. Pai; Gyekenyesi, John P.
1989-01-01
The calculation of shape and scale parametes of the two-parameter Weibull distribution is described using the least-squares analysis and maximum likelihood methods for volume- and surface-flaw-induced fracture in ceramics with complete and censored samples. Detailed procedures are given for evaluating 90 percent confidence intervals for maximum likelihood estimates of shape and scale parameters, the unbiased estimates of the shape parameters, and the Weibull mean values and corresponding standard deviations. Furthermore, the necessary steps are described for detecting outliers and for calculating the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit statistics and 90 percent confidence bands about the Weibull distribution. It also shows how to calculate the Batdorf flaw-density constants by using the Weibull distribution statistical parameters. The techniques described were verified with several example problems, from the open literature, and were coded in the Structural Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation (SCARE) design program.
Launch Vehicle Propulsion Parameter Design Multiple Selection Criteria
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shelton, Joey Dewayne
2004-01-01
The optimization tool described herein addresses and emphasizes the use of computer tools to model a system and focuses on a concept development approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system, but more particularly the development of the optimized system using new techniques. This methodology uses new and innovative tools to run Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, and statistical models in order to optimize a design concept. The concept launch vehicle and propulsion system were modeled and optimized to determine the best design for weight and cost by varying design and technology parameters. Uncertainty levels were applied using Monte Carlo Simulations and the model output was compared to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle Main Engine. Several key conclusions are summarized here for the model results. First, the Gross Liftoff Weight and Dry Weight were 67% higher for the design case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost when compared to the weights determined by the minimization of Gross Liftoff Weight case. In turn, the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost was 53% higher for optimized Gross Liftoff Weight case when compared to the cost determined by case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost. Therefore, a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Secondly, the tool outputs define the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. A key finding was that for a Space Shuttle Main Engine thrust level the oxidizer/fuel ratio of 6.6 resulted in the lowest Gross Liftoff Weight rather than at 5.2 for the maximum specific impulse, demonstrating the relationships between specific impulse, engine weight, tank volume and tank weight. Lastly, the optimum chamber pressure for
Test verification and design of the bicycle frame parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Long; Xiang, Zhongxia; Luo, Huan; Tian, Guan
2015-07-01
Research on design of bicycles is concentrated on mechanism and auto appearance design, however few on matches between the bike and the rider. Since unreasonable human-bike relationship leads to both riders' worn-out joints and muscle injuries, the design of bicycles should focus on the matching. In order to find the best position of human-bike system, simulation experiments on riding comfort under different riding postures are done with the lifemode software employed to facilitate the cycling process as well as to obtain the best position and the size function of it. With BP neural network and GA, analyzing simulation data, conducting regression analysis of parameters on different heights and bike frames, the equation of best position of human-bike system is gained at last. In addition, after selecting testers, customized bikes based on testers' height dimensions are produced according to the size function. By analyzing and comparing the experimental data that are collected from testers when riding common bicycles and customized bicycles, it is concluded that customized bicycles are four times even six times as comfortable as common ones. The equation of best position of human-bike system is applied to improve bikes' function, and the new direction on future design of bicycle frame parameters is presented.
Design of Life Extending Controls Using Nonlinear Parameter Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorenzo, Carl F.; Holmes, Michael S.; Ray, Asok
1998-01-01
This report presents the conceptual development of a life extending control system where the objective is to achieve high performance and structural durability of the plant. A life extending controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine via damage mitigation in both the fuel and oxidizer turbines while achieving high performance for transient responses of the combustion chamber pressure and the O2/H2 mixture ratio. This design approach makes use of a combination of linear and nonlinear controller synthesis techniques and also allows adaptation of the life extending controller module to augment a conventional performance controller of a rocket engine. The nonlinear aspect of the design is achieved using nonlinear parameter optimization of a prescribed control structure.
The sensitivity of the calculation of ΔV to vehicle and impact parameters.
Pride, R; Giddings, D; Richens, D; McNally, D S
2013-06-01
ΔV is frequently used to describe collision severity, and is often used by accident investigators to estimate speeds of vehicles prior to a collision, and by researchers looking for correlations between severity and outcome. This study identifies how ΔV varies over a wide range of input uncertainties allowing the direct comparison of different methods of input data collection in terms of their effect on uncertainty in the calculation of ΔV. Software was developed to implement this sensitivity analysis and was validated against examples presented in the CRASH3 manual. The findings are therefore representative of, and relevant to, commercially available tools such as CRASH3 and AIDamage. It is possible to measure the vehicle and collision parameters with sufficient accuracy to determine ΔV to a level of precision that is useful to predict occupant fatality. In many cases, ΔV is largely insensitive to the input parameter and category values or values determined from photographs may be used. A vehicle specific value of the stiffness parameter B should be used. Direct measurement of crush measurements and vehicle mass (including the best estimates of fluid loss) should be used. Similarly the mass of occupants and cargo should be measured directly rather than estimated from 50th centile values. Calculation of ΔV is sensitive to PDOF which should be measured with a precision of better than ±6°. PMID:23545267
Real-time digital processing of Doppler ultrasound signals and calculation of flow parameters.
Schlindwein, F S; Vieira, M H; Vasconcelos, C F; Simpson, D M
1994-01-01
Vascular diseases and their complications are responsible for around 27% of deaths in Brazil. Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive technique that has been used to study blood flow in intact blood vessels since Satomura first reported the potential of the technique in 1959. Because it is non-invasive it makes sequential studies and those in normals feasible. Whereas in contrast angiography only vessel anatomy is displayed, Doppler ultrasound produces dynamic information on blood-flow. It may be used to estimate flow-rates, to image regions of blood flow (colour Doppler), and to help in locating sites of arterial disease, thus complementing X-ray examinations. This paper describes a system based on a Digital Signal Processor for real-time spectrum analysis of Doppler ultrasound signals, real-time display of sonograms, and calculation and analysis of three parameters of clinical interest derived from the Doppler signal. The system comprises a TMS320C25 development board, which acquires the signal and performs spectrum analysis, and a microcomputer, which reads the spectral estimates, displays them as a sonogram in real-time and calculates a set of spectral parameters proposed in the literature. The system permits a maximum sampling frequency of 40.96 kHz, and in the sonogram, 80 power spectra per second (each with 128 frequency bins) are displayed. In a preliminary study, the stability of the haemodynamic parameters and their dependence on a user-defined threshold value is investigated. PMID:7968870
The finite element method for calculating the marine structural design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ion, A.; Ticu, I.
2015-11-01
The aim of this paper is to optimally design and dimension marine structures in order for them to fulfil both functional and safety requirements. A master level of structural mechanics is vital in order to check tests and analysis and to develop new structures. This study can improve the calculation and estimation of the effects of hydrodynamics and of other loads; movements, strains and internal forces in fixed and floating platforms and ships. The finite element method (FEM) ensures basic understanding of the finite element model as applied on static cases including beam and plate elements, experience with static analysis of marine structures like platforms and ships, along with the basic understanding of dynamic response of systems with one degree of freedom and simple continuous beams, and also how analysis models can be established for real structures by the use of generalized coordinates and superposition.
Calculation of the Local Neutronic Parameters for CANDU Fuel Bundles Using Transport Methods
Balaceanu, Victoria; Rizoiu, Andrei; Hristea, Viorel
2006-07-01
For a realistic neutronic evaluation of the CANDU reactor core it is important to accurately perform the local neutronic parameters (i.e. multigroup macroscopic cross sections for the core materials) calculation. This means using codes that allow a good geometric representation of the CANDU fuel bundle and then solving the transport equation. The paper reported here intends to study in detail the local behavior for two types of CANDU fuel, NU{sub 3}7 (Natural Uranium, 37 elements) and SEU{sub 4}3 (Slightly Enriched Uranium, 43 elements, with 1.1 wt% enrichment). The considered fuel types represent fresh and used bundles. The two types of CANDU super-cells are reference NU{sub 3}7, perturbed NU{sub 3}7, reference SEU{sub 4}3 and perturbed SEU{sub 4}3. The perturbed super-cells contain a Mechanical Control Absorber (a very strong reactivity device). For reaching the proposed objective a methodology is used based on WIMS and PIJXYZ codes. WIMS is a standard lattice-cell code, based on transport theory and it is used for producing fuel cell multigroup macroscopic cross sections. For obtaining the fine local neutronic parameters in the CANDU super-cells (k-eff values, local MCA reactivity worth, flux distributions and reaction rates), the PIJXYZ code is used. PIJXYZ is a 3D integral transport code using the first collision probability method and it has been developed for CANDU cell geometry. It is consistent with WIMS lattice-cell calculations and allows a good geometrical representation of the CANDU bundle in three dimensions. The analysis of the neutronic parameters consists of comparing the obtained results with the similar results calculated with the DRAGON code. This comparison shows a good agreement between these results. (authors)
Kadantsev, Eugene S; Ziegler, Tom
2010-12-01
The hyperfine A-tensor and Zeeman g-tensor parameterize the interaction of an 'effective' electron spin with the magnetic field due to the nuclear spin and the homogeneous external magnetic field, respectively. The A- and g-tensors are the quantities of primary interest in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In this paper, we review our work [E.S. Kadantsev, T. Ziegler, J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 4521; E. S. Kadantsev, T. Ziegler, J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 1327] on the calculation of these EPR parameters under periodic boundary conditions (PBC) from first-principles. Our methodology is based on the Kohn-Sham DFT (KS DFT), explicit usage of Bloch basis set made up of numerical and Slater-type atomic orbitals (NAOs/STOs), and is implemented in the 'full potential' program BAND. Our implementation does not rely on the frozen core approximation. The NAOs/STOs basis is well suited for the accurate representation of the electron density near the nuclei, a prerequisite for the calculation of highly accurate hyperfine parameters. In the case of g-tensor, our implementation is based on the method of Van Lenthe et al. [E. van Lenthe, P. E. S. Wormer, A. van der Avoird, J. Chem. Phys. 1997, 107, 2488] in which the spin-orbital coupling is taken into account variationally. We demonstrate the viability of our scheme by calculating EPR parameters of paramagnetic defects in solids. We consider the A-tensor of 'normal' and 'anomalous' muonium defect in IIIA-VA semiconductors as well as the S2 anion radical in KCl host crystal lattice. PMID:20821407
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizk, Magdi H.
1988-01-01
A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizk, Magdi H.
1988-01-01
A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.
Peregudov, A.; Andrianova, O.; Raskach, K.; Tsibulya, A.
2012-07-01
A number of recent studies have been devoted to the estimation of errors of reactor calculation parameters by the GRS (Generation Random Sampled) method. This method is based on direct sampling input data resulting in formation of random sets of input parameters which are used for multiple calculations. Once these calculations are performed, statistical processing of the calculation results is carried out to determine the mean value and the variance of each calculation parameter of interest. In our study this method is used for estimation of errors of calculation parameters (K{sub eff}, power density, dose rate) of a perspective sodium-cooled fast reactor. Neutron transport calculations were performed by the nodal diffusion code TRIGEX and Monte Carlo code MMK. (authors)
Calculation of the wetting parameter from a cluster model in the framework of nanothermodynamics.
García-Morales, V; Cervera, J; Pellicer, J
2003-06-01
The critical wetting parameter omega(c) determines the strength of interfacial fluctuations in critical wetting transitions. In this Brief Report, we calculate omega(c) from considerations on critical liquid clusters inside a vapor phase. The starting point is a cluster model developed by Hill and Chamberlin in the framework of nanothermodynamics [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 12779 (1998)]. Our calculations yield results for omega(c) between 0.52 and 1.00, depending on the degrees of freedom considered. The findings are in agreement with previous experimental results and give an idea of the universal dynamical behavior of the clusters when approaching criticality. We suggest that this behavior is a combination of translation and vortex rotational motion (omega(c)=0.84). PMID:16241275
Reardon, P.T.; Mullen, M.F.
1982-08-01
As part of Task C.35 (Calculation of Parameters for Inspection Planning and Evaluation) of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed some quantitative analyses of IAEA inspection activities for mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facilities. There were four distinct efforts involved in this task. These were as follows: show the effect on a material balance verification of using two variables measurement methods in some strata; perform additional calculations for the reference facility described in STR-89; modify the INSPECT computer programs to be used as an after-inspection analysis tool, as well as a preinspection planning tool; provide written comments and explantations of text and graphs of the first draft of STR-89, Safeguards Considerations for Mixed-Oxide Fuel Element Fabrication Facilities, by W. Bahm, T. Shea, and D. Tolchenkov, System Studies Section, IAEA.
Electron-N/sub 2/ scattering calculations with a parameter-free model polarization potential
Morrison, M.A.; Saha, B.C.; Gibson, T.L.
1987-10-15
We have extended our variationally determined nonadiabatic polarization potential (Gibson and Morrison, Phys. Rev. A 29, 2497 (1984)) to the e-N/sub 2/ system and calculated elastic, total momentum transfer, and rotational excitation cross sections. This model potential, which requires no scaling and contains no adjustable parameters, is presented in tabular and analytic (fitted) form for possible use in future studies. We evaluated the static potential at the near-Hartree-Fock level of accuracy and included exchange effects exactly via the linear algebraic method of Collins and Schneider (Phys. Rev. A 24, 2387 (1981)). Diverse cross sections based on this model are in excellent agreement with existing experiment. We also compare various scattering quantities calculated with our model to prior theoretical results and to newly determined numbers using two other model potentials: a cutoff phenomenological form and the correlation-polarization potential of O'Connell and Lane (Phys. Rev. A 27, 1893 (1983)).
Kuster, E.; Moore, R.; Lust, L.; Kemper, P.
1996-12-31
A Method of Moments (MoM) electromagnetic model of percolating conducting films was applied to calculate the effective parameters of the composite formed by conducting inclusions placed within a dispersive magnetic but nondispersive dielectric matrix. The MoM calculations demonstrate a coupling between the magnetic properties of the matrix and the effective composite permittivity and frequency dispersion of the composite. The coupling of permittivity and permeability is observed near the percolation threshold of the composite and for high conductivity inclusions. The prediction agrees with physical expectations since near percolation the conduction correlation length dominates the effective permittivity of the composite and this correlation length is determined by both the permittivity and permeability of the composite.
Self-consistent calculation of Hubbard U parameters within linear-scaling DFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moynihan, Glenn; Teobaldi, Gilberto; O'Regan, David D.
DFT+U has proven to be a computationally efficient method for correcting for the underestimation of electron localization effects, or for the absent derivative discontinuity, inherent in conventional density functionals. Invoking an approximate interpretation of DFT+U as a corrective penalty functional for the spurious curvature of the total-energy with respect to subspace occupancy, the Hubbard U parameter may be calculated, in which case DFT+U may be considered to be fully first-principles approach. We describe our approach for computing the Hubbard U and Hund's J parameters within ONETEP, a linear-scaling DFT code which comprises a complete DFT+U+J implementation including ionic forces and a flexible choice of population analyses. We discuss issues of charge preservation and self-consistency, and we demonstrate the capability of our method by means of numerical tests on the ground-state properties of selected molecules that present challenges for approximate DFT.
Obtaining model parameters for real materials from ab-initio calculations: Heisenberg exchange
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korotin, Dmitry; Mazurenko, Vladimir; Anisimov, Vladimir; Streltsov, Sergey
An approach to compute exchange parameters of the Heisenberg model in plane-wave based methods is presented. This calculation scheme is based on the Green's function method and Wannier function projection technique. It was implemented in the framework of the pseudopotential method and tested on such materials as NiO, FeO, Li2MnO3, and KCuF3. The obtained exchange constants are in a good agreement with both the total energy calculations and experimental estimations for NiO and KCuF3. In the case of FeO our calculations explain the pressure dependence of the Néel temperature. Li2MnO3 turns out to be a Slater insulator with antiferromagnetic nearest neighbor exchange defined by the spin splitting. The proposed approach provides a unique way to analyze magnetic interactions, since it allows one to calculate orbital contributions to the total exchange coupling and study the mechanism of the exchange coupling. The work was supported by a grant from the Russian Scientific Foundation (Project No. 14-22-00004).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plessis, S.; McDougall, D.; Mandt, K.; Greathouse, T.; Luspay-Kuti, A.
2015-11-01
Bimolecular diffusion coefficients are important parameters used by atmospheric models to calculate altitude profiles of minor constituents in an atmosphere. Unfortunately, laboratory measurements of these coefficients were never conducted at temperature conditions relevant to the atmosphere of Titan. Here we conduct a detailed uncertainty analysis of the bimolecular diffusion coefficient parameters as applied to Titan's upper atmosphere to provide a better understanding of the impact of uncertainty for this parameter on models. Because temperature and pressure conditions are much lower than the laboratory conditions in which bimolecular diffusion parameters were measured, we apply a Bayesian framework, a problem-agnostic framework, to determine parameter estimates and associated uncertainties. We solve the Bayesian calibration problem using the open-source QUESO library which also performs a propagation of uncertainties in the calibrated parameters to temperature and pressure conditions observed in Titan's upper atmosphere. Our results show that, after propagating uncertainty through the Massman model, the uncertainty in molecular diffusion is highly correlated to temperature and we observe no noticeable correlation with pressure. We propagate the calibrated molecular diffusion estimate and associated uncertainty to obtain an estimate with uncertainty due to bimolecular diffusion for the methane molar fraction as a function of altitude. Results show that the uncertainty in methane abundance due to molecular diffusion is in general small compared to eddy diffusion and the chemical kinetics description. However, methane abundance is most sensitive to uncertainty in molecular diffusion above 1200 km where the errors are nontrivial and could have important implications for scientific research based on diffusion models in this altitude range.
Microscopic calculation of interacting boson model parameters by potential-energy surface mapping
Bentley, I.; Frauendorf, S.
2011-06-15
A coherent state technique is used to generate an interacting boson model (IBM) Hamiltonian energy surface which is adjusted to match a mean-field energy surface. This technique allows the calculation of IBM Hamiltonian parameters, prediction of properties of low-lying collective states, as well as the generation of probability distributions of various shapes in the ground state of transitional nuclei, the last two of which are of astrophysical interest. The results for krypton, molybdenum, palladium, cadmium, gadolinium, dysprosium, and erbium nuclei are compared with experiment.
Inertial sensor-based stride parameter calculation from gait sequences in geriatric patients.
Rampp, Alexander; Barth, Jens; Schülein, Samuel; Gaßmann, Karl-Günter; Klucken, Jochen; Eskofier, Björn M
2015-04-01
A detailed and quantitative gait analysis can provide evidence of various gait impairments in elderly people. To provide an objective decision-making basis for gait analysis, simple applicable tests analyzing a high number of strides are required. A mobile gait analysis system, which is mounted on shoes, can fulfill these requirements. This paper presents a method for computing clinically relevant temporal and spatial gait parameters. Therefore, an accelerometer and a gyroscope were positioned laterally below each ankle joint. Temporal gait events were detected by searching for characteristic features in the signals. To calculate stride length, the gravity compensated accelerometer signal was double integrated, and sensor drift was modeled using a piece-wise defined linear function. The presented method was validated using GAITRite-based gait parameters from 101 patients (average age 82.1 years). Subjects performed a normal walking test with and without a wheeled walker. The parameters stride length and stride time showed a correlation of 0.93 and 0.95 between both systems. The absolute error of stride length was 6.26 cm on normal walking test. The developed system as well as the GAITRite showed an increased stride length, when using a four-wheeled walker as walking aid. However, the walking aid interfered with the automated analysis of the GAITRite system, but not with the inertial sensor-based approach. In summary, an algorithm for the calculation of clinically relevant gait parameters derived from inertial sensors is applicable in the diagnostic workup and also during long-term monitoring approaches in the elderly population. PMID:25389237
Design Parameters Influencing Reliability of CCGA Assembly: A Sensitivity Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tasooji, Amaneh; Ghaffarian, Reza; Rinaldi, Antonio
2006-01-01
Area Array microelectronic packages with small pitch and large I/O counts are now widely used in microelectronics packaging. The impact of various package design and materials/process parameters on reliability has been studied through extensive literature review. Reliability of Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) package assemblies has been evaluated using JPL thermal cycle test results (-50(deg)/75(deg)C, -55(deg)/100(deg)C, and -55(deg)/125(deg)C), as well as those reported by other investigators. A sensitivity analysis has been performed using the literature da to study the impact of design parameters and global/local stress conditions on assembly reliability. The applicability of various life-prediction models for CCGA design has been investigated by comparing model's predictions with the experimental thermal cycling data. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis has been conducted to assess the state of the stress/strain in CCGA assembly under different thermal cycling, and to explain the different failure modes and locations observed in JPL test assemblies.
SEXTON, R.A.
2000-01-06
A variety of drop shear or impact scenarios have been identified for the Canister Storage Building. Some of these are being addressed by new calculations or require no specific action. This document describes five of them which are addressed by design features and/or existing design calculations. For each of the five a position is stated indicating the reason for assurance that the safety functions of the MCO will not be jeopardized by the accident. Following the position is a description of the basis for that position.
Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter
Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J.
2012-01-01
PZT ceramics have been widely used in underwater acoustic transducers. However, literature available discussing the design parameters of a miniaturized PZT-based low-duty-cycle transmitter is very limited. This paper discusses some of the design parameters—the backing material, driving voltage, PZT material type, power consumption and the transducer length of a miniaturized acoustic fish tag using a PZT tube. Four different types of PZT were evaluated with respect to the source level, energy consumption and bandwidth of the transducer. The effect of the tube length on the source level is discussed. The results demonstrate that ultralow-density closed-cell foam is the best backing material for the PZT tube. The Navy Type VI PZTs provide the best source level with relatively low energy consumption and that a low transducer capacitance is preferred for high efficiency. A 35% reduction in the transducer length results in 2 dB decrease in source level. PMID:23012534
Efficient global optimization of a limited parameter antenna design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Donnell, Teresa H.; Southall, Hugh L.; Kaanta, Bryan
2008-04-01
Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) is a competent evolutionary algorithm suited for problems with limited design parameters and expensive cost functions. Many electromagnetics problems, including some antenna designs, fall into this class, as complex electromagnetics simulations can take substantial computational effort. This makes simple evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithms or particle swarms very time-consuming for design optimization, as many iterations of large populations are usually required. When physical experiments are necessary to perform tradeoffs or determine effects which may not be simulated, use of these algorithms is simply not practical at all due to the large numbers of measurements required. In this paper we first present a brief introduction to the EGO algorithm. We then present the parasitic superdirective two-element array design problem and results obtained by applying EGO to obtain the optimal element separation and operating frequency to maximize the array directivity. We compare these results to both the optimal solution and results obtained by performing a similar optimization using the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method. Our results indicate that, unlike the Nelder-Mead algorithm, the EGO algorithm did not become stuck in local minima but rather found the area of the correct global minimum. However, our implementation did not always drill down into the precise minimum and the addition of a local search technique seems to be indicated.
Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave parameters
Wiberg, P.L.; Sherwood, C.R.
2008-01-01
Near-bed wave orbital velocities and shear stresses are important parameters in many sediment-transport and hydrodynamic models of the coastal ocean, estuaries, and lakes. Simple methods for estimating bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave statistics such as significant wave height and peak period often are inaccurate except in very shallow water. This paper briefly reviews approaches for estimating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from near-bed velocity data, surface-wave spectra, and surface-wave parameters; MATLAB code for each approach is provided. Aspects of this problem have been discussed elsewhere. We add to this work by providing a method for using a general form of the parametric surface-wave spectrum to estimate bottom orbital velocity from significant wave height and peak period, investigating effects of spectral shape on bottom orbital velocity, comparing methods for calculating bottom orbital velocity against values determined from near-bed velocity measurements at two sites on the US east and west coasts, and considering the optimal representation of bottom orbital velocity for calculations of near-bed processes. Bottom orbital velocities calculated using near-bed velocity data, measured wave spectra, and parametric spectra for a site on the northern California shelf and one in the mid-Atlantic Bight compare quite well and are relatively insensitive to spectral shape except when bimodal waves are present with maximum energy at the higher-frequency peak. These conditions, which are most likely to occur at times when bottom orbital velocities are small, can be identified with our method as cases where the measured wave statistics are inconsistent with Donelan's modified form of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum. We define the 'effective' forcing for wave-driven, near-bed processes as the product of the magnitude of forcing times its probability of occurrence, and conclude that different bottom orbital velocity statistics
Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiberg, Patricia L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.
2008-10-01
Near-bed wave orbital velocities and shear stresses are important parameters in many sediment-transport and hydrodynamic models of the coastal ocean, estuaries, and lakes. Simple methods for estimating bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave statistics such as significant wave height and peak period often are inaccurate except in very shallow water. This paper briefly reviews approaches for estimating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from near-bed velocity data, surface-wave spectra, and surface-wave parameters; MATLAB code for each approach is provided. Aspects of this problem have been discussed elsewhere. We add to this work by providing a method for using a general form of the parametric surface-wave spectrum to estimate bottom orbital velocity from significant wave height and peak period, investigating effects of spectral shape on bottom orbital velocity, comparing methods for calculating bottom orbital velocity against values determined from near-bed velocity measurements at two sites on the US east and west coasts, and considering the optimal representation of bottom orbital velocity for calculations of near-bed processes. Bottom orbital velocities calculated using near-bed velocity data, measured wave spectra, and parametric spectra for a site on the northern California shelf and one in the mid-Atlantic Bight compare quite well and are relatively insensitive to spectral shape except when bimodal waves are present with maximum energy at the higher-frequency peak. These conditions, which are most likely to occur at times when bottom orbital velocities are small, can be identified with our method as cases where the measured wave statistics are inconsistent with Donelan's modified form of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum. We define the "effective" forcing for wave-driven, near-bed processes as the product of the magnitude of forcing times its probability of occurrence, and conclude that different bottom orbital velocity statistics
Design and parameter optimization of flip-chip bonder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shim, Hyoungsub; Kang, Heuiseok; Jeong, Hoon; Cho, Youngjune; Kim, Wansoo; Kang, Shinill
2005-12-01
Bare-chip packaging becomes more popular along with the miniaturization of IT components. In this paper, we have studied flip-chip process, and developed automated bonding system. Among the several bonding method, NCP bonding is chosen and batch-type equipment is manufactured. The dual optics and vision system aligns the chip with the substrate. The bonding head equipped with temperature and force controllers bonds the chip. The system can be easily modified for other bonding methods such as ACF. In bonding process, the bonding force and temperature are known as the most dominant bonding parameters. A parametric study is performed for these two parameters. For the test sample, we used standard flip-chip test kit which consists of FR4 boards and dummy flip-chips. The bonding temperatures are chosen between 25°C to 300°C. The bonding forces are chosen between 5N and 300N. To test the bonding strength, a bonding strength tester was designed and constructed. After the bonding strength test, the samples are examined by microscope to determine the failure mode. The relations between the bonding strength and the bonding parameters are analyzed and compared with bonding models. Finally, the most suitable bonding condition is suggested in terms of temperature and force.
Knitted Strain Sensors: Impact of Design Parameters on Sensing Properties
Atalay, Ozgur; Kennon, William Richard
2014-01-01
This paper presents a study of the sensing properties exhibited by textile-based knitted strain sensors. Knitted sensors were manufactured using flat-bed knitting technology, and electro-mechanical tests were subsequently performed on the specimens using a tensile testing machine to apply strain whilst the sensor was incorporated into a Wheatstone bridge arrangement to allow electrical monitoring. The sensing fabrics were manufactured from silver-plated nylon and elastomeric yarns. The component yarns offered similar diameters, bending characteristics and surface friction, but their production parameters differed in respect of the required yarn input tension, the number of conductive courses in the sensing structure and the elastomeric yarn extension characteristics. Experimental results showed that these manufacturing controls significantly affected the sensing properties of the knitted structures such that the gauge factor values, the working range and the linearity of the sensors varied according to the knitted structure. These results confirm that production parameters play a fundamental role in determining the physical behavior and the sensing properties of knitted sensors. It is thus possible to manipulate the sensing properties of knitted sensors and the sensor response may be engineered by varying the production parameters applied to specific designs. PMID:24608010
Experimental investigation of design parameters on dry powder inhaler performance.
Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Chang, Lusi; Jia, Xinli; Lau, Raymond
2013-11-30
The study aims to investigate the impact of various design parameters of a dry powder inhaler on the turbulence intensities generated and the performance of the dry powder inhaler. The flow fields and turbulence intensities in the dry powder inhaler are measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. In vitro aerosolization and deposition a blend of budesonide and lactose are measured using an Andersen Cascade Impactor. Design parameters such as inhaler grid hole diameter, grid voidage and chamber length are considered. The experimental results reveal that the hole diameter on the grid has negligible impact on the turbulence intensity generated in the chamber. On the other hand, hole diameters smaller than a critical size can lead to performance degradation due to excessive particle-grid collisions. An increase in grid voidage can improve the inhaler performance but the effect diminishes at high grid voidage. An increase in the chamber length can enhance the turbulence intensity generated but also increases the powder adhesion on the inhaler wall. PMID:24055597
Sojka, Zbigniew; Pietrzyk, Piotr
2006-03-13
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of EPR parameters and their structure sensitivity for selected surface paramagnetic species involved in oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol over silica grafted molybdenum catalyst were investigated. Two surface complexes, Mo(4c)/SiO2 and {O(-)-Mo(4c)}/SiO2, as well as *CH2OH radical trapped on the SiO2 matrix were taken as the examples. The spin-restricted zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA) implemented in the Amsterdam Density Functional suite was used to calculate the electronic g tensor for those species. The predicted values were in satisfactory agreement with experimental EPR results. Five different coordination modes of the *CH2OH radical on the silica surface were considered and the isotropic 13C, 17O, and 1H hyperfine coupling constants (HFCC) of the resultant surface complexes were calculated. Structure sensitivity of the HFCC values was discussed in terms of the angular deformations caused by hydrogen bonding with the silica surface. PMID:16488660
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sojka, Zbigniew; Pietrzyk, Piotr
2006-03-01
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of EPR parameters and their structure sensitivity for selected surface paramagnetic species involved in oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol over silica grafted molybdenum catalyst were investigated. Two surface complexes, Mo 4 c/SiO 2 and {O -sbnd Mo 4 c}/SiO 2, as well as rad CH 2OH radical trapped on the SiO 2 matrix were taken as the examples. The spin-restricted zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA) implemented in the Amsterdam Density Functional suite was used to calculate the electronic g tensor for those species. The predicted values were in satisfactory agreement with experimental EPR results. Five different coordination modes of the rad CH 2OH radical on the silica surface were considered and the isotropic 13C, 17O, and 1H hyperfine coupling constants (HFCC) of the resultant surface complexes were calculated. Structure sensitivity of the HFCC values was discussed in terms of the angular deformations caused by hydrogen bonding with the silica surface.
Errors induced in triaxial stress tensor calculations using incorrect lattice parameters
Ruud, C.O.; Kozaczek, K.J.
1994-06-01
A number of researchers have proposed that for some metallic alloys, an elaborate procedure is necessary in order to improve the accuracy of the measured triaxial stress tensor. Others have been concerned that the uncertainties in establishing the precise zero-stress lattice parameter of an alloyed and/or cold worked engineering metal could cause significantly more error than would result in ignoring the triaxial stress state and assuming the plane stress condition. This paper illustrates the effect of uncertainties in the zero-stress lattice parameters on the calculated triaxial stress state for zero stress powders of three common engineering alloys, i.e., 1010 steel, 304 stainless steel, and 2024 aluminum. Also, errors due to the incorrect lattice spacing in experimental stress analysis are presented for three examples, i.e., a silicon powder, 304 gainless steel cylinder and a diamond. For cases where the plane strain assumption is justified, the uncertainties due to the stress free lattice parameter can be reduced by a simple measurement.
Design of a new nozzle for direct current plasma guns with improved spraying parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jankovic, M.; Mostaghimi, J.; Pershin, V.
2000-03-01
A new design is proposed for direct current plasma spray gas-shroud attachments. It has curvilinearly shaped internal walls aimed toward elimination of the cold air entrainment, recorded for commercially available conical designs of the shrouded nozzle. The curvilinear nozzle design was tested; it proved to be capable of withstanding high plasma temperatures and enabled satisfactory particle injection. Parallel measurements with an enthalpy probe were performed on the jet emerging from two different nozzles. Also, corresponding calculations were made to predict the plasma flow parameters and the particle parameters. Adequate spray tests were performed by spraying iron-aluminum and MCrAlY coatings onto stainless steel substrates. Coating analyses were performed, and coating qualities, such as microstructure, open porosity, and adhesion strength, were determined. The results indicate that the coatings sprayed with a curvilinear nozzle exhibited lower porosity, higher adhesion strength, and an enhanced microstructure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahrabi, Mohammad; Tavakoli-Anbaran, Hossien
2015-02-01
Calculation of dosimetry parameters by TG-60 approach for beta sources and TG-43 approach for gamma sources can help to design brachytherapy sources. In this work, TG-60 dosimetry parameters are calculated for the Sm-153 brachytherapy seed using the Monte Carlo simulation approach. The continuous beta spectrum of Sm-153 and probability density are applied to simulate the Sm-153 source. Sm-153 is produced by neutron capture during the 152Sm( n,)153Sm reaction in reactors. The Sm-153 radionuclide decays by beta rays followed by gamma-ray emissions with half-life of 1.928 days. Sm-153 source is simulated in a spherical water phantom to calculate the deposited energy and geometry function in the intended points. The Sm-153 seed consists of 20% samarium, 30% calcium and 50% silicon, in cylindrical shape with density 1.76gr/cm^3. The anisotropy function and radial dose function were calculated at 0-4mm radial distances relative to the seed center and polar angles of 0-90 degrees. The results of this research are compared with the results of Taghdiri et al. (Iran. J. Radiat. Res. 9, 103 (2011)). The final beta spectrum of Sm-153 is not considered in their work. Results show significant relative differences even up to 5 times for anisotropy functions at 0.6, 1 and 2mm distances and some angles. MCNP4C Monte Carlo code is applied in both in the present paper and in the above-mentioned one.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koenig, R. W.; Fishbach, L. H.
1972-01-01
A computer program entitled GENENG employs component performance maps to perform analytical, steady state, engine cycle calculations. Through a scaling procedure, each of the component maps can be used to represent a family of maps (different design values of pressure ratios, efficiency, weight flow, etc.) Either convergent or convergent-divergent nozzles may be used. Included is a complete FORTRAN 4 listing of the program. Sample results and input explanations are shown for one-spool and two-spool turbojets and two-spool separate- and mixed-flow turbofans operating at design and off-design conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Wei-Ting; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Chao, Shu-Hsien
2015-03-01
Stochastic subspace identification method (SSI) has been proven to be an efficient algorithm for the identification of liner-time-invariant system using multivariate measurements. Generally, the estimated modal parameters through SSI may be afflicted with statistical uncertainty, e.g. undefined measurement noises, non-stationary excitation, finite number of data samples etc. Therefore, the identified results are subjected to variance errors. Accordingly, the concept of the stabilization diagram can help users to identify the correct model, i.e. through removing the spurious modes. Modal parameters are estimated at successive model orders where the physical modes of the system are extracted and separated from the spurious modes. Besides, an uncertainty computation scheme was derived for the calculation of uncertainty bounds for modal parameters at some given model order. The uncertainty bounds of damping ratios are particularly interesting, as the estimation of damping ratios are difficult to obtain. In this paper, an automated stochastic subspace identification algorithm is addressed. First, the identification of modal parameters through covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification from the output-only measurements is used for discussion. A systematic way of investigation on the criteria for the stabilization diagram is presented. Secondly, an automated algorithm of post-processing on stabilization diagram is demonstrated. Finally, the computation of uncertainty bounds for each mode with all model order in the stabilization diagram is utilized to determine system natural frequencies and damping ratios. Demonstration of this study on the system identification of a three-span steel bridge under operation condition is presented. It is shown that the proposed new operation procedure for the automated covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification can enhance the robustness and reliability in structural health monitoring.
Cold-Crucible Design Parameters for Next Generation HLW Melters
Gombert, D.; Richardson, J.; Aloy, A.; Day, D.
2002-02-26
The cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) design eliminates many materials and operating constraints inherent in joule-heated melter (JHM) technology, which is the standard for vitrification of high-activity wastes worldwide. The cold-crucible design is smaller, less expensive, and generates much less waste for ultimate disposal. It should also allow a much more flexible operating envelope, which will be crucial if the heterogeneous wastes at the DOE reprocessing sites are to be vitrified. A joule-heated melter operates by passing current between water-cooled electrodes through a molten pool in a refractory-lined chamber. This design is inherently limited by susceptibility of materials to corrosion and melting. In addition, redox conditions and free metal content have exacerbated materials problems or lead to electrical short-circuiting causing failures in DOE melters. In contrast, the CCIM design is based on inductive coupling of a water-cooled high-frequency electrical coil with the glass, causing eddycurrents that produce heat and mixing. A critical difference is that inductance coupling transfers energy through a nonconductive solid layer of slag coating the metal container inside the coil, whereas the jouleheated design relies on passing current through conductive molten glass in direct contact with the metal electrodes and ceramic refractories. The frozen slag in the CCIM design protects the containment and eliminates the need for refractory, while the corrosive molten glass can be the limiting factor in the JH melter design. The CCIM design also eliminates the need for electrodes that typically limit operating temperature to below 1200 degrees C. While significant marketing claims have been made by French and Russian technology suppliers and developers, little data is available for engineering and economic evaluation of the technology, and no facilities are available in the US to support testing. A currently funded project at the Idaho National Engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Li, Weizhi; Gou, Jun; Wu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yadong
2015-01-01
Room temperature terahertz (THz) detector indicates great potentials in imaging application because of real-time, compact bulk and unique spectral characteristics. Different dimension THz detectors based on micro-bridge structure were designed and simulated to get optimizing microbolometer parameters from the simulation results of membrane temperature changing and THz absorption. Those microbolometers were fabricated with complex semiconductor process and three dimension deformations of micro-bridges were obtained by laser scanning confocal microscope to identify the focal plane array micro-bridge design. The noise equivalent power of THz detector achieves 123 pW/Hz1/2 and average response time of the detector is 6.7 ms, which is suitable for the application of active THz imaging.
H{sub 2}-He vibrational line-shape parameters: Measurement and semiclassical calculation
Forsman, J.W.; Bonamy, J.; Robert, D.; Berger, J.P.; Saint-Loup, R.; Berger, H.
1995-10-01
High-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy has been used to obtain the line shifting and line broadening coefficients of H{sub 2} perturbed by He. Measurements have been made for the {ital Q}-branch transitions ({ital J}=0{r_arrow}5) in a density range of 10 to 20 amagat and from 296 to 995 K. Up to 795 K we have directly deduced from the experimental broadening coefficients the inelastic rotational state-to-state and vibrational dephasing rates. At higher temperatures, owing to the larger number of channels of relaxation which occur, the results have been analyzed using a scaling law. The line shift and broadening coefficients exhibit a square root and a linear dependence on temperature, respectively, and a significant {ital J} dependence. Semiclassical calculations based on an accurate {ital ab} {ital initio} potential lead to line-shape parameters consistent with experiment. They allow a clear understanding of their observed temperature dependence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durig, J. R.; Shen, S.; Guirgis, G. A.
2001-01-01
The far infrared spectrum from 370 to 50 cm -1 of gaseous 2-bromoethanol, BrCH 2CH 2OH, was recorded at a resolution of 0.10 cm -1. The fundamental O-H torsion of the more stable gauche ( Gg') conformer, where the capital G refers to internal rotation around the C-C bond and the lower case g to the internal rotation around the C-O bond, was observed as a series of Q-branch transitions beginning at 340 cm -1. The corresponding O-H torsional modes were observed for two of the other high energy conformers, Tg (285 cm -1) and Tt (234 cm -1). The heavy atom asymmetric torsion (rotation around C-C bond) for the Gg' conformer has been observed at 140 cm -1. Variable temperature (-63 to -100°C) studies of the infrared spectra (4000-400 cm -1) of the sample dissolved in liquid xenon have been recorded. From these data the enthalpy differences have been determined to be 411±40 cm -1 (4.92±0.48 kJ/mol) for the Gg'/ Tt and 315±40 cm -1 (3.76±0.48 kJ/mol) for the Gg'/ Tg, with the Gg' conformer the most stable form. Additionally, the infrared spectrum of the gas, and Raman spectrum of the liquid phase are reported. The structural parameters, conformational stabilities, barriers to internal rotation and fundamental frequencies have been obtained from ab initio calculations utilizing different basis sets at the restricted Hartree-Fock or with full electron correlation by the perturbation method to second order. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental results when appropriate. Combining the ab initio calculations with the microwave rotational constants, r0 adjusted parameters have been obtained for the three 2-haloethanols (F, Cl and Br) for the Gg' conformers.
Spacecraft design impacts on the post-Newtonian parameter estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuster, Anja Katharina; et al.
2015-08-01
The ESA mission BepiColombo, reaching out to explore the elusive planet Mercury, features unprecedented tracking techniques. The highly precise orbit determination around Mercury is a compelling opportunity for a modern test of General Relativity (GR). Using the software tool GRETCHEN incorporating the Square Root Information Filter (SRIF), MPO's orbit is simulated and the post-Newtonian parameters (PNP) are estimated. In this work, the influence of a specific constraint of the Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE) on the achievable accuracy of the PNP estimates is investigated. The power system design of the spacecraft requires that ±35° around perihelion the Ka transponder needs to be switched off, thus radiometric data is only gathered via X band. This analysis shows the impact of this constraint on the achievable accuracy of PNP estimates. On a bigger scale, if GR shows some violation at a detectable level it inevitably leads to its invalidation.
Weijo, Ville; Bast, Radovan; Manninen, Pekka; Saue, Trond; Vaara, Juha
2007-02-21
We examine the quantum chemical calculation of parity-violating (PV) electroweak contributions to the spectral parameters of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from a methodological point of view. Nuclear magnetic shielding and indirect spin-spin coupling constants are considered and evaluated for three chiral molecules, H2O2, H2S2, and H2Se2. The effects of the choice of a one-particle basis set and the treatment of electron correlation, as well as the effects of special relativity, are studied. All of them are found to be relevant. The basis-set dependence is very pronounced, especially at the electron correlated ab initio levels of theory. Coupled-cluster and density-functional theory (DFT) results for PV contributions differ significantly from the Hartree-Fock data. DFT overestimates the PV effects, particularly with nonhybrid exchange-correlation functionals. Beginning from third-row elements, special relativity is of importance for the PV NMR properties, shown here by comparing perturbational one-component and various four-component calculations. In contrast to what is found for nuclear magnetic shielding, the choice of the model for nuclear charge distribution--point charge or extended (Gaussian)--has a significant impact on the PV contribution to the spin-spin coupling constants. PMID:17328593
Analysis of the sensitivity of calculated k{sub eff} to changes in NCS parameters
Winiarski, R. Jr.; Risner, V.
1996-12-31
The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), under the management of the United States Enrichment Corporation is undergoing transition in regulatory authority from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One aspect of this transfer is a request by the NRC for justification of the continued use of a 0.02 margin of subcriticality (defined in terms of k{sub eff}) in calculating k{sub eff} when the criticality safety of a system is based on k{sub eff} calculations. This explanation is requested because of the NRC desired margin of subcriticality of 0.05, which is documented in several ANS/ANSI standards for other types of facilities, namely, light water reactor fuel storage facilities. Currently, there is no official documentation that specifies the magnitude of the margin of subcriticality at current or former DOE facilities, other than that stating that one should exist. However, the DOE has accepted a maximum subcritical value of 0.95 for storage of fissile material. The PGDP currently uses an upper safety limit of 0.9596, which results in a margin of subcriticality of {approximately}0.02, based on the current validation report. This analysis documents the change in various criticality safety parameters (e.g., maximum mass of uranium, maximum allowable slab height, etc.) for the critical value (as determined by the validation) and for both a 0.02 and 0.05 margin of subcriticality.
MCDHF calculations and study of plasma parameters for Li-like ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatri, Indu; Goyal, Arun; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A. K.; Man Mohan
2016-06-01
Extensive configuration interaction calculations for several Li-like ions (Z=32, 36, 42, 46, 50, 54 and 56) are performed using the code GRASP2K based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) method. Breit interaction and leading quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects are also included by applying active-space techniques to enlarge the configuration set. Results for fine-structure energy levels for 1s22p, 1s23s, 1s23p and 1s23d configurations with relative to ground states 1s22s are presented. The wavelengths, transition rates and oscillator strengths for the 1s22s 2S1/2-1s22p 1/2,3/2,0 2P, 1s22p 1/2,3/2,0,2P - -1s23s 2S1/2, 1s22p calculated results are in good agreement with previous theoretical results and compiled values of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). We have also provided the line intensity ratios and plasma parameters for optically thin plasma. Our calculated data may be useful for experimentalists in identifying the fine-structure levels, for plasma modeling, astrophysical research applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchand, R.; Purschke, D.; Samson, J.
2013-03-01
Understanding the physics of interaction between satellites and the space environment is essential in planning and exploiting space missions. Several computer models have been developed over the years to study this interaction. In all cases, simulations are carried out in the reference frame of the spacecraft and effects such as charging, the formation of electrostatic sheaths and wakes are calculated for given conditions of the space environment. In this paper we present a program used to compute magnetic fields and a number of space plasma and space environment parameters relevant to Low Earth Orbits (LEO) spacecraft-plasma interaction modeling. Magnetic fields are obtained from the International Geophysical Reference Field (IGRF) and plasma parameters are obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. All parameters are computed in the spacecraft frame of reference as a function of its six Keplerian elements. They are presented in a format that can be used directly in most spacecraft-plasma interaction models. Catalogue identifier: AENY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 270308 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2323222 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 90. Computer: Non specific. Operating system: Non specific. RAM: 7.1 MB Classification: 19, 4.14. External routines: IRI, IGRF (included in the package). Nature of problem: Compute magnetic field components, direction of the sun, sun visibility factor and approximate plasma parameters in the reference frame of a Low Earth Orbit satellite. Solution method: Orbit integration, calls to IGRF and IRI libraries and transformation of coordinates from geocentric to spacecraft
Criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters during and after design basis accidents
Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.; Gilbert, H.; Jacox, J.W.
1994-12-01
We have reviewed the literature on the performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be structurally damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. Despite the many studies on HEPA filter performance under adverse conditions, there are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen when there was insufficient data.
Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.
1995-12-31
This paper describes calculations performed to validate the modified version of the MCNP code, the MCNP-DSP, used for: the neutron and photon spectra of the spontaneous fission of californium 252; the representation of the detection processes for scattering detectors; the timing of the detection process; and the calculation of the frequency analysis parameters for the MCNP-DSP code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tereshchenko, A. I.; Pis'mennyi, G. V.; Melikhov, P. S.
The oriented-graph method is used to obtain expressions for calculating the reflection, transmission, and absorption characteristics of a multilayer medium with a normally incident plane electromagnetic wave. Using these expressions, the SAND subroutine has been developed for calculating the parameters of the medium. The graph of the medium is presented.
Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion
Brown N. R.; Brown,N.R.; Baek,J.S; Hanson, A.L.; Cuadra,A.; Cheng,L.Y.; Diamond, D.J.
2013-03-31
It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. . The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). In addition, a summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented.
Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter
Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J.
2012-07-02
The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. As part of the transmitter downsizing effort some of the design parameters of the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic tube transducer in the transmitter were studied, including the type of PZT, the backing material, the necessary drive voltage, the transmitting bandwidth and the length of the transducer. It was found that, to satisfy the 156-dB source level requirement of JSATS, a square wave with a 10-volt amplitude is required to drive 'soft' PZT transducers. PZT-5H demonstrated the best source level performance. For Navy types I and II, 16 volts or 18 volts were needed. Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) closed-cell foam was found to be the backing material providing the highest source level. The effect of tube length on the source level is also demonstrated in this paper, providing quantitative information for downsizing of small piezoelectric transmitters.
Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion
Brown, N. R.; Brown, N. R.; Baek, J. S; Hanson, A. L.; Cuadra, A.; Cheng, L. Y.; Diamond, D. J.
2014-04-30
It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-Enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size-Plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). A summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented. Fuel element tolerance assumptions and hot channel factors used in the safety analysis are also given.
Frequency response and design parameters for differential microbarometers.
Mentink, Johan H; Evers, Läslo G
2011-07-01
The study of infrasound is experiencing a renaissance since it was chosen as a verification technique for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Source identification is one of the main topics of research which involves detailed knowledge on the source time function, the atmosphere as medium of propagation, and the measurement system. Applications are also foreseen in using infrasound as passive probe for the upper atmosphere, taking the field beyond its monitoring application. Infrasound can be conveniently measured with differential microbarometers. An accurate description of the instrument response is an essential need to be able to attribute the recorded infrasound to a certain source or atmospheric properties. In this article, a detailed treatment is given of the response of a differential microbarometer to acoustic signals. After an historical introduction, a basic model for the frequency response is derived with its corresponding poles and zeros. The results are explained using electric analogs. In addition, thermal conduction is added to the model in order to capture the transition between adiabatic and isothermal behavior. Also discussed are high-frequency effects and the effect of external temperature variations. Eventually, the design parameters for differential microbarometers are derived. PMID:21786875
McConathy, R.K.
1983-03-01
The study describes the gradients of stomatal size and density in the crown of a mature forest-grown tulip-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in eastern Tennessee. These data are used to predict leaf resistance to vapor diffusion in relation to stomatal width and boundary layer resistance. Stomatal density on individual leaves did not vary, but density increased with increasing crown height. Stomatal size decreased with increasing height of leaves within the crown. Stomatal size and density variations interacted to result in a constant number of stomata per leaf at all crown heights. Stomatal diffusive resistance values calculated from stomatal measurements and varying environmental parameters indicated that stomatal resistance controlled transpiration water losses only at small apertures (<0.6 ..mu..m). Boundary layer resistance was controlling at large stomatal apertures (>0.6 ..mu..m) and at low wind speeds (approx.100 cm/s). Under normal forest conditions tulip-poplar stomatal resistance exercised more control over transpiration than did boundary layer resistance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia
2008-02-01
Through the use of conductive straight wires or coils the electromagnetic properties of a composite material can be modified. The asymmetric geometry of the coils creates an overall chiral response. The polarization vectors rotate as an electromagnetic wave travels through such a medium. To calculate the chirality of a medium prior to its manufacturing, we developed a method to extract all four electromagnetic material parameter tensors for a general uniaxial bianisotropic composite based on the numerical simulation of the electromagnetic fields. Our method uses appropriate line and surface field averages in a single unit cell of the periodic structure of the composite material. These overall field quantities have physical meaning only when the microscopic variation of the electromagnetic fields in the scale of the unit cell is not important, that is when the wavelength of interest is significantly larger than the maximum linear dimension of the unit cell. The overall constitutive relations of the periodic structure can then be obtained from the relations among the average quantities.
Probabilistic seismic hazard characterization and design parameters for the Pantex Plant
Bernreuter, D. L.; Foxall, W.; Savy, J. B.
1998-10-19
The Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) updated the seismic hazard and design parameters at the Pantex Plant. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were first updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL (1993, 1998), Frankel et al. (1996), and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Amarillo-Wichita uplift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was taken from results of similar studies. Special attention was given to soil amplification factors for the site. Horizontal Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and 5% damped uniform hazard spectra were calculated for six return periods (100 yr., 500 yr., 1000 yr., 2000 yr., 10,000 yr., and 100,000 yr.). The design parameters were calculated following DOE standards (DOE-STD-1022 to 1024). Response spectra for design or evaluation of Performance Category 1 through 4 structures, systems, and components are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seidel, R. C.; Lehtinen, B.
1974-01-01
A technique is described for designing feedback control systems using frequency domain models, a quadratic cost function, and a parameter optimization computer program. FORTRAN listings for the computer program are included. The approach is applied to the design of shock position controllers for a supersonic inlet. Deterministic or random system disturbances, and the presence of random measurement noise are considered. The cost function minimization is formulated in the time domain, but the problem solution is obtained using a frequency domain system description. A scaled and constrained conjugate gradient algorithm is used for the minimization. The approach to a supersonic inlet included the calculations of the optimal proportional-plus integral (PI) and proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controllers. A single-loop PI controller was the most desirable of the designs considered.
Systematic parametric design/calculation of the piston rod unit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kacani, V.
2015-08-01
In this article a modern and economic method for the strength calculation of the piston rod unit and its components under different operating conditions will be presented. Herefore the commercial FEA - Software will be linked with the company-owned calculation tools. The parametric user input will be followed by an automatic Pre- and Postprocessing. Afterwards the strength calculation is processed on all critical points of the piston rod connection, assisted by an extra module, based on general standards and special codes for reciprocating compressors. In this process most arrangements of the piston rod unit as well as the special geometries of the single-components (piston, piston rod and piston nut) can be considered easily. In this article the modeling of the notches, especially on the piston rod, piston as well as the piston nut will be covered in detail.
An integral equation solution for multistage turbomachinery design calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, Eric R.
1993-01-01
A method was developed to calculate flows in multistage turbomachinery. The method is an extension of quasi-three-dimensional blade-to-blade solution methods. Governing equations for steady compressible inviscid flow are linearized by introducing approximations. The linearized flow equations are solved using integral equation techniques. The flows through both stationary and rotating blade rows are determined in a single calculation. Multiple bodies can be modelled for each blade row, so that arbitrary blade counts can be analyzed. The method's benefits are its speed and versatility.
Jet pumps for thermoacoustic applications: Design guidelines based on a numerical parameter study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oosterhuis, Joris P.; Bühler, Simon; Wilcox, Douglas; van der Meer, Theo H.
2015-10-01
The oscillatory flow through tapered cylindrical tube sections (jet pumps) is characterized by a numerical parameter study. The shape of a jet pump results in asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects which cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur under oscillatory flow conditions. Hence, jet pumps are used as streaming suppressors in closed-loop thermoacoustic devices. A two-dimensional axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics model is used to calculate the performance of a large number of conical jet pump geometries in terms of time-averaged pressure drop and acoustic power dissipation. The investigated geometrical parameters include the jet pump length, taper angle, waist diameter and waist curvature. In correspondence with previous work, four flow regimes are observed which characterize the jet pump performance and dimensionless parameters are introduced to scale the performance of the various jet pump geometries. The simulation results are compared to an existing quasi-steady theory and it is shown that this theory is only applicable in a small operation region. Based on the scaling parameters, an optimum operation region is defined and design guidelines are proposed which can be directly used for future jet pump design.
Jet pumps for thermoacoustic applications: Design guidelines based on a numerical parameter study.
Oosterhuis, Joris P; Bühler, Simon; Wilcox, Douglas; van der Meer, Theo H
2015-10-01
The oscillatory flow through tapered cylindrical tube sections (jet pumps) is characterized by a numerical parameter study. The shape of a jet pump results in asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects which cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur under oscillatory flow conditions. Hence, jet pumps are used as streaming suppressors in closed-loop thermoacoustic devices. A two-dimensional axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics model is used to calculate the performance of a large number of conical jet pump geometries in terms of time-averaged pressure drop and acoustic power dissipation. The investigated geometrical parameters include the jet pump length, taper angle, waist diameter, and waist curvature. In correspondence with previous work, four flow regimes are observed which characterize the jet pump performance and dimensionless parameters are introduced to scale the performance of the various jet pump geometries. The simulation results are compared to an existing quasi-steady theory and it is shown that this theory is only applicable in a small operation region. Based on the scaling parameters, an optimum operation region is defined and design guidelines are proposed which can be directly used for future jet pump design. PMID:26520283
Analytical calculation of the quantum 1/f coherence parameter for HFETs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handel, Peter H.; Sherif, Taher S.
2010-03-01
The ratio s of the coherent magnetic energy term and the incoherent mechanical kinetic energy terms of the drift motion in the hamiltonian of a current carrying system is calculated for the special cases of a HFET or FET. This ratio defines the resulting quantum 1/f noise from the coherent and conventional quantum 1/f effects. In this case of FETs and HFETs of much larger width w>>LDS>t, the kinetic energy Ek of average motion with drift velocity vd per unit length in the direction of the drain-source distance LDS in the channel of thickness t, is still given by Nmvd 2/2, but the magnetic energy Em per unit length in the direction of LDS is roughly proportional with the first power of w only, instead of w2, and can be approximated by Em = π[ln(w/2LDS)]LDS[nevS/c]2/w. Here S=wt is the cross section though which current flows this indicates field-decoherence along the large device width w. This yields a coherence ratio of s ≡ Em/Ek ~ πnrotLDSln(w/2LDS), which shows that only an effective width w=weff about equal to LDS should be used in the calculation of s in this special case; larger widths are subject to de-coherence. This favors lower, mainly conventional, quantum 1/f noise in these devices, in spite of the large values of w. It also explains for the first time why the huge widths are possible with impunity, i.e., without causing the much larger coherent quantum 1/f noise to appear. For non-uniform current distribution across t, and for piezoelectric coupling, improved forms are derived for s. Specifically, the coherence parameter, called s' for the piezo case, is given by s' = (gN'h/m*vs)( vs/u)3F(u/vs)t/12w, where F(u/vs) = (2/3)(u/vs) for small drift velocity u, much smaller than the sound velocity vs in the semiconductor. Here N'=nwt.
Dietrich, Johannes W.; Landgrafe-Mende, Gabi; Wiora, Evelin; Chatzitomaris, Apostolos; Klein, Harald H.; Midgley, John E. M.; Hoermann, Rudolf
2016-01-01
Although technical problems of thyroid testing have largely been resolved by modern assay technology, biological variation remains a challenge. This applies to subclinical thyroid disease, non-thyroidal illness syndrome, and those 10% of hypothyroid patients, who report impaired quality of life, despite normal thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations under levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement. Among multiple explanations for this condition, inadequate treatment dosage and monotherapy with L-T4 in subjects with impaired deiodination have received major attention. Translation to clinical practice is difficult, however, since univariate reference ranges for TSH and thyroid hormones fail to deliver robust decision algorithms for therapeutic interventions in patients with more subtle thyroid dysfunctions. Advances in mathematical and simulative modeling of pituitary–thyroid feedback control have improved our understanding of physiological mechanisms governing the homeostatic behavior. From multiple cybernetic models developed since 1956, four examples have also been translated to applications in medical decision-making and clinical trials. Structure parameters representing fundamental properties of the processing structure include the calculated secretory capacity of the thyroid gland (SPINA-GT), sum activity of peripheral deiodinases (SPINA-GD) and Jostel’s TSH index for assessment of thyrotropic pituitary function, supplemented by a recently published algorithm for reconstructing the personal set point of thyroid homeostasis. In addition, a family of integrated models (University of California-Los Angeles platform) provides advanced methods for bioequivalence studies. This perspective article delivers an overview of current clinical research on the basis of mathematical thyroid models. In addition to a summary of large clinical trials, it provides previously unpublished results of validation studies based on simulation and clinical samples. PMID:27375554
Dietrich, Johannes W; Landgrafe-Mende, Gabi; Wiora, Evelin; Chatzitomaris, Apostolos; Klein, Harald H; Midgley, John E M; Hoermann, Rudolf
2016-01-01
Although technical problems of thyroid testing have largely been resolved by modern assay technology, biological variation remains a challenge. This applies to subclinical thyroid disease, non-thyroidal illness syndrome, and those 10% of hypothyroid patients, who report impaired quality of life, despite normal thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations under levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement. Among multiple explanations for this condition, inadequate treatment dosage and monotherapy with L-T4 in subjects with impaired deiodination have received major attention. Translation to clinical practice is difficult, however, since univariate reference ranges for TSH and thyroid hormones fail to deliver robust decision algorithms for therapeutic interventions in patients with more subtle thyroid dysfunctions. Advances in mathematical and simulative modeling of pituitary-thyroid feedback control have improved our understanding of physiological mechanisms governing the homeostatic behavior. From multiple cybernetic models developed since 1956, four examples have also been translated to applications in medical decision-making and clinical trials. Structure parameters representing fundamental properties of the processing structure include the calculated secretory capacity of the thyroid gland (SPINA-GT), sum activity of peripheral deiodinases (SPINA-GD) and Jostel's TSH index for assessment of thyrotropic pituitary function, supplemented by a recently published algorithm for reconstructing the personal set point of thyroid homeostasis. In addition, a family of integrated models (University of California-Los Angeles platform) provides advanced methods for bioequivalence studies. This perspective article delivers an overview of current clinical research on the basis of mathematical thyroid models. In addition to a summary of large clinical trials, it provides previously unpublished results of validation studies based on simulation and clinical samples. PMID:27375554
MFTF: a computer program for calculating the MARS mode operating parameters for the axicell MFTF-B
Jong, R.A.
1983-01-13
We describe the models used to calculate the equilibrium operating point for the MARS mode of the axicell MFTF-B, and present the model equations necessary to calculate the plasma and potential parameters in the central-cell, axicell, and anchor regions. In addition, we calculate the neutral beam, rf power, and gas inputs required to sustain the plasma and maintain the ion and electron-particle energy balance. After a brief description of the MFTF code, we present the results of a sample calculation using MFTF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyer, Dorothea; Philipp, Sonja
2014-05-01
It is desirable to enlarge the profit margin of geothermal projects by reducing the total drilling costs considerably. Substantiated assumptions on uniaxial compressive strengths and failure criteria are important to avoid borehole instabilities and adapt the drilling plan to rock mechanical conditions to minimise non-productive time. Because core material is rare we aim at predicting in situ rock properties from outcrop analogue samples which are easy and cheap to provide. The comparability of properties determined from analogue samples with samples from depths is analysed by performing physical characterisation (P-wave velocities, densities), conventional triaxial tests, and uniaxial compressive strength tests of both quarry and equivalent core samples. "Equivalent" means that the quarry sample is of the same stratigraphic age and of comparable sedimentary facies and composition as the correspondent core sample. We determined the parameters uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and Young's modulus for 35 rock samples from quarries and 14 equivalent core samples from the North German Basin. A subgroup of these samples was used for triaxial tests. For UCS versus Young's modulus, density and P-wave velocity, linear- and non-linear regression analyses were performed. We repeated regression separately for clastic rock samples or carbonate rock samples only as well as for quarry samples or core samples only. Empirical relations were used to calculate UCS values from existing logs of sampled wellbore. Calculated UCS values were then compared with measured UCS of core samples of the same wellbore. With triaxial tests we determined linearized Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria, expressed in both principal stresses and shear and normal stresses, for quarry samples. Comparison with samples from larger depths shows that it is possible to apply the obtained principal stress failure criteria to clastic and volcanic rocks, but less so for carbonates. Carbonate core samples have higher
Isotope Production Facility Conceptual Thermal-Hydraulic Design Review and Scoping Calculations
Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Shelton, J.D.
1998-08-01
The thermal-hydraulic design of the target for the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) is reviewed. In support of the technical review, scoping calculations are performed. The results of the review and scoping calculations are presented in this report.
Determination of variable atom parameters in ionic crystals by electrostatic calculations
Fujino, T.; Morss, L.R.
1987-03-01
An electrostatic method to determine variable atom parameters in ionic crystals with experimentally determined unit cell parameters and space group is proposed. The atom parameters are usually chosen to give the maximum Madelung constant. However, when these atom parameters generate interatomic distances at least one of which is less than a critical distance, which comes from repulsion between atoms, the atom parameters corresponding to that distance are assigned. Applicability was examined for three cases: TiO/sub 2/ (rutile), UCl/sub 3/, and ..beta..-Rb/sub 2/GeF/sub 6/. Agreement between the atom parameters of this method and of literature was good. Some discussion is presented on the basis of this method. In ionic crystals, the atoms with variable parameters are set first using the geometrical arrangement which is the most stable in an electrostatic sense, and then real distances are fixed under the interaction of repulsive forces. 34 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.
Sensitivity analysis of a dry-processed Candu fuel pellet's design parameters
Choi, Hangbok; Ryu, Ho Jin
2007-07-01
Sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of a fuel pellet's design parameters on the performance of a dry-processed Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) fuel and to suggest the optimum design modifications. Under a normal operating condition, a dry-processed fuel has a higher internal pressure and plastic strain due to a higher fuel centerline temperature when compared with a standard natural uranium CANDU fuel. Under a condition that the fuel bundle dimensions do not change, sensitivity calculations were performed on a fuel's design parameters such as the axial gap, dish depth, gap clearance and plenum volume. The results showed that the internal pressure and plastic strain of the cladding were most effectively reduced if a fuel's element plenum volume was increased. More specifically, the internal pressure and plastic strain of the dry-processed fuel satisfied the design limits of a standard CANDU fuel when the plenum volume was increased by one half a pellet, 0.5 mm{sup 3}/K. (authors)
Tian, Ye; Shi, Chenjun; Sun, Yujiao; Zhu, Chengyun; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Mao, Shirui
2015-03-01
The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solubility parameter as guidance for the design and identification of a stable micellar system with a high drug loading capacity for oral drug delivery. Using hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) as a model drug, the effect of three hydrophobic blocks (fatty glycerides) grafted onto chitosan on the drug loading and stability of HCPT-loaded micellar nanoparticles formed by pH precipitation method were studied systematically. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χFH) calculated by the group contribution method (GCM) and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was used to assess the compatibility between HCPT and the copolymers. The predicted order of compatibility between three chitosan derivatives and HCPT was verified experimentally. A high drug loading and remarkably stable micellar system for oral administration based on succinylated glycerol monooleate-chitosan was discovered in this study. Our study suggests that the miscibility between drug and copolymer is crucial to drug loading and stability of the micellar system. Thus, the calculation of χFH using GCM and MDS methods is useful for guiding the design or screening of a suitable copolymer for preparing drug-loaded micellar nanocarrier systems. PMID:25587749
Napier, B.A.; Farris, W.T.; Simpson, J.C.
1992-12-01
A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 005) examined the contributions of numerous parameters to the uncertainty distribution of doses calculated for environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow`s milk and the third scoping study, which added additional pathways. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1 as described in Calculation 001.
Gaizer, F; Puskás, A
1981-08-01
The program MINIPOT is designed to run on a desk-computer with 16-kbyte of memory. It can calculate the optimum values of the parameters of a blank acid-base titration in any solvent, and the protonation/deprotonation or overall stability constants of a maximum of four species with compositions H(q)L(p) or M(q)L(p) from potential, titrant volume and analytical concentration data. The program, written in BASIC, is based on the least-squares principle and is capable of simultaneous refinement of a maximum of four parameters. PMID:18962959
Technique for Calculating Solution Derivatives With Respect to Geometry Parameters in a CFD Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mathur, Sanjay
2011-01-01
A solution has been developed to the challenges of computation of derivatives with respect to geometry, which is not straightforward because these are not typically direct inputs to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. To overcome these issues, a procedure has been devised that can be used without having access to the mesh generator, while still being applicable to all types of meshes. The basic approach is inspired by the mesh motion algorithms used to deform the interior mesh nodes in a smooth manner when the surface nodes, for example, are in a fluid structure interaction problem. The general idea is to model the mesh edges and nodes as constituting a spring-mass system. Changes to boundary node locations are propagated to interior nodes by allowing them to assume their new equilibrium positions, for instance, one where the forces on each node are in balance. The main advantage of the technique is that it is independent of the volumetric mesh generator, and can be applied to structured, unstructured, single- and multi-block meshes. It essentially reduces the problem down to defining the surface mesh node derivatives with respect to the geometry parameters of interest. For analytical geometries, this is quite straightforward. In the more general case, one would need to be able to interrogate the underlying parametric CAD (computer aided design) model and to evaluate the derivatives either analytically, or by a finite difference technique. Because the technique is based on a partial differential equation (PDE), it is applicable not only to forward mode problems (where derivatives of all the output quantities are computed with respect to a single input), but it could also be extended to the adjoint problem, either by using an analytical adjoint of the PDE or a discrete analog.
Optimization of the design parameters for a wide-band radiometric system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agrawal, P. K.
1978-01-01
The optimun design parameters for a swept frequency wide-band radiometric antenna system for spacecraft applications are studied. Wide band antenna systems are needed to observe layered surfaces which are frequency sensitive and require multiple measurements for interpretation. The lowest frequency band of interest is between 1.4 to 2.8 Ghz. Starting with a given size reflector fed in the offset mode by a corrugated horn located at the focus of the parabola, the primary performance indexes; e.g., half power beamwidth, cross polarization level, and overall beam efficiency were calculated over a wide frequency range (two to one) for different physical horn dimensions and for different values of f/D ratio. These data are used to find the best design under given restriction of reflector size and blockage.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pai, Shantaram S.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
1988-01-01
The calculation of shape and scale parameters of the two-parameter Weibull distribution is described using the least-squares analysis and maximum likelihood methods for volume- and surface-flaw-induced fracture in ceramics with complete and censored samples. Detailed procedures are given for evaluating 90 percent confidence intervals for maximum likelihood estimates of shape and scale parameters, the unbiased estimates of the shape parameters, and the Weibull mean values and corresponding standard deviations. Furthermore, the necessary steps are described for detecting outliers and for calculating the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit statistics and 90 percent confidence bands about the Weibull distribution. It also shows how to calculate the Batdorf flaw-density constants by uing the Weibull distribution statistical parameters. The techniques described were verified with several example problems, from the open literature, and were coded. The techniques described were verified with several example problems from the open literature, and were coded in the Structural Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation (SCARE) design program.
Traction calculations and design data for two traction fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tevaarwerk, J. L.
1983-01-01
The rheological properties of the fluid under these certain conditions which precludes the use of most of the conventional instruments for steady state measurement were studied. The only suitable type of instrument is a disk machine where most of the conditions are the same of similar to those in traction drives. From the resulting traction tests, certain models are inferred. To the designer of traction drives, the traction behavior of the fluid under the severe conditions is of utmost importance because of the direct influence that it has on the efficiency, size, and life of a given drive.
Method of calculating the optimal radioelectronic equipment design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermolaev, Yu. P.
1993-05-01
In designing the competitive radio-electronic equipment there inevitably arises the justified optimal constructional decision problem that accounts for many quality indexes. A totality of these quality indexes can be conveniently represented by the vector in a multi-dimensional space, on the coordinate axes of which the specific quantities of all the accountable indexes of quality are laid off. Inevitability of accounting for a variety of quality indexes, when choosing optimal decision, raises a problem of vector (multi-objective) optimization of the object developed.
Parameter-tolerant design of high contrast gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chevallier, Christyves; Fressengeas, Nicolas; Jacquet, Joel; Almuneau, Guilhem; Laaroussi, Youness; Gauthier-Lafaye, Olivier; Cerutti, Laurent; Genty, Frédéric
2015-02-01
This work is devoted to the design of high contrast grating mirrors taking into account the technological constraints and tolerance of fabrication. First, a global optimization algorithm has been combined to a numerical analysis of grating structures (RCWA) to automatically design HCG mirrors. Then, the tolerances of the grating dimensions have been precisely studied to develop a robust optimization algorithm with which high contrast gratings, exhibiting not only a high efficiency but also large tolerance values, could be designed. Finally, several structures integrating previously designed HCGs has been simulated to validate and illustrate the interest of such gratings.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Traditionally, a two-parameter partial differential equation has been used to describe the one-dimensional convective-dispersive transport of chemicals in field soils. The parameters in this equation include the dispersion coefficient and a distribution coefficient, the latter accounting for interac...
Numerical Procedures for the Calculations of Inorganic Solubility and Cohesive Parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, D.
1996-01-01
The entire history of chemistry bears witness to the extraorinary importance of the phenomena of solubility. It is necessary to emphasize that the Hildebrand parameter (solubility parameter) is fundamentally a liquid state property. When gases are considered they are treated as hypothetical.
Study of automatic designing of line heating technique parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yu-Jun; Guo, Pei-Jun; Deng, Yan-Ping; Ji, Zhuo-Shang; Wang, Ji; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Pi-Dong
2006-03-01
Based on experimental data of line heating, the methods of vector mapping, plane projection, and coordinate converting are presented to establish the spectra for line heating distortion discipline which shows the relationship between process parameters and distortion parameters of line heating. Back-propagation network (BP-net) is used to modify the spectra. Mathematical models for optimizing line heating techniques parameters, which include two-objective functions, are constructed. To convert the multi-objective optimization into a single-objective one, the method of changing weight coefficient is used, and then the individual fitness function is built up. Taking the number of heating lines, distance between the heating lines' border (line space), and shrink quantity of lines as three restrictive conditions, a hierarchy genetic algorithm (HGA) code is established by making use of information provided by the spectra, in which inner coding and outer coding adopt different heredity arithmetic operators in inherent operating. The numerical example shows that the spectra for line heating distortion discipline presented here can provide accurate information required by techniques parameter prediction of line heating process and the technique parameter optimization method based on HGA provided here can obtain good results for hull plate.
Strategy and calculations for the design of baffles for Wolter Type II telescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangus, John D.
Spaceflight, stellar pointing telescopes require baffle systems to define the field of view and protect this observational area from stray and scattered light. In the case of near normal incidence telescope systems, the problem consists in controlling the stray/scattered radiation reaching the image plane when circular plates, the primary and secondary mirrors, are the imaging elements. The case addressed in this paper is quite different in that it involves baffling two conical surfaces, i.e., the primary and secondary mirrors of a Wolter Type II telescope. A strategy is described for systematically moving through the telescope system and establishing criteria for placement of baffles. Calculations are given which determine the size and number of permitted baffles as a function of practical physical parameters. Clear options are given for the design of minimum baffle lengths to meet packaging constraints.
Strategy and calculations for the design of baffles for Wolter Type II telescopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangus, John D.
1988-01-01
Spaceflight, stellar pointing telescopes require baffle systems to define the field of view and protect this observational area from stray and scattered light. In the case of near normal incidence telescope systems, the problem consists in controlling the stray/scattered radiation reaching the image plane when circular plates, the primary and secondary mirrors, are the imaging elements. The case addressed in this paper is quite different in that it involves baffling two conical surfaces, i.e., the primary and secondary mirrors of a Wolter Type II telescope. A strategy is described for systematically moving through the telescope system and establishing criteria for placement of baffles. Calculations are given which determine the size and number of permitted baffles as a function of practical physical parameters. Clear options are given for the design of minimum baffle lengths to meet packaging constraints.
Designing substrates for silicene and germanene: First-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, M. X.; Zhong, Z.; Weinert, M.
2016-08-01
We propose a guideline for exploring substrates that stabilize the monolayer honeycomb structure of silicene and germanene while simultaneously preserving the Dirac states: in addition to having a strong binding energy to the monolayer, a suitable substrate should be a large-gap semiconductor with a proper work function such that the Dirac point lies in the gap and far from the substrate states when their bands align. We illustrate our idea by performing first-principles calculations for silicene and germanene on the Al-terminated (0001) surface of Al2O3 . The overlaid monolayers on Al-terminated Al2O3 (0001) retain the main structural profile of the low-buckled honeycomb structure via a binding energy comparable to the one between silicene and Ag(111). An unfolded band structure derived from the k -projection method reveals that a gapped Dirac cone is formed at the K point due to the structural distortion and the interaction with the substrate. The gaps of 0.4 and 0.3 eV, respectively, for the supported silicene and germanene suggest that they may have potential applications in nanoelectronics.
Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N. A.
The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15 percent) improved battery performance significantly (10 percent greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell performance is illustrated.
Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters
Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N.A.
1987-01-01
The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15%) improved battery performance significantly (10% greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell peformance is illustrated. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.
Borodkin, P.G.; Borodkin, G.I.; Khrennikov, N.N.
2011-07-01
The approach of improved uncertainty-accounted conservative evaluation of vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactor (VVER) (reactor-) pressure-vessel (RPV) radiation loading parameters has been proposed. This approach is based on the calculational-experimental procedure, which takes into account C/E ratio, depending on over- or underestimation, and uncertainties of measured and calculated results. An application of elaborated approach to the full-scale ex-vessel neutron dosimetry experiments on Russian VVERs combined with neutron-transport calculations has been demonstrated in the paper. (authors)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorenz-Meyer, W.
1977-01-01
In connection with the question on the applicability of test results obtained from cryogenic wind tunnels to the large-scale model the similarity parameter is referred to. A simple method is given for calculating the similarity parameter. From the numerical values obtained it can be deduced that nitrogen behaves practically like an ideal gas when it is close to the saturation point and in a pressure range up to 4 bar. The influence of this parameter on the pressure distribution of a supercritical profile confirms this finding.
Sensitivity of IFMIF-DONES irradiation characteristics to different design parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mota, F.; Ibarra, Á.; García, Á.; Molla, J.
2015-11-01
The DONES (DEMO oriented neutron source) has been conceived as a simplified IFMIF-like plant to provide earlier availability, on a reduced time scale and with a reduced budget—both compared to IFMIF—of basic information on materials damage. The conceptual design of the DONES will consist of a number of changes oriented to reduce the time required for construction and the time required to produce the required damage. This paper evaluates how changes in beam irradiation parameters or geometric issues will affect the damage produced in the specimens located in the experimental irradiation area (test cell) of the DONES. Neutron transport calculations have been performed to evaluate the sensitivity of material radiation effects to different irradiation environments. The neutron transport calculations have been performed using McDeLicious 2011 (based on MCNP5-v1.6), code developed by the KIT research institute to reproduce the IFMIF deuteron-lithium neutron source. With this aim in mind, the materials radiation effects evaluated to analyse the sensitivity to the changes in the irradiation conditions have been the damage dose rate, the He and H production, and the He and H production to damage dose ratio. With the analysis of these parameters it is possible to make an evaluation of the level of primary damage suffered by the specimen placed in the high flux test module (HFTM). Based on results obtained in this paper and taking into account engineering considerations, substantial progress should be possible regarding the optimum design parameters for the irradiation area of the IFMIF-DONES facility.
Calculation of safe parameters of air shock waves for underwater explosions
Smolii, N.I.; Ganopol'skii, M.I.
1985-07-01
The paper proposes a functional relationship for the calculation of the pressure at an air shock-wave front in underwater explosions of plaster-blasting charges. The maximum permissible mass of the charge and safe distance for objects can be calculated for an assigned value of the critical pressure at the air shock-wave front. The authors also state that this work was conducted as there are practically no significant results of experimental or theoretical investigations of this problem.
Design and Study of the Instrument to Assess Students' Attitude toward Graphing Calculator
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reznichenko, Nataliya
2007-01-01
Assumptions: In mathematics learning, one of the considerations in the graphing calculator (GC) use is to understand students' attitude toward calculators. Rationale: This presentation describes design of an assessment instrument of students' attitude toward graphing calculator. Objectives: A pilot study that assessed the effectiveness of the…
Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei
2016-01-01
Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme. PMID:27362762
Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei
2016-01-01
Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme. PMID:27362762
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biagi, S. F.; Bordage, M. C.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Pitchford, L. C.; Morgan, W. L.; Phelps, A. V.; Puech, V.
2011-10-01
In the context of the recently initiated GEC Plasma Data Exchange project, we compare measured swarm parameters with those calculated using sets of cross sections, compiled by different authors, in helium and neon. These data are on-line at www.lxcat.laplace.univ-tlse.fr. The cross section compilations for electron scattering from ground state helium or neon vary mainly in the level of detail provided for inelastic excitation, ranging from one effective excitation level to many individual levels. The swarm parameters were calculated using a 2-term Boltzmann solver and a Monte Carlo simulation. Calculated swarm parameters from the various compilations show good agreement among themselves in both gases, and generally good agreement is obtained between calculated and measured swarm parameters except for ionization coefficients at low E/N where measured ionization coefficients in both gases show strong influences of Penning ionization of impurities. We conclude that the cross section compilations and their use in a 2-term Boltzmann solver yield results sufficiently accurate for plasma modeling purposes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING...
Effective Parameters on Seismic Design of Rectangular Underground Structures
Amiri, G. Ghodrati; Maddah, N.; Mohebi, B.
2008-07-08
Underground structures are a significant part of the transportation in the modern society and in the seismic zones should withstand against both seismic and static loadings. Embedded structures should conform to ground deformations during the earthquake but almost exact evaluation of structure to ground distortion is critical. Several two-dimensional finite difference models are used to find effective parameters on racking ratio (structure to ground distortion) including flexibility ratio, various cross sections, embedment depth, and Poisson's ratio of soil. Results show that influence of different cross sections, by themselves is negligible but embedment depth in addition to flexibility ratio and Poisson's ratio is known as a consequential parameter. A comparison with pseudo-static method (simplified frame analysis) is also performed. The results show that for a stiffer structure than soil, racking ratio decreases as the depth of burial decreases; on the other hand, shallow and flexible structures can suffer greater distortion than deeper ones up to 30 percents.
Parameter optimization in AQM controller design to support TCP traffic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Wei; Yang, Oliver W.
2004-09-01
TCP congestion control mechanism has been widely investigated and deployed on Internet in preventing congestion collapse. We would like to employ modern control theory to specify quantitatively the control performance of the TCP communication system. In this paper, we make use of a commonly used performance index called the Integral of the Square of the Error (ISE), which is a quantitative measure to gauge the performance of a control system. By applying the ISE performance index into the Proportional-plus-Integral controller based on Pole Placement (PI_PP controller) for active queue management (AQM) in IP routers, we can further tune the parameters for the controller to achieve an optimum control minimizing control errors. We have analyzed the dynamic model of the TCP congestion control under this ISE, and used OPNET simulation tool to verify the derived optimized parameters of the controllers.
A robust parameter design for multi-response problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zandieh, M.; Amiri, M.; Vahdani, B.; Soltani, R.
2009-08-01
Most real world search and optimization problems naturally involve multiple responses. In this paper we investigate a multiple response problem within desirability function framework and try to determine values of input variables that achieve a target value for each response through three meta-heuristic algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and tabu search (TS). Each algorithm has some parameters that need to be accurately calibrated to ensure the best performance. For this purpose, a robust calibration is applied to the parameters by means of Taguchi method. The computational results of these three algorithms are compared against each others. The superior performance of SA over TS and TS over GA is inferred from the obtained results in various situations.
Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators
You-Hin Liau
1982-12-01
Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.
On the Methodology to Calculate the Covariance of Estimated Resonance Parameters
Becker, B.; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.
2015-01-15
Principles to determine resonance parameters and their covariance from experimental data are discussed. Different methods to propagate the covariance of experimental parameters are compared. A full Bayesian statistical analysis reveals that the level to which the initial uncertainty of the experimental parameters propagates, strongly depends on the experimental conditions. For high precision data the initial uncertainties of experimental parameters, like a normalization factor, has almost no impact on the covariance of the parameters in case of thick sample measurements and conventional uncertainty propagation or full Bayesian analysis. The covariances derived from a full Bayesian analysis and least-squares fit are derived under the condition that the model describing the experimental observables is perfect. When the quality of the model can not be verified a more conservative method based on a renormalization of the covariance matrix is recommended to propagate fully the uncertainty of experimental systematic effects. Finally, neutron resonance transmission analysis is proposed as an accurate method to validate evaluated data libraries in the resolved resonance region.
Dračínský, Martin; Bouř, Petr; Hodgkinson, Paul
2016-03-01
The influence of temperature on NMR chemical shifts and quadrupolar couplings in model molecular organic solids is explored using path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of shielding and electric field gradient (EFG) tensors. An approach based on convoluting calculated shielding or EFG tensor components with probability distributions of selected bond distances and valence angles obtained from DFT-PIMD simulations at several temperatures is used to calculate the temperature effects. The probability distributions obtained from the quantum PIMD simulations, which includes nuclear quantum effects, are significantly broader and less temperature dependent than those obtained with conventional DFT molecular dynamics or with 1D scans through the potential energy surface. Predicted NMR observables for the model systems were in excellent agreement with experimental data. PMID:26857802
Rethinking design parameters in the search for optimal dynamic seating.
Pynt, Jennifer
2015-04-01
Dynamic seating design purports to lessen damage incurred during sedentary occupations by increasing sitter movement while modifying muscle activity. Dynamic sitting is currently defined by O'Sullivan et al. ( 2013a) as relating to 'the increased motion in sitting which is facilitated by the use of specific chairs or equipment' (p. 628). Yet the evidence is conflicting that dynamic seating creates variation in the sitter's lumbar posture or muscle activity with the overall consensus being that current dynamic seating design fails to fulfill its goals. Research is needed to determine if a new generation of chairs requiring active sitter involvement fulfills the goals of dynamic seating and aids cardio/metabolic health. This paper summarises the pursuit of knowledge regarding optimal seated spinal posture and seating design. Four new forms of dynamic seating encouraging active sitting are discussed. These are 1) The Core-flex with a split seatpan to facilitate a walking action while seated 2) the Duo balans requiring body action to create rocking 3) the Back App and 4) Locus pedestal stools both using the sitter's legs to drive movement. Unsubstantiated claims made by the designers of these new forms of dynamic seating are outlined. Avenues of research are suggested to validate designer claims and investigate whether these designs fulfill the goals of dynamic seating and assist cardio/metabolic health. Should these claims be efficacious then a new definition of dynamic sitting is suggested; 'Sitting in which the action is provided by the sitter, while the dynamic mechanism of the chair accommodates that action'. PMID:25892386
Lorenz, K; Bruhn, G; Heumann, C; Hoffmann, T; Netuschil, L
2009-12-01
A variety of parameters is available to assess the efficacy of oral antiseptics. Most study protocols select the parameters according to the specific study goal or according to preferences of the researchers. Beside general recommendations for home-use studies, no recommendations exist for other study types. Therefore, pre-selected parameters should be compared within several study designs and the most suitable parameters should be recommended for further application. The following parameters were selected before study start: plaque indices (PlI, Silness & Loe 1964, M-QHI, Turesky et al. 1970), plaque area (PlA), bacterial vitality (BV, Netuschil et al. 1989), gingivitis indices (GI, Loe 1967; M-GI, Lobene et al. 1986; BOP, Ainamo & Bay 1975), gingival crevicular fluid, colony forming units, and the discoloration index (DI, Brecx et al. 1993). The parameters were applied in four study designs: eight-hour substantivity studies, four-day plaque re-growth studies, 21-day experimental gingivitis studies, and six-month home-use studies. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed. The highest correlations were found between PlI and M-QHI and between GI and M-GI (p<0.01) in all corresponding studies and treatment groups. Few middle correlations existed between BOP and the other gingival indices. Neither GI nor M-GI correlated with GCF nor did BV with plaque indices. Inconsistent correlations were obtained between PlA and plaque indices and between PlI and GI. It is concluded, that primary parameters for these designs should be one plaque index and/or one gingivitis index to monitor plaque and gingivitis. The other parameters did not yield additional information about the study outcome. PMID:20400799
Chang, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chen, Yu-Wen
2010-10-01
This research develops an optimum design model of groundwater network using genetic algorithm (GA) and modified Newton approach, based on the experimental design conception. The goal of experiment design is to minimize parameter uncertainty, represented by the covariance matrix determinant of estimated parameters. The design problem is constrained by a specified cost and solved by GA and a parameter identification model. The latter estimates optimum parameter value and its associated sensitivity matrices. The general problem is simplified into two classes of network design problems: an observation network design problem and a pumping network design problem. Results explore the relationship between the experimental design and the physical processes. The proposed model provides an alternative to solve optimization problems for groundwater experimental design. PMID:19757116
Percutaneous multiple electrode connector, design parameters and fabrication (biomedical)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myers, L. A.
1977-01-01
A percutaneous multielectrode connector was designed which utilizes an ultrapure carbon collar to provide an infection free biocompatible passage through the skin. The device provides reliable electrical continuity, mates and demates readily with the implant, and is fabricated with processes and materials oriented to commercial production.
Decoupling interrelated parameters for designing high performance thermoelectric materials.
Xiao, Chong; Li, Zhou; Li, Kun; Huang, Pengcheng; Xie, Yi
2014-04-15
The world's supply of fossil fuels is quickly being exhausted, and the impact of their overuse is contributing to both climate change and global political unrest. In order to help solve these escalating problems, scientists must find a way to either replace combustion engines or reduce their use. Thermoelectric materials have attracted widespread research interest because of their potential applications as clean and renewable energy sources. They are reliable, lightweight, robust, and environmentally friendly and can reversibly convert between heat and electricity. However, after decades of development, the energy conversion efficiency of thermoelectric devices has been hovering around 10%. This is far below the theoretical predictions, mainly due to the interdependence and coupling between electrical and thermal parameters, which are strongly interrelated through the electronic structure of the materials. Therefore, any strategy that balances or decouples these parameters, in addition to optimizing the materials' intrinsic electronic structure, should be critical to the development of thermoelectric technology. In this Account, we discuss our recently developed strategies to decouple thermoelectric parameters for the synergistic optimization of electrical and thermal transport. We first highlight the phase transition, which is accompanied by an abrupt change of electrical transport, such as with a metal-insulator and semiconductor-superionic conductor transition. This should be a universal and effective strategy to optimize the thermoelectric performance, which takes advantage of modulated electronic structure and critical scattering across phase transitions to decouple the power factor and thermal conductivity. We propose that solid-solution homojunction nanoplates with disordered lattices are promising thermoelectric materials to meet the "phonon glass electron crystal" approach. The formation of a solid solution, coupled with homojunctions, allows for
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westine, Carl; Spybrook, Jessaca
2013-01-01
The capacity of the field to conduct power analyses for group randomized trials (GRTs) of educational interventions has improved over the past decade (Authors, 2009). However, a power analysis depends on estimates of design parameters. Hence it is critical to build the empirical base of design parameters for GRTs across a variety of outcomes and…
Calculation of the parameters of one type of slotted waveguide line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lerer, A. M.; Mikhalevskii, V. S.; Tsvetkovskaia, S. M.
1981-10-01
The Galerkin method is used to calculate the dispersion characteristics of a slotted waveguide line, the slot of which is formed by metal ribs situated on opposite sides of the substrate. The influence of the deviation of waveguide dimensions from standard dimensions on the propagation constants is assessed.
VISA-II sensitivity study of code calculations: Input and analytical model parameters
Simonen, E.P.; Johnson, K.I.; Simonen, F.A.; Liebetrau, A.M.
1986-11-01
The Vessel Integrity Simulation Analysis (VISA-II) code was developed to allow calculations of the failure probability of a reactor pressure vessel subject to defined pressure/temperature transients. A version of the code, revised by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was used to evaluate the sensitivities of calculated through-wall flaw probability to material, flaw and calculational assumptions. Probabilities were more sensitive to flaw assumptions than to material or calculational assumptions. Alternative flaw assumptions changed the probabilities by one to two orders of magnitude, whereas alternative material assumptions typically changed the probabilities by a factor of two or less. Flaw shape, flaw through-wall position and flaw inspection were sensitivities examined. Material property sensitivities included the assumed distributions in copper content and fracture toughness. Methods of modeling flaw propagation that were evaluated included arrest/reinitiation toughness correlations, multiple toughness values along the length of a flaw, flaw jump distance for each computer simulation and added error in estimating irradiated properties caused by the trend curve correlation error.
Calculations of the heights, periods, profile parameters, and energy spectra of wind waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korneva, L. A.
1975-01-01
Sea wave behavior calculations require the precalculation of wave elements as well as consideration of the spectral functions of ocean wave formation. The spectrum of the random wave process is largely determined by the distribution of energy in the actual wind waves observed on the surface of the sea as expressed in statistical and spectral characteristics of the sea swell.
Universal algorithms and programs for calculating the motion parameters in the two-body problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhshiyan, B. T.; Sukhanov, A. A.
1979-01-01
The algorithms and FORTRAN programs for computing positions and velocities, orbital elements and first and second partial derivatives in the two-body problem are presented. The algorithms are applicable for any value of eccentricity and are convenient for computing various navigation parameters.
Parameters of a Super-B-Factory Design
Seeman, J.; Cai, Y.; Ecklund, S.; Fox, J.D.; Heifets, S.A.; Li, N.; McIntosh, P.A.; Novokhatski, A.; Sullivan, M.K.; Teytelman, D.; Wienands, U.; Biagini, M.E.; /Frascati
2006-03-03
Parameters are being studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity in the range of 7 to 10 x 10{sup 35}/cm{sup 2}/s. Particle physics studies dictate that a much higher luminosity collider than the present B-Factory accelerators will be needed to answer future new key physics questions. The success of the present B-Factories, PEP-II and KEKB, in producing unprecedented luminosity with very short commissioning times has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders in a new parameter regime. Such a collider could produce an integrated luminosity of 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year. A Super-B-Factory [1-8] with 30 to 50 times the performance of the present PEP-II accelerator would incorporate a higher frequency RF system, lower impedance vacuum chambers, higher power synchrotron radiation absorbers, and stronger bunch-by-bunch feedback systems. The present injector based on the SLAC linac needs no improvements and is ready for the Super-B-Factory.
Struelens, Lara; Vanhavere, Filip; Smans, Kristien
2008-10-21
The development and improvement of techniques for an accurate dose assessment in medical physics is an important task. In this study, we focus on the validation of Monte Carlo calculations, by comparing organ doses assessed experimentally with thermoluminescent detectors in the Rando-Alderson phantom with doses calculated for a voxelized model of the same phantom for some typical x-ray procedures. A detailed study has been performed to identify the key parameters that affect the determination of organ doses. Initially, TLD measurements were up to 65% higher than the calculated values. After the corrections made on TLD energy dependence, TLD angular dependence, material composition and field size and position, most differences between measurements and calculations are within 15%. For organs far away from the field the difference is about 30%. PMID:18827320
Hybrid functional calculations on the band gap bowing parameters of In x Ga1‑x N
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Lin; Yixu, Xu; Jianhua, Zhang; Shunqing, Wu; Zizhong, Zhu
2016-04-01
The electronic band structures and band gap bowing parameters of In x Ga1‑x N are studied by the first-principles method based on the density functional theory. Calculations by employing both the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerh of hybrid functional (HSE06) and the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) one are performed. We found that the theoretical band gap bowing parameter is dependent significantly on the calculation method, especially on the exchange-correlation functional employed in the DFT calculations. The band gap of In x Ga1‑x N alloy decreases considerably when the In constituent x increases. It is the interactions of s–s and p–p orbitals between anions and cations that play significant roles in formatting the band gaps bowing. In general, the HSE06 hybrid functional could provide a good alternative to the PBE functional in calculating the band gap bowing parameters. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11204257, 21233004) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2012M511447).
A Method for Designing CDO Conformed to Investment Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakae, Tatsuya; Moritsu, Toshiyuki; Komoda, Norihisa
We propose a method for designing CDO (Collateralized Debt Obligation) that meets investor needs about attributes of CDO. It is demonstrated that adjusting attributes (that are credit capability and issue amount) of CDO to investors' preferences causes a capital loss risk that the agent takes. We formulate a CDO optimization problem by defining an objective function using the above risk and by setting constraints that arise from investor needs and a risk premium that is paid for the agent. Our prototype experiment, in which fictitious underlying obligations and investor needs are given, verifies that CDOs can be designed without opportunity loss and dead stock loss, and that the capital loss is not more than thousandth part of the amount of annual payment under guarantee for small and midium-sized enterprises by a general credit guarantee institution.
Robust linear quadratic designs with respect to parameter uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglas, Joel; Athans, Michael
1992-01-01
The authors derive a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) which is robust to parametric uncertainty by using the overbounding method of I. R. Petersen and C. V. Hollot (1986). The resulting controller is determined from the solution of a single modified Riccati equation. It is shown that, when applied to a structural system, the controller gains add robustness by minimizing the potential energy of uncertain stiffness elements, and minimizing the rate of dissipation of energy through uncertain damping elements. A worst-case disturbance in the direction of the uncertainty is also considered. It is proved that performance robustness has been increased with the robust LQR when compared to a mismatched LQR design where the controller is designed on the nominal system, but applied to the actual uncertain system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordage, M. C.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Pitchford, L. C.; Biagi, S. F.; Puech, V.
2011-10-01
Xenon is used in a number of application areas ranging from light sources to x-ray detectors for imaging in medicine, border security and high-energy particle physics. There is a correspondingly large body of data available for electron scattering cross sections and swarm parameters in Xe, whereas data for Kr are more limited. In this communication we show intercomparisons of the cross section sets in Xe and Kr presently available on the LXCat site. Swarm parameters calculated using these cross sections sets are compared with experimental data, also available on the LXCat site. As was found for Ar, diffusion coefficients calculated using these cross section data in a 2-term Boltzmann solver are higher than Monte Carlo results by about 30% over a range of E/N from 1 to 100 Td. We find otherwise good agreement in Xe between 2-term and Monte Carlo results and between measured and calculated values of electron mobility, ionization rates and light emission (dimer) at atmospheric pressure. The available cross section data in Kr yield swarm parameters in agreement with the limited experimental data. The cross section compilations and measured swarm parameters used in this work are available on-line at www.lxcat.laplace. univ-tlse.fr.
Parameter Study of the LIFE Engine Nuclear Design
Kramer, K J; Meier, W R; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P
2009-07-10
LLNL is developing the nuclear fusion based Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant concept. The baseline design uses a depleted uranium (DU) fission fuel blanket with a flowing molten salt coolant (flibe) that also breeds the tritium needed to sustain the fusion energy source. Indirect drive targets, similar to those that will be demonstrated on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), are ignited at {approx}13 Hz providing a 500 MW fusion source. The DU is in the form of a uranium oxycarbide kernel in modified TRISO-like fuel particles distributed in a carbon matrix forming 2-cm-diameter pebbles. The thermal power is held at 2000 MW by continuously varying the 6Li enrichment in the coolants. There are many options to be considered in the engine design including target yield, U-to-C ratio in the fuel, fission blanket thickness, etc. Here we report results of design variations and compare them in terms of various figures of merit such as time to reach a desired burnup, full-power years of operation, time and maximum burnup at power ramp down and the overall balance of plant utilization.
Methods and new approaches to the calculation of physiological parameters by videodensitometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kedem, D.; Londstrom, D. P.; Rhea, T. C., Jr.; Nelson, J. H.; Price, R. R.; Smith, C. W.; Graham, T. P., Jr.; Brill, A. B.; Kedem, D.
1976-01-01
A complex system featuring a video-camera connected to a video disk, cine (medical motion picture) camera and PDP-9 computer with various input/output facilities has been developed. This system enables the performance of quantitative analysis of various functions recorded in clinical studies. Several studies are described, such as heart chamber volume calculations, left ventricle ejection fraction, blood flow through the lungs and also the possibility of obtaining information about blood flow and constrictions in small cross-section vessels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccluney, W. R.
1974-01-01
The development is considered of procedures for measuring a number of subsurface oceanographic parameters using remotely sensed ocean color data. It is proposed that the first step in this effort should be the development of adequate theoretical models relating the desired oceanographic parameters to the upwelling radiances to be observed. A portion of a contributory theoretical model is shown to be described by a modified single scattering approach based upon a simple treatment of multiple scattering. The resulting quasi-single scattering model can be used to predict the upwelling distribution of spectral radiance emerging from the sea. The shape of the radiance spectrum predicted by this model for clear ocean water shows encouraging agreement with measurments made at the edge of the Sargasso Sea off Cape Hatteras.
Sadeghi, Mahdi; Raisali, Gholamreza; Hosseini, S Hamed; Shavar, Arzhang
2008-04-01
This article presents a brachytherapy source having 103Pd adsorbed onto a cylindrical silver rod that has been developed by the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School for permanent implant applications. Dosimetric characteristics (radial dose function, anisotropy function, and anisotropy factor) of this source were experimentally and theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM Task group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the dose rate constant. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters using standard methods employing thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Perspex phantom. Precision machined bores in the phantom located the dosimeters and the source in a reproducible fixed geometry, providing for transverse-axis and angular dose profiles over a range of distances from 0.5 to 5 cm. The Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code, version 4C simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the dose-rate distributions around this model 103Pd source in water and Perspex phantoms. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate constant of the IRA-103Pd source in water was found to be 0.678 cGy h(-1) U(-1) with an approximate uncertainty of +/-0.1%. The anisotropy function, F(r, theta), and the radial dose function, g(r), of the IRA- 103Pd source were also measured in a Perspex phantom and calculated in both Perspex and liquid water phantoms. PMID:18491522
Analysis of JSI TRIGA MARK II reactor physical parameters calculated with TRIPOLI and MCNP.
Henry, R; Tiselj, I; Snoj, L
2015-03-01
New computational model of the JSI TRIGA Mark II research reactor was built for TRIPOLI computer code and compared with existing MCNP code model. The same modelling assumptions were used in order to check the differences of the mathematical models of both Monte Carlo codes. Differences between the TRIPOLI and MCNP predictions of keff were up to 100pcm. Further validation was performed with analyses of the normalized reaction rates and computations of kinetic parameters for various core configurations. PMID:25576735
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, L.; Li, Z.; Li, K.; Blarel, L.; Wendisch, M.
2014-12-01
The polarized CIMEL sun/sky radiometers have been routinely operated within the Sun/sky-radiometer Observation NETwork (SONET) in China and some sites of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) around the world. However, the polarization measurements are not yet widely used due to in a certain degree the lack of Stokes parameters derived directly from these polarization measurements. Meanwhile, it have been shown that retrievals of several microphysical properties of aerosol particles can be significantly improved by using degree of linear polarization (DoLP) measurements of polarized CIMEL sun/sky radiometers (CE318-DP). The Stokes parameters Q and U, as well as angle of polarization (AoP) contain additional information about linear polarization and its orientation. A method to calculate Stokes parameters Q, U, and AoP from CE318-DP polarized skylight measurements is introduced in this study. A new polarized almucantar geometry based on CE318-DP is measured to illustrate abundant variation features of these parameters. The polarization parameters calculated in this study are consistent with previous results of DoLP and I, and also comparable to vector radiative transfer simulations.
Inherent uncertainties in meteorological parameters for wind turbine design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doran, J. C.
1982-01-01
Major difficulties associated with meteorological measurments such as the inability to duplicate the experimental conditions from one day to the next are discussed. This lack of consistency is compounded by the stochastic nature of many of the meteorological variables of interest. Moreover, simple relationships derived in one location may be significantly altered by topographical or synoptic differences encountered at another. The effect of such factors is a degree of inherent uncertainty if an attempt is made to describe the atmosphere in terms of universal laws. Some of these uncertainties and their causes are examined, examples are presented and some implications for wind turbine design are suggested.
Inherent uncertainties in meteorological parameters for wind-turbine design
Doran, J.C.
1981-08-01
One of the major difficulties associated with meteorological measurements is the inability to duplicate the experimental conditions from one day to the next. This lack of consistency is compounded by the stochastic nature of many of the meteorological variables of interest. Moreover, simple relationships derived in one location may be significantly altered by topographical or synoptic differences encountered at another. The effect of such factors is a degree of inherent uncertainty if an attempt is made to describe the atmosphere in terms of universal laws. In this paper some of these uncertainties and their causes are examined, examples are presented and some implications for wind turbine design are suggested.
Maingi, R; Kaiser, T; Hill, D N; Lyon, J F; Monticello, D; Zarnstorff, M C
2006-06-12
The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a three-field period compact stellarator presently in the construction phase at Princeton, NJ. The design parameters of the device are major radius R=1.4m, average minor radius = 0.32m, 1.2 {le} toroidal field (B{sub t}) {le} 1.7 T, and auxiliary input power up to 12 MW with neutral beams and radio-frequency heating. The NCSX average aspect ratio
Butcher, B.M.
1997-08-01
A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values.
Understanding facilities design parameters for a remanufacturing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Topcu, Aysegul; Cullinane, Thomas
2005-11-01
Remanufacturing is rapidly becoming a very important element in the economies of the world. Products such as washing machines, clothes driers, automobile parts, cell phones and a wide range of consumer durable goods are being reclaimed and sent through processes that restore these products to levels of operating performance that are as good or better than their new product performance. The operations involved in the remanufacturing process add several new dimensions to the work that must be performed. Disassembly is an operation that rarely appears on the operations chart of a typical production facility. The inspection and test functions in remanufacturing most often involve several more tasks than those involved in the first time manufacturing cycle. A close evaluation of most any remanufacturing operation reveals several points in the process in which parts must be cleaned, tested and stored. Although several researchers have focused their work on optimizing the disassembly function and the inspection, test and store functions, very little research has been devoted to studying the impact of the facilities design on the effectiveness of the remanufacturing process. The purpose of this paper will be to delineate the differences between first time manufacturing operations and remanufacturing operations for durable goods and to identify the features of the facilities design that must be considered if the remanufacturing operations are to be effective.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wahyudi, Eko Januari
2013-09-01
As advancing application of soft computation technique in oil and gas industry, Genetic Algorithm (GA) also shows contribution in geophysical inverse problems in order to achieve better results and efficiency in computational process. In this paper, I would like to show the progress of my work in inverse modeling of time-lapse gravity data uses value encoding with alphabet formulation. The alphabet formulation designed to provide solution of characterization positive density change (+Δρ) and negative density change (-Δρ) respect to reference value (0 gr/cc). The inversion that utilize discrete model parameter, computed with GA as optimization algorithm. The challenge working with GA is take long time computational process, so the step in designing GA in this paper described through evaluation on GA operators performance test. The performances of several combinations of GA operators (selection, crossover, mutation, and replacement) tested with synthetic model in single-layer reservoir. Analysis on sufficient number of samples shows combination of SUS-MPCO-QSA/G-ND as the most promising results. Quantitative solution with more confidence level to characterize sharp boundary of density change zones was conducted with average calculation of sufficient model samples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, R. C.
1974-01-01
Sets of routines are presented that calculate such real-gas supersonic stream properties as velocity, density, enthalpy, entropy, and isentropic exponent. Two alternative sets of measurements are assumed: (1) stagnation pressure, stagnation temperature, and the pressure on the surface of a static-pressure wedge; or (2) pressure and temperature in a plenum upstream of a supersonic nozzle and the stagnation pressure at the exit of this nozzle. The routines are applicable to any gas whose properties are known. Explicit routines are presented for determining these properties for air, nitrogen, oxygen, normal hydrogen, para-hydrogen, helium, argon, steam, methane, and natural gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwanka, K.; Ortinger, W.; Steckel, J.
1994-01-01
First experimental investigations performed on a new test rig are presented. For a staggered labyrinth seal with fourteen cavities the stiffness coefficient and the leakage flow are measured. The experimental results are compared to calculated results which are obtained by a one-volume bulk-flow theory. A perturbation analysis is made for seven terms. It is found out that the friction factors have great impact on the dynamic coefficients. They are obtained by turbulent flow computation by a finite-volume model with the Reynolds equations used as basic equations.
Influence of design parameters on occurence of oil whirl
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ogrodnik, P. J.; Goodwin, M. J.; Penny, J. E. T.
1985-01-01
Oil whirl instability is a serious problem in oil lubricated journal bearings. The phenomenon is characterized by a subsynchronous vibration of the journal within the bush and is particularly apparent in turbogenerators, aeroengines and electric motors. A review is presented of previous papers on the subject of oil whirl, and a simple theory is described which was used to aid the design of an oil whirl test rig. Predictions of the onset of oil whirl made by the theory presented were found to agree with those of previous researchers. They showed that increasing the shaft flexibility, or the lubricant viscosity, and decreasing the bearing radial clearance tended to reduce the oil whirl onset speed thus making the system more unstable.
Structural Design Parameters for Highly Birefringent Coordination Polymers.
Thompson, John R; Katz, Michael J; Williams, Vance E; Leznoff, Daniel B
2015-07-01
A series of coordination polymer materials incorporating the highly anisotropic 2-(2-pyridyl)-1,10-phenanthroline (phenpy) building block have been synthesized and structurally characterized. M(phenpy)[Au(CN)2]2 (M = Cd, Mn) are isostructural and form a 1-D chain through bridging [Au(CN)2](-) units and extend into a 2-D sheet through aurophilic interactions. M(phenpy)(H2O)[Au(CN)2]2·2H2O (M = Cd, Mn, and Zn) are also isostructural but differ from the first set via the inclusion of a water molecule into the coordination sphere, resulting in a 1-D topology through aurophilic interactions. In(phenpy)(Cl)2[Au(CN)2]·0.5H2O forms a dimer through bridging chlorides and contains a free [Au(CN)2](-) unit. In the plane of the primary crystal growth direction, the birefringence values (Δn) of 0.37(2) (Cd(phenpy)[Au(CN)2]2), 0.50(3) (In(phenpy)(Cl)2[Au(CN)2]·0.5H2O), 0.56(3) and 0.59(6) (M(phenpy)(H2O)[Au(CN)2]2·2H2O M = Cd and Zn, respectively) were determined. β, a structural parameter defined by phenpy units rotated in the A-C plane relative to the light propagation (C) direction, was found to correlate to Δn magnitudes. The addition of a carbon-carbon double bond to terpy has increased the molecular polarizability anisotropy of the building block, and all structures have reduced deviation from planarity in comparison to terpy and terpy derivative structures, leading to these higher Δn values, which are among the highest reported for crystalline solids. PMID:26098267
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhmed-Ogly, K. V.; Savichev, O. G.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Reshetko, M. V.; Nalivajko, N. G.; Vlasova, M. V.
2014-08-01
Technique for the domestic wastewater treatment in the small residential areas and oil and gas facilities of the natural and man-made systems including a settling tank for mechanical treatment and a biological pond with peat substrate and bog vegetation for biological treatment has been substantiated. Technique for parameters calculation of the similar natural and man-made systems has been developed. It was proven that effective treatment of wastewater can be performed in Siberia all year round.
Comparison of four methods of calculating the symmetry of spatial-temporal parameters of gait.
Błażkiewicz, Michalina; Wiszomirska, Ida; Wit, Andrzej
2014-01-01
Although gait symmetry is being evaluated and reported in the literature with increasing frequency, there is still no generally accepted standard for assessing symmetry, making it difficult to compare studies and establish criteria to guide clinical decision-making. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether gait symmetry in healthy subjects is consistent when assessed using various coefficients (RI, SI, GA, and SA), and if possible to identify a gait symmetry coefficient with the highest diagnostic utility. The study involved a group of 58 healthy university-level students of physical education and secondary school students aged 20.03±0.97. Measurements of spatial-temporal gait parameters were conducted using the ZEBRIS platform. Our analysis supports existing recommendations that the symmetry index (SI) should be used as the most sensitive assessment of gait symmetry on the basis of spatial-temporal parameters in healthy subjects. Moreover, we developed normative values of individual features for diagnostic purposes. PMID:24708092
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espel, Federico Puente
The main objective of this PhD research is to develop a high accuracy modeling tool using a Monte Carlo based coupled system. The presented research comprises the development of models to include the thermal-hydraulic feedback to the Monte Carlo method and speed-up mechanisms to accelerate the Monte Carlo criticality calculation. Presently, deterministic codes based on the diffusion approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation, coupled with channel-based (or sub-channel based) thermal-hydraulic codes, carry out the three-dimensional (3-D) reactor core calculations of the Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These deterministic codes utilize nuclear homogenized data (normally over large spatial zones, consisting of fuel assembly or parts of fuel assembly, and in the best case, over small spatial zones, consisting of pin cell), which is functionalized in terms of thermal-hydraulic feedback parameters (in the form of off-line pre-generated cross-section libraries). High accuracy modeling is required for advanced nuclear reactor core designs that present increased geometry complexity and material heterogeneity. Such high-fidelity methods take advantage of the recent progress in computation technology and coupled neutron transport solutions with thermal-hydraulic feedback models on pin or even on sub-pin level (in terms of spatial scale). The continuous energy Monte Carlo method is well suited for solving such core environments with the detailed representation of the complicated 3-D problem. The major advantages of the Monte Carlo method over the deterministic methods are the continuous energy treatment and the exact 3-D geometry modeling. However, the Monte Carlo method involves vast computational time. The interest in Monte Carlo methods has increased thanks to the improvements of the capabilities of high performance computers. Coupled Monte-Carlo calculations can serve as reference solutions for verifying high-fidelity coupled deterministic neutron transport methods
Learning Effects in the Block Design Task: A Stimulus Parameter-Based Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Joseph C.; Ruthig, Joelle C.; Bradley, April R.; Wise, Richard A.; Pedersen, Heather A.; Ellison, Jo M.
2009-01-01
Learning effects were assessed for the block design (BD) task, on the basis of variation in 2 stimulus parameters: perceptual cohesiveness (PC) and set size uncertainty (U). Thirty-one nonclinical undergraduate students (19 female) each completed 3 designs for each of 4 varied sets of the stimulus parameters (high-PC/high-U, high-PC/low-U,…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Szatmary, Steven A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Nemeth, Noel N.
1990-01-01
This manual describes the operation and theory of the PC-CARES (Personal Computer-Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program for the IBM PC and compatibles running PC-DOS/MS-DOR OR IBM/MS-OS/2 (version 1.1 or higher) operating systems. The primary purpose of this code is to estimate Weibull material strength parameters, the Batdorf crack density coefficient, and other related statistical quantities. Included in the manual is the description of the calculation of shape and scale parameters of the two-parameter Weibull distribution using the least-squares analysis and maximum likelihood methods for volume- and surface-flaw-induced fracture in ceramics with complete and censored samples. The methods for detecting outliers and for calculating the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit statistics and 90 percent confidence bands about the Weibull line, as well as the techniques for calculating the Batdorf flaw-density constants are also described.
Design and flow field calculations for transonic and supersonic radial inflow turbine guide vanes
Reichert, A.W.; Simon, H.
1997-01-01
The design of radial inflow turbine guide vanes depends very much on the discharge conditions desired, especially if the choking mass flow is reached. Because of the choking mass flow condition and supersonic discharge Mach numbers, an inverse design procedure based on the method of characteristics is presented. Various designs corresponding to different discharge Mach numbers are shown. Viscous and inviscid flow field calculations for varying discharge conditions show the properties of the guide vanes at design and off-design conditions. In a previous paper (Reichert and Simon, 1994), an optimized design for transonic discharge conditions has been published. In the present paper, additional results concerning the optimum design are presented. For this optimum design an advantageous adjusting mechanism for a variable geometry guide vane has been developed. The effect of guide vane adjustment on the discharge conditions has been investigated using viscous flow field calculations.
Wang, Ji; Zhao, Wenhua; Du, Jianke; Hu, Yuantai
2011-01-01
Electrical parameters like resistance and quality factor of a quartz crystal resonator cannot be determined through vibration analysis without considering the presence of material dissipation. In this study, we use the first-order Mindlin plate equations of piezoelectric plates for thickness-shear vibrations of a simple resonator model with partial electrodes. We derive the expressions of electrical parameters with emphasis on the resistance that is related to the imaginary part of complex elastic constants, or the viscosity, of quartz crystal. Since all electrical parameters are frequency dependent, this procedure provides the chance to study the frequency behavior of crystal resonators with a direct formulation. We understand that the electrical parameters are strongly affected by the manufacturing process, with the plating techniques in particular, but the theoretical approach we presented here will be the first step for the precise estimation of such parameters and their further applications in the analysis of nonlinear behavior of resonators. We calculated the parameters from our simple resonator model of AT-cut quartz crystal with the first-order Mindlin plate theory to demonstrate the procedure and show that the numerical results are consistent with earlier measurements. PMID:20594568
A new method for the calculation of Sommerfeld screening parameter s1 in x-ray spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, U. D.; Chaturvedi, S.
2001-06-01
The paper describes a new method for the calculation of the Sommerfeld screening parameter s1. It requires neither the knowledge of the energy separations of spin doublet levels nor is it based on the application of the Hertz law. The only data required for the calculation are the experimental energy values of the level concerned for the series of elements belonging to the same subshell in which the element in the question is situated. As an illustration the values of s1 are calculated for the L1, L 2 and L3 levels for elements belonging to the 4f subshell and these are found to be in excellent agreement with those published earlier by Gokhale and Misra. The method brings out the constancy of s1(L1 L3) - s1(L1) in a natural way and may thus be regarded as providing theoretical explanation of the Hertz law.
Parameter-free calculation of charge-changing cross sections at high energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Terashima, S.; Kanungo, R.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.
2016-07-01
Charge-changing cross sections at high energies are expected to provide useful information on nuclear charge radii. No reliable theory to calculate the cross section has yet been available. We develop a formula using Glauber and eikonal approximations and test its validity with recent new data on carbon isotopes measured at around 900 A MeV. We first confirm that our theory reproduces the cross sections of 12,13,14C+12C consistently with the known charge radii. Next we show that the cross sections of C-1912 on a proton target are all well reproduced provided the role of neutrons is accounted for. We also discuss the energy dependence of the charge-changing cross sections.
Nucleon-nucleon potential calculated for the cloudy bag and related to effective OBE parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahler, Richard
1995-05-01
The nucleon nucleon potential is calculated in the context of the cloudy bag model. The one pion exchange diagram is used to determine the pion quark coupling. Two pion exchange diagrams, box and crossed box, including the delta isobar, produce additional central, spin-spin, and tensor couplings. Using non-relativistic approximations to the OBE model potentials, the two pion exchange contributions are related to the masses and couplings of σ, ω, δ, and ρ mesons. It is found that the two pion exchange generates essentially all of the σ contribution required by the OBE model, that there is a large δ contribution at a lower mass than expected, and that the ω and ρ contributions, while significant, are not able to provide what is required by the OBE model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyland, D. C.
1983-01-01
A stochastic structural control model is described. In contrast to the customary deterministic model, the stochastic minimum data/maximum entropy model directly incorporates the least possible a priori parameter information. The approach is to adopt this model as the basic design model, thus incorporating the effects of parameter uncertainty at a fundamental level, and design mean-square optimal controls (that is, choose the control law to minimize the average of a quadratic performance index over the parameter ensemble).
Chang, Zheng; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Jin; Hu, Gengkai
2010-02-15
In a recent paper, Chen et al. [Opt. Express 17, 3581 (2009)] develop an approach to design invisible cloaks with controllable constitutive parameters by adjusting the constant k in the Helmholtz's equation. In this comment, we discuss the limitation of the free parameter k in designing cloaks. It is found that the real constant k can be chosen only as limited values in order to avoid the singular material parameters. PMID:20389403
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, C. J.
1998-01-01
An implementation of the Model Based Parameter Estimation (MBPE) technique is presented for obtaining the frequency response of the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of arbitrarily shaped, three-dimensional perfect electric conductor (PEC) bodies. An Electric Field Integral Equation (EFTE) is solved using the Method of Moments (MoM) to compute the RCS. The electric current is expanded in a rational function and the coefficients of the rational function are obtained using the frequency derivatives of the EFIE. Using the rational function, the electric current on the PEC body is obtained over a frequency band. Using the electric current at different frequencies, RCS of the PEC body is obtained over a wide frequency band. Numerical results for a square plate, a cube, and a sphere are presented over a bandwidth. Good agreement between MBPE and the exact solution over the bandwidth is observed.
Kwon, Ji Young; Park, In Yang; Park, Yong Gue; Lee, Young; Lee, Guisera
2011-01-01
The purpose of the current study was to propose a Korean-specific parameter set for calculating the risk of Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy and to determine the screening performances of triple and quadruple tests in Korean women. Using the data on triple or quadruple screening from three hospitals in Korea during 7 yr, we re-converted the concentrations of four serum markers to multiple of median values according to gestational age and maternal weight. After re-calculating the risk of Down syndrome in each pregnancy by multiplying maternal age-specific risk by the likelihood ratio values for the serum markers, screening performances and optimal cut-off values of triple and quadruple tests were analyzed. Among 16,077 pregnancies, 23 cases had Down syndrome (1.4/1,000 deliveries). Compared to the previous program, the tests with new parameters had improved screening performance. The triple and quadruple tests had detection rates of 65.2% and 72.7%, respectively, at a false-positive rate of 5%. The optimal cut-off value for the quadruple and triple tests was 1:250. We have presented a Korean-specific parameter set for Down syndrome screening. The proposed screening test using this parameter set may improve the performance of Down syndrome screening for Korean women. PMID:22148000
Design methods of basic parameters of delay lines using magnetostatic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paladij, N. V.
1994-06-01
Propagation of magnetostatic waves in a layered structure of metal-dielectric -ferrite- dielectric-metal and influence nature of metallic screens on propagation conditions are studied. A program for calculation of the main delay line parameters is developed and nomograms connecting their electrical and mechanical parameters are plotted.
40 CFR 80.599 - How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... code (26 CFR part 48) shall be deemed to be MV15I or MV500I as appropriate for purposes of this... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I calculate volume balances for... § 80.599 How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes? (a) Quarterly compliance...
40 CFR 80.599 - How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... code (26 CFR part 48) shall be deemed to be MV15I or MV500I as appropriate for purposes of this... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I calculate volume balances for... § 80.599 How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes? (a) Quarterly compliance...
40 CFR 80.599 - How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... code (26 CFR part 48) shall be deemed to be MV15I or MV500I as appropriate for purposes of this... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I calculate volume balances for... § 80.599 How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes? (a) Quarterly compliance...
40 CFR 80.599 - How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... code (26 CFR part 48) shall be deemed to be MV15I or MV500I as appropriate for purposes of this... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I calculate volume balances for... § 80.599 How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes? (a) Quarterly compliance...
40 CFR 80.599 - How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... code (26 CFR part 48) shall be deemed to be MV15I or MV500I as appropriate for purposes of this... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I calculate volume balances for... § 80.599 How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes? (a) Quarterly compliance...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiele, Steffen; Möller, Markus; Blaar, Holger; Thürkow, Detlef; Müller-Hannemann, Matthias
2012-07-01
Hand in hand with the increasing availability of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), an efficient computation of land-surface parameters (LSPs) for large-scale digital elevation models becomes more and more important, in particular for web-based applications. Parallel processing using multi-threads on multi-core processors is a standard approach to decrease computing time for the calculation of local LSPs based on moving window operations (e.g. slope, curvature). LSPs which require non-localities for their calculation (e.g. hydrological connectivities of grid cells) make parallelization quite challenging due to data dependencies. On the example of the calculation of the LSP "flow accumulation", we test the two parallelization strategies "spatial decomposition" and "two phase approach" for their suitability to manage non-localities. Three datasets of digital elevation models with high spatial resolutions are used in our evaluation. These models are representative types of landscape of Central Europe with highly diverse geomorphic characteristics: a high mountains area, a low mountain range, and a floodplain area in the lowlands. Both parallelization strategies are evaluated with regard to their usability on these diversely structured areas. Besides the correctness analysis of calculated relief parameters (i.e. catchment areas), priority is given to the analysis of speed-ups achieved through the deployed strategies. As presumed, local surface parameters allow an almost ideal speed-up. The situation is different for the calculation of non-local parameters which requires specific strategies depending on the type of landscape. Nevertheless, still a significant decrease of computation time has been achieved. While the speed-ups of the computation of the high mountain dataset are higher by running the "spatial decomposition approach" (3.2 by using four processors and 4.2 by using eight processors), the speed-ups of the "two phase approach" have proved to be
Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.
2007-06-30
Advanced, direct thermal energy conversion technologies are receiving increased research attention in order to recover waste thermal energy in advanced vehicles and industrial processes. Advanced thermoelectric (TE) systems necessarily require integrated system-level analyses to establish accurate optimum system designs. Past system-level design and analysis has relied on well-defined deterministic input parameters even though many critically important environmental and system design parameters in the above mentioned applications are often randomly variable, sometimes according to complex relationships, rather than discrete, well-known deterministic variables. This work describes new research and development creating techniques and capabilities for probabilistic design and analysis of advanced TE power generation systems to quantify the effects of randomly uncertain design inputs in determining more robust optimum TE system designs and expected outputs. Selected case studies involving stochastic TE .material properties and coupled multi-variable stochasticity in key environmental and design parameters are presented and discussed to demonstrate key impacts from considering stochastic design inputs on the TE design optimization process. Critical findings show that: 1) stochastic Gaussian input distributions may produce Gaussian or non-Gaussian outcome probability distributions for critical TE design parameters, and 2) probabilistic input considerations can create design effects that warrant significant modifications to deterministically-derived optimum TE system designs. Magnitudes and directions of these design modifications are quantified for selected TE system design analysis cases.
Qualls, A.L.; Wilson Jr, T.L.
2006-07-01
Early reactor analysis work for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Liquid Salt - Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR) concept has focused primarily on detailed analyses of the core. This paper discusses ongoing analyses of the balance of plant and how it impacts overall system design. A dynamic system model of the end-to-end LS-VHTR has been developed to investigate the impact of major design parameters on systems performance, safety margin, and plant economics. The core model uses simplified thermal-hydraulic analyses to calculate four characteristic radial coolant channel parameters during transients. The core model is coupled to a multi-reheat Brayton power conversion system model through an intermediate salt-coolant loop model. A passive, safety-related heat-removal system is modeled for reactor pressure vessel protection. Critical parameters, such as peak fuel and vessel temperatures and peak temperatures and pressures in the power conversion loop, are estimated during proposed transients. The impacts of design parameters on component design requirements, safety margin, and economics are to be investigated. Transients initially analyzed will include loss-of-coolant-flow accidents. For initial transients, the axial- and radial-power profiles within the core will remain constant, with power levels decreasing in proportion to the time-dependent decay heating rate of the fuel. Later transients will represent spatial core power shifts during transients without scram. Results from simplified economic models will support relative comparisons among system design options. (authors)
Back-calculation of temperature parameters for determination of asphalt layer modulus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Qinxi; Matsui, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Higashi, Shigeo
2000-05-01
The pavement elastic modulus of each layer was usually assumed not to be dependent on the environmental factors when the backcalculation of asphalt pavement was conducted from the measured surface deflections of FWD. However, it is well known that the elastic modulus of asphalt layer changes with the variation of temperature. Considering the influence of atmospheric temperature and radiant heat, the temperature distribution is nonlinear along the asphalt layer thickness, and has always been changed. Therefore, the distribution of elastic modulus in the asphalt layer has been considered to change as well. In this paper, we assume the elastic modulus distribution of the asphalt layer to vary with its temperature in terms of the exponential form. Based on the finite element method forward analysis, we propose a method to estimate a standard elastic modulus and temperature coefficient at 20 degrees Celsius for the asphalt layer from the backcalculation analysis. The corresponding FEM backcalculation program using Gauss-Newton method was developed to determine the pavement layer moduli and temperature dependent coefficient, in which the singular value decomposition (SVD) was used for the inverse analysis with scaling of unknown parameters. This method results in a smaller condition number that contributes to improvement of numerical stability. Both numerical simulation and measured data from FWD testing are used to demonstrate the potential applications of this method. As a result, the backcalculation procedure is less dependent on the user's initial values, fast in convergence rate and effective in the pavement engineering.
Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters. Revision 2
Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Davis, J.S.
1993-03-01
This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.
Analytical Calculation of Sensing Parameters on Carbon Nanotube Based Gas Sensors
Akbari, Elnaz; Buntat, Zolkafle; Ahmad, Mohd Hafizi; Enzevaee, Aria; Yousof, Rubiyah; Iqbal, Syed Muhammad Zafar; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi.; Sidik, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Karimi, Hediyeh
2014-01-01
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are generally nano-scale tubes comprising a network of carbon atoms in a cylindrical setting that compared with silicon counterparts present outstanding characteristics such as high mechanical strength, high sensing capability and large surface-to-volume ratio. These characteristics, in addition to the fact that CNTs experience changes in their electrical conductance when exposed to different gases, make them appropriate candidates for use in sensing/measuring applications such as gas detection devices. In this research, a model for a Field Effect Transistor (FET)-based structure has been developed as a platform for a gas detection sensor in which the CNT conductance change resulting from the chemical reaction between NH3 and CNT has been employed to model the sensing mechanism with proposed sensing parameters. The research implements the same FET-based structure as in the work of Peng et al. on nanotube-based NH3 gas detection. With respect to this conductance change, the I–V characteristic of the CNT is investigated. Finally, a comparative study shows satisfactory agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data from the mentioned research. PMID:24658617
Analytical calculation of sensing parameters on carbon nanotube based gas sensors.
Akbari, Elnaz; Buntat, Zolkafle; Ahmad, Mohd Hafizi; Enzevaee, Aria; Yousof, Rubiyah; Iqbal, Syed Muhammad Zafar; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Sidik, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Karimi, Hediyeh
2014-01-01
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are generally nano-scale tubes comprising a network of carbon atoms in a cylindrical setting that compared with silicon counterparts present outstanding characteristics such as high mechanical strength, high sensing capability and large surface-to-volume ratio. These characteristics, in addition to the fact that CNTs experience changes in their electrical conductance when exposed to different gases, make them appropriate candidates for use in sensing/measuring applications such as gas detection devices. In this research, a model for a Field Effect Transistor (FET)-based structure has been developed as a platform for a gas detection sensor in which the CNT conductance change resulting from the chemical reaction between NH3 and CNT has been employed to model the sensing mechanism with proposed sensing parameters. The research implements the same FET-based structure as in the work of Peng et al. on nanotube-based NH3 gas detection. With respect to this conductance change, the I-V characteristic of the CNT is investigated. Finally, a comparative study shows satisfactory agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data from the mentioned research. PMID:24658617
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimer, Joscha; Piwonski, Jaroslaw; Slawig, Thomas
2016-04-01
The statistical significance of any model-data comparison strongly depends on the quality of the used data and the criterion used to measure the model-to-data misfit. The statistical properties (such as mean values, variances and covariances) of the data should be taken into account by choosing a criterion as, e.g., ordinary, weighted or generalized least squares. Moreover, the criterion can be restricted onto regions or model quantities which are of special interest. This choice influences the quality of the model output (also for not measured quantities) and the results of a parameter estimation or optimization process. We have estimated the parameters of a three-dimensional and time-dependent marine biogeochemical model describing the phosphorus cycle in the ocean. For this purpose, we have developed a statistical model for measurements of phosphate and dissolved organic phosphorus. This statistical model includes variances and correlations varying with time and location of the measurements. We compared the obtained estimations of model output and parameters for different criteria. Another question is if (and which) further measurements would increase the model's quality at all. Using experimental design criteria, the information content of measurements can be quantified. This may refer to the uncertainty in unknown model parameters as well as the uncertainty regarding which model is closer to reality. By (another) optimization, optimal measurement properties such as locations, time instants and quantities to be measured can be identified. We have optimized such properties for additional measurement for the parameter estimation of the marine biogeochemical model. For this purpose, we have quantified the uncertainty in the optimal model parameters and the model output itself regarding the uncertainty in the measurement data using the (Fisher) information matrix. Furthermore, we have calculated the uncertainty reduction by additional measurements depending on time
Poludniowski, Gavin G.; Evans, Philip M.
2013-04-15
Purpose: Monte Carlo methods based on the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) have previously been used to model light transport in powdered-phosphor scintillator screens. Physically motivated guesses or, alternatively, the complexities of Mie theory have been used by some authors to provide the necessary inputs of transport parameters. The purpose of Part II of this work is to: (i) validate predictions of modulation transform function (MTF) using the BTE and calculated values of transport parameters, against experimental data published for two Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb screens; (ii) investigate the impact of size-distribution and emission spectrum on Mie predictions of transport parameters; (iii) suggest simpler and novel geometrical optics-based models for these parameters and compare to the predictions of Mie theory. A computer code package called phsphr is made available that allows the MTF predictions for the screens modeled to be reproduced and novel screens to be simulated. Methods: The transport parameters of interest are the scattering efficiency (Q{sub sct}), absorption efficiency (Q{sub abs}), and the scatter anisotropy (g). Calculations of these parameters are made using the analytic method of Mie theory, for spherical grains of radii 0.1-5.0 {mu}m. The sensitivity of the transport parameters to emission wavelength is investigated using an emission spectrum representative of that of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb. The impact of a grain-size distribution in the screen on the parameters is investigated using a Gaussian size-distribution ({sigma}= 1%, 5%, or 10% of mean radius). Two simple and novel alternative models to Mie theory are suggested: a geometrical optics and diffraction model (GODM) and an extension of this (GODM+). Comparisons to measured MTF are made for two commercial screens: Lanex Fast Back and Lanex Fast Front (Eastman Kodak Company, Inc.). Results: The Mie theory predictions of transport parameters were shown to be highly sensitive to both grain size
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haider, Clifton R.; Manduca, Armando; Camp, Jon J.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Robb, Richard A.; Bharucha, Adil E.
2006-03-01
The rectum can distend to accommodate stool, and contracts in response to distention during defecation. Rectal motor dysfunctions are implicated in the pathophysiology of functional defecation disorders and fecal incontinence. These rectal motor functions can be studied by intra-luminal measurements of pressure by manometry, or combined with volume during rectal balloon distention. Pressure-volume (p-v) relationships provide a global index of rectal mechanical properties. However, balloon distention alone does not measure luminal radius or wall thickness, which are necessary to compute wall tension and stress respectively. It has been suggested that the elastic modulus, which is the linear slope of the stress-strain relationship, is a more accurate measure of wall stiffness. Also, measurements of compliance may not reflect differences in rectal diameter between subjects prior to inflation, and imaging is necessary to determine if, as has been suggested, rectal pressure-volume relationships are affected by extra-rectal structures. We have developed a technique to measure rectal stress:strain relationships in humans, by simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during rectal balloon distention. After a conditioning distention, a rectal balloon was distended with water from 0 to 400 ml in 50 ml steps, and imaged at each step with MRI. The fluid filled balloon was segmented from each volume, the phase-ordered binary volumes were transformed into a geometric characterization of the inflated rectal surface. Taken together with measurements of balloon pressure and of rectal wall thickness, this model of the rectal surface was used to calculate regional values of curvature, tension, strain, and stress for the rectum. In summary, this technique has the unique ability to non-invasively measure the rectal stress:strain relationship and also determine if rectal expansion is limited by extra-rectal structures. This functional information allows the direct clinical analysis
Garger, Evgenii K; Meisenberg, Oliver; Odintsov, Oleksiy; Shynkarenko, Viktor; Tschiersch, Jochen
2013-10-15
Nuclear fuel particles of Chernobyl origin are carriers of increased radioactivity (hot particles) and are still present in the atmosphere of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Workers in the zone may inhale these particles, which makes assessment necessary. The residence time in the lungs and the transfer in the blood of the inhaled radionuclides are crucial for inhalation dose assessment. Therefore, the dissolution of several kinds of nuclear fuel particles from air filters sampled in the Chernobyl exclusion zone was studied. For this purpose filter fragments with hot particles were submersed in simulated lung fluids (SLFs). The activities of the radionuclides (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am were measured in the SLF and in the residuum of the fragments by radiometric methods after chemical treatment. Soluble fractions as well as dissolution rates of the nuclides were determined. The influence of the genesis of the hot particles, represented by the (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu ratio, on the availability of (137)Cs was demonstrated, whereas the dissolution of (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am proved to be independent of genesis. No difference in the dissolution of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu was observed for the two applied types of SLF. Increased solubility was found for smaller hot particles. A two-component exponential model was used to describe the dissolution of the nuclides as a function of time. The results were applied for determining individual inhalation dose coefficients for the workers at the Chernobyl construction site. Greater dose coefficients for the respiratory tract and smaller coefficients for the other organs were calculated (compared to ICRP default values). The effective doses were in general lower for the considered radionuclides, for (241)Am even by one order of magnitude. PMID:24054559
NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR HELIUM PARAMETERS BASED ON IBEX-Lo OBSERVATIONS AND TEST PARTICLE CALCULATIONS
Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sokol, J. M.; Hlond, M.; Moebius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Leonard, T.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Schwadron, N. A.; Crew, G. B.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.
2012-02-01
Because of its high ionization potential and weak interaction with hydrogen, neutral interstellar helium (NISHe) is almost unaffected at the heliospheric interface with the interstellar medium and freely enters the solar system. This second most abundant species provides some of the best information on the characteristics of the interstellar gas in the local interstellar cloud. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is the second mission to directly detect NISHe. We present a comparison between recent IBEX NISHe observations and simulations carried out using a well-tested quantitative simulation code. Simulation and observation results compare well for times when measured fluxes are dominated by NISHe (and contributions from other species are small). Differences between simulations and observations indicate a previously undetected secondary population of neutral helium, likely produced by interaction of interstellar helium with plasma in the outer heliosheath. Interstellar neutral parameters are statistically different from previous in situ results obtained mostly from the GAS/Ulysses experiment, but they do agree with the local interstellar flow vector obtained from studies of interstellar absorption: the newly established flow direction is ecliptic longitude 79.{sup 0}2, latitude -5.{sup 0}1, the velocity is {approx}22.8 km s{sup -1}, and the temperature is 6200 K. These new results imply a markedly lower absolute velocity of the gas and thus significantly lower dynamic pressure on the boundaries of the heliosphere and different orientation of the Hydrogen Deflection Plane compared to prior results from Ulysses. A different orientation of this plane also suggests a new geometry of the interstellar magnetic field, and the lower dynamic pressure calls for a compensation by other components of the pressure balance, most likely a higher density of interstellar plasma and strength of interstellar magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husanu, Marius Adrian; Popescu, Dana Georgeta; Ganea, Constantin Paul; Anghel, Iulia; Florica, Camelia
2015-12-01
A two dimensional photonic crystal (2DPhC) with triangular symmetry is investigated using optical reflectivity measurements and numerical calculations. The system has been obtained by direct laser writing, using a pulsed laser ( λ = 775 nm), perforating an In-doped Ge wafer. A lattice of holes with well-defined symmetry has been designed. Analyzing the spectral signature of PBGs recorded experimentaly with finite difference time domain theoretical calculations one was able to prove the relation between the geometric parameters (hole format, lattice constant) of the system and its ability to trap and guide the radiation in specific energy range. It was shown that at low frequency and telecommunication ranges of transvelsal electric modes photonic band gap occur. This structure may have potential aplications in designing photonic devices with applications in energy storage and conversion as potential alternative to Si-based technology.
Hartt, W.H.
1999-07-01
The recently developed slope parameter approach to design of galvanic anode cathodic protection (cp) systems for marine structures constitutes an advancement in this technology compared to current practice, primarily because the former is first principles based and the latter is an empirical algorithm. In this paper, the slope parameter approach is reviewed; and related applications for which it can be utilized, including (1) design of new and retrofit cp systems, (2) evaluation of potential survey data, and (3) cp system design for complex geometries, are mentioned. The design current density is identified as the single remaining parameter for which values must be projected solely by experience or experimentation. In addition, the slope parameter approach is applied to the results of impressed current cp experiments, and it is shown how parameters for this can be interrelated with those of galvanic anode cp. Advantages of this capability are identified and discussed.
Design guide for calculating fluid damping for circular cylindrical structures. [LMFBR
Chen, S.S.
1983-06-01
Fluid damping plays an important role for structures submerged in fluid, subjected to flow, or conveying fluid. This design guide presents a summary of calculational procedures and design data for fluid damping for circular cylinders vibrating in quiescent fluid, crossflow, and parallel flow.
Preliminary safety calculations to improve the design of Molten Salt Fast Reactor
Brovchenko, M.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Capellan, N.; Ghetta, V.; Laureau, A.
2012-07-01
Molten salt reactors are liquid fuel reactors so that they are flexible in operation but very different in the safety approach from solid fuel reactors. This study bears on the specific concept named Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). Since this new nuclear technology is in development, safety is an essential point to be considered all along the R and D studies. This paper presents the first step of the safety approach: the systematic description of the MSFR, limited here to the main systems surrounding the core. This systematic description is the basis on which we will be able to devise accidental scenarios. Thanks to the negative reactivity feedback coefficient, most accidental scenarios lead to reactor shut down. Because of the decay heat generated in the fuel salt, it must be cooled. After the description of the tools developed to calculate the residual heat, the different contributions are discussed in this study. The decay heat of fission products in the MSFR is evaluated to be low (3% of nominal power), mainly due to the reprocessing that transfers the fission products to the gas reprocessing unit. As a result, the contribution of the actinides is significant (0.5% of nominal power). The unprotected loss of heat sink transients are studied in this paper. It appears that slow transients are favorable (> 1 min) to minimize the temperature increase of the fuel salt. This work will be the basis of further safety studies as well as an essential parameter for the design of the draining system. (authors)
Parallel calculation of sensitivity derivatives for aircraft design using automatic differentiation
Bischof, C.H.; Knauff, T.L. Jr.; Green, L.L.; Haigler, K.J.
1994-01-01
Realistic multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of advanced aircraft using state-of-the-art computers is an extremely challenging problem from both the physical modelling and computer science points of view. In order to produce an efficient aircraft design, many trade-offs must be made among the various physical design variables. Similarly, in order to produce an efficient design scheme, many trade-offs must be made among the various MDO implementation options. In this paper, we examine the effects of vectorization and coarse-grained parallelization on the SD calculation using a representative example taken from a transonic transport design problem.
Sadeghi, Mahdi; Taghdiri, Fatemeh; Hamed Hosseini, S.; Tenreiro, Claudio
2010-10-15
Purpose: The formalism recommended by Task Group 60 (TG-60) of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is applicable for {beta} sources. Radioactive biocompatible and biodegradable {sup 153}Sm glass seed without encapsulation is a {beta}{sup -} emitter radionuclide with a short half-life and delivers a high dose rate to the tumor in the millimeter range. This study presents the results of Monte Carlo calculations of the dosimetric parameters for the {sup 153}Sm brachytherapy source. Methods: Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to calculate two-dimensional dose distributions around the source. The dosimetric parameters of AAPM TG-60 recommendations including the reference dose rate, the radial dose function, the anisotropy function, and the one-dimensional anisotropy function were obtained. Results: The dose rate value at the reference point was estimated to be 9.21{+-}0.6 cGy h{sup -1} {mu}Ci{sup -1}. Due to the low energy beta emitted from {sup 153}Sm sources, the dose fall-off profile is sharper than the other beta emitter sources. The calculated dosimetric parameters in this study are compared to several beta and photon emitting seeds. Conclusions: The results show the advantage of the {sup 153}Sm source in comparison with the other sources because of the rapid dose fall-off of beta ray and high dose rate at the short distances of the seed. The results would be helpful in the development of the radioactive implants using {sup 153}Sm seeds for the brachytherapy treatment.
Iomin, L.M.; Buznik, V.M.
1988-11-01
Quantum-chemical calculations of the bonding energy of the crystal lattice, the unit-cell parameters, and the coordinates of the anions in crystalline magnesium difluoride have been performed in the framework of the Loewdin model. An expression for the energy of the three-particle interactions in rutile-like crystals has been obtained. The calculations were carried out in three successive approximations. A comparison with the experimental data shows that the best description of the interatomic interactions in rutile-like magnesium fluoride (in the framework of the Loewdin model) is achieved in an approximation which takes into account the non-Madelung interactions only in the first coordination sphere. Consideration of the short-range interactions with more distant ions worsens the agreement between theory and experiment.
Calculation of structural parameters of a Van Der Waals complex of the CO molecule with a Li+ cation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulanin, K. M.; Bulychev, V. P.; Buturlimova, M. V.
2015-12-01
The equilibrium nuclear configuration and the potential energy and dipole moment component surfaces of an isolated Li+-CO complex are calculated quantum-mechanically in the MP4(SDQ)/6-311++G(3df) approximation. The geometrical parameters and the binding energy of the complex are determined. The frequencies and intensities for the fundamental transitions are calculated in the harmonic approximation. The one-, two-, and three-dimensional anharmonic vibrational Schrödinger equations are solved using the variational method. The energies of states of a three-dimensional vibrational system, anharmonic constants, and the frequencies and intensities of fundamental transitions are determined with the anharmonic interactions taken into account. The changes in the frequency and intensity of the C-O stretching vibration upon the formation of the complex are predicted.
Mandlik, Nandkumar; Patil, B. J.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.; Sahare, P. D.
2014-04-24
Nanorods of CaSO{sub 4}: Dy having diameter 20 nm and length 200 nm have been synthesized by the chemical coprecipitation method. These samples were irradiated with gamma radiation for the dose varying from 0.1 Gy to 50 kGy and their TL characteristics have been studied. TL dose response shows a linear behavior up to 5 kGy and further saturates with increase in the dose. A Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) program was used for the analysis of TL glow curves. Trapping parameters for various peaks have been calculated by using CGCD program.
Parameter-Level Data Flow Modeling Oriented to Product Design Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shen; Shao, Xiao Dong; Zhang, Zhi Hua; Ge, Xiao Bo
2015-12-01
In this paper, a method of data flow modeling for a product design process oriented to data parameter is proposed. The data parameters are defined, which are classified as the basic data parameters and complex data parameters. The mechanism of the mapping relationship between different forms of documents and some basic data parameters, and a data transmission based on parameters, are constructed. Aiming at the characteristics of the iterative design process, the parameters version mechanism including node modification and iteration information is proposed. The data parameters transmission relationships are represented by a parameters network model (PNM) based on a directed graph. Finally, through the table of data parameters mapping onto the workflow node and PNM, the data ports and data links in the data flow model are generated automatically by the program. Validation in the 15-meter-diameter S/Ka frequency band antenna design process of the “Reflector, Back frame and Center part design” data flow model shows that the method can effectively shorten the time of data flow modeling and improve the data transmission efficiency.
1995-09-01
Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth.
Effect of desiccant isotherm on the design parameters of desiccant wheel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Laxmikant; Yadav, Ankit; Dabra, Vishal; Yadav, Avadhesh
2014-01-01
A one dimensional mathematical model is developed to optimize the design parameters of desiccant wheel. The result shows that after some value of design parameters, change in moisture removal is negligible. The optimum isotherm shape should be R = 0.1. At this isotherm optimum value of wheel length, and channel pitch should be in the range of 0.2-0.25 and 0.003-0.004 m respectively.
Cristy, M.
1980-01-01
Mathematical phantoms of the human body at various ages are employed with Monte Carlo radiation transport codes for calculation of photon specific absorbed fractions. The author has developed a pediatric phantom series based on the design of the adult phantom, but with explicit equations for each organ so that organ sizes and marrow distributions could be assigned properly. Since the phantoms comprise simple geometric shapes, predictive dose capability is limited when geometry is critical to the calculation. Hence, there is a demand for better phantom design in situations where geometry is critical, such as for external irradiation or for internal emitters with low energy photons. Recent advances in computerized axial tomography (CAT) present the potential for derivation of anatomical information, which is so critical to development of phantoms, and ongoing developmental work on compuer architecture to handle large arrays for Monte Carlo calculations should make complex-geometry dose calculations economically feasible within this decade.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chougale, Yashwant; Nath, Rejish
2016-07-01
We obtain ab initio the Hubbard parameters for Rydberg-dressed atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal optical lattice on the basis of maximally-localized Wannier states. Finite range, soft-core interatomic interactions become the trait of Rydberg admixed atoms, which can be extended over many neighboring lattice sites. In contrast to dipolar gases, where the interactions follow an inverse cubic law, the key feature of Rydberg-dressed interactions is the possibility of making neighboring couplings to the same magnitude as that of the onsite ones. The maximally-localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) are typically calculated via a spread-minimization procedure (Marzari N and Vanderbilt D 1997 Phys. Rev. B 56 12847) and are always found to be real functions apart from a trivial global phase when an isolated set of Bloch bands are considered. For an isolated single Bloch band, the above procedure reduces to a simple quasi-momentum-dependent unitary phase transformation. Here, instead of minimizing the spread, we employ a diagonal phase transformation which eliminates the imaginary part of the Wannier functions. The resulting Wannier states are found to be maximally localized and in exact agreement with those obtained via a spread-minimization procedure. Using these findings, we calculate the Hubbard couplings from the Rydberg admixed interactions, including dominant density-assisted tunneling (DAT) coefficients. Finally, we provide realistic lattice parameters for the state-of-the-art experimental Rydberg-dressed rubidium setup.
Park, Byoung Yoon; Hansen, Francis D.
2004-07-01
The regulatory compliance determination for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant includes the consideration of room closure. Elements of the geomechanical processes include salt creep, gas generation and mechanical deformation of the waste residing in the rooms. The WIPP was certified as complying with regulatory requirements based in part on the implementation of room closure and material models for the waste. Since the WIPP began receiving waste in 1999, waste packages have been identified that are appreciably more robust than the 55-gallon drums characterized for the initial calculations. The pipe overpack comprises one such waste package. This report develops material model parameters for the pipe overpack containers by using axisymmetrical finite element models. Known material properties and structural dimensions allow well constrained models to be completed for uniaxial, triaxial, and hydrostatic compression of the pipe overpack waste package. These analyses show that the pipe overpack waste package is far more rigid than the originally certified drum. The model parameters developed in this report are used subsequently to evaluate the implications to performance assessment calculations.
Koeppe, R.A.; Holden, J.E.; Hutchins, G.D.
1985-05-01
The authors have developed a method for the rapid pixel-by-pixel estimation of glucose metabolic rate from a dynamic sequence of PCT images acquired over 40 minutes following venous bolus injection of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (2-FDG). The calculations are based on the conventional four parameter model. The dephosphorylation rate (k/sub 4/) cannot be reliably estimated from only 40 minutes of data; however, neglecting dephosphorylation can nonetheless introduce significant biases into the parameter estimation processes. In the authors' method, the rate is constrained to fall within a small range about a presumed value. Computer simulation studies show that this constraint greatly reduces the systematic biases in the other three fitted parameters and in the metabolic rate that arise from the assumption of no dephosphorylation. The parameter estimation scheme used is formally identical to one originally developed for dynamic methods of cerebral blood flow estimation. Estimation of metabolic rate and the individual model rate parameters k/sub 1/, k/sub 2/, and k/sub 3/, can be carried out for each pixel sequence of a 100 x 100 pixel image in less than two minutes on our PDP 11/60 minicomputer with floating point processor. While the maps of k/sub 2/ amd k/sub 3/ are quite noisy, accurate estimates of average values can be attained for regions of a few cm/sup 2/. The maps of metabolic rate offer many advantages in addition to that of direct visualization. These include improved statistical precision and the avoidance of averaging failure in the fitting of heterogeneous regions.
Takeda, T.; Shimazu, Y.; Hibi, K.; Fujimura, K.
2012-07-01
Under the R and D project to improve the modeling accuracy for the design of fast breeder reactors the authors are developing a neutronics calculation method for designing a large commercial type sodium- cooled fast reactor. The calculation method is established by taking into account the special features of the reactor such as the use of annular fuel pellet, inner duct tube in large fuel assemblies, large core. The Verification and Validation, and Uncertainty Qualification (V and V and UQ) of the calculation method is being performed by using measured data from the prototype FBR Monju. The results of this project will be used in the design and analysis of the commercial type demonstration FBR, known as the Japanese Sodium fast Reactor (JSFR). (authors)
Algorithms of D-optimal designs for Morgan Mercer Flodin (MMF) models with three parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Widiharih, Tatik; Haryatmi, Sri; Gunardi, Wilandari, Yuciana
2016-02-01
Morgan Mercer Flodin (MMF) model is used in many areas including biological growth studies, animal and husbandry, chemistry, finance, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Locally D-optimal designs for Morgan Mercer Flodin (MMF) models with three parameters are investigated. We used the Generalized Equivalence Theorem of Kiefer and Wolvowitz to determine D-optimality criteria. Number of roots for standardized variance are determined using Tchebysheff system concept and it is used to decide that the design is minimally supported design. In these models, designs are minimally supported designs with uniform weight on its support, and the upper bound of the design region is a support point.
Summary report for ITER Task -- D4: Activation calculations for the stainless steel ITER design
Attaya, H.
1995-02-01
Detailed activation analysis for ITER has been performed as a part of ITER Task D4. The calculations have been performed for the shielding blanket (SS/water) and for the breeding blanket (LiN) options. The activation code RACC-P, which has been modified under IFER Task-D-10 for pulsed operation, has been used in this analysis. The spatial distributions of the radioactive inventory, decay heat, biological hazard potential, and the contact dose were calculated for the two designs for different operation modes and targeted fluences. A one-dimensional toroidal geometrical model has been utilized to determine the neutron fluxes in the two designs. The results are normalized for an inboard and outboard neutron wall loadings of 0.91 and 1.2 MW/M{sup 2}, respectively. The point-wise distributions of the decay gamma sources have been calculated everywhere in the reactor at several times after the shutdown of the two designs and are then used in the transport code ONEDANT to calculate the biological dose everywhere in the reactor. The point-wise distributions of all the responses have also been calculated. These calculations have been performed for neutron fluences of 3.0 MWa/M{sup 2}, which corresponds to the target fluence of ITER, and 0.1 MWa/M{sup 2}, which is anticipated to correspond to the beginning of an extended maintenance period.
Optimum design calculations for detectors based on ZnSe(Те,О) scintillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katrunov, K.; Ryzhikov, V.; Gavrilyuk, V.; Naydenov, S.; Lysetska, O.; Litichevskyi, V.
2013-06-01
Light collection in scintillators ZnSe(X), where X is an isovalent dopant, was studied using Monte Carlo calculations. Optimum design was determined for detectors of "scintillator—Si-photodiode" type, which can involve either one scintillation element or scintillation layers of large area made of small-crystalline grains. The calculations were carried out both for determination of the optimum scintillator shape and for design optimization of light guides, on the surface of which the layer of small-crystalline grains is formed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dioguardi, Fabio; Dellino, Pierfrancesco
2014-05-01
PYFLOW is a computer code designed for quantifying the hazard related to Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents (DPDC). DPDCs are multiphase flows that form during explosive volcanic eruptions. They are the major source of hazard related to volcanic eruptions, as they exert a significant stress over buildings and transport significant amounts of volcanic ash, which is hot and unbreathable. The program calculates the DPDC's impact parameters (e.g. dynamic pressure and particle volumetric concentration) and is founded on the turbulent boundary layer theory adapted to a multiphase framework. Fluid-dynamic variables are searched with a probabilistic approach, meaning that for each variable the average, maximum and minimum solutions are calculated. From these values, PYFLOW creates probability functions that allow to calculate the parameter at a given percentile. The code is written in Fortran 90 and can be compiled and installed on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux operating systems (OS). A User's manual is provided, explaining the details of the theoretical background, the setup and running procedure and the input data. The model inputs are DPDC deposits data, e.g. particle grainsize, layer thickness, particles shape factor and density. PYFLOW reads input data from a specifically designed input file or from the user's direct typing by command lines. Guidelines for writing input data are also contained in the package. PYFLOW guides the user at each step of execution, asking for additional data and inputs. The program is a tool for DPDC hazard assessment and, as an example, an application to the DPDC deposits of the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (4.1 ky BP) at Campi Flegrei (Italy) is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeiler, M.; Detraz, S.; Olantera, L.; Pezzullo, G.; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S.; Sigaud, C.; Soos, C.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.
2016-01-01
Particle detectors for future experiments at the HL-LHC will require new optical data transmitters that can provide high data rates and be resistant against high levels of radiation. Furthermore, new design paths for future optical readout systems for HL-LHC could be opened if there was a possibility to integrate the optical components with their driving electronics and possibly also the silicon particle sensors themselves. All these functionalities could potentially be combined in the silicon photonics technology which currently receives a lot of attention for conventional optical link systems. Silicon photonic test chips were designed in order to assess the suitability of this technology for deployment in high-energy physics experiments. The chips contain custom-designed Mach-Zehnder modulators, pre-designed ``building-block'' modulators, photodiodes and various other passive test structures. The simulation and design flow of the custom designed Mach-Zehnder modulators and some first measurement results of the chips are presented.
Robust PID Parameter Design for Embedded Temperature Control System Using Taguchi Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Arata; Sugimoto, Kenji
This paper proposes a robust PID parameter design scheme using Taguchi's robust design method. This scheme is applied to an embedded PID temperature control system which is affected by outside (room) temperature. The effectiveness of this scheme is verified experimentally with a cooking household appliance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikezic, D.; Yu, K. N.
2006-01-01
A computer program called TRACK_TEST for calculating parameters (lengths of the major and minor axes) and plotting profiles in nuclear track materials resulted from light-ion irradiation and subsequent chemical etching is described. The programming steps are outlined, including calculations of alpha-particle ranges, determination of the distance along the particle trajectory penetrated by the chemical etchant, calculations of track coordinates, determination of the lengths of the major and minor axes and determination of the contour of the track opening. Descriptions of the program are given, including the built-in V functions for the two commonly employed nuclear track materials commercially known as LR 115 (cellulose nitrate) and CR-39 (poly allyl diglycol carbonate) irradiated by alpha particles. Program summaryTitle of the program:TRACK_TEST Catalogue identifier:ADWT Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWT Computer:Pentium PC Operating systems:Windows 95+ Programming language:Fortran 90 Memory required to execute with typical data:256 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2739 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:204 526 Distribution format:tar.gz External subprograms used:The entire code must be linked with the MSFLIB library Nature of problem: Fast heavy charged particles (like alpha particles and other light ions etc.) create latent tracks in some dielectric materials. After chemical etching in aqueous NaOH or KOH solutions, these tracks become visible under an optical microscope. The growth of a track is based on the simultaneous actions of the etchant on undamaged regions (with the bulk etch rate V) and along the particle track (with the track etch rate V). Growth of the track is described satisfactorily by these two parameters ( V and V). Several models have been presented in the past describing
Filho, Manoel A. M.; Dutra, José Diogo L.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.
2016-01-01
The RM1 quantum chemical model for the calculation of complexes of Tm(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) is advanced. Subsequently, we tested the models by fully optimizing the geometries of 126 complexes. We then compared the optimized structures with known crystallographic ones from the Cambridge Structural Database. Results indicate that, for thulium complexes, the accuracy in terms of the distances between the lanthanide ion and its directly coordinated atoms is about 2%. Corresponding results for ytterbium and lutetium are both 3%, levels of accuracy useful for the design of lanthanide complexes, targeting their countless applications. PMID:27223475
Filho, Manoel A M; Dutra, José Diogo L; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M; Freire, Ricardo O
2016-01-01
The RM1 quantum chemical model for the calculation of complexes of Tm(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) is advanced. Subsequently, we tested the models by fully optimizing the geometries of 126 complexes. We then compared the optimized structures with known crystallographic ones from the Cambridge Structural Database. Results indicate that, for thulium complexes, the accuracy in terms of the distances between the lanthanide ion and its directly coordinated atoms is about 2%. Corresponding results for ytterbium and lutetium are both 3%, levels of accuracy useful for the design of lanthanide complexes, targeting their countless applications. PMID:27223475
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarakis, P.; Bug, M. U.; Gargioni, E.; Guatelli, S.; Rabus, H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.
2012-03-01
The concept of nanodosimetry is based on the assumption that initial damage to cells is related to the number of ionizations (the ionization cluster size) directly produced by single particles within, or in the close vicinity of, short segments of DNA. The ionization cluster-size distribution and other nanodosimetric quantities, however, are not directly measurable in biological targets and our current knowledge is mostly based on numerical simulations of particle tracks in water, calculating track structure parameters for nanometric target volumes. The assessment of nanodosimetric quantities derived from particle-track calculations using different Monte Carlo codes plays, therefore, an important role for a more accurate evaluation of the initial damage to cells and, as a consequence, of the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. The aim of this work is to assess the differences in the calculated nanodosimetric quantities obtained with Geant4-DNA as compared to those of the ad hoc particle-track Monte Carlo code ‘PTra’ developed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The comparison of the two codes was made for incident electrons of energy in the range between 50 eV and 10 keV, for protons of energy between 300 keV and 10 MeV, and for alpha particles of energy between 1 and 10 MeV as these were the energy ranges available in both codes at the time this investigation was carried out. Good agreement was found for nanodosimetric characteristics of track structure calculated in the high-energy range of each particle type. For lower energies, significant differences were observed, most notably in the estimates of the biological effectiveness. The largest relative differences obtained were over 50%; however, generally the order of magnitude was between 10% and 20%.
Lazarakis, P; Bug, M U; Gargioni, E; Guatelli, S; Rabus, H; Rosenfeld, A B
2012-03-01
The concept of nanodosimetry is based on the assumption that initial damage to cells is related to the number of ionizations (the ionization cluster size) directly produced by single particles within, or in the close vicinity of, short segments of DNA. The ionization cluster-size distribution and other nanodosimetric quantities, however, are not directly measurable in biological targets and our current knowledge is mostly based on numerical simulations of particle tracks in water, calculating track structure parameters for nanometric target volumes. The assessment of nanodosimetric quantities derived from particle-track calculations using different Monte Carlo codes plays, therefore, an important role for a more accurate evaluation of the initial damage to cells and, as a consequence, of the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. The aim of this work is to assess the differences in the calculated nanodosimetric quantities obtained with Geant4-DNA as compared to those of the ad hoc particle-track Monte Carlo code 'PTra' developed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The comparison of the two codes was made for incident electrons of energy in the range between 50 eV and 10 keV, for protons of energy between 300 keV and 10 MeV, and for alpha particles of energy between 1 and 10 MeV as these were the energy ranges available in both codes at the time this investigation was carried out. Good agreement was found for nanodosimetric characteristics of track structure calculated in the high-energy range of each particle type. For lower energies, significant differences were observed, most notably in the estimates of the biological effectiveness. The largest relative differences obtained were over 50%; however, generally the order of magnitude was between 10% and 20%. PMID:22330641
Use precise calculation models to operate or design refinery gas treating systems
1996-07-01
Amine simulators using rate-based calculation methodology can show refinery operators how to treat more acid gas with existing equipment. These simulators can rate the performance and design of an existing unit by evaluating tray size, downcomer configuration, column diameter, wier height, tray depth and operation with a particular solvent. In addition, these simulators can optimize plant designers` solvent selection and equipment sizing in grassroots applications.
Design parameters for toroidal and bobbin magnetics. [conversion from English to metric units
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclyman, W. T.
1974-01-01
The adoption by NASA of the metric system for dimensioning to replace long-used English units imposes a requirement on the U.S. transformer designer to convert from the familiar units to the less familiar metric equivalents. Material is presented to assist in that transition in the field of transformer design and fabrication. The conversion data makes it possible for the designer to obtain a fast and close approximation of significant parameters such as size, weight, and temperature rise. Nomographs are included to provide a close approximation for breadboarding purposes. For greater convenience, derivations of some of the parameters are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimer, J.; Schürch, M.; Slawig, T.
2014-09-01
The weighted least squares estimator for model parameters was presented together with its asymptotic properties. A popular approach to optimize experimental designs called local optimal experimental designs was described together with a lesser known approach which takes into account a potential nonlinearity of the model parameters. These two approaches were combined with two different methods to solve their underlying discrete optimization problem. All presented methods were implemented in an open source MATLAB toolbox called the Optimal Experimental Design Toolbox whose structure and handling was described. In numerical experiments, the model parameters and experimental design were optimized using this toolbox. Two models for sediment concentration in seawater of different complexity served as application example. The advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches were compared, and an evaluation of the approaches was performed.
Multiobjective optimization in structural design with uncertain parameters and stochastic processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, S. S.
1984-01-01
The application of multiobjective optimization techniques to structural design problems involving uncertain parameters and random processes is studied. The design of a cantilever beam with a tip mass subjected to a stochastic base excitation is considered for illustration. Several of the problem parameters are assumed to be random variables and the structural mass, fatigue damage, and negative of natural frequency of vibration are considered for minimization. The solution of this three-criteria design problem is found by using global criterion, utility function, game theory, goal programming, goal attainment, bounded objective function, and lexicographic methods. It is observed that the game theory approach is superior in finding a better optimum solution, assuming the proper balance of the various objective functions. The procedures used in the present investigation are expected to be useful in the design of general dynamic systems involving uncertain parameters, stochastic process, and multiple objectives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neeman, Elias M.; Dréan, Pascal; Huet, Thérèse R.
2016-04-01
Camphene (C10H16) is a bicyclic monoterpene of atmospheric interest. The structure of the unique stable conformer was optimized using density functional theory and ab initio calculations. The rotational spectrum of camphene was recorded in a supersonic jet expansion with a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer over the range 2-20 GHz. Signals from the parent species and from the ten 13C isotopomers were observed in natural abundance. The rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters were fitted to a Watson's Hamiltonian in the A-reduction. Complex line-shapes resulting from a magnetic interaction associated with the pairs of hydrogen nuclei in the methylene groups was observed and modeled. The rotational constants were used together with equilibrium structure to determine the r0 and the rm(1) gas-phase geometries of the carbon skeleton. The present work provides the first spectroscopic characterization of camphene in the gas phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machado, Pablo; Campos, Patrick T.; Lima, Glauber R.; Rosa, Fernanda A.; Flores, Alex F. C.; Bonacorso, Helio G.; Zanatta, Nilo; Martins, Marcos A. P.
2009-01-01
The crystal structures of four novel analgesic agents, methyl 5-hydroxy-3- or 4-methyl-5-trichloro[trifluoro]methyl-4,5-dihydro-1 H-pyrazole-1-carboxylate, have been determined by X-ray diffractometry. The data demonstrated that the molecular packing was stabilized mainly by O sbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds of the 5-hydroxy and 1-carboxymethyl groups. The 4,5-dihydro-1 H-pyrazole rings were obtained as almost planar structures showing RMS deviation at a range of 0.0052-0.0805 Å. Additionally, computational investigation using semi-empirical AM1 and PM3 methods were performed to find a correlation between experimental and calculated geometrical parameters. The data obtained suggest that the structural data furnished by the AM1 method is in better agreement with those experimentally determined for the above compounds.
Calculation of EPR Parameters g Factors for Ce3+ Ion in YBa2Cu3O6+x Superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Hui-Ning; Du, Hui-Ping; Duan, Chang-Kui; Luo, Xiao-Bing
The perturbation formulae of EPR parameters g factors gx, gy and gz for the lowest Kramers doublet of 4f1 ion in orthorhombic symmetry are established. In these formulae, the contributions of the covalency effects, the admixture between J=7/2 and J=5/2 states as well as the second-order perturbation (which is not considered in the previous works) via crystal-field and orbital angular momentum interactions are all included. According to these formulae, and by using the superposition model, the g-factors gx, gy and gz for Ce3+ center in YBa2Cu3O6+x superconductor are calculated. The results are discussed.
Bondarenko, Evgenii A
2011-09-30
Based on the analysis of a well-known system of equations describing the dynamics of a two-isotope laser gyro with an equal-Q resonator under conditions of its fine-tuning to the centre of the emission line and balanced currents in the discharge arms, we have derived the formulas for calculating the parameters of the synchronisation zone for the frequencies of counterpropagating electromagnetic waves generated in the device. The formulas make it possible to calculate the coordinates on the axis of the angular velocity of the left and right boundaries of the synchronisation zone, the coordinate of its centre and half-width. It follows from the analysis that, in the general case of the asymmetric linear coupling between the counterpropagating waves via backscattering, absorption, and transmission of radiation from the mirrors of the gyro, the left and right boundaries of the synchronisation zone are located at different distances with respect to the origin of coordinates, so that the centre of the region is displaced along the axis of the angular velocity. The analysis of the formulas also implies that the shift of the centre of the synchronisation zone and its half-width decrease with increasing medium gain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitchford, Leanne; Bordage, M. C.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Pancheshnyi, S.; Biagi, S. F.; Itikawa, Y.; Kochetov, I.; Napartovich, A.; Phelps, A. V.
2012-10-01
The purpose of this communication is to describe the four independently-compiled sets of electron-O2 scattering cross section sets that are presently available on the LXCat site (www.lxcat.net). Three of these cross section sets were assembled and adjusted for good agreement with swarm parameters, and the fourth set consists of recommended data resulting from an evaluation of beam experiments and available theoretical. The cross sections sets are intended to be ``complete'' in the sense that the major electron energy, momentum, and number changing processes are taken into account, but it should be noted that the electronically excited levels included in the compilations differ from one cross section data set to another. We use these different data sets as input to a Boltzmann equation solver and calculate the electron transport and rate coefficients. Comparisons of calculated transport and rate coefficients with experimental data will be presented for each cross section set. We note that the consistency of the experimental data in O2 is not as good as the data for H2 and N2 (see previous poster). Some cross section data for electron scattering from Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are also available on LXCat.
Application of the cBΩ model to the calculation of diffusion parameters of He in olivine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallianatos, F.; Saltas, V.
2014-03-01
The validity of the thermodynamic cBΩ model is tested in terms of the experimentally determined diffusion coefficients of He in a natural Fe-bearing olivine (Fo90) and a synthetic end-member forsterite (Mg2SiO4) over a broad temperature range (250-950 °C), as reported recently by Cherniak and Watson (Geochem Cosmochim Acta 84:269-279, 2012). The calculated activation enthalpies for each of the three crystallographic axes were found to be (134 ± 5), (137 ± 13) and (158 ± 4) kJ mol-1 for the [100], [010] and [001] directions in forsterite, and (141 ± 9) kJ mol-1 for the [010] direction in olivine, exhibiting a deviation of <1 % with the corresponding reported experimental values. Additional point defect parameters such as activation volume, activation entropy and activation Gibbs free energy were calculated as a function of temperature. The estimated activation volumes (3.2-3.9 ± 0.3 cm3 mol-1) of He diffusion in olivine are comparable with other reported results for hydrogen and tracer diffusion of Mg cations in olivine. The pressure dependence of He diffusion coefficients was also determined, based on single experimental diffusion measurements at 2.6 and 2.7 GPa along the [001] direction in forsterite at 400 and 650 °C.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasmussen, Troels Hels; Wang, Yang Min; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Kristensen, Kasper
2016-05-01
We augment the recently introduced same number of optimized parameters (SNOOP) scheme [K. Kristensen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 114116 (2015)] for calculating interaction energies of molecular dimers with an F12 correction and generalize the method to enable the determination of interaction energies of general molecular clusters. The SNOOP, uncorrected (UC), and counterpoise (CP) schemes with/without an F12 correction are compared for the S22 test set of Jurečka et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1985 (2006)]—which consists of 22 molecular dimers of biological importance—and for water and methane molecular clusters. The calculations have been performed using the Resolution of the Identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory method. We conclude from the results that the SNOOP scheme generally yields interaction energies closer to the complete basis set limit value than the UC and CP approaches, regardless of whether the F12 correction is applied or not. Specifically, using the SNOOP scheme with an F12 correction yields the computationally most efficient way of achieving accurate results at low basis set levels. These conclusions hold both for molecular dimers and more general molecular clusters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, Leonard W.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The maximum likelihood procedure is developed for estimating the three spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses and their statistical properties investigated. The estimation procedure is then generalized for application to real cosmic-ray data. To illustrate the procedure and its utility, analytical methods were developed in conjunction with a Monte Carlo simulation to explore the combination of the expected cosmic-ray environment with a generic space-based detector and its planned life cycle, allowing us to explore various detector features and their subsequent influence on estimating the spectral parameters. This study permits instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandlin, Doral R.; Swanson, Stephen Mark
1990-01-01
The creation of a computer module used to calculate the size of the horizontal control surfaces of a conceptual aircraft design is discussed. The control surface size is determined by first calculating the size needed to rotate the aircraft during takeoff, and, second, by determining if the calculated size is large enough to maintain stability of the aircraft throughout any specified mission. The tail size needed to rotate during takeoff is calculated from a summation of forces about the main landing gear of the aircraft. The stability of the aircraft is determined from a summation of forces about the center of gravity during different phases of the aircraft's flight. Included in the horizontal control surface analysis are: downwash effects on an aft tail, upwash effects on a forward canard, and effects due to flight in close proximity to the ground. Comparisons of production aircraft with numerical models show good accuracy for control surface sizing. A modified canard design verified the accuracy of the module for canard configurations. Added to this stability and control module is a subroutine that determines one of the three design variables, for a stable vectored thrust aircraft. These include forward thrust nozzle position, aft thrust nozzle angle, and forward thrust split.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belwanshi, Vinod; Topkar, Anita
2016-05-01
Finite element analysis study has been carried out to optimize the design parameters for bulk micro-machined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing applications. The design is targeted for measurement of pressure up to 200 bar for nuclear reactor applications. The mechanical behavior of bulk micro-machined silicon membranes in terms of deflection and stress generation has been simulated. Based on the simulation results, optimization of the membrane design parameters in terms of length, width and thickness has been carried out. Subsequent to optimization of membrane geometrical parameters, the dimensions and location of the high stress concentration region for implantation of piezoresistors have been obtained for sensing of pressure using piezoresistive sensing technique.
Theoretical determination of design parameters for an arrayed heat sink with vertical plate fins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shiang-Jiun; Chen, Yi-Jin
2016-05-01
This paper employs theoretical approach to determine the adequate design parameters of an arrayed plate-fins heat sink based on maximizing heat flow. According to analyzed results, increasing the dimensions of configurative parameters does not always yield the significant increase in the heat flow. As the fin length and fin space increases until a critical value, the heat flow will significantly reduce the increment or decay, respectively.
First-order method of zoom lens design by means of generalized parameters.
Khorokhorov, Alexei M; Piskunov, Dmitry E; Shirankov, Alexander F
2016-08-01
A method of paraxial zoom lens design is proposed that makes it possible to determine the optical powers and component movements of a zoom lens with the required zoom ratio. The method is based on the theory of generalized parameters, which can be used to analyze a zoom system by varying only one parameter. All possible zoom lenses with two movable components are considered for an object at infinity. PMID:27505652
Optimal Input Design for Aircraft Parameter Estimation using Dynamic Programming Principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav
1990-01-01
A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.
Optimal input design for aircraft parameter estimation using dynamic programming principles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladislav; Morelli, Eugene A.
1990-01-01
A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ping; Pozdniakov, Sergey P.; Shestakov, Vsevolod M.
2015-04-01
A steady-state flow regime in riverbank well fields is often violated by fluctuations in river stages and variations in groundwater extraction. In this study, a criterion of quasi-steady flow during filtration processes at riverbank well fields was introduced. Under the assumption of steady-state flow, an analytical approach for determining the key hydraulic parameters (aquifer transmissivity and riverbed filtration resistance) between a stream and a hydraulically connected aquifer during riverbank filtration was presented. An optimal regular observation network (consisting of the locations of monitoring wells and the observation regime), which is based on the model-oriented approach using an example of a riverbank well field near the Kuybyshev Reservoir, Russia, was designed to minimise the uncertainty in the estimates of hydraulic parameters. The analyses showed that the initial recession in the surface water levels for the simplest constant groundwater withdrawal patterns can be used to determine the key hydraulic parameters; the error in these estimated parameters was less than 7% or 12%, depending on the designed monitoring network. When comparing the two typical monitoring networks, observation line A-A that passes midway through the water supply wells performed better than observation line B-B that passes through the water supply wells when estimating the hydraulic parameters. The results of this study can be used as a reference for designing and optimising a monitoring network that aims to determine the key hydraulic parameters at riverbank well fields.
Design calculations and measurements of a dipole magnet with Permendur pole pieces
Early, R.A.; Cobb, J.K.; Oijala, J.E.
1989-03-01
A redesign of the SLC South Linac-to-Ring beam line required that the width of a good field of three of the bending magnets be increased while utilizing the same yoke and coils. Further requirements were that the resulting magnets should have the same strength at two different operating currents as the original magnets. The idea of replacing the steel poles with pole pieces of the high permeability material Permendur was investigated. Design calculations were done using TOSCA and POISSON. An existing prototype magnet was modified with Permendur poles, and magnetic measurements were done. The new magnets were completed, and measurements agreed well with the calculations. 4 refs., 14 figs.
100% MOX BWR experimental program design using multi-parameter representative
Blaise, P.; Fougeras, P.; Cathalau, S.
2012-07-01
A new multiparameter representative approach for the design of Advanced full MOX BWR core physics experimental programs is developed. The approach is based on sensitivity analysis of integral parameters to nuclear data, and correlations among different integral parameters. The representativeness method is here used to extract a quantitative relationship between a particular integral response of an experimental mock-up and the same response in a reference project to be designed. The study is applied to the design of the 100% MOX BASALA ABWR experimental program in the EOLE facility. The adopted scheme proposes an original approach to the problem, going from the initial 'microscopic' pin-cells integral parameters to the whole 'macroscopic' assembly integral parameters. This approach enables to collect complementary information necessary to optimize the initial design and to meet target accuracy on the integral parameters to be measured. The study has demonstrated the necessity of new fuel pins fabrication, fulfilling minimal costs requirements, to meet acceptable representativeness on local power distribution. (authors)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, Leonard W.
2002-01-01
The method of Maximum Likelihood (ML) is used to estimate the spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. This methodology, which requires the complete specificity of all cosmic-ray detector design parameters, is shown to provide approximately unbiased, minimum variance, and normally distributed spectra information for events detected by an instrument having a wide range of commonly used detector response functions. The ML procedure, coupled with the simulated performance of a proposed space-based detector and its planned life cycle, has proved to be of significant value in the design phase of a new science instrument. The procedure helped make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope. This ML methodology is then generalized to estimate broken power law spectral parameters from real cosmic-ray data sets.
Knopman, D.S.; Voss, C.I.
1989-01-01
Optimal design of a sampling network is a sequential process in which the next phase of sampling is designed on the basis of all available physical knowledge of the system. Three objectives are considered: model discrimination, parameter estimation, and cost minimization. For the first two objectives, physically based measures of the value of information obtained from a set of observations are specified. In model discrimination, value of information of an observation point is measured in terms of the difference in solute concentration predicted by hypothesized models of transport. Points of greatest difference in predictions can contribute the most information to the discriminatory power of a sampling design. Sensitivity of solute concentration to a change in a parameter contributes information on the relative variance of a parameter estimate. Inclusion of points in a sampling design with high sensitivities to parameters tends to reduce variance in parameter estimates. Cost minimization accounts for both the capital cost of well installation and the operating costs of collection and analysis of field samples. -from Authors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Ding, Han
2008-11-01
The concept of uncertainty plays an important role in the design of practical mechanical system. The most common methods for solving uncertainty problems are to model the parameters as a random vector. A natural way to handle the randomness is to admit that a given probability density function represents the uncertainty distribution. However, the drawback of this approach is that the probability distribution is difficult to obtain. In this paper, we use the non-probabilistic convex model to deal with the uncertain parameters in which there is no need for probability density functions. Using the convex model theory, a new method to optimize the dynamic response of mechanical system with uncertain parameters is derived. Because the uncertain parameters can be selected as the optimization parameters, the present method can provide more information about the optimization results than those obtained by the deterministic optimization. The present method is implemented for a torsional vibration system. The numerical results show that the method is effective.
Sheikholeslami, Sahar; Nedaie, Hasan Ali; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Pourbeigi, Hossein; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Zehtabian, Mehdi; Hasani, Mohsen; Meigooni, Ali S
2016-01-01
A new design of 125I (Model IR-Seed2) brachytherapy source has been manufactured recently at the Applied Radiation Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute in Iran. The source consists of six resin beads (0.5 mm diameter) that are sealed in a cylindrical titanium capsule of 0.7 mm internal and 0.8 mm external diameters. This work aims to evaluate the dosimetric parameters of the newly designed 125I source using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Dosimetric characteristics (dose rate constant, radial dose function, and 2D and 1D anisotropy functions) of the IR-Seed2 were determined using experimental measurements and MC simulations following the recommendations by the Task Group 43 (TG-43U1) report of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). MC simulations were performed using the MCNP5 code in water and Plexiglas, and experimental measurements were carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-GR207A) in Plexiglas phantoms. The measured dose to water in Plexiglas data were used for verification of the accuracy of the source and phantom geometry in the Monte Carlo simulations. The final MC simulated data to water in water were recommended for clinical applications. The MC calculated dose rate constant (Λ) of the IR-Seed2 125I seed in water was found to be 0.992 ± 0.025 cGy h-1U-1. Additionally, its radial dose function by line and point source approximations, gL(r) and gp(r), calculated for distances from 0.1 cm to 7 cm. The values of gL(r) at radial distances from 0.5 cm to 5 cm were measured in a Plexiglas phantom to be between 1.212 and 0.413. The calculated and measured of values for 2D anisotropy function, F(r, θ), were obtained for the radial distances ranging from 1.5 cm to 5 cm and angular range of 0°-90° in a Plexiglas phantom. Also, the 2D anisotropy function was calculated in water for the clinical application. The results of these investigations show that the uncertainty of
Chen, Xi; Fu, Yunqi; Yuan, Naichang
2009-03-01
An approach to design an invisible cloak with controlled constitutive parameters and arbitrary shaped boundaries is presented. Helmholtz's equation is adopted to establish a mapping between original and transformed coordinates inside the cloak. Then the constitutive parameters are obtained by the established mapping. The analytical solution of a regular cloak and the numerical solution of an irregular cloak both verify that that our method will guide electromagnetic wave efficiently and control the constitutive parameters of the cloak conveniently. It has great significance in realizing a cloak practically. PMID:19259197
Optimisation of the design parameters of a reflection geometry time-of-flight mass spectrometer
Sankari, M.; Suryanarayana, M.V.
1996-12-31
Optimisation of the design parameters for a reflectron geometry time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOFMS) has been done by a simplex optimisation method based on a Nelder-Mead Algorithm. The space and energy resolutions obtained are 6100 and 7400, respectively, for mass 200 amu. The resolution is quite adequate for all the applications of RIMS. A high resolution reflectron geometry time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOFMS) for resonance ionisation mass spectrometer (RIMS) is being fabricated, based on these optimised design parameters. 19 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.
The effect of additional design parameters on the LQR based design of a control/structural system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bainum, Peter M.; Xu, Jianke
1990-01-01
A multiobjective cost function that includes a form of the standard LQR regulator cost and its partial variation with respect to the additional design parameters is presented in connection with the design of an orbiting control/structural system. Simple models of uniform solid and tubular beams are demonstrated with two typical additional payload masses, i.e., symmetrically distributed and asymmetrically distributed, with respect to the center of the beam. By regarding the transient response of pitch angle and free-free beam deformations in the orbital plane, the optimal outer diameter of the beam and all feedback control can be determined by numerical analysis with this multicriterial approach. It is concluded that the multicriteria design approach should give better results from both the structural designer's and the control designer's standpoints.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Hou, H. C.
2016-05-01
According to the basic parameters of 211-80 high specific speed mixed-flow pump, based on the quasi-three dimensional flow theory, the hydraulic design of impeller and its matching spaced guide vanes for high specific speed mixed flow pump was completed, in which the iterative calculation of S 1, S 2 stream surfaces was employed to obtain meridional flow fields and the point-by-point integration method was employed to draw blade camber lines. Blades are thickened as well as blade leading edges are smoothed in the conformal mapping surface. Subsequently the internal fields of the whole flow passage of the designed pump were simulated by using RANS equations with RNG k-ε two-equation turbulent model. The results show that, compared with the 211-80 model, the hydraulic efficiency of the designed pump at the optimal flow rate increases 9.1%. The hydraulic efficiency of designed pump in low flow rate condition (78% designed flow rate) increases 6.46%. The hydraulic efficiency in high flow rate areas increases obviously and there is no bad phenomenon of suddenly decrease of hydraulic efficiency in model pump. From the distributions of velocity and pressure fields, it can be seen that the flow in impeller is uniform and the increase of pressure is gentle. There are no obvious impact phenomenon on impeller inlet and obvious wake shedding vortex phenomenon from impeller outlet to guide vanes inlet.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brendley, K.; Chato, J. C.
1982-01-01
The parameters of the efflux from a helium dewar in space were numerically calculated. The flow was modeled as a one dimensional compressible ideal gas with variable properties. The primary boundary conditions are flow with friction and flow with heat transfer and friction. Two PASCAL programs were developed to calculate the efflux parameters: EFFLUZD and EFFLUXM. EFFLUXD calculates the minimum mass flow for the given shield temperatures and shield heat inputs. It then calculates the pipe lengths, diameter, and fluid parameters which satisfy all boundary conditions. Since the diameter returned by EFFLUXD is only rarely of nominal size, EFFLUXM calculates the mass flow and shield heat exchange for given pipe lengths, diameter, and shield temperatures.
Detailed heat load calculations for the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor
Wemple, C.A.
1993-12-01
A very detailed MCNP model of the Advanced Neutron Source reactor has been developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. All reactor components inside the reflector vessel were included, and al components were highly segmented. Specific heat loads (watts per gram) have been calculated for each segment in the model, and system-integrated total powers are compared with the design value for the total reactor fission power. The calculated results agree very well with the design values. Axial profiles of the heat loads are provided for all components of the reactor. Individual segment statistical uncertainties were limited wherever possible, and the heat loads for all important reflector components have a standard deviation below 5%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Gang; Mei, Yang; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Zheng, Wen-Chen
2015-05-01
The high-order perturbation formulas based on a two-mechanism model (where in addition to the contributions from the crystal-field (CF) mechanism in the usually-applied CF theory, those from the generally-neglected charge-transfer (CT) mechanism are also contained) are employed to calculate the spin-Hamiltonian parameters (g factors g//, g⊥ and the hyperfine structure constants A//, A⊥) of the square planar CuCl4 2 - clusters in Cs2ZrCl6 crystal. The needed CF energy levels in the calculations are obtained from the observed optical spectra. The calculated results show reasonable agreement with the experimented values. The negative sign of A// and positive sign of A⊥ are proposed from the calculations. The calculations also suggest that one should take account of the contributions due to both the CF and CT mechanisms for the exact and rational calculations of spin-Hamiltonian parameters of Cu2+-Cl- combination in crystals.
10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...
10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...
10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...
10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...
10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, Lloyd J; Hoffman, Edward L
1958-01-01
Data from ditching investigations conducted at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory with dynamic scale models of various airplanes are presented in the form of tables. The effects of design parameters on the ditching characteristics of airplanes, based on scale-model investigations and on reports of full-scale ditchings, are discussed. Various ditching aids are also discussed as a means of improving ditching behavior.
10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...
10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...
10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...
10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...
10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratsch, Christian; Kaminski, Jakub
In this talk we will present a new approach for the calculation of surface energies of periodic crystal. For non-polar materials slabs (which are terminated by two identical surfaces) the task of calculating the surface energy is trivial. But it is more problematic for polar systems where both terminating surfaces are different, as there is no single established method allowing for equal treatment of a wide range of surface morphologies and orientations. Our proposed new approach addresses this problem. It relies on carefully chosen capping atoms and the assumptions that their bond energy contributions can be used to approximate the total energy of the surface. The choice of the capping atoms is governed by a set of simple guidelines that are applicable for surfaces with different terminations. We present the results for different semiconductor materials and show that our approach leads to surfaces energies with errors as low as 2%. We show that hydrogen is not always the best choice for a capping atom if accurate surface energies are the target of the calculations. Our approach is suitable for high-throughput screening of new material interfaces, as accurate calculations of surface energies can be performed in an unsupervised algorithm. A New Approach for Surface Energy Calculations Applicable to High-throughput Design of New Interfaces.
Design and Application of an Easy to Use Oligonucleotide Mass Calculation Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jiong; Leopold, Peter; Helmy, Roy; Parish, Craig; Arvary, Becky; Mao, Bing; Meng, Fanyu
2013-08-01
With the development of new synthesis procedures, an ever increasing number of chemical modifications can now be incorporated into synthetic oligonucleotides, representing new challenges for analytical chemists to efficiently identify and characterize such molecules. While conventional mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a powerful tool to study nucleic acids, new and improved methods and software are now needed to address this emerging challenge. In this report, we describe a simple yet powerful program that affords great flexibility in the calculation of theoretical masses for conventional as well as modified oligonucleotide molecules. This easy to use program can accept input oligonucleotide sequences and then calculate the theoretical mass values for full length products, process impurities, potential metabolites, and gas phase fragments. We intentionally designed this software so that modified nucleotide residues can be incorporated into oligonucleotide sequences, and corresponding mass values can be rapidly calculated. To test the utility of this program, two oligonucleotides that contain a large number of chemical modifications were synthesized. We have analyzed these samples using a Q-TOF mass spectrometer and compared the calculated masses to the observed ones. We found that all of the data matched very well with less than 30 ppm mass errors, well within the expectation for our instrument operated in its current mode. These data confirmed the validity of calculations performed with this new software.
Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.
1995-02-01
We have reviewed the literature on the performance of HEPA filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). This study is only applicable to the standard deep-pleated HEPA filter with aluminum separators as specified in ASME N509[1]. Other HEPA filter designs such as the mini-pleat and separatorless filters are not included in this study. The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. There are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen. The estimation of the efficiency of the HEPA filters under DBA conditions involves three steps: (1) The filter pressure drop and environmental parameters are determined during and after the DBA, (2) Comparing the filter pressure drop to a set of threshold values above which the filter is damaged. There is a different threshold value for each combination of environmental parameters, and (3) Determining the filter efficiency. If the filter pressure drop is greater than the threshold value, the filter is damaged and is assigned 0% efficiency. If the pressure drop is less, then the filter is not damaged and the efficiency is determined from literature values of the efficiency at the environmental conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manzano-Agugliaro, F.; San-Antonio-Gómez, C.; López, S.; Montoya, F. G.; Gil, C.
2013-08-01
When historical map data are compared with modern cartography, the old map coordinates must be transformed to the current system. However, historical data often exhibit heterogeneous quality. In calculating the transformation parameters between the historical and modern maps, it is often necessary to discard highly uncertain data. An optimal balance between the objectives of minimising the transformation error and eliminating as few points as possible can be achieved by generating a Pareto front of solutions using evolutionary genetic algorithms. The aim of this paper is to assess the performance of evolutionary algorithms in determining the accuracy of historical maps in regard to modern cartography. When applied to the 1787 Tomas Lopez map, the use of evolutionary algorithms reduces the linear error by 40% while eliminating only 2% of the data points. The main conclusion of this paper is that evolutionary algorithms provide a promising alternative for the transformation of historical map coordinates and determining the accuracy of historical maps in regard to modern cartography, particularly when the positional quality of the data points used cannot be assured.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizk, Magdi H.
1988-01-01
This user's manual is presented for an aerodynamic optimization program that updates flow variables and design parameters simultaneously. The program was developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The program was tested by applying it to the problem of optimizing propeller designs. Some reference to this particular application is therefore made in the manual. However, the optimization scheme is suitable for application to general aerodynamic design problems. A description of the approach used in the optimization scheme is first presented, followed by a description of the use of the program.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.
2004-01-01
A method for accommodating engine deterioration via a scheduled Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function (LPVQLF)-Based controller is presented. The LPVQLF design methodology provides a means for developing unconditionally stable, robust control of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. The controller is scheduled on the Engine Deterioration Index, a function of estimated parameters that relate to engine health, and is computed using a multilayer feedforward neural network. Acceptable thrust response and tight control of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is accomplished by adjusting the performance weights on these parameters for different levels of engine degradation. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller achieves specified performance objectives while being robust to engine deterioration as well as engine-to-engine variations.
Interdependence of parameters important to the design of subsonic canard-configured aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feistel, T. W.
1985-01-01
An analysis is made of the interrelationship of the longitudinal parameters important to the aerodynamic design of an efficient canard or tandem wing configuration. It is shown that theoretical configuration span efficiencies substantially greater than one are feasible with the proper choice of parameters. This improvement can translate into significantly increased lift/drag ratios assuming fixed spans. The Prandtl-Munk relationship for induced drag is used as a convenient qualitative guide, with stability and trim criteria superimposed. An 'aspect-ratio ratio' parameter is introduced to aid in optimizing a configuration longitudinally. It is shown that a canard/wing 'aspect-ratio ratio' of approximately 3/2 to 2 is necessary to achieve peak span efficiency for a given span ratio and gap, assuming representative parameters.
Baldoví, José J; Cardona-Serra, Salvador; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Palii, Andrew
2013-08-15
This work presents a fortran77 code based on an effective electrostatic model of point charges around a rare earth ion. The program calculates the full set of crystal field parameters, energy levels spectrum, and wave functions, as well as the magnetic properties such as the magnetization, the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility, and the Schottky contribution to the specific heat. It is designed for real systems that need not bear ideal symmetry and it is able to determine the easy axis of magnetization. Its systematic application to different coordination environments allows magneto-structural studies. The package has already been successfully applied to several mononuclear systems with single-molecule magnetic behavior. The determination of effective point charge parameters in these studies facilitates its application to new systems. In this article, we illustrate its usage with two example studies: (a) an ideal cubic structure coordinating a lanthanoid ion and (b) a system with slow relaxation of the magnetization, LiHo(x)Y((1-x))F(4). PMID:24000391
Design of a multi beam klystron cavity from its single beam parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kant, Deepender; Joshi, L. M.; Janyani, Vijay
2016-03-01
The klystron is a well-known microwave amplifier which uses kinetic energy of an electron beam for amplification of the RF signal. There are some limitations of conventional single beam klystron such as high operating voltage, low efficiency and bulky size at higher power levels, which are very effectively handled in Multi Beam Klystron (MBK) that uses multiple low purveyance electron beams for RF interaction. Each beam propagates along its individual transit path through a resonant cavity structure. Multi-Beam klystron cavity design is a critical task due to asymmetric cavity structure and can be simulated by 3D code only. The present paper shall discuss the design of multi beam RF cavities for klystrons operating at 2856 MHz (S-band) and 5 GHz (C-band) respectively. The design approach uses some scaling laws for finding the electron beam parameters of the multi beam device from their single beam counter parts. The scaled beam parameters are then used for finding the design parameters of the multi beam cavities. Design of the desired multi beam cavity can be optimized through iterative simulations in CST Microwave Studio.
Learning effects in the block design task: a stimulus parameter-based approach.
Miller, Joseph C; Ruthig, Joelle C; Bradley, April R; Wise, Richard A; Pedersen, Heather A; Ellison, Jo M
2009-12-01
Learning effects were assessed for the block design (BD) task, on the basis of variation in 2 stimulus parameters: perceptual cohesiveness (PC) and set size uncertainty (U). Thirty-one nonclinical undergraduate students (19 female) each completed 3 designs for each of 4 varied sets of the stimulus parameters (high-PC/high-U, high-PC/low-U, low-PC/high-U, and low-PC/low-U), ordered randomly within a larger set of designs with mixed stimulus characteristics. Regression analyses revealed significant, although modest, learning effects in all conditions. Negative-logarithmic learning slopes (growth factors) were greatest for high-U/high-PC designs and smallest for low-U/low-PC designs. Comparison of these slopes with known Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.; D. Wechsler, 1997; and 4th ed.; D. Wechsler, 2008) BD subtest gain scores demonstrated that presenting novel test items matched on stimulus parameters in multiple administrations reduced learning effects compared with the repeated use of the same test items. The results suggest that repeated administration of novel test items of the BD subtest, matched for PC and U, would result in more accurate assessments of changes in examinees' abilities over time than would the use of the same items. Difficulties inherent in implementing this method are also discussed. PMID:19947790
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subramanyam, Guru; VanKeuls, Fred W.; Miranda, Felix A.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy
2000-01-01
The correlation of electric field and critical design parameters such as the insertion loss, frequency ability return loss, and bandwidth of conductor/ferroelectric/dielectric microstrip tunable K-band microwave filters is discussed in this work. This work is based primarily on barium strontium titanate (BSTO) ferroelectric thin film based tunable microstrip filters for room temperature applications. Two new parameters which we believe will simplify the evaluation of ferroelectric thin films for tunable microwave filters, are defined. The first of these, called the sensitivity parameter, is defined as the incremental change in center frequency with incremental change in maximum applied electric field (EPEAK) in the filter. The other, the loss parameter, is defined as the incremental or decremental change in insertion loss of the filter with incremental change in maximum applied electric field. At room temperature, the Au/BSTO/LAO microstrip filters exhibited a sensitivity parameter value between 15 and 5 MHz/cm/kV. The loss parameter varied for different bias configurations used for electrically tuning the filter. The loss parameter varied from 0.05 to 0.01 dB/cm/kV at room temperature.
Wagner, B.J.; Harvey, J.W.
1997-01-01
Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI >> 1.0), solute exchange
The simulative calculation and optimum design for FOA, the purge gas sweeping system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Liquan; Jing, Yukun; Feng, Bing; Li, Fuquan; Xiang, Yong; Han, Wei; Wang, Fang
2016-01-01
This paper first studies the structure effect law in order to design a reasonable option in theory for the Final Optics Assembly(FOA)' harmonic converter module, involved in the design of the fluid theory, including the basic equations of fluid motion, the form of fluid motion and fluid movement in the small hole. Optimizing the structure need to be applied to the simulation software, which requires the Fluent simulation principle. Then, combined with theoretical knowledge to design the overall structure of the multiplier module, It will apply the simulation software to optimize structural parameters of the board and use control system to realize it for verifying the law obtained by simulation under various conditions whether consistent with the law in actual work of the sweeping system.
Parallel Calculation of Sensitivity Derivatives for Aircraft Design using Automatic Differentiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bischof, c. H.; Green, L. L.; Haigler, K. J.; Knauff, T. L., Jr.
1994-01-01
Sensitivity derivative (SD) calculation via automatic differentiation (AD) typical of that required for the aerodynamic design of a transport-type aircraft is considered. Two ways of computing SD via code generated by the ADIFOR automatic differentiation tool are compared for efficiency and applicability to problems involving large numbers of design variables. A vector implementation on a Cray Y-MP computer is compared with a coarse-grained parallel implementation on an IBM SP1 computer, employing a Fortran M wrapper. The SD are computed for a swept transport wing in turbulent, transonic flow; the number of geometric design variables varies from 1 to 60 with coupling between a wing grid generation program and a state-of-the-art, 3-D computational fluid dynamics program, both augmented for derivative computation via AD. For a small number of design variables, the Cray Y-MP implementation is much faster. As the number of design variables grows, however, the IBM SP1 becomes an attractive alternative in terms of compute speed, job turnaround time, and total memory available for solutions with large numbers of design variables. The coarse-grained parallel implementation also can be moved easily to a network of workstations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weiser, P.; Nordmann, R.
1991-01-01
In today's rotordynamic calculations, the input parameters for a finite element analysis (FEA) determine very much the reliability of eigenvalue and eigenmode predictions. While modeling of an elastic structure by means of beam elements etc. is relatively straightforward to perform and the input data for journal bearings are usually known exactly enough, the determination of stiffness and damping for labyrinth seals is still the subject of many investigations. Therefore, the rotordynamic influence of labyrinths is often not included in FEA for rotating machinery because of a lack of computer programs to calculate these parameters. This circumstance can give rise to severe vibration problems especially for high performance turbines or compressors, resulting in remarkable economic losses. The forces generated in labyrinths can be described for small motions around the seal center with a linearized force-motion relationship. Several years ago, we started with the development of computer codes for the determination of rotordynamic seal coefficients. Our different approaches to evaluate the dynamic fluid forces generated by turbulent, compressible seal flow are introduced.
Design of measurement system for low illuminance CCD's key performance parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Xiao-peng; Du, Juan; Wang, Yang
2013-08-01
As an important photovoltaic detector in the night vision imaging systems, some main performance parameters decide the properties of the low illuminance CCDs greatly including noise, quantum effects, dynamic range and dark current， and it is necessary to design a measurement system to measure the performance parameters of the low illuminance CCD. This article designs a set of low illuminance CCD chips' performance parameter measurement system, which is consisted of five parts including adjustable monochromatic light source, integrating sphere-darkroom, Dewar control chamber, main control circuit and the master computer software for automatic measurement. By persistent demonstration, the performance parameters measurement system which is focused on the low illuminance CCD proposed in this paper has the advantages of compact, good compatibility, theoretical measurement precision and fully automated measurement etc.The appropriate equipment and instruments are selected in this measurement system. And the connections of each subsystem are designed independently, which guarantees the tightness of the total system, eliminate the effects of stray light at the same time and improves the measurement accuracy of the system. Besides, this measurement system solves the generation of monochromatic light, and the measurement of low illuminance CCDs at a low temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhengming; Ji, Jianwei; Xu, Minghu
2013-03-01
Adopting high-power light-emitting diode (LED) as excitation light source, the study designed a rapid detection system for fluorescence parameters based on MINIPAM. The system uses a microcomputer as the core of the programmable power supply to provide constant current drive of the LED array, and the LED array as a fluorescence excitation light source produces light photochemical system needed. It also uses MINIPAM to detect the fluorescence, analyzing the fluorescence parameters of the mathematical model, studying the plant photosystem& light response curve. The System is of great significance in the evaluation of chlorophyll photosynthesis ability and the plant physiological stress response and the appropriate mechanism.
Zhang, Xing-Yi; Chen, Da-Wei; Jin, Jie; Lu, Wei
2009-10-01
Artificial neural network (ANN) is a multi-objective optimization method that needs mathematic and statistic knowledge which restricts its application in the pharmaceutical research area. An artificial neural network parameters optimization software (ANNPOS) programmed by the Visual Basic language was developed to overcome this shortcoming. In the design of a sustained release formulation, the suitable parameters of ANN were estimated by the ANNPOS. And then the Matlab 5.0 Neural Network Toolbox was used to determine the optimal formulation. It showed that the ANNPOS reduced the complexity and difficulty in the ANN's application. PMID:20055142
Design of experiments for measuring heat-transfer coefficients with a lumped-parameter calorimeter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.
1975-01-01
A theoretical investigation was conducted to determine optimum experimental conditions for using a lumped-parameter calorimeter to measure heat-transfer coefficients and heating rates. A mathematical model of the transient temperature response of the calorimeter was used with the measured temperature response to predict the heat-transfer coefficient and the rate of heating. A sensitivity analysis was used to determine the optimum transient experiment for simultaneously measuring the heat addition during heating and the convective heat-transfer coefficient during heating and cooling of a lumped-parameter calorimeter. Optimum experiments were also designed for measuring the convective heat-transfer coefficient during both heating and cooling and cooling only.
Engineering Parameters in Bioreactor's Design: A Critical Aspect in Tissue Engineering
Amoabediny, Ghassem; Pouran, Behdad; Tabesh, Hadi; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Haghighipour, Nooshin; Khatibi, Nahid; Mottaghy, Khosrow; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz
2013-01-01
Bioreactors are important inevitable part of any tissue engineering (TE) strategy as they aid the construction of three-dimensional functional tissues. Since the ultimate aim of a bioreactor is to create a biological product, the engineering parameters, for example, internal and external mass transfer, fluid velocity, shear stress, electrical current distribution, and so forth, are worth to be thoroughly investigated. The effects of such engineering parameters on biological cultures have been addressed in only a few preceding studies. Furthermore, it would be highly inefficient to determine the optimal engineering parameters by trial and error method. A solution is provided by emerging modeling and computational tools and by analyzing oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrient and metabolism waste material transports, which can simulate and predict the experimental results. Discovering the optimal engineering parameters is crucial not only to reduce the cost and time of experiments, but also to enhance efficacy and functionality of the tissue construct. This review intends to provide an inclusive package of the engineering parameters together with their calculation procedure in addition to the modeling techniques in TE bioreactors. PMID:24000327
Palamara, Gian Marco; Childs, Dylan Z; Clements, Christopher F; Petchey, Owen L; Plebani, Marco; Smith, Matthew J
2014-12-01
Understanding and quantifying the temperature dependence of population parameters, such as intrinsic growth rate and carrying capacity, is critical for predicting the ecological responses to environmental change. Many studies provide empirical estimates of such temperature dependencies, but a thorough investigation of the methods used to infer them has not been performed yet. We created artificial population time series using a stochastic logistic model parameterized with the Arrhenius equation, so that activation energy drives the temperature dependence of population parameters. We simulated different experimental designs and used different inference methods, varying the likelihood functions and other aspects of the parameter estimation methods. Finally, we applied the best performing inference methods to real data for the species Paramecium caudatum. The relative error of the estimates of activation energy varied between 5% and 30%. The fraction of habitat sampled played the most important role in determining the relative error; sampling at least 1% of the habitat kept it below 50%. We found that methods that simultaneously use all time series data (direct methods) and methods that estimate population parameters separately for each temperature (indirect methods) are complementary. Indirect methods provide a clearer insight into the shape of the functional form describing the temperature dependence of population parameters; direct methods enable a more accurate estimation of the parameters of such functional forms. Using both methods, we found that growth rate and carrying capacity of Paramecium caudatum scale with temperature according to different activation energies. Our study shows how careful choice of experimental design and inference methods can increase the accuracy of the inferred relationships between temperature and population parameters. The comparison of estimation methods provided here can increase the accuracy of model predictions, with important
Radaev, A. I. Schurovskaya, M. V.
2015-12-15
The choice of the spatial nodalization for the calculation of the power density and burnup distribution in a research reactor core with fuel assemblies of the IRT-3M and VVR-KN type using the program based on the Monte Carlo code is described. The influence of the spatial nodalization on the results of calculating basic neutronic characteristics and calculation time is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sboev, A. G.; Ilyashenko, A. S.; Vetrova, O. A.
1997-02-01
The method of bucking evaluation, realized in the MOnte Carlo code MCS, is described. This method was applied for calculational analysis of well known light water experiments TRX-1 and TRX-2. The analysis of this comparison shows, that there is no coincidence between Monte Carlo calculations, obtained by different ways: the MCS calculations with given experimental bucklings; the MCS calculations with given bucklings evaluated on base of full core MCS direct simulations; the full core MCNP and MCS direct simulations; the MCNP and MCS calculations, where the results of cell calculations are corrected by the coefficients taking into the account the leakage from the core. Also the buckling values evaluated by full core MCS calculations have differed from experimental ones, especially in the case of TRX-1, when this difference has corresponded to 0.5 percent increase of Keff value.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahara, S. S.
1984-01-01
An investigation was carried out to complete the preliminary development of a combined perturbation/optimization procedure and associated computational code for designing optimized blade-to-blade profiles of turbomachinery blades. The overall purpose of the procedures developed is to provide demonstration of a rapid nonlinear perturbation method for minimizing the computational requirements associated with parametric design studies of turbomachinery flows. The method combines the multiple parameter nonlinear perturbation method, successfully developed in previous phases of this study, with the NASA TSONIC blade-to-blade turbomachinery flow solver, and the COPES-CONMIN optimization procedure into a user's code for designing optimized blade-to-blade surface profiles of turbomachinery blades. Results of several design applications and a documented version of the code together with a user's manual are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penta, Francesco; Rossi, Cesare; Savino, Sergio
2016-06-01
This study aims to optimize the geometrical parameters of an under-actuated mechanical finger by conducting a theoretical analysis of these parameters. The finger is actuated by a flexion tendon and an extension tendon. The considered parameters are the tendon guide positions with respect to the hinges. By applying such an optimization, the correct kinematical and dynamical behavior of the closing cycle of the finger can be obtained. The results of this study are useful for avoiding the snapthrough and the single joint hyperflexion, which are the two breakdowns most frequently observed during experimentation on prototypes. Diagrams are established to identify the optimum values for the tendon guides position of a finger with specified dimensions. The findings of this study can serve as guide for future finger design.
Controller design and parameter identifiability studies for a large space antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joshi, S. M.
1985-01-01
The problem of control systems synthesis and parameter identifiability are considered for a large, space-based antenna. Two methods are considered for control system synthesis, the first of which uses torque actuators and collocated attitude and rate sensors, and the second method is based on the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) control theory. The predicted performance obtained by computing variances of pointing, surface and feed misalignment errors in the presence of sensor noise indicates that the LQG-based controller yields superior results. Since controller design requires the knowledge of the system parameters, the identifiability of the structural parameters is investigated by obtaining Cramer-Rao lower bounds. The modal frequencies are found to have the best identifiability, followed by damping ratios, and mode-slopes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerberich, Matthew W.; Oleson, Steven R.
2013-01-01
The Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team at Glenn Research Center has performed integrated system analysis of conceptual spacecraft mission designs since 2006 using a multidisciplinary concurrent engineering process. The set of completed designs was archived in a database, to allow for the study of relationships between design parameters. Although COMPASS uses a parametric spacecraft costing model, this research investigated the possibility of using a top-down approach to rapidly estimate the overall vehicle costs. This paper presents the relationships between significant design variables, including breakdowns of dry mass, wet mass, and cost. It also develops a model for a broad estimate of these parameters through basic mission characteristics, including the target location distance, the payload mass, the duration, the delta-v requirement, and the type of mission, propulsion, and electrical power. Finally, this paper examines the accuracy of this model in regards to past COMPASS designs, with an assessment of outlying spacecraft, and compares the results to historical data of completed NASA missions.
Final Report for "Design calculations for high-space-charge beam-to-RF conversion".
David N Smithe
2008-10-17
Accelerator facility upgrades, new accelerator applications, and future design efforts are leading to novel klystron and IOT device concepts, including multiple beam, high-order mode operation, and new geometry configurations of old concepts. At the same time, a new simulation capability, based upon finite-difference “cut-cell” boundaries, has emerged and is transforming the existing modeling and design capability with unparalleled realism, greater flexibility, and improved accuracy. This same new technology can also be brought to bear on a difficult-to-study aspect of the energy recovery linac (ERL), namely the accurate modeling of the exit beam, and design of the beam dump for optimum energy efficiency. We have developed new capability for design calculations and modeling of a broad class of devices which convert bunched beam kinetic energy to RF energy, including RF sources, as for example, klystrons, gyro-klystrons, IOT's, TWT’s, and other devices in which space-charge effects are important. Recent advances in geometry representation now permits very accurate representation of the curved metallic surfaces common to RF sources, resulting in unprecedented simulation accuracy. In the Phase I work, we evaluated and demonstrated the capabilities of the new geometry representation technology as applied to modeling and design of output cavity components of klystron, IOT's, and energy recovery srf cavities. We identified and prioritized which aspects of the design study process to pursue and improve in Phase II. The development and use of the new accurate geometry modeling technology on RF sources for DOE accelerators will help spark a new generational modeling and design capability, free from many of the constraints and inaccuracy associated with the previous generation of “stair-step” geometry modeling tools. This new capability is ultimately expected to impact all fields with high power RF sources, including DOE fusion research, communications, radar and
General parameter relations for the Shinnar-Le Roux pulse design algorithm.
Lee, Kuan J
2007-06-01
The magnetization ripple amplitudes from a pulse designed by the Shinnar-Le Roux algorithm are a non-linear function of the Shinnar-Le Roux A and B polynomial ripples. In this paper, the method of Pauly et al. [J. Pauly, P. Le Roux, D. Nishimura, A. Macovski, Parameter relations for the Shinnar-Le Roux selective excitation pulse design algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 10 (1991) 56-65.] has been extended to derive more general parameter relations. These relations can be used for cases outside the five classes considered by Pauly et al., in particular excitation pulses for flip angles that are not small or 90 degrees. Use of the new relations, together with an iterative procedure to obtain polynomials with the specified ripples from the Parks-McClellan algorithm, are shown to give simulated slice profiles that have the desired ripple amplitudes. PMID:17408999
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dermanis, A.
1977-01-01
The possibility of recovering earth rotation and network geometry (baseline) parameters are emphasized. The numerical simulated experiments performed are set up in an environment where station coordinates vary with respect to inertial space according to a simulated earth rotation model similar to the actual but unknown rotation of the earth. The basic technique of VLBI and its mathematical model are presented. The parametrization of earth rotation chosen is described and the resulting model is linearized. A simple analysis of the geometry of the observations leads to some useful hints on achieving maximum sensitivity of the observations with respect to the parameters considered. The basic philosophy for the simulation of data and their analysis through standard least squares adjustment techniques is presented. A number of characteristic network designs based on present and candidate station locations are chosen. The results of the simulations for each design are presented together with a summary of the conclusions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unal, Resit; Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.; Lepsch, Roger A.
2004-01-01
This paper describes the development of a methodology for estimating reliability and maintainability distribution parameters for a reusable launch vehicle. A disciplinary analysis code and experimental designs are used to construct approximation models for performance characteristics. These models are then used in a simulation study to estimate performance characteristic distributions efficiently. The effectiveness and limitations of the developed methodology for launch vehicle operations simulations are also discussed.
On the design derivatives of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for distributed parameter systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reiss, R.
1985-01-01
In this paper, analytic expressions are obtained for the design derivatives of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of self-adjoint linear distributed parameter systems. Explicit treatment of boundary conditions is avoided by casting the eigenvalue equation into integral form. Results are expressed in terms of the linear operators defining the eigenvalue problem, and are therefore quite general. Sufficiency conditions appropriate to structural optimization of eigenvalues are obtained.
Optimal Parameter Design of Coarse Alignment for Fiber Optic Gyro Inertial Navigation System
Lu, Baofeng; Wang, Qiuying; Yu, Chunmei; Gao, Wei
2015-01-01
Two different coarse alignment algorithms for Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Inertial Navigation System (INS) based on inertial reference frame are discussed in this paper. Both of them are based on gravity vector integration, therefore, the performance of these algorithms is determined by integration time. In previous works, integration time is selected by experience. In order to give a criterion for the selection process, and make the selection of the integration time more accurate, optimal parameter design of these algorithms for FOG INS is performed in this paper. The design process is accomplished based on the analysis of the error characteristics of these two coarse alignment algorithms. Moreover, this analysis and optimal parameter design allow us to make an adequate selection of the most accurate algorithm for FOG INS according to the actual operational conditions. The analysis and simulation results show that the parameter provided by this work is the optimal value, and indicate that in different operational conditions, the coarse alignment algorithms adopted for FOG INS are different in order to achieve better performance. Lastly, the experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26121614
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryant, Matthew; Wolff, Eric; Garcia, Ephrahim
2011-12-01
This study examines the design parameters affecting the stability characteristics of a novel fluid flow energy harvesting device powered by aeroelastic flutter vibrations. The energy harvester makes use of a modal convergence flutter instability to generate limit cycle bending oscillations of a cantilevered piezoelectric beam with a small flap connected to its free end by a revolute joint. The critical flow speed at which destabilizing aerodynamic effects cause self-excited vibrations of the structure to emerge is essential to the design of the energy harvester because it sets the lower bound on the operating wind speed and frequency range of the system. A linearized analytic model of the device that accounts for the three-way coupling between the structural, unsteady aerodynamic, and electrical aspects of the system is used to examine tuning several design parameters while the size of the system is held fixed. The effects on the aeroelastic system dynamics and relative sensitivity of the flutter stability boundary are presented and discussed. A wind tunnel experiment is performed to validate the model predictions for the most significant system parameters.
Optimal Parameter Design of Coarse Alignment for Fiber Optic Gyro Inertial Navigation System.
Lu, Baofeng; Wang, Qiuying; Yu, Chunmei; Gao, Wei
2015-01-01
Two different coarse alignment algorithms for Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Inertial Navigation System (INS) based on inertial reference frame are discussed in this paper. Both of them are based on gravity vector integration, therefore, the performance of these algorithms is determined by integration time. In previous works, integration time is selected by experience. In order to give a criterion for the selection process, and make the selection of the integration time more accurate, optimal parameter design of these algorithms for FOG INS is performed in this paper. The design process is accomplished based on the analysis of the error characteristics of these two coarse alignment algorithms. Moreover, this analysis and optimal parameter design allow us to make an adequate selection of the most accurate algorithm for FOG INS according to the actual operational conditions. The analysis and simulation results show that the parameter provided by this work is the optimal value, and indicate that in different operational conditions, the coarse alignment algorithms adopted for FOG INS are different in order to achieve better performance. Lastly, the experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26121614
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinesh, A. C.; Joseph Markose, Vipin; Jayappa, K. S.
2012-11-01
We present ‘bAd Calculator', a new software developed in Visual Basic programme which can be applied for analyses of various drainage basin parameters, directional aspects, etc. The graphical user interface of bAd Calculator can be used for several applications such as determination of bearing and azimuth of linear features and their representation in rose diagram. Various drainage basin parameters such as drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm), steam length ratio (Rl) , drainage texture (T), texture ratio (Rt), dissection index (DI), length of overland flow (Lg), RHO coefficient, circulatory ratio (Rc), hypsometric integral (HI), etc. can be easily calculated by using the software. The software provides a point-and-click technique for rapid acquisition of watershed parameters with user-specified grids/sub-basins.
Accelerated materials design of fast oxygen ionic conductors based on first principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xingfeng; Mo, Yifei
Over the past decades, significant research efforts have been dedicated to seeking fast oxygen ion conductor materials, which have important technological applications in electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen separation membranes, and sensors. Recently, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) was reported as a new family of fast oxygen ionic conductor. We will present our first principles computation study aims to understand the O diffusion mechanisms in the NBT material and to design this material with enhanced oxygen ionic conductivity. Using the NBT materials as an example, we demonstrate the computation capability to evaluate the phase stability, chemical stability, and ionic diffusion of the ionic conductor materials. We reveal the effects of local atomistic configurations and dopants on oxygen diffusion and identify the intrinsic limiting factors in increasing the ionic conductivity of the NBT materials. Novel doping strategies were predicted and demonstrated by the first principles calculations. In particular, the K doped NBT compound achieved good phase stability and an order of magnitude increase in oxygen ionic conductivity of up to 0.1 S cm-1 at 900 K compared to the experimental Mg doped compositions. Our results provide new avenues for the future design of the NBT materials and demonstrate the accelerated design of new ionic conductor materials based on first principles techniques. This computation methodology and workflow can be applied to the materials design of any (e.g. Li +, Na +) fast ion-conducting materials.
Central suboptimal H ∞ controller design for linear time-varying systems with unknown parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basin, Michael V.; Soto, Pedro; Calderon-Alvarez, Dario
2011-05-01
This article presents the central finite-dimensional H ∞ controller for linear time-varying systems with unknown parameters, that is suboptimal for a given threshold γ with respect to a modified Bolza-Meyer quadratic criterion including the attenuation control term with the opposite sign. In contrast to the previously obtained results, this article reduces the original H ∞ controller problem to the corresponding H 2 controller problem, using the technique proposed in Doyle et al. [Doyle, J.C., Glover, K., Khargonekar, P.P., and Francis, B.A. (1989), 'State-space Solutions to Standard H 2 and H Infinity Control Problems', IEEE Transactions Automatic Control, 34, 831-847]. This article yields the central suboptimal H ∞ controller for linear systems with unknown parameters in a closed finite-dimensional form, based on the corresponding H 2 controller obtained in Basin and Calderon-Alvarez [Basin, M.V., and Calderon-Alvarez, D. (2008), 'Optimal LQG Controller for Linear Systems with Unknown Parameters', Journal of The Franklin Institute, 345, 293-302]. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify performance of the designed central suboptimal controller for uncertain linear systems with unknown parameters against the conventional central suboptimal H ∞ controller for linear systems with exactly known parameter values.
Ju, Jonghyun; Han, Yun-ah; Kim, Seok-min
2013-01-01
The effects of structural design parameters on the performance of nano-replicated photonic crystal (PC) label-free biosensors were examined by the analysis of simulated reflection spectra of PC structures. The grating pitch, duty, scaled grating height and scaled TiO2 layer thickness were selected as the design factors to optimize the PC structure. The peak wavelength value (PWV), full width at half maximum of the peak, figure of merit for the bulk and surface sensitivities, and surface/bulk sensitivity ratio were also selected as the responses to optimize the PC label-free biosensor performance. A parametric study showed that the grating pitch was the dominant factor for PWV, and that it had low interaction effects with other scaled design factors. Therefore, we can isolate the effect of grating pitch using scaled design factors. For the design of PC-label free biosensor, one should consider that: (1) the PWV can be measured by the reflection peak measurement instruments, (2) the grating pitch and duty can be manufactured using conventional lithography systems, and (3) the optimum design is less sensitive to the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness variations in the fabrication process. In this paper, we suggested a design guide for highly sensitive PC biosensor in which one select the grating pitch and duty based on the limitations of the lithography and measurement system, and conduct a multi objective optimization of the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness for maximizing performance and minimizing the influence of parameter variation. Through multi-objective optimization of a PC structure with a fixed grating height of 550 nm and a duty of 50%, we obtained a surface FOM of 66.18 RIU-1 and an S/B ratio of 34.8%, with a grating height of 117 nm and TiO2 height of 210 nm. PMID:23470487
Foller Larsen, Anders; Dumat, Blaise; Wranne, Moa S.; Lawson, Christopher P.; Preus, Søren; Bood, Mattias; Gradén, Henrik; Marcus Wilhelmsson, L.; Grøtli, Morten
2015-01-01
Fluorescent base analogues (FBAs) comprise a family of increasingly important molecules for the investigation of nucleic acid structure and dynamics. We recently reported the quantum chemical calculation supported development of four microenvironment sensitive analogues of the quadracyclic adenine (qA) scaffold, the qANs, with highly promising absorptive and fluorescence properties that were very well predicted by TDDFT calculations. Herein, we report on the efficient synthesis, experimental and theoretical characterization of nine novel quadracyclic adenine derivatives. The brightest derivative, 2-CNqA, displays a 13-fold increased brightness (εΦF = 4500) compared with the parent compound qA and has the additional benefit of being a virtually microenvironment-insensitive fluorophore, making it a suitable candidate for nucleic acid incorporation and use in quantitative FRET and anisotropy experiments. TDDFT calculations, conducted on the nine novel qAs a posteriori, successfully describe the relative fluorescence quantum yield and brightness of all qA derivatives. This observation suggests that the TDDFT-based rational design strategy may be employed for the development of bright fluorophores built up from a common scaffold to reduce the otherwise costly and time-consuming screening process usually required to obtain useful and bright FBAs. PMID:26227585
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foller Larsen, Anders; Dumat, Blaise; Wranne, Moa S.; Lawson, Christopher P.; Preus, Søren; Bood, Mattias; Gradén, Henrik; Marcus Wilhelmsson, L.; Grøtli, Morten
2015-07-01
Fluorescent base analogues (FBAs) comprise a family of increasingly important molecules for the investigation of nucleic acid structure and dynamics. We recently reported the quantum chemical calculation supported development of four microenvironment sensitive analogues of the quadracyclic adenine (qA) scaffold, the qANs, with highly promising absorptive and fluorescence properties that were very well predicted by TDDFT calculations. Herein, we report on the efficient synthesis, experimental and theoretical characterization of nine novel quadracyclic adenine derivatives. The brightest derivative, 2-CNqA, displays a 13-fold increased brightness (ɛΦF = 4500) compared with the parent compound qA and has the additional benefit of being a virtually microenvironment-insensitive fluorophore, making it a suitable candidate for nucleic acid incorporation and use in quantitative FRET and anisotropy experiments. TDDFT calculations, conducted on the nine novel qAs a posteriori, successfully describe the relative fluorescence quantum yield and brightness of all qA derivatives. This observation suggests that the TDDFT-based rational design strategy may be employed for the development of bright fluorophores built up from a common scaffold to reduce the otherwise costly and time-consuming screening process usually required to obtain useful and bright FBAs.
Han, Kyunghwa; Song, Kijun; Choi, Byoung Wook
2016-01-01
Clinical prediction models are developed to calculate estimates of the probability of the presence/occurrence or future course of a particular prognostic or diagnostic outcome from multiple clinical or non-clinical parameters. Radiologic imaging techniques are being developed for accurate detection and early diagnosis of disease, which will eventually affect patient outcomes. Hence, results obtained by radiological means, especially diagnostic imaging, are frequently incorporated into a clinical prediction model as important predictive parameters, and the performance of the prediction model may improve in both diagnostic and prognostic settings. This article explains in a conceptual manner the overall process of developing and validating a clinical prediction model involving radiological parameters in relation to the study design and statistical methods. Collection of a raw dataset; selection of an appropriate statistical model; predictor selection; evaluation of model performance using a calibration plot, Hosmer-Lemeshow test and c-index; internal and external validation; comparison of different models using c-index, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement; and a method to create an easy-to-use prediction score system will be addressed. This article may serve as a practical methodological reference for clinical researchers. PMID:27134523
Han, Kyunghwa; Choi, Byoung Wook
2016-01-01
Clinical prediction models are developed to calculate estimates of the probability of the presence/occurrence or future course of a particular prognostic or diagnostic outcome from multiple clinical or non-clinical parameters. Radiologic imaging techniques are being developed for accurate detection and early diagnosis of disease, which will eventually affect patient outcomes. Hence, results obtained by radiological means, especially diagnostic imaging, are frequently incorporated into a clinical prediction model as important predictive parameters, and the performance of the prediction model may improve in both diagnostic and prognostic settings. This article explains in a conceptual manner the overall process of developing and validating a clinical prediction model involving radiological parameters in relation to the study design and statistical methods. Collection of a raw dataset; selection of an appropriate statistical model; predictor selection; evaluation of model performance using a calibration plot, Hosmer-Lemeshow test and c-index; internal and external validation; comparison of different models using c-index, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement; and a method to create an easy-to-use prediction score system will be addressed. This article may serve as a practical methodological reference for clinical researchers. PMID:27134523
Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings
2015-08-01
Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.; Roberts, Dar A.
1993-01-01
The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) measures spatial images of the total upwelling spectral radiance from 400 to 2500 nm through 10 nm spectral channels. Quantitative research and application objectives for surface investigations require inversion of the measured radiance of surface reflectance or surface leaving radiance. To calculate apparent surface reflectance, estimates of atmospheric water vapor abundance, cirrus cloud effects, surface pressure elevation, and aerosol optical depth are required. Algorithms for the estimation of these atmospheric parameters from the AVIRIS data themselves are described. From these atmospheric parameters we show an example of the calculation of apparent surface reflectance from the AVIRIS-measured radiance using a radiative transfer code.
The influence of selected design and operating parameters on the dynamics of the steam micro-turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Żywica, Grzegorz; Kiciński, Jan
2015-10-01
The topic of the article is the analysis of the influence of selected design parameters and operating conditions on the radial steam micro-turbine, which was adapted to operate with low-boiling agent in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In the following parts of this article the results of the thermal load analysis, the residual unbalance and the stiffness of bearing supports are discussed. Advanced computational methods and numerical models have been used. Computational analysis showed that the steam micro-turbine is characterized by very good dynamic properties and is resistant to extreme operating conditions. The prototype of micro-turbine has passed a series of test calculations. It has been found that it can be subjected to experimental research in the micro combined heat and power system.
Software design to calculate and simulate the mechanical response of electromechanical lifts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, I.; Romero, E.
2016-05-01
Lift engineers and lift companies which are involved in the design process of new products or in the research and development of improved components demand a predictive tool of the lift slender system response before testing expensive prototypes. A method for solving the movement of any specified lift system by means of a computer program is presented. The mechanical response of the lift operating in a user defined installation and configuration, for a given excitation and other configuration parameters of real electric motors and its control system, is derived. A mechanical model with 6 degrees of freedom is used. The governing equations are integrated step by step through the Meden-Kutta algorithm in the MATLAB platform. Input data consists on the set point speed for a standard trip and the control parameters of a number of controllers and lift drive machines. The computer program computes and plots very accurately the vertical displacement, velocity, instantaneous acceleration and jerk time histories of the car, counterweight, frame, passengers/loads and lift drive in a standard trip between any two floors of the desired installation. The resulting torque, rope tension and deviation of the velocity plot with respect to the setpoint speed are shown. The software design is implemented in a demo release of the computer program called ElevaCAD. Further on, the program offers the possibility to select the configuration of the lift system and the performance parameters of each component. In addition to the overall system response, detailed information of transients, vibrations of the lift components, ride quality levels, modal analysis and frequency spectrum (FFT) are plotted.
Bergman, W.; First, M.W.; Anderson, W.L.; Gilbert, H.; Jacox, J.W.
1995-02-01
The authors have reviewed the literature on the performance of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under normal and abnormal conditions to establish criteria for calculating the efficiency of HEPA filters in a DOE nonreactor nuclear facility during and after a Design Basis Accident (DBA). This study is only applicable to the standard deep-pleated HEPA filter with aluminum separators as specified in ASME N509. The literature review included the performance of new filters and parameters that may cause deterioration in the filter performance such as filter age, radiation, corrosive chemicals, seismic and rough handling, high temperature, moisture, particle clogging, high air flow and pressure pulses. The deterioration of the filter efficiency depends on the exposure parameters; in severe exposure conditions the filter will be structurally damaged and have a residual efficiency of 0%. Despite the many studies on HEPA filter performance under adverse conditions, there are large gaps and limitations in the data that introduce significant error in the estimates of HEPA filter efficiencies under DBA conditions. Because of this limitation, conservative values of filter efficiency were chosen when there was insufficient data.
A design of a DICOM-RT-based tool box for nonrigid 4D dose calculation.
Wong, Victy Y W; Baker, Colin R; Leung, T W; Tung, Stewart Y
2016-01-01
The study was aimed to introduce a design of a DICOM-RT-based tool box to facilitate 4D dose calculation based on deformable voxel-dose registration. The computational structure and the calculation algorithm of the tool box were explicitly discussed in the study. The tool box was written in MATLAB in conjunction with CERR. It consists of five main functions which allow a) importation of DICOM-RT-based 3D dose plan, b) deformable image registration, c) tracking voxel doses along breathing cycle, d) presentation of temporal dose distribution at different time phase, and e) derivation of 4D dose. The efficacy of using the tool box for clinical application had been verified with nine clinical cases on retrospective-study basis. The logistic and the robustness of the tool box were tested with 27 applications and the results were shown successful with no computational errors encountered. In the study, the accumulated dose coverage as a function of planning CT taken at end-inhale, end-exhale, and mean tumor position were assessed. The results indicated that the majority of the cases (67%) achieved maximum target coverage, while the planning CT was taken at the temporal mean tumor position and 56% at the end-exhale position. The comparable results to the literature imply that the studied tool box can be reliable for 4D dose calculation. The authors suggest that, with proper application, 4D dose calculation using deformable registration can provide better dose evaluation for treatment with moving target. PMID:27074476
Guidelines for the Selection of Near-Earth Thermal Environment Parameters for Spacecraft Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, B. J.; Justus, C. G.; Batts, G. W.
2001-01-01
Thermal analysis and design of Earth orbiting systems requires specification of three environmental thermal parameters: the direct solar irradiance, Earth's local albedo, and outgoing longwave radiance (OLR). In the early 1990s data sets from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment were analyzed on behalf of the Space Station Program to provide an accurate description of these parameters as a function of averaging time along the orbital path. This information, documented in SSP 30425 and, in more generic form in NASA/TM-4527, enabled the specification of the proper thermal parameters for systems of various thermal response time constants. However, working with the engineering community and SSP-30425 and TM-4527 products over a number of years revealed difficulties in interpretation and application of this material. For this reason it was decided to develop this guidelines document to help resolve these issues of practical application. In the process, the data were extensively reprocessed and a new computer code, the Simple Thermal Environment Model (STEM) was developed to simplify the process of selecting the parameters for input into extreme hot and cold thermal analyses and design specifications. In the process, greatly improved values for the cold case OLR values for high inclination orbits were derived. Thermal parameters for satellites in low, medium, and high inclination low-Earth orbit and with various system thermal time constraints are recommended for analysis of extreme hot and cold conditions. Practical information as to the interpretation and application of the information and an introduction to the STEM are included. Complete documentation for STEM is found in the user's manual, in preparation.
Godfraind, Carmen; Debelle, Adrien; Lonys, Laurent; Acuña, Vicente; Doguet, Pascal; Nonclercq, Antoine
2016-01-01
Inductive powering of implantable medical devices involves numerous factors acting on the system efficiency and safety in adversarial ways. This paper lightens up their role and identifies a procedure enabling the system design. The latter enables the problem to be decoupled into four principal steps: the frequency choice, the magnetic link optimization, the secondary circuit and then finally the primary circuit designs. The methodology has been tested for the powering system of a device requirering a power of 300mW and implanted at a distance of 15 to 30mm from the outside power source. It allowed the identification of the most critical parameters. A satisfying efficiency of 34% was reached at 21mm and tend to validate the proposed design procedure. PMID:27478572
An application of robust parameter design using an alternative to Taguchi methods
Abate, M.L.; Morrow, M.C.; Kuczek, T.
1996-11-01
The factors of interest in designing a product or process can generally be classified into two categories, controllable and uncontrollable. Controllable (or control) factors represent those factors which can be regulated. Examples of control factors include: the choice of material, flow rates, processing pressures, times and temperatures. Uncontrollable (noise) factors are those that are either difficult, impossible or too expensive to control during actual production or use. Examples of noise factors are: environmental conditions such as ambient temperature or humidity, process parameters which are dictated by an outside source such as end user demand, and usage factors such as how long and at what temperature a consumer stores a product. As compared to the current Tagachi approach, a new design method which provides greater flexibility in the design of the experiment, utilize a more meaningful performance statistic, and lend itself to a better understanding of the product or process is described in this paper.
Mian, Muhammad Umer Khir, M. H. Md.; Tang, T. B.; Dennis, John Ojur; Riaz, Kashif; Iqbal, Abid; Bazaz, Shafaat A.
2015-07-22
Pre-fabrication, behavioural and performance analysis with computer aided design (CAD) tools is a common and fabrication cost effective practice. In light of this we present a simulation methodology for a dual-mass oscillator based 3 Degree of Freedom (3-DoF) MEMS gyroscope. 3-DoF Gyroscope is modeled through lumped parameter models using equivalent circuit elements. These equivalent circuits consist of elementary components which are counterpart of their respective mechanical components, used to design and fabricate 3-DoF MEMS gyroscope. Complete designing of equivalent circuit model, mathematical modeling and simulation are being presented in this paper. Behaviors of the equivalent lumped models derived for the proposed device design are simulated in MEMSPRO T-SPICE software. Simulations are carried out with the design specifications following design rules of the MetalMUMPS fabrication process. Drive mass resonant frequencies simulated by this technique are 1.59 kHz and 2.05 kHz respectively, which are close to the resonant frequencies found by the analytical formulation of the gyroscope. The lumped equivalent circuit modeling technique proved to be a time efficient modeling technique for the analysis of complex MEMS devices like 3-DoF gyroscopes. The technique proves to be an alternative approach to the complex and time consuming couple field analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) previously used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mian, Muhammad Umer; Dennis, John Ojur; Khir, M. H. Md.; Riaz, Kashif; Iqbal, Abid; Bazaz, Shafaat A.; Tang, T. B.
2015-07-01
Pre-fabrication, behavioural and performance analysis with computer aided design (CAD) tools is a common and fabrication cost effective practice. In light of this we present a simulation methodology for a dual-mass oscillator based 3 Degree of Freedom (3-DoF) MEMS gyroscope. 3-DoF Gyroscope is modeled through lumped parameter models using equivalent circuit elements. These equivalent circuits consist of elementary components which are counterpart of their respective mechanical components, used to design and fabricate 3-DoF MEMS gyroscope. Complete designing of equivalent circuit model, mathematical modeling and simulation are being presented in this paper. Behaviors of the equivalent lumped models derived for the proposed device design are simulated in MEMSPRO T-SPICE software. Simulations are carried out with the design specifications following design rules of the MetalMUMPS fabrication process. Drive mass resonant frequencies simulated by this technique are 1.59 kHz and 2.05 kHz respectively, which are close to the resonant frequencies found by the analytical formulation of the gyroscope. The lumped equivalent circuit modeling technique proved to be a time efficient modeling technique for the analysis of complex MEMS devices like 3-DoF gyroscopes. The technique proves to be an alternative approach to the complex and time consuming couple field analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) previously used.
Photoacoustic design parameter optimization for deep tissue imaging by numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhaohui; Ha, Seunghan; Kim, Kang
2012-02-01
A new design of light illumination scheme for deep tissue photoacoustic (PA) imaging, a light catcher, is proposed and evaluated by in silico simulation. Finite element (FE)-based numerical simulation model was developed for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in soft tissues. In this in silico simulation using a commercially available FE simulation package (COMSOL MultiphysicsTM, COMSOL Inc., USA), a short-pulsed laser point source (pulse length of 5 ns) was placed in water on the tissue surface. Overall, four sets of simulation models were integrated together to describe the physical principles of PA imaging. Light energy transmission through background tissues from the laser source to the target tissue or contrast agent was described by diffusion equation. The absorption of light energy and its conversion to heat by target tissue or contrast agent was modeled using bio-heat equation. The heat then causes the stress and strain change, and the resulting displacement of the target surface produces acoustic pressure. The created wide-band acoustic pressure will propagate through background tissues to the ultrasound detector, which is governed by acoustic wave equation. Both optical and acoustical parameters in soft tissues such as scattering, absorption, and attenuation are incorporated in tissue models. PA imaging performance with different design parameters of the laser source and energy delivery scheme was investigated. The laser light illumination into the deep tissues can be significantly improved by up to 134.8% increase of fluence rate by introducing a designed compact light catcher with highly reflecting inner surface surrounding the light source. The optimized parameters through this simulation will guide the design of PA system for deep tissue imaging, and help to form the base protocols of experimental evaluations in vitro and in vivo.
Development and validation of a computer program to design and calculate ROPS.
Mangado, J; Arana, I; Jarén, C; Arnal, P; Arazuri, S; Ponce de León, J L
2007-01-01
In Spain, there are more than 250,000 tractors built before 1980, when it became mandatory for all new tractors to be equipped with a rollover protective structure (ROPS). A similar situation is found in the European Union, but the situation is worse in the U.S. and in developing countries. Directive 2003/37/EEC establishes that tractors over 800 kg weight can be homologated by using the OECD standard code for the official testing of protective structures on agricultural and forestry tractors (static test), called Code 4. A ROPS attachable to the rear axle of different tractor models has been designed, and a computer program for the calculation of the ROPS design has been developed. The program, named ESTREMA, is available at: www.cfnavarra.es/insl. Using this program, it has been possible to design a ROPS for the Massey Ferguson model 178 tractor, one of the most common tractor models without a ROPS in Spain. After the tractor was equipped with the designed ROPS, it was tested at the Spanish Authorized Station for testing ROPS and passed the homologation test (OECD Code 4), the main results being a maximum distortion of 21.3 cm when the absorbed energy was 5437 N and the maximum force applied was 34 kN during loading from the side. The ROPS was improved, redesigned, and remounted on the tractor, the tractor was tested in a real overturn, and no part of the structure intruded on the driver's clearance zone during the test. In conclusion, the ESTREMA program worked correctly, and the designed ROPS was able to pass the authorized test and provide adequate protection to the operator during a real overturn. PMID:17370915
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, L. W.
2001-01-01
A simple power law model consisting of a single spectral index (alpha-1) is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10(exp 13) eV, with a transition at knee energy (E(sub k)) to a steeper spectral index alpha-2 > alpha-1 above E(sub k). The maximum likelihood procedure is developed for estimating these three spectral parameters of the broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. These estimates and their surrounding statistical uncertainty are being used to derive the requirements in energy resolution, calorimeter size, and energy response of a proposed sampling calorimeter for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). This study thereby permits instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope.
Design and parameter estimation of hybrid magnetic bearings for blood pump applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Tau Meng; Zhang, Dongsheng; Yang, Juanjuan; Cheng, Shanbao; Low, Sze Hsien; Chua, Leok Poh; Wu, Xiaowei
2009-10-01
This paper discusses the design and parameter estimation of the dynamics characteristics of a high-speed hybrid magnetic bearings (HMBs) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet (PM) brushless and sensorless DC motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five-degree-of-freedom with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers; among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. Test results show that the rotor can be stably supported to speeds of 14,000 rpm. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMBs system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air—in both the radial and axial directions. The radial stiffness of the HMBs is compared to the Ansoft's Maxwell 2D/3D finite element magnetostatic results. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamics characteristics of the HMBs system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamics properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, L. W.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A simple power law model consisting of a single spectral index alpha (sub 1), is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10(exp 13) eV, with a transition at knee energy E(sub k) to a steeper spectral index alpha(sub 2) greater than alpha(sub 1) above E(sub k). The maximum likelihood procedure is developed for estimating these three spectral parameters of the broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. These estimates and their surrounding statistical uncertainty are being used to derive the requirements in energy resolution, calorimeter size, and energy response of a proposed sampling calorimeter for the Advanced Cosmic ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). This study thereby permits instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope.
Rational Design of Methodology-Independent Metal Parameters Using a Nonbonded Dummy Model.
Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Haiyang; Tan, Tianwei
2016-07-12
A nonbonded dummy model for metal ions is highly imperative for the computation of complex biological systems with for instance multiple metal centers. Here we present nonbonded dummy parameters of 11 divalent metallic cations, namely, Mg(2+), V(2+), Cr(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Sn(2+), and Hg(2+), that are optimized to be compatible with three widely used water models (TIP3P, SPC/E, and TIP4P-EW). The three sets of metal parameters reproduce simultaneously the solvation free energies (ΔGsol), the ion-oxygen distance in the first solvation shell (IOD), and coordination numbers (CN) in explicit water with a relative error less than 1%. The main sources of errors to ΔGsol that arise from the boundary conditions and treatment of electrostatic interactions are corrected rationally, which ensures the independence of the proposed parameters on the methodology used in the calculation. This work will be of great value for the computational study of metal-containing biological systems. PMID:27182744
Euler Calculations at Off-Design Conditions for an Inlet of Inward Turning RBCC-SSTO Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takashima, N.; Kothari, A. P.
1998-01-01
The inviscid performance of an inward turning inlet design is calculated computationally for the first time. Hypersonic vehicle designs based on the inward turning inlets have been shown analytically to have increased effective specific impulse and lower heat load than comparably designed vehicles with two-dimensional inlets. The inward turning inlets are designed inversely from inviscid stream surfaces of known flow fields. The computational study is performed on a Mach 12 inlet design to validate the performance predicted by the design code (HAVDAC) and calculate its off-design Mach number performance. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved for Mach 4, 8, and 12 using a software package called SAM, which consists of an unstructured mesh generator (SAMmesh), a three-dimensional unstructured mesh flow solver (SAMcfd), and a CAD-based software (SAMcad). The computed momentum averaged inlet throat pressure is within 6% of the design inlet throat pressure. The mass-flux at the inlet throat is also within 7 % of the value predicted by the design code thereby validating the accuracy of the design code. The off-design Mach number results show that flow spillage is minimal, and the variation in the mass capture ratio with Mach number is comparable to an ideal 2-D inlet. The results from the inviscid flow calculations of a Mach 12 inward turning inlet indicate that the inlet design has very good on and off-design performance which makes it a promising design candidate for future air-breathing hypersonic vehicles.
Mun, J S; Han, M Y
2012-01-01
The appropriate design and evaluation of a rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is necessary to improve system performance and the stability of the water supply. The main design parameters (DPs) of an RWH system are rainfall, catchment area, collection efficiency, tank volume and water demand. Its operational parameters (OPs) include rainwater use efficiency (RUE), water saving efficiency (WSE) and cycle number (CN). The sensitivity analysis of a rooftop RWH system's DPs to its OPs reveals that the ratio of tank volume to catchment area (V/A) for an RWH system in Seoul, South Korea is recommended between 0.03 and 0.08 in terms of rate of change in RUE. The appropriate design value of V/A is varied with D/A. The extra tank volume up to V/A of 0.15∼0.2 is also available, if necessary to secure more water. Accordingly, we should figure out suitable value or range of DPs based on the sensitivity analysis to optimize design of an RWH system or improve operation efficiency. The operational data employed in this study, which was carried out to validate the design and evaluation method of an RWH system, were obtained from the system in use at a dormitory complex at Seoul National University (SNU) in Korea. The results of these operational data are in good agreement with those used in the initial simulation. The proposed method and the results of this research will be useful in evaluating and comparing the performance of RWH systems. It is found that RUE can be increased by expanding the variety of rainwater uses, particularly in the high rainfall season. PMID:22054581
Study of design parameters affecting the motion of DNA for nanoinjection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, Regis A.; Jensen, Brian D.; Black, Justin L.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Howell, Larry L.
2012-05-01
This paper reports the effects of various parameters on the attraction and repulsion of DNA to and from a silicon lance. An understanding of DNA motion is crucial for a new approach to insert DNA, or other foreign microscopic matter, into a living cell. The approach, called nanoinjection, uses electrical forces to attract and repel the desired substance to a micromachined lance designed to pierce the cell membranes. We have developed mathematical models to predict the trajectory of DNA. The mathematical model allows investigation of the attraction/repulsion process by varying specific parameters. We find that the ground electrode placement, lance orientation and lance penetration significantly affect attraction or repulsion efficiency, while the gap, lance direction, lance tip width, lance tip half-angle and lance tip height do not.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1985-02-01
Version 00 TP2 is a transport theory code, developed to determine reactivity effects and kinetic parameters such as effective delayed neutron fractions and mean generation time by applying the usual perturbation formalism for two-dimensional geometry.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1985-02-01
Version 00 TP1 is a transport theory code, developed to determine reactivity effects and kinetic parameters such as effective delayed neutron fractions and mean generation time by applying the usual perturbation formalism for one-dimensional geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Feng; Pfeiffer, W.; Kouzichine, N.; Qiu, Yuchang; Kuffel, E.; Li, Kenli
2008-02-01
The electron swarm parameters of SF6/N2 are calculated in the present study using an improved Monte Carlo collision simulation method (MCS). And some improved sampling techniques are also adopted. The simulation results show that the improved simulation method can provide more accurate results.
Parameter Design and Optimal Control of an Open Core Flywheel Energy Storage System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pang, D.; Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.
1996-01-01
In low earth orbit (LEO) satellite applications spacecraft power is provided by photovoltaic cells and batteries. To overcome battery shortcomings the University of Maryland, working in cooperation with NASA/GSFC and NASA/LeRC, has developed a magnetically suspended flywheel for energy storage applications. The system is referred to as an Open Core Composite Flywheel (OCCF) energy storage system. Successful application of flywheel energy storage requires integration of several technologies, viz. bearings, rotor design, motor/generator, power conditioning, and system control. In this paper we present a parameter design method which has been developed for analyzing the linear SISO model of the magnetic bearing controller for the OCCF. The objective of this continued research is to principally analyze the magnetic bearing system for nonlinear effects in order to increase the region of stability, as determined by high speed and large air gap control. This is achieved by four tasks: (1) physical modeling, design, prototyping, and testing of an improved magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system, (2) identification of problems that limit performance and their corresponding solutions, (3) development of a design methodology for magnetic bearings, and (4) design of an optimal controller for future high speed applications. Both nonlinear SISO and MIMO models of the magnetic system were built to study limit cycle oscillations and power amplifier saturation phenomenon observed in experiments. The nonlinear models include the inductance of EM coils, the power amplifier saturation, and the physical limitation of the flywheel movement as discussed earlier. The control program EASY5 is used to study the nonlinear SISO and MIMO models. Our results have shown that the characteristics and frequency responses of the magnetic bearing system obtained from modeling are comparable to those obtained experimentally. Although magnetic saturation is shown in the bearings, there
D0 Silicon Upgrade: West End Assembly Hall Platform Design Calculations
Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab
1996-01-03
This engineering note documents design calculations done for the bayonet feed can platform installed at the far west end of the assembly hall. The platform is mounted off of a cast concrete wall directly south of where the shielding block wall is stacked. A summary of the loading, reaction forces and stresses is shown on the page 3. As can be seen, the calculated stresses are very small, maximum value = 2540 psi. The material used is structural steel tubing, ASTM A500 Gr. B, with a minimum yield strength of 46 ksi and minimum ultimate tensile strength of 58 ksi. The reaction forces for the upper two members will be carried together by a 1/2-inch mounting plate. The mounting plate is attached to the wall by four 1/2-inch Hilti wedge anchors. The allowables for each wedge anchor are 2400 lbs. tensile, 1960 lbs. shear. The major reaction load for the top members is a combined 3627 lbs. tensile load which can easily be handled by the four bolt pattern. Some small moment reactions not listed on the summary page add negligible (400 lbs.) force couples to the axial loading. The bottom members are also attached to a mounting plate that is bolted to the wall. See page 15 for Hilti wedge anchor data.
A normalized wave number variation parameter for acoustic black hole design.
Feurtado, Philip A; Conlon, Stephen C; Semperlotti, Fabio
2014-08-01
In recent years, the concept of the Acoustic Black Hole has been developed as an efficient passive, lightweight absorber of bending waves in plates and beams. Theory predicts greater absorption for a higher thickness taper power. However, a higher taper power also increases the violation of an underlying theory smoothness assumption. This paper explores the effects of high taper power on the reflection coefficient and spatial change in wave number and discusses the normalized wave number variation as a spatial design parameter for performance, assessment, and optimization. PMID:25096139
Crystal Field Parameters and Energy Levels Calculations for Fe{sup 3+}:ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}
Vaida, M.; Brik, M. G.; Avram, N. M.
2010-08-04
In this paper, we present a theoretical study of the energy levels structure for the zinc gallate normal spinel, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}, doped with Fe{sup 3+}(3d{sup 5} configuration) ions. The calculations have been performed in the framework of the exchange charge model (ECM) of the crystal field. After calculating the CFPs, based on the geometrical structure of the host matrix, the crystal field Hamiltonian was diagonalized in the space spanned by the wave functions of all 16 LS terms of the 3d{sup 5} electron configurations. The Racah parameters B, C and G parameter of the exchange charge model have been estimated. The results of the theoretical calculations are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liakos, A.
2015-07-01
The software ABSPAREB (Absolute Parameters of Eclipsing Binaries) calculates the absolute parameters and their formal errors for three different modes: a) double-lined spectroscopic eclipsing binary, b) single-lined spectroscopic eclipsing binary, and c) for an eclipsing binary for which there is no spectroscopic information. In addition, the positions of the binary's members on the mass-radius and color-magnitude diagrams can be also plotted. INPEVEB (Interpretation of Period Variations of Eclipsing Binaries) calculates the parameters as well as their formal errors for several orbital period modulating mechanisms in eclipsing binaries (i.e., LITE, the Applegate mechanism, mass transfer/loss, apsidal motion, magnetic braking) using from an analysis of their O-C diagrams. Both programs are available online (free of charge) in Graphical User Interface form and were written in PYTHON.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Dae-Joon; Lee, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seok-Myeong
2008-04-01
In the case of the manufactured linear permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMLSMs), dynamic range evaluation for system efficiency and performance limits is difficult to accomplish because of the moving length restriction with mover and the absence of interface between the design field and control field. To solve this problem, this paper presents a dynamic analysis based on design parameters by magnetic field analysis of the linear PM machine. And then, maximum operating range of the system is estimated considering the control method of a fixed dc-link voltage of the inverter. This analysis is verified from the dynamic experiments through continuous progressive motion of the manufactured disk-type PMLSM by current control.
Robust H infinity control design for the space station with structured parameter uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byun, Kuk-Whan; Wie, Bong; Geller, David; Sunkel, John
1992-01-01
A robust H-infinity control design methodology and its application to a Space Station attitude and momentum control problem are presented. This new approach incorporates nonlinear multi-parameter variations in the state-space formulation of H-infinity control theory. An application of this robust H-infinity control synthesis technique to the Space Station control problem yields a remarkable result in stability robustness with respect to the moments-of-inertia variation of about 73% in one of the structured uncertainty directions. The performance and stability of this new robust H-infinity controller for the Space Station are compared to those of other controllers designed using a standard linear-quadratic-regulator synthesis technique.
1995-09-01
Volume one contains calculations for: embankment design--embankment material properties; Union Carbide site--bedrock contours; vicinity properties--origin of contamination; North Continent and Union Carbide sites contaminated materials--excavation quantities; and demolition debris--quantity estimate.
Srivastava, S; Das, I; Cheng, C
2014-06-01
Purpose: IMRT has become standard of care for complex treatments to optimize dose to target and spare normal tissues. However, the impact of calculation grid size is not widely known especially dose distribution, tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) which is investigated in this study. Methods: Ten head and neck IMRT patients treated with 6 MV photons were chosen for this study. Using Eclipse TPS, treatment plans were generated for different grid sizes in the range 1–5 mm for the same optimization criterion with specific dose-volume constraints. The dose volume histogram (DVH) was calculated for all IMRT plans and dosimetric data were compared. ICRU-83 dose points such as D2%, D50%, D98%, as well as the homogeneity and conformity indices (HI, CI) were calculated. In addition, TCP and NTCP were calculated from DVH data. Results: The PTV mean dose and TCP decreases with increasing grid size with an average decrease in mean dose by 2% and TCP by 3% respectively. Increasing grid size from 1–5 mm grid size, the average mean dose and NTCP for left parotid was increased by 6.0% and 8.0% respectively. Similar patterns were observed for other OARs such as cochlea, parotids and spinal cord. The HI increases up to 60% and CI decreases on average by 3.5% between 1 and 5 mm grid that resulted in decreased TCP and increased NTCP values. The number of points meeting the gamma criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm DTA was higher with a 1 mm on average (97.2%) than with a 5 mm grid (91.3%). Conclusion: A smaller calculation grid provides superior dosimetry with improved TCP and reduced NTCP values. The effect is more pronounced for smaller OARs. Thus, the smallest possible grid size should be used for accurate dose calculation especially in H and N planning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Jing; Hu, Jiangping
2016-03-01
Pairing symmetries of iron-based superconductors are investigated systematically in a five-orbital model within the different regions of interaction parameters by functional renormalization group (FRG). Even for a fixed Fermi surface with both hole and electron pockets, it is found that depending on interaction parameters, a variety of pairing symmetries, including two types of d-wave and two types of s-wave pairing symmetries, can emerge. Only the dx^2-y^2 - and the s±-waves are robustly supported by the nearest-neighbor (NN) intra-orbital J 1 and the next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) intra-orbital J 2 antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange couplings, respectively. This study suggests that the accurate initial input of the interaction parameters is essential to make FRG a useful method to determine the leading channel of superconducting instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belosevic-Cavor, Jelena; Koteski, Vasil; Concas, Giorgio; Cekic, Bozidar; Novakovic, Nikola; Spano, Giorgio
2005-10-01
A detailed theoretical study of the structure, electronic properties and the electric field gradients of the Hf2Fe intermetallic compound is presented. Using all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) formalism the equilibrium volume, bulk modulus and electric field gradients are calculated. The obtained results are compared with EFG values inferred from measurements performed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and the earlier reported time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurements. The lattice relaxation and the supercell calculations are found to be essential for the correct interpretation of the experimental results.
Conceptual Design Parameters for HFIR LEU U-Mo Fuel Conversion Experimental Irradiations
Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Chandler, David; Ilas, Germina; Jain, Prashant K
2013-03-01
The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a versatile research reactor that is operated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HFIR core is loaded with high-enriched uranium (HEU) and operates at a power level of 85 MW. The primary scientific missions of the HFIR include cold and thermal neutron scattering, materials irradiation, and isotope production. An engineering design study of the conversion of the HFIR from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is ongoing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The LEU fuel considered is based on a uranium-molybdenum alloy that is 10 percent by weight molybdenum (U-10Mo) with a 235U enrichment of 19.75 wt %. The LEU core design discussed in this report is based on the design documented in ORNL/TM-2010/318. Much of the data reported in Sections 1 and 2 of this document was derived from or taken directly out of ORNL/TM-2010/318. The purpose of this report is to document the design parameters for and the anticipated normal operating conditions of the conceptual HFIR LEU fuel to aid in developing requirements for HFIR irradiation experiments.
Design considerations and parameter study for a 0.5TeV PWFA afterburner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chengkun; Lu, W.; Tzoufras, M.; Zhou, M.; Decyk, V. K.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.
2007-11-01
A recent plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) experiment using short (˜100fs), high peak current (>10KA) electron beam as driver has demonstrated sustained acceleration gradients of ˜50GeV/m over 85 cm distance [1]. The rapid progress of PWFA experiments has attracted interest regarding the possibility of making an afterburner for a linear collider. In the afterburner concept, an electron beam is placed into the wakefield to extract energy deposited in the wake. We investigate the afterburner concept based on the present understanding of the key physics. Possible design scenarios such as single stage acceleration or integrated design with plasma lens final focusing are studied. The final energy, charges, emittance, energy spread and energy stability of the accelerated electron beam are taken as intrinsic design considerations. Parameters are suggested for a 0.5 TeV afterburner. We also present full scale 3D particle-in-cell simulations of the possible design using a highly efficient and accurate quasi-static code QuickPIC. [1] Blumenfeld et. al., Nature 445, 741 (2007).
Robust control design with real parameter uncertainty using absolute stability theory. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
How, Jonathan P.; Hall, Steven R.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate an extension of mu theory for robust control design by considering systems with linear and nonlinear real parameter uncertainties. In the process, explicit connections are made between mixed mu and absolute stability theory. In particular, it is shown that the upper bounds for mixed mu are a generalization of results from absolute stability theory. Both state space and frequency domain criteria are developed for several nonlinearities and stability multipliers using the wealth of literature on absolute stability theory and the concepts of supply rates and storage functions. The state space conditions are expressed in terms of Riccati equations and parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. For controller synthesis, these stability conditions are used to form an overbound of the H2 performance objective. A geometric interpretation of the equivalent frequency domain criteria in terms of off-axis circles clarifies the important role of the multiplier and shows that both the magnitude and phase of the uncertainty are considered. A numerical algorithm is developed to design robust controllers that minimize the bound on an H2 cost functional and satisfy an analysis test based on the Popov stability multiplier. The controller and multiplier coefficients are optimized simultaneously, which avoids the iteration and curve-fitting procedures required by the D-K procedure of mu synthesis. Several benchmark problems and experiments on the Middeck Active Control Experiment at M.I.T. demonstrate that these controllers achieve good robust performance and guaranteed stability bounds.
Electron work function-a promising guiding parameter for material design.
Lu, Hao; Liu, Ziran; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang; Parent, Leo; Tian, Harry
2016-01-01
Using nickel added X70 steel as a sample material, we demonstrate that electron work function (EWF), which largely reflects the electron behavior of materials, could be used as a guide parameter for material modification or design. Adding Ni having a higher electron work function to X70 steel brings more "free" electrons to the steel, leading to increased overall work function, accompanied with enhanced e(-)-nuclei interactions or higher atomic bond strength. Young's modulus and hardness increase correspondingly. However, the free electron density and work function decrease as the Ni content is continuously increased, accompanied with the formation of a second phase, FeNi3, which is softer with a lower work function. The decrease in the overall work function corresponds to deterioration of the mechanical strength of the steel. It is expected that EWF, a simple but fundamental parameter, may lead to new methodologies or supplementary approaches for metallic materials design or tailoring on a feasible electronic base. PMID:27074974
Evaluation and optimization of handle design parameters of a grass trimming machine.
Mallick, Zulquernain
2008-01-01
The grass trimming machine is a widely used agricultural machine for cutting grass by the roadside and in other areas in Malaysia. Hand-arm vibration (HAV) syndrome is very common among workers operating power tools and performing similar work for extended periods. Grass trimming involves the use of a motorized cutter spinning at high speed, resulting in high levels of HAV among its operators. The existing D-shape handle causes HAV-related stress and operational load in operators. This research proposes a new design of a handle of the grass trimming machine. When this new design was compared with the old one, it was found that the new handle resulted in 18% lower HAV. To find the lowest HAV, 3 critical parameters of the new handle (length, angle and material of the cap of the handle) were optimized using the Taguchi quality tool. Appropriately selected parameters of the new handle significantly reduced the occurrence of HAV among grass trimmers. PMID:18954544
Development of engineering parameters for the design of metal biosorption waste treatment systems
Graham, W.S.
1991-12-03
Untreated landfill leachates and wastes from metal plating and mining operations are sources of environmental contamination by heavy metals. Because of their toxicity and potential for accumulation, the discharge of heavy metals must be controlled. Standard physical and chemical treatments used to remove metals from wastes such as concentration by electro-precipitation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, evaporative recovery, and conventional precipitation, are usually expensive and produce high quantities of sludge. Biosorption is the removal of metals from aqueous solutions by microorganisms. It is called biosorption rather than bioadsorption or bioaccumulation because the mechanisms of removal are not restricted to adsorption or metabolic uptake and so the more general term is preferable and has come to be accepted. In this thesis the focus is one two microorganisms and two metals. However, the possible combinations of conditions such as pH, relative metal molarities, time of contact, and organism are numerous. These experiments are designed to provide optimized parameters to facilitate the design of a functioning biosorption system. The two metals chosen for study are copper and lead in aqueous solution. The two types of microorganisms chosen for testing include an actinomycete and a fungus. The purpose of this research is to identify the significant engineering parameters to be evaluated include reaction rates, equilibrium partitioning of metal ions between those in solution and those removed to the cells, optimum pH for achieving the removal or recovery goal, and biosorption selectivity for one metal over another.
Electron work function–a promising guiding parameter for material design
Lu, Hao; Liu, Ziran; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang; Parent, Leo; Tian, Harry
2016-01-01
Using nickel added X70 steel as a sample material, we demonstrate that electron work function (EWF), which largely reflects the electron behavior of materials, could be used as a guide parameter for material modification or design. Adding Ni having a higher electron work function to X70 steel brings more “free” electrons to the steel, leading to increased overall work function, accompanied with enhanced e−–nuclei interactions or higher atomic bond strength. Young’s modulus and hardness increase correspondingly. However, the free electron density and work function decrease as the Ni content is continuously increased, accompanied with the formation of a second phase, FeNi3, which is softer with a lower work function. The decrease in the overall work function corresponds to deterioration of the mechanical strength of the steel. It is expected that EWF, a simple but fundamental parameter, may lead to new methodologies or supplementary approaches for metallic materials design or tailoring on a feasible electronic base. PMID:27074974
Chazel, V; Houpert, P; Paquet, F; Ansoborlo, E
2001-01-01
In the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) described in ICRP Publication 66, time-dependent dissolution is described by three parameters: the fraction dissolved rapidly, fr, and the rapid and slow dissolution rates sr and ss. The effect of these parameters on the dose coefficient has been studied. A theoretical analysis was carried out to determine the sensitivity of the dose coefficient to variations in the values of these absorption parameters. Experimental values of the absorption parameters and the doses per unit intake (DPUI) were obtained from in vitro dissolution tests, or from in vivo experiments with rats, for five industrial uranium compounds UO2, U3O8, UO4, UF4 and a mixture of uranium oxides. These compounds were classified in terms of absorption types (F, M or S) according to ICRP. The overall result was that the factor which has the greatest influence on the dose coefficient was the slow dissolution rate ss. This was verified experimentally, with a variation of 20% to 55% for the DPUI according to the absorption type of the compound. In contrast, the rapid dissolution rate sr had little effect on the dose coefficient, excepted for Type F compounds. PMID:11487809
Dahms, Rainer N.
2014-12-31
The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phase components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of previous
Dahms, Rainer N.
2014-12-31
The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phasemore » components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of
Effect of inflow cannula tip design on potential parameters of blood compatibility and thrombosis.
Wong, Kai Chun; Büsen, Martin; Benzinger, Carrie; Gäng, René; Bezema, Mirko; Greatrex, Nicholas; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich
2014-09-01
During ventricular assist device support, a cannula acts as a bridge between the native cardiovascular system and a foreign mechanical device. Cannula tip design strongly affects the function of the cannula and its potential for blood trauma. In this study, the flow fields of five different tip geometries within the ventricle were evaluated using stereo particle image velocimetry. Inflow cannulae with conventional tip geometries (blunt, blunt with four side ports, beveled with three side ports, and cage) and a custom-designed crown tip were interposed between a mixed-flow rotary blood pump and a compressible, translucent silicone left ventricle. The contractile function of the failing ventricle and hemodynamics were reproduced in a mock circulation loop. The rotary blood pump was interfaced with the ventricle and aorta and used to fully support the failing ventricle. Among these five tip geometries, high-shear volume ( γ ˙ ≥ 2778 / s , potential parameter of platelet activation) was found to be the greatest in the blunt tip. The cage tip was observed to have the highest low-shear volume and recirculation volume ( γ ˙ ≤ 100 / s and Vz > 0, respectively; potential parameters of thrombus formation). The crown tip, together with conventional tip geometries with side ports (blunt with four side ports and beveled with three side ports) showed no significant difference in either high-shear volume or low-shear volume. However, recirculation volume was reduced significantly in the crown tip. Despite limited generalizability to clinical situations, these transient-state measurements supported the potential mitigation of complications by changing the design of conventional cannula tip geometries. PMID:25234762
TMRBAR: a code to calculate plasma parameters for tandem-mirror reactors operating in the MARS mode
Campbell, R.B.
1983-08-30
The purpose of this report is to document the plasma power balance model currently used by LLNL to calculate steady state operating points for tandem mirror reactors. The code developed from this model, TMRBAR, has been used to predict the performance and define supplementary heating requirements for drivers used in the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) and for the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) study. The equations solved included particle and energy balance for central cell and end cell species, quasineutrality at several cardinal points in the end cell region, as well as calculations of volumes, densities and average energies based on given constraints of beta profiles and fusion power output. Alpha particle ash is treated self-consistently, but no other impurity species is treated.
Morrison, M.A.; Saha, B.C.
1986-10-01
A correlation-polarization potential originally introduced by O'Connell and Lane (Phys. Rev. A 27, 1893 (1983)) is used in e-H/sub 2/ scattering calculations in which the vibrational motion of the target is taken into account. Eigenphase sums (as a function of internuclear separation) and cross sections for elastic scattering and for rovibrational excitations are compared to their counterparts calculated using the ab initio nonadiabatic model polarization potential of Gibson and Morrison (Phys. Rev. A 29, 2497 (1984)). At low energies, these scattering quantities are found to be quite sensitive to the treatment of polarization. To assess these model potentials, theoretical total, momentum transfer, and rotational- and vibrational-excitation cross sections are compared to experimental data.
Mössbauer parameters of Fe-related defects in group-IV semiconductors: First principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, E.; Coutinho, J.; Öberg, S.; Torres, V. J. B.
2016-05-01
We employ a combination of pseudopotential and all-electron density functional calculations, to relate the structure of defects in supercells to the isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings observed in Mössbauer spectroscopy experiments. The methodology is comprehensively reviewed and applied to the technologically relevant case of iron-related defects in silicon, and to other group-IV hosts to a lesser degree. Investigated defects include interstitial and substitutional iron, iron-boron pairs, iron-vacancy, and iron-divacancy. We find that, in general, agreement between the calculations and Mössbauer data is within a 10% error bar. Nonetheless, we show that the methodology can be used to make accurate assignments, including to separate peaks of similar defects in slightly different environments.
Interaction of fission products and SiC in TRISO fuel particles: a limiting HTGR design parameter
Stansfield, O.M.; Homan, F.J.; Simon, W.A.; Turner, R.F.
1983-09-01
The fuel particle system for the steam cycle cogeneration HTGR being developed in the US consists of 20% enriched UC/sub 0/./sub 3/O/sub 1/./sub 7/ and ThO/sub 2/ kernels with TRISO coatings. The reaction of fission products with the SiC coating is the limiting thermochemical coating failure mechanism affecting performance. The attack of the SiC by palladium (Pd) is considered the controlling reaction with systems of either oxide or carbide fuels. The lanthanides, such as cerium, neodymium, and praseodymium, also attack SiC in carbide fuel particles. In reactor design, the time-temperature relationships at local points in the core are used to calculate the depth of SiC-Pd reaction. The depth of penetration into the SiC during service varies with core power density, power distribution, outlet gas temperature, and fuel residence time. These parameters are adjusted in specifying the core design to avoid SiC coating failure.
Sadeghi, Mahdi; Raisali, Gholamreza; Hosseini, S. Hamed; Shavar, Arzhang
2008-04-15
This article presents a brachytherapy source having {sup 103}Pd adsorbed onto a cylindrical silver rod that has been developed by the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School for permanent implant applications. Dosimetric characteristics (radial dose function, anisotropy function, and anisotropy factor) of this source were experimentally and theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM Task group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the dose rate constant. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters using standard methods employing thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Perspex phantom. Precision machined bores in the phantom located the dosimeters and the source in a reproducible fixed geometry, providing for transverse-axis and angular dose profiles over a range of distances from 0.5 to 5 cm. The Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code, version 4C simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the dose-rate distributions around this model {sup 103}Pd source in water and Perspex phantoms. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate constant of the IRA-{sup 103}Pd source in water was found to be 0.678 cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} with an approximate uncertainty of {+-}0.1%. The anisotropy function, F(r,{theta}), and the radial dose function, g(r), of the IRA-{sup 103}Pd source were also measured in a Perspex phantom and calculated in both Perspex and liquid water phantoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murata, C. H.; Fernandes, D. C.; Lavínia, N. C.; Caldas, L. V. E.; Pires, S. R.; Medeiros, R. B.
2014-02-01
The performance of radiological equipment can be assessed using non-invasive methods and portable instruments that can analyze an X-ray beam with just one exposure. These instruments use either an ionization chamber or a state solid detector (SSD) to evaluate X-ray beam parameters. In Brazil, no such instruments are currently being manufactured; consequently, these instruments come at a higher cost to users due to importation taxes. Additionally, quality control tests are time consuming and impose a high workload on the X-ray tubes when evaluating their performance parameters. The assessment of some parameters, such as the half-value layer (HVL), requires several exposures; however, this can be reduced by using a SSD that requires only a single exposure. One such SSD uses photodiodes designed for high X-ray sensitivity without the use of scintillation crystals. This sensitivity allows one electron-hole pair to be created per 3.63 eV of incident energy, resulting in extremely high and stable quantum efficiencies. These silicon photodiodes operate by absorbing photons and generating a flow of current that is proportional to the incident power. The aim of this study was to show the response of the solid sensor PIN RD100A detector in a multifunctional X-ray analysis system that is designed to evaluate the average peak voltage (kVp), exposure time, and HVL of radiological equipment. For this purpose, a prototype board that uses four SSDs was developed to measure kVp, exposure time, and HVL using a single exposure. The reproducibility and accuracy of the results were compared to that of different X-ray beam analysis instruments. The kVp reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 3%, respectively; the exposure time reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 1%, respectively; and the HVL accuracy was ±2%. The prototype's methodology was able to calculate these parameters with appropriate reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the prototype can be considered
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybus, Tomasz; Seweryn, Karol
2016-03-01
All devices designed to be used in space must be thoroughly tested in relevant conditions. For several classes of devices the reduced gravity conditions are the key factor. In early stages of development and later due to financial reasons, the tests need to be done on Earth. However, in Earth conditions it is impossible to obtain a different gravity field independent on all linear and rotational spatial coordinates. Therefore, various test-bed systems are used, with their design driven by the device's specific needs. One of such test-beds are planar air-bearing microgravity simulators. In such an approach, the tested objects (e.g., manipulators intended for on-orbit operations or vehicles simulating satellites in a close formation flight) are mounted on planar air-bearings that allow almost frictionless motion on a flat surface, thus simulating microgravity conditions in two dimensions. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of research activities related to planar air-bearing microgravity simulators, demonstrating achievements of the most active research groups and describing newest trends and ideas, such as tests of landing gears for low-g bodies. Major design parameters of air-bearing test-beds are also reviewed and a list of notable existing test-beds is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, Jean W.; Sheen, Jeen S.
1987-01-01
The aim of this study is to find a reliable numerical algorithm to calculate thermal design sensitivities of a transient problem with discontinuous derivatives. The thermal system of interest is a transient heat conduction problem related to the curing process of a composite laminate. A logical function which can smoothly approximate the discontinuity is introduced to modify the system equation. Two commonly used methods, the adjoint variable method and the direct differentiation method, are then applied to find the design derivatives of the modified system. The comparisons of numerical results obtained by these two methods demonstrate that the direct differentiation method is a better choice to be used in calculating thermal design sensitivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, F.; Mesa, J.; Arruda-Neto, J. D. T.; Helene, O.; Vanin, V.; Milian, F.; Deppman, A.; Rodrigues, T. E.; Rodriguez, O.
2007-03-01
The code STATFLUX, implementing a new and simple statistical procedure for the calculation of transfer coefficients in radionuclide transport to animals and plants, is proposed. The method is based on the general multiple-compartment model, which uses a system of linear equations involving geometrical volume considerations. Flow parameters were estimated by employing two different least-squares procedures: Derivative and Gauss-Marquardt methods, with the available experimental data of radionuclide concentrations as the input functions of time. The solution of the inverse problem, which relates a given set of flow parameter with the time evolution of concentration functions, is achieved via a Monte Carlo simulation procedure. Program summaryTitle of program:STATFLUX Catalogue identifier:ADYS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYS_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested:Micro-computer with Intel Pentium III, 3.0 GHz Installation:Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, Department of Experimental Physics, University of São Paulo, Brazil Operating system:Windows 2000 and Windows XP Programming language used:Fortran-77 as implemented in Microsoft Fortran 4.0. NOTE: Microsoft Fortran includes non-standard features which are used in this program. Standard Fortran compilers such as, g77, f77, ifort and NAG95, are not able to compile the code and therefore it has not been possible for the CPC Program Library to test the program. Memory required to execute with typical data:8 Mbytes of RAM memory and 100 MB of Hard disk memory No. of bits in a word:16 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:6912 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:229 541 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of the physical problem:The investigation of transport mechanisms for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavodszky, Peter; Marti, Felix; Zeller, Al; Biri, Sandor
2002-04-01
An ECR Ion Source (ECRIS) is designed to serve as a test bench for development of different ion species, emittance optimization and other applications. The radial confinement for this ECRIS will be provided by a special permanent magnet hexapole reaching 1.5 T at the aluminum plasma chamber wall (R=37 mm). The axial trapping will be produced with normal conducting solenoids enclosed in an iron yoke. The maximum magnetic field at the injection end will be 2.6 T and 1.5 T at extraction. A third set of coils polarized in the opposite direction between the injection and extraction coils is used to decrease the minimum value of the axial magnetic field to produce magnetic mirror ratios as high as 20. Three different microwave frequencies (6.4, 14.5 and 18 GHz) will be used to heat the plasma. Detailed magnetic field calculations will be presented comparing the results obtained with the SUPERFISH, TrapCAD and OPERA codes.
THERMAL: A routine designed to calculate neutron thermal scattering. Revision 1
Cullen, D.E.
1995-09-19
THERMAL is designed to calculate neutron thermal scattering that is elastic and isotropic in the center of mass system. At low energy thermal motion will be included. At high energies the target nuclei are assumed to be stationary. The point of transition between low and high energies has been defined to insure a smooth transition. It is assumed that at low energy the elastic cross section is constant in the relative system. At high energy the cross section can be of any form. You can use this routine for all energies where the elastic scattering is isotropic in the center of mass system. In most materials this will be a fairly high energy, e.g., the keV energy range. The THERMAL method is simple, clean, easy to understand, and most important very efficient; on a SUN SPARC-10 workstation, at low energies with thermal scattering it can do almost 6 million scatters a minute and at high energy over 13 million. Warning: This version of THERMAL completely supersedes the original version described in the same report number, dated February 24, 1995. The method used in the original code is incorrect, as explained in this report.
Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)
2005-02-01
This study demonstrates that containment of municipal and hazardous waste in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers combining layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards. equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 3-foot (ft) cover in arid and semiarid environments is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-prescribed technical equivalency criteria of 31.5 millimeters/year and 1 x 10{sup -7} centimeters/second for net annual percolation and average flux, respectively. Increasing cover thickness to 4 or 5 ft results in limited additional improvement in cover performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katsaros, Kristina B.; Hammarstrand, Ulla; Petty, Grant W.
1990-01-01
Existing and experimental algorithms for various parameters of atmospheric water content such as integrated water vapor, cloud water, precipitation, are used to examine the distribution of these quantities in mid latitude cyclones. The data was obtained from signals given by the special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) and compared with data from the nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) for North Atlantic cyclones. The potential of microwave remote sensing for enhancing knowledge of the horizontal structure of these storms and to aid the development and testing of the cloud and precipitation aspects of limited area numerical models of cyclonic storms is investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, D. D.
1979-01-01
A group additivity method is generated which allows estimation, from the structural formulas alone, of the energy of vaporization and the molar volume at 25 C of many nonpolar organic liquids. Using these two parameters and appropriate thermodynamic relations, the vapor pressure of the liquid phase and the solubility of various gases in nonpolar organic liquids are predicted. It is also possible to use the data to evaluate organic and some inorganic liquids for use in gas separation stages or liquids as heat exchange fluids in prospective thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production.
Particle Shape: A New Design Parameter for Micro- and Nanoscale Drug Delivery Carriers
Champion, Julie A.; Katare, Yogesh K.; Mitragotri, Samir
2014-01-01
Encapsulation of therapeutic agents in polymer particles has been successfully used in the development of new drug carriers. A number of design parameters that govern the functional behavior of carriers, including the choice of polymer, particle size and surface chemistry, have been tuned to optimize their performance in vivo. However, particle shape, which may also have a strong impact on carrier performance, has not been investigated. This is perhaps due to the limited availability of techniques to produce non-spherical polymer particles. In recent years, a number of reports have emerged to directly address this bottleneck and initial studies have indeed confirmed that particle shape can significantly impact the performance of polymer drug carriers. This article provides a review of this field with respect to methods of particle preparation and the role of particle shape in drug delivery. PMID:17544538
Sadeghi, Mahdi; Hosseini, S Hamed; Raisali, Gholamreza
2008-10-01
This work presents a brachytherapy source having (103)Pd adsorbed onto a cylindrical silver rod that has been developed by Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School for permanent implant applications. Dosimetric characteristics (dose-rate constant, radial dose function, anisotropy function and anisotropy factor) of this source were experimentally and theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters using standard methods employing thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Perspex phantom. Precision machined bores in the phantom located dosimeters and source in a reproducible fixed geometry providing for transverse-axis and angular dose profiles over a range of distances from 0.5 to 5 cm. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code, version 4C was used to evaluate the dose-rate distributions around this model (103)Pd source in water and Perspex phantoms. The Monte Carlo calculated dose-rate constant of the IRA1-(103)Pd source in water was found equal to Lambda=0.669 cGy/h/U with approximate uncertainties of +/-0.1%. The anisotropy function, F(r, theta), and the radial dose function, g(L)(r), of the IRA1-(103)Pd source were also measured in Perspex phantom and calculated in both Perspex and liquid water phantom. PMID:18387806
Effects of rock riprap design parameters on flood protection costs for uranium tailings impoundments
Ecker, R.M.
1984-07-01
The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the problem of long-term protection of earthen covers on decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major erosive forces acting on these covers will be river flooding and overland flow from rainfall-runoff. For impoundments adjacent to rivers, overbank flooding presents the greater potential for significant erosion. To protect the earthen covers against flood erosion, rock riprap armoring will be placed over the cover surface. Because of the large size rock usually required for riprap, the quarrying, transport, and placement of the rock could be a significant part of the decommissioning cost. This report examines the sensitivity of riprap protection costs to certain design parameters at tailings impoundments. The parameters include flood discharge, riprap materials, impoundment side slopes, and an added safety factor. Two decommissioned tailings impoundments are used as case studies for the evaluation. These are the Grand Junction, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Colorado River and the Slickrock, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Dolores River. The evaluation considers only the cost of riprap protection against flood erosion. The study results show that embankment side slope and rock specific gravity can have optimum values or ranges at a specific site. For both case study sites the optimum side slope is about 5H:1V. Of the rock sources considered at Grand Junction, the optimum specific gravity would be about 2.50; however, an optimum rock specific gravity for the Slickrock site could not be determined. Other results indicate that the arbitrary safety factor usually added in riprap design can lead to large increases in protection costs. 22 references, 19 figures, 15 tables.
Mathematical modeling and analysis of EDM process parameters based on Taguchi design of experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laxman, J.; Raj, K. Guru
2015-12-01
Electro Discharge Machining is a process used for machining very hard metals, deep and complex shapes by metal erosion in all types of electro conductive materials. The metal is removed through the action of an electric discharge of short duration and high current density between the tool and the work piece. The eroded metal on the surface of both work piece and the tool is flushed away by the dielectric fluid. The objective of this work is to develop a mathematical model for an Electro Discharge Machining process which provides the necessary equations to predict the metal removal rate, electrode wear rate and surface roughness. Regression analysis is used to investigate the relationship between various process parameters. The input parameters are taken as peak current, pulse on time, pulse off time, tool lift time. and the Metal removal rate, electrode wear rate and surface roughness are as responses. Experiments are conducted on Titanium super alloy based on the Taguchi design of experiments i.e. L27 orthogonal experiments.
Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M
2016-08-01
An uncommon innovative consideration of the well-stirred linear physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the drug plasma concentration-time profile, which is measured in routine intravenous bolus pharmacokinetic study, was applied for the calculation of the drug time course in human tissues. This cannot be obtained in the in vivo pharmacokinetic study. The physiological parameters of the organ such as organ tissue volume, organ blood flow rate, and its vascular volume were used in the calculation. The considered method was applied to calculate the time course of midazolam, alprazolam, quinidine, and diclofenac in human organs or tissues. The suggested method might be applied for the prediction of drug concentration-time profile in tissues and consequently the drug concentration level in the targeted tissue, as well as the possible undesirable toxic levels in other tissues. PMID:27290628
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, W. W.; Sanchez, A.; Greig, J. R.; Griem, H. R.
1972-01-01
The electron-impact-broadened profiles of the resonance lines of singly ionized calcium and magnesium have been measured using an electromagnetically driven shock tube and a rapid-scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometer. For an electron density of 10 to the 17th power per cu cm and a temperature of 19,000 K, we found the Lorentzian half-width of the Ca+ line to be 0.086 A plus or minus 10% and of the Mg+ line to be 0.044 A plus or minus 10%. Using the quantum-mechanical theory of Barnes and Peach and our semiclassical calculation for the calcium lines, we found that the temperature dependence of the theoretical curves is close to that measured, although both theories predict actual values which are somewhat large.
Barber, H. E.; Welch, B. L.; Mackay, D.
1967-01-01
1. A logarithmic method is described for the calculation of the transport parameters, Km and Vmax.' of a biological system obeying Michaelis–Menten kinetics. 2. This logarithmic method leads to a way of estimating the transport parameters that has not apparently been used previously. It allows the separation of variance due to Vmax. from other variance, and so reduces the fiducial limits that can be placed on an estimation of Km. 3. The results of studies on the transport of l-histidine and l-monoiodohistidine by rat intestinal sacs in vitro have been used to illustrate the application of the new method. Estimates of the transport parameters have also been made by two alternative procedures. The relative merits of the three methods are discussed. PMID:6033766
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
CUNNINGHAM, P. R.; WHITE, R. G.; AGLIETTI, G. S.
2000-02-01
Sandwich panels have a very high stiffness to weight ratio, which makes them particularly useful in the aerospace industry where carbon fibre reinforced plastics and lightweight honeycomb cores are being used in the construction of floor panels, fairings and intake barrel panels. In the latter case, the geometry of the panels can be considered doubly curved. This paper presents an introduction to an ongoing study investigating the dynamic response prediction of acoustically excited composite sandwich panels which have double curvature. The final objective is to assess and hopefully produce an up to date set of acoustic fatigue design guidelines for this type of structure. The free vibration of doubly curved composite honeycomb sandwich panels is investigated here, both experimentally and theoretically, the latter using a commerically available finite element package. The design and manufacture of three test panels is covered before presenting experimental results for the natural frequencies of vibration with freely supported boundary conditions. Once validated against the experimental results, the theoretical investigation is extended to study the effects of changing radii of curvature, orthotropic properties of the core, and ply orientation on the natural frequencies of vibration of rectangular panels with various boundary conditions. The results from the parameter studies show curve veering, particularly when studying the effect of changing radii and ply orientation, however, it is not clear whether this phenomenon is due to the approximation method used or occurs in the physical system.
Adelman, D.D.; Stansbury, J.
1997-12-31
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.
Output-feedback sampled-data control design for linear parameter-varying systems with delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramezanifar, Amin; Mohammadpour, Javad; Grigoriadis, Karolos M.
2014-12-01
In this paper, we address the sampled-data output-feedback control design problem for continuous-time linear parameter-varying systems with time-varying delay in the system states. Due to the combination of the plant's continuous-time dynamics and the controller's discrete-time dynamics connected through A/D and D/A converter devices, the closed-loop system is a hybrid system. In order to analyse this hybrid system from stability and performance perspectives we use the input-delay approach to map the closed-loop system into the continuous-time domain with delay in the states. This results in a closed-loop system containing two types of delays, the system internal delay and the one imposed by the mapping. Next, we use delay-dependent conditions for analysis of stability and ?-norm performance which result in a sampled-data control synthesis procedure. The proposed output-feedback sampled-data controller is obtained based on the solution to a linear matrix inequality optimisation problem using a set of appropriately defined slack variables. A numerical example of a milling machine is presented to demonstrate the viability of the proposed sampled-data control design method to satisfy the stability and performance objectives even with a varying sampling rate.
Design Concept and Parameters of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ Dipole Demonstrator for a 100 TEV Hadron Collider
Zlobin, A. V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Novitski, I.
2015-06-01
FNAL has started the development of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale hadron collider. This paper describes the design concept and parameters of the 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator. The dipole magnetic, mechanical and quench protection concept and parameters are presented and discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tompkins, M. A.; Cheng, D. E. (Principal Investigator)
1981-01-01
The design and implementation of the PARPLT program are described. The program produces scatter plots of the greenness profile derived parameters alpha, beta, and t sub o computed by the CLASFYG program (alpha being the approximate greenness rise time; beta, the greenness decay time; and t sub o, the spectral crop emergence date). Statistical information concerning the parameters is also computed.
Mühlfeld, Christian; Ochs, Matthias
2013-08-01
Design-based stereology provides efficient methods to obtain valuable quantitative information of the respiratory tract in various diseases. However, the choice of the most relevant parameters in a specific disease setting has to be deduced from the present pathobiological knowledge. Often it is difficult to express the pathological alterations by interpretable parameters in terms of volume, surface area, length, or number. In the second part of this companion review article, we analyze the present pathophysiological knowledge about acute lung injury, diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, and asthma to come up with recommendations for the disease-specific application of stereological principles for obtaining relevant parameters. Worked examples with illustrative images are used to demonstrate the work flow, estimation procedure, and calculation and to facilitate the practical performance of equivalent analyses. PMID:23709622
Grant, C.; Mollerach, R.; Leszczynski, F.; Serra, O.; Marconi, J.; Fink, J.
2006-07-01
In 2005 the Argentine Government took the decision to complete the construction of the Atucha-II nuclear power plant, which has been progressing slowly during the last ten years. Atucha-II is a 745 MWe nuclear station moderated and cooled with heavy water, of German (Siemens) design located in Argentina. It has a pressure vessel design with 451 vertical coolant channels and the fuel assemblies (FA) are clusters of 37 natural UO{sub 2} rods with an active length of 530 cm. For the reactor physics area, a revision and update of reactor physics calculation methods and models was recently carried out covering cell, supercell (control rod) and core calculations. This paper presents benchmark comparisons of core parameters of a slightly idealized model of the Atucha-I core obtained with the PUMA reactor code with MCNP5. The Atucha-I core was selected because it is smaller, similar from a neutronic point of view, more symmetric than Atucha-II, and has some experimental data available. To validate the new models benchmark comparisons of k-effective, channel power and axial power distributions obtained with PUMA and MCNP5 have been performed. In addition, a simple cell heterogeneity correction recently introduced in PUMA is presented, which improves significantly the agreement of calculated channel powers with MCNP5. To complete the validation, the calculation of some of the critical configurations of the Atucha-I reactor measured during the experiments performed at first criticality is also presented. (authors)
Barra, J; Peña, M A; Bustamante, P
2000-04-01
The aim of this study is to propose, for the first time, a set of group molar constants for sodium to calculate the partial solubility parameters of sodium salts. The values were estimated using the few experimental partial solubility parameters of acid/sodium salt series available either from the literature (benzoic acid/Na, ibuprofen acid/Na, diclofenac Na) or determined in this work (salicylic acid/Na, p-aminobenzoic acid/Na, diclofenac), the group contribution method of van Krevelen to calculate the partial parameters of the acids, and three reasonable hypothesis. The experimental method used is a modification of the extended Hansen approach based on a regression analysis of the solubility mole fraction of the drug lnX(2) against models including three- or four-partial solubility parameters of a series of pure solvents ranging from non-polar (heptane) to highly polar (water). The modified method combined with the four-parameter model provided the best results for both acids and sodium derivatives. The replacement of the acidic proton by sodium increased the dipolar and basic partial solubility parameters, whereas the dispersion parameter remained unaltered, thus increasing the overall total solubility parameter of the salt. The proposed group molar constants of sodium are consistent with the experimental results as sodium has a relatively low London dispersion molar constant (identical to that of -OH), a very high Keesom dipolar molar constant (identical to that of -NO(2), two times larger than that of -OH), and a very high hydrogen bonding molar constant (identical to that of -OH). The proposed values are: F((Na)d)=270 (J cm(3))(1/2) mol(-1); F((Na)p)=1030 (J cm(3))(1/2) mol(-1); U((Na)h)=17000 J mol(-1). Like the constants for the other groups, the group molar constants proposed for sodium are certainly not the exact values. However, they are believed to be a fair approximation of the impact of sodium on the partial solubility parameters and, therefore, can
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitchford, Leanne; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Pancheshnyi, S.; Bordage, M. C.; Alves, L. L.; Ferreira, C. M.; Biagi, S. F.; Itikawa, Y.; Phelps, A. V.
2012-10-01
The GEC Plasma Data Exchange Project is an informal effort on the part of the low temperature plasma community to organize the collection, evaluation, and distribution of data both for modeling and for interpretation of experiments. In the context of this project, we present a description of the four sets of independently-compiled, electron-neutral scattering cross sections for N2 and for H2 presently available on the open-access LXCat site (www.lxcat.net). These sets are complete in that the main momentum and energy loss processes are taken into account, if we can neglect internal excitation in the gas. Three of these sets were derived using the requirement that they be consistent with available experimental swarm data, and the fourth set consists of recommended values from beam experiments and theory. To assess the validity of each of these cross section sets for use in modeling low temperature plasmas, we calculated electron transport and rate coefficients using these cross sections as input and compared with measured values also available on the LXCat site. We will discuss the influence of rotational temperatures between 77 and 300 K, and we again confirm that a two-term Boltzmann solver yields results in very good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strangman, Gary; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Boas, David A.; Sutton, J. P. (Principal Investigator)
2003-01-01
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to noninvasively measure changes in the concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin in tissue. We have previously shown that while global changes can be reliably measured, focal changes can produce erroneous estimates of concentration changes (NeuroImage 13 (2001), 76). Here, we describe four separate sources for systematic error in the calculation of focal hemoglobin changes from NIRS data and use experimental methods and Monte Carlo simulations to examine the importance and mitigation methods of each. The sources of error are: (1). the absolute magnitudes and relative differences in pathlength factors as a function of wavelength, (2). the location and spatial extent of the absorption change with respect to the optical probe, (3). possible differences in the spatial distribution of hemoglobin species, and (4). the potential for simultaneous monitoring of multiple regions of activation. We found wavelength selection and optode placement to be important variables in minimizing such errors, and our findings indicate that appropriate experimental procedures could reduce each of these errors to a small fraction (<10%) of the observed concentration changes.
Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Periasamy, Vengadesh
2015-01-01
Many types of materials such as inorganic semiconductors have been employed as detectors for nuclear radiation, the importance of which has increased significantly due to recent nuclear catastrophes. Despite the many advantages of this type of materials, the ability to measure direct cellular or biological responses to radiation might improve detector sensitivity. In this context, semiconducting organic materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA have been studied in recent years. This was established by studying the varying electronic properties of DNA-metal or semiconductor junctions when exposed to radiation. In this work, we investigated the electronics of aluminium (Al)/DNA/silicon (Si) rectifying junctions using their current-voltage (I-V) characteristics when exposed to alpha radiation. Diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance were determined for different irradiation times. The observed results show significant changes with exposure time or total dosage received. An increased deviation from ideal diode conditions (7.2 to 18.0) was observed when they were bombarded with alpha particles for up to 40 min. Using the conventional technique, barrier height values were observed to generally increase after 2, 6, 10, 20 and 30 min of radiation. The same trend was seen in the values of the series resistance (0.5889–1.423 Ω for 2–8 min). These changes in the electronic properties of the DNA/Si junctions could therefore be utilized in the construction of sensitive alpha particle detectors. PMID:25730484
Al-Ta'ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Mohd Amin, Yusoff; Periasamy, Vengadesh
2015-01-01
Many types of materials such as inorganic semiconductors have been employed as detectors for nuclear radiation, the importance of which has increased significantly due to recent nuclear catastrophes. Despite the many advantages of this type of materials, the ability to measure direct cellular or biological responses to radiation might improve detector sensitivity. In this context, semiconducting organic materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA have been studied in recent years. This was established by studying the varying electronic properties of DNA-metal or semiconductor junctions when exposed to radiation. In this work, we investigated the electronics of aluminium (Al)/DNA/silicon (Si) rectifying junctions using their current-voltage (I-V) characteristics when exposed to alpha radiation. Diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance were determined for different irradiation times. The observed results show significant changes with exposure time or total dosage received. An increased deviation from ideal diode conditions (7.2 to 18.0) was observed when they were bombarded with alpha particles for up to 40 min. Using the conventional technique, barrier height values were observed to generally increase after 2, 6, 10, 20 and 30 min of radiation. The same trend was seen in the values of the series resistance (0.5889-1.423 Ω for 2-8 min). These changes in the electronic properties of the DNA/Si junctions could therefore be utilized in the construction of sensitive alpha particle detectors. PMID:25730484
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alameda-Hernández, Pedro; Jiménez-Perálvarez, Jorge; Palenzuela, José A.; El Hamdouni, Rachid; Irigaray, Clemente; Cabrerizo, Miguel A.; Chacón, José
2014-11-01
This paper presents a new, fast and economical method for digitizing a rock surface profile to determine its joint roughness coefficient (JRC) value (Barton and Choubey, Rock Mech Rock Eng 10:1-54, 1977) using a set of existing parameters, the appropriateness of which has been tested. The new procedure was applied to four rock road cuts in the Alpujarra area of Granada province (Andalusia, Spain), supported by 117 digitized profiles. The method avoids any personal subjectivity bias. The usual subjectivity in the visualization and assessment of the JRC value is estimated here by a survey test answered by 90 trained users. The survey test consisted of a set of JRC visual comparisons of 12 roughness profiles, selected from the 117 profiles surveyed during the field research in the Alpujarra region, with the Barton typical profiles. The results of the survey clearly show systematic inaccuracies in the traditional procedure that are reduced if the advice presented in the conclusions of this paper is taken in account when performing the visual estimation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasserzadeh, V.; Swithenbank, J.
1995-10-01
can give valuable insight into the effect of design parameters on the flow field and concentrations of major species. In the case of many pollutants, the equations governing their production does not affect the flow field or concentrations of major species. Thus the equations are effectively decoupled and the pollutant formation, convection and diffusion can be calculated in a post-processor. This paper presents and discusses the results of our CFD modelling work at two large municipal and a newly commissioned 5 MW clinical incinerator plants in UK.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimer, J.; Schuerch, M.; Slawig, T.
2015-03-01
The geosciences are a highly suitable field of application for optimizing model parameters and experimental designs especially because many data are collected. In this paper, the weighted least squares estimator for optimizing model parameters is presented together with its asymptotic properties. A popular approach to optimize experimental designs called local optimal experimental designs is described together with a lesser known approach which takes into account the potential nonlinearity of the model parameters. These two approaches have been combined with two methods to solve their underlying discrete optimization problem. All presented methods were implemented in an open-source MATLAB toolbox called the Optimal Experimental Design Toolbox whose structure and application is described. In numerical experiments, the model parameters and experimental design were optimized using this toolbox. Two existing models for sediment concentration in seawater and sediment accretion on salt marshes of different complexity served as an application example. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches were compared based on these models. Thanks to optimized experimental designs, the parameters of these models could be determined very accurately with significantly fewer measurements compared to unoptimized experimental designs. The chosen optimization approach played a minor role for the accuracy; therefore, the approach with the least computational effort is recommended.
Dorati, Rosella; Genta, Ida; Colzani, Barbara; Tripodo, Giuseppe; Conti, Bice
2015-01-01
The aim was to design sterile biodegradable microparticulate drug delivery systems based on poly(dl-lactide) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and containing ivermectin (IVM), an antiparasitic drug, for subcutaneous administration in dogs. The drug delivery system should: (i) ensure a full 12-month protection upon single dose administration; (ii) be safe with particular attention regarding IVM dosage and its release, in order to prevent over dosage side effects. This preliminary work involves: polymer selection, evaluation of the effects of γ-irradiation on the polymers and IVM, investigation and set up of suitable microparticle preparation process and parameters, IVM-loaded microparticles in vitro release evaluation. Results of gel permeation chromatography analysis on the irradiated polymers and IVM mixtures showed that combination of IVM with the antioxidant α-tocopherol (TCP) reduces the damage extent induced by irradiation treatment, independently on the polymer type. Solvent evaporation process was successfully used for the preparation of PLA microparticles and appropriately modified; it was recognized as suitable for the preparation of PCL microparticles. Good process yields were achieved ranging from 76.08% to 94.72%; encapsulation efficiency was between 85.76% and 91.25%, independently from the polymer used. The type of polymer and the consequent preparation process parameters affected microparticle size that was bigger for PCL microparticles (480-800 µm) and solvent residual that was >500 ppm for PLA microparticles. In vitro release test showed significantly faster IVM release rates from PCL microparticles, with respect to PLA microparticles, suggesting that a combination of the polymers could be used to obtain the suitable drug release rate. PMID:24994001
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahara, S. S.; Elliott, J. P.; Spreiter, J. R.
1983-01-01
An investigation was conducted to continue the development of perturbation procedures and associated computational codes for rapidly determining approximations to nonlinear flow solutions, with the purpose of establishing a method for minimizing computational requirements associated with parametric design studies of transonic flows in turbomachines. The results reported here concern the extension of the previously developed successful method for single parameter perturbations to simultaneous multiple-parameter perturbations, and the preliminary application of the multiple-parameter procedure in combination with an optimization method to blade design/optimization problem. In order to provide as severe a test as possible of the method, attention is focused in particular on transonic flows which are highly supercritical. Flows past both isolated blades and compressor cascades, involving simultaneous changes in both flow and geometric parameters, are considered. Comparisons with the corresponding exact nonlinear solutions display remarkable accuracy and range of validity, in direct correspondence with previous results for single-parameter perturbations.
Voitsekhovskaya, O K; Egorov, O V; Kashirskii, D E
2016-08-01
Nitrogen dioxide, (14)N(16)O2, line positions and intensities calculated by us based on a "local" effective operator method are compared to the recent results of the "global" calculation. The comparison was made for theoretical absorption coefficients in the spectral range of 600-3700cm(-1) using the measured data taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In order to conduct the calculations, empirical parameters of the effective rotational Hamiltonian of the twenty-one vibrational states were applied from the most recent experimental works. The second order parameters of the dipole moment function of (14)N(16)O2 were determined for the first time. The "local" line list in this research consists of one hundred and four bands and includes the line intensities of the v1+v2+v3 band of (14)N(16)O2 that have not yet been investigated in the literature. Among these bands, only eleven bands are included in HITRAN2012. The reasons behind the disagreements between the theoretical and measured absorption coefficients of (14)N(16)O2 are discussed. PMID:27111152
Gümüş, Hacer Pir; Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf
2014-08-14
The optimized geometry, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts, conformational and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses, thermodynamic parameters, molecular surfaces, Mulliken, NBO and APT charges for 5-(2-Chloroethyl)-2,4-dichloro-6-methylpyrimidine [C7H7Cl3N2] were investigated by the ab initio HF and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated structural parameters (bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles) and (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts values are compared with experimental values of the investigated compound. The observed and the calculated values are found to be in good agreement. The energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were calculated, and the obtained energies displayed that charge transfer occurs in 5-(2-Chloroethyl)-2,4-dichloro-6-methylpyrimidine compound. In addition, the linear polarizability (α) and the first order hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated compound have been computed by using HF and DFT methods. PMID:24732007
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gümüş, Hacer Pir; Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf
2014-08-01
The optimized geometry, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts, conformational and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses, thermodynamic parameters, molecular surfaces, Mulliken, NBO and APT charges for 5-(2-Chloroethyl)-2,4-dichloro-6-methylpyrimidine [C7H7Cl3N2] were investigated by the ab initio HF and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated structural parameters (bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles) and 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts values are compared with experimental values of the investigated compound. The observed and the calculated values are found to be in good agreement. The energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were calculated, and the obtained energies displayed that charge transfer occurs in 5-(2-Chloroethyl)-2,4-dichloro-6-methylpyrimidine compound. In addition, the linear polarizability (α) and the first order hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated compound have been computed by using HF and DFT methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voitsekhovskaya, O. K.; Egorov, O. V.; Kashirskii, D. E.
2016-08-01
Nitrogen dioxide, 14N16O2, line positions and intensities calculated by us based on a "local" effective operator method are compared to the recent results of the "global" calculation. The comparison was made for theoretical absorption coefficients in the spectral range of 600-3700 cm- 1 using the measured data taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In order to conduct the calculations, empirical parameters of the effective rotational Hamiltonian of the twenty-one vibrational states were applied from the most recent experimental works. The second order parameters of the dipole moment function of 14N16O2 were determined for the first time. The "local" line list in this research consists of one hundred and four bands and includes the line intensities of the v1 + v2 + v3 band of 14N16O2 that have not yet been investigated in the literature. Among these bands, only eleven bands are included in HITRAN2012. The reasons behind the disagreements between the theoretical and measured absorption coefficients of 14N16O2 are discussed.