Science.gov

Sample records for detecting light long-lived

  1. Long-lived light mediator to dark matter and primordial small scale spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yue

    2015-05-06

    We calculate the early universe evolution of perturbations in the dark matter energy density in the context of simple dark sector models containing a GeV scale light mediator. We consider the case that the mediator is long-lived, with lifetime up to a second, and before decaying it temporarily dominates the energy density of the universe. We show that for primordial perturbations that enter the horizon around this period, the interplay between linear growth during matter domination and collisional damping can generically lead to a sharp peak in the spectrum of dark matter density perturbation. As a result, the population of the smallest DM halos gets enhanced. Possible implications of this scenario are discussed.

  2. Stationary light pulse in solids with long-lived spin coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaojun; Wang Haihua; Wang Lei; Wan Rengang; Kou Jun; Fan Yunfei; Gao Jinyue; Zhang Bing

    2011-06-15

    We present a detailed analysis of stationary light pulses (SLP's) for the case of inhomogeneous broadening in both optical and spin transitions, which is normally found in solid materials with long-lived spin coherence. By solving the Langevin equations of motion for the density matrix elements under the integral over the entire range of the inhomogeneous broadenings, the necessary conditions for creating the SLP in a solid are obtained. Then the decay and diffusion processes that the SLP undergoes are analyzed. The characteristics of such processes are studied based on the analytic solution of the SLP with a slowly varying envelope. The dependence of SLP lifetime on inhomogeneous broadenings of spin and optical transitions, which can be regarded as the laser linewidth in the repump scheme, has been discussed.

  3. Light mass elements total half-lives for selected long-lived nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, N. E.

    In the past, many compilations and evaluations of half lives have been made which have uncritically accepted authors' values and uncertainties. They have merely recommended weight averaged reported results. This evaluation attempts to reanalyze each experiment in the literature including an estimate of the standard deviation utilizing, where possible, an estimate of the systematic error. This paper constitutes a preliminary step in the process of recommending values. The long lived nuclides of light elements are of interest for their use in dating methods and for calculating cosmic ray exposure ages of meteorites. Experimental data on the half lives of selected nuclides have been evaluated and recommended values and uncertainties are presented for the following nuclides: (3)H, (10)Be, (14)C, (26)Al, (39)Ar, (40)K, (50)V, (53)Mn, (76)Ge, (87)Eb, (92)Nb, (107)Pd, (113)Cd, (115)In and (123)Te. The impact of the recommended (14)C half life of 5715 years on the carbon dating techniques, which uses the Libby value of 5568 years, will be discussed. Also the possible primordial occurrence of (92)Nb is now definitely ruled out by the recommended half life of 3.7 x 10(7). Finally, based on the recommended (26)Al half life value, the (21)Ne production rate for calculating cosmic ray exposure ages remains too high, compared to rates using the (53)Mn and (10)Be half life values.

  4. Method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small biochemical samples

    DOEpatents

    Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vogel, John S.; Felton, James S.; Gledhill, Barton L.; Davis, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small bio-chemical samples, comprising: a. selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere, b. preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie, c. administering said chemical specie to said biologist host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system thereof, d. allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of said chemical specie with said host throughout said biological system of said host, e. isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from said host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of said substance from extraneous sources, f. converting said fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation, and, g. measuring the radioisotope concentration in said material by means of direct isotopic counting.

  5. Method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small biochemical samples

    DOEpatents

    Turteltaub, K.W.; Vogel, J.S.; Felton, J.S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Davis, J.C.

    1994-11-22

    Disclosed is a method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small biochemical samples, comprising: a. selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere, b. preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie, c. administering the chemical specie to the biologist host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system, d. allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of the chemical specie with the host throughout the biological system of the host, e. isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from the host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of the substance from extraneous sources, f. converting the fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation, and, g. measuring the radioisotope concentration in the material by means of direct isotopic counting. 5 figs.

  6. Jupiter's long-lived White Ovals in Violet Light (Time Set 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Light at 410 nanometers is affected by the sizes and compositions of cloud particles, as well as the trace chemicals that give Jupiter's clouds their colors. This mosaic shows the features of Jupiter's main visible cloud deck and the hazy cloud layer above it. Oval cloud systems of this type are often associated with chaotic cyclonic systems such as the balloon shaped vortex seen here between the well formed ovals. This system is centered near 30 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 100 degrees west longitude and rotates in a clockwise sense about its center. The oval shaped vortices in the upper half of the mosaic are two of the three long-lived White Ovals that formed to the south of the Red Spot in the 1930's and, like the Red Spot, rotate in a counterclockwise sense. The east to west dimension of the leftmost White Oval is 9000 kilometers (km). (The diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km.) The White Ovals drift in longitude relative to one another, and are presently restricting the cyclonic structure.

    To the south, the smaller oval and its accompanying cyclonic system are moving eastward at about 0.4 degrees per day relative to the larger ovals. The interaction between these two cyclonic storm systems is producing high, thick cumulus-like clouds in the southern part of the more northerly trapped system.

    North is at the top of this mosaic. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. The planetary limb runs along the right edge of the mosaic. Cloud patterns appear foreshortened as they approach the limb. These images were taken on February 19, 1997, at a range of 1.1 million km by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  7. Jupiter's long-lived White Ovals in Violet Light (Time Set 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Light at 410 nanometers is affected by the sizes and compositions of cloud particles, as well as the trace chemicals that give Jupiter's clouds their colors. This mosaic shows the features of Jupiter's main visible cloud deck and the hazy cloud layer above it. Oval cloud systems of this type are often associated with chaotic cyclonic systems such as the balloon shaped vortex seen here between the well formed ovals. This system is centered near 30 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 100 degrees west longitude and rotates in a clockwise sense about its center. The oval shaped vortices in the upper half of the mosaic are two of the three long-lived White Ovals that formed to the south of the Red Spot in the 1930's and, like the Red Spot, rotate in a counterclockwise sense. The east to west dimension of the leftmost White Oval is 9000 kilometers (km). (The diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km.) The White Ovals drift in longitude relative to one another, and are presently restricting the cyclonic structure.

    To the south, the smaller oval and its accompanying cyclonic system are moving eastward at about 0.4 degrees per day relative to the larger ovals. The interaction between these two cyclonic storm systems is producing high, thick cumulus-like clouds in the southern part of the more northerly trapped system.

    North is at the top of this mosaic. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on February 19, 1997, at a range of 1.1 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  8. Jupiter's long-lived White Ovals in Violet Light (Time Set 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Light at 410 nanometers is affected by the sizes and compositions of cloud particles, as well as the trace chemicals that give Jupiter's clouds their colors. This mosaic shows the features of Jupiter's main visible cloud deck and the hazy cloud layer above it. Oval cloud systems of this type are often associated with chaotic cyclonic systems such as the balloon shaped vortex seen here between the well formed ovals. This system is centered near 30 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 100 degrees west longitude and rotates in a clockwise sense about its center. The oval shaped vortices in the upper half of the mosaic are two of the three long-lived White Ovals that formed to the south of the Red Spot in the 1930's and, like the Red Spot, rotate in a counterclockwise sense. The east to west dimension of the leftmost White Oval is 9000 kilometers (km). (The diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km.) The White Ovals drift in longitude relative to one another, and are presently restricting the cyclonic structure.

    To the south, the smaller oval and its accompanying cyclonic system are moving eastward at about 0.4 degrees per day relative to the larger ovals. The interaction between these two cyclonic storm systems is producing high, thick cumulus-like clouds in the southern part of the more northerly trapped system.

    North is at the top of this mosaic. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on February 19, 1997, at a range of 1.1 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  9. Origin of long-lived coherences in light-harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Christensson, Niklas; Kauffmann, Harald F; Pullerits, Tõnu; Mančal, Tomáš

    2012-06-28

    A vibronic exciton model is applied to explain the long-lived oscillatory features in the two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex. Using experimentally determined parameters and uncorrelated site energy fluctuations, the model predicts oscillations with dephasing times of 1.3 ps at 77 K, which is in a good agreement with the experimental results. These long-lived oscillations originate from the coherent superposition of vibronic exciton states with dominant contributions from vibrational excitations on the same pigment. The oscillations obtain a large amplitude due to excitonic intensity borrowing, which gives transitions with strong vibronic character a significant intensity despite the small Huang-Rhys factor. Purely electronic coherences are found to decay on a 200 fs time scale. PMID:22642682

  10. Dynamics and Afterglow Light Curves of Gamma-Ray Burst Blast Waves with a Long-lived Reverse Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing; Hascoët, Romain; Daigne, Frédéric; Mochkovitch, Robert; Park, Il H.

    2012-12-01

    We perform a detailed study on the dynamics of a relativistic blast wave with the presence of a long-lived reverse shock (RS). Although a short-lived RS has been widely considered, the RS is believed to be long-lived as a consequence of a stratification expected on the ejecta Lorentz factors. The existence of a long-lived RS causes the forward shock (FS) dynamics to deviate from a self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. Employing the "mechanical model" that correctly incorporates the energy conservation, we present an accurate solution for both the FS and RS dynamics. We conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. Adopting a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we keep track of an adiabatic evolution of numerous shells between the FS and RS. An evolution of the electron spectrum is also followed individually for every shell. We then find the FS and RS light curves by integrating over the entire FS and RS shocked regions, respectively. Exploring a total of 20 different ejecta stratifications, we explain in detail how a stratified ejecta affects its blast wave dynamics and afterglow light curves. We show that, while the FS light curves are not sensitive to the ejecta stratifications, the RS light curves exhibit much richer features, including steep declines, plateaus, bumps, re-brightenings, and a variety of temporal decay indices. These distinctive RS features may be observable if the RS has higher values of the microphysics parameters than the FS. We discuss possible applications of our results in understanding the gamma-ray burst afterglow data.

  11. DYNAMICS AND AFTERGLOW LIGHT CURVES OF GAMMA-RAY BURST BLAST WAVES WITH A LONG-LIVED REVERSE SHOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang Bing; Hascoeet, Romain; Daigne, Frederic; Mochkovitch, Robert; Park, Il H.

    2012-12-20

    We perform a detailed study on the dynamics of a relativistic blast wave with the presence of a long-lived reverse shock (RS). Although a short-lived RS has been widely considered, the RS is believed to be long-lived as a consequence of a stratification expected on the ejecta Lorentz factors. The existence of a long-lived RS causes the forward shock (FS) dynamics to deviate from a self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. Employing the ''mechanical model'' that correctly incorporates the energy conservation, we present an accurate solution for both the FS and RS dynamics. We conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. Adopting a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we keep track of an adiabatic evolution of numerous shells between the FS and RS. An evolution of the electron spectrum is also followed individually for every shell. We then find the FS and RS light curves by integrating over the entire FS and RS shocked regions, respectively. Exploring a total of 20 different ejecta stratifications, we explain in detail how a stratified ejecta affects its blast wave dynamics and afterglow light curves. We show that, while the FS light curves are not sensitive to the ejecta stratifications, the RS light curves exhibit much richer features, including steep declines, plateaus, bumps, re-brightenings, and a variety of temporal decay indices. These distinctive RS features may be observable if the RS has higher values of the microphysics parameters than the FS. We discuss possible applications of our results in understanding the gamma-ray burst afterglow data.

  12. Challenges in the detection of long lived particles: the Hidden Valley Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Sidoti, Antonio

    2008-11-23

    Neutral particles with long decay paths and many particles in the final state represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. The Hidden Valley scenario is an excellent framework to explore the challenges posed by long-lived neutral particles. In this paper we present strategies to select such events, in particular for the Higgs boson decays, with special attention to trigger level problems.

  13. Unusually long-lived light-induced metastable state in a thermochromic copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Nakajima, Rie; Gu, Zhong-ze; Yoshiki, Hajime; Fujishima, Akira; Sato, Osamu

    2002-08-01

    We report the first observation of a color change from red to purple for a thermochromic complex, [Cu(dieten)2](BF4)2 (dieten = N,N-diethylethylenediamine), which is induced by illuminating with UV light. PMID:12170790

  14. Vibronic origin of long-lived coherence in an artificial molecular light harvester

    PubMed Central

    Lim, James; Paleček, David; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Lincoln, Craig N.; Prior, Javier; von Berlepsch, Hans; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.; Zigmantas, Donatas; Hauer, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Natural and artificial light-harvesting processes have recently gained new interest. Signatures of long-lasting coherence in spectroscopic signals of biological systems have been repeatedly observed, albeit their origin is a matter of ongoing debate, as it is unclear how the loss of coherence due to interaction with the noisy environments in such systems is averted. Here we report experimental and theoretical verification of coherent exciton–vibrational (vibronic) coupling as the origin of long-lasting coherence in an artificial light harvester, a molecular J-aggregate. In this macroscopically aligned tubular system, polarization-controlled 2D spectroscopy delivers an uncongested and specific optical response as an ideal foundation for an in-depth theoretical description. We derive analytical expressions that show under which general conditions vibronic coupling leads to prolonged excited-state coherence. PMID:26158602

  15. Long-lived light mass element half-lives (A < 125)

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Reported values of half-lives of light and intermediate mass elements are evaluated. The evaluation analysis estimates the systematic error and the resulting standard deviation. Recommended values are then presented for tritium, /sup 10/Be, /sup 14/C, /sup 26/Al, /sup 39/Ar, /sup 40/K, /sup 50/V, /sup 53/Mn, /sup 76/Ge, /sup 87/Rb, /sup 92/Nb, /sup 107/Pd, /sup 113/Cd, /sup 115/In, and /sup 123/Te. 106 refs., 15 tabs. (WRF)

  16. ortho-Fluoroazobenzenes: visible light switches with very long-Lived Z isomers.

    PubMed

    Knie, Christopher; Utecht, Manuel; Zhao, Fangli; Kulla, Hannes; Kovalenko, Sergey; Brouwer, Albert M; Saalfrank, Peter; Hecht, Stefan; Bléger, David

    2014-12-01

    Improving the photochemical properties of molecular photoswitches is crucial for the development of light-responsive systems in materials and life sciences. ortho-Fluoroazobenzenes are a new class of rationally designed photochromic azo compounds with optimized properties, such as the ability to isomerize with visible light only, high photoconversions, and unprecedented robust bistable character. Introducing σ-electron-withdrawing F atoms ortho to the NN unit leads to both an effective separation of the n→π* bands of the E and Z isomers, thus offering the possibility of using these two transitions for selectively inducing E/Z isomerizations, and greatly enhanced thermal stability of the Z isomers. Additional para-electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) work in concert with ortho-F atoms, giving rise to enhanced separation of the n→π* transitions. A comprehensive study of the effect of substitution on the key photochemical properties of ortho-fluoroazobenzenes is reported herein. In particular, the position, number, and nature of the EWGs have been varied, and the visible light photoconversions, quantum yields of isomerization, and thermal stabilities have been measured and rationalized by DFT calculations. PMID:25352421

  17. Efficient and Long-Lived Green Light-Emitting Diodes Based on ZnSSe:Te Active Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong Chan; Abe, Tomoki; Kaneko, Nobumasa; Adachi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Masashi; Fujita, Yusuke; Kasada, Hirofumi; Ando, Koshi

    2002-03-01

    Detailed optical characteristics of excitonic green emission/absorption in ZnSSe:Te epitaxial layers, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, were studied by photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation measurements. Based on these optical properties, we have developed bright and long-lived green (˜500 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using ZnS0.11Se0.85:Te0.04 epilayers as active layers. The ZnSSe:Te-based LEDs exhibit a fairly long device lifetime (>2000 h) when operated at 3 A/cm2 under CW condition at room temperature. The green LEDs show only slow-mode degradation, and the degradation mode is quite different from that of II-VI-based laser diodes (LDs) and LEDs employing the ZnCdSe-ZnSe system. It is confirmed that the Te-doping-induced “alloy-hardening effect” plays an important role in both efficient emission and strong suppression of the device degradation.

  18. Detection of long-living neutral hydrated clusters in laboratory simulation of ionospheric D region plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, H. S. S.; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Watanabe, S.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of hydrated cluster ions is known through in situ measurements in the D region of the ionosphere and laboratory simulation experiments. A series of experiments were conducted at Sagamihara, Japan with the intention of detecting some of the ions which, although predicted, had eluded detection in laboratory simulation. The other motivation was to look for heavier ions in laboratory simulations in conditions close to those in the D region. With the availability of better ion mass spectrometers, these could supposedly be detected by rocket measurements. Results of these experiments point to a new aspect, namely, the production of a neutral hydrated cluster molecule, which (a) has ionization potential of less than 10.2 eV, (b) has lifetimes in excess of 90 min, and (c) is formed within a limited pressure range. As this neutral cluster molecule has a mass number of 102, most probably it is NOṡ(H2O)4. A number of other important ions, which were detected earlier in laboratory experiments, were also seen in our data. These include NO+(H2O)n, NO+(H2O)nX, NO2+(H2O)n, H3O+(H2O)n, H3O+(H2O)nX, and O2+(H2O)n series. A few clusters {36+(H3O+OH), 60+(NO+NO) and 63+(NO+HO2)} and molecular ions {29+(N2H+), 33+(HO2+) and 43+(N3H+)} were also detected in these experiments. It was also found that, like the earlier experiments, the concentration of most of the hydrated ions showed an oscillatory behavior. The ion formation was observed only within a limited pressure range, which corresponds to the 50 to 100 km altitude range of the ionosphere.

  19. Essential Role of an Unusually Long-lived Tyrosyl Radical in the Response to Red Light of the Animal-like Cryptochrome aCRY.

    PubMed

    Oldemeyer, Sabine; Franz, Sophie; Wenzel, Sandra; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Mittag, Maria; Kottke, Tilman

    2016-07-01

    Cryptochromes constitute a group of flavin-binding blue light receptors in bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects. Recently, the response of cryptochromes to light was extended to nearly the entire visible spectral region on the basis of the activity of the animal-like cryptochrome aCRY in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii This finding was explained by the absorption of red light by the flavin neutral radical as the dark state of the receptor, which then forms the anionic fully reduced state. In this study, time-resolved UV-visible spectroscopy on the full-length aCRY revealed an unusually long-lived tyrosyl radical with a lifetime of 2.6 s, which is present already 1 μs after red light illumination of the flavin radical. Mutational studies disclosed the tyrosine 373 close to the surface to form the long-lived radical and to be essential for photoreduction. This residue is conserved exclusively in the sequences of other putative aCRY proteins distinguishing them from conventional (6-4) photolyases. Size exclusion chromatography showed the full-length aCRY to be a dimer in the dark at 0.5 mm injected concentration with the C-terminal extension as the dimerization site. Upon illumination, partial oligomerization was observed via disulfide bridge formation at cysteine 482 in close proximity to tyrosine 373. The lack of any light response in the C-terminal extension as evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy differentiates aCRY from plant and Drosophila cryptochromes. These findings imply that aCRY might have evolved a different signaling mechanism via a light-triggered redox cascade culminating in photooxidation of a yet unknown substrate or binding partner. PMID:27189948

  20. Chemical Magnetoreception: Bird Cryptochrome 1a Is Excited by Blue Light and Forms Long-Lived Radical-Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Liedvogel, Miriam; Maeda, Kiminori; Henbest, Kevin; Schleicher, Erik; Simon, Thomas; Timmel, Christiane R.; Hore, P. J.; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Cryptochromes (Cry) have been suggested to form the basis of light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds. However, to function as magnetic compass sensors, the cryptochromes of migratory birds must possess a number of key biophysical characteristics. Most importantly, absorption of blue light must produce radical pairs with lifetimes longer than about a microsecond. Cryptochrome 1a (gwCry1a) and the photolyase-homology-region of Cry1 (gwCry1-PHR) from the migratory garden warbler were recombinantly expressed and purified from a baculovirus/Sf9 cell expression system. Transient absorption measurements show that these flavoproteins are indeed excited by light in the blue spectral range leading to the formation of radicals with millisecond lifetimes. These biophysical characteristics suggest that gwCry1a is ideally suited as a primary light-mediated, radical-pair-based magnetic compass receptor. PMID:17971869

  1. Search for a Light Higgs Boson Decaying to Long-Lived Weakly Interacting Particles in Proton-Proton Collisions at s=7TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; da Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. 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A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Styles, N. A.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zinonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2012-06-01

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs boson (120-140 GeV) to a pair of weakly interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length.

  2. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to long-lived weakly interacting particles in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abouzeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Akiyama, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Aubert, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Bachy, G; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barashkou, A; Barbaro Galtieri, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bendel, M; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertin, A; Bertinelli, F; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blazek, T; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V B; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bona, M; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Boonekamp, M; Boorman, G; Booth, C N; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Botterill, D; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozhko, N I; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodbeck, T J; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brown, H; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R

    2012-06-22

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs boson (120-140 GeV) to a pair of weakly interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length. PMID:23004585

  3. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. E-mail: martinez@astro.unam.mx

    2013-03-10

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L){sub J}, as a function of (g - i) versus (i - J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  4. Long-lived coherence in carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Cannon, E.; Van Dao, L.; Hannaford, P.; Quiney, H. M.; Nugent, K. A.

    2010-08-01

    We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the langS2|S0rang superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.

  5. Long-lived states to sustain hyperpolarized magnetization

    PubMed Central

    Vasos, P. R.; Comment, A.; Sarkar, R.; Ahuja, P.; Jannin, S.; Ansermet, J.-P.; Konter, J. A.; Hautle, P.; van den Brandt, B.; Bodenhausen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Major breakthroughs have recently been reported that can help overcome two inherent drawbacks of NMR: the lack of sensitivity and the limited memory of longitudinal magnetization. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) couples nuclear spins to the large reservoir of electrons, thus making it possible to detect dilute endogenous substances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have designed a method to preserve enhanced (“hyperpolarized”) magnetization by conversion into long-lived states (LLS). It is shown that these enhanced long-lived states can be generated for proton spins, which afford sensitive detection. Even in complex molecules such as peptides, long-lived proton states can be sustained effectively over time intervals on the order of tens of seconds, thus allowing hyperpolarized substrates to reach target areas and affording access to slow metabolic pathways. The natural abundance carbon-13 polarization has been enhanced ex situ by almost four orders of magnitude in the dipeptide Ala-Gly. The sample was transferred by the dissolution process to a high-resolution magnet where the carbon-13 polarization was converted into a long-lived state associated with a pair of protons. In Ala-Gly, the lifetime TLLS associated with the two nonequivalent Hα glycine protons, sustained by suitable radio-frequency irradiation, was found to be seven times longer than their spin-lattice relaxation time constant (TLLS/T1 = 7). At desired intervals, small fractions of the populations of long-lived states were converted into observable magnetization. This opens the way to observing slow chemical reactions and slow transport phenomena such as diffusion by enhanced magnetic resonance. PMID:19841270

  6. Big bang nucleosynthesis with long-lived charged massive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Takayama, Fumihiro

    2007-09-15

    We consider big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) with long-lived charged massive particles. Before decaying, the long-lived charged particle recombines with a light element to form a bound state like a hydrogen atom. This effect modifies the nuclear-reaction rates during the BBN epoch through the modifications of the Coulomb field and the kinematics of the captured light elements, which can change the light element abundances. It is possible for heavier nuclei abundances such as {sup 7}Li and {sup 7}Be to decrease sizably, while the ratios Y{sub p}, D/H, and {sup 3}He/H remain unchanged. This may solve the current discrepancy between the BBN prediction and the observed abundance of {sup 7}Li. If future collider experiments find signals of a long-lived charged particle inside the detector, the information of its lifetime and decay properties could provide insights into not only the particle physics models but also the phenomena in the early Universe, in turn.

  7. Effect of long-lived strongly interacting relic particles on big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yoshida, Takashi; Mathews, Grant J.

    2009-11-15

    It has been suggested that relic long-lived strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs, or X particles) existed in the early universe. We study effects of such long-lived unstable SIMPs on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) assuming that such particles existed during the BBN epoch, but then decayed long before they could be detected. The interaction strength between an X particle and a nucleon is assumed to be similar to that between nucleons. We then calculate BBN in the presence of the unstable neutral charged X{sup 0} particles taking into account the capture of X{sup 0} particles by nuclei to form X nuclei. We also study the nuclear reactions and beta decays of X nuclei. We find that SIMPs form bound states with normal nuclei during a relatively early epoch of BBN. This leads to the production of heavy elements which remain attached to them. Constraints on the abundance of X{sup 0} particles during BBN are derived from observationally inferred limits on the primordial light element abundances. Particle models which predict long-lived colored particles with lifetimes longer than {approx}200 s are rejected based upon these constraints.

  8. Proposed partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J. ); Rawlins, J.A. )

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW{sub e}. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Prospects for baryon instability search with long-lived isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Efremenko, Yu.; Bugg, W.; Cohn, H.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Parker, G.; Plasil, F.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we consider the possibility of observation of baryon instability processes occurring inside nuclei by searching for the remnants of such processes that could have been accumulated in nature as mm long-lived isotopes. As an example, we discuss here the possible detection of traces of {sup 97}Tc, {sup 98}Tc, and {sup 99}Tc in deep-mined nonradioactive tin ores.

  10. Ultraviolet-sensitive vision in long-lived birds.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Livia S; Knott, Ben; Berg, Mathew L; Bennett, Andrew T D; Hunt, David M

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light generates substantial damage, and in mammals, visual sensitivity to UV is restricted to short-lived diurnal rodents and certain marsupials. In humans, the cornea and lens absorb all UV-A and most of the terrestrial UV-B radiation, preventing the reactive and damaging shorter wavelengths from reaching the retina. This is not the case in certain species of long-lived diurnal birds, which possess UV-sensitive (UVS) visual pigments, maximally sensitive below 400 nm. The Order Psittaciformes contains some of the longest lived bird species, and the two species examined so far have been shown to possess UVS pigments. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of UVS pigments across long-lived parrots, macaws and cockatoos, and therefore assess whether they need to cope with the accumulated effects of exposure to UV-A and UV-B over a long period of time. Sequences from the SWS1 opsin gene revealed that all 14 species investigated possess a key substitution that has been shown to determine a UVS pigment. Furthermore, in vitro regeneration data, and lens transparency, corroborate the molecular findings of UV sensitivity. Our findings thus support the claim that the Psittaciformes are the only avian Order in which UVS pigments are ubiquitous, and indicate that these long-lived birds have UV sensitivity, despite the risks of photodamage. PMID:20667872

  11. Ultraviolet-sensitive vision in long-lived birds

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Livia S.; Knott, Ben; Berg, Mathew L.; Bennett, Andrew T. D.; Hunt, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light generates substantial damage, and in mammals, visual sensitivity to UV is restricted to short-lived diurnal rodents and certain marsupials. In humans, the cornea and lens absorb all UV-A and most of the terrestrial UV-B radiation, preventing the reactive and damaging shorter wavelengths from reaching the retina. This is not the case in certain species of long-lived diurnal birds, which possess UV-sensitive (UVS) visual pigments, maximally sensitive below 400 nm. The Order Psittaciformes contains some of the longest lived bird species, and the two species examined so far have been shown to possess UVS pigments. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of UVS pigments across long-lived parrots, macaws and cockatoos, and therefore assess whether they need to cope with the accumulated effects of exposure to UV-A and UV-B over a long period of time. Sequences from the SWS1 opsin gene revealed that all 14 species investigated possess a key substitution that has been shown to determine a UVS pigment. Furthermore, in vitro regeneration data, and lens transparency, corroborate the molecular findings of UV sensitivity. Our findings thus support the claim that the Psittaciformes are the only avian Order in which UVS pigments are ubiquitous, and indicate that these long-lived birds have UV sensitivity, despite the risks of photodamage. PMID:20667872

  12. Mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diode detects dipicolinic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Lee, Stephen Roger; Temkin, Henryk; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Li, Qingyang; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2005-06-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) is a substance uniquely present in bacterial spores such as that from anthrax (B. anthracis). It is known that DPA can be detected by the long-lived fluorescence of its terbium chelate; the best limit of detection (LOD) reported thus far using a large benchtop gated fluorescence instrument using a pulsed Xe lamp is 2 nM. We use a novel AlGaN light-emitting diode (LED) fabricated on a sapphire substrate that has peak emission at 291 nm. Although the overlap of the emission band of this LED with the absorption band of Tb-DPA ({lambda}{sub max} doublet: 273, 279 nm) is not ideal, we demonstrate that a compact detector based on this LED and an off-the-shelf gated photodetection module can provide an LOD of 0.4 nM, thus providing a basis for convenient early warning detectors.

  13. Long-lived colored scalars at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Puente, Alejandro; Szynkman, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    We study the collider signatures of a long-lived massive colored scalar transforming trivially under the weak interaction and decaying within the inner sections of a detector such as ATLAS or CMS. In our study, we assume that the colored scalar couples at tree-level to a top quark and a stable fermion, possibly arising from a dark sector or from supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. After implementing the latest experimental searches for long-lived colored scalars, we observe a region of parameter space consistent with a colored electroweak-singlet scalar with mass between {˜ }200-350 GeV and a lifetime between 0.1-1 {mm}/c together, with a nearly degenerate dark fermion that may be probed at the √{s}=13 TeV LHC. We show that a search strategy using a combination of cuts on missing transverse energy and impact parameters can exclude regions of parameter space not accessed by prompt searches. We show that a region of parameter space within our simplified model may naturally arise from the light-stop window regime of supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, where a light mostly right-handed stop has a mass slightly larger than the lightest neutralino and decays through a four-body process.

  14. A long-lived lunar core dynamo.

    PubMed

    Shea, Erin K; Weiss, Benjamin P; Cassata, William S; Shuster, David L; Tikoo, Sonia M; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Grove, Timothy L; Fuller, Michael D

    2012-01-27

    Paleomagnetic measurements indicate that a core dynamo probably existed on the Moon 4.2 billion years ago. However, the subsequent history of the lunar core dynamo is unknown. Here we report paleomagnetic, petrologic, and (40)Ar/(39)Ar thermochronometry measurements on the 3.7-billion-year-old mare basalt sample 10020. This sample contains a high-coercivity magnetization acquired in a stable field of at least ~12 microteslas. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by 500 million years. Such a long-lived lunar dynamo probably required a power source other than thermochemical convection from secular cooling of the lunar interior. The inferred strong intensity of the lunar paleofield presents a challenge to current dynamo theory. PMID:22282809

  15. Long-Lived Gluinos and Stable Axinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raby, Stuart

    2015-12-01

    In this Letter we present a novel version of "long-lived" gluinos in supersymmetric models with the gluino lightest ordinary supersymmetric particle (LOSP) and the axino lightest supersymmetric particle. Within certain ranges of the axion decay constant fa<1 ×1 010 GeV , the gluino mass bounds are reduced to less than 1000 GeV. The best limits can be obtained by looking for decaying R hadrons in the detector where the gluino decays to a gluon and axino in the calorimeters. Supersymmetry (SUSY) models with a gluino LOSP can occur over a significant region of parameter space in either mirage mediation or general gauge-mediated SUSY breaking models. The gluino LOSP is not constrained by cosmology, but in this scenario the axion or axino may be a good dark matter candidate.

  16. Long-Lived Gluinos and Stable Axinos.

    PubMed

    Raby, Stuart

    2015-12-01

    In this Letter we present a novel version of "long-lived" gluinos in supersymmetric models with the gluino lightest ordinary supersymmetric particle (LOSP) and the axino lightest supersymmetric particle. Within certain ranges of the axion decay constant f_{a}<1×10^{10}  GeV, the gluino mass bounds are reduced to less than 1000 GeV. The best limits can be obtained by looking for decaying R hadrons in the detector where the gluino decays to a gluon and axino in the calorimeters. Supersymmetry (SUSY) models with a gluino LOSP can occur over a significant region of parameter space in either mirage mediation or general gauge-mediated SUSY breaking models. The gluino LOSP is not constrained by cosmology, but in this scenario the axion or axino may be a good dark matter candidate. PMID:26684110

  17. THE LONG-LIVED UV ''PLATEAU'' OF SN 2012aw

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, Amanda J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Kuin, Paul; Brown, Peter J.; Botticella, Maria Teresa; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Frey, Lucille H.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Maund, Justyn R.; Fraser, Morgan

    2013-02-10

    Observations with the Swift UV Optical Telescope have unambiguously uncovered for the first time a long-lived, UV ''plateau'' in a Type II-P supernova (SN). Although this flattening in slope is hinted at in a few other SNe, due to its proximity and minimal line-of-sight extinction, SN 2012aw has afforded the first opportunity to clearly observe this UV plateau. The observations of SN 2012aw revealed all Swift UV and u-band light curves initially declined rapidly, but 27 days after the explosion the light curves flattened. Some possible sources of the UV plateau are the same thermal process that causes the optical plateau, heating from radioactive decay, or a combination of both processes.

  18. Lithography light source fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Pantel, Erica; Nelissen, Patrick; Moen, Jeffrey; Tincu, Eduard; Dunstan, Wayne; Brown, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    High productivity is a key requirement for today's advanced lithography exposure tools. Achieving targets for wafers per day output requires consistently high throughput and availability. One of the keys to high availability is minimizing unscheduled downtime of the litho cell, including the scanner, track and light source. From the earliest eximer laser light sources, Cymer has collected extensive performance data during operation of the source, and this data has been used to identify the root causes of downtime and failures on the system. Recently, new techniques have been developed for more extensive analysis of this data to characterize the onset of typical end-of-life behavior of components within the light source and allow greater predictive capability for identifying both the type of upcoming service that will be required and when it will be required. The new techniques described in this paper are based on two core elements of Cymer's light source data management architecture. The first is enhanced performance logging features added to newer-generation light source software that captures detailed performance data; and the second is Cymer OnLine (COL) which facilitates collection and transmission of light source data. Extensive analysis of the performance data collected using this architecture has demonstrated that many light source issues exhibit recognizable patterns in their symptoms. These patterns are amenable to automated identification using a Cymer-developed model-based fault detection system, thereby alleviating the need for detailed manual review of all light source performance information. Automated recognition of these patterns also augments our ability to predict the performance trending of light sources. Such automated analysis provides several efficiency improvements for light source troubleshooting by providing more content-rich standardized summaries of light source performance, along with reduced time-to-identification for previously

  19. Electromagnetic Emission from Long-lived Binary Neutron Star Merger Remnants. II. Lightcurves and Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Daniel M.; Ciolfi, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Recent observations indicate that in a large fraction of binary neutron star (BNS) mergers a long-lived neutron star (NS) may be formed rather than a black hole. Unambiguous electromagnetic (EM) signatures of such a scenario would strongly impact our knowledge on how short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) and their afterglow radiation are generated. Furthermore, such EM signals would have profound implications for multimessenger astronomy with joint EM and gravitational-wave (GW) observations of BNS mergers, which will soon become reality thanks to the ground-based advanced LIGO/Virgo GW detector network. Here we explore such EM signatures based on the model presented in a companion paper, which provides a self-consistent evolution of the post-merger system and its EM emission up to ˜107 s. Light curves and spectra are computed for a wide range of post-merger physical properties. We present X-ray afterglow light curves corresponding to the “standard” and the “time-reversal” scenario for SGRBs (prompt emission associated with the merger or with the collapse of the long-lived NS). The light curve morphologies include single and two-plateau features with timescales and luminosities that are in good agreement with Swift observations. Furthermore, we compute the X-ray signal that should precede the SGRB in the time-reversal scenario, the detection of which would represent smoking-gun evidence for this scenario. Finally, we find a bright, highly isotropic EM transient peaking in the X-ray band at ˜102-104 s after the BNS merger with luminosities of LX ˜ 1046-1048 erg s-1. This signal represents a very promising EM counterpart to the GW emission from BNS mergers.

  20. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of a Long-Lived Strain of Podospora Anserina

    PubMed Central

    Silliker, M. E.; Cummings, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    A genetic and molecular analysis of a long-lived strain of Podospora anserina, Mn19, was undertaken to detect mutations in genes responsible for senescence. In crosses between Mn19 and wild type about 15% of the progeny were long-lived, regardless of the female parent. Molecular analysis of the long-lived progeny showed that none of the strains inherited a mtDNA rearrangement characteristic of the Mn19 parent. Instead, all long-lived strains initially inherited wild-type mtDNA. Over time the mtDNA of most long-lived strains underwent rearrangements, deletions and amplifications. The change over time in the presence of two previously characterized plasmids associated with either senescence or longevity was monitored. Crosses between Mn19 and its long-lived progeny also yielded only a small percent of individuals recovering from senescence. Analysis of mtDNA from crosses suggests that wild-type mtDNA from the paternal parent can be selected over mtDNA from the maternal parent. The life span phenotypes of progeny were not consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in a few nuclear genes were responsible for longevity. PMID:2397883

  1. Fragmentation of long-lived hydrocarbons after strong field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larimian, Seyedreza; Erattupuzha, Sonia; Lötstedt, Erik; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Maurer, Raffael; Roither, Stefan; Schöffler, Markus; Kartashov, Daniil; Baltuška, Andrius; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Kitzler, Markus; Xie, Xinhua

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigated the deprotonation process on nanosecond to microsecond timescales in ethylene and acetylene molecules following their double ionization by a strong femtosecond laser field. In our experiments we utilized coincidence detection with the reaction microscope technique. We found that both the lifetime of the long-lived ethylene dication leading to the delayed deprotonation and the relative channel strength of the delayed deprotonation compared to the prompt one have no evident dependence on the laser pulse duration and the laser peak intensity. Quantum chemical simulations suggest that the observed delayed fragmentation process originates from the tunneling from near-dissociation-threshold C-H stretch vibrational states on a dicationic electronic state. These vibrational states can be populated through strong field double-ionization-induced vibrational excitation on an electronically excited state in the case of ethylene, and through a spin-flip transition from electronically excited singlet states to the triplet ground state in the case of acetylene.

  2. Searches for long lived particles at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Tulika; /Brown U.

    2008-04-01

    Several searches have been performed for long lived particles using data collected by the CDF and D0 detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. These include searches for charged massive stable particles, stopped gluinos, neutral long-lived particles decaying to muons, and magnetic monopoles. These proceedings [1] review recent experimental results from Run II analyses.

  3. Ligand-Protein Affinity Studies Using Long-Lived States of Fluorine-19 Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Roberto; Mammoli, Daniele; Canet, Estel; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2016-03-10

    The lifetimes TLLS of long-lived states or TLLC of long-lived coherences can be used for the accurate determination of dissociation constants of weak protein-ligand complexes. The remarkable contrast between signals derived from LLS or LLC in free and bound ligands can be exploited to search for weak binders with large dissociation constants KD > 1 mM that are important for fragment-based drug discovery but may escape detection by other screening techniques. Alternatively, the high sensitivity of the proposed method can be exploited to work with large ligand-to-protein ratios, with an evident advantage of reduced consumption of precious proteins. The detection of (19)F-(19)F long-lived states in suitably designed fluorinated spy molecules allows one to perform competition binding experiments with high sensitivity while avoiding signal overlap that tends to hamper the interpretation of proton spectra of mixtures. PMID:26800391

  4. Dispersal and individual quality in a long lived species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cam, E.; Monnat, J.-Y.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The idea of differences in individual quality has been put forward in numerous long-term studies in long-lived species to explain differences in lifetime production among individuals. Despite the important role of individual heterogeneity in vital rates in demography, population dynamics and life history theory, the idea of 'individual quality' is elusive. It is sometimes assumed to be a static or dynamic individual characteristic. When considered as a dynamic trait, it is sometimes assumed to vary deterministically or stochastically, or to be confounded with the characteristics of the habitat. We addressed heterogeneity in reproductive performance among individuals established in higher-quality habitat in a long-lived seabird species. We used approaches to statistical inference based on individual random effects permitting quantification of heterogeneity in populations and assessment of individual variation from the population mean. We found evidence of heterogeneity in breeding probability, not success probability. We assessed the influence of dispersal on individual reproductive potential. Dispersal is likely to be destabilizing in species with high site and mate fidelity. We detected heterogeneity after dispersal, not before. Individuals may perform well regardless of quality before destabilization, including those that recruited in higher-quality habitat by chance, but only higher-quality individuals may be able to overcome the consequences of dispersal. Importantly, results differed when accounting for individual heterogeneity (an increase in mean breeding probability when individuals dispersed), or not (a decrease in mean breeding probability). In the latter case, the decrease in mean breeding probability may result from a substantial decrease in breeding probability in a few individuals and a slight increase in others. In other words, the pattern observed at the population mean level may not reflect what happens in the majority of individuals.

  5. Long-lived nuclear spin states far from magnetic equivalence.

    PubMed

    Stevanato, Gabriele; Roy, Soumya Singha; Hill-Cousins, Joe; Kuprov, Ilya; Brown, Lynda J; Brown, Richard C D; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H

    2015-02-28

    Clusters of coupled nuclear spins may form long-lived nuclear spin states, which interact weakly with the environment, compared to ordinary nuclear magnetization. All experimental demonstrations of long-lived states have so far involved spin systems which are close to the condition of magnetic equivalence, in which the network of spin-spin couplings is conserved under all pair exchanges of symmetry-related nuclei. We show that the four-spin system of trans-[2,3-(13)C2]-but-2-enedioate exhibits a long-lived nuclear spin state, even though this spin system is very far from magnetic equivalence. The 4-spin long-lived state is accessed by slightly asymmetric chemical substitutions of the centrosymmetric molecular core. The long-lived state is a consequence of the locally centrosymmetric molecular geometry for the trans isomer, and is absent for the cis isomer. A general group theoretical description of long-lived states is presented. It is shown that the symmetries of coherent and incoherent interactions are both important for the existence of long-lived states. PMID:25633837

  6. Perfluorotributylamine: A novel long-lived greenhouse gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Angela C.; Young, Cora J.; Hurley, Michael D.; Wallington, Timothy J.; Mabury, Scott A.

    2013-11-01

    Perfluorinated compounds impact the Earth's radiative balance. Perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) belongs to the perfluoroalkyl amine class of compounds; these have not yet been investigated as long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Atmospheric measurements of PFTBA made in Toronto, ON, detected a mixing ratio of 0.18 parts per trillion by volume. An instantaneous radiative efficiency of 0.86 W m-2 ppb-1 was calculated from its IR absorption spectra, and a lower limit of 500 years was estimated for its atmospheric lifetime. PFTBA has the highest radiative efficiency of any compound detected in the atmosphere. If the concentration in Toronto is representative of the change in global background concentration since the preindustrial period, then the radiative forcing of PFTBA is 1.5 × 10-4 W m-2. We calculate the global warming potential of PFTBA over a 100 year time horizon to be 7100. Detection of PFTBA demonstrates that perfluoroalkyl amines are a class of LLGHGs worthy of future study.

  7. Portable light detection system for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, R. L.; Carpenter, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    System can be used to detect "ready" light on automatic cooking device, to tell if lights are on for visitors, or to tell whether it is daylight or dark outside. Device is actuated like flashlight. Light impinging on photo cell activates transistor which energizes buzzer to indicate presence of light.

  8. Visible light communication based motion detection.

    PubMed

    Sewaiwar, Atul; Tiwari, Samrat Vikramaditya; Chung, Yeon-Ho

    2015-07-13

    In this paper, a unique and novel visible light communication based motion detection is presented. The proposed motion detection is performed based on white light LEDs and an array of photodetectors from existing visible light communication (VLC) links, thus providing VLC with three functionalities of illumination, communication and motion detection. The motion is detected by observing the pattern created by intentional obstruction of the VLC link. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed VLC based motion detection technique. The VLC based motion detection can benefit smart devices control in VLC based smart home environments. PMID:26191937

  9. Fibroblasts From Long-Lived Rodent Species Exclude Cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Dostál, Lubomír; Kohler, William M.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Miller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to the lethal effects of cellular stressors, including the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd), is characteristic of fibroblast cell lines derived from long-lived bird and rodent species, as well as cell lines from several varieties of long-lived mutant mice. To explore the mechanism of resistance to Cd, we used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy to measure the rate of Cd uptake into primary fibroblasts of 15 rodent species. These data indicate that fibroblasts from long-lived rodent species have slower rates of Cd uptake from the extracellular medium than those from short-lived species. In addition, fibroblasts from short-lived species export more zinc after exposure to extracellular Cd than cells from long-lived species. Lastly, fibroblasts from long-lived rodent species have lower baseline concentrations of two redox-active metals, iron and copper. Our results suggest that evolution of longevity among rodents required adjustment of cellular properties to alter metal homeostasis and to reduce the toxic effects of heavy metals that accumulate over the course of a longer life span. PMID:24522391

  10. Search for charged massive long-lived particles.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alimena, J; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Aoki, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atkins, S; Atramentov, O; Augsten, K; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-Guerra, G A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jamin, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2012-03-23

    We report on a search for charged massive long-lived particles (CMLLPs), based on 5.2  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider. We search for events in which one or more particles are reconstructed as muons but have speed and ionization energy loss (dE/dx) inconsistent with muons produced in beam collisions. CMLLPs are predicted in several theories of physics beyond the standard model. We exclude pair-produced long-lived gauginolike charginos below 267 GeV and Higgsino-like charginos below 217 GeV at 95% C.L., as well as long-lived scalar top quarks with mass below 285 GeV. PMID:22540571

  11. Search for long-lived particles decaying to jet pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, RCM; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H.-M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lowdon, P.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.-B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlandea, M.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. Souza; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, JVVB; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilschut, H. W.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-04-01

    A search is presented for long-lived particles with a mass between 25 and 50 and a lifetime between 1 and 200 in a sample of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.62 , collected by the LHCb detector. The particles are assumed to be pair-produced by the decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson. The experimental signature of the long-lived particle is a displaced vertex with two associated jets. No excess above the background is observed and limits are set on the production cross-section as a function of the long-lived particle mass and lifetime.

  12. Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov V. M.; Abbott B.; Acharya B. S.; Adams M.; Adams T.; Alexeev G. D.; Alimena J.; Alkhazov G.; Alton A.; Alverson G.; Alves G. A.; Aoki M.; Askew A.; Asman B.; Atkins S.; Atramentov O.; Augsten K.; Avila C.; BackusMayes J.; Badaud F.; Bagby L.; Baldin B.; Bandurin D. V.; Banerjee S.; Barberis E.; Baringer P.; Barreto J.; Bartlett J. F.; Bassler U.; Bazterra V.; Bean A.; Begalli M.; Belanger-Champagne C.; Bellantoni L.; Beri S. B.; Bernardi G.; Bernhard R.; Bertram I.; Besancon M.; Beuselinck R.; Bezzubov V. A.; Bhat P. C.; Bhatnagar V.; Blazey G.; Blessing S.; Bloom K.; Boehnlein A.; Boline D.; Boos E. E.; Borissov G.; Bose T.; Brandt A.; Brandt O.; Brock R.; Brooijmans G.; Bross A.; Brown D.; Brown J.; Bu X. B.; Buehler M.; Buescher V.; Bunichev V.; Burdin S.; Burnett T. H.; Buszello C. P.; Calpas B.; Camacho-Perez E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga M. A.; Casey B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez H.; Chakrabarti S.; Chakraborty D.; Chan K. M.; Chandra A.; Chapon E.; Chen G.; Chevalier-Thery S.; Cho D. K.; Cho S. W.; Choi S.; Choudhary B.; Cihangir S.; Claes D.; Clutter J.; Cooke M.; Cooper W. E.; Corcoran M.; Couderc F.; Cousinou M. -C.; Croc A.; Cutts D.; Das A.; Davies G.; De K.; de Jong S. J.; De la Cruz-Burelo E.; Deliot F.; Demina R.; Denisov D.; Denisov S. P.; Desai S.; Deterre C.; DeVaughan K.; Diehl H. T.; Diesburg M.; Ding P. F.; Dominguez A.; Dorland T.; Dubey A.; Dudko L. V.; Duggan D.; Duperrin A.; Dutt S.; Dyshkant A.; Eads M.; Edmunds D.; Ellison J.; Elvira V. D.; Enari Y.; Evans H.; Evdokimov A.; Evdokimov V. N.; Facini G.; Ferbel T.; Fiedler F.; Filthaut F.; Fisher W.; Fisk H. E.; Fortner M.; Fox H.; Fuess S.; Garcia-Bellido A.; Garcia-Guerra G. A.; Gavrilov V.; Gay P.; Geng W.; Gerbaudo D.; Gerber C. E.; Gershtein Y.; Ginther G.; Golovanov G.; Goussiou A.; Grannis P. D.; Greder S.; Greenlee H.; Greenwood Z. D.; Gregores E. M.; Grenier G.; Gris Ph.; Grivaz J. -F.; Grohsjean A.; Gruenendahl S.; Gruenewald M. W.; Guillemin T.; Gutierrez G.; Gutierrez P.; Haas A.; Hagopian S.; Haley J.; Han L.; Harder K.; Harel A.; Hauptman J. M.; Hays J.; Head T.; Hebbeker T.; Hedin D.; Hegab H.; Heinson A. P.; Heintz U.; Hensel C.; Heredia-De La Cruz I.; Herner K.; Hesketh G.; Hildreth M. D.; Hirosky R.; Hoang T.; Hobbs J. D.; Hoeneisen B.; Hohlfeld M.; Hubacek Z.; Hynek V.; Iashvili I.; Ilchenko Y.; Illingworth R.; Ito A. S.; Jabeen S.; Jaffre M.; Jamin D.; Jayasinghe A.; Jesik R.; Johns K.; Johnson M.; Jonckheere A.; Jonsson P.; Joshi J.; Jung A. W.; Juste A.; Kaadze K.; Kajfasz E.; Karmanov D.; Kasper P. A.; Katsanos I.; Kehoe R.; Kermiche S.; Khalatyan N.; Khanov A.; Kharchilava A.; Kharzheev Y. N.; Kohli J. M.; Kozelov A. V.; Kraus J.; Kulikov S.; Kumar A.; Kupco A.; Kurca T.; Kuzmin V. A.; Kvita J.; Lammers S.; Landsberg G.; Lebrun P.; Lee H. S.; Lee S. W.; Lee W. M.; Lellouch J.; Li L.; Li Q. Z.; Lietti S. M.; Lim J. K.; Lincoln D.; Linnemann J.; Lipaev V. V.; Lipton R.; Liu Y.; Lobodenko A.; Lokajicek M.; de Sa R. Lopes; Lubatti H. J.; Luna-Garcia R.; Lyon A. L.; Maciel A. K. A.; Mackin D.; Madar R.; Magana-Villalba R.; Malik S.; Malyshev V. L.; Maravin Y.; Martinez-Ortega J.; McCarthy R.; McGivern C. L.; Meijer M. M.; et al.

    2012-03-21

    We report on a search for charged massive long-lived particles (CMLLPs), based on 5.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. We search for events in which one or more particles are reconstructed as muons but have speed and ionization energy loss (dE/dx) inconsistent with muons produced in beam collisions. CMLLPs are predicted in several theories of physics beyond the standard model. We exclude pair-produced long-lived gaugino-like charginos below 267 GeV and Higgsino-like charginos below 217 GeV at 95% C.L., as well as long-lived scalar top quarks with mass below 285 GeV.

  13. Patterns of aging in the long-lived wandering albatross.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Vincent Julien; Sorci, Gabriele; Cornet, Stéphane; Jaeger, Audrey; Faivre, Bruno; Arnoux, Emilie; Gaillard, Maria; Trouvé, Colette; Besson, Dominique; Chastel, Olivier; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2010-04-01

    How does an animal age in natural conditions? Given the multifaceted nature of senescence, identifying the effects of age on physiology and behavior remains challenging. We investigated the effects of age on a broad array of phenotypic traits in a wild, long-lived animal, the wandering albatross. We studied foraging behavior using satellite tracking and activity loggers in males and females (age 6-48+ years), and monitored reproductive performance and nine markers of baseline physiology known to reflect senescence in vertebrates (humoral immunity, oxidative stress, antioxidant defenses, and hormone levels). Age strongly affected foraging behavior and reproductive performance, but not baseline physiology. Consistent with results of mammal and human studies, age affected males and females differently. Overall, our findings demonstrate that age, sex, and foraging ability interact in shaping aging patterns in natural conditions. Specifically, we found an unexpected pattern of spatial segregation by age; old males foraged in remote Antarctica waters, whereas young and middle-aged males never foraged south of the Polar Front. Old males traveled a greater distance but were less active at the sea surface, and returned from sea with elevated levels of stress hormone (corticosterone), mirroring a low foraging efficiency. In contrast to findings in captive animals and short-lived birds, and consistent with disposable soma theory, we found no detectable age-related deterioration of baseline physiology in albatrosses. We propose that foraging efficiency (i.e., the ability of individuals to extract energy from their environment) might play a central role in shaping aging patterns in natural conditions. PMID:20308547

  14. Production of long-lived hafnium isomers in reactor irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamian, S. A.; Carroll, J. J.; Adam, J.; Kulagin, E. N.; Shabalin, E. P.

    2006-06-01

    Experiments on production of long-lived Hf178m isomer in reactor irradiations are described. Properties of this nuclide are promising for its potential application as a relatively safe power source characterized by high density of accumulated energy. Metal natHf samples were activated in the Dubna IBR-2 reactor at positions corresponding to different neutron fluxes. Samples were bare or shielded by Cd and B 4C layers. The gamma activity of the samples was analyzed with Ge gamma spectrometers during a two-year period following their irradiation. In the presence of dominant activation products 175Hf and 181Hf, the high-spin isomers Hf178m and Hf179m were also detected despite relatively low levels. The isomer-to-ground state ratios and cross-sections were determined from the measured yields. For Hf178m, the cross-section for burnup (destruction) by neutron capture after its production was also estimated, clarifying the results from earlier experiments. In the context of suggestions for use of Hf178m for applications, the results confirm that large-scale production of this isomer by reactor irradiations is not feasible. In contrast, the efficiency of production of Hf179m is much higher and an amount of about 10 16 atoms may be produced in standard reactor irradiations. For Hf178m, more productive methods are known, in particular fast neutron irradiations at E n ≥ 14 MeV and spallation reactions at intermediate energies. Neutron cross-sections for isomers may also be significant in astrophysics.

  15. Traffic Light Detection Using Conic Section Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinyalmdary, S.; Yilmaz, A.

    2016-06-01

    Traffic lights detection and their state recognition is a crucial task that autonomous vehicles must reliably fulfill. Despite scientific endeavors, it still is an open problem due to the variations of traffic lights and their perception in image form. Unlike previous studies, this paper investigates the use of inaccurate and publicly available GIS databases such as OpenStreetMap. In addition, we are the first to exploit conic section geometry to improve the shape cue of the traffic lights in images. Conic section also enables us to estimate the pose of the traffic lights with respect to the camera. Our approach can detect multiple traffic lights in the scene, it also is able to detect the traffic lights in the absence of prior knowledge, and detect the traffics lights as far as 70 meters. The proposed approach has been evaluated for different scenarios and the results show that the use of stereo cameras significantly improves the accuracy of the traffic lights detection and pose estimation.

  16. Window flaw detection by backscatter lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, L. K.; Minton, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    Portable fiber-optic probe detects tiny flaws in transparent materials. Probe transmits light through surface to illuminate interior of material by backscattering off its edges. Light-sensitive contact paper records scratch pattern. Technique can be used for rapid visual checks. Flexible fiber optics are safely used in explosive or flammable areas; they present no hazard of breakage or contamination in controlled environments.

  17. Long-Lived Coherences for Homogeneous Line Narrowing in Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Riddhiman; Ahuja, Puneet; Vasos, Paul R.; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-02-01

    Line broadening, which can arise from inhomogeneities or homogeneous relaxation effects that lead to finite lifetimes of quantum states, is the Achilles’ heel of many forms of spectroscopy. We show that line broadening may be considerably reduced by exploiting long lifetimes associated with superpositions of quantum states with different symmetry, termed long-lived coherences. In proton NMR of arbitrary molecules (including proteins) in isotropic solution, the slow oscillatory decays of long-lived coherences can yield spectra with very high resolution. This improvement opens the way to high-field magnetic resonance of molecular assemblies that are almost an order of magnitude larger than could be hitherto studied. Coherences between states of different symmetry may be useful in other forms of spectroscopy to cancel unwanted line broadening effects.

  18. An extreme long-lived relativistic electron enhancement event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaochao

    2015-04-01

    An extreme long-lived intense relativistic electron enhancement event beginning in November 2004 is examined using data from Fengyun-1, POES, GOES, ACE, the Cluster Mission and geomagnetic indices. In this event, the flux of relativistic electrons (>1.6MeV) in the outer zone increased to a very high level in two days, this flux fashion had been running to the end of January 2005. It is an extreme long-lived event. We find that the high-speed solar wind and frequent impulses of solar wind dynamic pressure induced strong long-lasting ULF waves just before the enhancement, and the energetic electron flux enhanced simultaneously. Subsequently, the whistler mode chorus intensified obviously and the relativistic electron flux enhanced rapidly. We suggest that the drift-resonant acceleration by ULF waves enhanced the energetic electrons flux firstly, and local acceleration by chorus accelerated them to relativistic level sequentially.

  19. The long-lived stau as a thermal relic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradler, Josef

    2009-09-01

    We consider physics beyond the Standard Model in which a long-lived electromagnetically charged massive particle species (CHAMP) appears. We discuss the unique sensitivity the early Universe exhibits on the mere presence and on the decay of such a particle. A CHAMP can be realized in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. We carry out a detailed study of gravitino dark matter scenarios in which the lighter stau is the lightest Standard Model superpartner and thus the CHAMP. Particularly stringent constraints on the gravitino-stau scenario arise from the thermal catalysis of primordial nucleosynthesis reactions. This motivates a thorough investigation of the thermal freeze-out process of the long-lived stau. There, we show that even the most stringent cosmological constraints can potentially be evaded.

  20. Axion cosmology with long-lived domain walls

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: sekiguti@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological constraints on axion models where the domain wall number is greater than one. In these models, multiple domain walls attached to strings are formed, and they survive for a long time. Their annihilation occurs due to the effects of explicit symmetry breaking term which might be raised by Planck-scale physics. We perform three-dimensional lattice simulations and compute the spectra of axions and gravitational waves produced by long-lived domain walls. Using the numerical results, we estimated relic density of axions and gravitational waves. We find that the existence of long-lived domain walls leads to the overproduction of cold dark matter axions, while the density of gravitational waves is too small to observe at the present time. Combining the results with other observational constraints, we find that the whole parameter region of models are excluded unless an unacceptable fine-tuning exists.

  1. Long-lived nuclear spin states in monodeuterated methyl groups.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Stuart J; Brown, Lynda J; Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Levitt, Malcolm H

    2016-07-21

    It is possible to access long-lived nuclear singlet order in monodeuterated methyl groups, in the case that a significant chemical shift difference exists between the CH2D protons. This occurs when the local environment is chiral, and the CH2D rotamers have different populations. An experimental demonstration is presented for the case of N-CH2D-2-methylpiperidine. The ratio of the singlet relaxation time constant TS to the longitudinal relaxation time constant T1 is found to be equal to 3.1 ± 0.1, over a wide range of temperatures, solvents, and magnetic fields. The longest observed value of TS approaches 1 minute. The relaxation mechanisms of the long-lived state are discussed, and a modified model of the CH2D geometry is proposed to explain the observed ratio of TS to T1. PMID:27327382

  2. Long-lived staus and displaced leptons at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jared A.; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-04-01

    As the majority of LHC searches are focused on prompt signatures, specific long-lived particles have the potential to be overlooked by the otherwise systematic new physics programs at ATLAS and CMS. While in many cases long-lived superparticles are now stringently constrained by existing exotic searches, we point out that the highly motivated model of gauge mediation with staus as the next-to-lightest superparticle (NLSP) is relatively far less tested. We recast LHC searches for heavy stable charged particles, disappearing tracks, and opposite-flavor leptons with large impact parameters to assess current constraints on a variety of spectra that contain an NLSP stau, and find that portions of the parameter space motivated by naturalness are still experimentally unexplored. We additionally note a gap in the current experimental search program: same-flavor leptons with large impact parameters evade the suite of existing searches for long-lived objects. This gap is especially noteworthy as vetoes on displaced leptons in prompt new physics searches could be systematically discarding such events. We discuss several motivated models that can exhibit same-flavor displaced leptons: gauge mediation with co-NLSP sleptons, extended gauge mediation, R-parity violation, and lepton-flavored dark matter that freezes in during a matter-dominated era of the early universe. To address this gap, we propose a straightforward extension of the CMS search for leptons with large impact parameters, and project sensitivity to these scenarios at 13 TeV. Throughout this analysis, we highlight several methods whereby LHC searches for exotic long-lived objects could potentially improve their sensitivity to the displaced leptons originating from gauge mediation and beyond.

  3. Long-lived space observatories for astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Becklin, Eric E.; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Elliot, James L.; Gallagher, John S.; Helfand, David J.; Jenkins, Edward F.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's plan to build and launch a fleet of long-lived space observatories that include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Advanced X Ray Astrophysics Observatory (AXAF), and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are discussed. These facilities are expected to have a profound impact on the sciences of astronomy and astrophysics. The long-lived observatories will provide new insights about astronomical and astrophysical problems that range from the presence of planets orbiting nearby stars to the large-scale distribution and evolution of matter in the universe. An important concern to NASA and the scientific community is the operation and maintenance cost of the four observatories described above. The HST cost about $1.3 billion (1984 dollars) to build and is estimated to require $160 million (1986 dollars) a year to operate and maintain. If HST is operated for 20 years, the accumulated costs will be considerably more than those required for its construction. Therefore, it is essential to plan carefully for observatory operations and maintenance before a long-lived facility is constructed. The primary goal of this report is to help NASA develop guidelines for the operations and management of these future observatories so as to achieve the best possible scientific results for the resources available. Eight recommendations are given.

  4. Observation of long-lived van der Waals molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shinya; Yamazaki, Rekishu; Shibata, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Yamada, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2012-10-01

    We observe long-lived tightly bound van der Waals molecules of ytterbium in a three-dimensional optical lattice with a lifetime of 8.0 s. The molecules, state-selectively produced by a photoassociation technique from a Bose-Einstein condensate or an atomic Mott insulator, are successfully detected with a photodissociation method where the molecules are photodissociated into two atoms and the atoms are captured by a magneto-optical trap or optical molasses, for the fluorescence detection. This work will open up various possibilities of research with van der Waals molecules in an optical lattice.

  5. Light emission, light detection and strain sensing with nanocrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Adnan; Pyatkov, Feliks; Alam, Asiful; Dehm, Simone; Felten, Alexandre; Chakravadhanula, Venkata S. K.; Flavel, Benjamin S.; Kübel, Christian; Lemmer, Uli; Krupke, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Graphene is of increasing interest for optoelectronic applications exploiting light detection, light emission and light modulation. Intrinsically, the light-matter interaction in graphene is of a broadband type. However, by integrating graphene into optical micro-cavities narrow-band light emitters and detectors have also been demonstrated. These devices benefit from the transparency, conductivity and processability of the atomically thin material. To this end, we explore in this work the feasibility of replacing graphene with nanocrystalline graphene, a material which can be grown on dielectric surfaces without catalyst by graphitization of polymeric films. We have studied the formation of nanocrystalline graphene on various substrates and under different graphitization conditions. The samples were characterized by resistance, optical transmission, Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy measurements. The conducting and transparent wafer-scale material with nanometer grain size was also patterned and integrated into devices for studying light-matter interaction. The measurements show that nanocrystalline graphene can be exploited as an incandescent emitter and bolometric detector similar to crystalline graphene. Moreover the material exhibits piezoresistive behavior which makes nanocrystalline graphene interesting for transparent strain sensors.

  6. Light emission, light detection and strain sensing with nanocrystalline graphene.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Adnan; Pyatkov, Feliks; Alam, Asiful; Dehm, Simone; Felten, Alexandre; Chakravadhanula, Venkata S K; Flavel, Benjamin S; Kübel, Christian; Lemmer, Uli; Krupke, Ralph

    2015-08-14

    Graphene is of increasing interest for optoelectronic applications exploiting light detection, light emission and light modulation. Intrinsically, the light-matter interaction in graphene is of a broadband type. However, by integrating graphene into optical micro-cavities narrow-band light emitters and detectors have also been demonstrated. These devices benefit from the transparency, conductivity and processability of the atomically thin material. To this end, we explore in this work the feasibility of replacing graphene with nanocrystalline graphene, a material which can be grown on dielectric surfaces without catalyst by graphitization of polymeric films. We have studied the formation of nanocrystalline graphene on various substrates and under different graphitization conditions. The samples were characterized by resistance, optical transmission, Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy measurements. The conducting and transparent wafer-scale material with nanometer grain size was also patterned and integrated into devices for studying light-matter interaction. The measurements show that nanocrystalline graphene can be exploited as an incandescent emitter and bolometric detector similar to crystalline graphene. Moreover the material exhibits piezoresistive behavior which makes nanocrystalline graphene interesting for transparent strain sensors. PMID:26207014

  7. Optical detection dental disease using polarized light

    DOEpatents

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Fried, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    A polarization sensitive optical imaging system is used to detect changes in polarization in dental tissues to aid the diagnosis of dental disease such as caries. The degree of depolarization is measured by illuminating the dental tissue with polarized light and measuring the polarization state of the backscattered light. The polarization state of this reflected light is analyzed using optical polarimetric imaging techniques. A hand-held fiber optic dental probe is used in vivo to direct the incident beam to the dental tissue and collect the reflected light. To provide depth-resolved characterization of the dental tissue, the polarization diagnostics may be incorporated into optical coherence domain reflectometry and optical coherence tomography (OCDR/OCT) systems, which enables identification of subsurface depolarization sites associated with demineralization of enamel or bone.

  8. Paramagnetic relaxation of long-lived coherences in solution NMR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Maninder; Srinivas, Chinthalapalli; Deb, Mayukh; Kurur, Narayanan D

    2013-12-01

    Long-lived coherences (LLCs) are known to have lifetimes much longer than transverse magnetization or single quantum coherences (SQCs). The effect of paramagnetic ions on the relaxation of LLCs is not known. This is particularly important, as LLCs have potential applications in various fields like analytical NMR, in vivo NMR and MR imaging methods. We study here the behaviour of LLCs in the presence of paramagnetic relaxation agents. The stepwise increase in the concentration of the metal ion is followed by measuring various relaxation rates. The effect of paramagnetic ions is analysed in terms of the external random field's contribution to the relaxation of two coupled protons in 2,3,6-trichlorobenzaldehyde. The LLCs relax faster than ordinary SQCs in the presence of paramagnetic ions of varying character. This is explained on the basis of an increase in the contribution of the external random field to relaxation due to a paramagnetic relaxation mechanism. Comparison is also made with ordinary Zeeman relaxation rates like R1, R2, R1ρ and also with rate of relaxation of long-lived states RLLS which are known to be less sensitive to paramagnetically induced relaxation. Also, the extent of correlation of random fields at two proton sites is studied and is found to be strongly correlated with each other. The obtained correlation constant is found to be independent of the nature of added paramagnetic impurities. PMID:24151221

  9. Determination of long-lived Nb isotopes in nuclear power plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Osváth, Szabolcs; Vajda, Nóra; Molnár, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    (94)Nb and (93m)Nb are long-lived radionuclides, produced by thermal and fast neutrons from (93)Nb that is a major component of the Zr alloys used in nuclear reactors. A radiochemical method for the determination of these nuclides has been developed. The separation is based on the insolubility of Nb oxides and the retention of the fluoric complexes on anion exchange resin. The Nb sources are detected by gamma- and X-ray spectrometries. Activity concentrations determined in radioactive waste samples of a nuclear power plant are presented. PMID:17716901

  10. Flexible detection optics for light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taratuta, Victor G.; Hurd, Alan J.; Meyer, Robert B.

    1984-05-01

    We have designed and built a compact, modular apparatus for the collection, viewing, and detection of scattered light for less than 1200, based on a commercially available optical bench. The novelty of our instrument is that it has the flexibility of modular design while allowing the user to see exactly what is happening: both the real image of the sample and the spatial coherence of the scattered light can be examined. There is built-in control over polarization, filtering, magnification, and other parameters.

  11. Ultraviolet light detection using an optical microcavity.

    PubMed

    Harker, Audrey; Mehrabani, Simin; Armani, Andrea M

    2013-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light exposure is connected to both physical and psychological diseases. As such, there is significant interest in developing sensors that can detect UV light in the mW/cm2 intensity range with a high signal-to-noise ratio. In this Letter, we demonstrate a UV sensor based on a silica integrated optical microcavity that has a linear operating response in both the forward and backward directions from 14 to 53 mW/cm2. The sensor response agrees with the developed predictive theory based on a thermodynamic model. Additionally, the signal-to-noise ratio is above 100 at physiologically relevant intensity levels. PMID:23988974

  12. Long-living terahertz magnons in ultrathin metallic ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Qin, H J; Zakeri, Kh; Ernst, A; Sandratskii, L M; Buczek, P; Marmodoro, A; Chuang, T-H; Zhang, Y; Kirschner, J

    2015-01-01

    The main idea behind magnonics is to use the elementary magnetic excitations (magnons) for information transfer and processing. One of the main challenges, hindering the application of ultrafast terahertz magnons in magnonics, has been the short lifetime of these excitations in metallic ferromagnets. Here, we demonstrate that the engineering of the electronic structure of a ferromagnetic metal, by reducing its dimensionality and changing its chemical composition, opens a possibility to strongly suppress the relaxation channels of terahertz magnons and thereby enhance the magnons' lifetime. For the first time, we report on the long-lived terahertz magnons excited in ultrathin metallic alloy films. On the basis of the first-principles calculations, we explain the microscopic nature of the long lifetime being a consequence of the peculiar electronic hybridizations of the species. We further demonstrate a way of tailoring magnon energies (frequencies) by varying the chemical composition of the film. PMID:25625857

  13. Long-living terahertz magnons in ultrathin metallic ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. J.; Zakeri, Kh.; Ernst, A.; Sandratskii, L. M.; Buczek, P.; Marmodoro, A.; Chuang, T.-H.; Zhang, Y.; Kirschner, J.

    2015-01-01

    The main idea behind magnonics is to use the elementary magnetic excitations (magnons) for information transfer and processing. One of the main challenges, hindering the application of ultrafast terahertz magnons in magnonics, has been the short lifetime of these excitations in metallic ferromagnets. Here, we demonstrate that the engineering of the electronic structure of a ferromagnetic metal, by reducing its dimensionality and changing its chemical composition, opens a possibility to strongly suppress the relaxation channels of terahertz magnons and thereby enhance the magnons’ lifetime. For the first time, we report on the long-lived terahertz magnons excited in ultrathin metallic alloy films. On the basis of the first-principles calculations, we explain the microscopic nature of the long lifetime being a consequence of the peculiar electronic hybridizations of the species. We further demonstrate a way of tailoring magnon energies (frequencies) by varying the chemical composition of the film.

  14. Impurity channels of the long-lived Mossbauer effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yao-Yuan; Cheng, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the nuclear resonant absorption of a long-lived Mossbauer state e.g., 93mNb is mediated by an entangled photon pair (biphoton) rather than by a single photon. Multipolar nuclear excitation in crystals of a single isotope with a natural abundance of 100% spreads in a region containing billions of identical nuclei. As a consequence of the delocalisation, additional decay channels via the impurities, the crystal defects, and the sample boundary, give rise to a density- and temperature-dependent decay. In this letter we report our discovery of impurity channels, the intensity of which is proportional to the square of the 93mNb density. PMID:26503613

  15. Bending Fatigue of Carburized Steel at Very Long Lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. V.; Long, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The bending fatigue behavior of two carburized steels is investigated for lives between approximately 105 and 108 cycles. Cracks are observed to start at sub-surface inclusions and develop features on fracture surfaces resembling "fish eyes" in appearance. This type of sub-surface cracking tends to govern fatigue strength at long lives. Previous studies of "fish eye" fatigue in carburized steel have been relatively few and have mainly considered failures originating at depths beneath a carburized case, where compressive residual stresses are minimal and hardness values approach those in the core. This study provides fatigue data for cracks originating within cases at various depths where compressive residual stresses are substantial and hardness is much higher than in the core. Fatigue strength is predicted by a simple model, accounting for the influence of residual stresses and hardness values at the different depths at which cracks started. Predictions of fatigue strength are compared with data generated in this study.

  16. Polarization properties of long-lived stimulated photon echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetov, V. A.; Popov, E. N.

    2015-01-01

    The polarization properties of the long-lived stimulated photon echo formed on the transition ja → jb with the atomic levels degenerate in the projections of the angular momenta are studied theoretically. The two particular transitions ja = 1 → jb = 0 and ja = 1 → jb = 1 with degenerate ground state ja = 1 are discussed. For the transitions ja = 1 → jb = 1 the polarizations and areas of the first (‘write’) and the third (‘read’) excitation pulses are found when the echo polarization faithfully reproduces the arbitrary polarization of the weak (single-photon) second (‘information’) pulse, so that this echo scheme may implement the quantum memory for a single-photon polarization qubit, while for the transitions ja = 1 → jb = 0 it is shown, that the echo polarization differs from that of the second pulse at any conditions.

  17. Probing scalar coupling differences via long-lived singlet states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVience, Stephen J.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    We probe small scalar coupling differences via the coherent interactions between two nuclear spin singlet states in organic molecules. We show that the spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC) technique enables the coherent transfer of singlet order between one spin pair and another. The transfer is mediated by the difference in syn and anti vicinal or long-range J couplings among the spins. By measuring the transfer rate, we calculate a J coupling difference of 8 ± 2 mHz in phenylalanine-glycine-glycine and 2.57 ± 0.04 Hz in glutamate. We also characterize a coherence between two singlet states in glutamate, which may enable the creation of a long-lived quantum memory.

  18. High-Fidelity Measurements of Long-Lived Flux Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, David; Macklin, Chris; O'Brien, Kevin; Sears, Adam; Yoder, Jonilyn; Gudmundsen, Ted; Kerman, Jamie; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Tolpygo, Sergey; Fitch, George; Weir, Terry; Kamal, Archana; Gustavsson, Simon; Yan, Fei; Birenbaum, Jeff; Siddiqi, Irfan; Orlando, Terry; Clarke, John; Oliver, Will

    2015-03-01

    We report on high-fidelity dispersive measurements of a long-lived flux qubit using a Josephson superconducting traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA). A capacitively shunted flux qubit that incorporates high-Q MBE aluminum will have longer relaxation and dephasing times when compared to a conventional flux qubit, while also maintaining the large anharmonicity necessary for complex gate operations. The JTWPA relies on a Josephson junction embedded transmission line to deliver broadband, nonreciprocal gain with large dynamic range. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA); and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of

  19. Long-lived activation products in reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Lepel, E.L.; Sanders, R.W.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Silker, W.; Thomas, C.W.; Abel, K.H.; Robertson, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to assess the problems posed to reactor decommissioning by long-lived activation products in reactor construction materials. Samples of stainless steel, vessel steel, concrete, and concrete ingredients were analyzed for up to 52 elements in order to develop a data base of activatable major, minor, and trace elements. Large compositional variations were noted for some elements. Cobalt and niobium concentrations in stainless steel, for example, were found to vary by more than an order of magnitude. A thorough evaluation was made of all possible nuclear reactions that could lead to long lived activation products. It was concluded that all major activation products have been satisfactorily accounted for in decommissioning planning studies completed to date. A detailed series of calculations was carried out using average values of the measured compositions of the appropriate materials to predict the levels of activation products expected in reactor internals, vessel walls, and bioshield materials for PWR and BWR geometries. A comparison is made between calculated activation levels and regulatory guidelines for shallow land disposal according to 10 CFR 61. This analysis shows that PWR and BWR shroud material exceeds the Class C limits and is, therefore, generally unsuitable for near-surface disposal. The PWR core barrel material approaches the Class C limits. Most of the remaining massive components qualify as either Class A or B waste with the bioshield clearly Class A, even at the highest point of activation. Selected samples of activated steel and concrete were subjected to a limited radiochemical analysis program as a verification of the computer model. Reasonably good agreement with the calculations was obtained where comparison was possible. In particular, the presence of /sup 94/Nb in activated stainless steel at or somewhat above expected levels was confirmed.

  20. An unusual long-lived relativistic electron enhancement event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, XiaoChao; Zhu, Guangwu; Zhang, Xiaoxin

    An unusual long-lived intense relativistic electron enhancement event from July to August 2004 is examined using data from Fengyun-1, POES, GOES, ACE, Cluster Mission and geomagnetic indices. In this event, the flux of relativistic electrons (>1.6MeV) in the outer zone increased up to more than 10 (4) cm (-2) •sr (-1) •s (-1) and this flux fashion has persisted over a month. Investigating the interplanetary and geomagnetic conditions, we find that sequential Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) stimulated interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) abrupt changes, extra high speed solar wind and strong geomagnetic storms and substorms during 22-27 July. Analyzing the geomagnetic oscillations by a bandpass filter, we find that the high-speed solar wind and frequent impulses of solar wind dynamic pressure induced strong durable ULF waves. In conjunction with the examination of the energetic electron evolutions in the magnetosphere, we suggest that the drift-resonant between ULF waves and energetic electrons injected by substorms is an important acceleration mechanism in this enhancement event. The intensification of chorus in the same period implies that the local acceleration by chorus could be another mechanism contributing to this event. The investigation of the plasmaspheric responses to the interplanetary disturbances reveals that the enhanced outer zone is divided into two portions by the plasmapause. The slow loss rate in the plasmasphere due to hiss primarily contributed to the long-lived characteristic of this event. This individual event reveals that the outer zone population behaviors are dominated by the interplanetary context variations together with the responses of geomagnetic field and plasmasphere to these variations.

  1. Telomeres, Age and Reproduction in a Long-Lived Reptile

    PubMed Central

    Plot, Virginie; Criscuolo, François; Zahn, Sandrine; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    A major interest has recently emerged in understanding how telomere shortening, mechanism triggering cell senescence, is linked to organism ageing and life history traits in wild species. However, the links between telomere length and key history traits such as reproductive performances have received little attention and remain unclear to date. The leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea is a long-lived species showing rapid growth at early stages of life, one of the highest reproductive outputs observed in vertebrates and a dichotomised reproductive pattern related to migrations lasting 2 or 3 years, supposedly associated with different environmental conditions. Here we tested the prediction of blood telomere shortening with age in this species and investigated the relationship between blood telomere length and reproductive performances in leatherback turtles nesting in French Guiana. We found that blood telomere length did not differ between hatchlings and adults. The absence of blood telomere shortening with age may be related to an early high telomerase activity. This telomere-restoring enzyme was formerly suggested to be involved in preventing early telomere attrition in early fast-growing and long-lived species, including squamate reptiles. We found that within one nesting cycle, adult females having performed shorter migrations prior to the considered nesting season had shorter blood telomeres and lower reproductive output. We propose that shorter blood telomeres may result from higher oxidative stress in individuals breeding more frequently (i.e., higher costs of reproduction) and/or restoring more quickly their body reserves in cooler feeding areas during preceding migration (i.e., higher foraging costs). This first study on telomeres in the giant leatherback turtle suggests that blood telomere length predicts not only survival chances, but also reproductive performances. Telomeres may therefore be a promising new tool to evaluate individual reproductive

  2. Jupiter's obliquity and a long-lived circumplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosqueira, Ignacio; Estrada, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been claimed [Canup, R.M., Ward, W.R., 2002. Astron. J. 124, 3404-3423; Ward, W.R., 2003. In: AGU, Fall Meeting 2003] that a long-lived minimum mass circumplanetary gas disk is inconsistent with Jupiter's low obliquity. Here we find that while Jupiter's obliquity may constrain its characteristics it does not rule out a long-lived massive (compared to the mass of the Galilean satellites) disk. This is because the argument assumes a Solar System much like that of the present day with the one exception of a circumjovian disk which is then allowed to dissipate on a long timescale ( 10-10 yr). Given that the sequence of events in Solar System history that fit known constraints is non-unique, we choose for the sake of clarity of exposition the orbital architecture framework of Tsiganis et al. [Tsiganis, K., Gomes, R., Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F., 2005. Nature 435, 459-461], in which Jupiter and Saturn were once in compact, nearly coplanar orbits, and show that in this case Jupiter's low obliquity is consistent with the SEMM (solids-enhanced minimum mass) satellite formation model of Mosqueira and Estrada [Mosqueira, I., Estrada, P.R., 2003a. Icarus 163, 198-231; Mosqueira, I., Estrada, P.R., 2003b. Icarus 163, 232-255]. We suggest that a low inclination starting condition may apply, but stress that our SEMM satellite formation model could be compatible with Jupiter's obliquity even for mutually inclined giant planets.

  3. Obesity and Life Expectancy Among Long-Lived Black Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. In samples of African Americans and the elderly adults, obesity is often not found to be a risk factor for mortality. These data contradict the evidence linking obesity to chronic disease in these groups. Our objective was to determine whether obesity remains a risk factor for mortality among long-lived black adults. Methods. The Adventist Health Study 2 is a large prospective cohort study of Seventh-day Adventist church members who are encouraged by faith-based principles to avoid tobacco, alcohol, and meat consumption. We conducted an attained age survival analysis of 22,884 U.S. blacks of the cohort—half of whom attained an age of 58–108 years during the follow-up (adult life expectancy of 84 years in men, 89 years in women). Results. Women in the highest body mass index quintile (>33.8) experienced a significant 61% increase (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.62 [1.23, 2.11] relative to the middle quintile) in mortality risk and a 6.2-year (95% CI = 2.8–10.2 years) decrease in life expectancy. Men in the highest body mass index quintile (>30.8) experienced a significant 87% increase (hazard ratio [95% CI] = 1.87 [1.28, 2.73] relative to the middle quintile) in mortality risk and 5.9-year (95% CI = 2.1– 9.5 years) decrease in life expectancy. Obesity (>30) was a significant risk factor relative to normal weight (18.5–24.9) in never-smokers. Instantaneous hazards indicated excess risk from obesity was evident through at least age 85 years. The nonobese tended to follow plant-based diets and exercise vigorously. Conclusions. Avoiding obesity promotes gains in life expectancy through at least the eighth decade of life in black adults. Evidence for weight control through plant-based diets and active living was found in long-lived nonobese blacks. PMID:23682156

  4. Hunting for Long-lived Protoplanetary Disks Observed with AKARI/FIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiong, LIU; Yao, LIU

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-one YSO (Young Stellar Object) candidates nearby the solar system have been identified through cross-correlating Hipparcos (High Precision Parallax Collecting Satellite) catalog with the AKARI/FIS YSO catalog, and the reliability is over 90%. The central objects cover the spectral types from B to M. The Hipparcos's accurate measurements of trigonometric parallaxes enable us to place these objects in the H-R diagram, which can be used to determine their ages by the isochrones of theoretical evolution trajectories. In this sample, two YSOs have been found to be older than 10 Myr. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from optical to infrared show that the two YSOs belong to the type II YSOs with protoplanetary disks. Furthermore, from the SED fitting, the ages of these two sources are constrained to be (14.1±4.2) Myr and (16.8±4.4) Myr, respectively. Therefore, two YSO candidates with long-lived protoplanetary disks have been detected in the AKARI/FIS data. The long-lived protoplanetary disks are closely related with the planet formation, and they are ideal birthplaces of protoplanets.

  5. Long-Lived Spin States for Low-Field Hyperpolarized Gas MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Truong, Milton L.; Barskiy, Danila A.; Koptyug, Igor V.; Coffey, Aaron M.; Waddell, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Parahydrogen induced polarization was employed to prepare a relatively long-lived correlated nuclear spin state between methylene and methyl protons in propane gas. Conventionally, such states are converted into a strong NMR signal enhancement by transferring the reaction product to a high magnetic field in an adiabatic longitudinal transport after dissociation engenders net alignment (ALTADENA) experiment. However, the relaxation time T1 of ~0.6 s of the resulting hyperpolarized propane is too short for potential biomedical applications. The presented alternative approach employs low-field MRI to preserve the initial correlated state with a much longer decay time TLLSS=(4.7 ± 0.5) s. While the direct detection at low-magnetic fields (e.g. 0.0475 T) is challenging, we demonstrate here that spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC) at this low magnetic field transforms the long-lived correlated state into an observable nuclear magnetization suitable for MRI with sub-millimeter and sub-second spatial and temporal resolution, respectively. Propane is a non-toxic gas, and therefore, these results potentially enable low-cost high-resolution high-speed MRI of gases for functional imaging of lungs and other applications. PMID:25263795

  6. Hunting for Long-lived Protoplanetary Disks Observed with AKARI/FIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Liu, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-one YSOs (Young Stellar Objects) in the solar neighbor have been identified through cross-correlating Hipparcos catalog with AKARI/FIS YSO catalog. The reliability of the match is over 90%. The central objects cover spectral types from B to M. The Hipparcos parallaxes enable us to place the objects in the H-R diagram, which can be used to determine their ages by isochrones. Among these objects, two YSOs have been found whose ages are larger than 10 Myr. The optical to infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these two YSOs are consistent with those of type II YSOs with protoplanetary disks. Furthermore, from the SED fitting, the ages of these two sources are constrained to (14.1±4.2) Myr and (16.8±4.4) Myr, respectively. Therefore, two YSO candidates with long-lived protoplanetary disks have been detected in AKARI/FIS. The presence of long-lived protoplanetary disks has significant implications for the formation of planets and their host stars.

  7. Long-lived, colour-triplet scalars from unnaturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, James; Cox, Peter; Gherghetta, Tony; Spray, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Long-lived, colour-triplet scalars are a generic prediction of unnatural, or split, composite Higgs models where the spontaneous global-symmetry breaking scale f ≳ 10 TeV and an unbroken SU(5) symmetry is preserved. Since the triplet scalars are pseudo NambuGoldstone bosons they are split from the much heavier composite-sector resonances and are the lightest exotic, coloured states. This makes them ideal to search for at colliders. Due to discrete symmetries the triplet scalar decays via a dimension-six term and given the large suppression scale f is often metastable. We show that existing searches for collider-stable R-hadrons from Run-I at the LHC forbid a triplet scalar mass below 845 GeV, whereas with 300 fb-1 at 13 TeV triplet scalar masses up to 1.4 TeV can be discovered. For shorter lifetimes displaced-vertex searches provide a discovery reach of up to 1.8 TeV. In addition we present exclusion and discovery reaches of future hadron colliders as well as indirect limits that arise from modifications of the Higgs couplings.

  8. Search for Long-Lived Particles ine+e-Collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; et al

    2015-04-29

    We present a search for a neutral, long-lived particle L that is produced in e+e- collisions and decays at a significant distance from the e+e- interaction point into various flavor combinations of two oppositely charged tracks. The analysis uses an e+e- data sample with a luminosity of 489.1 fb-1 collected by the BABAR detector at the γ (4S), γ (3S), and γ (2S) resonances and just below the γ (4S). Fitting the two-track mass distribution in search of a signal peak, we do not observe a significant signal, and set 90% confidence level upper limits on the product of themore » L production cross section, branching fraction, and reconstruction efficiency for six possible two-body L decay modes as a function of the L mass. The efficiency is given for each final state as a function of the mass, lifetime, and transverse momentum of the candidate, allowing application of the upper limits to any production model. In addition, upper limits are provided on the branching fraction B(B→XsL), where Xs is a strange hadronic system.« less

  9. Technology development for long-lived Venus landers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekonomov, 1.; Korablev, O.; Zasova, L.

    2007-08-01

    Simultaneously with many successful lander missions on Venus in 1972-1985 Soviet Union began develop long-lived lander on surface of Venus. The basic problem were extreme conditions on a surface: P=10MPa, T=500 C . Then operations have been stopped and have renewed in 2006 already in new Russia. Mission "VENERA (VENUS) - D" is included into the Federal space program of Russia on 2006 - 2015 with launch in 2016. To this date Russia alone can't create a reliable electronics for 500 C, but we have got examples GaN electronics for 350 C. Cooling technology with boiling water is offered for interior devices of lander at pressure 10 MPa and temperature 310 C. As the power source of an electronics we use high-temperature galvanic cells on the base of Li4Si [LiCl, KCl, LiF] FeS2 which are released in Russia as reserve power sources. They are capable to work directly on a surface of Venus without any thermal protection. At lander two kinds of vacuum technology can be used: 1) in multilayer (MLI ) thermal blanket for lander, 2) in electro-vacuum devices, for example transmitter . For creation and maintenance of vacuum at temperature 400-500 C: chemical gas absorbers ( getter materials ) are used, they actively absorb both carbon dioxide and nitrogen .

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry for measurement of long-lived radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, D.; Phillips, F.M.

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes /sup 10/Be, /sup 14/C, /sup 26/Al, /sup 36/Cl, and /sup 129/I can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10/sup -12/ to 10/sup -15/ and as few as 10/sup 5/ atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archaeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of half-lives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences. 98 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Polar Disturbance Surrounding a Long Living Cyclone in Saturn's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Antuñano, A.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Rojas, J. F.; Wong, M. H.; Simon, A. A.; De Pater, I.; Gomez-Forrelad, J. M.; Legarreta, J.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014 and 2015 a large 'dark spot' about 6,000 km in length and located at planetocentric latitude +58.5º (+63º N planetographic) was tracked on the best ground-based amateur images of Saturn, revealing a long-lived feature, an uncommon phenomenon in Saturn's atmosphere. Images captured by the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard Cassini spacecraft showed the feature as a very contrasted dark spot in the MT3 filter, and barely visible in the deep sounding filters CB2 and CB3. On mid-May 2015 ground-based observations obtained by amateur astronomers operating small telescopes started to show a disturbance around this dark spot. Following the onset of this disturbance the drift of the dark spot remained unaltered and equal to the motion it had previously, but the disturbance evolved zonally in a complex manner, giving hints of a kind of large scale phenomena in Saturn's atmosphere of an unprecedented type. Unfortunately the orbital path of the Cassini spacecraft was not appropriate to see details of the disturbance at that time. Images by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 instrument obtained in director's time (DDT) allow us to describe the detailed dynamics of the disturbance, while the study of its long-term evolution is possible thanks to the efforts of the community of amateur astronomers. In this work we analyse the dynamics of the region before the start of the disturbance and the dynamics and evolution of the disturbance after its onset.

  12. [The anti-tumor mechanisms in long-lived rodents].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanjiao; Pang, Yue; Li, Qingwei

    2016-05-01

    Rodents, including the nude mice with congenital aplasia of the thymus, cancer-resistant naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and blind mole rat (Spalax galili), are important model organisms that are widely used in biomedical research. The aging process is closely related to cancer incidence in mammals and the aging degree is positively correlated with the risk of cancer. Since rodents account for 40% of mammals, study of the unique antitumor mechanism in long-lived rodents is very important. Replicative senescence is anti-tumor mechanism that prevalently exist in rodents, however, unique anti-tumor mechanisms have been found in naked mole-rats and blind mole-rats. The cancer resistance of Spalax galili is mediated by cell-released IFN-β which activates p53 and Rb signaling pathway and the cells undergoes concerted cell death while that of Heterocephalus glaber is mediated by high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) which causes contact inhibition. In addition, highly expressed pro-cell-death and anti-inflammation related genes are found in the genome of both naked mole-rats and blind mole-rats. In this review, we summarize the anti-tumor mechanisms in both Heterocephalus glaber and Spalax galili, which may provide information for related research. PMID:27232489

  13. Investigating the long-lived clouds of early L dwarfs with Spitzer and K2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizis, John; Lowrance, Patrick; Paudel, Rishi

    2016-08-01

    We propose to monitor two bright L0 dwarfs with Spitzer. Unlike cooler brown dwarfs whose clouds evolve on timescales of hours and days, the best studied L1 dwarf star has a cloud feature that lasted for over two years. This discovery was enabled by Kepler optical photometry combined with Spitzer mid-infrared photometry. The upcoming K2 Campaign 10 happens to include two bright L0 dwarfs, and they will repeated in K2 Campaign 17, providing two uniquely accurate optical light curves that sample timescales from minutes to years. By probing higher altitudes in the L dwarf atmospheres, the Spitzer IRAC photometry would enable us to test whether the optical variability in these two objects also come from long-lived clouds. This would establish whether the Kepler field L1 dwarf is a fluke or whether the weather and cloud lifetimes in warm (~2300K) atmospheres are qualititatively different than in cooler brown dwarfs.

  14. Long-Lived, Coherent Acoustic Phonon Oscillations in GaN Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.; Geiser, P.; Jun, J.; Karpinski, J.; Park, J.-R.; Sobolewski, R.

    2006-01-31

    We report on coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) oscillations studied in high-quality bulk GaN single crystals with a two-color femtosecond optical pump-probe technique. Using a far-above-the-band gap ultraviolet excitation (~270 nm wavelength) and a near-infrared probe beam (~810 nm wavelength), the long-lived, CAP transients were observed within a 10 ns time-delay window between the pump and probe pulses, with a dispersionless (proportional to the probe-beam wave vector) frequency of ~45 GHz. The measured CAP attenuation corresponded directly to the absorption of the probe light in bulk GaN, indicating that the actual (intrinsic) phonon-wave attenuation in our crystals was significantly smaller than the measured 65.8 cm^-1 value. The velocity of the phonon propagation was equal to the velocity of sound in GaN.

  15. Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

  16. CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, Rudolf; Gosain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign.

  17. Long-Lived Storms and Squall Lines on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, S. C.; Barth, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of CAPE and wind shear on storms in a Titan-like environment are explored through numerical simulation. Numerical modeling indicates that both large-scale shear and CAPE environment control the dynamics of the clouds. This response to the large-scale environment is analogous to the behavior of deep convective clouds on Earth. The balance between shear and CAPE, as expressed through the bulk Richardson Number (NR), is a good indicator of the response of a storm to its environment. Large NR results in short-lived single cell storms (Figure 1a). As shear increases for a given CAPE, and NR decreases, the storms transition to a multicellular regime. Multicellular storms are longer-lived and are characterized by a downdraft generated cold pool that interacts with the background shear vorticity to initiate cells along the leading edge of the storm gust front (Figure 1b). The most intense multicellular systems simulated in this study behave similar to terrestrial squall lines, and very long-lived storms (>24 hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. Cloud outbursts and linear cloud features observed from ground and Cassini may be the result of these organized storm systems. Varying amounts of shear in the Titan environment might explain the variety of convective cloud expressions identified in Cassini orbiter and ground-based observations. The resulting distribution and magnitude of precipitation as well as surface winds associated with storms have implications on the formation of fluvial and aeolian features, including dunes, and on the exchange of methane with the surface and lakes.

  18. Removal of long-lived Rn-222 daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frascatore, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J.; Cushman, P.; Pepin, M.; Guiseppe, V. E.

    2013-10-01

    Long-lived daughter particles from the 222Rn decay chain may present a limiting background in dark matter detecting experiments. Electropolishing has proven to be an effective method at removing these daughter particles from material surfaces, particularly stainless steel. The removal of <1 μ m of stainless steel reduces the sample daughter contamination by a factor > 100. The total thickness removed due to electropolishing is fairly uniform, as observed by examining samples with a scanning electron microscope. Electropolishing can therefore be used for precision-machined equipment and applications which require the removal of uniform and significantly small thicknesses. Here, the relationship between thickness removed and removal of daughter contamination is studied, including corrections for systematic uncertainties produced by drifts in the digital scale calibration, alpha detector gain drifts, and grow-in of 210Po.

  19. Removal of long-lived 222Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J.; Cushman, P.; Pepin, M.; Guiseppe, V. E.

    2013-08-01

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the 222Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing < 1 μm from stainless-steel plates reduces the contamination efficiently, by a factor > 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener's energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  20. Formation of Long-Lived Fireballs by Plasma Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, I.

    2001-10-01

    Results of the long-lived plasma structure and fireball formation (so called ``plasmoids") investigations in the atmosphere have been presented and discussed. Lifetimes of these objects considerably (by several orders of magnitude) exceed typical times of their generation by power sources and of plasma decay time. Experiments on the formation of these objects have been carried out by means of different types of pulse erosive plasma injectors in a wide range of energy (100 J - 100 kJ) putted into the plasmoid. Acrylic glass, fabric-based laminate, caprolon, and different organic materials (waxes, paraffines, resins with natural fillers, wood, lignin, etc.) have been used as plasma forming materials. Injection was made both into undisturbed air and into air saturated by organic vapors. It is shown that the formation of plasmoids of different forms (spherical, torus -type, cylindrical and others) with typical sizes 10-20 cm and their lifetime up to ~1 s takes place during pulse plasma injection into the air. In so doing the time of energy input ranged from 10 mcs to 10 ms. Typical temperature's value at the initial stage of the plasmoid existence is 7 - 10 kK. Initial value of the electron concentration reaches ten in (16-17) power per cubic cm. Obtained plasma radiation spectra and their temporary evolution is under the analysis. It is shown that at late stages of the existence of fireballs their radiation spectra correspond to the radiation of solid carbon and metallic oxide particles, and to spectra of burning of organic materials. It is shown that different structures have been formed at the application of the organic plasma forming materials and /or at the injection of plasma jet into the air saturated by organic vapors. One of them with typical sizes 10-20 cm and temperature ~2000 K has a lifetime up to 0.5 s. Undertaken experimental and theoretical investigations have shown a possibility of different ball lightning type realization in nature in the result of

  1. Dynamics of Jupiter's long-lived White Ovals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Three sets of observations, each taken one hour apart, illustrate dynamics in this region of Jupiter's turbulent atmosphere. The near-infrared continuum filter (756 nanometers) shows the features of Jupiter's main visible cloud deck. Oval cloud systems of this type are often associated with chaotic cyclonic systems such as the balloon shaped vortex seen here between the well formed ovals. This system is centered near 30 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 100 degrees west longitude and rotates in a clockwise sense about its center. The oval shaped vortices in the upper half of the mosaic are two of the three long-lived White Ovals that formed to the south of the Red Spot in the 1930's and, like the Red Spot, rotate in a counterclockwise sense. The east to west dimension of the leftmost White Oval is 9000 kilometers (km). (The diameter of the Earth is 12,756 km.) The White Ovals drift in longitude relative to one another, and are presently restricting the cyclonic structure.

    In the lower right corner, the smaller oval and its accompanying cyclonic system are moving eastward at about 0.4 degrees per day relative to the larger ovals. The interaction between these two cyclonic storm systems is producing high, thick cumulus-like clouds in the southern part of the more northerly trapped system.

    North is at the top of this mosaic. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on February 19, 1997, at a range of 1.1 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for

  2. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights. Unless operations at night in known or forecast icing conditions are prohibited by...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights. Unless operations at night in known or forecast icing conditions are prohibited by...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing detection lights. Unless operations at night in known or forecast icing conditions are prohibited by...

  5. Long-lived mesoscale eddies in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Analysis of 20 years of AVISO geostrophic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhinini, Nadia; Coimbra, Andre Louis Santi; Stegner, Alexandre; Arsouze, Thomas; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle; Béranger, Karine

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed 20 years of AVISO data set to detect and characterize long-lived eddies, which stay coherent more than 6 months, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In order to process the coarse gridded (1/8°) AVISO geostrophic velocity fields, we optimized a geometrical eddy detection algorithm. Our main contribution was to implement a new procedure based on the computation of the Local and Normalized Angular Momentum (LNAM) to identify the positions of the eddy centers and to follow their Lagrangian trajectories. We verify on two mesoscale anticyclones, sampled during the EGYPT campaign in 2006, that our methodology provides a correct estimation of the eddy centers and their characteristic radius corresponding to the maximal tangential velocity. Our analysis reveals the dominance of anticyclones among the long-lived eddies. This cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry appears to be much more pronounced in eastern Mediterranean Sea than in the global ocean. Then we focus our study on the formation areas of long-lived eddies. We confirm that the generations of the Ierapetra and the Pelops anticyclones are recurrent and correlated to the Etesian wind forcing. We also provide some evidence that the smaller cyclonic eddies formed at the southwest of Crete may also be induced by the same wind forcing. On the other hand, the generation of long-lived eddies along the Libyo-Egyptian coast are not correlated to the local wind-stress curl but surprisingly, their initial formation points follow the Herodotus Trough bathymetry. Moreover, we identify a new formation area, not discussed before, along the curved shelf off Benghazi.

  6. Carry-over effects of food supplementation on recruitment and breeding performance of long-lived seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Simone; Hatch, Scott; Merkling, Thomas; Kitaysky, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation of food to wild animals is extensively applied as a conservation tool to increase local production of young. However, in long-lived migratory animals, the carry-over effects of food supplementation early in life on the subsequent recruitment of individuals into natal populations and their lifetime reproductive success are largely unknown. We examine how experimental food supplementation early in life affects: (i) recruitment as breeders of kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla born in a colony on Middleton Island (Alaska) between 1996 and 2006 (n = 1629) that bred in the same colony through 2013 (n = 235); and (ii) breeding success of individuals that have completed their life cycle at the colony (n = 56). Birds were raised in nests that were either supplemented with food (Fed) or unsupplemented (Unfed). Fledging success was higher in Fed compared with Unfed nests. After accounting for hatching rank, growth and oceanic conditions at fledging, Fed fledglings had a lower probability of recruiting as breeders in the Middleton colony than Unfed birds. The per-nest contribution of breeders was still significantly higher for Fed nests because of their higher productivity. Lifetime reproductive success of a subset of kittiwakes that thus far had completed their life cycle was not affected by the food supplementation during development. Our results cast light on the carry-over effects of early food conditions on the vital rates of long-lived animals and support food supplementation as an effective conservation strategy for long-lived seabirds. PMID:26180065

  7. TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignarra, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems.

  8. Big-bang nucleosynthesis with a long-lived charged massive particle including {sup 4}He spallation processes in a bound state

    SciTech Connect

    Jittoh, Toshifumi; Kohri, Kazunori; Koike, Masafumi; Sato, Joe; Sugai, Kenichi; Yamanaka, Masato; Yazaki, Koichi

    2012-07-27

    We propose helium-4 spallation processes induced by long-lived stau in supersymmetric standard models, and investigate an impact of the processes on light elements abundances. We show that, as long as the phase space of helium-4 spallation processes is open, they are more important than stau-catalyzed fusion and hence constrain the stau property.

  9. Hunting for neutral, long-lived exotica at the LHC using a missing transverse energy signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Moretti, Stefano; Nickel, Kilian; Thomas, Marc C.; Tomalin, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for neutral, long-lived particles have historically relied on the detection of displaced particles produced by their decay within the detector volume. In this paper we study the potential of the complementary signature comprising of the missing transverse energy ( E T miss ) signal, traditionally used to look for dark matter, e.g., the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), to extend the LHC coverage to models with long-lived (LL) particles when they decay outside the detector. Using CMS and ATLAS analyses at the 8 TeV LHC, we set an upper limit at the 95% confidence level (CL) on the production cross sections for two specific scenarios: (i) a model with a heavy non-standard model Higgs boson decaying to a LL scalar and (ii) an R-parity violating (RPV) SUSY model with a LL neutralino. We show that this method can significantly extend the LHC sensitivity to neutral, LL particles with arbitrary large lifetimes and that the limits obtained from a E T miss signal are comparable to those from displaced particle searches for decay distances above a few meters. Results obtained in this study do not depend on the specific decay channel of the LL particle and therefore are model-independent in this sense. We provide limits for the whole two-dimensional plane in terms of the mass of the LL particle and the mass of the mediator up to masses of 2 TeV including particular benchmarks studied in the original experimental papers. We have made these limits available in the form of a grid which can be used for the interpretation of various other new physics models.

  10. Aging and its modulation in a long-lived worker caste of the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Münch, Daniel; Kreibich, Claus D; Amdam, Gro V

    2013-05-01

    Highly social animals provide alternative aging models in which vastly different lifespan patterns are flexible, and linked to social caste. Research in these species aims to reveal how environment, including social cues, can shape the transition between short-lived and extremely long-lived phenotypes with negligible senescence. Among honey bee workers, short to intermediate lifespans are typical for summer castes, while the winter caste can live up to 10 times longer. For summer castes, experimental interventions could predictably accelerate, slow or revert functional senescence. In contrast, little is known about the partic ular conditions under which periods of negligible senescence in winter castes can be disrupted or sustained. We asked how manipulation of social environment in colonies with long-lived winter bees might alter the pace of functional senescence, measured as learning performance, as well as of cellular senescence, measured as lipofuscin accumulation. We show that behavioral senescence becomes rapidly detectable when the winter state is disrupted, and changes in social task behaviors and social environment (brood) are induced. Likewise, we found that cellular senescence was induced by such social intervention. However, cellular senescence showed marked regional differences, suggesting that particular brain regions age slower than others. Finally, by preventing post-winter colonies from brood rearing, behavioral senescence became undetectable, even after transition to the usually short-lived phenotypes had occurred. We envision that social regulation of negligible functional senescence and highly dynamic accumulation of a universal symptom of cellular aging (lipofuscin) offers rewarding perspectives to target proximate mechanisms of slowed aging. PMID:23596282

  11. Alarm inhalation dosemeter for long living radioactive dust due to an uncontrolled release

    SciTech Connect

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Rambousky, R.; Buchholz, F. W.

    2008-08-07

    MyRIAM is the acronym for My Radioactivity In Air Monitor and points out that the device was designed for personal use to detect any radioactivity in the air at the place and at the moment of danger. The active air sampling process enables a detection limit several orders of magnitude below that of Gamma detectors. Therefore, it is the unique way to detect dangerous exposures in time.Individual protection against inhalation of long living radioactive dust (LLRD) saves human life and health. LLRD may occur in natural environment as well as in case of nuclear accidence or military and terrorist attacks. But in any case, the immediate warning of the population is of great importance. Keep in mind: it is very easy to avoid LLRD inhalation--but you have to recognize the imminent danger. The second requirement of gap-less documentation and reliable assessment of any derived LLRD exposure is building the link to Dosimetry applications.The paper demonstrates the possibility to design small and low cost air samplers, which can be used as personal alarm dosimeters and fulfil the requirements mentioned above.Several test measurements taken by a mobile phone sized MyRIAM, shall be used to demonstrate the correctness of this statement.

  12. Alarm inhalation dosemeter for long living radioactive dust due to an uncontrolled release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Rambousky, R.; Buchholz, F. W.

    2008-08-01

    MyRIAM is the acronym for My Radioactivity In Air Monitor and points out that the device was designed for personal use to detect any radioactivity in the air at the place and at the moment of danger. The active air sampling process enables a detection limit several orders of magnitude below that of Gamma detectors. Therefore, it is the unique way to detect dangerous exposures in time. Individual protection against inhalation of long living radioactive dust (LLRD) saves human life and health. LLRD may occur in natural environment as well as in case of nuclear accidence or military and terrorist attacks. But in any case, the immediate warning of the population is of great importance. Keep in mind: it is very easy to avoid LLRD inhalation—but you have to recognize the imminent danger. The second requirement of gap-less documentation and reliable assessment of any derived LLRD exposure is building the link to Dosimetry applications. The paper demonstrates the possibility to design small and low cost air samplers, which can be used as personal alarm dosimeters and fulfil the requirements mentioned above. Several test measurements taken by a mobile phone sized MyRIAM, shall be used to demonstrate the correctness of this statement.

  13. A Comparison of Long-Lived, Proliferation Resistant Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2001-09-01

    Various methods have been proposed to transmute and thus consume the current inventory of trans-uranic waste that exists in spent light-water-reactor fuel. These methods include both critical and sub-critical systems. The neutronics of metallic and nitride fuels loaded with 20-30wt% light-water-reactor plutonium plus minor actinides for use in a lead-bismuth and sodium cooled fast reactor are discussed, with an emphasis on the fuel cycle life and isotopic content. Calculations show that core life can extend beyond 20 years, and the average actinide burn rate is similar for both the sodium and lead-bismuth cooled cases ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 g/MWd.

  14. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Rodushkin, I.; Halicz, L.; Segal, I.; Pape, A.; Miller, H. W.; Kolb, D.; Brandt, R.

    2007-08-15

    Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

  15. Long-Lived, Maneuverable, Semi-Buoyant Platform for Venus Upper Atmosphere Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Sokol, D.; Polidan, R.; Bolisay, L.; Barnes, N.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the continued development of the Northrop Grumman/L’GARDE team’s long-lived, maneuverable platform to explore the Venus upper atmosphere. It focuses on the overall mission architecture and concept of operations.

  16. Family morph matters: factors determining survival and recruitment in a long-lived polymorphic raptor.

    PubMed

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Tate, Gareth J; Koeslag, Ann; Amar, Arjun

    2016-07-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, recruitment into the breeding population represents one of the most important life-history stages and ultimately determines the effective population size. In order to contribute to the next generation, offspring must survive to sexual maturity, secure a territory and find a mate. In this study, we explore factors influencing both offspring survival and their subsequent recruitment into the local breeding population in a long-lived urban raptor, the black sparrowhawk (Accipiter melanoleucus). Adult black sparrowhawks show discrete colour polymorphism (dark and light morphs), and in South Africa, morphs are distributed clinally with the highest proportion of dark morphs (c.75%) present in our study population on the Cape Peninsula. Parental morph was associated with both survival and recruitment. For survival, parental morph combination was important - with young produced by pairs of contrasting morphs having higher survival rates than young fledged from like-pairs. The association between recruitment and morph was more complex; with an interaction between male morph and breeding time, whereby recruitment of offspring from dark morph fathers was more likely when fledging earlier in the season. The opposite relationship was found for light morph fathers, with their offspring more likely to be recruited if fledged later in the season. This interaction may be due to differential morph-specific hunting success of fathers (males contribute most food provisioning), linked to background matching and crypsis in different weather conditions. Dark morph males may hunt more successfully in rainier and cloudier conditions, which occur more frequently earlier in the breeding season, and light morph males may be more successful later on, when weather conditions become increasingly brighter and drier. Our results reveal a complex situation whereby the family morph combination influences survival, and the father morphs specifically recruitment

  17. Despite catch-up, prolonged growth has detrimental fitness consequences in a long-lived vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Marcil-Ferland, Dominique; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Martin, Alexandre M; Pelletier, Fanie

    2013-12-01

    Individuals experiencing poor growth early in life may later make up their size deficit. Compensatory growth or growth prolongation may lead to such catch-up, involving different life-history trade-offs under natural conditions. Frequent recaptures and detailed monitoring of animals surviving to asymptotic size are required to compare growth tactics and their fitness consequences. No study to date has obtained such detailed information for wild animals. We used repeated mass measurements (mean 11.6/animal) spanning the lifetime of 104 bighorn ewes (Ovis canadensis) to quantify growth tactics and identify the determinants and life-history costs of these tactics. Growth prolongation, not compensatory growth, led to partial catch-up: mass difference at age 7 was reduced to 4%, for two groups that differed by nearly 20% as yearlings. Ewes that had been light as yearlings prolonged their growth regardless of density or age of primiparity. Growth prolongation did not affect fecundity or longevity. Ewes that experienced poor early growth prolonged growth at the expense of reproductive fitness, weaning a smaller proportion of their lambs. By tracking multiyear growth patterns and comparing events at different life-history stages, we quantified a trade-off between growth and reproduction that would be overlooked if only the adult phenotype was considered. Compensatory growth in long-lived animals appears unlikely when early growth restrictions are mostly density dependent. PMID:24231538

  18. A SEMI-ANALYTIC FORMULATION FOR RELATIVISTIC BLAST WAVES WITH A LONG-LIVED REVERSE SHOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Z. Lucas

    2011-06-01

    This paper performs a semi-analytic study of relativistic blast waves in the context of gamma-ray bursts. Although commonly used in a wide range of analytical and numerical studies, the equation of state (EOS) with a constant adiabatic index is a poor approximation for relativistic hydrodynamics. Adopting a more realistic EOS with a variable adiabatic index, we present a simple form of jump conditions for relativistic hydrodynamical shocks. Then we describe in detail our technique of modeling a very general class of GRB blast waves with a long-lived reverse shock. Our technique admits an arbitrary radial stratification of the ejecta and ambient medium. We use two different methods to find dynamics of the blast wave: (1) customary pressure balance across the blast wave and (2) the 'mechanical model'. Using a simple example model, we demonstrate that the two methods yield significantly different dynamical evolutions of the blast wave. We show that the pressure balance does not satisfy the energy conservation for an adiabatic blast wave while the mechanical model does. We also compare two sets of afterglow light curves obtained with the two different methods.

  19. Characteristic zonal winds and long-lived vortices in the atmospheres of the outer planets.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Reta

    1994-06-01

    The cameras on board the NASA Voyager spacecraft provided a survey of cloud systems within the atmospheres of the giant planets and allowed determination of zonal wind patterns, which constrain long-lived cloud systems. The basic atmospheric circulations are compared and long-lived cloud features are reviewed. The basic structure of the Great Red Spot is reviewed and the tendency of the spot to drift at -4 m s(-1) or -2 m s(-1) is presented. PMID:12780094

  20. Detection of light transformations and concomitant changes in surface albedo

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard, Holly E.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2010-01-01

    We report two experiments demonstrating that (1) observers are sensitive to information about changes in the light field not captured by local scene statistics and that (2) they can use this information to enhance detection of changes in surface albedo. Observers viewed scenes consisting of matte surfaces at many orientations illuminated by a collimated light source. All surfaces were achromatic, all lights neutral. In the first experiment, observers attempted to discriminate small changes in direction of the collimated light source (light transformations) from matched changes in the albedos of all surfaces (non-light transformations). Light changes and non-light changes shared the same local scene statistics and edge ratios, but the latter were not consistent with any change in direction to the collimated source. We found that observers could discriminate light changes as small as 5 degrees with sensitivity d′ > 1 and accurately judge the direction of change. In a second experiment, we measured observers' ability to detect a change in the surface albedo of an isolated surface patch during either a light change or a surface change. Observers were more accurate in detecting isolated albedo changes during light changes. Measures of sensitivity d′ were more than twice as great. PMID:20884599

  1. An autoradiographic study of the mouse olfactory epithelium: evidence for long-lived receptors.

    PubMed

    Hinds, J W; Hinds, P L; McNelly, N A

    1984-10-01

    In order to try to determine whether differentiated olfactory receptors turn over (die and are replaced by newly differentiated cells) during adult life, mice were injected with a single dose of 3H-thymidine at either 2 or 4 months of age and allowed to survive for up to 12 months; they were caged in a laminar flow unit to prevent rhinitis. Counts of labeled receptor cells detected autoradiographically after injection at 2 months of age revealed that, following an initial decrease from 1 to 3 months of survival, numbers of labeled cells remained approximately constant, at least up to 12 months of survival. Cells still labeled at 12 months of survival were confirmed as receptor cells by electron microscopic examination of reembedded sections. The hypothesis is suggested that in the absence of disease-related destruction of the olfactory epithelium, most or all receptor cell turnover represents newly formed cells that fail to establish synapses with the olfactory bulb; fully differentiated receptor cells may be quite long-lived. PMID:6542328

  2. Removal of long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J.; Cushman, P.; Pepin, M.; Guiseppe, V. E.

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing < 1 μm from stainless-steel plates reduces the contamination efficiently, by a factor > 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener’s energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  3. Determination of long-lived actinides in soil leachates by inductively coupled plasma: Mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Smith, L.L.; Yaeger, J.S.; Alvarado, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    Inductively coupled plasma -- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to concurrently determine multiple long-lived (t{sub 1/2} > 10{sup 4} y) actinide isotopes in soil samples. Ultrasonic nebulization was found to maximize instrument sensitivity. Instrument detection limits for actinides in solution ranged from 50 mBq L{sup {minus}1} ({sup 239}Pu) to 2 {mu}Bq L{sup {minus}1} ({sup 235}U) Hydride adducts of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U interfered with the determinations of {sup 233}U and {sup 239} Pu; thus, extraction chromatography was, used to eliminate the sample matrix, concentrate the analytes, and separate uranium from the other actinides. Alpha spectrometric determinations of {sup 230}Th, {sup 239}Pu, and the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio in soil leachates compared well with ICP-MS determinations; however, there were some small systematic differences (ca. 10%) between ICP-MS and a-spectrometric determinations of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U activities.

  4. Extraction of long-lived radionuclides from caustic Hanford tank waste supernatants

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mertz, C.J.; Vojta, Y.

    1995-07-01

    A series of polymer-based extraction systems, based on the use of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or polypropylene glycols (PPGs), was demonstrated to be capable of selective extraction and recovery of long-lived radionuclides, such as {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I, from Hanford SY-101 tank waste, neutralized current acid waste, and single-shell tank waste simulants. During the extraction process, anionic species like TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} are selectively transferred to the less dense PEG-rich aqueous phase. The partition coefficients for a wide range of inorganic cations and anions, such as sodium, potassium, aluminum, nitrate, nitrite, and carbonate, are all less than one. The partition coefficients for pertechnetate ranged from 12 to 50, depending on the choice of waste simulant and temperature. The partition coefficient for iodide was about 5, while that of iodate was about 0.25. Irradiation of the PEG phase with gamma-ray doses up to 20 Mrad had no detectable effect on the partition coefficients. The most selective extraction systems examined were those based on PPGs, which exhibited separation factors in excess of 3000 between TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 2}{sub {minus}}. An advantage of the PPG-based system is minimization of secondary waste production. These studies also highlighted the need for exercising great care in extrapolating the partitioning behavior with tank waste simulants to actual tank waste.

  5. Removal of Long-Lived Radon Daughters by Electropolishing Thin Layers of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, James; Schnee, Richard; Bunker, Raymond; Bowles, Michael; Cushman, Priscilla; Epland, Matthew; Pepin, Mark; Guiseppe, Vince

    2012-10-01

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the Radon decay chain on detector surfaces may be limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. To screen detector surfaces for this radioactive contamination, a low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage) is under construction. Removal of Pb-210 implanted on its 25-micron stainless steel wires without causing significant variation in the diameter of the wires is critical to the BetaCage's ultimate sensitivity. An apparatus to perform electropolishing trials to remove roughly a micron of material has been assembled. These trials have shown promising results. Stainless steel square samples implanted with Pb-210 have shown counts with a reduction factor greater than 10 after electropolishing according to gamma assay. Furthermore, alpha counting has produced similar results, with a reduction factor greater than 100. Lastly, the diameters of wires after electropolishing have remained sufficiently uniform, with reduction in thickness consistent with expectations.

  6. Power assessment for genetic association study of human longevity using offspring of long-lived subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing Hua; Li, Shuxia; Kruse, Torben A.; Christensen, Kaare

    2010-01-01

    Recently, an indirect genetic association approach that compares genotype frequencies in offspring of long-lived subjects and offspring from random families has been introduced to study gene-longevity associations. Although the indirect genetic association has certain advantages over the direct association approach that compares genotype frequency between centenarians and young controls, the power has been of concern. This paper reports a power study performed on the indirect approach using computer simulation. We perform our simulation study by introducing the current Danish population life table and the proportional hazard model for generating individual lifespan. Family genotype data is generated using a genetic linkage program for given SNP allele frequency. Power is estimated by setting the type I error rate at 0.05 and by calculating the Armitage’s chi-squared test statistic for 200 replicate samples for each setting of the specified allele risk and frequency parameters under different modes of inheritance and for different sample sizes. The indirect genetic association analysis is a valid approach for studying gene-longevity association, but the sample size requirement is about 3–4 time larger than the direct approach. It also has low power in detecting non-additive effect genes. Indirect genetic association using offspring from families with both parents as nonagenarians is nearly as powerful as using offspring from families with one centenarian parent. In conclusion, the indirect design can be a good choice for studying longevity in comparison with other alternatives, when relatively large sample size is available. PMID:20512403

  7. Long-lived oscillations in the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid reaction in batch

    SciTech Connect

    Noszticzius, Z.; Ouyang, Qi; McCormick, W.D.; Swinney, H.L.

    1992-05-20

    The title reaction is the subject of current interest because the first experimental Turing patterns were observed recently in this system. Here, the authors report the first observation of oscillations that are long lived (over 1 h) in this system in a batch reactor; even after cessation the oscillations can be restarted several times by adding ClO{sub 2} to the exhausted system. These low-frequency low-amplitude (LL) oscillations were detected with both platinum and iodide-selective electrodes in the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid (original CIMA) reaction and in the closely related chlorine dioxide-iodide-malonic acid (minimal CIMA) system. The LL oscillations follow after the already known high frequency oscillations, sometimes separated by a second induction period. LL oscillations can appear without any induction period if appropriate concentrations of chlorine dioxide, iodomalonic acid, and chloride (CIMA-Cl system) are established in a dilute sulfuric acid medium. In this case neither iodine, iodide, nor malonic acid is needed. Some suggestions are made regarding the mechanism of these newly discovered oscillations. 33 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Light mediators in dark matter direct detections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tai; Miao, Sen; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2015-03-17

    In an extended effective operator framework, we investigate in detail the effects of light mediators on the event spectra of dark matter (DM)-nucleus scatterings. The presence of light mediators changes the interpretation of the current experimental data, especially the determination of DM particle mass. We show by analytic and numerical illustrations that in general for all the operators relevant to spin-independent scatterings, the DM particle mass allowed by a given set of experimental data increases significantly when the mediator particle becomes lighter. For instance, in the case of CDMS-II-Si experiment, the allowed DM particle mass can reach ∼50 (100) GeV at 68% (90%) confidence level, which is much larger than ∼10 GeV in the case with contact interactions. The increase of DM particle mass saturates when the mediator mass is below O(10) MeV. The upper limits from other experiments such as SuperCDMS, CDMSlite, CDEX, XENON10/100, LUX, PandaX etc. all tend to be weaker toward high DM mass regions. In a combined analysis, we show that the presence of light mediators can partially relax the tension in the current results of CDMS-II-Si, SuperCDMS and LUX.

  9. Field Patterns of Leaf Plasticity in Adults of the Long-lived Evergreen Quercus coccifera

    PubMed Central

    Rubio De Casas, Rafael; Vargas, Pablo; Pérez-Corona, Esther; Manrique, Esteban; Quintana, José Ramón; García-Verdugo, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Quercus coccifera, as a long-lived sprouter, responds plastically to environmental variation. In this study, the role of foliar plasticity as a mechanism of habitat selection and modification within the canopy and across contrasted habitats was characterized. An examination was made of the differential contribution of inner and outer canopy layers to the crown plasticity expressed in the field by adult individuals and its dependence on environmental and genetic factors. Methods Within-crown variation in eight foliar traits was examined in nine populations dominated by Q. coccifera. The difference between mean trait values at the inner and outer canopy layers was used as a proxy for crown plasticity to light. Correlations between geographic distances, environmental differences (climatic and edaphic) and phenotypic divergence (means and plasticities) were assessed by partial Mantel tests. A subset of field measurements was compared with data from a previous common garden experiment. Key Results Phenotypic adjustment of sun leaves contributed significantly to the field variation in crown plasticity. Plasticity in leaf angle, lobation, xanthophyll cycle pigments and β-carotene content was expressed in sun and shade leaves concurrently and in opposite directions. Phenotypic plasticity was more strongly correlated with environmental variation than mean trait values. Populations of taller plants with larger, thinner (higher specific leaf area) and less spiny leaves exhibited greater plasticity. In these populations, the midday light environment was more uniform at the inner than at the outer canopy layers. Field and common garden data ranked populations in the same order of plasticity. Conclusions The expression of leaf plasticity resulted in a phenotypic differentiation that suggests a mechanism of habitat selection through division of labour across canopy layers. Signs of plasticity-mediated habitat modification were found only in the most plastic

  10. Long-lived testosterone esters in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Borg, W; Shackleton, C H; Pahuja, S L; Hochberg, R B

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade it has become increasingly clear that steroid hormones are enzymatically esterified with fatty acids. These steroidal esters are the natural analogs of synthetic esters that are used therapeutically. One such family of pharmacological steroids is the synthetic alkyl esters of testosterone, androgens with great hormonal potency. We have investigated whether testosterone esters exist naturally by using the rat as a model. Most tissues of male rats, including blood, have very little if any ester (quantified by immunoassay as a nonpolar saponifiable metabolite), but fat and testes have sizable quantities, approximately 3 ng of testosterone equivalents per g of tissue. Testosterone in fat averages 9 ng/g. The fat from female rats and long-term (> 2 weeks) castrated males has no detectable testosterone ester. The presence of testosterone esters was confirmed by GC/MS, which clearly showed the presence of testosterone in the hydrolyzed ester fraction of fat from intact males but not long-term castrates. Upon castration, testosterone levels in the fat completely disappear within 6 hr. To the contrary, it is not until 48 hr after castration that a measurable fall in the testosterone ester fraction was observed; even after 10 days a small amount of ester is still present in the fat. These experiments demonstrate the existence of a previously unknown androgen with a potentially important physiological impact; testosterone esters, natural analogs of potent therapeutic agents, occur in the fat where they can serve as a reservoir of preformed androgen to stimulate neighboring target tissues. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7878017

  11. Long-Lived Hot Carriers in III-V Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Fonseka, H A; Gao, Q; Mura, F; Tan, H H; Rubini, S; Martelli, F; Jagadish, C; Capizzi, M; Polimeni, A

    2016-05-11

    Heat management mechanisms play a pivotal role in driving the design of nanowire (NW)-based devices. In particular, the rate at which charge carriers cool down after an external excitation is crucial for the efficiency of solar cells, lasers, and high-speed transistors. Here, we investigate the thermalization properties of photogenerated carriers by continuous-wave (cw) photoluminescence (PL) in InP and GaAs NWs. A quantitative analysis of the PL spectra recorded up to 310 K shows that carriers can thermalize at a temperature much higher than that of the lattice. We find that the mismatch between carrier and lattice temperature, ΔT, increases exponentially with lattice temperature and depends inversely on the NW diameter. ΔT is instead independent of other NW characteristics, such as crystal structure (wurtzite vs zincblende), chemical composition (InP vs GaAs), shape (tapered vs columnar NWs), and growth method (vapor-liquid-solid vs selective-area growth). Remarkably, carrier temperatures as high as 500 K are reached at the lattice temperature of 310 K in NWs with ∼70 nm diameter. While a population of nonequilibrium carriers, usually referred to as "hot carriers", is routinely generated by high-power laser pulses and detected by ultrafast spectroscopy, it is quite remarkable that it can be observed in cw PL measurements, when a steady-state population of carriers is established. Time-resolved PL measurements show that even in the thinnest NWs carriers have enough time (∼1 ns) after photoexcitation to interact with phonons and thus to release their excess energy. Nevertheless, the inability of carriers to reach a full thermal equilibrium with the lattice points to inhibited phonon emission primarily caused by the large surface-to-volume ratio of small diameter NWs. PMID:27104870

  12. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  13. Searches for heavy long-lived sleptons and R-hadrons with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colas, J.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cuthbert, C.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Dassoulas, J. A.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de La Taille, C.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Mora, L.; de Nooij, L.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; de Zorzi, G.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delemontex, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dewilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Luise, S.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dinut, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Dressnandt, N.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Duguid, L.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edson, W.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. 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E.; Johansson, P.; Johnert, S.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Joram, C.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Jovin, T.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jungst, R. M.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kabana, S.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kadlecik, P.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalinin, S.; Kalinovskaya, L. V.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kanno, T.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kar, D.; Karagounis, M.; Karakostas, K.; Karnevskiy, M.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kayl, M. S.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. A.; Kazarinov, M. Y.; Keeler, R.; Keener, P. T.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Keller, J. S.; Kenyon, M.; Kepka, O.; Kerschen, N.; Kerševan, B. 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A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Styles, N. A.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, Hs.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trboush, S.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van Berg, R.; van der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xie, S.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Young, C. J.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zinonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    A search for long-lived particles is performed using a data sample of 4.7 fb-1 from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy √{ s} = 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. No excess is observed above the estimated background and lower limits, at 95% confidence level, are set on the mass of the long-lived particles in different scenarios, based on their possible interactions in the inner detector, the calorimeters and the muon spectrometer. Long-lived staus in gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking models are excluded up to a mass of 300 GeV for tan β = 5- 20. Directly produced long-lived sleptons are excluded up to a mass of 278 GeV. R-hadrons, composites of gluino (stop, sbottom) and light quarks, are excluded up to a mass of 985 GeV (683 GeV, 612 GeV) when using a generic interaction model. Additionally two sets of limits on R-hadrons are obtained that are less sensitive to the interaction model for R-hadrons. One set of limits is obtained using only the inner detector and calorimeter observables, and a second set of limits is obtained based on the inner detector alone.

  14. Determination of stable and long-lived radioactive halides using high resolution ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kerl, W.; Hoppstock, K.; Becker, J.S.; Dietze, H.J.

    1996-09-01

    Routine control of radioactive waste demands efficient techniques which allow many samples to be analyzed per day with high precision and accuracy. ICP-MS is well established as a trace analytical method and permits the extremely sensitive and fast detection of stable and long-lived radioactive nuclides. Though ICP-MS is rarely used for the determination of halides, the author`s investigation shows that a sufficient low detection limit can be achieved (e.g., for the declaration of {sup 129}I in radioactive waste samples.). In this work, a double focusing mass spectrometer with an ICP ion source ({open_quotes}ELEMENT{close_quotes}, Finnigan MAT) is used for the determination of halides (Cl, Br and I) in biological standard reference materials as well as {sup 129}I in low-activity radioactive waste samples. A method was developed for the determination of halides in the {mu}g/mL-range for bromine and chlorine and the ng/mL-range for iodine including isotopic analysis of stable and radioactive halides. Possible interferences of atomic ions with other ions (e.g., {sup 129}I{sup +} with {sup 129}Xe{sup +}) were investigated and possibilities for correction of these interferences will be discussed. To achieve a lower detection limit a new method for iodine sample introduction was developed. The iodide ion in an aqueous sample is oxidized to elemental iodine and introduced directly into the ICP by a special introduction system. Iodine ({sup 127}I or {sup 129}I) can be measured by this new method even in the lower ng/mL-range. The studies were extended to include the determination of bromine and chlorine.

  15. Particle detection by a light-scattering technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kormanyos, S.; Mastroeni, J.

    1972-01-01

    Instrument measures concentration of small particles in aqueous medium in terms of amount of light scattered and degree to which light transmission is attenuated. Sensitivity to small particles is optimized because both scattered and transmitted illumination levels are detected by photodiodes.

  16. Light echo detection of circumstellar disks around flaring stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaidos, Eric J.

    1994-01-01

    Light echoes can be used to detect and characterize disks around flaring stars. Such disks are thought to be a hallmark of planet formation but are very difficult to detect by ordinary means. Dwarf emission-line M stars experience flares with luminosities comparable to their quiescent photospheres on time scales of minutes, less than the light travel time across a disk many astronomical units in extent; they are thus ideal candidates for such a search. Bromley (1992) calculated that the detection of Jupiter-sized companions using light echoes requires photometric accuracies better than 1 part in 10(exp 6). However, a disk consisting of grains or small bodies will scatter a much larger fraction of the light than a planet of similar mass. I estimate the light echo amplitutdes from plausible geometries of circumstellar material and present simulation light curves. The light echo amplitudes are typically 1% of the flare and I conclude that such events will be detected best in cases where the flare is eclipsed by the star. An examination of the time scales associated with internal processes in a protoplanetary disks around dM stars indicates that any primordial disks may become undetectable in 10(exp 4) years and will have completely disappeared by 10(exp 8) years, the estimated age of dMe stars in the solar neighborhood. However, searches for light echoes might constrain the amount of material continuing to fall into these young stellar systems in the form of comet-like objects.

  17. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  18. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  19. Detecting light in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Mohageg, Makan (Inventor); Le, Thanh M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical device including a whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonator configured to support one or more whispering gallery modes; and a photodetector optically coupled to an exterior surface of the optical resonator to receive evanescent light from the optical resonator to detect light inside the optical resonator.

  20. Determination of long-lived beta emitters in nuclear waste by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bienvenu, P.G.; Brochard, E.A.; Excoffier, E.A.

    1998-12-31

    Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) constitutes a very attractive alternative to radiochemical techniques for the determination of long-lived radionuclides considered critical for the safety of nuclear waste repositories. By measuring isotopic abundance instead of ionizing radiation, it is shown that ICP-MS should exhibit lower detection limits than liquid scintillation counting for the measurement of {beta} emitters with half-lives longer than {approximately} 10{sup 4} years. However, a specific preparative chemistry is generally required prior to measurement in order to separate the analyte from major radioactive contaminants and potentially interfering isotopes. Original methods have recently developed for the determination of three long-lived {beta} emitters: {sup 93}Zr, {sup 107}Pd and {sup 135}Cs in radioactive waste are described in this paper. The procedures involve various separative measurement strategies, such as liquid-liquid extraction, chromatographic separation as well as electrothermal vaporization coupled with ICP-MS. The performances are discussed in terms of selectivity and detection capabilities.

  1. Light-Activated Pharmaceuticals: Mechanisms and Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, David; Reiners, John

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy relies on the interaction between light, oxygen and a photosensitizing agent. Its medical significance relates to the ability of certain agents, usually based on porphyrin or phthalocyanine structures, to localize somewhat selectively in neoplastic cells and their vasculature. Subsequent irradiation, preferably at a sufficiently high wavelength to have a significant pathway through tissues, results in a photophysical reaction whereby the excited state of the photosensitizing agent transfers energy to molecular oxygen and results in the formation of reactive oxygen species. Analogous reactive nitrogen species are also formed. These contain both nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The net result is both direct tumor cell death and a shutdown of the tumor vasculature. Other processes may also occur that promote the anti-tumor response but these are outside the scope of this review. PMID:23990688

  2. Light-Activated Pharmaceuticals: Mechanisms and Detection.

    PubMed

    Kessel, David; Reiners, John

    2012-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy relies on the interaction between light, oxygen and a photosensitizing agent. Its medical significance relates to the ability of certain agents, usually based on porphyrin or phthalocyanine structures, to localize somewhat selectively in neoplastic cells and their vasculature. Subsequent irradiation, preferably at a sufficiently high wavelength to have a significant pathway through tissues, results in a photophysical reaction whereby the excited state of the photosensitizing agent transfers energy to molecular oxygen and results in the formation of reactive oxygen species. Analogous reactive nitrogen species are also formed. These contain both nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The net result is both direct tumor cell death and a shutdown of the tumor vasculature. Other processes may also occur that promote the anti-tumor response but these are outside the scope of this review. PMID:23990688

  3. Long-lived species have improved proteostasis compared to phylogenetically-related shorter-lived species.

    PubMed

    Pride, Harrison; Yu, Zhen; Sunchu, Bharath; Mochnick, Jillian; Coles, Alexander; Zhang, Yiqiang; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Hornsby, Peter J; Austad, Steven N; Pérez, Viviana I

    2015-02-20

    Our previous studies have shown that the liver from Naked Mole Rats (NMRs), a long-lived rodent, has increased proteasome activity and lower levels of protein ubiquitination compared to mice. This suggests that protein quality control might play a role in assuring species longevity. To determine whether enhanced proteostasis is a common mechanism in the evolution of other long-lived species, here we evaluated the major players in protein quality control including autophagy, proteasome activity, and heat shock proteins (HSPs), using skin fibroblasts from three phylogenetically-distinct pairs of short- and long-lived mammals: rodents, marsupials, and bats. Our results indicate that in all cases, macroautophagy was significantly enhanced in the longer-lived species, both at basal level and after induction by serum starvation. Similarly, basal levels of most HSPs were elevated in all the longer-lived species. Proteasome activity was found to be increased in the long-lived rodent and marsupial but not in bats. These observations suggest that long-lived species may have superior mechanisms to ensure protein quality, and support the idea that protein homeostasis might play an important role in promoting longevity. PMID:25615820

  4. Origin of long-lived oscillations in 2D-spectra of a quantum vibronic model: Electronic versus vibrational coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Plenio, M. B.; Almeida, J.; Huelga, S. F.

    2013-12-21

    We demonstrate that the coupling of excitonic and vibrational motion in biological complexes can provide mechanisms to explain the long-lived oscillations that have been obtained in nonlinear spectroscopic signals of different photosynthetic pigment protein complexes and we discuss the contributions of excitonic versus purely vibrational components to these oscillatory features. Considering a dimer model coupled to a structured spectral density we exemplify the fundamental aspects of the electron-phonon dynamics, and by analyzing separately the different contributions to the nonlinear signal, we show that for realistic parameter regimes purely electronic coherence is of the same order as purely vibrational coherence in the electronic ground state. Moreover, we demonstrate how the latter relies upon the excitonic interaction to manifest. These results link recently proposed microscopic, non-equilibrium mechanisms to support long lived coherence at ambient temperatures with actual experimental observations of oscillatory behaviour using 2D photon echo techniques to corroborate the fundamental importance of the interplay of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in the dynamics of light harvesting aggregates.

  5. Display conditions and lesion detectability: effect of background light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mahmood; Hall, Theodore R.; Aberle, Denise R.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Loloyan, Mansur; Eldredge, Sandra L.

    1990-08-01

    We assessed the effect of high background light on observer performance for the detection of a variety of chest radiographic abnormalities. Five observers reviewed 66 digital hard copy chest images formatted to 1 1 x 14 inch size under two display conditions: 1) on a specially prepared 1 1 x 14 inch illuminated panel with no peripheral light and 2) on a standard viewing panel designed for 14 x 17 inch radiographs. The images contained one - or more of the following conditions: pneumothorax, interstitial disease, nodules, alveolar process, or no abnormality. The results of receiver operator characteristic analysis show that extraneous light does reduce observer performance and the detectability of nodules, interstitial disease.

  6. DNA damage among thyroid cancer and multiple cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdson, A J; Hauptmann, M; Alexander, B J; Doody, M M; Thomas, C B; Struewing, J P; Jones, I M

    2004-08-24

    Variation in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage contributes to human cancer risk. To assess capacity to modulate endogenous DNA damage among radiologic technologists who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and another malignancy (breast-other; n=42), early-onset breast cancer (early-onset, age {<=} 35; n=38), thyroid cancer (n=68), long-lived cancer-free individuals (hyper-normals; n=20) and cancer-free controls (n=49) we quantified DNA damage (single strand breaks and abasic sites) in untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines using the alkaline comet assay. Komet{trademark} software provided comet tail length, % DNA in tail (tail DNA), comet distributed moment (CDM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) summarized as the geometric mean of 100 cells. Category cut-points (median and 75th percentile) were determined from the distribution among controls. Tail length (for {>=} 75% vs. below the median, age adjusted) was most consistently associated with the highest odds ratios in the breast-other, early-onset, and thyroid cancer groups (with risk increased 10-, 5- or 19-fold, respectively, with wide confidence intervals) and decreased risk among the hyper-normal group. For the other three Comet measures, risk of breast-other was elevated approximately three-fold. Risk of early-onset breast cancer was mixed and risk of thyroid cancer ranged from null to a two-fold increase. The hyper-normal group showed decreased odds ratios for tail DNA and OTM, but not CDM. DNA damage, as estimated by all Comet measures, was relatively unaffected by survival time, reproductive factors, and prior radiation treatment. We detected a continuum of endogenous DNA damage that was highest among cancer cases, less in controls, and suggestively lowest in hyper-normal individuals. Measuring this DNA damage phenotype may contribute to the identification of susceptible sub-groups. Our observations require replication in a prospective study with a large number of pre-diagnostic samples.

  7. Adaptive Stress Response in Segmental Progeria Resembles Long-Lived Dwarfism and Calorie Restriction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, Valerie B; von Lindern, Marieke; Jong, Willeke M. C; Zeeuw, Chris I. De; Suh, Yousin; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J; Mitchell, James R

    2006-01-01

    How congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a likely contributing mechanism. Contrary to expectations, neither accelerated senescence nor acute oxidative stress hypersensitivity was detected in primary fibroblast or erythroblast cultures from multiple progeroid mouse models for defects in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway, which share premature aging features including postnatal growth retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and death before weaning. Instead, we report a prominent phenotypic overlap with long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction during postnatal development (2 wk of age), including reduced size, reduced body temperature, hypoglycemia, and perturbation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 neuroendocrine axis. These symptoms were also present at 2 wk of age in a novel progeroid nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model (XPDG602D/R722W/XPA−/−) that survived weaning with high penetrance. However, despite persistent cachectic dwarfism, blood glucose and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels returned to normal by 10 wk, with hypoglycemia reappearing near premature death at 5 mo of age. These data strongly suggest changes in energy metabolism as part of an adaptive response during the stressful period of postnatal growth. Interestingly, a similar perturbation of the postnatal growth axis was not detected in another progeroid mouse model, the double-strand DNA break repair deficient Ku80−/− mouse. Specific (but not all) types of genome instability may thus engage a conserved response to stress that evolved to cope with environmental pressures such as food shortage. PMID:17173483

  8. Intrusion detection robust to slow and abrupt lighting changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Aleksej; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Reymond, Florian

    1996-03-01

    In this communication we present an image based object detection algorithm which is applied to intrusion detection. The algorithm is based on the comparison of input edges and temporally filtered edges of the background. It is characterized by very low computational and memory loads, high sensitivity to the presence of physical intruders and high robustness to slow and abrupt lighting changes. The algorithm is implementable on a cheap digital signal processor. It was tested on a data base of about one thousand gray-level CIF-format frames representing static scenes with various contents (light sources, intruders, lighting changes), and neither false alarm nor detection failure occurred. The number of parameters involved by the algorithm is very low, and their values do not require a fine tuning. The same set of parameters performs equally well in different conditions: different scenes, various lighting changes, various object sizes.

  9. Detecting Lateral Motion using Light's Orbital Angular Momentum.

    PubMed

    Cvijetic, Neda; Milione, Giovanni; Ip, Ezra; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating an object with a light beam and analyzing the scattered light can reveal kinematic information about the object, which is vital for applications ranging from autonomous vehicles to gesture recognition and virtual reality. We show that by analyzing the change in the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a tilted light beam eclipsed by a moving object, lateral motion of the object can be detected in an arbitrary direction using a single light beam and without object image reconstruction. We observe OAM spectral asymmetry that corresponds to the lateral motion direction along an arbitrary axis perpendicular to the plane containing the light beam and OAM measurement axes. These findings extend OAM-based remote sensing to detection of non-rotational qualities of objects and may also have extensions to other electromagnetic wave regimes, including radio and sound. PMID:26493681

  10. The fate of long-lived superparticles with hadronic decays after LHC Run 1

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Zhen; Tweedie, Brock

    2015-06-08

    Supersymmetry searches at the LHC are both highly varied and highly constraining, but the vast majority are focused on cases where the final-stage visible decays are prompt. Scenarios featuring superparticles with detector-scale lifetimes have therefore remained a tantalizing possibility for sub-TeV SUSY, since explicit limits are relatively sparse. Nonetheless, the extremely low backgrounds of the few existing searches for collider-stable and displaced new particles facilitates recastings into powerful long-lived superparticle searches, even for models for which those searches are highly non-optimized. In this paper, we assess the status of such models in the context of baryonic R-parity violation, gauge mediation,more » and mini-split SUSY. We then explore a number of common simplified spectra where hadronic decays can be important, employing recasts of LHC searches that utilize different detector systems and final-state objects. The LSP/NLSP possibilities considered here include generic colored superparticles such as the gluino and light-flavor squarks, as well as the lighter stop and the quasi-degenerate Higgsino multiplet motivated by naturalness. We find that complementary coverage over large swaths of mass and lifetime is achievable by superimposing limits, particularly from CMS’s tracker-based displaced dijet search and heavy stable charged particle searches. By adding in prompt searches, we find many cases where a range of sparticle masses is now excluded from zero lifetime to infinite lifetime with no gaps. In other cases, the displaced searches furnish the only extant limits at any lifetime.« less

  11. Limitations for heterodyne detection of Brillouin scattered light

    SciTech Connect

    Allemeier, R.T.; Wagner, J.W.; Telschow, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    One means by which elastic properties of a material may be determined is measuring sound wave velocities in the material, from which elastic moduli of interest can be computed. Velocity can be measured by conventional piezoelectric transduction techniques, by applying laser ultrasonics, or by using Brillouin-scattering methods. Brillouin-scattering techniques for determining the sound wave velocity are particularly attractive since they are completely noninvasive. Only a probe beam of light is required since the thermal energy in the material provides the elastic motion. Heterodyne methods for detection of Brillouin-scattered light are considered one possible means to increase the speed of the scattered light frequency detection. Results of experiments with simulated Brillouin scattering suggest that heterodyne detection of the Brillouin-scattered light is feasible. Experiments to detect Brillouin-scattered light, with water as the scattering medium, were designed and interpreted using the results of the simulated scattering experiments. Overall, results showed that it is difficult to narrow the linewidth for Brillouin scattering to an acceptable level. The results given indicate that heterodyne detection of the Brillouin components requires detection bandwidths that are quite small, perhaps 10 Hz or lower. These small bandwidths can be routinely achieved using lock-in amplifier techniques.

  12. Long-lived binary tunneling spectrum in the quantum Hall Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washio, K.; Nakazawa, R.; Hashisaka, M.; Muraki, K.; Tokura, Y.; Fujisawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The existence of long-lived nonequilibrium states without showing thermalization, which has previously been demonstrated in time evolution of ultracold atoms, suggests the possibility of their spatial analog in transport behavior of interacting electrons in solid-state systems. Here we report long-lived nonequilibrium states in one-dimensional edge channels in the integer quantum Hall regime. An indirect heating scheme in a counterpropagating configuration is employed to generate a nontrivial binary spectrum consisting of high- and low-temperature components. This unusual spectrum is sustained even after traveling 5-10 μ m , much longer than the length for electronic relaxation (about 0.1 μ m ), without showing significant thermalization. This observation is consistent with the integrable model of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. The long-lived spectrum implies that the system is well described by noninteracting plasmons, which are attractive for carrying information for a long distance.

  13. Exceptionally Long-Lived Charge Separated State in Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework: Implication for Photocatalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Pattengale, Brian; Yang, Sizhuo; Ludwig, John; Huang, Zhuangqun; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jier

    2016-07-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have emerged as a novel class of porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for catalysis application because of their exceptional thermal and chemical stability. Inspired by the broad absorption of ZIF-67 in UV-vis-near IR region, we explored its excited state and charge separation dynamics, properties essential for photocatalytic applications, using optical (OTA) and X-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy. OTA results show that an exceptionally long-lived excited state is formed after photoexcitation. This long-lived excited state was confirmed to be the charge-separated (CS) state with ligand-to-metal charge-transfer character using XTA. The surprisingly long-lived CS state, together with its intrinsic hybrid nature, all point to its potential application in heterogeneous photocatalysis and energy conversion. PMID:27322216

  14. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-12-01

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collisions collected at √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, 1.8 < η < 4.9. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 { GeV/c^2}.

  15. Long-Lived Hole Spin/Valley Polarization Probed by Kerr Rotation in Monolayer WSe2.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinlin; Xie, Saien; Kang, Kibum; Park, Jiwoong; Sih, Vanessa

    2016-08-10

    Time-resolved Kerr rotation and photoluminescence measurements are performed on MOCVD-grown monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2). We observe a surprisingly long-lived Kerr rotation signal (∼80 ns) at 10 K, which is attributed to spin/valley polarization of the resident holes. This polarization is robust to transverse magnetic field (up to 0.3 T). Wavelength-dependent measurements reveal that only excitation near the free exciton energy generates this long-lived spin/valley polarization. PMID:27466727

  16. Search for new, long-lived, charged particles using ionization in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axen, Bradley; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Several extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged, very massive, and long-lived particles. Because of their high masses these particles would propagate non-relativistically through the ATLAS pixel detector and are therefore be identifiable through a measurement of large specific energy loss. Measuring heavy, long-lived particles through their track parameters in the pixel detector allows sensitivity to particles with lifetimes in the nanosecond range and above. This search presents an inner detector driven method for identifying such particles in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV with the 2015 dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.5 pb-1.

  17. Image sensor for object detection using modulated light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taruki, H.; Ohno, A.; Ono, F.; Hamamoto, T.; Sasaki, T.; Shirai, T.; Sakai, M.

    2007-02-01

    We have been investigating a system to detect moving objects correctly at the place where luminous intensity is changing because of the influence of incident light such as sunlight, fluorescent light and car headlight. The object detection system consists of a smart image sensor and a modulated LED light, and it is possible to suppress the influence of the change of background light by using a different value between two image values when the LED light is turned on and off. Because the speed of modulation is high for accurate detection of moving objects, electric charges from a photodiode are distributed into two capacitors by switching in sync with the LED light in a pixel circuit of the sensor. Also, the sensor has a subtraction function by a current mirror circuit to reduce the same charges from two capacitors before saturation. By the frequent subtractions, it is possible to increase only the influence of the modulated light and reconstruct wide dynamic range images at outside of the sensor by using the information of subtractions and the voltage value of each capacitor.

  18. Oral vaccination with lipid-formulated BCG induces a long-lived, multifunctional CD4(+) T cell memory immune response.

    PubMed

    Ancelet, Lindsay R; Aldwell, Frank E; Rich, Fenella J; Kirman, Joanna R

    2012-01-01

    Oral delivery of BCG in a lipid formulation (Liporale™-BCG) targets delivery of viable bacilli to the mesenteric lymph nodes and confers protection against an aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. The magnitude, quality and duration of the effector and memory immune response induced by Liporale™-BCG vaccination is unknown. Therefore, we compared the effector and memory CD4(+) T cell response in the spleen and lungs of mice vaccinated with Liporale™-BCG to the response induced by subcutaneous BCG vaccination. Liporale™-BCG vaccination induced a long-lived CD4(+) T cell response, evident by the detection of effector CD4(+) T cells in the lungs and a significant increase in the number of Ag85B tetramer-specific CD4(+) T cells in the spleen up to 30 weeks post vaccination. Moreover, following polyclonal stimulation, Liporale™-BCG vaccination, but not s.c. BCG vaccination, induced a significant increase in both the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in the lungs capable of producing IFNγ and the number of multifunctional CD4(+) T cells in the lungs at 30 weeks post vaccination. These results demonstrate that orally delivered Liporale™-BCG vaccine induces a long-lived multifunctional immune response, and could therefore represent a practical and effective means of delivering novel BCG-based TB vaccines. PMID:23049885

  19. Photopolarimetric Monitoring of the Blazar BL Lac in the Optical and Near-Infrared Bands: Decay of the Long-Lived Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Uemura, Makoto; Sasada, Mahito; Kawabata, Koji S.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Sato, Shuji; Kino, Masaru

    2013-04-01

    We report on the results of optical-near-infrared photopolarimetric observations of BL Lac conducted from 2008 to 2011. Our observations are consistent with past studies in which the behavior of the polarization of BL Lac could be understood with two components: short flares whose polarization angles randomly change, and a long-lived component. In addition, we detected a gradually decreasing trend in the total flux, the polarized flux, and the polarization degree without a large variation in the polarization angle from 2008 to mid-2009. These results suggest that the long-lived component decayed from 2008 to mid-2009. We propose that the long-lived component is not stationary, but is probably variable with a time-scale of years. We found no change in the activity of the short flares in 2008 and 2009, when the long-lived component was strong and weak, respectively. Furthermore, there were no clear differences in the mean color and the distribution of the polarization angle of the short flares from 2008 to 2009. These facts indicate that the emitting region of the long-term component was physically disconnected to that of the short flares. The color of the long-term component was bluer than that of the short flares, indicating a higher synchrotron peak-frequency. This could be due to a low efficiency of synchrotron and/or Compton cooling in the emitting region of the long-lived component. The long-term component is possibly originated from a relatively downstream region in the jet where the electron density is low, or the external radiation field is weak.

  20. A Long-Lived Mononuclear Cyclopentadienyl Ruthenium Complex Grafted onto Anatase TiO2 for Efficient CO2 Photoreduction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haowei; Lin, Jinjin; Zhu, Gangbei; Weng, Yuxiang; Wang, Xuxu; Fu, Xianzhi; Long, Jinlin

    2016-07-11

    This work shows a novel artificial donor-catalyst-acceptor triad photosystem based on a mononuclear C5 H5 -RuH complex oxo-bridged TiO2 hybrid for efficient CO2 photoreduction. An impressive quantum efficiency of 0.56 % for CH4 under visible-light irradiation was achieved over the triad photocatalyst, in which TiO2 and C5 H5 -RuH serve as the electron collector and CO2 -reduction site and the photon-harvester and water-oxidation site, respectively. The fast electron injection from the excited Ru(2+) cation to TiO2 in ca. 0.5 ps and the slow backward charge recombination in half-life of ca. 9.8 μs result in a long-lived D(+) -C-A(-) charge-separated state responsible for the solar-fuel production. PMID:27237701

  1. Long-lived activation products in TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield: calculation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.

  2. Search for long-lived massive particles in extensive air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamoto, M.; Inoue, N.; Misaki, Y.; Manabe, O.; Takeuchi, T.; Toyoda, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Air showers containing delayed sub-showers which may be produced by a long-lived massive particle have been investigated by using twelve detectors. Ten events have been selected out as the candidates. However, a definite conclusion cannot be reached at the present time.

  3. Glimpse of natural selection of long-lived T-cell clones in healthy life.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baojun; Jia, Qingzhu; Bock, Cheryl; Chen, Gang; Yu, Haili; Ni, Qingshan; Wan, Ying; Li, Qijing; Zhuang, Yuan

    2016-08-30

    Homeostatic maintenance of T cells with broad clonal diversity is influenced by both continuing output of young T cells from the thymus and ongoing turnover of preexisting clones in the periphery. In the absence of infection, self and commensal antigens are thought to play important roles in selection and homeostatic maintenance of the T-cell pool. Most naïve T cells are short-lived due to lack of antigen encounter, whereas antigen-experienced T cells may survive and persist as long-lived clones. Thus far, little is known about the homeostasis, antigenic specificity, and clonal diversity of long-lived T-cell clones in peripheral lymphoid organs under healthy living conditions. To identify long-lived T-cell clones in mice, we designed a lineage-tracing method to label a wave of T cells produced in the thymus of young mice. After aging the mice for 1.5 y, we found that lineage-tracked T cells consisted of primarily memory-like T cells and T regulatory cells. T-cell receptor repertoire analysis revealed that the lineage-tracked CD4 memory-like T cells and T regulatory cells exhibited age-dependent enrichment of shared clonotypes. Furthermore, these shared clonotypes were found across different mice maintained in the same housing condition. These findings suggest that nonrandom and shared antigens are involved in controlling selection, retention, and immune tolerance of long-lived T-cell clones under healthy living conditions. PMID:27535935

  4. Determination of Long-Lived Neutron Activation Products in Reactor Shielding Concrete Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz

    2002-10-15

    The results of activation studies of TRIGA research reactor concrete shielding are given. Samples made of ordinary and barytes concrete were irradiated in the reactor to simulate neutron activation in the shielding concrete. Long-lived neutron-induced gamma-ray-emitting radioactive nuclides were measured in the samples with a high-purity germanium detector. The most active long-lived radioactive nuclides in the ordinary concrete samples were found to be {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu. In the barytes concrete samples, the most active long-lived radioactive nuclides were {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba, and {sup 152}Eu. Activation in the concrete was also calculated using the ORIGEN2 code and compared to experimental results. Simple radioactive nuclide generation and depletion calculation using one-group cross-section libraries provided together with the ORIGEN2 code did not give conservative results. Significant discrepancies were observed for some nuclides. For accurate long-lived radioactive nuclide generation in reactor shielding, material-specific cross-section libraries should be generated and verified by measurement.

  5. An Unusual Long-lived Intensive Relativistic Electron Enhancement Excited By Sequential CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Zhu, G.; Sun, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2013-12-01

    CMEs, and stands at L>3.6 on almost whole August. This means that the flux peak of relativistic electrons is left in the plasmasphere for a long time. In the plasmaphere, relativistic electron populations lose by resonating with hiss. The rate of this kind of loss mechanism is slow, and would eventually result in the unusual long-lived characterizer of this enhancement event. In 30 august, a strong interplanetary disturbance contracts the plasmapause inward to L<3 again, then the relativistic electron populations of outer zone deduce promptly. Fengyun-1 is a polar orbit satellite at low altitude, so that it is impossible to obtain the variation of outer zone in the magnetopheric equatorial plane. Despite of this, the enhancement and loss properties of this event imply that it is similar to the 'Relativistic Electron Storage Ring' detected by Van Allen Probes in September, 2012.

  6. Detection of a spinning object using light's orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Martin P J; Speirits, Fiona C; Barnett, Stephen M; Padgett, Miles J

    2013-08-01

    The linear Doppler shift is widely used to infer the velocity of approaching objects, but this shift does not detect rotation. By analyzing the orbital angular momentum of the light scattered from a spinning object, we observed a frequency shift proportional to product of the rotation frequency of the object and the orbital angular momentum of the light. This rotational frequency shift was still present when the angular momentum vector was parallel to the observation direction. The multiplicative enhancement of the frequency shift may have applications for the remote detection of rotating bodies in both terrestrial and astronomical settings. PMID:23908234

  7. Preserved ex vivo inflammatory status and cytokine responses in naturally long-lived mice

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Lorena; Lord, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    Preserved immune cell function has been reported in mice that achieve extreme longevity. Since cytokines are major modulators of immune responses, we aimed to determine the levels of 21 cytokines secreted ex vivo by peritoneal leukocytes cultured under basal- and mitogen- (conconavalin A (ConA) and LPS) stimulated conditions in middle-aged (44 ± 4 weeks), old (69 ± 4 weeks), very old (92 ± 4 weeks), and extreme long-lived (125 ± 4 weeks) ICR (CD1) female mice. The secretion of cytokines was measured by multiplex luminometry. Increased basal levels of proinflammatory IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p70), IFN-γ, and TNF-α were seen in the old and very old animals, accompanied by decreased IL-10. In contrast, the extreme long-lived mice maintained the overall cytokine profile of middle-aged mice, though the basal secretion of IL-2, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-12 (p40) was raised. Under LPS- and/or ConA-stimulated conditions, leukocytes from old and very old animals showed a significantly impaired response with respect to secretion of Th1 cytokines IL-3, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α; Th2 cytokines IL-6, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13; and the regulatory cytokines IL-2, IL-5, and IL-17. Extreme long-lived mice preserved the middle-aged-like cytokine profile, with the most striking effect seen for the IL-2 response to ConA, which was minimal in the old and very old mice but increased with respect to the middle-aged level in extreme long-lived mice. Chemokine responses in regard to KC, MCP-1, MIP1β, and RANTES were more variable, though similar secretion of LPS-induced KC and MCP-1 and ConA-induced MCP-1, MIP-1β, and RANTES was found in long-lived and middle-aged mice. Thus, extreme long-lived animals showed only a minimal inflammatory profile, much lower than the old and very old groups and also lower than the middle-aged, which is likely mediated by the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10. This was coupled to a robust response to immune stimuli

  8. Long-lived mutagenic radicals induced in mammalian cells by ionizing radiation are mainly localized to proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Jun; Masui, Kiyonao; Itagaki, Yoshiteru; Shiotani, Masaru; Kodama, Seiji; Watanabe, Masami; Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    2003-07-01

    We have provided evidence that long-lived radicals, produced by ionizing radiation, are highly mutagenic and transforming in mammalian cells. Long-lived radicals are scavenged effectively by vitamin C or by epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG). Long-lived radicals are not involved in lethality or in the induction of chromosome aberrations. We now report the results of experiments that define the relative amounts of long-lived radicals in DNA and proteins and identify the major protein radicals as sulfinyl radicals (R-CH2-S-O*). To make these assignments, yields of long-lived radicals in gamma-irradiated salmon sperm DNA and albumin were compared by ESR. ESR spectra of long-lived radicals produced in irradiated Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were analyzed precisely and compared with ESR parameters obtained by density functional theory calculations. Long-lived radicals yields of 99.8% were produced in proteins. We also identified a new type of long-lived radical as H-added phenylalanine radicals. While our evidence does not rule out the possibility of important biological consequences of the low-level long-lived radicals created by radiation, it implicates radicals in proteins as playing a key role in genetic effects of ionizing radiation. We suggest that these novel radicals, wherever they reside, need to be considered in explanations of biological sequela of radiation. PMID:12816528

  9. Scintillation light detection system in LArIAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryczynski, P.

    2016-02-01

    The LArIAT experiment is currently taking data at Fermilab using a Liquid Argon TPC, with the aim of studying particle interactions and characterizing detector response for neutrino detectors using argon. In parallel, it serves as a test-bench to develop and evaluate the performance of the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software used in LAr neutrino experiments. LArIAT also takes advantage of the scintillating capabilities of liquid argon and will evaluate the feasibility of using the light signal to determine calorimetric information and particle identification. To test this possibility, a scintillation light detection system consisting of high Quantum Efficiency (QE) PMT and Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) devices is installed in the cryostat, viewing the interior of the TPC. Light collection efficiency is maximized by means of lining the walls with reflector foils covered by a wavelength shifter layer. Collecting the light reflected at the boundaries of the active volume greatly improves also the uniformity of the light yield. Presented here are initial results of the LArIAT light detection system calibration together with the preliminary results of the dedicated simulation and its application in future LAr TPC experiments

  10. ARAPUCA a new device for liquid argon scintillation light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, A. A.; Segreto, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present a totally innovative device for the detection of liquid argon scintillation light, that has been named ARAPUCA (Argon R&D Advanced Program at UniCAmp). It is composed of a passive light collector and of active devices. The latters are standard SiPMs that operate at liquid argon temperature, while the passive collector is based on a new technology, never explored in this field before. It is a photon trap, that allows to collect light with extremely high efficiency. The total detection efficiency of the device can be tuned by modifying the ratio between the area of the active devices (SiPM) and the area of the optical window. For example, it will allow to reach a detection efficiency at the level of 1% on a surface of 50 × 50 cm2 with an active coverage of 2 × 2 cm2 (two/three large area SiPM). It is also a cheap device, since the major part of its cost is represented by the active devices. For these reason this appears to be the ideal device for scintillation light detection in large Time Projection Chambers. With appropriate modifications it can be used also in next generation Dark Matter detectors.

  11. Detecting an Extended Light Source through a Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litaker, E. T.; Machacek, J. R.; Gay, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation of a cylindrical luminescent volume and a typical lens-detector system. The results of this simulation yield a graphically simple picture of the regions within the cylindrical volume from which this system detects light. Because the cylindrical volume permits large angles of incidence, we use a modification of…

  12. Resonant tunneling diode with a multiplication region for light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yu; Wang, Guanglong; Ni, Haiqiao; Chen, Jianhui; Gao, Fengqi; Qiao, Zhongtao; Niu, Zhichuan

    2014-11-01

    A resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with a multiplication region is designed for light detection in this paper. Via adding a n+-i-p+ multiplication region, we focus on promoting the photocurrent and light sensitivity of the detector. Through the calculation of the multiplication factor, the thickness of the multiplication region is determined. The influence factors of the electric field and potential distribution of the detector are investigated, thereby the thickness and doping concentration of the doped layers besides the double-barrier structure (DBS) are decided. Detectors with and without a multiplication region are fabricated from semiconductor heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The current-voltage (I-V) and light sensitivity tests show that the detector with a multiplication region has better performance in peak photocurrent and light sensitivity.

  13. Long-lived impurities of 90Y-labeled microspheres, TheraSphere and SIR-spheres, and the impact on patient dose and waste management.

    PubMed

    Metyko, John; Williford, John M; Erwin, William; Poston, John; Jimenez, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    Yittrium-90 microsphere brachytherapy procedures have increased in number due to their efficacy in treating some unresectable metastatic liver tumors. The discovery of long-lived impurities in two microsphere products, first reported between 2006 and 2007, has resulted in some radiation safety concerns. Since then, microsphere production processes have been refined, which reportedly lead to a reduction in detectable by-products. In this study unused vials of TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres, manufactured in early January 2011, were analyzed to identify and quantify the low-level radioactive impurities. Absorbed dose calculations were performed to assess the potential increased dose to the patient due to long-lived impurities. Results showed that while the SIR-Spheres vials contained no detectable impurities (contrary to other published results in the literature), the TheraSphere vials contained 17 radionuclides in one sample and 15 in the other. The dominant impurities were Y and Y, with specific activities ranging from 0.99 ± 3.40 × 10 kBq mg to 6.30 ± 0.40 kBq mg at vendor assay date. Other impurities were on the order of Bq mg. Based on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) liver and lung dose estimates, the long-lived impurities would be expected to increase an administered dose by less than 0.1% from the prescribed dose. PMID:23026974

  14. ZnO light-emitting nanoprobes for tumor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Tsan; Shen, Yi-Chun; Yang, Sheng-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2013-02-01

    Tumor detection is a significant health issue, but it is still a limit to identify cancer cells during tumor resection by using traditional methods such as fluorescence. In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods bonded to antibodies was investigated as nanoprobes for sensing cancer cells. The result shows that antibodies toward epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can be connected to ZnO nanorods and EGFR receptors of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The cancer cells can be recognized via the observation of purple light emission from these probes by using naked eye or an optical microscope. By contrast, the HS68 cells with less EGFR expression had no purple light emission as the probes were washed off. Besides, from the photoluminescent spectra, the intensity ratio between the purple light (from ZnO nanorods) and green band (from the autofluorescence of cells) is much higher in SCC than in HS68 cells, which suggest that the cancer cells can be detected by comparing the peak intensity ratio. The probes have the potential clinical application for real-time tumor detection, and the cancer cells can be excised more precisely with the help of purple light emission.

  15. [The perception of the young and long-lived elderly 'Gauchos' (from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) about the public spaces they live in Resumo].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Joel Hirtz do Nascimento; Andrade, Francini Porcher; Paiva, Tiago Sousa; da Silva, Diovana Ourique; Gessinger, Cristiane Fernanda; Bós, Ângelo José Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    By 2050, the number of Brazilians living in urban areas will be over 200 million and 29% of the population will be elderly. The long-lived elderly are 80 or more years old and the young elderly are between 60 and 79 years of age. The scope of this article was to verify the difference in perception between the young elderly and the long-lived elderly from Rio Grande do Sul (RS) about the urban environment they live in. This is a population-based, observational, descriptive, retrospective study with a quantitative analysis paradigm. Data was analyzed from Elderly Profile research in RS conducted by the Geriatric and Gerontological Institute of PUCRS in partnership with the RS School of Public Health. The sample consisted of 6913 questionnaires answered by the elderly from 59 cities. Data analysis was performed for each age group and independent variables were processed using the Chi-square test, with p under 0.05. Results showed that the perception of difficulties such as a lack of park benches and safety strips, short traffic light times for pedestrians, high steps and bad-smelling public toilets was greater among the young elderly. The long-lived elderly noticed these facts less, though they admitted that they frequent community environments less often. PMID:25715140

  16. Extremely long-lived charged massive particles as a probe for reheating of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Fumihiro

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the impact of charged massive particle big bang nucleosynthesis to explore the nature of the reheating of the Universe in the case that a new extremely long-lived charged massive particle (CHAMP) exists. If the mass of the CHAMP is within collider reach and its lifetime is longer than 104s, the comparison between the charged big bang nucleosynthesis prediction and observed Li6 abundances may indicate nonstandard reheating in the early Universe without relying on details of the decay properties. Even if the CHAMP mass is outside the reach of colliders, the cosmological considerations may provide a nontrivial hint for the existence of such very heavy long-lived CHAMPs from the late Universe if the daughter particles are the dominant component of the present dark matter. We consider a low reheating temperature model as an example of the nonstandard reheating scenarios.

  17. Aromatic proteinaceous surfactants stabilize long-lived gas microbubbles from natural sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrigo, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Three different types of protein-specific chemical tests were performed on long-lived gas microbubbles derived from aqueous solutions of agarose powder and from filtered aqueous extracts of Hawaiian forest soil. The separate protein-specific tests involved use of either 0.3% (w/v) ninhydrin, 100 microM methylene blue dye, or 0.7-1.0 M 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide. The chemical test results obtained with each of the two natural substances, i.e., agarose powder and Hawaiian forest soil, were very similar and indicate that the biological surfactants which surround and stabilize long-lived gas microbubbles are proteinaceous compounds that contain, and whose surface activity depends upon, aromatic amino acid residues, particularly tryptophan.

  18. A Demonstration of Light Guides for Light Detection in Liquid Argon TPCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignarra, C. M.

    Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) are a developing technology that is becoming a popular choice for neutrino and dark matter experiments due to the low cost of the LAr as a target material and the high signal effciency and background rejection that these detectors can achieve. When excited by a passing charged particle created in a neutrino interaction, argon produces scintillation light at 128 nm. Several types of systems exist for detecting this light. Most involve shifting the wavelength of the light using Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB), resulting in visible light which is detected by a PMT.I will discuss our work on a new system under development for light detection in LAr which uses acrylic lightguides. The lightguides are coated with a thin film consisting of TPB embedded in polystyrene. This system could provide a solution to some of the issues associated with scaling existing systems for a larger future LAr detector. Though we are only in the preliminary stages of this R&D, we have shown that the results are already suffcient for triggering.

  19. Relatively Long-Lived Dubnium Isotopes and Chemical Identification of Superheavy Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tereshatov, E. E.; Voronyuk, M. G.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Petrushkin, O. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Bruchertseifer, H.

    2010-04-30

    The present study has been performed within the framework of experiments aimed at the investigation of chemical properties of long-lived Db isotopes in aqueous solutions. The isocratic anion exchange separations of group V elements in the solutions containing HF have been considered. Parameters of separation of dubnium homologues (Pa, Nb and Ta) in HF/HNO{sub 3} mixed solutions have been optimized. The procedure of separation of group V elements from multicomponent system has been suggested.

  20. A long-lived coronal X-ray arcade. [force-free magnetic field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, J. P.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Krall, K. R.; Wu, S. T.; Smith, J. B., Jr.; Speich, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    A large, long-lived, soft X-ray emitting arch system observed during a Skylab mission is analyzed. The supposition is that these arches owe their stability to the stable coronal magnetic-field configuration. A global constant alpha force-free magnetic field analysis, is used to describe the arches which stayed in the same approximate position for several solar rotations. A marked resemblance is noted between the theoretical magnetic field configuration and the observed X-ray emmitting feature.

  1. Long-living optical gain induced by solvent viscosity in a push-pull molecule.

    PubMed

    Mróz, M M; Benedini, S; Forni, A; Botta, C; Pasini, D; Cariati, E; Virgili, T

    2016-07-21

    The combination of continuum and ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy with DFT and TDDFT calculations, in viscous and non-viscous environments, is effective in unraveling important features of the twisted intramolecular charge transfer mechanism in a new push-pull molecule that possesses aggregation induced emission properties. Long-living optical gain is found when this mechanism is inhibited, highlighting the importance of the environment rigidity in the design of materials for photonic applications. PMID:27334668

  2. Synteny analysis in Rosids with a walnut physical map reveals slow genome evolution in long-lived woody perennials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutations often accompany DNA replication. Since there may be fewer cell cycles per year in the germlines of long-lived than short-lived angiosperms, the genomes of long-lived angiosperms may be diverging more slowly than those of short-lived angiosperms. Here we test this hypothesis. We first const...

  3. Sky light polarization detection with linear polarizer triplet in light field camera inspired by insect vision.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Liu, Zejin

    2015-10-20

    Stable information of a sky light polarization pattern can be used for navigation with various advantages such as better performance of anti-interference, no "error cumulative effect," and so on. But the existing method of sky light polarization measurement is weak in real-time performance or with a complex system. Inspired by the navigational capability of a Cataglyphis with its compound eyes, we introduce a new approach to acquire the all-sky image under different polarization directions with one camera and without a rotating polarizer, so as to detect the polarization pattern across the full sky in a single snapshot. Our system is based on a handheld light field camera with a wide-angle lens and a triplet linear polarizer placed over its aperture stop. Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. Not only real-time detection but simple and costless architecture demonstrates the superiority of the approach proposed in this paper. PMID:26560386

  4. Long-lived non-equilibrium states in a quantum-Hall Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Washio, Kazuhisa; Nakazawa, Ryo; Hashisaka, Masayuki; Muraki, Koji; Tokura, Yasuhiro

    The existence of long-lived non-equilibrium states without showing thermalization, which has previously been demonstrated in time evolution of ultracold atoms (quantum quench), suggests the possibility of their spatial analogue in transport behavior of interacting electrons in solid-state systems. Here we report long-lived non-equilibrium states in one-dimensional edge channels in the integer quantum Hall regime. For this purpose, non-trivial binary spectrum composed of hot and cold carriers is prepared by an indirect heating scheme using weakly coupled counterpropagating edge channels in an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure. Quantum dot spectroscopy clearly reveals that the carriers with the non-trivial binary spectrum propagate over a long distance (5 - 10 um), much longer than the length required for electronic relaxation (about 0.1 um), without thermalization into a trivial Fermi distribution. This observation is consistent with the integrable model of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. The long-lived spectrum implies that the system is well described by non-interacting plasmons, which are attractive for carrying information for a long distance. This work was supported by the JSPS 26247051 and 15H05854, and Nanotechnology Platform Program of MEXT.

  5. Distributions of Long-lived Radioactive Nuclei Provided by Star-forming Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C.

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary—but not sufficient—for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This paper calculates the distribution of additional enrichment for 40K, the most abundant of the long-lived radioactive nuclei. We find that distributed enrichment is more effective than direct enrichment. For the latter mechanism, ideal conditions lead to about 1 in 200 solar systems being directly enriched in 40K at the level inferred for the early solar nebula (thereby doubling the abundance). For distributed enrichment from adjacent clusters, about 1 in 80 solar systems are enriched at the same level. Distributed enrichment over the entire molecular cloud is more uncertain, but can be even more effective.

  6. Long-lived intestinal tuft cells serve as colon cancer–initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Westphalen, C. Benedikt; Asfaha, Samuel; Hayakawa, Yoku; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Lukin, Dana J.; Nuber, Andreas H.; Brandtner, Anna; Setlik, Wanda; Remotti, Helen; Muley, Ashlesha; Chen, Xiaowei; May, Randal; Houchen, Courtney W.; Fox, James G.; Gershon, Michael D.; Quante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Doublecortin-like kinase 1 protein (DCLK1) is a gastrointestinal tuft cell marker that has been proposed to identify quiescent and tumor growth–sustaining stem cells. DCLK1+ tuft cells are increased in inflammation-induced carcinogenesis; however, the role of these cells within the gastrointestinal epithelium and their potential as cancer-initiating cells are poorly understood. Here, using a BAC-CreERT–dependent genetic lineage–tracing strategy, we determined that a subpopulation of DCLK1+ cells is extremely long lived and possesses rare stem cell abilities. Moreover, genetic ablation of Dclk1 revealed that DCLK1+ tuft cells contribute to recovery following intestinal and colonic injury. Surprisingly, conditional knockdown of the Wnt regulator APC in DCLK1+ cells was not sufficient to drive colonic carcinogenesis under normal conditions; however, dextran sodium sulfate–induced (DSS-induced) colitis promoted the development of poorly differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma in mice lacking APC in DCLK1+ cells. Importantly, colonic tumor formation occurred even when colitis onset was delayed for up to 3 months after induced APC loss in DCLK1+ cells. Thus, our data define an intestinal DCLK1+ tuft cell population that is long lived, quiescent, and important for intestinal homeostasis and regeneration. Long-lived DCLK1+ cells maintain quiescence even following oncogenic mutation, but are activated by tissue injury and can serve to initiate colon cancer. PMID:24487592

  7. Simulation of Ozone and Long Lived Tracers in the GSFC Two-Dimensional Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Considine, David B.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    The GSFC two-dimensional transport and chemistry model has been used for a wide variety of scientific and assessment studies of stratospheric ozone. Transport is a key element in the ozone simulations, and we have recently upgraded our model transport formulation to include much of the information about atmospheric transport processes available from existing data sets. To properly evaluate the model transport, it is desirable to examine the effects of transport and photochemistry separately. Recently, high quality observations of several long lived stratospheric tracers have become available from aircraft, balloon, and satellite measurement systems. This data provides a means to do a detailed model transport evaluation, as has been done in the recent Models and Measurements Intercomparison Project II. In this paper, we will discuss the GSFC 2D model simulations of ozone together with model-data comparisons of long lived tracers such as methane and the age of air transport diagnostic. We will show that the model can reproduce many of the transport-sensitive features observed in the stratosphere, and can compare reasonably well with measurements of both total ozone and long lived tracers simultaneously. We will also discuss the model deficiencies in simulating some of the detailed aspects of the observations.

  8. Functional genomic analysis reveals overlapping and distinct features of chronologically long-lived yeast populations.

    PubMed

    Wierman, Margaret B; Matecic, Mirela; Valsakumar, Veena; Li, Mingguang; Smith, Daniel L; Bekiranov, Stefan; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    Yeast chronological lifespan (CLS) is extended by multiple genetic and environmental manipulations, including caloric restriction (CR). Understanding the common changes in molecular pathways induced by such manipulations could potentially reveal conserved longevity mechanisms. We therefore performed gene expression profiling on several long-lived yeast populations, including anade4∆mutant defective in de novo purine (AMP) biosynthesis, and a calorie restricted WT strain. CLS was also extended by isonicotinamide (INAM) or expired media derived from CR cultures. Comparisons between these diverse long-lived conditions revealed a common set of differentially regulated genes, several of which were potential longevity biomarkers. There was also enrichment for genes that function in CLS regulation, including a long-lived adenosine kinase mutant (ado1∆) that links CLS regulation to the methyl cycle and AMP. Genes co-regulated between the CR and ade4∆ conditions were dominated by GO terms related to metabolism of alternative carbon sources, consistent with chronological longevity requiring efficient acetate/acetic acid utilization. Alternatively, treating cells with isonicotinamide (INAM) or the expired CR media resulted in GO terms predominantly related to cell wall remodeling, consistent with improved stress resistance and protection against external insults like acetic acid. Acetic acid therefore has both beneficial and detrimental effects on CLS. PMID:25769345

  9. Diffuse light tomography to detect blood vessels using Tikhonov regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanci, Huseyin O.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2016-04-01

    Detection of blood vessels within light-scattering tissues involves detection of subtle shadows as blood absorbs light. These shadows are diffuse but measurable by a set of source-detector pairs in a spatial array of sources and detectors on the tissue surface. The measured shadows can reconstruct the internal position(s) of blood vessels. The tomographic method involves a set of Ns sources and Nd detectors such that Nsd = Ns x Nd source-detector pairs produce Nsd measurements, each interrogating the tissue with a unique perspective, i.e., a unique region of sensitivity to voxels within the tissue. This tutorial report describes the reconstruction of the image of a blood vessel within a soft tissue based on such source-detector measurements, by solving a matrix equation using Tikhonov regularization. This is not a novel contribution, but rather a simple introduction to a well-known method, demonstrating its use in mapping blood perfusion.

  10. Light-detection electronics for a Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, R. J.; Salzman, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A light-detection system for an optical radar, or lidar, unit to be used for remote temperature and composition measurements was designed, built, and bench tested. This detection system processes three return signal wavelengths: two Raman wavelengths, and the Rayleigh-Mie wavelength at 694.3 nanometers. Means of coping with photomultiplier tube instabilities and limitations are discussed. Circuits for gain control, ranging, and digitizing are included. The phototube gains can be switched fully on in 80 meters (450 nsec) or off in 30 meters (200 nsec) of range. The range circuit processes signals from 0.1 to 2 kilometers, with an estimated range resolution of less than 5 meters.

  11. Light detection and the wavelength shifter deposition in DEAP-3600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broerman, B.; Retière, F.

    2016-02-01

    The Dark matter Experiment using Argon Pulse-shape discrimination (DEAP) uses liquid argon as a target medium to perform a direct-detection dark matter search. The 3600 kg liquid argon target volume is housed in a spherical acrylic vessel and viewed by a surrounding array of photomultiplier tubes. Ionizing particles in the argon volume produce scintillation light which must be wavelength shifted to be detected by the photomultiplier tubes. Argon scintillation and wavelength shifting, along with details on the application of the wavelength shifter to the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are presented.

  12. Improved TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Z.; Bugel, L.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Jones, B. J. P.; Moon, J.; Toups, M.; Wongjirad, T.

    2015-08-01

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars. We discuss a model for connecting bar response in air to response in liquid argon and compare this to data taken in liquid argon. The good agreement between the prediction of the model and the measured response in liquid argon demonstrates that characterization in air is sufficient for quality control of bar production. This model can be used in simulations of light guides for future experiments.

  13. Spectroscopic direct detection of reflected light from extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, J. H. C.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Lovis, C.

    2013-12-01

    At optical wavelengths, an exoplanet's signature is essentially reflected light from the host star - several orders of magnitude fainter. Since it is superimposed on the star spectrum its detection has been a difficult observational challenge. However, the development of a new generation of instruments like Echelle Spectrograph for Rocky Exoplanets and Stable Spectroscopic Observations (ESPRESSO) and next-generation telescopes like the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) put us in a privileged position to detect these planets' reflected light as we will have access to extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. With this work, we propose an alternative approach for the direct detection of the reflected light of an exoplanet. We simulated observations with ESPRESSO at Very Large Telescope (VLT) and high-resolution spectrograph (HIRES) at E-ELT of several star+planet systems, encompassing 10 h of the most favourable orbital phases. To the simulated spectra we applied the cross-correlation function to operate in a much higher signal-to-noise ratio domain than when compared with the spectra. The use of the cross-correlation function permitted us to recover the simulated planet signals at a level above 3σnoise significance on several prototypical (e.g. Neptune-type planet with a 2 d orbit with the VLT at 4.4σnoise significance) and real planetary systems (e.g. 55 Cnc e with the E-ELT at 4.9σnoise significance). Even by using a more pessimistic approach to the noise level estimation, where systematics in the spectra increase the noise 2-3 times, the detection of the reflected light from large close-orbit planets is possible. We have also shown that this kind of study is currently within reach of current instruments and telescopes (e.g. 51 Peg b with the VLT at 5.2σnoise significance), although at the limit of their capabilities.

  14. The Character of the Long-Lived State Formed from S_1 of Phenylacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other small aromatic molecules, phenylacetylene (PA) and benzonitrile exhibit strikingly anomalous photophysics on excitation to the S_1 state. Firstly, products are formed on S_1 excitation of a beam-cooled sample that seem to live indefinitely (as defined by the flight time through the apparatus), while action spectra of their formation mirror the rotationally-resolved absorption spectrum of the monomer. Secondly, the long lived products appear immediately during the nsec. laser pulse rather than build up during the lifetime of the singlet level, as is seen in benzene, for example. The question has therefore arisen: is the long lived product of the S_1 excitation the triplet state, as is assumed in all previous work on other molecules, or is it an isomer of some sort? New pump-probe ionization mass spectroscopy experiments have been performed to study the distribution of fragments and metastable ions produced by PA cation derived from the neutral S_1 state, and from the long-lived species. These combined with other experimental results showing weak long-lived components in both the S_1 fluorescence and pump-probe photoelectron spectra that we interpret as recurrence behavior, definitively show the long-lived state is a triplet state of PA, not an isomer. PA with a singlet-triplet gap of 10000 cm^{-1} is acting like intermediate case molecules with much smaller singlet-triplet gaps such as pyrazine and pyrimidine. Calculations point to the existence of four triplet states of PA at or below the energy of S_1 providing a very large density of vibronic states in which to distribute the energy from singlet-triplet crossing. PA T_1 is calculated to be non-planar, in contrast to what is found in benzene, possibly helping to explain the different photophysics. Acknowledgments: We gratefully acknowledge G. V. Lopez for his contributions to some of the experimental masurements. Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02

  15. Experimental detection of transverse particle movement with structured light.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Belmonte, Aniceto; Torres, Juan P

    2013-01-01

    One procedure widely used to detect the velocity of a moving object is by using the Doppler effect. This is the perceived change in frequency of a wave caused by the relative motion between the emitter and the detector, or between the detector and a reflecting target. The relative movement, in turn, generates a time-varying phase which translates into the detected frequency shift. The classical longitudinal Doppler effect is sensitive only to the velocity of the target along the line-of-sight between the emitter and the detector (longitudinal velocity), since any transverse velocity generates no frequency shift. This makes the transverse velocity undetectable in the classical scheme. Although there exists a relativistic transverse Doppler effect, it gives values that are too small for the typical velocities involved in most laser remote sensing applications. Here we experimentally demonstrate a novel way to detect transverse velocities. The key concept is the use of structured light beams. These beams are unique in the sense that their phases can be engineered such that each point in its transverse plane has an associated phase value. When a particle moves across the beam, the reflected light will carry information about the particle's movement through the variation of the phase of the light that reaches the detector, producing a frequency shift associated with the movement of the particle in the transverse plane. PMID:24085150

  16. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS for isotope analysis of long-lived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. Sabine

    2005-04-01

    For a few years now inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been increasingly used for precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived radionuclides at the trace and ultratrace level due to its excellent sensitivity, good precision and accuracy. At present, ICP-MS and also laser ablation ICP-MS are applied as powerful analytical techniques in different fields such as the characterization of nuclear materials, recycled and by-products (e.g., spent nuclear fuel or depleted uranium ammunitions), radioactive waste control, in environmental monitoring and in bioassay measurements, in health control, in geochemistry and geochronology. Especially double-focusing sector field ICP mass spectrometers with single ion detector or with multiple ion collector device have been used for the precise determination of long-lived radionuclides isotope ratios at very low concentration levels. Progress has been achieved by the combination of ultrasensitive mass spectrometric techniques with effective separation and enrichment procedures in order to improve detection limits or by the introduction of the collision cell in ICP-MS for reducing disturbing interfering ions (e.g., of 129Xe+ for the determination of 129I). This review describes the state of the art and the progress of ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS for isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in different sample types, especially in the main application fields of characterization of nuclear and radioactive waste material, environmental research and health controls.

  17. Long-lived plasma cells are generated in mucosal immune responses and contribute to the bone marrow plasma cell pool in mice.

    PubMed

    Lemke, A; Kraft, M; Roth, K; Riedel, R; Lammerding, D; Hauser, A E

    2016-01-01

    During systemic immune responses, plasma blasts are generated in secondary lymphoid organs and migrate to the bone marrow, where they can become long-lived, being responsible for the maintenance of long-term antibody titers. Plasma blasts generated in mucosal immune responses of the small intestine home to the lamina propria (LP), producing mainly immunoglobulin A. The migration of these antibody-secreting cells is well characterized during acute immune responses. Less is known about their lifetime and contribution to the long-lived bone marrow compartment. Here we investigate the lifetime of plasma cells (PCs) and the relationship between the PC compartments of the gut and bone marrow after oral immunization. Our findings indicate that PCs in the LP can survive for extended time periods. PCs specific for orally administered antigens can be detected in the bone marrow for at least 9 months after immunization, indicating that the mucosal PC compartment can contribute to the long-lived PC pool in this organ, independent of the participation of splenic B cells. Our findings suggest that the compartmentalization between mucosal and systemic PC pools is less strict than previously thought. This may have implications for the development of vaccines as well as for autoantibody-mediated diseases. PMID:25943272

  18. Direct detection of exothermic dark matter with light mediator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Huang, Da; Lee, Chun-Hao; Wang, Qing

    2016-08-01

    We study the dark matter (DM) direct detection for the models with the effects of the isospin-violating couplings, exothermic scatterings, and/or the lightness of the mediator, proposed to relax the tension between the CDMS-Si signals and null experiments. In the light of the new updates of the LUX and CDMSlite data, we find that many of the previous proposals are now ruled out, including the Ge-phobic exothermic DM model and the Xe-phobic DM one with a light mediator. We also examine the exothermic DM models with a light mediator but without the isospin violation, and we are unable to identify any available parameter space that could simultaneously satisfy all the experiments. The only models that can partially relax the inconsistencies are the Xe-phobic exothermic DM models with or without a light mediator. But even in this case, a large portion of the CDMS-Si regions of interest has been constrained by the LUX and SuperCDMS data.

  19. White-Light Nulling Interferometers for Detecting Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennesson, Bertrand; Serabyn, Eugene; Shao, Michael; Levine, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    A report proposes the development of a white-light nulling interferometer to be used in conjunction with a singleaperture astronomical telescope that would be operated in outer space. When such a telescope is aimed at a given star, the interferometer would suppress the light of that star while passing enough light from planets (if any) orbiting the star, to enable imaging or spectroscopic examination of the planets. In a nulling interferometer, according to the proposal, scattered light would be suppressed by spatial filtering in an array of single-mode optical fibers rather than by requiring optical surfaces to be accurate within 1/4,000 wavelength as in a coronagraph or an apodized telescope. As a result, angstrom-level precision would be needed in only the small nulling combiner, and not in large, meter-sized optics. The nulling interferometer could work as an independent instrument in space or in conjunction with a coronagraphic system to detect planets outside our solar system.

  20. Identification of Cyanobacteriochromes Detecting Far-Red Light.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Lagarias, J Clark

    2016-07-19

    The opacity of mammalian tissue to visible light and the strong attenuation of infrared light by water at ≥900 nm have contributed to growing interest in the development of far-red and near-infrared absorbing tools for visualizing and actuating responses within live cells. Here we report the discovery of cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) responsive to light in this far-red window. CBCRs are linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-based light sensors distantly related to plant phytochrome sensors. Our studies reveal far-red (λmax = 725-755 nm)/orange (λmax = 590-600 nm) and far-red/red (λmax = 615-685 nm) photoswitches that are small (<200 amino acids) and can be genetically reconstituted in living cells. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of additional CBCRs demonstrated that far-red/orange CBCRs evolved after a complex transition from green/red CBCRs known for regulating complementary chromatic acclimation. Incorporation of different bilin chromophores demonstrated that tuning mechanisms responsible for red-shifted chromophore absorption act at the A-, B-, and/or C-rings, whereas photoisomerization occurs at the D-ring. Two such proteins exhibited detectable fluorescence extending well into the near-infrared region. This work extends the spectral window of CBCRs to the edge of the infrared, raising the possibility of using CBCRs in synthetic biology applications in the far-red region of the spectrum. PMID:27295035

  1. Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, Rebecca A.; Hastey, Christine J.; Olsen, Kimberly J.; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Lyme Disease caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is an emerging infectious disease and already by far the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Similar to many other infections, infection with B. burgdorferi results in strong antibody response induction, which can be used clinically as a diagnostic measure of prior exposure. However, clinical studies have shown a sometimes-precipitous decline of such antibodies shortly following antibiotic treatment, revealing a potential deficit in the host’s ability to induce and/or maintain long-term protective antibodies. This is further supported by reports of frequent repeat infections with B. burgdorferi in endemic areas. The mechanisms underlying such a lack of long-term humoral immunity, however, remain unknown. We show here that B. burgdorferi infected mice show a similar rapid disappearance of Borrelia-specific antibodies after infection and subsequent antibiotic treatment. This failure was associated with development of only short-lived germinal centers, micro-anatomical locations from which long-lived immunity originates. These showed structural abnormalities and failed to induce memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells for months after the infection, rendering the mice susceptible to reinfection with the same strain of B. burgdorferi. The inability to induce long-lived immune responses was not due to the particular nature of the immunogenic antigens of B. burgdorferi, as antibodies to both T-dependent and T-independent Borrelia antigens lacked longevity and B cell memory induction. Furthermore, influenza immunization administered at the time of Borrelia infection also failed to induce robust antibody responses, dramatically reducing the protective antiviral capacity of the humoral response. Collectively, these studies show that B. burgdorferi-infection results in targeted and temporary immunosuppression of the host and bring new insight into the mechanisms underlying the failure to develop long

  2. Molecular proxies for climate maladaptation in a long-lived tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Rodríguez-Quilón, Isabel; Grivet, Delphine; Lepoittevin, Camille; Sebastiani, Federico; Heuertz, Myriam; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2015-03-01

    Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) can be used as predictors of maladaptation to climate in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an outcrossing long-lived keystone tree. A set of 18 SNPs potentially associated with climate, 5 of them involving amino acid-changing variants, were retained after performing logistic regression, latent factor mixed models, and Bayesian analyses of SNP-climate correlations. These relationships identified temperature as an important adaptive driver in maritime pine and highlighted that selective forces are operating differentially in geographically discrete gene pools. The frequency of the locally advantageous alleles at these selected loci was strongly correlated with survival in a common garden under extreme (hot and dry) climate conditions, which suggests that candidate-gene SNPs can be used to forecast the likely destiny of natural forest ecosystems under climate change scenarios. Differential levels of forest decline are anticipated for distinct maritime pine gene pools. Geographically defined molecular proxies for climate adaptation will thus critically enhance the predictive power of range-shift models and help establish mitigation measures for long-lived keystone forest trees in the face of impending climate change. PMID:25549630

  3. Long-lived planetary vortices and their evolution: Conservative intermediate geostrophic model.

    PubMed

    Sutyrin, Georgi G.

    1994-06-01

    Large, long-lived vortices, surviving during many turnaround times and far longer than the dispersive linear Rossby wave packets, are abundant in planetary atmospheres and oceans. Nonlinear effects which prevent dispersive decay of intense cyclones and anticyclones and provide their self-propelling propagation are revised here using shallow water equations and their balanced approximations. The main physical mechanism allowing vortical structures to be long-lived in planetary fluid is the quick fluid rotation inside their cores which prevents growth in the amplitude of asymmetric circulation arising due to the beta-effect. Intense vortices of both signs survive essentially longer than the linear Rossby wave packet if their azimuthal velocity is much larger than the Rossby wave speed. However, in the long-time evolution, cyclonic and anticyclonic vortices behave essentially differently that is illustrated by the conservative intermediate geostrophic model. Asymmetric circulation governing vortex propagation is described by the azimuthal mode m=1 for the initial value problem as well as for steadily propagating solutions. Cyclonic vortices move west-poleward decaying gradually due to Rossby wave radiation while anticyclonic ones adjust to non-radiating solitary vortices. Slow weakening of an intense cyclone with decreasing of its size and shrinking of the core is described assuming zero azimuthal velocity outside the core while drifting poleward. The poleward tendency of the cyclone motion relative to the stirring flow corresponds to characteristic trajectories of tropical cyclones in the Earth's atmosphere. The asymmetry in dispersion-nonlinear properties of cyclones and anticyclones is thought to be one of the essential reasons for the observed predominance of anticyclones among long-lived vortices in the atmospheres of the giant planets and also among intrathermoclinic eddies in the ocean. PMID:12780100

  4. Molecular Proxies for Climate Maladaptation in a Long-Lived Tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Rodríguez-Quilón, Isabel; Grivet, Delphine; Lepoittevin, Camille; Sebastiani, Federico; Heuertz, Myriam; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H.; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; González-Martínez, Santiago C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) can be used as predictors of maladaptation to climate in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an outcrossing long-lived keystone tree. A set of 18 SNPs potentially associated with climate, 5 of them involving amino acid-changing variants, were retained after performing logistic regression, latent factor mixed models, and Bayesian analyses of SNP–climate correlations. These relationships identified temperature as an important adaptive driver in maritime pine and highlighted that selective forces are operating differentially in geographically discrete gene pools. The frequency of the locally advantageous alleles at these selected loci was strongly correlated with survival in a common garden under extreme (hot and dry) climate conditions, which suggests that candidate-gene SNPs can be used to forecast the likely destiny of natural forest ecosystems under climate change scenarios. Differential levels of forest decline are anticipated for distinct maritime pine gene pools. Geographically defined molecular proxies for climate adaptation will thus critically enhance the predictive power of range-shift models and help establish mitigation measures for long-lived keystone forest trees in the face of impending climate change. PMID:25549630

  5. Displaced vertices and long-lived charged particles in the NMSSM with right-handed sneutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Martín-Lozano, Víctor; Seto, Osamu

    2014-05-01

    We study LHC signatures of displaced vertices and long-lived charged particles within the context of the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with right-handed (RH) sneutrinos. In this construction the RH neutrino can be produced directly from Higgs decays or in association with a RH sneutrino when the latter is the lightest supersymmetric particle. The RH neutrino is generally long-lived, since its decay width is proportional to the neutrino Yukawa, a parameter which is predicted to be small. The RH neutrino late decay can therefore give rise to displaced vertices at the LHC, which can be identified through the decay products, which involve two leptons (2 ℓ + [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] T ) or a lepton with two jets ( ℓjj). We simulate this signal for the current LHC configuration (a centre of mass of 8 TeV and an integrated luminosity of = 20 fb-1), and a future one (13 TeV and = 100 fb-1). We show that a region of the parameter space of this model can be probed and that the RH neutrino mass can be reconstructed from the end-point of the two-lepton invariant mass distribution or the central value of the mass distribution for two jets plus one lepton. Another exotic signature of this construction is the production of a long-lived stau. If the stau is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, it can decay through diagrams involving the small neutrino Yukawa, and would escape the detector leaving a characteristic trail. We also simulate this signal for various benchmark points and show that the model can be within the reach of the future run of the LHC.

  6. Long-lived intestinal tuft cells serve as colon cancer-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Westphalen, C Benedikt; Asfaha, Samuel; Hayakawa, Yoku; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Lukin, Dana J; Nuber, Andreas H; Brandtner, Anna; Setlik, Wanda; Remotti, Helen; Muley, Ashlesha; Chen, Xiaowei; May, Randal; Houchen, Courtney W; Fox, James G; Gershon, Michael D; Quante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C

    2014-03-01

    Doublecortin-like kinase 1 protein (DCLK1) is a gastrointestinal tuft cell marker that has been proposed to identify quiescent and tumor growth-sustaining stem cells. DCLK1⁺ tuft cells are increased in inflammation-induced carcinogenesis; however, the role of these cells within the gastrointestinal epithelium and their potential as cancer-initiating cells are poorly understood. Here, using a BAC-CreERT-dependent genetic lineage-tracing strategy, we determined that a subpopulation of DCLK1⁺ cells is extremely long lived and possesses rare stem cell abilities. Moreover, genetic ablation of Dclk1 revealed that DCLK1⁺ tuft cells contribute to recovery following intestinal and colonic injury. Surprisingly, conditional knockdown of the Wnt regulator APC in DCLK1⁺ cells was not sufficient to drive colonic carcinogenesis under normal conditions; however, dextran sodium sulfate-induced (DSS-induced) colitis promoted the development of poorly differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma in mice lacking APC in DCLK1⁺ cells. Importantly, colonic tumor formation occurred even when colitis onset was delayed for up to 3 months after induced APC loss in DCLK1⁺ cells. Thus, our data define an intestinal DCLK1⁺ tuft cell population that is long lived, quiescent, and important for intestinal homeostasis and regeneration. Long-lived DCLK1⁺ cells maintain quiescence even following oncogenic mutation, but are activated by tissue injury and can serve to initiate colon cancer. PMID:24487592

  7. Long-lived groupers require structurally stable reefs in the face of repeated climate change disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkarey, R.; Kelkar, N.; Lobo, A. Savio; Alcoverro, T.; Arthur, R.

    2014-06-01

    Benthic recovery from climate-related disturbances does not always warrant a commensurate functional recovery for reef-associated fish communities. Here, we examine the distribution of benthic groupers (family Serranidae) in coral reef communities from the Lakshadweep archipelago (Arabian Sea) in response to structural complexity and long-term habitat stability. These coral reefs that have been subject to two major El Niño Southern Oscillation-related coral bleaching events in the last decades (1998 and 2010). First, we employ a long-term (12-yr) benthic-monitoring dataset to track habitat structural stability at twelve reef sites in the archipelago. Structural stability of reefs was strongly driven by exposure to monsoon storms and depth, which made deeper and more sheltered reefs on the eastern aspect more stable than the more exposed (western) and shallower reefs. We surveyed groupers (species richness, abundance, biomass) in 60 sites across the entire archipelago, representing both exposures and depths. Sites were selected along a gradient of structural complexity from very low to high. Grouper biomass appeared to vary with habitat stability with significant differences between depth and exposure; sheltered deep reefs had a higher grouper biomass than either sheltered shallow or exposed (deep and shallow) reefs. Species richness and abundance showed similar (though not significant) trends. More interestingly, average grouper biomass increased exponentially with structural complexity, but only at the sheltered deep (high stability) sites, despite the availability of recovered structure at exposed deep and shallow sites (lower-stability sites). This trend was especially pronounced for long-lived groupers (life span >10 yrs). These results suggest that long-lived groupers may prefer temporally stable reefs, independent of the local availability of habitat structure. In reefs subject to repeated disturbances, the presence of structurally stable reefs may be

  8. Enhanced detection of LED runway/approach lights for EVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. Richard

    2008-04-01

    The acquisition of approach and runway lights by an imager is critical to landing-credit operations with EVS. Using a GPS clock, LED sources are pulsed at one-half the EVS video rate of 60 Hz or more. The camera then uses synchronous (lock-in) detection to store the imaged lights in alternate frames, with digital subtraction of the background for each respective frame-pair. Range and weather penetration, limited only by detector background shot-noise (or camera system noise at night), substantially exceed that of the human eye. An alternative is the use of short-wave infrared cameras with eyesafe laser diode emitters. Also, runway identification may be encoded on the pulses. With standardized cameras and emitters, an "instrument qualified visual range" may be established. The concept extends to portable beacons at austere airfields, and to see-and-avoid sensing of other aircraft including UAVs.

  9. Detection of internal browning in apples by light transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Light transmittance in the 450 to 1050 nanometer (nm) region was evaluated as a nondestructive technique for identifying apples with internal browning. Shorter wavelengths of light (< 800 nm) were attenuated more than longer wavelengths (> 800 nm). A transmission difference between 720 and 810 nm was used to segregate apples with internal browning from good apples. Only 7.4% of the apples were misclassified in a training set. When applied to a larger validation set, 8.0% of the apples with internal browning were misclassified. For both sets, the only apples misclassified were those with very slight browning that was very difficult to detect visually were misclassified, but none of the apples with slight to severe browning was misclassified. For nondefective apples, 6.1% were identified as having internal browning, because bruises and internal browning had the same effect on the spectral composition.

  10. Long-lived stop at the LHC with or without R-parity

    SciTech Connect

    Covi, L.; Dradi, F. E-mail: federico.dradi@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2014-10-01

    We consider scenarios of gravitino LSP and DM with stop NLSP both within R-parity conserving and R-parity violating supersymmetry (RPC and RPV SUSY, respectively). We discuss cosmological bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the gravitino abundance and then concentrate on the signals of long-lived stops at the LHC as displaced vertices or metastable particles. Finally we discuss how to distinguish R-parity conserving and R-parity breaking stop decays if they happen within the detector and how to suppress SM backgrounds.

  11. Wind Shear May Produce Long-Lived Storms and Squall Lines on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, S.; Barth, E.

    2015-10-01

    The impact of CAPE and wind shear on storms in a Titan-like environment are explored through numerical simulation. Model results indicate that Titan storms should respond to changes in the Richardson Number. Very long-lived storms (>24hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. Varying amounts of shear in the Titan environment might explain the variety of convective cloud expressions identified in Cassini orbiter and ground-based observations. The resulting distribution and magnitude of precipitation as well as surface winds associated with storms have implications on the formation of fluvial and aeolian features and on the exchange of methane with the surface and lakes.

  12. Tilting after Dutch windmills: probably no long-lived Davydov solitons in proteins.

    PubMed

    Austin, Robert H; Xie, Aihua; Fu, Dan; Warren, Warren W; Redlich, Britta; van der Meer, Lex

    2009-02-01

    We present a summary of picosecond pump-probe and photon echo experiments in the mid-IR at 6 mum on the protein myoglobin. The intriguing temperature dependence of the amide I band in Mb is rather similar to the temperature dependence of the amide I band of acetanilide, the molecule that launched Al Scott down the road of looking for Davydov solitons in biology. Alas, after much effort, we believe the data show that there is no long-lived Davydov soliton, at least in myoglobin. PMID:19669571

  13. Long-Lived Giant Number Fluctuations in a Swarming Granular Nematic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Vijay; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Menon, Narayanan

    2007-07-01

    Coherently moving flocks of birds, beasts, or bacteria are examples of living matter with spontaneous orientational order. How do these systems differ from thermal equilibrium systems with such liquid crystalline order? Working with a fluidized monolayer of macroscopic rods in the nematic liquid crystalline phase, we find giant number fluctuations consistent with a standard deviation growing linearly with the mean, in contrast to any situation where the central limit theorem applies. These fluctuations are long-lived, decaying only as a logarithmic function of time. This shows that flocking, coherent motion, and large-scale inhomogeneity can appear in a system in which particles do not communicate except by contact.

  14. Long-lived pressure-driven coherent structures in KSTAR plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Seol, J.; Lee, H. H.; Aydemir, A. Y.; Terzolo, L.; Lee, K. D.; Bae, Y. S.; Bak, J. G.; Choe, G. H.; Yun, G. S.; Yoo, J. W.

    2016-05-01

    Highly coherent structures associated with an extremely long-lived saturated magnetohydrodynamic instability have been observed in KSTAR tokamak under a long-pulse and steady-state operation. They persist essentially unchanged for the full duration of a discharge up to 40 s, much longer than any dynamical or dissipative time scales in the system. Analysis of the data, supported by numerical simulations, indicates that they may be associated with a pressure-driven mode causing some degradation in the toroidal rotation, electron, and ion energy confinement.

  15. Generation of long-living entanglement between two separate three-level atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Cakir, Oezguer; Ho Trung Dung; Knoell, Ludwig; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar

    2005-03-01

    A scheme for nonconditional generation of long-living maximally entangled states between two spatially well separated atoms is proposed. In the scheme, {lambda}-type atoms pass a resonatorlike equipment of dispersing and absorbing macroscopic bodies giving rise to body-assisted electromagnetic field resonances of well-defined heights and widths. Strong atom-field coupling is combined with weak atom-field coupling to realize entanglement transfer from the dipole-allowed transitions to the dipole-forbidden transitions, whereby the entanglement is preserved when the atoms depart from the bodies and from each other. The theory is applied to the case of atoms passing by a microsphere.

  16. Communication: Long-lived neutral H2 in hydrogen migration within methanol dication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, K.; Kato, T.; Kono, H.; Yamanouchi, K.

    2013-11-01

    The ejection of triatomic hydrogen molecular ions HD2+ and D3+ from CD3OH2+ is investigated by first-principle molecular dynamics simulation. Two C-D chemical bonds are found to be broken to form a neutral D2 moiety that vibrates, rotates, and moves for a relatively long period of time (20-330 fs) towards a transition state leading to the ejection of HD2+ or D3+. The formation of such a long-lived neutral D2 moiety within a hydrocarbon molecule interprets well the recent experimental findings of the long lifetime of doubly charged energized hydrocarbon molecules prior to the ejection of H3+.

  17. A search for heavy long lived particles in high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mincer, A.; Freudenreich, H.; Goodman, J. A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Yodh, G. B.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Berley, D.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an experimental search for energetic particles which arrive at sea level delayed with respect to the shower front, with an order of magnitude greater exposure than previous experiments are presented. The experiment was sensitive to showers from cosmic rays between 10 to the 5th power and 10 to the 7th power Gev per nucleus. No evidence for the existence of heavy long lived particles in air showers was found. An upper limit to the flux of these particles was set at the 90% confidence level of 1.4 x 10 to the minus 12th power cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1).

  18. Seasonal variation of the temporal variance of long-lived trace gases measured during MAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeth, E. P.; Schmidt, U.

    1989-01-01

    A series of balloon observations of long lived trace gases was performed in the midlatitude stratosphere during MAP. The temporal variance of the local mixing ratios of CH4, N2O, CFCl3, and CF2Cl2 indicates a substantial annual variability. The concept of the equivalent displacement height (EDH), introduced by Ehhalt et al., is used to investigate some features of transport activity in the lower stratosphere. It appears that most of the temporal variance originates from strong transport effects during the periods of the spring and autumn turn-around of the stratospheric circulation. The dynamical process was found to be considerably reduced during October.

  19. Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters from steel and germanium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Marcin; Zuzel, Grzegorz; Majorovits, Bela

    2011-04-27

    Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po) from stainless steel and germanium surfaces was investigated. As cleaning technique etching was applied to samples in a form of discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source. Reduction of the {sup 210}Pb activity was tested using a HPGe spectrometer, for {sup 210}Bi a beta spectrometer and for {sup 210}Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the conducted measurements all the isotopes were removed very efficiently from germanium. Results obtained for stainless steel were worse but still better than those achieved for copper.

  20. Light dark matter detection prospects at neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jason; Learned, John G.; Smith, Stefanie

    2009-12-01

    We consider the prospects for the detection of relatively light dark matter through direct annihilation to neutrinos. We specifically focus on the detection possibilities of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator neutrino detection devices. We find, in particular, that liquid scintillator detectors may potentially provide excellent detection prospects for dark matter in the 4-10 GeV mass range. These experiments can provide excellent corroborative checks of the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal, but may yield results for low mass dark matter in any case. We identify important tests of the ratio of electron to muon neutrino events (and neutrino versus antineutrino events), which discriminate against background atmospheric neutrinos. In addition, the fraction of events which arise from muon neutrinos or antineutrinos (Rμ and Rμ¯) can potentially yield information about the branching fractions of hypothetical dark matter annihilations into different neutrino flavors. These results apply to neutrinos from secondary and tertiary decays as well, but will suffer from decreased detectability.

  1. The Center of Light: Spectroastrometric Detection of Exomoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agol, Eric; Jansen, Tiffany; Lacy, Brianna; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria

    2015-10-01

    Direct imaging of extrasolar planets with future space-based coronagraphic telescopes may provide a means of detecting companion moons at wavelengths where the moon outshines the planet. We propose a detection strategy based on the positional variation of the center of light with wavelength, “spectroastrometry.” This new application of this technique could be used to detect an exomoon, to determine the exomoon’s orbit and the mass of the host exoplanet, and to disentangle the spectra of the planet and moon. We consider two model systems, for which we discuss the requirements for detection of exomoons around nearby stars. We simulate the characterization of an Earth-Moon analog system with spectroastrometry, showing that the orbit, the planet mass, and the spectra of both bodies can be recovered. To enable the detection and characterization of exomoons we recommend that coronagraphic telescopes should extend in wavelength coverage to 3 μm, and should be designed with spectroastrometric requirements in mind.

  2. Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Gilligan, J. M.; Dutton, G. S.; Baring, T. J.; Volk, C. M.; Dunn, R. E.; Myers, R. C.; Montzka, S. A.; Wamsley, P. R.; Hayden, A. H.; Butler, J. H.; Thompson, T. M.; Swanson, T. H.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Novelli, P. C.; Hurst, D. F.; Lobert, J. M.; Ciciora, S. J.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Thompson, T. L.; Winkler, R. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Lucarelli, M. P.

    A new instrument, the Airborne Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species IV (ACATS-IV), for measuring long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is described. Using an advanced approach to gas chromatography and electron capture detection, the instrument can detect low levels of CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), CFC-113 (CCl2F-CClF2), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), Halon-1211 (CBrClF2), hydrogen (H2), and methane (CH4) acquired in ambient samples every 180 or 360 s. The instrument operates fully-automated onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft on flights lasting up to 8 hours or more in duration. Recent measurements include 24 successful flights covering a broad latitude range (70°S-61°N) during the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (ASHOE/MAESA) campaign in 1994.

  3. Food availability affects onset of reproduction in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Simone; Hatch, Scott; Mangel, Marc; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that suboptimal developmental conditions may lead to faster life histories (younger age at recruitment and higher reproductive investment), but experimental testing of this prediction is still scarce in long-lived species. We report the effects of an experimental manipulation of food availability during early development and at recruitment on the onset of reproduction and reproductive performance (productivity at first breeding) in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, breeding on Middleton Island, Alaska. Birds were born and raised in nests with supplemented food (‘fed’) or unsupplemented control nests (‘unfed’), and later recruited into either fed or unfed nests. Fed chicks grew faster than unfed chicks, and males grew faster than females. Birds were more likely to reproduce at younger ages when recruiting into fed nests. Faster growth during development tended to increase age at recruitment in all individuals. Social rank of individuals also affected age at recruitment: B-chicks recruited earlier than A-chicks and singletons recruited later than A- and B-chicks. Productivity increased with the age at recruitment and growth rate as chick, but much of the variability remained unexplained. We conclude that results of this study at least partially support predictions of life-history theory: younger age at first breeding for kittiwakes that experienced suboptimal natal conditions, as well as greater productivity of early recruiting kittiwakes that grew in control nests compared with those that grew in food-supplemented nests. PMID:23576791

  4. ACTIVE LONGITUDES REVEALED BY LARGE-SCALE AND LONG-LIVED CORONAL STREAMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing

    2011-07-10

    We use time-series ultraviolet full sun images to construct limb-synoptic maps of the Sun. On these maps, large-scale, long-lived coronal streamers appear as repetitive sinusoid-like arcs projected over the polar regions. They are caused by high altitude plasma produced from sunspot-rich regions at latitudes generally far from the poles. The non-uniform longitudinal distribution of these streamers reveals four longitudinal zones at the surface of the Sun from which sunspots erupt preferentially over the 5 year observing interval (2006 January to 2011 April). Spots in these zones (or clusters) have individual lifetimes short compared to the lifetimes of the coronal features which they sustain, and they erupt at different times. The four sunspot clusters contain >75% of all numbered sunspots in this period. They occupy two distinct longitudinal zones separated by {approx}180{sup 0} and each spanning {approx}100{sup 0} in longitude. The rotation rates of the spot clusters are {approx}5% faster than the rates at both the surface and the bottom of the convection zone. While no convincing theoretical framework exists to interpret the sunspot clusters in the longitude-time space, their persistent and nonuniform distribution indicates long-lived, azimuthal structures beneath the surface, and are compatible with the existence of previously reported active longitudes on the Sun.

  5. Search for a Neutral Long-Lived Particle Decaying to B-Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Chad

    2009-04-01

    The existence of the Higgs boson is required by the Standard Model of particle physics, yet it has not been observed. The precise nature of the Higgs boson is unknown and the mechanism by which it interacts with known Standard Model particles is also not known. Long-lived, electrically neutral hadrons have recently been proposed in hidden-valley models and could constitute a pathway through which the Higgs boson communicates with the Standard Model. Such a scenario may provide a novel path to Higgs discovery at the Tevatron. This thesis describes a search for a neutral, long-lived particle produced in decays of Higgs bosons in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV, which decays to b-jets and lives long enough to travel at least 1.6 cm before decaying. This analysis uses 3.65 fb -1 of data recorded with the Run II D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider from April 2002 to August of 2008. We perform a search for eight possible hidden-valley scenarios resulting from a Higgs decay. No significant excess over background is observed and cross-section limits are placed at 95% CL.

  6. Search for long-lived gravitational-wave transients coincident with long gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S. H.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bessis, D.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bowers, J.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brannen, C. A.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Deleeuw, E.; Deléglise, S.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Dmitry, K.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, E.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B.; Hall, E.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Horrom, T.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hua, Z.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Iafrate, J.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasprzack, M.; Kasturi, R.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufman, K.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Kremin, A.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kucharczyk, C.; Kudla, S.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kurdyumov, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Le Roux, A.; Leaci, P.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J. B.; Lhuillier, V.; Li, T. G. F.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Litvine, V.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lloyd, D.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Luan, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Manca, G. M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martinelli, L.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; May, G.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Mokler, F.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Mori, T.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Nardecchia, I.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R.; Necula, V.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nishida, E.; Nishizawa, A.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega Larcher, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Ou, J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Peiris, P.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pinard, L.; Pindor, B.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Poole, V.; Poux, C.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodruck, M.; Roever, C.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G. R.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Soden, K.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Sperandio, L.; Staley, A.; Steinert, E.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stevens, D.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Stroeer, A. S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Szeifert, G.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tang, L.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Verma, S.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vlcek, B.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vrinceanu, D.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Wan, Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wibowo, S.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williams, T.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yum, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, X. J.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2013-12-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been linked to extreme core-collapse supernovae from massive stars. Gravitational waves (GW) offer a probe of the physics behind long GRBs. We investigate models of long-lived (˜10-1000s) GW emission associated with the accretion disk of a collapsed star or with its protoneutron star remnant. Using data from LIGO’s fifth science run, and GRB triggers from the Swift experiment, we perform a search for unmodeled long-lived GW transients. Finding no evidence of GW emission, we place 90% confidence-level upper limits on the GW fluence at Earth from long GRBs for three waveforms inspired by a model of GWs from accretion disk instabilities. These limits range from F<3.5ergscm-2 to F<1200ergscm-2, depending on the GRB and on the model, allowing us to probe optimistic scenarios of GW production out to distances as far as ≈33Mpc. Advanced detectors are expected to achieve strain sensitivities 10× better than initial LIGO, potentially allowing us to probe the engines of the nearest long GRBs.

  7. Convective Origin of Long-Lived Spots on the Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwing Lam; Mayr, Hans G.

    2015-11-01

    In an earlier paper (Chan and Mayr, 2013, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 371-372: 212-219), we discussed the generation of long-lived cyclones and anticyclones in fast rotating convection zones. The mechnism was applied to explain phenomenon like the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. In those calculations only single compact vortices could be formed and generation of anticyclones could only be realized in high latitude. Similar problems exist in calculations by other authors (e.g. Kapyla et al. 2011, ApJ, 742: 34-41; Julien et al. 2012, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 106: 392-428; Guervilly et al., 2014, JFM, 758: 407-435). Here we present new calculations with higher aspect ratio (width/depth = 8) showing that (i) anticyclones can be generated in low latitude (22.5 degree N in our case) (ii) multiple cyclones/anticyclones can form in a single computational domain. Besides demonstrating the prevalence of long-lived vortices in fast rotating convection zones, the result also shows that aspect ratio of the domain is an important factor in simulation, implying its effect also on laboratory experiments.

  8. Delay of T cell senescence by caloric restriction in aged long-lived nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Warner, Jessica; Fischer, Miranda; Park, Buyng; Hill, Brenna; Mattison, Julie; Lane, Mark A.; Roth, George S.; Ingram, Donald K.; Picker, Louis J.; Douek, Daniel C.; Mori, Motomi; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko

    2006-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has long been known to increase median and maximal lifespans and to decreases mortality and morbidity in short-lived animal models, likely by altering fundamental biological processes that regulate aging and longevity. In rodents, CR was reported to delay the aging of the immune system (immune senescence), which is believed to be largely responsible for a dramatic increase in age-related susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, it is unclear whether CR can exert similar effects in long-lived organisms. Previous studies involving 2- to 4-year CR treatment of long-lived primates failed to find a CR effect or reported effects on the immune system opposite to those seen in CR-treated rodents. Here we show that long-term CR delays the adverse effects of aging on nonhuman primate T cells. CR effected a marked improvement in the maintenance and/or production of naïve T cells and the consequent preservation of T cell receptor repertoire diversity. Furthermore, CR also improved T cell function and reduced production of inflammatory cytokines by memory T cells. Our results provide evidence that CR can delay immune senescence in nonhuman primates, potentially contributing to an extended lifespan by reducing susceptibility to infectious disease. PMID:17159149

  9. Long-lived states of antiprotonic lithium pLi {sup +} produced in p+ Li collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakimoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-09-15

    Antiproton capture by lithium atoms (p+Li{yields}pLi{sup +}+e) is investigated at collision energies from 0.01 to 10 eV by using a semiclassical (also know as quantum-classical hybrid) method, in which the radial distance between the antiproton and the Li{sup +} ion is treated as a classical variable, and the other degrees of freedom are described by quantum mechanics. Analyzing the wave packet of the emitted electrons and making use of the energy conservation rule enable us to calculate the state distribution of the produced antiprotonic lithium pLi{sup +} atoms and also to distinguish between the capture and ionization ({yields}p+Li{sup +}+e) channels at collisional energies above the ionization threshold. This method is tested for the capture of negative muons by hydrogen atoms, which was rigorously investigated in previous quantum mechanical studies. Most of the pLi{sup +} atoms produced in p+Li are found to be sufficiently stable against Auger decays and are experimentally observable as long-lived states. The present system bears close similarities to the system of p+He(2S). It is therefore expected that long-lived antiprotonic helium pHe{sup +} atoms can be efficiently produced in the p capture by metastable He(2 {sup 3}S) atoms.

  10. Disposal of type-II long-lived fission products into outer space

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Chen, Xinyi

    1996-12-31

    The authors propose an alternative approach to dispose of long-lived fission products (LLFPs) of type-II, such as {sup 79}Se, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, and long-lived radioactive {sup 93}Zr into outer solar space. An escape velocity from the solar system of 42 km/s will be provided from either a parking orbit or the moon`s surface using an electrostatic accelerator and by neutralizing the charged accelerated LLFPs ions. LLFP ions must be neutralized to avoid their being trapped in earth and solar magnetic fields; almost 100% neutralization can be achieved by recirculating the non-neutralized ions through a magnetic field in the neutralizing device. This mode of disposition requires 2.2 kW power to eject most of the LLFPs generated by one LWR. This process is much smaller than a medium-energy proton beam power, a few tens of MW, which would be necessary to transmute these LLFPs using spallation neutrons created by protons. Due to their low radioactivity composed of mainly beta decay and low-energy gamma-rays, the shielding needed is not excessive and can be easily accommodated.

  11. Application of the Perovskite Ceramics to Conditioning of the Long-Lived Fraction of HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Cherniavskaya, N. E.; Chizhevskaya, S. V.; Ochkin, A. V.

    2002-02-25

    High level waste (HLW) partitioning concept includes separation of a long-lived fraction following by its immobilization in ceramics. Improved process flow sheet suggested for implementation at PA ''Mayak'' implies production of a long-lived HLW fraction with rare earth elements (REE) as major components, Am and Cm as minor constituents, and only traces of U, Pu, and corrosion products (iron group elements). Because most of the elements occurred are trivalent, one of the most promising host phase is supposed to be REE aluminate or ferrate with perovskite structure. Major advantages of the perovskite are incorporation of trivalent REEs and actinides, simultaneous incorporation of residual corrosion products, flexibility of perovskite structure allowing accommodation of traces of tetravalent actinides (U, Pu), high chemical durability, and high HLW volume reduction. High melting points of the perovskites makes problematic melting route, therefore, cold pressing and sintering method is more preferable. In order to reduce sintering temperature pre-treatment of ceramic batches with high mechanical energy has been studied.

  12. Measurements of long-lived cosmogenic nuclides in returned comet nucleus samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Kohl, C. P.; Arnold, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of long lived cosmic ray produced radionuclides have given much information on the histories and rates of surface evolution for meteorites, the Moon and the Earth. These nuclides can be equally useful in studying cometary histories and post nebular processing of cometary surfaces. The concentration of these nuclides depends on the orbit of the comet (cosmic ray intensity changes with distance from the sun), the depth of the sampling site in the comet surface, and the rate of continuous evolution of the surface (erosion rate of surface materials). If the orbital parameters and the sampling depth are known, production rates of cosmogenic nuclides can be fairly accurately calculated by theoretical models normalized to measurement on lunar surface materials and meteoritic samples. Due to the continuous evaporation of surface materials, it is expected that the long lived radioactivities will be undersaturated. Accurate measurements of the degree of undersaturation in nuclides of different half-lives allows for the determination of the rate of surface material loss over the last few million years.

  13. Long-lived photoinduced magnetization in copper-doped ZnSe-CdSe core-shell nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A.; Brovelli, S.; Viswanatha, R.; Li, L.; Pietryga, J. M.; Klimov, V. I.; Crooker, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nanoscale materials have been investigated extensively for applications in memory and data storage. Recent advances include memories based on metal nanoparticles, nanoscale phase-change materials and molecular switches. Traditionally, magnetic storage materials make use of magnetic fields to address individual storage elements. However, new materials with magnetic properties addressable via alternative means (for example, electrical or optical) may lead to improved flexibility and storage density and are therefore very desirable. Here, we demonstrate that copper-doped chalcogenide nanocrystals exhibit not only the classic signatures of diluted magnetic semiconductors--namely, a strong spin-exchange interaction between paramagnetic Cu2+ dopants and the conduction/valence bands of the host semiconductor--but also show a pronounced and long-lived photoinduced enhancement of their paramagnetic response. Magnetic circular dichroism studies reveal that paramagnetism in these nanocrystals can be controlled and increased by up to 100% when illuminated with above-gap (blue/ultraviolet) light. These materials retain a memory of the photomagnetization for hour-long timescales in the dark, with effects persisting up to ~80 K.

  14. Presentation attack detection for face recognition using light field camera.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, R; Raja, Kiran B; Busch, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    The vulnerability of face recognition systems isa growing concern that has drawn the interest from both academic and research communities. Despite the availability of a broad range of face presentation attack detection (PAD)(or countermeasure or antispoofing) schemes, there exists no superior PAD technique due to evolution of sophisticated presentation attacks (or spoof attacks). In this paper, we present a new perspective for face presentation attack detection by introducing light field camera (LFC). Since the use of a LFC can record the direction of each incoming ray in addition to the intensity, it exhibits an unique characteristic of rendering multiple depth(or focus) images in a single capture. Thus, we present a novel approach that involves exploring the variation of the focus between multiple depth (or focus) images rendered by the LFC that in turn can be used to reveal the presentation attacks. To this extent, we first collect a new face artefact database using LFC that comprises of 80 subjects. Face artefacts are generated by simulating two widely used attacks, such as photo print and electronic screen attack. Extensive experiments carried out on the light field face artefact database have revealed the outstanding performance of the proposed PAD scheme when benchmarked with various well established state-of-the-art schemes. PMID:25622320

  15. Enhanced oil spill detection sensors in low-light environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allik, Toomas H.; Ramboyong, Len; Roberts, Mark; Walters, Mark; Soyka, Thomas J.; Dixon, Roberta; Cho, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Although advances have been made in oil spill remote detection, many electro-optic sensors do not provide real-time images, do not work well under degraded visual environments, nor provide a measure of extreme oil thickness in marine environments. A joint program now exists between BSEE and NVESD that addresses these capability gaps in remote sensing of oil spills. Laboratory experiments, calibration techniques, and field tests were performed at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; Santa Barbara, California; and the Ohmsett Test Facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. Weathered crude oils were studied spectroscopically and characterized with LWIR, and low-light-level visible/NIR, and SWIR cameras. We designed and fabricated an oil emulsion thickness calibration cell for spectroscopic analysis and ground truth, field measurements. Digital night vision cameras provided real-time, wide-dynamic-range imagery, and were able to detect and recognize oil from full sun to partial moon light. The LWIR camera provided quantitative oil analysis (identification) for >1 mm thick crude oils both day and night. Two filtered, co-registered, SWIR cameras were used to determine whether oil thickness could be measured in real time. Spectroscopic results revealed that oil emulsions vary with location and weathered state and some oils (e.g., ANS and Santa Barbara seeps) do not show the spectral rich features from archived Deep Water Horizon hyperspectral data. Multi-sensor imagery collected during the 2015 USCG Airborne Oil Spill Remote Sensing and Reporting Exercise and the design of a compact, multiband imager are discussed.

  16. Detecting Phycocynanin-Pigmented Microbes in Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    A recently invented method of measuring concentrations of phycocynanin-pigmented algae and bacteria in water is based on measurement of the spectrum of reflected sunlight. When present in sufficiently high concentrations, phycocynanin-pigmented microorganisms can be hazardous to the health of humans who use, and of animals that depend on, an affected body of water. The present method is intended to satisfy a need for a rapid, convenient means of detecting hazardous concentrations of phycocynanin-pigmented microorganisms. Rapid detection will speed up the issuance of public health warnings and performance of corrective actions. The method involves the measurement of light reflected from a body of water in at least two, but preferably five wavelength bands. In one version of the method, the five wavelength bands are bands 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral imaging instrument aboard the Landsat-7 satellite (see table). In principle, other wavelength bands indicative of phycocynanin could be used alternatively or in addition to these five. Moreover, although the method was originally intended specifically for processing Landsat- 7 TM data, it is equally applicable to processing of data from other satellite-borne instruments or from airborne, hand-held, buoy-mounted, tower-mounted, or otherwise mounted instruments that measure radiances of light reflected from water in the wavelength bands of interest.

  17. Theory of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups and quantum-rotor induced polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Hâkansson, Pär; Mamone, Salvatore; Meier, Benno; Stevanato, Gabriele; Hill-Cousins, Joseph T.; Roy, Soumya Singha; Brown, Richard C. D.; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lived nuclear spin states have a relaxation time much longer than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. Long-lived states extend significantly the time scales that may be probed with magnetic resonance, with possible applications to transport and binding studies, and to hyperpolarised imaging. Rapidly rotating methyl groups in solution may support a long-lived state, consisting of a population imbalance between states of different spin exchange symmetries. Here, we expand the formalism for describing the behaviour of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups, with special attention to the hyperpolarisation effects observed in 13CH3 groups upon rapidly converting a material with low-barrier methyl rotation from the cryogenic solid state to a room-temperature solution [M. Icker and S. Berger, J. Magn. Reson. 219, 1 (2012)]. We analyse the relaxation properties of methyl long-lived states using semi-classical relaxation theory. Numerical simulations are supplemented with a spherical-tensor analysis, which captures the essential properties of methyl long-lived states.

  18. Theory of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups and quantum-rotor induced polarisation

    SciTech Connect

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Håkansson, Pär; Mamone, Salvatore; Meier, Benno; Stevanato, Gabriele; Hill-Cousins, Joseph T.; Roy, Soumya Singha; Brown, Richard C. D.; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-28

    Long-lived nuclear spin states have a relaxation time much longer than the longitudinal relaxation time T{sub 1}. Long-lived states extend significantly the time scales that may be probed with magnetic resonance, with possible applications to transport and binding studies, and to hyperpolarised imaging. Rapidly rotating methyl groups in solution may support a long-lived state, consisting of a population imbalance between states of different spin exchange symmetries. Here, we expand the formalism for describing the behaviour of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups, with special attention to the hyperpolarisation effects observed in {sup 13}CH{sub 3} groups upon rapidly converting a material with low-barrier methyl rotation from the cryogenic solid state to a room-temperature solution [M. Icker and S. Berger, J. Magn. Reson. 219, 1 (2012)]. We analyse the relaxation properties of methyl long-lived states using semi-classical relaxation theory. Numerical simulations are supplemented with a spherical-tensor analysis, which captures the essential properties of methyl long-lived states.

  19. Constraints on long-lived remnants of neutron star binary mergers from late-time radio observations of short duration gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    The coalescence of a binary neutron star (NS) system (an `NS merger' or NSM) may in some cases produce a massive NS remnant that is long lived and, potentially, indefinitely stable to gravitational collapse. Such a remnant has been proposed as an explanation for the late-X-ray emission observed following some short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and as possible electromagnetic counterparts to the gravitational wave chirp. A stable NS merger remnant necessarily possesses a large rotational energy ≳1052 erg, the majority of which is ultimately deposited into the surrounding circumburst medium (CBM) at mildly relativistic velocities. We present Very Large Array radio observations of seven short GRBs, some of which possessed temporally extended X-ray emission, on time-scales of ˜1-3 yr following the initial burst. No radio sources were detected, with typical upper limits ˜0.3 mJy at ν = 1.4 GHz. A basic model for the synchrotron emission from the blast wave is used to constrain the presence of a long-lived NSM remnant in each system. Depending on the GRB, our non-detections translate into upper limits on the CBM density n ≲ 3 × 10- 2-3 cm-3 required for consistency with the remnant hypothesis. Our upper limits rule out a long-lived remnant in GRB 050724 and 060505, but cannot rule out such a remnant in other systems due to their lower inferred CMB densities based on afterglow modelling or the lack of such constraints.

  20. Short- and long-lived radionuclide particle size measurements in a uranium mine

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Keng-Wu; Fisenne, I.M.; Hutter, A.R.

    1997-04-01

    The radon-222 progeny and long-lived radionuclide measurements were done in a wet underground uranium mine in Saskatchewan, Canada, on Nov. 8-12, 1995. Radon-222 in the mine varied from 2 kBq/m{sup 3} at 90 m below surface to 12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the mining areas, 240 m below surface. Radon-222 progeny activity and potential alpha energy concentration appear affected by the airborne particle number concentration and size distribution. Particle number was up to 200x10{sup 3}/cm{sup 3}. Only an accumulation mode (30-1000 nm) and some bimodal size distributions in this accumulation size range were significant. Diesel particles and combustion particles from burning propane caused a major modal diameter shift to a smaller size range (50-85 nm) compared with previous values (100-200 nm). The high particle number reduced the unattached progeny (0.5-2 nm) to >5%. The nuclei mode (2-30 nm) in this test was nonexistent, and the coarse mode (>1000 nm), except from the drilling areas and on the stopes, was mostly not measurable. Airborne particle total mass and long- lived radionuclide alpha activity concentrations were very low (80- 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 4-5 mBq/m{sup 3}) owing to high ventilation rates. Mass-weighted size distributions were trimodal, with the major mode at the accumulation size region, which accounts for 45-50% of the mass. The coarse model contains the the least mass, about 20%. The size spectra from gross alpha activities were bimodal with major mode in the coarse region (>1000 nm) and a minor accumulation mode in the 50-900 nm size range. These size spectra were different from the {sup 222}Rn progeny that showed a single accumulation mode in the 50- 85 nm size region. The accumulation mode in the long-lived radionuclide size spectrum was not found in previous studies in other uranium mines.

  1. Identification of long-lived clusters and their link to slow dynamics in a model glass former.

    PubMed

    Malins, Alex; Eggers, Jens; Royall, C Patrick; Williams, Stephen R; Tanaka, Hajime

    2013-03-28

    We study the relationship between local structural ordering and dynamical heterogeneities in a model glass-forming liquid, the Wahnström mixture. A novel cluster-based approach is used to detect local energy minimum polyhedral clusters and local crystalline environments. A structure-specific time correlation function is then devised to determine their temporal stability. For our system, the lifetime correlation function for icosahedral clusters decays far slower than for those of similarly sized but topologically distinct clusters. Upon cooling, the icosahedra form domains of increasing size and their lifetime increases with the size of the domains. Furthermore, these long-lived domains lower the mobility of neighboring particles. These structured domains show correlations with the slow regions of the dynamical heterogeneities that form on cooling towards the glass transition. Although icosahedral clusters with a particular composition and arrangement of large and small particles are structural elements of the crystal, we find that most icosahedral clusters lack such order in composition and arrangement and thus local crystalline ordering makes only a limited contribution to this process. Finally, we characterize the spatial correlation of the domains of icosahedra by two structural correlation lengths and compare them with the four-point dynamic correlation length. All the length scales increase upon cooling, but in different ways. PMID:23556786

  2. Identification of long-lived clusters and their link to slow dynamics in a model glass former

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malins, Alex; Eggers, Jens; Royall, C. Patrick; Williams, Stephen R.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2013-03-01

    We study the relationship between local structural ordering and dynamical heterogeneities in a model glass-forming liquid, the Wahnström mixture. A novel cluster-based approach is used to detect local energy minimum polyhedral clusters and local crystalline environments. A structure-specific time correlation function is then devised to determine their temporal stability. For our system, the lifetime correlation function for icosahedral clusters decays far slower than for those of similarly sized but topologically distinct clusters. Upon cooling, the icosahedra form domains of increasing size and their lifetime increases with the size of the domains. Furthermore, these long-lived domains lower the mobility of neighboring particles. These structured domains show correlations with the slow regions of the dynamical heterogeneities that form on cooling towards the glass transition. Although icosahedral clusters with a particular composition and arrangement of large and small particles are structural elements of the crystal, we find that most icosahedral clusters lack such order in composition and arrangement and thus local crystalline ordering makes only a limited contribution to this process. Finally, we characterize the spatial correlation of the domains of icosahedra by two structural correlation lengths and compare them with the four-point dynamic correlation length. All the length scales increase upon cooling, but in different ways.

  3. Characterization of silver-kaolinite (AgK): an adsorbent for long-lived (129)I species.

    PubMed

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Rao, Sudhakar M

    2016-01-01

    Bentonite is a preferred buffer and backfill material for deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). Bentonite does not retain anions by virtue of its negatively charged basal surface. Imparting anion retention ability to bentonite is important to enable the expansive clay to retain long-lived (129)I (iodine-129; half-life = 16 million years) species that may escape from the HLW geological repository. Silver-kaolinite (AgK) material is prepared as an additive to improve the iodide retention capacity of bentonite. The AgK is prepared by heating kaolinite-silver nitrate mix at 400 °C to study the kaolinite influence on the transition metal ion when reacting at its dehydroxylation temperature. Thermo gravimetric-Evolved Gas Detection analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy and electron probe micro analysis indicated that silver occurs as AgO/Ag2O surface coating on thermally reacting kaolinite with silver nitrate at 400 °C. PMID:27026839

  4. Testing life history predictions in a long-lived seabird: a population matrix approach with improved parameter estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F., Jr.; Schreiber, E.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Link, W.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Schreiber, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Life history theory and associated empirical generalizations predict that population growth rate (lambda) in long-lived animals should be most sensitive to adult survival; the rates to which lambda is most sensitive should be those with the smallest temporal variances; and stochastic environmental events should most affect the rates to which lambda is least sensitive. To date, most analyses attempting to examine these predictions have been inadequate, their validity being called into question by problems in estimating parameters, problems in estimating the variability of parameters, and problems in measuring population sensitivities to parameters. We use improved methodologies in these three areas and test these life-history predictions in a population of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We support our first prediction that lambda is most sensitive to survival rates. However the support for the second prediction that these rates have the smallest temporal variance was equivocal. Previous support for the second prediction may be an artifact of a high survival estimate near the upper boundary of 1 and not a result of natural selection canalizing variances alone. We did not support our third prediction that effects of environmental stochasticity (El Ni?o) would most likely be detected in vital rates to which lambda was least sensitive and which are thought to have high temporal variances. Comparative data-sets on other seabirds, within and among orders, and in other locations, are needed to understand these environmental effects.

  5. Characterization of long-lived radioactive dust in uranium mill operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bigu, J.; DuPort, P. )

    1992-09-01

    The characteristics of long-lived radioactive dust clouds generated in several mechanical and physiochemical operations in a uranium mill have been investigated. The study consisted of the determination of dust size distribution and of the size distribution of radionuclides associated with particulate matter in the size range less than 0.1 to 26 microns. Experiments were conducted by using two different types of cascade impactors operating at different sampling flow rates. Radionuclide identification was done by using alpha-spectrometry. Long- and short-lived radionuclides were identified in dust samples. The characteristics of the dust clouds depended on the mill operation, such as crushing (vibrating grizzly, jaw crusher, cone crusher); screening; ore transportation; grinding; acid leaching; counter-current decantation; yellow cake precipitation and drying; and yellow cake packaging. In addition, other dust and radioactivity measurements have been carried out.

  6. Characterization of long-lived radioactive dust in uranium mill operations.

    PubMed

    Bigu, J; DuPort, P

    1992-09-01

    The characteristics of long-lived radioactive dust clouds generated in several mechanical and physiochemical operations in a uranium mill have been investigated. The study consisted of the determination of dust size distribution and of the size distribution of radionuclides associated with particulate matter in the size range less than 0.1 to 26 microns. Experiments were conducted by using two different types of cascade impactors operating at different sampling flow rates. Radionuclide identification was done by using alpha-spectrometry. Long- and short-lived radionuclides were identified in dust samples. The characteristics of the dust clouds depended on the mill operation, such as crushing (vibrating grizzly, jaw crusher, cone crusher); screening; ore transportation; grinding; acid leaching; counter-current decantation; yellow cake precipitation and drying; and yellow cake packaging. In addition, other dust and radioactivity measurements have been carried out. PMID:1524034

  7. Increased Metabolic Flexibility and Complexity in a Long-Lived Growth Hormone Insensitive Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether the “loss of the complexity” hypothesis can be applied to compare the metabolic patterns of mouse models with known differences in metabolic and endocrine function as well as life span. Here, we compare the complexity of locomotor activity and metabolic patterns (energy expenditure, VO2, and respiratory quotient) of the long-lived growth hormone receptor gene deleted mice (GHR− /−) and their wild-type littermates. Using approximate entropy as a measure of complexity, we observed greater metabolic complexity, as indicated by greater irregularity in the physiological fluctuations of the GHR− /− mice. Further analysis of the data also revealed lower energy costs of locomotor activity and a stronger relationship between locomotor activity and respiratory quotient in the GHR− /− mice relative to controls. These findings suggest underlying differences in metabolic modulation in the GHR− /− mice revealed especially through measures of complexity of their time-dependent fluctuations. PMID:23788654

  8. Long-lived gamma emitting radionuclides in palm dates and estimates of annual effective doses.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2015-05-01

    An investigation of long-lived gamma emitting radionuclides in palm dates was performed. The palm date samples originated from eight countries, namely India, Iran, Jordan, Libya, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. Among the samples were the palm date types Sukari, Wanana, Umkhuber, Rashudiya, Libana, Madjool, Gumaizi, Anbar, Braim, Ajwa, Khadri, Munafee, Mabroom, Daglanoor, Sulag, and Khalas. Gamma spectrometry revealed activity concentrations of (AVG ± STD) 0.983 ± 0.457, 0.469 ± 0.229, and 287.078 ± 41.871 Bq kg(-1) dry weight for 226Ra, 228Ra, and 40K, respectively. Annual average effective dose was estimated to be 32 μSv from the consumption of palm dates. Comparing these findings with values reported in the literature, it was concluded that consumption of palm dates is safe for the presence of the investigated radionuclides. PMID:25811152

  9. Progress Towards the Development of a Long-Lived Venus Lander Duplex System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger, W.; Bruder, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has begun the development of a combined Stirling cycle power and cooling system (duplex) to enable the long-lived surface exploration of Venus and other harsh environments in the solar system. The duplex system will operate from the heat provided by decaying radioisotope plutonium-238 or its substitute. Since the surface of Venus has a thick, hot, and corrosive atmosphere, it is a challenging proposition to maintain sensitive lander electronics under survivable conditions. This development effort requires the integration of: a radioisotope or fission heat source; heat pipes; high-temperature, corrosion-resistant material; multistage cooling; a novel free-displacer Stirling convertor for the lander; and a minimal vibration thermoacoustic Stirling convertor for the seismometer. The first year effort includes conceptual system design and control studies, materials development, and prototype hardware testing. A summary of these findings and test results is presented in this report.

  10. Neutrophils prime a long-lived effector macrophage phenotype that mediates accelerated helminth expulsion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Wenhui; Millman, Ariel; Craft, Joshua F.; Chen, Eunice; Patel, Nirav; Boucher, Jean L.; Urban, Joseph F.; Kim, Charles C.; Gause, William C.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the role of innate cells in acquired resistance to the natural murine parasitic nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Macrophages obtained as late as 45 days after N. brasiliensis inoculation were able to transfer accelerated parasite clearance to naive recipients. Primed macrophages adhered to larvae in vitro and triggered increased mortality of parasites. Neutrophil depletion in primed mice abrogated the protective effects of transferred macrophages and inhibited their in vitro binding to larvae. Neutrophils in parasite-infected mice showed a distinct transcriptional profile and promoted alternatively activated M2 macrophage polarization through secretory factors including IL-13. Differentially activated neutrophils in the context of a type 2 immune response therefore prime a long-lived effector macrophage phenotype that directly mediates rapid nematode damage and clearance. PMID:25173346

  11. Fast-neutron activation of long-lived nuclides in natural Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Fields, N. E.; Hixon, D.

    2015-04-01

    We measured the production of the long-lived nuclides 207 Bi, 202 Pb, and 194 Hg in a sample of natural Pb due to high-energy neutron interactions using a neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The activated sample was counted by a HPGe detector to measure the amount of radioactive nuclides present. These nuclides are critical in understanding potential backgrounds in low background experiments utilizing large amounts of Pb shielding due to cosmogenic neutron interactions in the Pb while residing on the Earth's surface. By scaling the LANSCE neutron flux to a cosmic neutron flux, we measure the sea level cosmic ray production rates of 8.0 ± 1.3 atoms/kg/day of 194 Hg, 120 ± 25 atoms/kg/day 202 Pb, and <0.17 ± 0.04 atoms/kg/day 207 Bi.

  12. A population model for a long-lived, resprouting chaparral shrub: Adenostoma fasciculatum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive stands of Adenostoma fasciculatum H.&A. (chamise) in the chaparral of California are periodically rejuvenated by fire. A population model based on size-specific demographic characteristics (thinning and fire-caused mortality) was developed to generate probable age distributions within size classes and survivorship curves for typical stands. The model was modified to assess the long term effects of different mortality rates on age distributions. Under observed mean mortality rates (28.7%), model output suggests some shrubs can survive more than 23 fires. A 10% increase in mortality rate by size class slightly shortened the survivorship curve, while a 10% decrease in mortality rate by size class greatly elongated the curve. This approach may be applicable to other long-lived plant species with complex life histories.

  13. Drug screening boosted by hyperpolarized long-lived states in NMR.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Roberto; Bornet, Aurélien; Milani, Jonas; Mammoli, Daniele; Vuichoud, Basile; Salvi, Nicola; Singh, Maninder; Laguerre, Aurélien; Passemard, Solène; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    Transverse and longitudinal relaxation times (T1ρ and T1) have been widely exploited in NMR to probe the binding of ligands and putative drugs to target proteins. We have shown recently that long-lived states (LLS) can be more sensitive to ligand binding. LLS can be excited if the ligand comprises at least two coupled spins. Herein we broaden the scope of ligand screening by LLS to arbitrary ligands by covalent attachment of a functional group, which comprises a pair of coupled protons that are isolated from neighboring magnetic nuclei. The resulting functionalized ligands have longitudinal relaxation times T1((1)H) that are sufficiently long to allow the powerful combination of LLS with dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Hyperpolarized weak "spy ligands" can be displaced by high-affinity competitors. Hyperpolarized LLS allow one to decrease both protein and ligand concentrations to micromolar levels and to significantly increase sample throughput. PMID:25196781

  14. Late cataractogenesis caused by particulate radiations and photons in long-lived mammalian species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lett, J. T.; Lee, A. C.; Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation cataractogenesis induced by small acute doses of particulate radiations and photons in the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is discussed in the context of the use of animal models to assess the radiation hazards faced by humans during lengthy sojourns in deep space. Attention is paid to (1) the importance of lifespan studies with long-lived species - the above animals have median lifespans in captivity of 5-7, 13-14 and 25 years, respectively; and (2) the magnitudes of possible dose thresholds for cataractogenesis from sparsely ionizing radiations and the modifications of those thresholds by the late degenerative phase of the phenomenon.

  15. Observation of Anomolously Long-Lived Spin Echoes in a Dense Dipolar Spin System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Rona; Dong, Yanqun; Li, Dale; Barrett, Sean

    2006-03-01

    Continuing the investigation of anomolously long-lived spin echoes found in multipulse ^29Si NMR experiments, similar proton NMR experiments were performed on adamantane (C10H16, a molecular solid that tumbles about its fcc lattice sites). In contrast to the dilute dipolar silicon samples from previous experiments [A.E. Dementyev, D. Li, K. MacLean, S.E. Barrett, Phys. Rev. B 68, 153302 (2003).], adamantane presents a densely populated, strongly coupled proton spin system in which to probe the basis of this puzzle. Despite these changes, this phenomenon, which defies conventional NMR theory, still remains. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and its impact on our current understanding of this behavior.

  16. Long-Lived States of Positronium in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, J.; Shertzer, J.; Schmelcher, P.

    1997-01-01

    We show that crossed electric and magnetic fields provide a unique way for stabilizing simple matter-antimatter systems. Theoretical calculations on positronium in crossed fields predict the existence of long-lived states in which the average positron-electron separation is several thousand angstroms.These delocalized states are due to the existence of an outer well in the potential for certain values of the pseudomomentum and field strength. The near zero probability for positron-electron overlap suppresses direct annihilation processes. Transition moments between the ground state in the outer well and the Coulomb states are also extremely small, resulting in lifetimes up to the order of one year. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Predicting long-lived, neutron-induced activation of concrete in a cyclotron vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, L. R.

    2001-07-01

    Many elements in concrete can become activated by neutrons in a cyclotron vault, but only a few of the activation products are long-lived. The most prominent of these are Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Cs-134 which build up over time from (n, γ) reactions in trace amounts of stable Europium, Cobalt, and Cesium that are normally present in concrete in concentrations of a few parts per million, or less, by weight. A retrospective analysis of data taken in connection with a previous decommissioning of a cyclotron vault, coupled with independent published data, gives us an estimate of the concentrations of these elements in concrete. With that estimate as a benchmark, we then employ a Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code to estimate the long-term activation profile in concrete for arbitrary irradiation conditions.

  18. Phase-insensitive storage of coherences by reversible mapping onto long-lived populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Simon; Genov, Genko T.; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Halfmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically develop and experimentally demonstrate a coherence population mapping (CPM) protocol to store atomic coherences in long-lived populations, enabling storage times far beyond the typically very short decoherence times of quantum systems. The amplitude and phase of an atomic coherence is written onto the populations of a three-state system by specifically designed sequences of radiation pulses from two coupling fields. As an important feature, the CPM sequences enable a retrieval efficiency, which is insensitive to the phase of the initial coherence. The information is preserved in every individual atom of the medium, enabling applications in purely homogeneously or inhomogeneously broadened ensembles even when stochastic phase jumps are the main source of decoherence. We experimentally confirm the theoretical predictions by applying CPM for storage of atomic coherences in a doped solid, reaching storage times in the regime of 1 min.

  19. Late cataractogenesis caused by particulate radiations and photons in long-lived mammalian species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lett, J. T.; Lee, A. C.; Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.

    Radiation cataractogenesis induced by small acute doses of particulate radiations and photons in the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is discussed in the context of the use of animal models to assess the radiation hazards faced by humans during lengthy sojourns in deep space. Attention is paid to: 1) the importance of lifespan studies with long-lived species - the above animals have median lifespans in captivity of 5-7, 13-14 and -25 years, respectively; 2) the magnitudes of possible dose thresholds for cataractogenesis from sparsely ionizing radiations and the modifications of those thresholds by the late degenerative phase of the phenomenon.

  20. Progress Towards the Development of a Long-Lived Venus Lander Duplex System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Roger W.; Bruder, Geoffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has begun the development of a combined Stirling cycle power and cooling system (duplex) to enable the long-lived surface exploration of Venus and other harsh environments in the solar system. The duplex system will operate from the heat provided by decaying radioisotope plutonium-238 or its substitute. Since the surface of Venus has a thick, hot, and corrosive atmosphere, it is a challenging proposition to maintain sensitive lander electronics under survivable conditions. This development effort requires the integration of: a radioisotope or fission heat source; heat pipes; high-temperature, corrosion-resistant material; multistage cooling; a novel free-displacer Stirling convertor for the lander; and a minimal vibration thermoacoustic Stirling convertor for the seismometer. The first year effort includes conceptual system design and control studies, materials development, and prototype hardware testing. A summary of these findings and test results is presented in this report.

  1. Removal of the long-lived 222Rn daughters from copper and stainless steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzel, G.; Wójcik, M.

    2012-06-01

    Removal of the long-lived 222Rn daughters from copper and stainless steel surfaces was investigated. Etching and electropolishing were applied to discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source for 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po deposition. Cleaning efficiency for 210Pb was tested with a n-type high purity germanium spectrometer, for 210Bi a beta spectrometer and for 210Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the performed measurements electropolishing removes very effectively all the isotopes from copper and stainless steel. Copper etching reduces efficiently lead and bismuth however for polonium the effect is negligible because of its fast re-deposition. For stainless steel, etching is much more effective compared to copper and it also works for 210Po.

  2. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Plasmonic light harvesting for multicolor infrared thermal detection.

    PubMed

    Mao, Feilong; Xie, Jinjin; Xiao, Shiyi; Komiyama, Susumu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Lei; An, Zhenghua

    2013-01-14

    Here we combined experiments and theory to study the optical properties of a plasmonic cavity consisting of a perforated metal film and a flat metal sheet separated by a semiconductor spacer. Three different types of optical modes are clearly identified-the propagating and localized surface plasmons on the perforated metal film and the Fabry-Perot modes inside the cavity. Interactions among them lead to a series of hybridized eigenmodes exhibiting excellent spectral tunability and spatially distinct field distributions, making the system particularly suitable for multicolor infrared light detections. As an example, we design a two-color detector protocol with calculated photon absorption efficiencies enhanced by more than 20 times at both colors, reaching ~42.8% at f1 = 20.0THz (15μm in wavelength) and ~46.2% at f2 = 29.5THz (~10.2μm) for a 1μm total thickness of sandwiched quantum wells. PMID:23388923

  4. Unattended vehicle detection for automatic traffic light control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Hady, Aya Salama; Moustafa, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Machine vision based traffic light control depends mainly on measuring traffic statistics at cross roads. Most of the previous studies have not taken unattended vehicles into consideration when calculating either the traffic density or the traffic flow. In this paper, we propose incorporating unattended vehicles into a new metric for measuring the traffic congestion. In addition to the vehicle motion analysis, opening the driver's side door is an important indicator that this vehicle is going to be unattended. Therefore, we focus in this paper on presenting how to detect this event for stationary vehicles from a live camera or a video feed. Through a set of experiments, we have found out that a Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature-descriptor with a Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier was able to successfully classify open-door vehicles from closed-door ones in 96.7% of our test dataset.

  5. Detection of circular polarization in light scattered from photosynthetic microbes

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, William B.; Hough, James; Germer, Thomas A.; Chen, Feng; DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya; Robb, Frank T.; Manset, Nadine; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Reid, Neill; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Martin, William

    2009-01-01

    The identification of a universal biosignature that could be sensed remotely is critical to the prospects for success in the search for life elsewhere in the universe. A candidate universal biosignature is homochirality, which is likely to be a generic property of all biochemical life. Because of the optical activity of chiral molecules, it has been hypothesized that this unique characteristic may provide a suitable remote sensing probe using circular polarization spectroscopy. Here, we report the detection of circular polarization in light scattered by photosynthetic microbes. We show that the circular polarization appears to arise from circular dichroism of the strong electronic transitions of photosynthetic absorption bands. We conclude that circular polarization spectroscopy could provide a powerful remote sensing technique for generic life searches. PMID:19416893

  6. Influence of food availability on demography and local population dynamics in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed Central

    Oro, Daniel; Cam, Emmanuelle; Pradel, Roger; Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the effects of food availability as a proximate factor affecting local adult survival in long-lived organisms and their consequences at local population dynamics. We used capture-recapture analysis of resightings of 10 birth cohorts of ringed Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii, to estimate adult survival and dispersal (both emigration and immigration). For the first time, permanent emigration (the transient effect in capture-recapture analysis) was modelled for the whole population and not only for the newly marked birds. Gulls exploit to a large extent fishes discarded from trawlers, and a trawling moratorium established since 1991 has decreased food supply for the colony. This was used as a natural experiment of food availability to assess its effects on adult survival and emigration. These and other demographic parameters were used in a projection modelling to assess the probabilities of extinction of the colony under two scenarios of lower and higher food availability. Food availability (together with the age of individuals) influenced emigration probabilities, but not adult survival, which was estimated at 0.91 (s.e. = 0.02). When food was in shorter supply during the chick-rearing period, emigration was very high (ca. 65%) for younger breeders, although this rate decreased sharply with age. Probabilities of extinction were very high when food availability was low, and when environmental stochasticity was introduced, and only stochastic immigration from the outside seemed to prevent extinction. The results highlight the importance of dispersal processes in the population dynamics of long-lived organisms. PMID:15101698

  7. Heavy mass elements total half-lives for selected long-lived nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, many compilations and evaluations of half-lives have been made which have uncritically accepted authors' values and uncertainties. They have merely recommended weight-averaged reported results. This evaluation attempts to reanalyze each experiment in the literature including an estimate of the standard deviation utilizing, where possible, an estimate of the systematic error. This paper constitutes a preliminary step in the process of recommending values. The long-lived nuclides of heavy mass elements are of interest in determining geological ages using the Re-Os or the Lu-Hf dating methods, in supplying information on the p-process (proton capture) of nucleo-synthesis, in providing information on lepton number conservation and the rest mass for the electron neutrino from double ..beta.. decay processes and in the case of tantalum because it represents the first long-lived state which is actually an isomer. Experimental data on the half-lives of selected nuclides have been evaluated and recommended values and uncertainties are presented for the following nuclides: /sup 128/Te, /sup 130/Te, /sup 129/I, /sup 138/La, /sup 144,145/Nd, /sup 146,147,148/Sm, /sup 152/Gd, /sup 154/Dy, /sup 176/Lu, /sup 174/Hf, /sup 180/Ta, /sup 187/Re, /sup 186/Os, /sup 190/Pt, /sup 204,205/Pb and /sup 230,232/Th. It is shown that /sup 204/Pb, which was previously thought to be radioactive, is stable. For /sup 205/Pb, the L electron capture x-rays have been revised for the M and higher x-ray yields. The resulting half-life for /sup 205/Pb is 1.9 +- 0.3 x 10/sup 7/ years. /sup 146/Sm with a half-life of 1.03 +- 0.05 x 10/sup 8/ years is the longest-lived extinct natural nuclide. 21 tabs.

  8. An unusual long-lived relativistic electron enhancement event excited by sequential CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao C.; Zhu, Guang W.; Zhang, Xiao X.; Sun, Yue Q.; Liang, Jin B.; Wei, Xin H.

    2014-11-01

    An unusual long-lived intense relativistic electron enhancement event from July to August 2004 is examined using data from Fengyun-1, POES, GOES, ACE, the Cluster Mission, and geomagnetic indices. During the initial 6 days of this event, the observed fluxes in the outer zone enhanced continuously, and their maximum increased from 2.1 × 102 cm-2 sr-1 s-1 to 3.5 × 104 cm-2 sr-1 s-1, the region of enhanced fluxes extended from L = 3.5-6.5 to L = 2.5-6.5, and the flux peak location shifted inward from L ~ 4.2 to L ~ 3.3. During the following 7 days, without any locational movement, the flux peak increased slowly and exceeded the prestorm fluxes by about 4 orders of magnitude. Subsequently, the decay rate of relativistic electrons is so slow that the peak remains over 104 cm-2 sr-1 s-1 for about 30 days. The drift resonance between ULF waves, which arose from high-speed solar wind and frequent impulses of solar wind dynamic pressure, and energetic electrons injected by substorms could be an important acceleration mechanism in this event. The local acceleration by whistler mode chorus could be another mechanism contributing to this enhancement. The plasmaspheric response to the interplanetary disturbances reveals that the enhanced outer zone is divided into two portions by the plasmapause. Accordingly, the slow loss rate in the plasmasphere due to hiss primarily contributed to the long-lived characteristic of this event. This event reveals that the outer zone population behaviors are dominated by the interplanetary variations together with the responses of geomagnetic field and plasmasphere to these variations.

  9. Demographic responses to weather fluctuations are context dependent in a long-lived amphibian.

    PubMed

    Cayuela, Hugo; Arsovski, Dragan; Thirion, Jean-Marc; Bonnaire, Eric; Pichenot, Julian; Boitaud, Sylvain; Miaud, Claude; Joly, Pierre; Besnard, Aurélien

    2016-08-01

    Weather fluctuations have been demonstrated to affect demographic traits in many species. In long-lived organisms, their impact on adult survival might be buffered by the evolution of traits that reduce variation in interannual adult survival. For example, skipping breeding is an effective behavioral mechanism that may limit yearly variation in adult survival when harsh weather conditions occur; however, this in turn would likely lead to strong variation in recruitment. Yet, only a few studies to date have examined the impact of weather variation on survival, recruitment and breeding probability simultaneously in different populations of the same species. To fill this gap, we studied the impact of spring temperatures and spring rainfall on survival, on reproductive skipping behavior and on recruitment in five populations of a long-lived amphibian, the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata). Based on capture-recapture data, our findings demonstrate that survival depends on interactions between age, population and weather variation. Varying weather conditions in the spring result in strong variation in the survival of immature toads, whereas they have little effect on adult toads. Breeding probability depends on both the individual's previous reproductive status and on the weather conditions during the current breeding season, leading to high interannual variation in recruitment. Crucially, we found that the impact of weather variation on demographic traits is largely context dependent and may thus differ sharply between populations. Our results suggest that studies predicting the impact of climate change on population dynamics should be taken with caution when the relationship between climate and demographic traits is established using only one population or few populations. We therefore highly recommend further research that includes surveys replicated in a substantial number of populations to account for context-dependent variation in demographic processes. PMID

  10. Electromagnetic Emission from Long-lived Binary Neutron Star Merger Remnants. I. Formulation of the Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Daniel M.; Ciolfi, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Binary neutron star (BNS) mergers are the leading model to explain the phenomenology of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Recent observations of long-lasting X-ray afterglows of SGRBs challenge standard paradigms and indicate that in a large fraction of events a long-lived neutron star (NS) may be formed rather than a black hole. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these afterglows is necessary in order to address the open questions concerning the nature of SGRB central engines. However, recent theoretical progress has been hampered by the fact that the timescales of interest for the afterglow emission are inaccessible to numerical relativity simulations. Here we present a detailed model to bridge the gap between numerical simulations of the merger process and the relevant timescales for the afterglows, assuming that the merger results in a long-lived NS. This model is formulated in terms of a set of coupled differential equations that follow the evolution of the post-merger system and predict its electromagnetic (EM) emission in a self-consistent way, starting from initial data that can be extracted from BNS merger simulations. The model presented here also allows us to search for suitable EM counterparts for multimessenger astronomy, which is expected to become reality within the next few years thanks to ground-based GW detectors such as advanced LIGO and Virgo. This paper discusses the formulation and implementation of the model. In a companion paper, we employ this model to predict the EM emission from ∼ {10}-2 to ∼ {10}7 {{s}} after a BNS merger and discuss the implications in the context of SGRBs and multimessenger astronomy.

  11. Regulation of Nrf2 signaling and longevity in naturally long-lived rodents.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Wason, Emily; Edrey, Yael H; Kristan, Deborah M; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2015-03-24

    The preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat, like other long-lived species and experimental models of extended longevity, is resistant to both endogenous (e.g., reactive oxygen species) and environmental stressors and also resists age-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms behind the universal resilience of longer-lived organisms to stress, however, remain elusive. We hypothesize that this resilience is linked to the activity of a highly conserved transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Nrf2 regulates the transcription of several hundred cytoprotective molecules, including antioxidants, detoxicants, and molecular chaperones (heat shock proteins). Nrf2 itself is tightly regulated by mechanisms that either promote its activity or increase its degradation. We used a comparative approach and examined Nrf2-signaling activity in naked mole-rats and nine other rodent species with varying maximum lifespan potential (MLSP). We found that constitutive Nrf2-signaling activity was positively correlated (P = 0.0285) with MLSP and that this activity was also manifested in high levels of downstream gene expression and activity. Surprisingly, we found that species longevity was not linked to the protein levels of Nrf2 itself, but rather showed a significant (P < 0.01) negative relationship with the regulators Kelch-like ECH-Associated Protein 1 (Keap1) and β-transducin repeat-containing protein (βTrCP), which target Nrf2 for degradation. These findings highlight the use of a comparative biology approach for the identification of evolved mechanisms that contribute to health span, aging, and longevity. PMID:25775529

  12. A Long-lived Cyclone In Saturn's Atmosphere: Observations And Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Legarreta, J.; Hueso, R.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2009-09-01

    The atmospheres of the Giant Planets Jupiter and Saturn possess large numbers of atmospheric vortices. On Jupiter, anticyclones are generally long-lived structures while cyclones survive a much shorter time. A long term survey of images of Saturn atmosphere obtained by the Cassini ISS camera has revealed the presence of a long-lived cyclone in Saturn's southern hemisphere during at least four years, making this vortex the longest lived cyclone on either Jupiter or Saturn. We find that the vortex drifts following the wind profile, with changes in velocity following changes of latitude. During the four years of our survey its size remained essentially constant, and there was no other structure of comparable size at its latitude. Internal circulation is cyclonic, with a maximum velocity of 20±5 m/s and an average vorticity of 4·10-5 s-1, an order of magnitude lower than planetary vorticity, but only slightly higher than the ambient vorticity. Photometric analysis shows that the vortex is located at a slightly lower altitude than its surroundings, at an average of 10-20 mbar below adjacent clouds. Finally, EPIC simulations of the vortex that reproduce its behavior imply a Rossby deformation radius of 2000 km in the weather layer (1 - 10 bar), consistent with the size of the cyclone. The long-lifetime of this cyclonic spot is surprising in view of its low tangential velocity and it suggests that low dissipation conditions prevail at mid-latitudes in Saturn's upper troposphere. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. RH acknowledges a "Ramón y Cajal” contract from MEC.

  13. Wind Shear May Produce Long-Lived Storms and Squall Lines on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Barth, Erika

    2015-11-01

    The impact of CAPE and wind shear on storms in a Titan-like environment are explored through numerical simulation. Numerical modeling indicates that both large-scale shear and CAPE environment control the dynamics of the clouds. This response to the large-scale environment is analogous to the behavior of deep convective clouds on Earth. The balance between shear and CAPE, as expressed through the bulk Richardson Number (NR), is a good indicator of the response of a storm to its environment. Large NR results in short-lived single cell storms (Figure 1). As shear increases for a given CAPE, and NR decreases, the storms transition to a multicellular regime. Multicellular storms are longer-lived and are characterized by a downdraft generated cold pool that interacts with the background shear vorticity to initiate cells along the leading edge of the storm gust front (Figure 2). Very long-lived storms (>24 hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. The most intense multicellular systems simulated in this study behave similar to terrestrial squall lines, and very long-lived storms (>24 hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. Cloud outbursts and linear cloud features observed from ground and Cassini may be the result of these organized storm systems. Varying amounts of shear in the Titan environment might explain the variety of convective cloud expressions identified in Cassini orbiter and ground-based observations. The resulting distribution and magnitude of precipitation as well as surface winds associated with storms have implications on the formation of fluvial and aeolian features, including dunes, and on the exchange of methane with the surface and lakes.

  14. Climatic conditions cause complex patterns of covariation between demographic traits in a long-lived raptor.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; van de Pol, Martijn; Nielsen, Jan T; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Møller, Anders P

    2015-05-01

    Environmental variation can induce life-history changes that can last over a large part of the lifetime of an organism. If multiple demographic traits are affected, expected changes in climate may influence environmental covariances among traits in a complex manner. Thus, examining the consequences of environmental fluctuations requires that individual information at multiple life stages is available, which is particularly challenging in long-lived species. Here, we analyse how variation in climatic conditions occurring in the year of hatching of female goshawks Accipiter gentilis (L.) affects age-specific variation in demographic traits and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). LRS decreased with increasing temperature in April in the year of hatching, due to lower breeding frequency and shorter reproductive life span. In contrast, the probability for a female to successfully breed was higher in years with a warm April, but lower LRS of the offspring in these years generated a negative covariance among fecundity rates among generations. The mechanism by which climatic conditions generated cohort effects was likely through influencing the quality of the breeding segment of the population in a given year, as the proportion of pigeons in the diet during the breeding period was positively related to annual and LRS, and the diet of adult females that hatched in warm years contained fewer pigeons. Climatic conditions experienced during different stages of individual life histories caused complex patterns of environmental covariance among demographic traits even across generations. Such environmental covariances may either buffer or amplify impacts of climate change on population growth, emphasizing the importance of considering demographic changes during the complete life history of individuals when predicting the effect of climatic change on population dynamics of long-lived species. PMID:25403010

  15. Contrasting Regeneration Strategies in Climax and Long-Lived Pioneer Tree Species in a Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyang; Feng, Hui; Zhang, Yanru; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    1 This study investigated 15 coexisting dominant species in a humid subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest China, consisting of long-lived pioneers and climax species occurring in natural and disturbed regimes. The authors hypothesized that there would be non-tradeoff scaling relationships between sprouting and seed size among species, with the aim of uncovering the ecological relationship between plant sprouting and seed characteristics in the two functional groups. 2 The sprouting variations of the species were initially examined using pairwise comparisons between natural and disturbed habitats within and across species and were noted to show a continuum in persistence niches across the forest dominants, which may underlie the maintenance of plant diversity. Second, a significantly positive, rather than tradeoff, relationship between sprout number and seed size across species within each of the two functional groups was observed, and an obvious elevational shift with a common slope among the two groups in their natural habitat was examined. The results indicate the following: 1) the relationship of seed size vs. sprouts in the natural habitat is more likely to be bet-hedging among species within a guild in a forest; 2) climax species tend to choose seeding rather than sprouting regeneration, and vice versa for the long-lived pioneers; and 3) the negative correlation between sprouting and seed dispersal under disturbed conditions may imply a tradeoff between dispersal and persistence in situ during the process of plant regeneration. 3 These findings may be of potential significance for urban greening using native species. PMID:25383688

  16. Detecting skin malignancy using elastic light scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canpolat, Murat; Akman, Ayşe; Çiftçioğlu, M. Akif; Alpsoy, Erkan

    2007-07-01

    We have used elastic light scattering spectroscopy to differentiate between malign and benign skin lesions. The system consists of a UV spectrometer, a single optical fiber probe and a laptop. The single optical fiber probe was used for both delivery and detection of white light to tissue and from the tissue. The single optical fiber probe received singly scattered photons rather than diffused photons in tissue. Therefore, the spectra are correlated with morphological differences of the cells. It has been shown that spectra of malign skin lesions are different than spectra of benign skin lesions. While slopes of the spectra taken on benign lesions or normal skin tissues were positive, slopes of the spectra taken on malign skin lesions tissues were negative. In vivo experiments were conducted on 20 lesions from 18 patients (11 men with mean age of 68 +/- 9 years and 7 women with mean age of 52 +/- 20 years) applied to the Department of Dermatology and Venerology. Before the biopsy, spectra were taken on the lesion and adjacent (approximately 1 cm distant) normal-appearing skin. Spectra of the normal skin were used as a control group. The spectra were correlated to the pathology results with sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 89%, respectively. Due to small diameter of fiber probe and limited number of sampling (15), some positive cases are missed, which is lowered the sensitivity of the system. The results are promising and could suggest that the system may be able to detect malignant skin lesion non-invasively and in real time.

  17. Robust sky light polarization detection with an S-wave plate in a light field camera.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Cao, Yu; Liu, Haibo; Liu, Zejin

    2016-05-01

    The sky light polarization navigator has many advantages, such as low cost, no decrease in accuracy with continuous operation, etc. However, current celestial polarization measurement methods often suffer from low performance when the sky is covered by clouds, which reduce the accuracy of navigation. In this paper we introduce a new method and structure based on a handheld light field camera and a radial polarizer, composed of an S-wave plate and a linear polarizer, to detect the sky light polarization pattern across a wide field of view in a single snapshot. Each micro-subimage has a special intensity distribution. After extracting the texture feature of these subimages, stable distribution information of the angle of polarization under a cloudy sky can be obtained. Our experimental results match well with the predicted properties of the theory. Because the polarization pattern is obtained through image processing, rather than traditional methods based on mathematical computation, this method is less sensitive to errors of pixel gray value and thus has better anti-interference performance. PMID:27140364

  18. Direct detection of light ''Ge-phobic'' exothermic dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Georgescu, Andreea; Huh, Ji-Haeng E-mail: a.georgescu@physics.ucla.edu

    2014-07-01

    We present comparisons of direct dark matter (DM) detection data for light WIMPs with exothermic scattering with nuclei (exoDM), both assuming the Standard Halo Model (SHM) and in a halo model–independent manner. Exothermic interactions favor light targets, thus reducing the importance of upper limits derived from xenon targets, the most restrictive of which is at present the LUX limit. In our SHM analysis the CDMS-II-Si and CoGeNT regions become allowed by these bounds, however the recent SuperCDMS limit rejects both regions for exoDM with isospin-conserving couplings. An isospin-violating coupling of the exoDM, in particular one with a neutron to proton coupling ratio of -0.8 (which we call ''Ge-phobic''), maximally reduces the DM coupling to germanium and allows the CDMS-II-Si region to become compatible with all bounds. This is also clearly shown in our halo-independent analysis.

  19. Accumulation of long-lived mRNAs associated with germination in embryos during seed development of rice.

    PubMed

    Sano, Naoto; Ono, Hanako; Murata, Kazumasa; Yamada, Tetsuya; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki

    2015-07-01

    Mature dry seeds contain translatable mRNAs called long-lived mRNAs. Early studies have shown that protein synthesis during the initial phase of seed germination occurs from long-lived mRNAs, without de novo transcription. However, the gene expression systems that generate long-lived mRNAs in seeds are not well understood. To examine the accumulation of long-lived mRNAs in developing rice embryos, germination tests using the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (Act D) were performed with the Japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. Although over 70% of embryos at 10 days after flowering (DAF) germinated in the absence of the inhibitor, germination was remarkably impaired in embryos treated with Act D. In contrast, more than 70% of embryos at 20, 25, 30 and 40 DAF germinated in the presence of Act D. The same results were obtained when another cultivar, Koshihikari, was used, indicating that the long-lived mRNAs required for germination predominantly accumulate in embryos between 10 and 20 DAF during seed development. RNA-Seq identified 529 long-lived mRNA candidates, encoding proteins such as ABA, calcium ion and phospholipid signalling-related proteins, and HSP DNA J, increased from 10 to 20 DAF and were highly abundant in 40 DAF embryos of Nipponbare and Koshihikari. We also revealed that these long-lived mRNA candidates are clearly up-regulated in 10 DAF germinating embryos after imbibition, suggesting that the accumulation of these mRNAs in embryos is indispensable for the induction of germination. The findings presented here may facilitate in overcoming irregular seed germination or producing more vigorous seedlings. PMID:25941326

  20. Strong resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds for ionizing radiation as studied by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement: Effect of long-lived and super-long-lived radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Katoh, Hiromi; Kumada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tano, Shigemitsu; Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Resistance of seeds for ionizing radiation effects on Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus seeds were investigated by ESR, ENDOR, ESE spectroscopy and germination measurement. Two types of free radicals, such as long-lived (LL) and super-long-lived (SL) radicals, were produced by the γ-irradiation in the seeds. More than 90% of the 1 kGy-irradiated-seeds can germinate probably by decreasing the LL radicals by absorbing water. 10 kGy-irradiated-seeds cannot germinate at all probably due to the existence of significant amounts of the SL radicals even after absorbing water.

  1. Tradeoffs in basal area growth and reproduction shift over the lifetime of a long-lived tropical species.

    PubMed

    Staudhammer, Christina L; Wadt, Lúcia H O; Kainer, Karen A

    2013-09-01

    Understanding of the extent to which reproductive costs drive growth largely derives from reproductively mature temperate trees in masting and non-masting years. We modeled basal area increment (BAI) and explored current growth-reproduction tradeoffs and changes in such allocation over the life span of a long-lived, non-masting tropical tree. We integrated rainfall and soil variables with data from 190 Bertholletia excelsa trees of different diameter at breast height (DBH) sizes, crown characteristics, and liana loads, quantifying BAI and reproductive output over 4 and 6 years, respectively. While rainfall explains BAI in all models, regardless of DBH class or ontogenic stage, light (based on canopy position and crown form) is most critical in the juvenile (5 cm ≤ DBH < 50 cm) phase. Suppressed trees are only present as juveniles and grow ten times slower (1.45 ± 2.73 m(2) year(-1)) than trees in dominant and co-dominant positions (13.25 ± 0.82 and 12.90 ± 1.35 m(2) year(-1), respectively). Additionally, few juvenile trees are reproductive, and those that are, demonstrate reduced growth, as do reproductive trees in the next 50 to 100 cm DBH class, suggesting growth-reproduction tradeoffs. Upon reaching the canopy, however, and attaining a sizeable girth, this pattern gradually shifts to one where BAI and reproduction are influenced independently by variables such as liana load, crown size and soil properties. At this stage, BAI is largely unaffected by fruit production levels. Thus, while growth-reproduction tradeoffs clearly exist during early life stages, effects of reproductive allocation diminish as B. excelsa increases in size and maturity. PMID:23404069

  2. Long-lived but Discontinuous Hotspot Volcanism of the South Pacific Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppers, A.; Staudigel, H.; Wijbrans, J.; Pringle, M.

    2001-12-01

    Hotspots of the South Pacific have been operating since the Early Cretaceous. We present evidence that their heterogeneous geochemical character and, hence, their respective HIMU-EMI-EMII mantle sources, can be traced back into the West Pacific Seamount Province (WPSP) using plate tectonic reconstructions. This implies that the HIMU, EMI and EMII mantle components are enduring features within the Earth's mantle, at least, for the last 140 Myr. These correlations are eminent on the scale of the WPSP and the South Pacific Thermal and Isotopic Anomaly (SOPITA) although the evolution of individual hotspots emerges notably more complicated. Hotspots in the WPSP and SOPITA mantle regions typically display intermittent volcanic activity, longevities shorter than 70 Myr, superposition of hotspot volcanism, and indirectly the motion of their mantle plumes through time. In our plate tectonic reconstructions, we use 40Ar/39Ar seamount ages and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signatures to map out Cretaceous hotspot volcanism in the WPSP and to characterize its evolution with respect to the currently active hotspots in the SOPITA region. EM-type Magellan, Anewetak, Ralik and Ratak seamount trails can be traced back to the magmatic activity of the Macdonald, Rurutu and Rarotonga hotspots during the Cretaceous; the HIMU-type seamounts within the Southern Wake seamount trail (97-120 Ma) most likely originated from the Mangaia-Rurutu "hot-line" in the Cook-Austral Islands. The Typhoon and Japanese guyots terminated their volcanism during the Early Cretaceous and have no presently active hot spot. However, the currently active Samoan, Society, Pitcairn and Marquesas hotspots may be traced back only to about 30-70 Myr and lack long-lived counterparts in the WPSP. These hotspots may have become active over the last 30-70 Myr only. All in all hotspot volcanism in the South Pacific seems to be controlled by a "superplume" type of mantle convection giving rise to multiple weak mantle plumes, each

  3. The 'Geosaucer' and beyond - 'The Future of Small Long-Lived Landing Systems for Titan'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Caroline; Richter, Lutz; Ho, Tra-Mi; Kroemer, Olaf; Sohl, Frank; Karatekin, Ozgur

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme, the TandEM/TSSM mission to Saturn's moon Titan has been proposed and studied, using two in-situ elements (ISE's), i.e. a Montgolfière and a Lake lander. Emerging from the availability of unallocated mass and volume at the Montgolfière, a high risk, but feasible approach of using these margins has been proposed, that would allow to investigate geophysical properties of the solid surface and deep interior, which were not feasible by the other two ISE's. The proposed package of instruments was designed for limited lifetime, using its own dedicated power supply, thermal control and communication subsystem. It would have been integrated into the Montgolfière's heat shield and would have hitchhiked to the surface after the heat shield would have been separated from the Montgolfière, benefiting from atmospheric conditions that would have allowed impact conditions to be sufficiently benign to allow survival and later operation the package. Though the TandEM/TSSM mission has not been selected for further study within the Cosmic Vision framework, we will present the basic outcomes of the performed study, keeping in mind the importance of a long-lived geophysical lander for Titan exploration. Based on this, we will propose and evaluate future concepts for long-lived landing systems that could be comparable or inherently different from the ‘Geosaucer' concept, which was in a first mass allocation roughly 25 kg with a lifetime of 135 days. For this purpose we will look into general mission constraints, requirements and demands in technology development. Within this presentation we will also give an overview over the science rationale of such a geophysical lander. Evidently, long-time monitoring of geophysical processes on the large icy moons and especially on Titan will give new insights into the internal structure of these bodies, i.e. hinting to subsurface oceans. Consequently, the ‘Geosaucer' instrument package

  4. Patterns in Long-Lived Continental Magmatism; Crustal Modulation of Mantle-Derived Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, A. R.; de Silva, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Patterns in volumetric eruption rate of continental intermediate to silicic magmatic systems have implications for how heat is delivered and processed in the crust, and reveal the evolution of crustal scale magmatic systems. Drawing on the Neogene volcanic rocks of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) and the Aucanquilcha Volcanic Cluster (AVC) of the Central Andes, we compare their histories to other long-lived crustal magmatic complexes. Erupted volumes of such systems vary from a few tens of km3 to tens of thousands of km3 of magma with associated plutonic volumes several times that. Despite differences in volume, these complexes share a general family resemblance. They have lifespans of about 10 million years. Where resolution allows, the record of activity may reveal distinct pulses, lasting a few hundred thousand to ~1 to 2 m.y., demonstrating the composite nature of the magmatic systems. These complexes bear isotopic and compositional evidence of crustal and mantle involvement in the origin of the magmas and mineralogic evidence for subsequent equilibration at shallow crustal levels. Many, but not all, have abundant ignimbrites. Most strikingly they all have a three stage evolutionary history that is scale independent. An early waxing stage characterized by low volume, low flux volcanism that is compositionally diverse and may be dispersed; a climactic stage of dramatically higher flux, that is compositionally more focused and may be spatially more focused; and a final waning stage of small eruptions. We interpret these patterns to be the result of long-lived thermal pulses delivered from the mantle in the form of basaltic magma. A fundamental question is to what extent does the surface pattern reflect the mantle input. We suggest that the thermal signal is modulated by interaction and thermal incubation in the crust that leads to development of a large crustal magma reservoir that in turn modulates the composition of erupted magma. The interplay

  5. Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; SCHMITT, RANDAL L.; HARGIS JR., PHILIP J.; JOHNSON, MARK S.; KLARKOWSKI, JAMES R.; MAGEE, GLEN I.; BENDER, GARY LEE

    2003-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has recognized that biological and chemical toxins are a real and growing threat to troops, civilians, and the ecosystem. The Explosives Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working with the University of Montana, the Southwest Research Institute, and other agencies to evaluate the feasibility of directing honeybees to specific targets, and for environmental sampling of biological and chemical ''agents of harm''. Recent work has focused on finding and locating buried landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Tests have demonstrated that honeybees can be trained to efficiently and accurately locate explosive signatures in the environment. However, it is difficult to visually track the bees and determine precisely where the targets are located. Video equipment is not practical due to its limited resolution and range. In addition, it is often unsafe to install such equipment in a field. A technology is needed to provide investigators with the standoff capability to track bees and accurately map the location of the suspected targets. This report documents Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) tests that were performed by SNL. These tests have shown that a LIDAR system can be used to track honeybees. The LIDAR system can provide both the range and coordinates of the target so that the location of buried munitions can be accurately mapped for subsequent removal.

  6. Magnetoluminescent light switches--dual modality in DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Smolensky, Eric D; Peterson, Katie L; Weitz, Evan A; Lewandowski, Cutler; Pierre, Valérie C

    2013-06-19

    The synthesis and properties of two responsive magnetoluminescent iron oxide nanoparticles for dual detection of DNA by MRI and luminescence spectroscopy are presented. These magnetoluminescent agents consist of iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with metallointercalators via a polyethylene glycol linker. Two metallointercalators were investigated: Ru(bpy')(phen)(dppz), which turns on upon DNA intercalation, and Eu-DOTA-Phen, which turns off. The characteristic light-switch responses of the metallointercalators are not affected by the iron oxide nanoparticles; upon binding to DNA the luminescence of the ruthenium complexes increases by ca. 20-fold, whereas that of the europium complex is >95% quenched. Additionally, the 17-20 nm magnetite cores, having permeable PEG coatings and stable dopamide anchors, render the two constructs efficient responsive contrast agents for MRI with unbound longitudinal and transverse relaxivities of 12.4-9.2 and 135-128 mM(-1)(Fe)s(-1), respectively. Intercalation of the metal complexes in DNA results in the formation of large clusters of nanoparticles with a resultant decrease of both r1 and r2 by 32-63% and 24-38%, respectively. The potential application of these responsive magnetoluminescent assemblies and their reversible catch-and-release properties for the purification of DNA is presented. PMID:23692333

  7. Direct detection of light anapole and magnetic dipole DM

    SciTech Connect

    Nobile, Eugenio Del; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu E-mail: jhhuh@physics.ucla.edu

    2014-06-01

    We present comparisons of direct detection data for ''light WIMPs'' with an anapole moment interaction (ADM) and a magnetic dipole moment interaction (MDM), both assuming the Standard Halo Model (SHM) for the dark halo of our galaxy and in a halo-independent manner. In the SHM analysis we find that a combination of the 90% CL LUX and CDMSlite limits or the new 90% CL SuperCDMS limit by itself exclude the parameter space regions allowed by DAMA, CoGeNT and CDMS-II-Si data for both ADM and MDM. In our halo-independent analysis the new LUX bound excludes the same potential signal regions as the previous XENON100 bound. Much of the remaining signal regions is now excluded by SuperCDMS, while the CDMSlite limit is much above them. The situation is of strong tension between the positive and negative search results both for ADM and MDM. We also clarify the confusion in the literature about the ADM scattering cross section.

  8. Determination of the solid angle and response function of a hemispherical spectrograph with injection lens for Auger electrons emitted from long lived projectile states

    SciTech Connect

    Doukas, S.; Madesis, I.; Dimitriou, A.; Zouros, T. J. M.; Laoutaris, A.; Benis, E. P.

    2015-04-15

    We present SIMION 8.1 Monte Carlo type simulations of the response function and detection solid angle for long lived Auger states (lifetime τ ∼ 10{sup −9} − 10{sup −5} s) recorded by a hemispherical spectrograph with injection lens and position sensitive detector used for high resolution Auger spectroscopy of ion beams. Also included in these simulations for the first time are kinematic effects particular to Auger emission from fast moving projectile ions such as line broadening and solid angle limitations allowing for a more accurate and realistic line shape modeling. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with measured electron line shapes of both long lived 1s2s2p{sup 4}P and prompt Auger projectile states formed by electron capture in collisions of 25.3 MeV F{sup 7+} with H{sub 2} and 12.0 MeV C{sup 4+} with Ne recorded at 0{sup ∘} to the beam direction. These results are important for the accurate evaluation of the 1s2s2p {sup 4}P/{sup 2}P ratio of K-Auger cross sections whose observed non-statistical production by electron capture into He-like ions, recently a field of interesting interpretations, awaits further resolution.

  9. 48Ca+249Bk fusion reaction leading to element Z = 117: long-lived α-decaying 270Db and discovery of 266Lr.

    PubMed

    Khuyagbaatar, J; Yakushev, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Ackermann, D; Andersson, L-L; Asai, M; Block, M; Boll, R A; Brand, H; Cox, D M; Dasgupta, M; Derkx, X; Di Nitto, A; Eberhardt, K; Even, J; Evers, M; Fahlander, C; Forsberg, U; Gates, J M; Gharibyan, N; Golubev, P; Gregorich, K E; Hamilton, J H; Hartmann, W; Herzberg, R-D; Heßberger, F P; Hinde, D J; Hoffmann, J; Hollinger, R; Hübner, A; Jäger, E; Kindler, B; Kratz, J V; Krier, J; Kurz, N; Laatiaoui, M; Lahiri, S; Lang, R; Lommel, B; Maiti, M; Miernik, K; Minami, S; Mistry, A; Mokry, C; Nitsche, H; Omtvedt, J P; Pang, G K; Papadakis, P; Renisch, D; Roberto, J; Rudolph, D; Runke, J; Rykaczewski, K P; Sarmiento, L G; Schädel, M; Schausten, B; Semchenkov, A; Shaughnessy, D A; Steinegger, P; Steiner, J; Tereshatov, E E; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Tinschert, K; Torres De Heidenreich, T; Trautmann, N; Türler, A; Uusitalo, J; Ward, D E; Wegrzecki, M; Wiehl, N; Van Cleve, S M; Yakusheva, V

    2014-05-01

    The superheavy element with atomic number Z=117 was produced as an evaporation residue in the (48)Ca+(249)Bk fusion reaction at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA at GSI Darmstadt, Germany. The radioactive decay of evaporation residues and their α-decay products was studied using a detection setup that allowed measuring decays of single atomic nuclei with half-lives between sub-μs and a few days. Two decay chains comprising seven α decays and a spontaneous fission each were identified and are assigned to the isotope (294)117 and its decay products. A hitherto unknown α-decay branch in (270)Db (Z = 105) was observed, which populated the new isotope (266)Lr (Z = 103). The identification of the long-lived (T(1/2) = 1.0(-0.4)(+1.9) h) α-emitter (270)Db marks an important step towards the observation of even more long-lived nuclei of superheavy elements located on an "island of stability." PMID:24836239

  10. Long-lived spin plasmons in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Amit; Polini, Marco; Vignale, Giovanni; Flatté, Michael E.

    2014-10-01

    Collective charge-density modes (plasmons) of the clean two-dimensional unpolarized electron gas are stable, for momentum conservation prevents them from decaying into single-particle excitations. Collective spin-density modes (spin plasmons) possess no similar protection and rapidly decay by production of electron-hole pairs. Nevertheless, if the electron gas has a sufficiently high degree of spin polarization (P >1/7, where P is the ratio of the equilibrium spin density and the total electron density, for a parabolic single-particle spectrum) we find that a long-lived spin plasmon—a collective mode in which the densities of up and down spins oscillate with opposite phases—can exist within a "pseudogap" of the single-particle excitation spectrum. The ensuing collectivization of the spin excitation spectrum is quite remarkable and should be directly visible in Raman-scattering experiments. The predicted mode could dramatically improve the efficiency of coupling between spin-wave-generating devices, such as spin-torque oscillators.

  11. Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: comparing short and long lived species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a short lived species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long lived and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collated from many species indicate that longer lived species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproductive function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-lived birds.

  12. Long-lived vortices as a mode of deep ventilation in the Greenland Sea.

    PubMed

    Gascard, Jean-Claude; Watson, Andrew J; Messias, Marie-José; Olsson, K Anders; Johannessen, Truls; Simonsen, Knud

    2002-04-01

    The Greenland Sea is one of a few sites in the world ocean where convection to great depths occurs-a process that forms some of the densest waters in the ocean. But the role of deep convective eddies, which result from surface cooling and mixing across density surfaces followed by geostrophic adjustment, has not been fully taken into account in the description of the initiation and growth of convection. Here we present tracer, float and hydrographic observations of long-lived ( approximately 1 year) and compact ( approximately 5 km core diameter) vortices that reach down to depths of 2 km. The eddies form in winter, near the rim of the Greenland Sea central gyre, and rotate clockwise with periods of a few days. The cores of the observed eddies are constituted from a mixture of modified Atlantic water that is warm and salty with polar water that is cold and fresh. We infer that these submesoscale coherent eddies contribute substantially to the input of Atlantic and polar waters to depths greater than 500 m in the central Greenland Sea. PMID:11932742

  13. Search for long-lived particles in e+e- collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J. P.

    2015-04-29

    In this study, we present a search for a neutral, long-lived particle L that is produced in e+e collisions and decays at a significant distance from the e+e interaction point into various flavor combinations of two oppositely charged tracks. The analysis uses an e+e data sample with a luminosity of 489.1 fb–1 collected by the BABAR detector at the Υ(4S), Υ(3S), and Υ(2S) resonances and just below the Υ(4S). Fitting the two-track mass distribution in search of a signal peak, we do not observe a significant signal, and set 90% confidence level upper limits on the product of the L production cross section, branching fraction, and reconstruction efficiency for six possible two-body L decay modes as a function of the L mass. The efficiency is given for each final state as a function of the mass, lifetime, and transverse momentum of the candidate, allowing application of the upper limits to any production model. In addition, upper limits are provided on the branching fraction B(B → XsL), where Xs is a strange hadronic system.

  14. Nest fidelity is driven by multi-scale information in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandre; Paiva, Vítor H; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2014-10-22

    Although the reproductive success of most organisms depends on factors acting at several spatial scales, little is known about how organisms are able to synthesize multi-scale information to optimize reproduction. Using longitudinal data from a long-lived seabird, Monteiro's storm-petrel, we show that average breeding success is strongly related to oceanic conditions at the population level, and we postulate that (i) individuals use proximal information (their own reproduction outcome in year t) to assess the qualities of their mate and nest and to decide to retain them or not in year t + 1; (ii) the intensity of these responses depends on the quality of the oceanic environment in year t, which affects the predictability of reproduction outcome in year t + 1. Our results confirm that mate and nest fidelities are higher following successful reproduction and that the relationship between the success of a given pair and subsequent nest fidelity is stronger in years with unfavourable oceanic conditions, suggesting that individuals rely on distant information to modulate their use of proximal information and adjust their breeding strategy. PMID:25209940

  15. Contrasted patterns of age-specific reproduction in long-lived seabirds.

    PubMed

    Berman, M; Gaillard, J-M; Weimerskirch, H

    2009-01-22

    While the number of studies providing evidence of actuarial senescence is increasing, and covers a wide range of taxa, the process of reproductive senescence remains poorly understood. In fact, quite high reproductive output until the last years of life has been reported in several vertebrate species, so that whether or not reproductive senescence is widespread remains unknown. We compared age-specific changes of reproductive parameters between two closely related species of long-lived seabirds: the small-sized snow petrel Pagodroma nivea, and the medium-sized southern fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides. Both are sympatric in Antarctica. We used an exceptional dataset collected over more than 40 years to assess age-specific variations of both breeding probability and breeding success. We found contrasted age-specific reproductive patterns between the two species. Reproductive senescence clearly occurred from 21 years of age onwards in the southern fulmar, in both breeding probability and success, whereas we did not report any decline in the breeding success of the snow petrel, although a very late decrease in the proportion of breeders occurred at 34 years. Such a contrasted age-specific reproductive pattern was rather unexpected. Differences in life history including size or migratory behaviour are the most likely candidates to account for the difference we reported in reproductive senescence between these sympatric seabird species. PMID:18832060

  16. Signatures of long-lived spiral patterns: The color gradient trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa Amelia

    2015-03-01

    Based both on observations and simulations, recent works propose that the speed of the spiral pattern in disk galaxies may decrease with increasing radius; the implications are that patterns are actually short-lived, and that the azimuthal color/age gradients across spiral arms predicted by density wave theory could not be produced. We, however, have consistently found such gradients, and measured spiral pattern speeds by comparing the observations with stellar population synthesis models (González & Graham 1996; Martínez-García et al. 2009a, b; Martínez-García & González-Lópezlira 2011). Here, we summarize our previous results in non-barred and weakly barred spirals, together with six new, as yet unpublished, objects. On the other hand, we have indeed found a trend whereby pattern speeds at smaller radii are larger than expected from a model that assumes purely circular orbits (cf. Figure 1), likely due to the effect of spiral shocks on the orbits of newborn stars. The results suggest that spirals may behave as steady long-lived patterns.

  17. Genomic evidence for large, long-lived ancestors to placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Romiguier, J; Ranwez, V; Douzery, E J P; Galtier, N

    2013-01-01

    It is widely assumed that our mammalian ancestors, which lived in the Cretaceous era, were tiny animals that survived massive asteroid impacts in shelters and evolved into modern forms after dinosaurs went extinct, 65 Ma. The small size of most Mesozoic mammalian fossils essentially supports this view. Paleontology, however, is not conclusive regarding the ancestry of extant mammals, because Cretaceous and Paleocene fossils are not easily linked to modern lineages. Here, we use full-genome data to estimate the longevity and body mass of early placental mammals. Analyzing 36 fully sequenced mammalian genomes, we reconstruct two aspects of the ancestral genome dynamics, namely GC-content evolution and nonsynonymous over synonymous rate ratio. Linking these molecular evolutionary processes to life-history traits in modern species, we estimate that early placental mammals had a life span above 25 years and a body mass above 1 kg. This is similar to current primates, cetartiodactyls, or carnivores, but markedly different from mice or shrews, challenging the dominant view about mammalian origin and evolution. Our results imply that long-lived mammals existed in the Cretaceous era and were the most successful in evolution, opening new perspectives about the conditions for survival to the Cretaceous-Tertiary crisis. PMID:22949523

  18. Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton-proton collisions at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. 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A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. 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B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Primavera, F.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Biselloa, D.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. 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D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Moon, D. H.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. 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Ferreira; Gallinaro, M.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Ramos, J. P. Fernández; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Yzquierdo, A. Pérez-Calero; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Wollny, H.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Musella, P.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Millan Mejias, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Kao, K. Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Zorbilmez, C.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Sekmen, S.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Albayrak, E. A.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, T.; Cankocak, K.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; De La Barca Sanchez, M. Calderon; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Negrete, M. Olmedo; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Krohn, M.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Ratnikov, F.; Snow, G. R.; Zvada, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R. J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Malik, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Gutay, L.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Korjenevski, S.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Kaplan, S.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Vuosalo, C.; Woods, N.

    2015-04-01

    A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton-proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6 of 8 proton-proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 h of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of events. Limits are presented at 95 % confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass 1000 and a top squark with mass 525 are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 s and 1000. These results are the most stringent constraints on stopped particles to date.

  19. Long-lived neutral-kaon flux measurement for the KOTO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, T.; Ahn, J. K.; Banno, S.; Campbell, M.; Comfort, J.; Duh, Y. T.; Hineno, T.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Inagaki, T.; Iwai, E.; Kawasaki, N.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Ko, J. W.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Kurilin, A. S.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, S. K.; Lim, G. Y.; Ma, J.; MacFarland, D.; Maeda, Y.; Matsumura, T.; Murayama, R.; Naito, D.; Nakaya, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nomura, T.; Odani, Y.; Okuno, H.; Ri, Y. D.; Sasao, N.; Sato, K.; Sato, T.; Seki, S.; Shimogawa, T.; Shinkawa, T.; Shiomi, K.; Son, J. S.; Sugiyama, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Tajima, Y.; Takahashi, G.; Takashima, Y.; Tecchio, M.; Togawa, M.; Toyoda, T.; Tung, Y. C.; Wah, Y. W.; Watanabe, H.; Woo, J. K.; Xu, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Yanagida, Y.; Yoshida, H. Y.; Yoshimoto, H.

    2016-01-01

    The KOTO (K^0 at Tokai) experiment aims to observe the CP-violating rare decay K_L rArr π ^0 ν bar {ν } by using a long-lived neutral-kaon beam produced by the 30 GeV proton beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The K_L flux is an essential parameter for the measurement of the branching fraction. Three K_L neutral decay modes, K_L rArr 3π ^0, K_L rArr 2π ^0, and K_L rArr 2γ , were used to measure the K_L flux in the beam line in the 2013 KOTO engineering run. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the detector acceptance for these decays. Agreement was found between the simulation model and the experimental data, and the remaining systematic uncertainty was estimated at the 1.4% level. The K_L flux was measured as (4.183 ± 0.017_{stat.} ± 0.059_{sys.}) × 10^7 K_L per 2× 10^{14} protons on a 66-mm-long Au target.

  20. Long-lived magnetism from solidification-driven convection on the pallasite parent body.

    PubMed

    Bryson, James F J; Nichols, Claire I O; Herrero-Albillos, Julia; Kronast, Florian; Kasama, Takeshi; Alimadadi, Hossein; van der Laan, Gerrit; Nimmo, Francis; Harrison, Richard J

    2015-01-22

    Palaeomagnetic measurements of meteorites suggest that, shortly after the birth of the Solar System, the molten metallic cores of many small planetary bodies convected vigorously and were capable of generating magnetic fields. Convection on these bodies is currently thought to have been thermally driven, implying that magnetic activity would have been short-lived. Here we report a time-series palaeomagnetic record derived from nanomagnetic imaging of the Imilac and Esquel pallasite meteorites, a group of meteorites consisting of centimetre-sized metallic and silicate phases. We find a history of long-lived magnetic activity on the pallasite parent body, capturing the decay and eventual shutdown of the magnetic field as core solidification completed. We demonstrate that magnetic activity driven by progressive solidification of an inner core is consistent with our measured magnetic field characteristics and cooling rates. Solidification-driven convection was probably common among small body cores, and, in contrast to thermally driven convection, will have led to a relatively late (hundreds of millions of years after accretion), long-lasting, intense and widespread epoch of magnetic activity among these bodies in the early Solar System. PMID:25612050

  1. Unusually long-lived pause required for regulation of a Rho-dependent transcription terminator

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Kerry; Sevostiyanova, Anastasia; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Up to half of all transcription termination events in bacteria rely on the RNA-dependent helicase Rho. However, the nucleic acid sequences that promote Rho-dependent termination remain poorly characterized. Defining the molecular determinants that confer Rho-dependent termination is especially important for understanding how such terminators can be regulated in response to specific signals. Here, we identify an extraordinarily long-lived pause at the site where Rho terminates transcription in the 5′-leader region of the Mg2+ transporter gene mgtA in Salmonella enterica. We dissect the sequence elements required for prolonged pausing in the mgtA leader and establish that the remarkable longevity of this pause is required for a riboswitch to stimulate Rho-dependent termination in the mgtA leader region in response to Mg2+ availability. Unlike Rho-dependent terminators described previously, where termination occurs at multiple pause sites, there is a single site of transcription termination directed by Rho in the mgtA leader. Our data suggest that Rho-dependent termination events that are subject to regulation may require elements distinct from those operating at constitutive Rho-dependent terminators. PMID:24778260

  2. Long live FOXO: unraveling the role of FOXO proteins in aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rute; Lithgow, Gordon J; Link, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Aging constitutes the key risk factor for age-related diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Human longevity and healthy aging are complex phenotypes influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The fact that genetic contribution to lifespan strongly increases with greater age provides basis for research on which "protective genes" are carried by long-lived individuals. Studies have consistently revealed FOXO (Forkhead box O) transcription factors as important determinants in aging and longevity. FOXO proteins represent a subfamily of transcription factors conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals that act as key regulators of longevity downstream of insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling. Invertebrate genomes have one FOXO gene, while mammals have four FOXO genes: FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4, and FOXO6. In mammals, this subfamily is involved in a wide range of crucial cellular processes regulating stress resistance, metabolism, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Their role in longevity determination is complex and remains to be fully elucidated. Throughout this review, the mechanisms by which FOXO factors contribute to longevity will be discussed in diverse animal models, from Hydra to mammals. Moreover, compelling evidence of FOXOs as contributors for extreme longevity and health span in humans will be addressed. PMID:26643314

  3. Nest fidelity is driven by multi-scale information in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Alexandre; Paiva, Vítor H.; Bolton, Mark; Jiguet, Frédéric; Bried, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Although the reproductive success of most organisms depends on factors acting at several spatial scales, little is known about how organisms are able to synthesize multi-scale information to optimize reproduction. Using longitudinal data from a long-lived seabird, Monteiro's storm-petrel, we show that average breeding success is strongly related to oceanic conditions at the population level, and we postulate that (i) individuals use proximal information (their own reproduction outcome in year t) to assess the qualities of their mate and nest and to decide to retain them or not in year t + 1; (ii) the intensity of these responses depends on the quality of the oceanic environment in year t, which affects the predictability of reproduction outcome in year t + 1. Our results confirm that mate and nest fidelities are higher following successful reproduction and that the relationship between the success of a given pair and subsequent nest fidelity is stronger in years with unfavourable oceanic conditions, suggesting that individuals rely on distant information to modulate their use of proximal information and adjust their breeding strategy. PMID:25209940

  4. Farnesoid X receptor directly regulates xenobiotic detoxification genes in the long-lived Little mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanjun; Jin, Jingling; Iakova, Polina; Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Jawanmardi, Nicole; Sullivan, Emily; Guo, Grace L.; Timchenko, Nikolai A.; Darlington, Gretchen J.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways has been linked to lifespan extension in different models of aging. However, the mechanisms underlying activation of xenobiotic genes remain largely unknown. Here we showed that although FXR mRNA levels do not change significantly, FXR (farnesoid X receptor, Nr1h4) protein levels are elevated in the livers of the long-lived Little mice, leading to increased DNA binding activity of FXR. Hepatic FXR expression is sex-dependent in wild-type mice but not in Little mice, implying that up-regulation of FXR might be dependent on the reduction of growth hormone in Little mice. Growth hormone treatment decreased hepatic expression of FXR and xenobiotic genes Abcb1a, Fmo3 and Gsta2 in both wild-type and Little mice, suggesting an association between FXR and xenobiotic gene expression. We found that Abcb1a is transactivated by FXR via direct binding of FXR/retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer to a response element at the proximal promoter. FXR also positively controls Fmo3 and Gsta2 expression through direct interaction with the response elements in these genes. Our study demonstrates that xenobiotic genes are direct transcriptional targets of FXR and suggests that FXR signaling may play a critical role in the lifespan extension observed in Little mice. PMID:24007921

  5. Skin pentosidine and telomere length do not covary with age in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Rattiste, Kalev; Klandorf, Hillar; Urvik, Janek; Sepp, Tuul; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Cooey, Crissa; Hõrak, Peeter

    2015-08-01

    The questions about why and how senescence occurs in the wild are among the most pertinent ones in evolutionary ecology. Telomere length is a commonly used marker for aging, while other biomarkers of aging have received considerably less attention. Here we studied how another potent indicator of aging-skin pentosidine concentration-relates to age and blood telomere length in a long-lived seabird with well-documented reproductive senescence. We found no associations between telomere length, skin pentosidine and chronological age in male common gulls (Larus canus), aging from 2 to 30 years. However, the variance in telomere length was 4.6 times higher among the birds older than 13 years, which hints at relaxed selection on telomere length among the birds that have passed their prime age of reproduction. These results suggest that physiological and chronological ages may be largely uncoupled in our study system. Furthermore, our findings do not support a hypothesis about the presence of a common physiological factor (e.g., such as oxidative stress) that would cause covariation between two independent markers of aging. PMID:25726322

  6. Chemical behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Edgington, D.N.; Nelson, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment have provided a wealth of information regarding the physical, biological, and chemical processes which control the behavior of these and many other pollutants in the oceans. Their value as tracers for the dispersion, transport, and fate of pollutants in the oceans is largely dependent on the chemical properties of each individual radioelement. Differences in these properties, particularly in relation to their interaction with biotic or abiotic particulate matter, result in the separation of parent-daughter radioisotopes in the natural radioelement series or in changes in the ratios of fission and activation products. Such differences have provided the means to provide time scales for a variey of transport processes and to determine sedimentation rates. The properties of these radionuclides in the oceans can, in general, be predicted from the chemical properties of the stable elements. For those elements such as plutonium, for which there are no naturally-occurring stable isotopes, studies of their distribution in the oceans have provided a new important understanding of their chemical behavior. This behavior has not always agreed with what would have been predicted from laboratory studies carried out at far higher concentrations. Differences between observed distributions and laboratory predictions have highlighted the importance of correct experimental conditions in order to avoid confusing experimental artifacts. The interaction of radionuclides with particles in the oceans and marine sediments can be described in terms of simple ion exchange or adsorption equilibria.

  7. Immobilization of long-lived radionuclides in carbon matrices produced with the use of polyimide binders

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulakhatov, Murat; Bartenev, Sergey; Firsin, Nikolai; Zykov, Mikhail; Goikhman, Mikhail; Gribanov, Alexander; Novikov, Valery; Krasznail, John

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Conditions for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I and {sup 241}Am in carbon matrices were investigated by using their chemical analogs. Stable isotopes of rhenium, iodine and europium were used as chemical analogs of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I and {sup 241}Am, respectively. It is shown that the carbon matrices incorporating the above elements can be produced by carbonization of composites with ITA-31 polyimide binder of the following composition: equal molar ratio between dianhydride of 3,3/,4,4/-benzophenone-tetracarboxylic acid and tetraacetyl derivative of 4,4/-diaminodiphenyl ester, radionuclide being investigated or its chemical analog and carbon fabric as reinforcing component. The elements under investigation were used both in the form of salts or oxides and in the form of their complexes with ion-exchange resins. The produced composites were carbonized in inert gas (argon) or in vacuum. The physical-chemical properties of the samples were studied. It was revealed that the resultant matrices meet the requirements imposed on waste storage and final disposal. (authors)

  8. Wound healing and longevity: Lessons from long-lived αMUPA mice

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Hagai; Toren, Dimitri; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Budovsky, Arie; Fraifeld, Vadim E.

    2015-01-01

    Does the longevity phenotype offer an advantage in wound healing (WH)? In an attempt to answer this question, we explored skin wound healing in the long-lived transgenic αMUPA mice, a unique model of genetically extended life span. These mice spontaneously eat less, preserve their body mass, are more resistant to spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis and live longer, thus greatly mimicking the effects of caloric restriction (CR). We found that αMUPA mice showed a much slower age-related decline in the rate of WH than their wild-type counterparts (FVB/N). After full closure of the wound, gene expression in the skin of old αMUPA mice returned close to basal levels. In contrast, old FVB/N mice still exhibited significant upregulation of genes associated with growth-promoting pathways, apoptosis and cell-cell/cell-extra cellular matrix interaction, indicating an ongoing tissue remodeling or an inability to properly shut down the repair process. It appears that the CR-like longevity phenotype is associated with more balanced and efficient WH mechanisms in old age, which could ensure a long-term survival advantage. PMID:25960543

  9. Dynamics behind the long-lived coherences of I2 in solid Xe.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Johan; Hulkko, Eero; Kiviniemi, Tiina; Pettersson, Mika; Apkarian, V Ara; Kiljunen, Toni

    2013-06-13

    The absorption spectrum of I2 in solid Xe shows resolved zero-phonon lines and phonon side bands near the origin of the B←X transition (550-625 nm). The long-lived |B⟩⟨X| coherence in this energy range (T2 = 600 fs on average) emerges as vibrationally unrelaxed fluorescence in resonance Raman (RR) spectra. Upon excitation in the structureless continuum at 532 nm, the oscillatory RR progression exhibits electronic dephasing time of T2 = 150 fs. Two RR progressions with markedly different vibrational coherence on the X-state are observed. The main progression of sharp overtones (T2 > 21 ps) is assigned to molecules trapped in double-substitution sites. The minor progression, which shows dephasing times T2 = 6-0.6 ps for v = 1-8, is assigned to molecules in triple-substitution sites. The line progressions allow a detailed characterization of the solvated B- and X-state potentials. Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering is used to probe selected vibrational coherences on the X-state. Assignments are obtained through molecular dynamics simulations, which reproduce the relative dephasing rates between the two sites, clarify the role of rotation-translation dynamics, and enable quantum dynamics simulations of the spectra by the potentials of mean force that accurately describe the molecule-surrounding interactions. PMID:23668796

  10. LONG-LIVED MAGNETIC-TENSION-DRIVEN MODES IN A MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Shantanu; Dapp, Wolf B. E-mail: wdapp@uwo.c

    2010-06-10

    We calculate and analyze the longevity of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave modes that occur in the plane of a magnetic thin sheet. Initial turbulent conditions applied to a magnetically subcritical cloud are shown to lead to relatively rapid energy decay if ambipolar diffusion is introduced at a level corresponding to partial ionization primarily by cosmic rays. However, in the flux-freezing limit, as may be applicable to photoionized molecular cloud envelopes, the turbulence persists at 'nonlinear' levels in comparison with the isothermal sound speed c {sub s}, with one-dimensional rms material motions in the range of {approx} 2 c {sub s}-5 c {sub s} for cloud sizes in the range of {approx} 2 pc-16 pc. These fluctuations persist indefinitely, maintaining a significant portion of the initial turbulent kinetic energy. We find the analytic explanation for these persistent fluctuations. They are magnetic-tension-driven modes associated with the interaction of the sheet with the external magnetic field. The phase speed of such modes is quite large, allowing residual motions to persist without dissipation in the flux-freezing limit, even as they are nonlinear with respect to the sound speed. We speculate that long-lived large-scale MHD modes such as these may provide the key to understanding observed supersonic motions in molecular clouds.

  11. Early Interferon Therapy for Hepatitis C Virus Infection Rescues Polyfunctional, Long-Lived CD8+ Memory T Cells▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Gamal; Bédard, Nathalie; Abdel-Hakeem, Mohamed S.; Trautmann, Lydie; Willems, Bernard; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Haddad, Elias K.; Sékaly, Rafick P.; Bruneau, Julie; Shoukry, Naglaa H.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections progress to chronicity and progressive liver damage. Alpha interferon (IFN-α) antiviral therapy achieves the highest rate of success when IFN-α is administered early during the acute phase, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We used a panel of major histocompatibility complex class I tetramers to monitor the phenotypic and functional signatures of HCV-specific T cells during acute HCV infection with different infection outcomes and during early IFN therapy. We demonstrate that spontaneous resolution correlates with the early development of polyfunctional (IFN-γ- and IL-2-producing and CD107a+) virus-specific CD8+ T cells. These polyfunctional T cells are distinguished by the expression of CD127 and Bcl-2 and represent a transitional memory T-cell subset that exhibits the phenotypic and functional signatures of both central and effector memory T cells. In contrast, HCV-specific CD8+ T cells in acute infections evolving to chronicity expressed low levels of CD127 and Bcl-2, exhibited diminished proliferation and cytokine production, and eventually disappeared from the periphery. Early therapeutic intervention with pegylated IFN-α rescued polyfunctional memory T cells expressing high levels of CD127 and Bcl-2. These cells were detectable for up to 1 year following discontinuation of therapy. Our results suggest that the polyfunctionality of HCV-specific T cells can be predictive of the outcome of acute HCV infection and that early therapeutic intervention can reconstitute the pool of long-lived polyfunctional memory T cells. PMID:18667516

  12. Multiple nanosecond electric pulses increase the number but not the size of long-lived nanopores in the cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Gianulis, Elena; Vernier, P Thomas; Semenov, Iurii; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to intense, nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP) opens small but long-lived pores in the plasma membrane. We quantified the cell uptake of two membrane integrity marker dyes, YO-PRO-1 (YP) and propidium (Pr) in order to test whether the pore size is affected by the number of nsEP. The fluorescence of the dyes was calibrated against their concentrations by confocal imaging of stained homogenates of the cells. The calibrations revealed a two-phase dependence of Pr emission on the concentration (with a slower rise at<4μM) and a linear dependence for YP. CHO cells were exposed to nsEP trains (1 to 100 pulses, 60ns, 13.2kV/cm, 10Hz) with Pr and YP in the medium, and the uptake of the dyes was monitored by time-lapse imaging for 3min. Even a single nsEP triggered a modest but detectable entry of both dyes, which increased linearly when more pulses were applied. The influx of Pr per pulse was constant and independent of the pulse number. The influx of YP per pulse was highest with 1- and 2-pulse exposures, decreasing to about twice the Pr level for trains from 5 to 100 pulses. The constant YP/Pr influx ratio for trains of 5 to 100 pulses suggests that increasing the number of pulses permeabilizes cells to a greater extent by increasing the pore number and not the pore diameter. PMID:25585279

  13. Variation in the Markers of Nutritional and Oxidative State in a Long-Lived Seabird: Associations with Age and Longevity.

    PubMed

    Urvik, Janek; Meitern, Richard; Rattiste, Kalev; Saks, Lauri; Hõrak, Peeter; Sepp, Tuul

    2016-01-01

    Age-related declines in life-history traits have been widely observed in free-living animals. Several theories link senescence to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure several widely used markers of oxidative and nutritional state in a long-lived seabird, the common gull (Larus canus), in order to assess the suitability of these markers for describing deterioration in physiological condition associated with chronological age and survival. Associations with longevity and individual consistency of these parameters over the years (repeatability) were also assessed. Senescence in fitness parameters was observed during the study period: in females, laying date and clutch mass were related to bird age in a curvilinear manner, with middle-aged birds breeding earlier and laying heavier eggs. The only parameter associated with aging processes was glutathione concentration in erythrocytes, which was lower in female birds with longer life spans. Of indexes of nutritional state, plasma triglyceride concentration showed a between-individual increase with age, suggesting selective mortality of birds with low levels. Additionally, total plasma protein levels of individual males increased with age. The mostly negative results of this study hint that the commonly used parameters of physiological condition and oxidative state used in this study do not adequately reflect an individual's long-term health condition. Alternatively, it is possible that in common gulls, senescence occurs in reproductive mechanisms but not in mechanisms responsible for maintaining an organism's redox balance, consistent with the idea that different aspects of an organism's physiological condition age at different rates. Significant interannual repeatability was detected in three plasma constituents-carotenoids, uric acid, and total protein-all of which can possibly be linked to variation in dietary habits. PMID:27617362

  14. Estimating Trends of Population Decline in Long-Lived Marine Species in the Mediterranean Sea Based on Fishers' Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Maynou, Francesc; Sbrana, Mario; Sartor, Paolo; Maravelias, Christos; Kavadas, Stefanos; Damalas, Dimitros; Cartes, Joan E.; Osio, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    We conducted interviews of a representative sample of 106 retired fishers in Italy, Spain and Greece, asking specific questions about the trends they perceived in dolphin and shark abundances between 1940 and 1999 (in three 20 year periods) compared to the present abundance. The large marine fauna studied were not target species of the commercial fleet segment interviewed (trawl fishery). The fishers were asked to rank the perceived abundance in each period into qualitative ordinal classes based on two indicators: frequency of sightings and frequency of catches (incidental or intentional) of each taxonomic group. The statistical analysis of the survey results showed that both incidental catches and the sighting frequency of dolphins have decreased significantly over the 60+ years of the study period (except for in Greece due to the recent population increase). This shows that fishers' perceptions are in agreement with the declining population trends detected by scientists. Shark catches were also perceived to have diminished since the early 1940s for all species. Other long-lived Mediterranean marine fauna (monk seals, whales) were at very low levels in the second half of the 20th century and no quantitative data could be obtained. Our study supports the results obtained in the Mediterranean and other seas that show the rapid disappearance (over a few decades) of marine fauna. We show that appropriately designed questionnaires help provide a picture of animal abundance in the past through the valuable perceptions of fishers. This information can be used to complement scientific sources or in some cases be taken as the only information source for establishing population trends in the abundance of sensitive species. PMID:21818268

  15. Speciation slowing down in widespread and long-living tree taxa: insights from the tropical timber tree genus Milicia (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Daïnou, K; Mahy, G; Duminil, J; Dick, C W; Doucet, J-L; Donkpégan, A S L; Pluijgers, M; Sinsin, B; Lejeune, P; Hardy, O J

    2014-07-01

    The long generation time and large effective size of widespread forest tree species can result in slow evolutionary rate and incomplete lineage sorting, complicating species delimitation. We addressed this issue with the African timber tree genus Milicia that comprises two morphologically similar and often confounded species: M. excelsa, widespread from West to East Africa, and M. regia, endemic to West Africa. We combined information from nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs), nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, and morphological systematics to identify significant evolutionary units and infer their evolutionary and biogeographical history. We detected five geographically coherent genetic clusters using nSSRs and three levels of genetic differentiation. First, one West African cluster matched perfectly with the morphospecies M. regia that formed a monophyletic clade at both DNA sequences. Second, a West African M. excelsa cluster formed a monophyletic group at plastid DNA and was more related to M. regia than to Central African M. excelsa, but shared many haplotypes with the latter at nuclear DNA. Third, three Central African clusters appeared little differentiated and shared most of their haplotypes. Although gene tree paraphyly could suggest a single species in Milicia following the phylogenetic species concept, the existence of mutual haplotypic exclusivity and nonadmixed genetic clusters in the contact area of the two taxa indicate strong reproductive isolation and, thus, two species following the biological species concept. Molecular dating of the first divergence events showed that speciation in Milicia is ancient (Tertiary), indicating that long-living tree taxa exhibiting genetic speciation may remain similar morphologically. PMID:24549110

  16. Speciation slowing down in widespread and long-living tree taxa: insights from the tropical timber tree genus Milicia (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Daïnou, K; Mahy, G; Duminil, J; Dick, C W; Doucet, J-L; Donkpégan, A S L; Pluijgers, M; Sinsin, B; Lejeune, P; Hardy, O J

    2014-01-01

    The long generation time and large effective size of widespread forest tree species can result in slow evolutionary rate and incomplete lineage sorting, complicating species delimitation. We addressed this issue with the African timber tree genus Milicia that comprises two morphologically similar and often confounded species: M. excelsa, widespread from West to East Africa, and M. regia, endemic to West Africa. We combined information from nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs), nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, and morphological systematics to identify significant evolutionary units and infer their evolutionary and biogeographical history. We detected five geographically coherent genetic clusters using nSSRs and three levels of genetic differentiation. First, one West African cluster matched perfectly with the morphospecies M. regia that formed a monophyletic clade at both DNA sequences. Second, a West African M. excelsa cluster formed a monophyletic group at plastid DNA and was more related to M. regia than to Central African M. excelsa, but shared many haplotypes with the latter at nuclear DNA. Third, three Central African clusters appeared little differentiated and shared most of their haplotypes. Although gene tree paraphyly could suggest a single species in Milicia following the phylogenetic species concept, the existence of mutual haplotypic exclusivity and nonadmixed genetic clusters in the contact area of the two taxa indicate strong reproductive isolation and, thus, two species following the biological species concept. Molecular dating of the first divergence events showed that speciation in Milicia is ancient (Tertiary), indicating that long-living tree taxa exhibiting genetic speciation may remain similar morphologically. PMID:24549110

  17. Detection of building changes from aerial images and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chien; Lin, Li-Jer

    2010-11-01

    Building models are built to provide three-dimensional (3-D) spatial information, which is needed in a variety of applications including city planning, construction management, location-based services of urban infrastructures, and the like. However, 3-D building models have to be updated on a timely manner to meet the changing demand. Rather than reconstructing building models for the entire area, it would be more convenient and effective to only update parts of the areas where there were changes. This paper aims at developing a new method, namely double-threshold strategy, to find such changes within 3-D building models in the region of interest with the aid of light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The proposed modeling scheme comprises three steps, namely, data pre-processing, change detection in building areas, and validation. In the first step for data pre-processing, data registration was carried out based on multi-source data. The second step for data pre-processing requires using the triangulation of an irregular network of data points collected by Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR), focusing on those locations containing walls or other above-ground objects that were ever removed. Then, change detection in the building models can be made possible for finding differences in height by comparing the LIDAR point measurements and the estimates of the building models. The results may be further refined using spectral and feature information collected from aerial imagery. A double-threshold strategy was applied to cope with the highly sensitive thresholding often encountered when using the rule-based approach. Finally, ground truth data were used for model validation. Research findings clearly indicate that the double-threshold strategy improves the overall accuracy from 93.1% to 95.9%.

  18. Supervised Detection of Anomalous Light Curves in Massive Astronomical Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nun, Isadora; Pichara, Karim; Protopapas, Pavlos; Kim, Dae-Won

    2014-09-01

    The development of synoptic sky surveys has led to a massive amount of data for which resources needed for analysis are beyond human capabilities. In order to process this information and to extract all possible knowledge, machine learning techniques become necessary. Here we present a new methodology to automatically discover unknown variable objects in large astronomical catalogs. With the aim of taking full advantage of all information we have about known objects, our method is based on a supervised algorithm. In particular, we train a random forest classifier using known variability classes of objects and obtain votes for each of the objects in the training set. We then model this voting distribution with a Bayesian network and obtain the joint voting distribution among the training objects. Consequently, an unknown object is considered as an outlier insofar it has a low joint probability. By leaving out one of the classes on the training set, we perform a validity test and show that when the random forest classifier attempts to classify unknown light curves (the class left out), it votes with an unusual distribution among the classes. This rare voting is detected by the Bayesian network and expressed as a low joint probability. Our method is suitable for exploring massive data sets given that the training process is performed offline. We tested our algorithm on 20 million light curves from the MACHO catalog and generated a list of anomalous candidates. After analysis, we divided the candidates into two main classes of outliers: artifacts and intrinsic outliers. Artifacts were principally due to air mass variation, seasonal variation, bad calibration, or instrumental errors and were consequently removed from our outlier list and added to the training set. After retraining, we selected about 4000 objects, which we passed to a post-analysis stage by performing a cross-match with all publicly available catalogs. Within these candidates we identified certain known

  19. Supervised detection of anomalous light curves in massive astronomical catalogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nun, Isadora; Pichara, Karim; Protopapas, Pavlos; Kim, Dae-Won

    2014-09-20

    The development of synoptic sky surveys has led to a massive amount of data for which resources needed for analysis are beyond human capabilities. In order to process this information and to extract all possible knowledge, machine learning techniques become necessary. Here we present a new methodology to automatically discover unknown variable objects in large astronomical catalogs. With the aim of taking full advantage of all information we have about known objects, our method is based on a supervised algorithm. In particular, we train a random forest classifier using known variability classes of objects and obtain votes for each of the objects in the training set. We then model this voting distribution with a Bayesian network and obtain the joint voting distribution among the training objects. Consequently, an unknown object is considered as an outlier insofar it has a low joint probability. By leaving out one of the classes on the training set, we perform a validity test and show that when the random forest classifier attempts to classify unknown light curves (the class left out), it votes with an unusual distribution among the classes. This rare voting is detected by the Bayesian network and expressed as a low joint probability. Our method is suitable for exploring massive data sets given that the training process is performed offline. We tested our algorithm on 20 million light curves from the MACHO catalog and generated a list of anomalous candidates. After analysis, we divided the candidates into two main classes of outliers: artifacts and intrinsic outliers. Artifacts were principally due to air mass variation, seasonal variation, bad calibration, or instrumental errors and were consequently removed from our outlier list and added to the training set. After retraining, we selected about 4000 objects, which we passed to a post-analysis stage by performing a cross-match with all publicly available catalogs. Within these candidates we identified certain known

  20. Comparison between charged aerosol detection and light scattering detection for the analysis of Leishmania membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Ramos, R Godoy; Libong, D; Rakotomanga, M; Gaudin, K; Loiseau, P M; Chaminade, P

    2008-10-31

    The performance of charged aerosol detection (CAD) was compared to evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) for the analysis of Leishmania membrane phospholipid (PL) classes by NP-HPLC. In both methods, a PVA-Sil column was used for the determination of the major Leishmania membrane PLs, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethathanolamine, phosphatidylserine, lysophosphatidylethathanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine in the same analysis. Although the response of both detection methods can be fitted to a power function, CAD response can also be described by a linear model with determination coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.993 to 0.998 for an injected mass of 30 ng to 20.00 microg. CAD appeared to be directly proportional when a restricted range was used and it was found to be more sensitive at lowest mass range than ELSD. With HPLC-ELSD the limits of detection (LODs) were between 71 and 1195 ng and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 215 and 3622 ng. With HPLC-CAD, the LODs were between 15 and 249 ng whereas the limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 45 and 707 ng. The accuracy of the methods ranged from 62.8 to 115.8% and from 58.4 to 110.5% for ELSD and CAD, respectively. The HPLC-CAD method is suitable to assess the influence of miltefosine on the composition of Leishmania membrane phospholipids. PMID:18823632

  1. Long-lived Electronic Coherence of Rydberg States in the Strong-Field Ionization of a Polyatomic Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Arkaprabha; Shu, Yinan; Levine, Benjamin; Lozovoy, Vadim; Dantus, Marcos

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report on quantum coherent control of a large (>20 atoms) polyatomic molecule. In particular, we explore the time resolved dynamics of dicyclopentadiene when excited by a pair of phase-locked intense 800nm femtosecond pulses by monitoring changes in ion yield of the parent and fragments. Long-lived oscillations are observed for ~ 500 fs in the parent ion yield indicating the presence of long lived-electronic states. We take advantage of the long-lived electronic coherence to control the yield of different fragment ions. The presence of Rydberg states is further supported by ab initio calculations at the EOM-CCSD/6-31 +G** level of theory which identified five low-lying electronic states of neutral DCPD in the regions between 6.4 and 7.0 eV in vertical excitation energy. States of both pure Rydberg and mixed π --> π */Rydberg character are observed in this low energy region and are known to originate from ethylene. The multiphoton excitation of two or more Rydberg states, separated by the photon energy is the key to the observed long-lived electronic coherence in DCPD with a quantum beat at the difference frequency. Rydberg states are expected to have very similar potential energy surfaces and the Rydberg electron is relatively uncoupled to the nuclear dynamics, therefore supporting long electronic coherence time.

  2. Retreat of a Giant Cataract in a Long-Lived Catastrophic Outflow Tributary Canyon to Ares Vallis, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, N. H.; Gupta, S.; Kim, J.; Lin, S.; Muller, J.

    2011-03-01

    In this analysis we posit that cataract initiation and retreat within a tributary canyon to Ares Vallis were triggered by drops in base level at its mouth, a direct result of incision of the main branch of Ares Vallis during long-lived episodic flooding within both systems.

  3. Testing an 'aging gene' in long-lived drosophila strains: increased longevity depends on sex and genetic background.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Christine C; Howell, Christine E; Wright, Amber R; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2003-04-01

    Molecular advances of the past decade have led to the discovery of a myriad of 'aging genes' (methuselah, Indy, InR, Chico, superoxide dismutase) that extend Drosophila lifespan by up to 85%. Despite this life extension, these mutants are no longer lived than at least some recently wild-caught strains. Typically, long-lived mutants are identified in relatively short-lived genetic backgrounds, and their effects are rarely tested in genetic backgrounds other than the one in which they were isolated or derived. However, the mutant's high-longevity phenotype may be dependent on interactions with alleles that are common in short-lived laboratory strains. Here we set out to determine whether one particular mutant could extend lifespan in long-lived genetic backgrounds in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. We measured longevity and resistance to thermal stress in flies that were transgenically altered to overexpress human superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the motorneurones in each of 10 genotypes. Each genotype carried the genetic background from a different naturally long-lived wild-caught Drosophila strain. While SOD increased lifespan on average, the effect was genotype- and sex-specific. Our results indicate that naturally segregating genes interact epistatically with the aging gene superoxide dismutase to modify its ability to extend longevity. This study points to the need to identify mutants that increase longevity not only in the lab strain of origin but also in naturally long-lived genetic backgrounds. PMID:12882325

  4. Long-Lived Binding of Sox2 to DNA Predicts Cell Fate in the Four-Cell Mouse Embryo.

    PubMed

    White, Melanie D; Angiolini, Juan F; Alvarez, Yanina D; Kaur, Gurpreet; Zhao, Ziqing W; Mocskos, Esteban; Bruno, Luciana; Bissiere, Stephanie; Levi, Valeria; Plachta, Nicolas

    2016-03-24

    Transcription factor (TF) binding to DNA is fundamental for gene regulation. However, it remains unknown how the dynamics of TF-DNA interactions change during cell-fate determination in vivo. Here, we use photo-activatable FCS to quantify TF-DNA binding in single cells of developing mouse embryos. In blastocysts, the TFs Oct4 and Sox2, which control pluripotency, bind DNA more stably in pluripotent than in extraembryonic cells. By contrast, in the four-cell embryo, Sox2 engages in more long-lived interactions than does Oct4. Sox2 long-lived binding varies between blastomeres and is regulated by H3R26 methylation. Live-cell tracking demonstrates that those blastomeres with more long-lived binding contribute more pluripotent progeny, and reducing H3R26 methylation decreases long-lived binding, Sox2 target expression, and pluripotent cell numbers. Therefore, Sox2-DNA binding predicts mammalian cell fate as early as the four-cell stage. More generally, we reveal the dynamic repartitioning of TFs between DNA sites driven by physiological epigenetic changes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27015308

  5. Search for heavy long-lived charged R-hadrons with the ATLAS detector in 3.2 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √{ s} = 13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adersberger, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fawcett, W. J.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Forcolin, G. T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Foster, A. G.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, L. G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gasnikova, K.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisen, M.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; Gentsos, C.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghneimat, M.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, G.; Gonella, L.; Gongadze, A.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goudet, C. R.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gravila, P. M.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grevtsov, K.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Groh, S.; Grohs, J. P.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guan, W.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Hadef, A.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hanisch, S.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hartmann, N. M.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hayakawa, D.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J. J.; Heinrich, L.; Heinz, C.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Henkelmann, S.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooberman, B. H.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, S.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Huo, P.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Ishijima, N.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Ito, F.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, P.; Jain, V.; Jakobi, K. B.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanneau, F.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, H.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Johnson, W. J.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, S.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Juste Rozas, A.; Köhler, M. K.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kaji, T.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kaluza, A.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneti, S.; Kanjir, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, L. S.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karentzos, E.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kasahara, K.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Kentaro, K.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khader, M.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. 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M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-09-01

    A search for heavy long-lived charged R-hadrons is reported using a data sample corresponding to 3.2 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The search is based on observables related to large ionisation losses and slow propagation velocities, which are signatures of heavy charged particles travelling significantly slower than the speed of light. No significant deviations from the expected background are observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are provided on the production cross section of long-lived R-hadrons in the mass range from 600 GeV to 2000 GeV and gluino, bottom and top squark masses are excluded up to 1580 GeV, 805 GeV and 890 GeV, respectively.

  6. The Role of Melt Supply in the Formation of Long-Lived Oceanic Detachment Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucholke, B. E.; Behn, M. D.; Buck, W. R.; Qin, R.; Lin, J.

    2006-12-01

    Throws of normal faults on most slow- to ultra-slow spreading ridges generally range from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. Over the past decade, however, numerous exceptionally long-lived normal faults with large cumulative displacements (detachment faults) have been discovered not only at slow- and ultra-slow spreading ridges but also at intermediate-rate ridges that are characterized by limited magma supply. Typical slip duration on these faults is 1-2 m.y. and results in formation of corrugated, domed megamullions that are tens of kilometers in size. Residual mantle Bouguer (RMBA) gravity anomalies over these features usually are elevated but decrease beyond the termination of the detachment fault, suggesting that the fault was abandoned as melt supply increased. In some cases, however, RMBA increases beyond the termination, indicating that the detachment was abandoned with decreasing magmatism. Thus detachment faulting may be constrained largely to a window wherein the magmatic fraction of total plate separation must be neither too large nor too small, but 'just right' (Goldilocks hypothesis). We tested this idea by examining the frequency of occurrence of megamullions versus average axial seafloor depth (as a proxy for magma supply) within each of about 100 mid-ocean ridge segments that represent the full spectrum of global spreading rates. Results show that detachments are associated with a limited range of average axial depth (about 3500 to 4800 m, within a total range of 1400-6100 m), supporting the hypothesis that they occur only within a restricted range of magma supply. We further conducted numerical modeling experiments to investigate the effects of magmatic vs. tectonic extension on duration of fault slip. These simulations indicate that a detachment fault develops readily on one side of the ridge axis when magmatic accretion accounts for about half of total plate separation, while model topography on the conjugate crust is abnormally smooth

  7. New effects of a long-lived negatively charged massive particle on big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kino, Yasushi; Mathews, Grant J.

    2014-05-02

    Primordial {sup 7}Li abundance inferred from observations of metal-poor stars is a factor of about 3 lower than the theoretical value of standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. One of the solutions to the Li problem is {sup 7}Be destruction during the BBN epoch caused by a long-lived negatively charged massive particle, X{sup −}. The particle can bind to nuclei, and X-bound nuclei (X-nuclei) can experience new reactions. The radiative X{sup −} capture by {sup 7}Be nuclei followed by proton capture of the bound state of {sup 7}Be and X{sup −} ({sup 7}Be{sub x}) is a possible {sup 7}Be destruction reaction. Since the primordial abundance of {sup 7}Li originates mainly from {sup 7}Li produced via the electron capture of {sup 7}Be after BBN, the {sup 7}Be destruction provides a solution to the {sup 7}Li problem. We suggest a new route of {sup 7}Be{sub x} formation, that is the {sup 7}Be charge exchange at the reaction of {sup 7}Be{sup 3+} ion and X{sup −}. The formation rate depends on the ionization fraction of {sup 7}Be{sup 3+} ion, the charge exchange cross section of {sup 7}Be{sup 3+}, and the probability that excited states {sup 7}Be{sub x}* produced at the charge exchange are converted to the ground state. We find that this reaction can be equally important as or more important than ordinary radiative recombination of {sup 7}Be and X{sup −}. The effect of this new route is shown in a nuclear reaction network calculation.

  8. Long-lived epigenetic interactions between perinatal PBDE exposure and Mecp2308 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Rima; Vallero, Roxanne O.; Golub, Mari S.; Suarez, Joanne K.; Ta, Tram Anh; Yasui, Dag H.; Chi, Lai-Har; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.; LaSalle, Janine M.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of persistent organic polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as commercial flame retardants has raised concern about potential long-lived effects on human health. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, are responsive to environmental influences and have long-lasting consequences. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have complex neurodevelopmental origins whereby both genetic and environmental factors are implicated. Rett syndrome is an X-linked ASD caused by mutations in the epigenetic factor methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2). In this study, an Mecp2 truncation mutant mouse (Mecp2308) with social behavioral defects was used to explore the long-lasting effects of PBDE exposure in a genetically and epigenetically susceptible model. Mecp2308/+ dams were perinatally exposed daily to 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) and bred to wild-type C57BL/6J males, and the offspring of each sex and genotype were examined for developmental, behavioral and epigenetic outcomes. Perinatal BDE-47 exposure negatively impacted fertility of Mecp2308/+ dams and preweaning weights of females. Global hypomethylation of adult brain DNA was observed specifically in female offspring perinatally exposed to BDE-47 and it coincided with reduced sociability in a genotype-independent manner. A reversing interaction of Mecp2 genotype on BDE-47 exposure was observed in a short-term memory test of social novelty that corresponded to increased Dnmt3a levels specifically in BDE-47-exposed Mecp2308/+ offspring. In contrast, learning and long-term memory in the Morris water maze was impaired by BDE-47 exposure in female Mecp2308/+ offspring. These results demonstrate that a genetic and environmental interaction relevant to social and cognitive behaviors shows sexual dimorphism, epigenetic dysregulation, compensatory molecular mechanisms and specific behavioral deficits. PMID:22343140

  9. Reconstruction of Long-Lived Radionuclide Intakes for Techa Riverside Residents: Cesium-137

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Peremyslova, L. M.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2013-05-01

    Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949–1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were 90Sr and 137Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The 90Sri ntake function was recently improved taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on 90Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of 137Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The 137Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the 90Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio 137Cs/90Sr in river water. Intake via 137Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows’ milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal 137Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000–9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River the 137Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows’ milk was the main source of 137Cs in diet in the upper-Techa.

  10. Atmospheric Removal of Very Long-lived Greenhouse Gases in the Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totterdill, A.; Kovacs, T.; Gomez Martin, J.; FENG, W.; Chipperfield, M.; Plane, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons are known to have serious ozone depleting and global warming potentials. Perfluorinated compounds such as SF6, NF3, SF5CF3 and CF3CF2Cl which have very long lifetimes (ranging from a few centuries to over 3000 years) are too stable to affect stratospheric ozone but do have among the highest per molecule radiative forcing of any greenhouse pollutant, making them extremely potent greenhouse gases. Due to the stability of these gases in the lower atmosphere, mesospheric loss processes could significantly reduce their estimated atmospheric lifetimes and hence, overall climate impact. Potential sinks include reactions with metals and energetic particles such as electrons or short wavelength photons already present in the upper atmosphere. The metals, in this instance iron, sodium or potassium, are produced by meteoric ablation, while background and energetic electrons have the continuous source of photoionization and auroral precipitation, respectively. In this study we investigate the removal potentials of four very long lived gases (SF6, NF3, SF5CF3 and CF3CF2Cl). First, by four metals (Fe, Mg, Na and K), where rate coefficients are measured using the Fast Flow Tube and Pulsed Laser Flash Photolysis / Laser Induced Fluorescence techniques. Second, removal by electron attachment was investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. measurements. Third, Lyman-alpha (121.56 nm) photolysis was measured in a VUV absorption cell. The resulting removal rate coefficients are currently being input into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to obtain lifetime measurements for these species.

  11. Reconstruction of long-lived radionuclide intakes for Techa riverside residents: 137Cs.

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Peremyslova, L M; Shagina, N B; Vorobiova, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2013-05-01

    Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949-1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were Sr and Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The Sr intake function was recently improved, taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio Cs-to-Sr in river water. Intake via Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows' milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000-9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River, the Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows' milk was the main source of Cs in diet in the upper-Techa River region. PMID:23532077

  12. Harvesting effects, recovery mechanisms, and management strategies for a long-lived and structural precious coral.

    PubMed

    Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Linares, Cristina; García, Marina; Pancaldi, Francesca; Frleta-Valić, Maša; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Zuberer, Frederic; Merad, Djamel; Drap, Pierre; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Overexploitation is a major threat for the integrity of marine ecosystems. Understanding the ecological consequences of different extractive practices and the mechanisms underlying the recovery of populations is essential to ensure sustainable management plans. Precious corals are long-lived structural invertebrates, historically overfished, and their conservation is currently a worldwide concern. However, the processes underlying their recovery are poorly known. Here, we examined harvesting effects and recovery mechanisms of red coral Corallium rubrum by analyzing long-term photographic series taken on two populations that were harvested. We compared the relative importance of reproduction and re-growth as drivers of resilience. Harvesting heavily impacted coral populations causing large decreases in biomass and strong size-class distribution shifts towards populations dominated by small colonies. At the end of the study (after 4 and 7 years) only partial recovery was observed. The observed general pattern of low recruitment and high mortality of new recruits demonstrated limited effects of reproduction on population recovery. Adversely, low mortality of partially harvested adults and a large proportion of colonies showing new branches highlighted the importance of re-growth in the recovery process. The demographic projections obtained through stochastic models confirmed that the recovery rates of C. rubrum can be strongly modulated depending on harvesting procedures. Thus, leaving the basal section of the colonies when harvesting to avoid total mortality largely enhances the resilience of C. rubrum populations and quickens their recovery. On the other hand, the high survival of harvested colonies and the significant biomass reduction indicated that abundance may not be an adequate metric to assess the conservation status of clonal organisms because it can underestimate harvesting effects. This study highlights the unsustainability of current harvesting practices

  13. Dynamics of the association between a long-lived understory myrmecophyte and its specific associated ants.

    PubMed

    Orivel, Jérôme; Lambs, Luc; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Leroy, Céline; Grangier, Julien; Otto, Thierry; Quilichini, Angélique; Dejean, Alain

    2011-02-01

    Myrmecophytic symbioses are widespread in tropical ecosystems and their diversity makes them useful tools for understanding the origin and evolution of mutualisms. Obligate ant-plants, or myrmecophytes, provide a nesting place, and, often, food to a limited number of plant-ant species. In exchange, plant-ants protect their host plants from herbivores, competitors and pathogens, and can provide them with nutrients. Although most studies to date have highlighted a similar global pattern of interactions in these systems, little is known about the temporal structuring and dynamics of most of these associations. In this study we focused on the association between the understory myrmecophyte Hirtella physophora (Chrysobalanaceae) and its obligate ant partner Allomerus decemarticulatus (Myrmicinae). An examination of the life histories and growth rates of both partners demonstrated that this plant species has a much longer lifespan (up to about 350 years) than its associated ant colonies (up to about 21 years). The size of the ant colonies and their reproductive success were strongly limited by the available nesting space provided by the host plants. Moreover, the resident ants positively affected the vegetative growth of their host plant, but had a negative effect on its reproduction by reducing the number of flowers and fruits by more than 50%. Altogether our results are important to understanding the evolutionary dynamics of ant-plant symbioses. The highly specialized interaction between long-lived plants and ants with a shorter lifespan produces an asymmetry in the evolutionary rates of the interaction which, in return, can affect the degree to which the interests of the two partners converge. PMID:20683730

  14. Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: Calculations with the AER Radiative Transfer Models

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William; Iacono, Michael J.; Delamere, Jennifer S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shephard, Mark W.; Clough, Shepard A.; Collins, William D.

    2008-04-01

    A primary component of the observed, recent climate change is the radiative forcing from increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Effective simulation of anthropogenic climate change by general circulation models (GCMs) is strongly dependent on the accurate representation of radiative processes associated with water vapor, ozone and LLGHGs. In the context of the increasing application of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) radiation models within the GCM community, their capability to calculate longwave and shortwave radiative forcing for clear sky scenarios previously examined by the radiative transfer model intercomparison project (RTMIP) is presented. Forcing calculations with the AER line-by-line (LBL) models are very consistent with the RTMIP line-by-line results in the longwave and shortwave. The AER broadband models, in all but one case, calculate longwave forcings within a range of -0.20 to 0.23 W m{sup -2} of LBL calculations and shortwave forcings within a range of -0.16 to 0.38 W m{sup -2} of LBL results. These models also perform well at the surface, which RTMIP identified as a level at which GCM radiation models have particular difficulty reproducing LBL fluxes. Heating profile perturbations calculated by the broadband models generally reproduce high-resolution calculations within a few hundredths K d{sup -1} in the troposphere and within 0.15 K d{sup -1} in the peak stratospheric heating near 1 hPa. In most cases, the AER broadband models provide radiative forcing results that are in closer agreement with high 20 resolution calculations than the GCM radiation codes examined by RTMIP, which supports the application of the AER models to climate change research.

  15. Observed Enhancement of Reflectivity and Electric Field in Long-Lived Florida Anvils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, James E.; Willett, John C.

    2007-01-01

    A study of two long-lived Florida anvils showed that reflectivity greater than 20 dBZ increased in area, thickness and sometimes magnitude at mid-level well downstream of the convective cores. In these same regions electric fields maintained strengths greater than 10 kV m(sup -1) for many tens of minutes and became quite uniform over tens of kilometers. Millimetric aggregates persisted at 9 to 10 km for extended times and distances. Aggregation of ice particles enhanced by strong electric fields might have contributed to reflectivity growth in the early anvil, but is unlikely to explain observations further out in the anvil. The enhanced reflectivity and existence of small, medium and large ice particles far out into the anvil suggest that an updraft was acting, perhaps in weak convective cells formed by instability generated from the evaporation and melting of falling ice particles. We conclude that charge separation must have occurred in these anvils, perhaps at the melting level but also at higher altitudes, in order to maintain fields greater than 10 kV m(sup -1) at 9 to 10 km for extended periods of time over large distances. We speculate that charge separation occurred as a result of ice-ice particle collisions (without supercooled water being present) via either a noninductive or perhaps even an inductive mechanism, given the observed broad ice particle spectra, the strong pre-existing electric fields and the many tens of minutes available for particle interactions. The observations, particularly in the early anvil, show that the charge structure in these anvils was quite complex.

  16. Observed Enhancement of Reflectivity and Electric Field in Long-Lived Florida Anvils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, James E.; Willett, John C.

    2007-01-01

    A study of two long-lived Florida anvils showed that reflectivity >20 dBZ increased in area, thickness and sometimes magnitude at mid-level well downstream of the convective cores. In these same regions electric fields maintained strengths >10 kV m1 for many tens of minutes and became quite uniform over tens of kilometers. Millimetric aggregates persisted at 9 to 10 km for extended times and distances. Aggregation of ice particles enhanced by strong electric fields might have contributed to reflectivity growth in the early anvil, but is unlikely to explain observations further out in the anvil. The enhanced reflectivity and existence of small, medium and large ice particles far out into the anvil suggest that an updraft was acting, perhaps in weak convective cells formed by instability generated from the evaporation and melting of falling ice particles. We conclude that charge separation must have occurred in these anvils, perhaps at the melting level but also at higher altitudes, in order to maintain fields >10 kV m 1 at 9 to 10 km for extended periods of time over large distances. We speculate that charge separation occurred as a result of ice-ice particle collisions (without supercooled water being present) via either a non-inductive or perhaps even an inductive mechanism, given the observed broad ice particle spectra, the strong pre-existing electric fields and the many tens of minutes available for particle interactions. The observations, particularly in the early anvil, show that the charge structure in these anvils was quite complex.

  17. Long-lived effects of administering β-glucans: Indications for trained immunity in fish.

    PubMed

    Petit, Jules; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2016-11-01

    Over the past decades, it has become evident that immune-modulation of fish with β-glucans, using injection, dietary or even immersion routes of administration, has stimulating but presumed short-lived effects on both intestinal and systemic immunity and can increase protection against a subsequent pathogenic challenge. Although the exact effects can be variable depending on, among others, fish species and administration route, the immune-stimulating effects of β-glucans on the immune system of fish appear to be universal. This review provides a condensed update of the most recent literature describing the effects of β-glucans on the teleost fish immune system. We shortly discuss possible mechanisms influencing immune-stimulation by β-glucans, including microbial composition of the gut, receptor recognition and downstream signalling. Of interest, in mammalian monocytes, β-glucans are potent inducers of trained immunity. First, we screened the literature for indications of this phenomenon in fish. Criteria that we applied include indications for at least one out of three features considered characteristic of trained immunity; (i) providing protection against a secondary infection in a T- and B-lymphocyte independent manner, (ii) conferring increased resistance upon re-infection and, (iii) relying on key roles for innate immune cell types such as natural killer cells and macrophages. We conclude that several indications exist that support the notion that the innate immune system of teleost fish can be trained. Second, we screened the literature for indications of long-lived effects on innate immunity of fish after administering β-glucans, a criterion which could help to identify key roles for macrophages on resistance to infection. We discuss whether β-glucans, as well-known immune-stimulants, are able to train the immune system of fish and argue in favour of further studies designed to specifically investigate this phenomenon in fish. PMID:26945622

  18. Tracking through Life Stages: Adult, Immature and Juvenile Autumn Migration in a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Clara; Grémillet, David

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal long-distance migration is likely to be experienced in a contrasted manner by juvenile, immature and adult birds, leading to variations in migratory routes, timing and behaviour. We provide the first analysis of late summer movements and autumn migration in these three life stages, which were tracked concurrently using satellite tags, geolocators or GPS recorders in a long-ranging migratory seabird, the Scopoli’s shearwater (formerly named Cory’s shearwater, Calonectrisdiomedea) breeding on two French Mediterranean islands. During the late breeding season, immatures foraged around their colony like breeding adults, but they were the only group showing potential prospecting movements around non-natal colonies. Global migration routes were broadly comparable between the two populations and the three life stages, with all individuals heading towards the Atlantic Ocean through the strait of Gibraltar and travelling along the West African coast, up to 8000 km from their colony. However, detailed comparison of timing, trajectory and oceanographic conditions experienced by the birds revealed remarkable age-related differences. Compared to adults and immatures, juveniles made a longer stop-over in the Balearic Sea (10 days vs 4 days in average), showed lower synchrony in crossing the Gibraltar strait, had more sinuous pathways and covered longer daily distances (240 km.d-1 vs 170 km.d-1). Analysis of oceanographic habitats along migratory routes revealed funnelling selection of habitat towards coastal and more productive waters with increasing age. Younger birds may have reduced navigational ability and learn progressively fine-scale migration routes towards the more profitable travelling and wintering areas. Our study demonstrates the importance of tracking long-lived species through the stages, to better understand migratory behavior and assess differential exposure to at-sea threats. Shared distribution between life stages and populations make Scopoli

  19. Polar Disturbance Surrounding a Long Living Cyclone in Saturn’s Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustín; Antuñano, Arrate; Hueso, Ricardo; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Rojas, Jose F.; Wong, Mike H.; Simon, Amy A.; de Pater, Imke; Gómez-Forrellad, Josep M.

    2015-11-01

    In 2014 and 2015 a large ‘dark spot’ about 6,000 km in length and located at planetocentric latitude +58.5° (+63° N planetographic) was tracked on the best ground-based amateur images of Saturn, revealing a long-lived feature, an uncommon phenomenon in Saturn’s atmosphere. Images captured by the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard Cassini spacecraft showed the feature as a very contrasted dark spot in the MT3 filter, and barely visible in the deep sounding filters CB2 and CB3. On mid-May 2015 ground-based observations obtained by amateur astronomers operating small telescopes started to show a disturbance around this dark spot. Following the onset of this disturbance the drift of the dark spot remained unaltered and equal to the motion it had previously, but thedisturbance evolved zonally in a complex manner, giving hints of a kind of large scale phenomena in Saturn’s atmosphere of an unprecedented type. Unfortunately the orbital path of the Cassini spacecraft was not appropriate to see details of the disturbance at that time. Images by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 instrument obtained in director’s time (DDT) allow us to describe the detailed dynamics of the disturbance, while the study of its long-term evolution is possible thanks to the efforts of the community of amateur astronomers. In this work we analyze the dynamics of the region before the start of the disturbance and the dynamics and evolution of the disturbance after its onset.

  20. An overlooked series of gas phase diatomic metal oxide ions that are long-lived.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Keith

    2006-06-01

    Although the "Golden" years of spectroscopy and the major studies on ionization processes now are behind us, as with many branches of science, much yet remains to be gleaned from such topics that is both full of interest and of significance to present day research. Presented here is one such overlooked example, an observation that relates to both these fields. An analysis is presented for the periodic table concerning the gas-phase thermochemical nature of MO+ and MO2+ ions. Unexpectedly, a pattern of 18 elements has been identified that exhibit the potential for having long-lived MO+ ions. Normally such molecular ions are expected to decay extremely rapidly by dissociative recombination with electrons, but in particular, 12 of this group behave not like molecules but rather as atomic ions. These are the diatomic oxide ions of Sc, Y, La, Zr, Hf, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Gd, Tb, and Th. In the gas phase, they decay by much slower three-body recombination channels. As may be noted, these elements are located in the first two columns of the transition elements, among the earlier rare earths and an actinide. From all the elements, UO2+ is the only dioxide ion that behaves similarly. These findings now elevate the potential importance of these ions and should facilitate their spectral characterization. Moreover, subsequent comparisons with spectra of well-known isoelectronic and isovalent neutral monoxides and other diatomics will help in the stimulation of further theoretical advances. In addition, once characterized, an ease of spectrally monitoring such ionic states will provide a useful analytical tool. PMID:16722708

  1. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Annie E; Dybala, Kristen E; Botsford, Louis W; Eadie, John M; Bradley, Russell W; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment-species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt's cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt's cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities. PMID:26168050

  2. Growth hormone modulates hypothalamic inflammation in long-lived pituitary dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Landeryou, Taylor; Cady, Gillian; Kopchick, John J; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Bartke, Andrzej; Miller, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Mice in which the genes for growth hormone (GH) or GH receptor (GHR(-/-) ) are disrupted from conception are dwarfs, possess low levels of IGF-1 and insulin, have low rates of cancer and diabetes, and are extremely long-lived. Median longevity is also increased in mice with deletion of hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), which leads to isolated GH deficiency. The remarkable extension of longevity in hypopituitary Ames dwarf mice can be reversed by a 6-week course of GH injections started at the age of 2 weeks. Here, we demonstrate that mutations that interfere with GH production or response, in the Snell dwarf, Ames dwarf, or GHR(-/-) mice lead to reduced formation of both orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) projections to the main hypothalamic projection areas: the arcuate nucleus (ARH), paraventricular nucleus (PVH), and dorsomedial nucleus (DMH). These mutations also reduce hypothalamic inflammation in 18-month-old mice. GH injections, between 2 and 8 weeks of age, reversed both effects in Ames dwarf mice. Disruption of GHR specifically in liver (LiGHRKO), a mutation that reduces circulating IGF-1 but does not lead to lifespan extension, had no effect on hypothalamic projections or inflammation, suggesting an effect of GH, rather than peripheral IGF-1, on hypothalamic development. Hypothalamic leptin signaling, as monitored by induction of pStat3, is not impaired by GHR deficiency. Together, these results suggest that early-life disruption of GH signaling produces long-term hypothalamic changes that may contribute to the longevity of GH-deficient and GH-resistant mice. PMID:26268661

  3. Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles Using the D0 Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yunhe

    2009-05-01

    A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector using 1.1 fb-1 of data. The speed of the particle has been calculated based on the time-of-flight and position information in the muon system. The present research is limited to direct pair-production of the charged massive long-lived particles. We do not consider CMSPs that result from the cascade decays of heavier particles. In this analysis, the exact values of the model parameters of the entire supersymmetric particle mass spectrum, relevant for cascade decays, are not important. We found no evidence of the signal. 95% CL cross-section upper limits have been set on the pair-productions of the stable scaler tau lepton, the gaugino-like charginos, and the higgsino-like charginos. The upper cross section limits vary from 0.31 pb to 0.04 pb, for stau masses in the range between 60 GeV and 300 GeV. We use the nominal value of the theoretical cross section to set limits on the mass of the pair produced charginos. We exclude the pair-produced stable gaugino-like charginos with mass below 206 GeV, and higgsino-like charginos below 171 GeV, respectively. Although the present sensitivity is insufficient to test the model of the pair produced stable staus, we do set cross section limits which can be applied to the pair production of any charged massive stable particle candidates with similar kinematics. These are the most restrictive limits to the present on the cross sections for CMSPs and the first published from the Tevatron Collider Run II. The manuscript has been published by Physical Review Letters in April 2009 and is available at arXiv as.

  4. Multimodel Estimates of Atmospheric Lifetimes of Long-lived Ozone-Depleting Substances: Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Liang, Q.; Strahan, S. E.; Morgenstern, O.; Dhomse, S. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Di Genova, G.; Fleming, E. L.; Hardiman, S. C.; Iachetti, D.; Jackman, C. H.; Kinnison, D. E.; Marchand, M.; Pitari, G.; Pyle, J. A.; Rozanov, E.; Stenke, A.; Tummon, F.

    2014-01-01

    We have diagnosed the lifetimes of long-lived source gases emitted at the surface and removed in the stratosphere using six three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and a two-dimensional model. The models all used the same standard photochemical data. We investigate the effect of different definitions of lifetimes, including running the models with both mixing ratio (MBC) and flux (FBC) boundary conditions. Within the same model, the lifetimes diagnosed by different methods agree very well. Using FBCs versus MBCs leads to a different tracer burden as the implied lifetime contained in the MBC value does not necessarily match a model's own calculated lifetime. In general, there are much larger differences in the lifetimes calculated by different models, the main causes of which are variations in the modeled rates of ascent and horizontal mixing in the tropical midlower stratosphere. The model runs have been used to compute instantaneous and steady state lifetimes. For chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) their atmospheric distribution was far from steady state in their growth phase through to the 1980s, and the diagnosed instantaneous lifetime is accordingly much longer. Following the cessation of emissions, the resulting decay of CFCs is much closer to steady state. For 2100 conditions the model circulation speeds generally increase, but a thicker ozone layer due to recovery and climate change reduces photolysis rates. These effects compensate so the net impact on modeled lifetimes is small. For future assessments of stratospheric ozone, use of FBCs would allow a consistent balance between rate of CFC removal and model circulation rate

  5. Long-lived reactive species formed on proteins induce changes in protein and lipid turnover.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Proteins are major targets for oxidative damage in vivo due to their high abundance and rapid rates of reaction with both one-electron (radical) and two-electron oxidants (e.g. singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid, peroxynitrous acid, reactive aldehydes). The turnover of both native and modified proteins is critical for maintenance of cell homeostasis, with this occurring via multiple pathways including proteasomes (for cytosolic species), the Lon protease (in mitochondria), and the endo-lysosomal systems (both extra- and intra-cellular species). Evidence has been presented for both enhanced and diminished rates of catabolism of modified proteins, as well as altered turnover of native (unmodified) proteins as a result of damage to these systems, potentially as a result of the accumulation of damaged proteins. In recent studies we have shown that long-lived reactive species forms on proteins (hydroperoxides, chloramines and aldehydes) can modify the activity of proteasomal and lysosomal enzymes. Some of the above species are efficient inhibitors of the tryptic and chymotryptic activities of the 26S proteasome, as well as lysosomal cathepsin and acid lipase activities. These are key species in the turnover of both proteins and lipoproteins. The loss of enzyme activity is accompanied in many cases, by oxidation of critical thiol residues via molecular reactions. For reactive aldehydes (either free or protein-bound) direct enzyme inhibition can occur as well as modulation of protein levels and, in the case of lysosomes, changes in lysosomal numbers. Overall, these data indicate that the formation of reactive species on proteins can modulate cell function by multiple pathways including interference with the turnover of native proteins (including critical cell signalling molecules) and alterations in the rate of clearance of modified proteins. Both pathways may contribute to the development of a number of human pathologies associated with oxidative damage. PMID:26461411

  6. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  7. Shifting Effects of Ocean Conditions on Survival and Breeding Probability of a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Annie E.; Dybala, Kristen E.; Botsford, Louis W.; Eadie, John M.; Bradley, Russell W.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    With a rapidly changing climate, there is an increasing need to predict how species will respond to changes in the physical environment. One approach is to use historic data to estimate the past influence of environmental variation on important demographic parameters and then use these relationships to project the abundance of a population or species under future climate scenarios. However, as novel climate conditions emerge, novel species responses may also appear. In some systems, environmental conditions beyond the range of those observed during the course of most long-term ecological studies are already evident. Yet little attention has been given to how these novel conditions may be influencing previously established environment–species relationships. Here, we model the relationships between ocean conditions and the demography of a long-lived seabird, Brandt’s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatusI), in central California and show that these relationships have changed in recent years. Beginning in 2007/2008, the response of Brandt’s cormorant, an upper trophic level predator, to ocean conditions shifted, resulting in lower than predicted survival and breeding probability. Survival was generally less variable than breeding probability and was initially best predicted by the basin-scale forcing of the El Niño Southern Oscillation rather than local ocean conditions. The shifting response of Brandt’s cormorant to ocean conditions may be just a proximate indication of altered dynamics in the food web and that important forage fish are not responding to the physical ocean environment as expected. These changing relationships have important implications for our ability to project the effects of future climate change for species and communities. PMID:26168050

  8. Supramolecular formation of Li(+) @PCBM fullerene with sulfonated porphyrins and long-lived charge separation.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yuki; Ohkubo, Kei; Okada, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Yutaka; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-ion-encapsulated [6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester fullerene (Li(+) @PCBM) was utilized to construct supramolecules with sulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins (MTPPS(4-) ; M=Zn, H2 ) in polar benzonitrile. The association constants were determined to be 1.8×10(5)  M(-1) for ZnTPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM and 6.2×10(4)  M(-1) for H2 TPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM. From the electrochemical analyses, the energies of the charge-separated (CS) states were estimated to be 0.69 eV for ZnTPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM and 1.00 eV for H2 TPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM. Upon photoexcitation of the porphyrin moieties of MTPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM, photoinduced electron transfer occurred to produce the CS states. The lifetimes of the CS states were 560 μs for ZnTPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM and 450 μs for H2 TPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM. The spin states of the CS states were determined to be triplet by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements at 4 K. The reorganization energies (λ) and electronic coupling term (V) for back electron transfer (BET) were determined from the temperature dependence of kBET to be λ=0.36 eV and V=8.5×10(-3) cm(-1) for ZnTPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM and λ=0.62 eV and V=7.9×10(-3) cm(-1) for H2 TPPS(4-) /Li(+) @PCBM based on the Marcus theory of nonadiabatic electron transfer. Such small V values are the result of a small orbital interaction between the MTPPS(4-) and Li(+) @PCBM moieties. These small V values and spin-forbidden charge recombination afford a long-lived CS state. PMID:25209191

  9. Long-lived Spin Relaxation and Spin Coherence of Electrons in Monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Luyi

    Monolayer MoS2 and related transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are direct-gap semiconductors in which strong spin-orbit coupling and a lack of structural inversion symmetry give rise to new coupled spin-valley physics. Although robust spin and valley degrees of freedom have been inferred from polarized photoluminescence (PL) studies of excitons, PL timescales are necessarily constrained by short (3-100 ps) electron-hole recombination. Direct probes of spin/valley dynamics of resident carriers in electron (or hole)-doped TMDs, which may persist long after recombination ceases, are still at an early stage. Here we directly measure the coupled spin-valley dynamics of resident electrons in n-type monolayer MoS2 using optical Kerr-rotation spectroscopy, and reveal very long spin lifetimes exceeding 3ns at 5K (orders of magnitude longer than typical exciton lifetimes). In contrast with conventional III-V or II-VI semiconductors, spin relaxation accelerates rapidly in small transverse magnetic fields. This suggests a novel mechanism of electron spin dephasing in monolayer TMDs, driven by rapidly-fluctuating internal spin-orbit fields due to fast intervalley scattering. Additionally, a small but very long-lived oscillatory signal is observed, indicating spin coherence of localized states. These studies provide direct insight into the physics underpinning the spin and valley dynamics of electrons in monolayer TMDs. In collaboration with S.A. Crooker & N.A. Sinitsyn (Los Alamos), W. Chen, J. Yuan, J. Zhang & J. Lou (Rice University), K.M. McCreary & B.T. Jonker (Naval Research Lab), and supported by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  10. Tracking through life stages: adult, immature and juvenile autumn migration in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Péron, Clara; Grémillet, David

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal long-distance migration is likely to be experienced in a contrasted manner by juvenile, immature and adult birds, leading to variations in migratory routes, timing and behaviour. We provide the first analysis of late summer movements and autumn migration in these three life stages, which were tracked concurrently using satellite tags, geolocators or GPS recorders in a long-ranging migratory seabird, the Scopoli's shearwater (formerly named Cory's shearwater, Calonectrisdiomedea) breeding on two French Mediterranean islands. During the late breeding season, immatures foraged around their colony like breeding adults, but they were the only group showing potential prospecting movements around non-natal colonies. Global migration routes were broadly comparable between the two populations and the three life stages, with all individuals heading towards the Atlantic Ocean through the strait of Gibraltar and travelling along the West African coast, up to 8000 km from their colony. However, detailed comparison of timing, trajectory and oceanographic conditions experienced by the birds revealed remarkable age-related differences. Compared to adults and immatures, juveniles made a longer stop-over in the Balearic Sea (10 days vs 4 days in average), showed lower synchrony in crossing the Gibraltar strait, had more sinuous pathways and covered longer daily distances (240 km.d(-1) vs 170 km.d(-1)). Analysis of oceanographic habitats along migratory routes revealed funnelling selection of habitat towards coastal and more productive waters with increasing age. Younger birds may have reduced navigational ability and learn progressively fine-scale migration routes towards the more profitable travelling and wintering areas. Our study demonstrates the importance of tracking long-lived species through the stages, to better understand migratory behavior and assess differential exposure to at-sea threats. Shared distribution between life stages and populations make Scopoli

  11. Multimodel estimates of atmospheric lifetimes of long-lived ozone-depleting substances: Present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Liang, Q.; Strahan, S. E.; Morgenstern, O.; Dhomse, S. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Di Genova, G.; Fleming, E. L.; Hardiman, S. C.; Iachetti, D.; Jackman, C. H.; Kinnison, D. E.; Marchand, M.; Pitari, G.; Pyle, J. A.; Rozanov, E.; Stenke, A.; Tummon, F.

    2014-03-01

    We have diagnosed the lifetimes of long-lived source gases emitted at the surface and removed in the stratosphere using six three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and a two-dimensional model. The models all used the same standard photochemical data. We investigate the effect of different definitions of lifetimes, including running the models with both mixing ratio (MBC) and flux (FBC) boundary conditions. Within the same model, the lifetimes diagnosed by different methods agree very well. Using FBCs versus MBCs leads to a different tracer burden as the implied lifetime contained in the MBC value does not necessarily match a model's own calculated lifetime. In general, there are much larger differences in the lifetimes calculated by different models, the main causes of which are variations in the modeled rates of ascent and horizontal mixing in the tropical midlower stratosphere. The model runs have been used to compute instantaneous and steady state lifetimes. For chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) their atmospheric distribution was far from steady state in their growth phase through to the 1980s, and the diagnosed instantaneous lifetime is accordingly much longer. Following the cessation of emissions, the resulting decay of CFCs is much closer to steady state. For 2100 conditions the model circulation speeds generally increase, but a thicker ozone layer due to recovery and climate change reduces photolysis rates. These effects compensate so the net impact on modeled lifetimes is small. For future assessments of stratospheric ozone, use of FBCs would allow a consistent balance between rate of CFC removal and model circulation rate.

  12. Long-Lived Venus Lander Conceptual Design: How To Keep It Cool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Ridger W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Bruder, Geoffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about Venus, our neighboring sister planet in the solar system, due to the challenges of operating in its extremely hot, corrosive, and dense environment. For example, after over two dozen missions to the planet, the longest-lived lander was the Soviet Venera 13, and it only survived two hours on the surface. Several conceptual Venus mission studies have been formulated in the past two decades proposing lander architectures that potentially extend lander lifetime. Most recently, the Venus Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) was commissioned by NASA to study a Venus Flagship Mission potentially launching in the 2020- 2025 time-frame; the reference lander of this study is designed to survive for only a few hours more than Venera 13 launched back in 1981! Since Cytherean mission planners lack a viable approach to a long-lived surface architecture, specific scientific objectives outlined in the National Science Foundation Decadal Survey and Venus Exploration Advisory Group final report cannot be completed. These include: mapping the mineralogy and composition of the surface on a planetary scale determining the age of various rock samples on Venus, searching for evidence of changes in interior dynamics (seismometry) and its impact on climate and many other key observations that benefit with time scales of at least a full Venus day (Le. daylight/night cycle). This report reviews those studies and recommends a hybrid lander architecture that can survive for at least one Venus day (243 Earth days) by incorporating selective Stirling multi-stage active cooling and hybrid thermoacoustic power.

  13. Linearity evaluation in absorbance detection: the use of light-emitting diodes for on-capillary detection in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Macka, M; Andersson, P; Haddad, P R

    1996-12-01

    A model which takes into account both stray light and polychromatic light was used to predict and evaluate linearity in on-capillary detection in capillary electrophoresis (CE). According to the model the stray light is the major factor which determines linearity under typical CE operating conditions. By calculating theoretical absorbance versus concentration plots, the influence of different levels of stray light and polychromatic light on linearity is demonstrated. Experimentally, six light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the range from 563 to 654 nm were examined as light sources for on-capillary detection in CE. Fitting theoretical curves to measured linearity plots enabled determination of the values of both effective path length and stray light for a particular detection system. The detector linearity for the four LEDs was compared to mercury and tungsten lamps used with interference filters. For potassium permanganate as the test compound, the linear range for a 563 nm LED was two times greater than that for a mercury lamp operated at 546 nm. The relatively poor linearity of the mercury lamp detector is explained by its high level of stray light. The noise of the LED563-based detector was the same as for the mercury lamp, whereas the other LEDs of higher light intensity gave approximately half the noise of the mercury lamp. The lowest noise level of 3 x 10(-5) AU was obtained for the LED at 554 nm (determined at a detector time constant of 0.1 s). PMID:9034772

  14. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  15. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F. E-mail: balzan.riccardo@parisdescartes.fr; Balzan, R. E-mail: balzan.riccardo@parisdescartes.fr; Vasos, P. R.

    2014-08-07

    Long-lived coherences (LLC’s) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening.

  16. Direct and cost-efficient hyperpolarization of long-lived nuclear spin states on universal 15N2-diazirine molecular tags

    PubMed Central

    Theis, Thomas; Ortiz, Gerardo X.; Logan, Angus W. J.; Claytor, Kevin E.; Feng, Yesu; Huhn, William P.; Blum, Volker; Malcolmson, Steven J.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Wang, Qiu; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) faces serious sensitivity limitations which can be overcome by hyperpolarization methods, but the most common method (dynamic nuclear polarization) is complex and expensive, and applications are limited by short spin lifetimes (typically seconds) of biologically relevant molecules. We use a recently developed method, SABRE-SHEATH, to directly hyperpolarize 15N2 magnetization and long-lived 15N2 singlet spin order, with signal decay time constants of 5.8 and 23 minutes, respectively. We find >10,000-fold enhancements generating detectable nuclear MR signals that last for over an hour. 15N2-diazirines represent a class of particularly promising and versatile molecular tags, and can be incorporated into a wide range of biomolecules without significantly altering molecular function. PMID:27051867

  17. Long-lived frequency shifts observed in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment following microwave irradiation of a nitroxide spin probe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lei; Longenecker, Jonilyn G.; Moore, Eric W.; Marohn, John A.

    2013-04-01

    We introduce a spin-modulation protocol for force-gradient detection of magnetic resonance that enables the real-time readout of longitudinal magnetization in an electron spin resonance experiment involving fast-relaxing spins. We applied this method to observe a prompt change in longitudinal magnetization following the microwave irradiation of a nitroxide-doped perdeuterated polystyrene film having an electron spin-lattice relaxation time of T{sub 1}{approx}1ms. The protocol allowed us to discover a large, long-lived cantilever frequency shift. Based on its magnitude, lifetime, and field dependence, we tentatively attribute this persistent signal to deuteron spin magnetization created via transfer of polarization from nitroxide spins.

  18. ''Magic'' Energies for Detecting Light Elements with Resonant Alpha Particle Backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wetteland, C.J.; Maggiore, C.J.; Tesmer, J.R.; He, X-M.; Lee, D-H.

    1998-11-04

    Resonant backscattering is widely used to improve the detection limit of the light elements such as B, C, N and O. One disadvantage, however, is that several incident energies are normally needed if the sample contains a number of the light elements. There are ''magic'' energies at which several light elements can be detected simultaneously with suitable sensitivities. When these energies are used along with the elastic recoil detection of hydrogen, multiple elements can be detected without changing the beam energy, and the analysis time is greatly reduced. These reactions along with examples will be discussed.

  19. Face Liveness Detection Using a Light Field Camera

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sooyeon; Ban, Yuseok; Lee, Sangyoun

    2014-01-01

    A light field camera is a sensor that can record the directions as well as the colors of incident rays. This camera is widely utilized from 3D reconstruction to face and iris recognition. In this paper, we suggest a novel approach for defending spoofing face attacks, like printed 2D facial photos (hereinafter 2D photos) and HD tablet images, using the light field camera. By viewing the raw light field photograph from a different standpoint, we extract two special features which cannot be obtained from the conventional camera. To verify the performance, we compose light field photograph databases and conduct experiments. Our proposed method achieves at least 94.78% accuracy or up to 99.36% accuracy under different types of spoofing attacks. PMID:25436651

  20. Face liveness detection using a light field camera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooyeon; Ban, Yuseok; Lee, Sangyoun

    2014-01-01

    A light field camera is a sensor that can record the directions as well as the colors of incident rays. This camera is widely utilized from 3D reconstruction to face and iris recognition. In this paper, we suggest a novel approach for defending spoofing face attacks, like printed 2D facial photos (hereinafter 2D photos) and HD tablet images, using the light field camera. By viewing the raw light field photograph from a different standpoint, we extract two special features which cannot be obtained from the conventional camera. To verify the performance, we compose light field photograph databases and conduct experiments. Our proposed method achieves at least 94.78% accuracy or up to 99.36% accuracy under different types of spoofing attacks. PMID:25436651

  1. Theoretical study on balanced homodyne detection technique in preparation of squeezed states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wenyan; Feng, Fei; Song, Jia-zheng; Zhang, Tong-yi

    2013-08-01

    We analyze the balanced homodyne detection technique in the detection of squeezed light, which is controlled by dither locking scheme. We discuss how the balanced homodyne detection efficiency influences the detected degree of squeezing. Also, fluctuation in the relative phase between the local beam and the squeezed light is discussed, since a little phase fluctuation would decrease the detected degree of squeezing greatly. Then, the dither locking technique is studied in detail, which is used to lock the relative phase between the local beam and the squeezed light. The simulation experiments and theoretically results show that the balanced homodyne detection technique and the dither locking scheme are efficient methods to get more accurate degree of squeezing in the preparation of the squeezed states of light.

  2. New results on catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis with a long-lived negatively charged massive particle

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yoshida, Takashi; Mathews, Grant J.

    2010-04-15

    It has been proposed that the apparent discrepancies between the inferred primordial abundances of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li and the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) can be resolved by the existence of a negatively charged massive unstable supersymmetric particle (X{sup -}) during the BBN epoch. Here, we present new BBN calculations with an X{sup -} particle utilizing an improved nuclear reaction network including captures of nuclei by the particle, nuclear reactions and {beta} decays of normal nuclei and nuclei bound to the X{sup -} particles (X nuclei), and new reaction rates derived from recent rigorous quantum many-body dynamical calculations. We find that this is still a viable model to explain the observed {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li abundances. We also show that with the new rates the production of heavier nuclei is suppressed and there is no signature on abundances of nuclei heavier than Be in the X{sup -}-particle catalyzed BBN model as has been previously proposed. We also consider the version of this model whereby the X{sup -} particle decays into the present cold dark matter. We analyze this paradigm in light of the recent constraints on the dark-matter mass deduced from the possible detected events in the CDMS-II experiment. We conclude that based upon the inferred range for the dark-matter mass, only X{sup -} decay via the weak interaction can achieve the desired {sup 7}Li destruction while also reproducing the observed {sup 6}Li abundance.

  3. Population-level consequences of herbivory, changing climate, and source-sink dynamics on a long-lived invasive shrub.

    PubMed

    van Klinken, R D; Pichancourt, J B

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived plant species are highly valued environmentally, economically, and socially, but can also cause substantial harm as invaders. Realistic demographic predictions can guide management decisions, and are particularly valuable for long-lived species where population response times can be long. Long-lived species are also challenging, given population dynamics can be affected by factors as diverse as herbivory, climate, and dispersal. We developed a matrix model to evaluate the effects of herbivory by a leaf-feeding biological control agent released in Australia against a long-lived invasive shrub (mesquite, Leguminoseae: Prosopis spp.). The stage-structured, density-dependent model used an annual time step and 10 climatically diverse years of field data. Mesquite population demography is sensitive to source-sink dynamics as most seeds are consumed and redistributed spatially by livestock. In addition, individual mesquite plants, because they are long lived, experience natural climate variation that cycles over decadal scales, as well as anthropogenic climate change. The model therefore explicitly considered the effects of both net dispersal and climate variation. Herbivory strongly regulated mesquite populations through reduced growth and fertility, but additional mortality of older plants will be required to reach management goals within a reasonable time frame. Growth and survival of seeds and seedlings were correlated with daily soil moisture. As a result, population dynamics were sensitive to rainfall scenario, but population response times were typically slow (20-800 years to reach equilibrium or extinction) due to adult longevity. Equilibrium population densities were expected to remain 5% higher, and be more dynamic, if historical multi-decadal climate patterns persist, the effect being dampened by herbivory suppressing seed production irrespective of preceding rainfall. Dense infestations were unlikely to form under a drier climate, and required net

  4. Evidence of Long-Lived Founder Virus in Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Danaviah, Sivapragashini; de Oliveira, Tulio; Bland, Ruth; Viljoen, Johannes; Pillay, Sureshnee; Tuaillon, Edouard; Van de Perre, Philippe; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of the infant’s gut to cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 trafficking in breast milk (BM) remains a primary cause of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). The mammary gland represents a unique environment for HIV-1 replication and host-virus interplay. We aimed to explore the origin of the virus transmitted during breastfeeding, and the link with quasi-species found in acellular and cellular fractions of breast-milk (BM) and in maternal plasma. The C2–V5 region of the env gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from the RNA and DNA of BM, the RNA from the mother’s plasma (PLA) and the DNA from infant’s dried blood spot (DBS) in 11 post-natal mother-infant pairs. Sequences were assembled in Geneious, aligned in ClustalX, manually edited in SeAL and phylogenetic reconstruction was undertaken in PhyML and MrBayes. We estimated the timing of transmission (ETT) and reconstructed the time for the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the infant in BEAST. Transmission of single quasi-species was observed in 9 of 11 cases. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated a BM transmission event by cell-free virus in 4 cases, and by cell-associated virus in 2 cases but could not be identified in the remaining 5 cases. Molecular clock estimates, of the infant ETT and TMRCA, corresponded well with the timing of transmission estimated by sequential infant DNA PCR in 10 of 11 children. The TMRCA of BM variants were estimated to emerge during gestation in 8 cases. We hypothesize that in the remaining cases, the breast was seeded with a long-lived lineage latently infecting resting T-cells. Our analysis illustrated the role of DNA and RNA virus in MTCT. We postulate that DNA archived viruses stem from latently infected quiescent T-cells within breast tissue and MTCT can be expected to continue, albeit at low levels, should interventions not effectively target these cells. PMID:25793402

  5. Evidence of long-lived founder virus in mother-to-child HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Danaviah, Sivapragashini; de Oliveira, Tulio; Bland, Ruth; Viljoen, Johannes; Pillay, Sureshnee; Tuaillon, Edouard; Van de Perre, Philippe; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of the infant's gut to cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 trafficking in breast milk (BM) remains a primary cause of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). The mammary gland represents a unique environment for HIV-1 replication and host-virus interplay. We aimed to explore the origin of the virus transmitted during breastfeeding, and the link with quasi-species found in acellular and cellular fractions of breast-milk (BM) and in maternal plasma. The C2-V5 region of the env gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from the RNA and DNA of BM, the RNA from the mother's plasma (PLA) and the DNA from infant's dried blood spot (DBS) in 11 post-natal mother-infant pairs. Sequences were assembled in Geneious, aligned in ClustalX, manually edited in SeAL and phylogenetic reconstruction was undertaken in PhyML and MrBayes. We estimated the timing of transmission (ETT) and reconstructed the time for the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the infant in BEAST. Transmission of single quasi-species was observed in 9 of 11 cases. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated a BM transmission event by cell-free virus in 4 cases, and by cell-associated virus in 2 cases but could not be identified in the remaining 5 cases. Molecular clock estimates, of the infant ETT and TMRCA, corresponded well with the timing of transmission estimated by sequential infant DNA PCR in 10 of 11 children. The TMRCA of BM variants were estimated to emerge during gestation in 8 cases. We hypothesize that in the remaining cases, the breast was seeded with a long-lived lineage latently infecting resting T-cells. Our analysis illustrated the role of DNA and RNA virus in MTCT. We postulate that DNA archived viruses stem from latently infected quiescent T-cells within breast tissue and MTCT can be expected to continue, albeit at low levels, should interventions not effectively target these cells. PMID:25793402

  6. Flibe blanket concept for transmuting transuranic elements and long lived fission products.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-11-15

    A Molten salt (Flibe) fusion blanket concept has been developed to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. This blanket concept can achieve the top rated solution, the complete elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products. Small driven fusion devices with low neutron wall loading and low neutron fluence can perform this function. A 344-MW integrated fusion power from D-T plasmas for thirty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, the utilization of this blanket concept eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. This application provides an excellent opportunity to develop and to enhance the public acceptance of the fusion energy for the future. The energy from the transmutation process is utilized to produce revenue. Flibe, lithium-lead eutectic, and liquid lead are possible candidates. The liquid blankets have several features, which are suited for W application. It can operate at constant thermal power without interruption for refueling by adjusting the concentration of the transuranic elements and lithium-6. These liquids operate at low-pressure, which reduces the primary stresses in the structure material. Development and fabrication costs of solid transuranic materials are eliminated. Burnup limit of the transuranic elements due to radiation effects is eliminated. Heat is generated within the liquid, which simplifies the heat removal process without producing thermal stresses. These blanket concepts have large negative temperature coefficient with respect to the blanket reactivity, which enhances the safety performance. These liquids are chemically and thermally stable under irradiation conditions, which minimize the radioactive waste volume. The operational record of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor with Flibe was very successful

  7. Investigating the impacts of recycled water on long-lived conifers

    PubMed Central

    Nackley, Lloyd L.; Barnes, Corey; Oki, Lorence R.

    2015-01-01

    maintaining healthy verdant landscapes that include coast redwoods and other long-lived conifers. PMID:25876628

  8. Simulation of Long Lived Tracers Using an Improved Empirically Based Two-Dimensional Model Transport Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.; Stolarski, R. S.; Considine, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a new empirically-based transport algorithm for use in our GSFC two-dimensional transport and chemistry model. The new algorithm contains planetary wave statistics, and parameterizations to account for the effects due to gravity waves and equatorial Kelvin waves. As such, this scheme utilizes significantly more information compared to our previous algorithm which was based only on zonal mean temperatures and heating rates. The new model transport captures much of the qualitative structure and seasonal variability observed in long lived tracers, such as: isolation of the tropics and the southern hemisphere winter polar vortex; the well mixed surf-zone region of the winter sub-tropics and mid-latitudes; the latitudinal and seasonal variations of total ozone; and the seasonal variations of mesospheric H2O. The model also indicates a double peaked structure in methane associated with the semiannual oscillation in the tropical upper stratosphere. This feature is similar in phase but is significantly weaker in amplitude compared to the observations. The model simulations of carbon-14 and strontium-90 are in good agreement with observations, both in simulating the peak in mixing ratio at 20-25 km, and the decrease with altitude in mixing ratio above 25 km. We also find mostly good agreement between modeled and observed age of air determined from SF6 outside of the northern hemisphere polar vortex. However, observations inside the vortex reveal significantly older air compared to the model. This is consistent with the model deficiencies in simulating CH4 in the northern hemisphere winter high latitudes and illustrates the limitations of the current climatological zonal mean model formulation. The propagation of seasonal signals in water vapor and CO2 in the lower stratosphere showed general agreement in phase, and the model qualitatively captured the observed amplitude decrease in CO2 from the tropics to midlatitudes. However, the simulated seasonal

  9. A HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR DISPOSITION OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Leif G.; Dials, George E.; Parker, Frank L.

    2003-02-27

    During the past 45 years, one of the most challenging scientific, engineering, socio-economic, and political tasks and obligations of our time has been to site and develop technical, politically acceptable, solutions to the safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). However, at the end of the year 2002, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in the United States of America (USA) hosts the world's only operating LLRM-disposal system, which (1) is based on the LLRM-disposal principles recommended by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1957, i.e., deep geological disposal in a ''stable'' salt vault/repository, (2) complies with the nation's ''Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'', and (3) may receive 175,584 cubic meters (m3) of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW)a. Pending the scheduled opening of repositories for once-used nuclear fuel (OUNF) in the USA, Sweden, and Finland in the years 2010, 2015, and 2017, respectively, LLRM-disposal solutions remain the missing link in all national LLRM-disposition programs. Furthermore, for a variety of reasons, many nations with nuclear programs have chosen a ''spectator'' stance in terms of enhancing the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, and have either ''slow-tracked'' or deferred their LLRM-disposal programs to allow time for an informed national consensus to evolve based on LLRM-disposition experiences and solutions gained elsewhere. In the meantime, LLRMs will continue to amass in different types and levels of safeguarded storage facilities around the world. In an attempt to contribute to the enhancement of the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, the authors developed the sample holistic approach for synergistic disposition of LLRMs comprising LLRM-disposition components considered either ''proven'' or ''promising'' by the authors. The

  10. Trends in intrusive and eruptive activity during Kilauea's long-lived east rift zone eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, T. R.; Patrick, M. R.; Heliker, C.

    2011-12-01

    Kilauea Volcano's Pu`u `O`o eruption, continuing for nearly three decades, offers a unique opportunity to study trends in eruptive behavior. One such trend, that of uprift intrusion ± eruption, accompanied by crater floor collapse and eruptive hiatus, has been repeated several times at Pu`u `O`o. This includes the February 7, 1993, intrusion; the January 29, 1997, intrusion and eruption; the September 12, 1999, intrusion; and the June 17, 2007, intrusion and eruption. Activity resumed within Pu`u `O`o following each of these events, and crater refilling culminated eventually in the outbreak of lava from new vents on the flank of the Pu`u `O`o cone. The pattern was repeated again in 2011, when a brief fissure eruption uprift from Pu`u `O`o started on March 5. The Pu`u `O`o crater floor dropped about 115 m in response to the eruption, which ceased on March 9. After a short hiatus, lava reappeared in Pu`u `O`o on March 26, and the crater began to fill slowly thereafter by overflow from a central lava lake. Starting in late June 2011, however, the crater floor began to uplift in a wholesale fashion, suggesting an increase in the pressure beneath the Pu`u `O`o edifice. By late July, the lava within the crater had reached its highest level since early 2004, and lava had begun to overflow from the southwestern side of the crater. On August 3, the west side of the Pu`u `O`o cone was abruptly thrust upward as a sill was injected beneath that portion of the cone. Within minutes, lava began to erupt from a crack on the west flank of Pu`u `O`o, completing the pattern of intrusion, crater collapse, refilling, and breakout. During a long-lived eruption, maintaining a detailed observational and geophysical record is essential for recognizing patterns that may emerge. Recognizing such a pattern allowed Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists to prepare a response well in advance of the August 3, 2011 event, and provides guidance for responding to future eruption crises at Pu`u `O

  11. Vertical structure of Jupiter's troposphere from nonlinear simulations of long-lived vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legarreta, Jon; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín

    2008-07-01

    opposed eastward and westward jets at their boundary. We show through our simulations that large-scale and long-lived vortices whose maximum tangential velocity is ˜100 m s -1 can survive by absorbing smaller intense vortices.

  12. Active and long-lived permanent forearc deformation driven by the subduction seismic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron Melo, Felipe Alejandro

    I have used geological, geophysical and engineering methods to explore mechanisms of upper plate, brittle deformation at active forearc regions. My dissertation particularly addresses the permanent deformation style experienced by the forearc following great subduction ruptures, such as the 2010 M w8.8 Maule, Chile and 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquakes. These events triggered large, shallow seismicity on upper plate normal faults above the rupture reaching Mw7.0. First I present new structural data from the Chilean Coastal Cordillera over the rupture zone of the Maule earthquake. The study area contains the Pichilemu normal fault, which produced the large crustal aftershocks of the megathrust event. Normal faults are the major neotectonic structural elements but reverse faults also exist. Crustal seismicity and GPS surface displacements show that the forearc experiences pulses of rapid coseismic extension, parallel to the heave of the megathrust, and slow interseismic, convergence-parallel shortening. These cycles, over geologic time, build the forearc structural grain, reactivating structures properly-oriented respect to the deformation field of each stage of the interplate cycle. Great subduction events may play a fundamental role in constructing the crustal architecture of extensional forearc regions. Static mechanical models of coseismic and interseismic upper plate deformation are used to explore for distinct features that could result from brittle fracturing over the two stages of the interplate cycle. I show that the semi-elliptical outline of the first-order normal faults along the Coastal Cordillera may define the location of a characteristic, long-lived megathrust segment. Finally, using data from the Global CMT catalog I analyzed the seismic behavior through time of forearc regions that have experienced great subduction ruptures >Mw7.7 worldwide. Between 61% and 83% of the cases where upper plate earthquakes exhibited periods of increased seismicity

  13. The endemic mollusks reveal history of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia in NW Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandic, Oleg; Kurečić, Tomislav; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the fossil mollusk record of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia settled in the southern Pannonian Basin. The samples originate from Vukomeričke gorice, a low hill-range situated north of the Kupa River in the area between the towns of Zagreb, Sisak and Karlovac in NW Croatia. Representing the SW margin of the Lake Slavonia the freshwater deposits alternate there with the alluvial series, providing altogether about 400-m-thick, Pliocene continental succession, known in literature by informal name Paludina beds (acc. to a junior synonym of Viviparus). The endemic fauna of the Lake Slavonia became particularly well-known in the late 19th century after Melchior Neumayr demonstrated that the gradual evolutionary change of the mollusk phenotypes toward more complex morphology represents a function of adaptation to environmental change in the paleolake. Even Charles Darwin commented that result as by far the best case which I have ever met with, showing the direct influence of the conditions of life on the organization. The deposition in the Lake Slavonia (~4.5 to ~1.8 Ma) coincides with the Pliocene Climate Optimum (PCO), but captures also the transition into the Pleistocene climate marked by the initial Ice Age pulse at 2.59 Ma. The increase of polar temperatures resulted during PCO in a significant melting of the ice caps leading to a global sea level rise tentatively getting up to 25 m higher than today. Coincidence of the climate and geodynamic settings in southeastern Europe provided conditions supporting extended settlement of lacustrine environments including Lake Slavonia, Lake Kosovo, Lake Transylvania and Lake Dacia, all characterized by explosive adaptive radiations of viviparid snails. In particular, the latter adaptive radiations resulted in the regional phylostratigraphy of Lake Slavonia Viviparus species enabling excellent stratigraphic control for the investigated deposits. Hence, based on this evidence, the

  14. Investigating the impacts of recycled water on long-lived conifers.

    PubMed

    Nackley, Lloyd L; Barnes, Corey; Oki, Lorence R

    2015-01-01

    healthy verdant landscapes that include coast redwoods and other long-lived conifers. PMID:25876628

  15. Long-lived charge carrier dynamics in polymer/quantum dot blends and organometal halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Hirokazu

    Solution-processable semiconductors offer a potential route to deploy solar panels on a wide scale, based on the possibility of reduced manufacturing costs by using earth-abundant materials and inexpensive production technologies, such as inkjet or roll-to-roll printing. Understanding the fundamental physics underlying device operation is important to realize this goal. This dissertation describes studies of two kinds of solar cells: hybrid polymer/PbS quantum dot solar cells and organometal halide perovskite solar cells. Chapter two discusses details of the experimental techniques. Chapter three and four explore the mechanisms of charge transfer and energy transfer spectroscopically, and find that both processes contribute to the device photocurrent. Chapter four investigates the important question of how the energy level alignment of quantum dot acceptors affects the operation of hybrid polymer/quantum dot solar cells, by making use of the size-tunable energy levels of PbS quantum dots. We observe that long-lived charge transfer yield is diminished at larger dot sizes as the energy level offset at the polymer/quantum dot interface is changed through decreasing quantum confinement using a combination of spectroscopy and device studies. Chapter five discusses the effects of TiO2 surface chemistry on the performance of organometal halide perovskite solar cells. Specifically, chapter five studies the effect of replacing the conventional TiO2 electrode with Zr-doped TiO2 (Zr-TiO2). We aim to explore the correlation between charge carrier dynamics and device studies by incorporating zirconium into TiO2. We find that, compared to Zr-free controls, solar cells employing Zr-TiO2 give rise to an increase in overall power conversion efficiency, and a decrease in hysteresis. We also observe longer carrier lifetimes and higher charge carrier densities in devices on Zr-TiO2 electrodes at microsecond times in transient photovoltage experiments, as well as at longer persistent

  16. Fire management, managed relocation, and land conservation options for long-lived obligate seeding plants under global changes in climate, urbanization, and fire regime.

    PubMed

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Syphard, Alexandra D; Franklin, Janet; Anderson, Kurt E; Akçakaya, H Resit; Mizerek, Toni; Winchell, Clark; Regan, Helen M

    2014-08-01

    Most species face multiple anthropogenic disruptions. Few studies have quantified the cumulative influence of multiple threats on species of conservation concern, and far fewer have quantified the potential relative value of multiple conservation interventions in light of these threats. We linked spatial distribution and population viability models to explore conservation interventions under projected climate change, urbanization, and changes in fire regime on a long-lived obligate seeding plant species sensitive to high fire frequencies, a dominant plant functional type in many fire-prone ecosystems, including the biodiversity hotspots of Mediterranean-type ecosystems. First, we investigated the relative risk of population decline for plant populations in landscapes with and without land protection under an existing habitat conservation plan. Second, we modeled the effectiveness of relocating both seedlings and seeds from a large patch with predicted declines in habitat area to 2 unoccupied recipient patches with increasing habitat area under 2 projected climate change scenarios. Finally, we modeled 8 fire return intervals (FRIs) approximating the outcomes of different management strategies that effectively control fire frequency. Invariably, long-lived obligate seeding populations remained viable only when FRIs were maintained at or above a minimum level. Land conservation and seedling relocation efforts lessened the impact of climate change and land-use change on obligate seeding populations to differing degrees depending on the climate change scenario, but neither of these efforts was as generally effective as frequent translocation of seeds. While none of the modeled strategies fully compensated for the effects of land-use and climate change, an integrative approach managing multiple threats may diminish population declines for species in complex landscapes. Conservation plans designed to mitigate the impacts of a single threat are likely to fail if additional

  17. Efficient and ultrafast formation of long-lived charge-transfer exciton state in atomically thin cadmium selenide/cadmium telluride type-II heteronanosheets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaifeng; Li, Qiuyang; Jia, Yanyan; McBride, James R; Xie, Zhao-xiong; Lian, Tianquan

    2015-01-27

    Colloidal cadmium chalcogenide nanosheets with atomically precise thickness of a few atomic layers and size of 10-100 nm are two-dimensional (2D) quantum well materials with strong and precise quantum confinement in the thickness direction. Despite their many advantageous properties, excitons in these and other 2D metal chalcogenide materials are short-lived due to large radiative and nonradiative recombination rates, hindering their applications as light harvesting and charge separation/transport materials for solar energy conversion. We showed that these problems could be overcome in type-II CdSe/CdTe core/crown heteronanosheets (with CdTe crown laterally extending on the CdSe nanosheet core). Photoluminesence excitation measurement revealed that nearly all excitons generated in the CdSe and CdTe domains localized to the CdSe/CdTe interface to form long-lived charge transfer excitons (with electrons in the CdSe domain and hole in the CdTe domain). By ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we showed that the efficient exciton localization efficiency could be attributed to ultrafast exciton localization (0.64 ± 0.07 ps), which was facilitated by large in-plane exciton mobility in these 2D materials and competed effectively with exiton trapping at the CdSe or CdTe domains. The spatial separation of electrons and holes across the CdSe/CdTe heterojunction effectively suppressed radiative and nonradiative recombination processes, leading to a long-lived charge transfer exciton state with a half-life of ∼ 41.7 ± 2.5 ns, ∼ 30 times longer than core-only CdSe nanosheets. PMID:25548944

  18. Post-irradiation analysis of an ISOLDE lead-bismuth target: Stable and long-lived noble gas nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leya, I.; Grimberg, A.; David, J.-C.; Schumann, D.; Neuhausen, J.; Zanini, L.; Noah, E.

    2016-07-01

    We measured the isotopic concentrations of long-lived and stable He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotopes in a sample from a lead-bismuth eutectic target irradiated with 1.0 and 1.4 GeV protons. Our data indicate for most noble gases nearly complete release with retention fractions in the range of percent or less. Higher retention fractions result from the decay of long-lived radioactive progenitors from groups 1, 2, or 7 of the periodic table. From the data we can calculate a retention fraction for 3H of 2-3%. For alkaline metals we find retention fractions of about 10%, 30%, and 50% for Na, Rb, and Cs, respectively. For the alkaline earth metal Ba we found complete retention. Finally, the measured Kr and Xe concentrations indicate that there was some release of the halogens Br and I during and/or after the irradiation.

  19. Data driven search in the displaced pair channel for a Higgs boson decaying to long-lived neutral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halyo, Valerie; Lou, Hou Keong; Lujan, Paul; Zhu, Wenhan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a proposal for a new search channel for the Higgs boson decaying to two long-lived neutral particles, each of which decays to at a displaced vertex. The decay length considered is such that the decay takes place within the LHC beampipe. We present a new data-driven analysis using jet substructure and properties of the tracks from the highly-displaced vertices. We consider a model with a 125 GeV Higgs boson with a significant branching fraction to decay via this mode, with the long-lived neutral particle having a mass in the range of 15-40 GeV and a decay length commensurate with the beam pipe radius. Such a signal can be readily observed with an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1 at 8 TeV at the LHC.

  20. Within-season increase in parental investment in a long-lived bird species: investment shifts to maximize successful reproduction?

    PubMed

    Schneider, N A; Griesser, M

    2015-01-01

    In nest-building species predation of nest contents is a main cause of reproductive failure and parents have to trade off reproductive investment against antipredatory behaviours. While this trade-off is modified by lifespan (short-lived species prioritize current reproduction; long-lived species prioritize future reproduction), it may vary within a breeding season, but this idea has only been tested in short-lived species. Yet, life history theory does not make any prediction how long-lived species should trade off current against future reproductive investment within a season. Here, we investigated this trade-off through predator-exposure experiments in a long-lived bird species, the brown thornbill. We exposed breeding pairs that had no prior within-season reproductive success to the models of a nest predator and a predator of adults during their first or second breeding attempt. Overall, parents reduced their feeding rate in the presence of a predator, but parents feeding second broods were more risk sensitive and almost ceased feeding when exposed to both types of predators. However, during second breeding attempts, parents had larger clutches and a higher feeding rate in the absence of predators than during first breeding attempts and approached both types of predators closer when mobbing. Our results suggest that the trade-off between reproductive investment and risk-taking can change in a long-lived species within a breeding season depending on both prior nest predation and renesting opportunities. These patterns correspond to those in short-lived species, raising the question of whether a within-season shift in reproductive investment trade-offs is independent of lifespan. PMID:25430672

  1. Tick exposure and extreme climate events impact survival and threaten the persistence of a long-lived lizard.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alice R; Bull, C Michael; Brook, Barry W; Wells, Konstans; Pollock, Kenneth H; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-03-01

    Assessing the impacts of multiple, often synergistic, stressors on the population dynamics of long-lived species is becoming increasingly important due to recent and future global change. Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) is a long-lived skink (>30 years) that is adapted to survive in semi-arid environments with varying levels of parasite exposure and highly seasonal food availability. We used an exhaustive database of 30 years of capture-mark-recapture records to quantify the impacts of both parasite exposure and environmental conditions on the lizard's survival rates and long-term population dynamics. Lizard abundance was relatively stable throughout the study period; however, there were changing patterns in adult and juvenile apparent survival rates, driven by spatial and temporal variation in levels of tick exposure and temporal variation in environmental conditions. Extreme weather events during the winter and spring seasons were identified as important environmental drivers of survival. Climate models predict a dramatic increase in the frequency of extreme hot and dry winter and spring seasons in our South Australian study region; from a contemporary probability of 0·17 up to 0·47-0·83 in 2080 depending on the emissions scenario. Our stochastic population model projections showed that these future climatic conditions will induce a decline in the abundance of this long-lived reptile of up to 67% within 30 years from 2080, under worst case scenario modelling. The results have broad implications for future work investigating the drivers of population dynamics and persistence. We highlight the importance of long-term data sets and accounting for synergistic impacts between multiple stressors. We show that predicted increases in the frequency of extreme climate events have the potential to considerably and negatively influence a long-lived species, which might previously have been assumed to be resilient to environmental perturbations. PMID:26559641

  2. Breeding Experience Might Be a Major Determinant of Breeding Probability in Long-Lived Species: The Case of the Greater Flamingo

    PubMed Central

    Pradel, Roger; Choquet, Rémi; Béchet, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    The probability of breeding is known to increase with age early in life in many long-lived species. This increase may be due to experience accumulated through past breeding attempts. Recent methodological advances allowing accounting for unobserved breeding episodes, we analyzed the encounter histories of 14716 greater flamingos over 25 years to get a detailed picture of the interactions of age and experience. Survival did not improve with experience, seemingly ruling out the selection hypothesis. Breeding probability varied within three levels of experience : no breeding experience, 1 experience, 2+ experiences. We fitted models with and without among-individual differences in breeding probabilities by including or not an additive individual random effect. Including the individual random effect improved the model fit less than including experience but the best model retained both. However, because modeling individual heterogeneity by means of an additive static individual random effect is currently criticized and may not be appropriate, we discuss the results with and without random effect. Without random effect, breeding probability of inexperienced birds was always times lower than that of same age experienced birds, and breeding probability increased more with one additional experience than with one additional year of age. With random effects, the advantage of experience was unequivocal only after age 9 while in young having experience was penalizing. Another pattern, that breeding probability of birds with experiences dropped after some age (8 without random effect; up to 11 with it), may point to differences in the timing of reproductive senescence or to the existence of a sensitive period for acquiring behavioral skills. Overall, the role of experience appears strong in this long-lived species. We argue that overlooking the role of experience may hamper detection of trade-offs and assessment of individual heterogeneity. However, manipulative experiments are

  3. Wide-range analysis of genetic structure of Betula maximowicziana, a long-lived pioneer tree species and noble hardwood in the cool temperate zone of Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Y; Ide, Y

    2005-11-01

    Betula maximowicziana is a long-lived pioneer tree species in Japanese cool temperate forests that plays an important role in maintenance of the forest ecosystem and has high economic value. Here we assess the wide-range genetic structure of 23 natural populations of B. maximowicziana using 11 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Genetic diversity within populations was relatively low in all populations (mean H(E), 0.361; mean allelic richness, 2.80; mean rare allelic richness, 1.02). The population differentiation was also relatively low (F(ST), 0.062). Genetic distance-based and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed that the populations examined here could be divided into a southern group and a northern group. Analysis of rare allelic richness and Bayesian clustering revealed evidence for both southern and northern refugia during the last glacial period. Furthermore, a comparison of regional genetic diversity revealed significant clines in allelic richness. In spatial genetic structure evaluation, significant isolation by distance (IBD) was detected among the 23 populations, but not within regions. Moreover, significant population bottlenecks were found in all populations under infinite allele model (IAM) assumptions. These unusual, significant bottlenecks might be because of the processes of postglacial colonization and the species' characters and/or life history as a long-lived pioneer tree species. The wide-range, regional genetic structure found in this study provides an important baseline for conservation and forest management, including the identification of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and/or management units (MUs) of B. maximowicziana. PMID:16262849

  4. Procedure to detect impervious surfaces using satellite images and light detection and ranging (lidar) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cuenca, B.; Alonso-Rodríguez, M. C.; Domenech-Tofiño, E.; Valcárcel Sanz, N.; Delgado-Hernández, J.; Peces-Morera, Juan José; Arozarena-Villar, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The detection of impervious surfaces is an important issue in the study of urban and rural environments. Imperviousness refers to water's inability to pass through a surface. Although impervious surfaces represent a small percentage of the Earth's surface, knowledge of their locations is relevant to planning and managing human activities. Impervious structures are primarily manmade (e.g., roads and rooftops). Impervious surfaces are an environmental concern because many processes that modify the normal function of land, air, and water resources are initiated during their construction. This paper presents a novel method of identifying impervious surfaces using satellite images and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The inputs for the procedure are SPOT images formed by four spectral bands (corresponding to red, green, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths), a digital terrain model, and an .las file. The proposed method computes five decision indexes from the input data to classify the studied area into two categories: impervious (subdivided into buildings and roads) and non-impervious surfaces. The impervious class is divided into two subclasses because the elements forming this category (mainly roads and rooftops) have different spectral and height properties, and it is difficult to combine these elements into one group. The classification is conducted using a decision tree procedure. For every decision index, a threshold is set for which every surface is considered impervious or non-impervious. The proposed method has been applied to four different regions located in the north, center, and south of Spain, providing satisfactory results for every dataset.

  5. Population density and climate shape early-life survival and recruitment in a long-lived pelagic seabird.

    PubMed

    Fay, Rémi; Weimerskirch, Henri; Delord, Karine; Barbraud, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    1. Our understanding of demographic processes is mainly based on analyses of traits from the adult component of populations. Early-life demographic traits are poorly known mainly for methodological reasons. Yet, survival of juvenile and immature individuals is critical for the recruitment into the population and thus for the whole population dynamic, especially for long-lived species. This bias currently restrains our ability to fully understand population dynamics of long-lived species and life-history theory. 2. The goal of this study was to estimate the early-life demographic parameters of a long-lived species with a long immature period (9-10 years), to test for sex and age effects on these parameters and to identify the environmental factors encountered during the period of immaturity that may influence survival and recruitment. 3. Using capture-mark-recapture multievent models allowing us to deal with uncertain and unobservable individual states, we analysed a long-term data set of wandering albatrosses to estimate both age- and sex-specific early-life survival and recruitment. We investigated environmental factors potentially driving these demographic traits using climatic and fisheries covariates and tested for density dependence. 4. Our study provides for the first time an estimate of annual survival during the first 2 years at sea for an albatross species (0·801 ± 0·014). Both age and sex affected early-life survival and recruitment processes of this long-lived seabird species. Early-life survival and recruitment were highly variable across years although the sensitivity of young birds to environmental variability decreased with age. Early-life survival was negatively associated with sea surface temperature, and recruitment rate was positively related to both Southern Annular Mode and sea surface temperature. We found strong evidence for density-dependent mortality of juveniles. Population size explained 41% of the variation of this parameter over the

  6. Effect of Age and Glaucoma on the Detection of Darks and Lights

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linxi; Sendek, Caroline; Davoodnia, Vandad; Lashgari, Reza; Dul, Mitchell W.; Zaidi, Qasim; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We have shown previously that normal observers detect dark targets faster and more accurately than light targets, when presented in noisy backgrounds. We investigated how these differences in detection time and accuracy are affected by age and ganglion cell pathology associated with glaucoma. Methods We asked 21 glaucoma patients, 21 age-similar controls, and 5 young control observers to report as fast as possible the number of 1 to 3 light or dark targets. The targets were positioned at random in a binary noise background, within the central 30° of the visual field. Results We replicate previous findings that darks are detected faster and more accurately than lights. We extend these findings by demonstrating that differences in detection of darks and lights are found reliably across different ages and in observers with glaucoma. We show that differences in detection time increase at a rate of approximately 55 msec/dB at early stages of glaucoma and then remain constant at later stages at approximately 800 msec. In normal subjects, differences in detection time increase with age at a rate of approximately 8 msec/y. We also demonstrate that the accuracy to detect lights and darks is significantly correlated with the severity of glaucoma and that the mean detection time is significantly longer for subjects with glaucoma than age-similar controls. Conclusions We conclude that differences in detection of darks and lights can be demonstrated over a wide range of ages, and asymmetries in dark/light detection increase with age and early stages of glaucoma. PMID:26513506

  7. Method and apparatus for detecting phycocyanin-pigmented algae and bacteria from reflected light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting phycocyanin algae or bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  8. Method and apparatus for detecting phycocyanin-pigmented algae and bacteria from reflected light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting phycocyanin algae or bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  9. Dynamic light scattering (DLS)-based immunoassay for ultra-sensitive detection of tumor marker protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ma, Jiehua; Fan, Qiongxuan; Tao, Yaqin; Li, Genxi

    2016-06-14

    A novel dynamic light scattering (DLS)-based immunoassay that utilizes manganese dioxide nanosheet-modified gold nanoparticles (MnO2-GNPs) as an activatable nanoprobe has been developed to detect tumor markers down to femtomolar levels. PMID:27247980

  10. Cancer detection using NIR elastic light scattering and tissue fluorescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Staggs, M; Radousky, H B; Gandour-Edwards, R; deVere White, R

    2000-12-04

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue fluorescence under long-wavelength laser excitation are explored for cancer detection. Various types of normal and malignant human tissue samples were utilized in this investigation.

  11. Detection of characteristic eye points in non-ideal light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewska, Joanna; Galiński, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Detection of characteristic eye points under challenging light conditions is a non-trivial task. Difficulty of this task increase even more when low resolution images are used. This article introduces an adaptive solution for detection of characteristic eye points in mentioned conditions. First, light normalization algorithm is performed. Then, face and eye detection followed by determination of eye status (namely: open or closed) is done. Finally, an adaptive method for pupil and eye corners detection is developed by comparing some existing methods. Experimental results show the outperformance of the proposed method.

  12. Terrestrial Planet Finder, Planet Detection Test-Bed: Latest Results of Planet Light Detection in the Presence of Starlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Stefan R.; Booth, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder, Planet Detection Test-bed is a lab based simulation of the optics and control systems for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer mission. The test-bed supports starlight nulling at 10um infrared wavelengths, with fringe tracking at 2um wavelengths and angle and shear tracking at visible wavelengths. It further allows injection of simulated planet light in the presence of the nulled star light, to allow testing of planet detection methods. We will describe the detailed construction and operation of the test-bed from an optical and control system perspective. We will also report the latest results for narrow band nulls, and the detection of broad band planet light in the presence of nulled starlight.

  13. Evidences of long lived cages in functionalized polymers: Effects on chromophore dynamic and spectroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Giacomo; Monti, Susanna; De Mitri, Nicola; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    The formation of long-lived cages in a functionalized polymer is evidenced through an integrated computational approach. The investigated material is described with a purposely refined force field and long lasting simulations are used to sample the configurational space of the complex. The resulting virtual scenario is validated by comparing calculated and experimental spectra. The deeper insight offered by the computational procedure has lead to the identification of flexible cage like structures of the polymer bundle, that evolve very slowly, readapting their shape to the thermal movements of the probe, hence affecting the broadening of the electronic spectra. pair correlation functions between the center of mass of the dye and the surrounding heavy atoms mean fields W(δi) due to the surrounding environment experienced by δi, where δi are the torsional angles of the dye most influencing its optical behavior [24] residence times that characterize the resulting first neighbor shells of the dye. These descriptors were all very useful to depict the polymer caging effect, also through the comparison with the behavior of toluene molecules around the dye. As suggested by the examination of the position and trend of the first neighbor peaks of the pair correlation functions computed for the NfO-TEMPO EES in polymer and in toluene solution (see left panel of Figure 1), the polymer chains are closer to the dye (Rmax1tolu=6.6 Å, Rmax1polymer=5.1 Å) more tightly packed and persistently located in that region. On the contrary, toluene molecules are farther from the dye, exchange more frequently between the different shells and allow the probe to rearrange its groups in quite different conformations. Indeed, the greater mobility of toluene around the solute and the short-lived cage formed in this case are confirmed by the absence of definite minima between the first and the second coordination shells (R=8.8 Å). This implies a fast and continuous motion of the solvent

  14. Neural networks improve brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy in the presence of light artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermyn, Michael; Desroches, Joannie; Mercier, Jeanne; St-Arnaud, Karl; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Petrecca, Kevin; Leblond, Frederic

    2016-03-01

    It is often difficult to identify cancer tissue during brain cancer (glioma) surgery. Gliomas invade into areas of normal brain, and this cancer invasion is frequently not detected using standard preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This results in enduring invasive cancer following surgery and leads to recurrence. A hand-held Raman spectroscopy is able to rapidly detect cancer invasion in patients with grade 2-4 gliomas. However, ambient light sources can produce spectral artifacts which inhibit the ability to distinguish between cancer and normal tissue using the spectral information available. To address this issue, we have demonstrated that artificial neural networks (ANN) can accurately classify invasive cancer versus normal brain tissue, even when including measurements with significant spectral artifacts from external light sources. The non-parametric and adaptive model used by ANN makes it suitable for detecting complex non-linear spectral characteristics associated with different tissues and the confounding presence of light artifacts. The use of ANN for brain cancer detection with Raman spectroscopy, in the presence of light artifacts, improves the robustness and clinical translation potential for intraoperative use. Integration with the neurosurgical workflow is facilitated by accounting for the effect of light artifacts which may occur, due to operating room lights, neuronavigation systems, windows, or other light sources. The ability to rapidly detect invasive brain cancer under these conditions may reduce residual cancer remaining after surgery, and thereby improve patient survival.

  15. Approaching sediment dynamics on Little Ice Age (LIA) lateral moraines in Upper Kaunertal valley, Austria using long-lived radionuclide 129I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamleitner, Sarah; Czarnowsky, Verena; Lachner, Johannes; Steier, Peter; Morche, David; Kraushaar, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Kaunertal, as many other valleys situated in the Eastern Alps, has recently undergone large deglaciation processes as a result of global warming, leaving behind large moraines exposed to geomorphic processes. Steep lateral moraines represent large and easily erodible sources of material within an Alpine sediment cascade. In order to quantify the amount of sediments provided by the moraines, methods of surface change detection such as aerial and terrestrial laser scanning or sfm (structure from motion) generated Digital Elevation Models (DEM) are being applied. However, morphological changes due to the melt out of persisted ice are overlain by processes of mass movement, slope wash, and fluvial erosion, and therefore often remain unnoticed. Yet melting alone could account for a volume reduction in the sediment matrix of up to 13%, the additional leaching of water to a further unknown amount. Hence, the hydrological situation on the lateral moraines needs to be clarified. Previous investigations of springs evolving from the LIA lateral moraine were showing light isotope signatures comparable to those of glacier ice, and resulted in first assumption about the presence of ice lenses within the moraines (Kraushaar et al. 2014). Stable isotope measurements applied by Czarnowsky et al. 2015 confirm former findings. However, fail to distinguish between recently developed ice and dead ice lenses originating from former glacial maxima. This study therefore aims to date evolving spring waters on lateral moraines of the Gepatschferner, sampled between May and October 2015, using the radioactive isotope iodine-129. The environmental abundance of this long-lived radionuclide has been, analogue to tritium, significantly altered due to human activity since Nuclear Age, and is therefore believed to provide feasible relative age estimations. Hence, measurements will allow the clarification of the hydrological situation on site and the specification of processes causing

  16. Evidences of long lived cages in functionalized polymers: Effects on chromophore dynamic and spectroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Giacomo; Monti, Susanna; De Mitri, Nicola; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    The formation of long-lived cages in a functionalized polymer is evidenced through an integrated computational approach. The investigated material is described with a purposely refined force field and long lasting simulations are used to sample the configurational space of the complex. The resulting virtual scenario is validated by comparing calculated and experimental spectra. The deeper insight offered by the computational procedure has lead to the identification of flexible cage like structures of the polymer bundle, that evolve very slowly, readapting their shape to the thermal movements of the probe, hence affecting the broadening of the electronic spectra. pair correlation functions between the center of mass of the dye and the surrounding heavy atoms mean fields W(δi) due to the surrounding environment experienced by δi, where δi are the torsional angles of the dye most influencing its optical behavior [24] residence times that characterize the resulting first neighbor shells of the dye. These descriptors were all very useful to depict the polymer caging effect, also through the comparison with the behavior of toluene molecules around the dye. As suggested by the examination of the position and trend of the first neighbor peaks of the pair correlation functions computed for the NfO-TEMPO EES in polymer and in toluene solution (see left panel of Figure 1), the polymer chains are closer to the dye (Rmax1tolu=6.6 Å, Rmax1polymer=5.1 Å) more tightly packed and persistently located in that region. On the contrary, toluene molecules are farther from the dye, exchange more frequently between the different shells and allow the probe to rearrange its groups in quite different conformations. Indeed, the greater mobility of toluene around the solute and the short-lived cage formed in this case are confirmed by the absence of definite minima between the first and the second coordination shells (R=8.8 Å). This implies a fast and continuous motion of the solvent

  17. Detecting Super-Thin Clouds With Polarized Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Wenbo; Videen, Gorden; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel method for detecting cloud particles in the atmosphere. Solar radiation backscattered from clouds is studied with both satellite data and a radiative transfer model. A distinct feature is found in the angle of linear polarization of solar radiation that is backscattered from clouds. The dominant backscattered electric field from the clear-sky Earth-atmosphere system is nearly parallel to the Earth surface. However, when clouds are present, this electric field can rotate significantly away from the parallel direction. Model results demonstrate that this polarization feature can be used to detect super-thin cirrus clouds having an optical depth of only 0.06 and super-thin liquid water clouds having an optical depth of only 0.01. Such clouds are too thin to be sensed using any current passive satellite instruments.

  18. Detection of partial polarization of light beams with dipolar nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Lasse-Petteri; Saastamoinen, Kimmo; Lehtolahti, Joonas; Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero

    2016-01-25

    We confirm experimentally that the degree and state of polarization of a random, partially polarized electromagnetic beam can be obtained by probing the field with a nanoscatterer. We use a gold nanocube on silicon substrate as a local scatterer and detect the polarization characteristics of the scattered far field, which enables us to deduce the state of partial polarization of the field at the nanoprobe site. In contrast to previous beam characterization methods where spatial resolution is limited by the pixel size of the detector, the accuracy of the current technique is specified by the particle size. Our work is the first step towards polarization-state detection of random optical near fields for which the use of nanoprobes is required. PMID:26832527

  19. Optical biopsy - a new armamentarium to detect disease using light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been considered a promising method for cancer detection for past thirty years because of its advantages over the conventional diagnostic methods of no tissue removal, minimal invasiveness, rapid diagnoses, less time consumption and reproducibility since the first use in 1984. It offers a new armamentarium. Human tissue is mainly composed of extracellular matrix of collagen fiber, proteins, fat, water, and epithelial cells with key molecules in different structures. Tissues contain a number of key fingerprint native endogenous fluorophore molecules, such as tryptophan, collagen, elastin, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and porphyrins. It is well known that abnormalities in metabolic activity precede the onset of a lot of main diseases: carcinoma, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease, etc. Optical spectroscopy may help in detecting various disorders. Conceivably the biochemical or morphologic changes that cause the spectra variations would appear earlier than the histological aberration. Therefore, "optical biopsy" holds a great promise as clinical tool for diagnosing early stage of carcinomas and other deceases by combining with available photonic technology (e.g. optical fibers, photon detectors, spectrographs spectroscopic ratiometer, fiber-optic endomicroscope and nasopharyngoscope) for in vivo use. This paper focuses on various methods available to detect spectroscopic changes in tissues, for example to distinguish cancerous prostate tissues and/or cells from normal prostate tissues and/or cells. The methods to be described are fluorescence, stokes shift, scattering, Raman, and time-resolved spectroscopy will be reviewed. The underlying physical and biological basis for these optical approaches will be discussed with examples. The idea is to present some of the salient works to show the usefulness and methods of Optical Biopsy for cancer detection and

  20. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O.; Valentine, Jason

    2015-09-01

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform.

  1. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J; Besteiro, Lucas V; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O; Valentine, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform. PMID:26391292

  2. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O.; Valentine, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform. PMID:26391292

  3. Detecting Close-In Extrasolar Giant Planets with the Kepler Photometer via Scattered Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Doyle, L. R.; Kepler Discovery Mission Team

    2003-05-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission will be launched in 2007 primarily to search for transiting Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of solar-like stars. In addition, it will be poised to detect the reflected light component from close-in extrasolar giant planets (CEGPs) similar to 51 Peg b. Here we use the DIARAD/SOHO time series along with models for the reflected light signatures of CEGPs to evaluate Kepler's ability to detect such planets. We examine the detectability as a function of stellar brightness, stellar rotation period, planetary orbital inclination angle, and planetary orbital period, and then estimate the total number of CEGPs that Kepler will detect over its four year mission. The analysis shows that intrinsic stellar variability of solar-like stars is a major obstacle to detecting the reflected light from CEGPs. Monte Carlo trials are used to estimate the detection threshold required to limit the total number of expected false alarms to no more than one for a survey of 100,000 stellar light curves. Kepler will likely detect 100-760 51 Peg b-like planets by reflected light with orbital periods up to 7 days. LRD was supported by the Carl Sagan Chair at the Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, a division of the SETI Institute. JMJ received support from the Kepler Mission Photometer and Science Office at NASA Ames Research Center.

  4. Detection of falsification of security documents using white light interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Shoichi; Itoh, Masahide; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2010-04-01

    In order to verify the authenticity of security documents, we propose the measurement of the surface distortion of the cover film of security documents. Surface shapes of films of 31 genuine documents and 29 counterfeit documents were measured by using a white light interferometer. Differences between the surface features of a genuine security document and those of a counterfeit one were studied. Roughness and peak-valley density were the two features used to characterize the measured surface shape. Only 2 out of 29 counterfeit documents could not be distinguished from the genuine ones by film distortion analysis. The likelihood ratio of this method in the authentication of genuine documents was 14.5. This implies that the proposed method is useful for authentication of genuine documents.

  5. Research on spaceborne low light detection based on EMCCD and CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xingxing; Liu, Jinguo; Zhou, Huaide; Zhang, Boyan

    2015-10-01

    Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device(EMCCD) can realize read out noise of less than 1e- by promoting gain of charges with the charge multiplication principle and is suitable for low light imaging. With the development of back Illuminated CMOS technology CMOS with high quantum efficiency and less than 1.5e- read noise has been developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics(CIOMP). Spaceborne low light detection cameras based on EMCCD CCD201 and based on CMOS were respectively established and system noise models were founded. Low light detection performance as well as principle of spaceborne camera based on EMCCD and spaceborne camera based on CMOS were compared and analyzed. Results of analysis indicated that signal to noise(SNR) of spaceborne low light detection camera based on EMCCD would be 23.78 as radiance at entrance pupil of the camera was as low as 10-9 W/cm2/sr/μm at the focal plane temperature of 20°C. Spaceborne low light detection camera worked in starring mode and the integration time was 2 second. SNR of low light detection camera based on CMOS would be 27.42 under the same conditions. If cooling systems were used and the temperature was lowered from 20°C to -20°C, SNR of low light detection camera based on EMCCD would be improved to 27.533 while SNR of low light detection camera based on CMOS would be improved to 27.79.

  6. A Novel Molecular Solution for Ultraviolet Light Detection in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Stacey L; Charlie, Nicole K; Milfort, Marie C; Brown, Brandon S; Gravlin, Christen N; Knecht, Jamie E; Miller, Kenneth G

    2008-01-01

    For many organisms the ability to transduce light into cellular signals is crucial for survival. Light stimulates DNA repair and metabolism changes in bacteria, avoidance responses in single-cell organisms, attraction responses in plants, and both visual and nonvisual perception in animals. Despite these widely differing responses, in all of nature there are only six known families of proteins that can transduce light. Although the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has none of the known light transduction systems, we show here that C. elegans strongly accelerates its locomotion in response to blue or shorter wavelengths of light, with maximal responsiveness to ultraviolet light. Our data suggest that C. elegans uses this light response to escape the lethal doses of sunlight that permeate its habitat. Short-wavelength light drives locomotion by bypassing two critical signals, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and diacylglycerol (DAG), that neurons use to shape and control behaviors. C. elegans mutants lacking these signals are paralyzed and unresponsive to harsh physical stimuli in ambient light, but short-wavelength light rapidly rescues their paralysis and restores normal levels of coordinated locomotion. This light response is mediated by LITE-1, a novel ultraviolet light receptor that acts in neurons and is a member of the invertebrate Gustatory receptor (Gr) family. Heterologous expression of the receptor in muscle cells is sufficient to confer light responsiveness on cells that are normally unresponsive to light. Our results reveal a novel molecular solution for ultraviolet light detection and an unusual sensory modality in C. elegans that is unlike any previously described light response in any organism. PMID:18687026

  7. Stray light suppression of optical and mechanical system for telescope detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Ma, Wenli

    2013-09-01

    During telescope detection, there is atmosphere overflow and other stray light affecting the system which leads to background disturbance. Thus reduce the detection capability of the system. So it is very necessary to design mechanical structure to suppress the stray light for the telescope detection system. It can both improve the signal-to-noise and contrast of the object. This paper designs the optical and mechanical structure of the 400mm telescope. And then the main baffle, baffle vane, field stop and coating technology are used to eliminate the effect of stray light on the optical and mechanical system. Finally, software is used to analyze and simulate stray light on the whole optical and mechanical system. Using PST as the evaluating standard, separate and integrated analysis of the suppressing effect of main baffle, baffle vane and field aperture is completed. And also get the results of PST before and after eliminating the stray light. Meanwhile, the results of stray light analysis can be used to guide the design of the optical and mechanical structure. The analysis results demonstrate that reasonable optical and mechanical structure and stray light suppression measure can highly reduce the PST and also improve the detection capability of the telescope system, and the designed outside baffle, inside baffle, vanes and coating technique etc. can decrease the PST approximately 1 to 3 level.

  8. Efficient, full-spectrum, long-lived, non-toxic microwave lamp for plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Ury, Michael G.; Gustafson, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Fusion Systems Corporation has developed a mercury-free, low infrared, efficient microwave lamp using a benign sulfur based fill optimized for visible light. Our literature search and discussions with researchers directed us to enhance the bulbs red output. We have demonstrated a photosynthetic efficacy of over 2 micro-moles per microwave joule which corresponds to over 1.3 micro-moles per joule at the power main. Recent work has shown we can make additional increases in overall system efficiency. During the next two years, we expect to demonstrate a system capable of producing more than 1.5 micro-moles/joule measured at the power main with significantly less IR than alternative lamp systems. We determined optimal plant growth light requirements via a literature search and researcher input. We surveyed candidate lamp fill materials to be used in combination with sulfur and explored several methods of increasing photosynthetic efficacy.

  9. New radiation stable and long-lived plastic scintillator for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Senchishin, V.; Koba, V.; Korneeva, O.

    1993-11-01

    The study of the influence of the concentration of secondary flour, high concentrations of primary dopant, diffusion enhancer, and stabilizer, on radiation hardness is presented. It is concluded that the diffusion enhancing technique is the most powerful method for improving rad hardness. A new polystyrene scintillator which contains 2% pT and 0.02% POPOP and 20% diffusion enhancer and 0.02% stabilizer gave 91% of initial light output immediately after 3MRad in air. Data are presented that show that scintillator prepared form commercial polymer is more radiation hard and has greater light output than scintillator prepared from monomer. It is assumed that this difference is due to different molecular weight distributions. Some protocols for acceleration of aging (yellowing and crazing) are presented. It is shown that one of the main reasons for aging of plastic scintillators is residual monomer.

  10. Age-Related Mercury Contamination and Relationship with Luteinizing Hormone in a Long-Lived Antarctic Bird

    PubMed Central

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bustamante, Paco; Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Seabirds, as long-lived top predators, accumulate contaminants such as mercury (Hg), an established endocrine disruptor. In long lived species hormonal secretion varies with age; therefore, Hg-induced endocrine disruption may be exacerbated in some age classes. Here we investigated relationships between blood total Hg and luteinizing hormone (LH, a key pituitary hormone for the onset of breeding), in pre-laying known-age (11–45 years old) snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) from Adélie Land, Antarctica. We predicted that 1) blood Hg would increase with advancing age as a consequence of bio-accumulation; and that 2) increasing blood Hg would be related to decreased concentrations of LH in the most Hg-contaminated individuals. Hg concentrations were higher in females than in males (p<0.001), and contrary to our prediction, decreased with advancing age in males (p = 0.009) and tended to do so in females (p = 0.06). The analysis of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) suggested that this unexpected pattern could originate from age and sex-related variations in trophic niche, and hence Hg exposure. Regarding LH, our prediction was only supported in young birds (≤23 years) where baseline LH was inversely correlated with Hg concentrations (p = 0.04). Hg burden did not predict baseline LH or GnRH-induced LH in birds that were more than 23 years old. These results show that age and contaminants may interfere with major endocrine mechanisms and, together with other recent studies, support the view that Hg could be connected to LH secretion and could then impair the fitness of long-lived birds. PMID:25072936

  11. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Nobukatsu; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Hayashi, Ryohei; Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus.

  12. Slowly ascending magmas in long-lived accretionary orogens: unraveling temporal variations in the Cordilleran-style Sveconorwegian Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bybee, G. M.; Slagstad, T.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Coint, N.; Ashwal, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Norway is host to spatially associated magmatic provinces that have been interpreted as magmatic products of the Sveconorwegian Orogeny. The Sirdal Magmatic Belt (SMB) and the Hornblende-Biotite Granite (HBG) Suite were emplaced between 1050-1020 Ma and 980-930 Ma, respectively. Geochronology of the Rogaland Anorthosite Province (RAP) indicates that magmatism began at 1041 Ma (high pressure, cogenetic megacrysts) and culminated in anorthosite emplacement at ±930 Ma. Decompression exsolution ages for these high-P megacrysts indicate that decompression during anorthosite ascent took place ±80-100 m.y. after crystallization at the Moho. The contact aureole of the RAP shows concordant arrays of zircon ages between 1050-930 Ma, recording continuous, long-lived high temperature magmatic events in southwestern Norway. Zircon ages from outside the contact aureole show a metamorphic event at ±1035 Ma, but show no younger concordant arrays. Metapelites from the contact aureole of the RAP also show a spread of monazite ages, where monazite inclusions in garnet record ages of 1038-992 Ma, while groundmass monazite preserve ages of 952±10 Ma, indicative of multiple and/or long-lived thermal events. Age coincidence for several events, including matrix monazite formation, megacryst decompression (and anorthosite emplacement) and HBG granite crystallization suggest a dynamic system with multiple feedback loops. Varying isotopic signatures recorded in the region hint at changing sources and processes associated with the genesis of the magmas. These observations indicate that the Sveconorwegian orogeny was a long-lived magmatic system that featured slowly ascending magmas, punctuated periods of magmatism and temporal geochemical variation - features analogous to younger Cordilleran systems. When estimating magmatic tempos in arc environments, factors such as large degrees of differentiation in the lower crust, polybaric magma evolution and slow magma ascent rates

  13. Light-induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Palcic, Branko

    1999-09-01

    This paper summarizes our experiences on the development of a Light Induced Fluorescence Endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The system utilizes tissue autofluorescence to provide real time video imaging of the examined organ. No exogenous fluorescent tumor markers are needed. It is used by a physician in adjunct to conventional white-light endoscopy. Suspicious areas are identified in pseudo color to guide biopsy. A multi- center clinical trial has demonstrated that in the lung, the relative sensitivity of white-light imaging + LIFE imaging vs. white-light imaging alone was 6.3 for intraepithelial neoplastic lesion detection and 2.71 when invasive carcinomas were also included. The following issues will be discussed: (1) spectroscopy study design for imaging system development; (2) architecture of the imaging systems; (3) different imaging modalities (white-light imaging, dual channel fluorescence imaging, and combined fluorescence/reflectance imaging); and (4) clinical applications.

  14. Two Approaches to the Geologic Disposal of Long-Lived Nuclear Waste: Yucca Mountain, Nevada and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Levich, R. A.; Patterson, R. L.; Linden, R. M.

    2002-02-26

    A key component of the US energy program is to provide for the safe and permanent isolation of spent nuclear fuel and long-lived radioactive waste produced through programs related to national defense and the generation of electric power by nuclear utilities. To meet this challenge, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a multi-faceted approach to the geologic disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes. Two sites are being developed or studied as current or potential deep geologic repositories for long lived radioactive wastes, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico and Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  15. Magnetoresistance detected spin collectivity in organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malissa, Hans; Waters, David P.; Joshi, Gajadhar; Kavand, Marzieh; Limes, Mark E.; Burn, Paul L.; Lupton, John M.; Boehme, Christoph

    Organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) typically refers to the significant change in the conductivity of thin layers of organic semiconductors at low static magnetic fields (< 10 mT). When radio frequency (rf) radiation is applied to an organic semiconductor under bipolar injection, and in the presence of small magnetic fields B, magnetic resonance can occur, which is observed as a change of the OMAR effect [Baker et al., Nat. Commun. 3, 898 (2012)]. When B and the resonant driving field are stronger than local hyperfine fields, an ultrastrong coupling regime emerges, which is marked by collective spin effects analogous to the optical Dicke effect [Roundy and Raikh, Phys. Rev. B 88, 125206 (2013)]. Experimentally, this collective behavior of spins can be probed in the steady state OMAR of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) at room temperature by observation of a sign reversal of the OMAR change under rf irradiation. Furthermore, in the presence of strong driving fields, an ac Zeeman effect can be observed through OMAR [Waters et al., Nat. Phys. 11, 910 (2015)], a unique window to observe room temperature macroscopic spin quantum coherence.

  16. Monitoring release of disposable radionuclides in the Kara sea: Bioaccumulation of long-lived radionuclides in echinoderms and molluscs

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present proposal is to continue and extend our research on the trophic transfer of important radionuclides in benthic fauna of the Kara Sea. This project is assessing the extent to which select species of seastars, brittle stars, and clams typical of the Kara Sea concentrate and retain a variety of long-lived radionuclides known to be (or suspected to be) present in the disposed wastes in the Russian Arctic. The rates and routes of uptake and depuration of isotopes in the same or in closely related species are being quantified so that endemic benthic organisms can be assessed as potential bioindicators of released radionuclides in Arctic waters.

  17. A review of exposures to radon, long-lived radionuclides and external gamma at the Czech uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Marušiaková, M; Gregor, Z; Tomášek, L

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the personal exposure monitoring conducted in the RoŽná uranium mine in the Czech Republic. In this mine, which has been operated since the late 1950s, personal ALGADE dosemeters have been used since 1998. A group of 600 miners employed during the period 2000-09 has been analysed. Annual exposures to radon decay products, long-lived alpha emitters and external gamma radiation are described. These components play an essential role in the estimation of the total effective dose. The dependence of the exposures on the type of mining job is also assessed. PMID:21471123

  18. Quasi-geostrophic free mode models of long-lived Jovian eddies: Forcing mechanisms and crucial observational tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Read, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter and Saturn long-lived eddies, such as Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals, are presently compared with laboratory experiments and corresponding numerical simulations for free thermal convection in a rotating fluid that is subject to horizontal differential heating and cooling. Difficulties in determining the essential processes maintaining and dissipating stable eddies, on the basis of global energy budget studies, are discussed; such difficulties do not arise in considerations of the flow's potential vorticity budget. On Jupiter, diabatically forced and transient eddy-driven flows primarily differ in the implied role of transient eddies in transporting potential vorticity across closed geostrophic streamlines in the time mean.

  19. Investigation of light scattering as a technique for detecting discrete soot particles in a luminous flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The practicability of using a classical light-scattering technique, involving comparison of angular scattering intensity patterns with theoretically determined Mie and Rayleight patterns, to detect discrete soot particles (diameter less than 50 nm) in premixed propane/air and propane/oxygen-helium flames is considered. The experimental apparatus employed in this investigation included a laser light source, a flat-flame burner, specially coated optics, a cooled photomultiplier detector, and a lock-in voltmeter readout. Although large, agglomerated soot particles were detected and sized, it was not possible to detect small, discrete particles. The limiting factor appears to be background scattering by the system's optics.

  20. Monolithic multi-color light emission/detection device

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1995-02-21

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, multi-color optical transceiver device is described, including (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first junction on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second junction on the first junction. The first junction is preferably GaInAsP of defined composition, and the second junction is preferably InP. The two junctions are lattice matched. The second junction has a larger energy band gap than the first junction. Additional junctions having successively larger energy band gaps may be included. The device is capable of simultaneous and distinct multi-color emission and detection over a single optical fiber. 5 figs.

  1. Monolithic multi-color light emission/detection device

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, multi-color optical transceiver device is described, including (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first junction on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second junction on the first junction. The first junction is preferably GaInAsP of defined composition, and the second junction is preferably InP. The two junctions are lattice matched. The second junction has a larger energy band gap than the first junction. Additional junctions having successively larger energy band gaps may be included. The device is capable of simultaneous and distinct multi-color emission and detection over a single optical fiber.

  2. Light magnetic dark matter in direct detection searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Kouvaris, Chris; Panci, Paolo; Sannino, Francesco; Virkajärvi, Jussi

    2012-08-01

    We study a fermionic Dark Matter particle carrying magnetic dipole moment and analyze its impact on direct detection experiments. In particular we show that it can accommodate the DAMA, CoGeNT and CRESST experimental results. Assuming conservative bounds, this candidate is shown not to be ruled out by the CDMS, XENON and PICASSO experiments. We offer an analytic understanding of how the long-range interaction modifies the experimental allowed regions, in the cross section versus Dark Matter mass parameter space, with respect to the typically assumed contact interaction. Finally, in the context of a symmetric Dark Matter sector, we determine the associated thermal relic density, and further provide relevant constraints imposed by indirect searches and colliders.