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Sample records for detecting rich-club ordering

  1. A Unifying Framework for Measuring Weighted Rich Clubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstott, Jeff; Panzarasa, Pietro; Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Edward T.; Vértes, Petra E.

    2014-12-01

    Network analysis can help uncover meaningful regularities in the organization of complex systems. Among these, rich clubs are a functionally important property of a variety of social, technological and biological networks. Rich clubs emerge when nodes that are somehow prominent or `rich' (e.g., highly connected) interact preferentially with one another. The identification of rich clubs is non-trivial, especially in weighted networks, and to this end multiple distinct metrics have been proposed. Here we describe a unifying framework for detecting rich clubs which intuitively generalizes various metrics into a single integrated method. This generalization rests upon the explicit incorporation of randomized control networks into the measurement process. We apply this framework to real-life examples, and show that, depending on the selection of randomized controls, different kinds of rich-club structures can be detected, such as topological and weighted rich clubs.

  2. Rich-club and page-club coefficients for directed graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilkov, Daniel; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2010-06-01

    Rich-club and page-club coefficients and their null models are introduced for directed graphs. Null models allow for a quantitative discussion of the rich-club and page-club phenomena. These coefficients are computed for four directed real-world networks: Arxiv High Energy Physics paper citation network, Web network (released from Google), Citation network among US Patents, and email network from a EU research institution. The results show a high correlation between rich-club and page-club ordering. For journal paper citation network, we identify both rich-club and page-club ordering, showing that “elite” papers are cited by other “elite” papers. Google web network shows partial rich-club and page-club ordering up to some point and then a narrow declining of the corresponding normalized coefficients, indicating the lack of rich-club ordering and the lack of page-club ordering, i.e. high in-degree (PageRank) pages purposely avoid sharing links with other high in-degree (PageRank) pages. For UC patents citation network, we identify page-club and rich-club ordering providing a conclusion that “elite” patents are cited by other “elite” patents. Finally, for email communication network we show lack of both rich-club and page-club ordering. We construct an example of synthetic network showing page-club ordering and the lack of rich-club ordering.

  3. The rich club phenomenon in the classroom

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero, Luis M.; Cebrian, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the evolution of the online interactions held by college students and report on novel relationships between social structure and performance. Our results indicate that more frequent and intense social interactions generally imply better score for students engaging in them. We find that these interactions are hosted within a “rich-club”, mediated by persistent interactions among high performing students, which is created during the first weeks of the course. Low performing students try to engage in the club after it has been initially formed, and fail to produce reciprocity in their interactions, displaying more transient interactions and higher social diversity. Furthermore, high performance students exchange information by means of complex information cascades, from which low performing students are selectively excluded. Failure to engage in the rich club eventually decreases these students' communication activity towards the end of the course. PMID:23378908

  4. Rich Club Organization and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Participants.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Hugo C; Segura, Barbara; Junque, Carme; de Reus, Marcel A; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2015-09-01

    The human brain is a complex network that has been noted to contain a group of densely interconnected hub regions. With a putative "rich club" of hubs hypothesized to play a central role in global integrative brain functioning, we assessed whether hub and rich club organizations are associated with cognitive performance in healthy participants and whether the rich club might be differentially involved in cognitive functions with a heavier dependence on global integration. A group of 30 relatively older participants (range = 39-79 years of age) underwent extensive neuropsychological testing, combined with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to reconstruct individual structural brain networks. Rich club connectivity was found to be associated with general cognitive performance. More specifically, assessing the relationship between the rich club and performance in two specific cognitive domains, we found rich club connectivity to be differentially associated with attention/executive functions-known to rely on the integration of distributed brain areas-rather than with visuospatial/visuoperceptual functions, which have a more constrained neuroanatomical substrate. Our findings thus provide first empirical evidence of a relevant role played by the rich club in cognitive processes. PMID:25941870

  5. Rich-club organization of the newborn human brain

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Gareth; Aljabar, Paul; Zebari, Sally; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Merchant, Nazakat; Robinson, Emma C.; Ogundipe, Enitan; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, A. David; Counsell, Serena J.

    2014-01-01

    Combining diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and network analysis in the adult human brain has identified a set of highly connected cortical hubs that form a “rich club”—a high-cost, high-capacity backbone thought to enable efficient network communication. Rich-club architecture appears to be a persistent feature of the mature mammalian brain, but it is not known when this structure emerges during human development. In this longitudinal study we chart the emergence of structural organization in mid to late gestation. We demonstrate that a rich club of interconnected cortical hubs is already present by 30 wk gestation. Subsequently, until the time of normal birth, the principal development is a proliferation of connections between core hubs and the rest of the brain. We also consider the impact of environmental factors on early network development, and compare term-born neonates to preterm infants at term-equivalent age. Though rich-club organization remains intact following premature birth, we reveal significant disruptions in both in cortical–subcortical connectivity and short-distance corticocortical connections. Rich club organization is present well before the normal time of birth and may provide the fundamental structural architecture for the subsequent emergence of complex neurological functions. Premature exposure to the extrauterine environment is associated with altered network architecture and reduced network capacity, which may in part account for the high prevalence of cognitive problems in preterm infants. PMID:24799693

  6. Preterm birth alters neonatal, functional rich club organization.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Shen, Xilin; Lacadie, Cheryl; Schneider, Karen C; Dai, Feng; Ment, Laura R; Constable, R Todd

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in neural networks are associated with the cognitive difficulties of the prematurely born. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed functional connectivity for preterm (PT) and term neonates at term equivalent age. Specifically, we constructed whole-brain networks and examined rich club (RC) organization, a common construct among complex systems where important (or "rich") nodes connect preferentially to other important nodes. Both PT and term neonates showed RC organization with PT neonates exhibiting significantly reduced connections between these RC nodes. Additionally, PT neonates showed evidence of weaker functional segregation. Our results suggest that PT birth is associated with fundamental changes of functional organization in the developing brain. PMID:26341628

  7. Rich Club Organization of Macaque Cerebral Cortex and Its Role in Network Communication

    PubMed Central

    Harriger, Logan; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.; Sporns, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Graph-theoretical analysis of brain connectivity data has revealed significant features of brain network organization across a range of species. Consistently, large-scale anatomical networks exhibit highly nonrandom attributes including an efficient small world modular architecture, with distinct network communities that are interlinked by hub regions. The functional importance of hubs motivates a closer examination of their mutual interconnections, specifically to examine the hypothesis that hub regions are more densely linked than expected based on their degree alone, i.e. forming a central rich club. Extending recent findings of rich club topology in the cat and human brain, this report presents evidence for the existence of rich club organization in the cerebral cortex of a non-human primate, the macaque monkey, based on a connectivity data set representing a collation of numerous tract tracing studies. Rich club regions comprise portions of prefrontal, parietal, temporal and insular cortex and are widely distributed across network communities. An analysis of network motifs reveals that rich club regions tend to form star-like configurations, indicative of their central embedding within sets of nodes. In addition, rich club nodes and edges participate in a large number of short paths across the network, and thus contribute disproportionately to global communication. As rich club regions tend to attract and disperse communication paths, many of the paths follow a characteristic pattern of first increasing and then decreasing node degree. Finally, the existence of non-reciprocal projections imposes a net directional flow of paths into and out of the rich club, with some regions preferentially attracting and others dispersing signals. Overall, the demonstration of rich club organization in a non-human primate contributes to our understanding of the network principles underlying neural connectivity in the mammalian brain, and further supports the hypothesis that

  8. Rich-Club Organization in Effective Connectivity among Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Sunny; Shimono, Masanori; Ito, Shinya; Yeh, Fang-Chin; Timme, Nicholas; Myroshnychenko, Maxym; Lapish, Christopher C; Tosi, Zachary; Hottowy, Pawel; Smith, Wesley C; Masmanidis, Sotiris C; Litke, Alan M; Sporns, Olaf; Beggs, John M

    2016-01-20

    The performance of complex networks, like the brain, depends on how effectively their elements communicate. Despite the importance of communication, it is virtually unknown how information is transferred in local cortical networks, consisting of hundreds of closely spaced neurons. To address this, it is important to record simultaneously from hundreds of neurons at a spacing that matches typical axonal connection distances, and at a temporal resolution that matches synaptic delays. We used a 512-electrode array (60 μm spacing) to record spontaneous activity at 20 kHz from up to 500 neurons simultaneously in slice cultures of mouse somatosensory cortex for 1 h at a time. We applied a previously validated version of transfer entropy to quantify information transfer. Similar to in vivo reports, we found an approximately lognormal distribution of firing rates. Pairwise information transfer strengths also were nearly lognormally distributed, similar to reports of synaptic strengths. Some neurons transferred and received much more information than others, which is consistent with previous predictions. Neurons with the highest outgoing and incoming information transfer were more strongly connected to each other than chance, thus forming a "rich club." We found similar results in networks recorded in vivo from rodent cortex, suggesting the generality of these findings. A rich-club structure has been found previously in large-scale human brain networks and is thought to facilitate communication between cortical regions. The discovery of a small, but information-rich, subset of neurons within cortical regions suggests that this population will play a vital role in communication, learning, and memory. Significance statement: Many studies have focused on communication networks between cortical brain regions. In contrast, very few studies have examined communication networks within a cortical region. This is the first study to combine such a large number of neurons (several

  9. Rich-Club Organization in Effective Connectivity among Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shimono, Masanori; Ito, Shinya; Yeh, Fang-Chin; Timme, Nicholas; Myroshnychenko, Maxym; Lapish, Christopher C.; Tosi, Zachary; Hottowy, Pawel; Smith, Wesley C.; Masmanidis, Sotiris C.; Litke, Alan M.; Sporns, Olaf; Beggs, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of complex networks, like the brain, depends on how effectively their elements communicate. Despite the importance of communication, it is virtually unknown how information is transferred in local cortical networks, consisting of hundreds of closely spaced neurons. To address this, it is important to record simultaneously from hundreds of neurons at a spacing that matches typical axonal connection distances, and at a temporal resolution that matches synaptic delays. We used a 512-electrode array (60 μm spacing) to record spontaneous activity at 20 kHz from up to 500 neurons simultaneously in slice cultures of mouse somatosensory cortex for 1 h at a time. We applied a previously validated version of transfer entropy to quantify information transfer. Similar to in vivo reports, we found an approximately lognormal distribution of firing rates. Pairwise information transfer strengths also were nearly lognormally distributed, similar to reports of synaptic strengths. Some neurons transferred and received much more information than others, which is consistent with previous predictions. Neurons with the highest outgoing and incoming information transfer were more strongly connected to each other than chance, thus forming a “rich club.” We found similar results in networks recorded in vivo from rodent cortex, suggesting the generality of these findings. A rich-club structure has been found previously in large-scale human brain networks and is thought to facilitate communication between cortical regions. The discovery of a small, but information-rich, subset of neurons within cortical regions suggests that this population will play a vital role in communication, learning, and memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Many studies have focused on communication networks between cortical brain regions. In contrast, very few studies have examined communication networks within a cortical region. This is the first study to combine such a large number of neurons (several

  10. Rich club neurons dominate Information Transfer in local cortical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Sunny; Shimono, Masanori; Sporns, Olaf; Beggs, John

    2015-03-01

    The performance of complex networks depends on how they route their traffic. It is unknown how information is transferred in local cortical networks of hundreds of closely-spaced neurons. To address this, it is necessary to record simultaneously from hundreds of neurons at a spacing that matches typical axonal connection distances, and at a temporal resolution that matches synaptic delays. We used a 512 electrode array (60 μm spacing) to record spontaneous activity at 20 kHz, simultaneously from up to 700 neurons in slice cultures of mouse somatosensory cortex for 1 hr at a time. We used transfer entropy to quantify directed information transfer (IT) between pairs of neurons. We found an approximately lognormal distribution of firing rates as reported in in-vivo. Pairwise information transfer strengths also were nearly lognormally distributed, similar to synaptic strengths. 20% of the neurons accounted for 70% of the total IT coming into, and going out of the network and were defined as rich nodes. These rich nodes were more densely and strongly connected to each other expected by chance, forming a rich club. This highly uneven distribution of IT has implications for the efficiency and robustness of local cortical networks, and gives clues to the plastic processes that shape them. JSPS.

  11. Structural and Functional Rich Club Organization of the Brain in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, David S.; Ray, Siddharth; Carpenter, Samuel; Iyer, Swathi; Dias, Taciana G. Costa; Stevens, Corinne; Nigg, Joel T.; Fair, Damien A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proposed that the brain’s white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain’s major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism. PMID:24505468

  12. Structural and functional rich club organization of the brain in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Grayson, David S; Ray, Siddharth; Carpenter, Samuel; Iyer, Swathi; Dias, Taciana G Costa; Stevens, Corinne; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have proposed that the brain's white matter is organized as a rich club, whereby the most highly connected regions of the brain are also highly connected to each other. Here we use both functional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the human brain to investigate whether the rich club phenomena is present with functional connectivity, and how this organization relates to the structural phenomena. We also examine whether rich club regions serve to integrate information between distinct brain systems, and conclude with a brief investigation of the developmental trajectory of rich-club phenomena. In agreement with prior work, both adults and children showed robust structural rich club organization, comprising regions of the superior medial frontal/dACC, medial parietal/PCC, insula, and inferior temporal cortex. We also show that these regions were highly integrated across the brain's major networks. Functional brain networks were found to have rich club phenomena in a similar spatial layout, but a high level of segregation between systems. While no significant differences between adults and children were found structurally, adults showed significantly greater functional rich club organization. This difference appeared to be driven by a specific set of connections between superior parietal, insula, and supramarginal cortex. In sum, this work highlights the existence of both a structural and functional rich club in adult and child populations with some functional changes over development. It also offers a potential target in examining atypical network organization in common developmental brain disorders, such as ADHD and Autism. PMID:24505468

  13. Age-associated changes in rich-club organisation in autistic and neurotypical human brains

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic structural networks in the human brain have a rich-club architecture comprising both highly inter-connected central regions and sparsely connected peripheral regions. Recent studies show that disruption of this functionally efficient organisation is associated with several psychiatric disorders. However, despite increasing attention to this network property, whether age-associated changes in rich-club organisation occur during human adolescence remains unclear. Here, analysing a publicly shared diffusion tensor imaging dataset, we found that, during adolescence, brains of typically developing (TD) individuals showed increases in rich-club organisation and inferred network functionality, whereas individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) did not. These differences between TD and ASD groups were statistically significant for both structural and functional properties. Moreover, this typical age-related changes in rich-club organisation were characterised by progressive involvement of the right anterior insula. In contrast, in ASD individuals, did not show typical increases in grey matter volume, and this relative anatomical immaturity was correlated with the severity of ASD social symptoms. These results provide evidence that rich-club architecture is one of the bases of functionally efficient brain networks underpinning complex cognitive functions in adult human brains. Furthermore, our findings suggest that immature rich-club organisation might be associated with some neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26537477

  14. Reinforcement of the Brain's Rich-Club Architecture Following Early Neurodevelopmental Disruption Caused by Very Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Karolis, Vyacheslav R; Froudist-Walsh, Sean; Brittain, Philip J; Kroll, Jasmin; Ball, Gareth; Edwards, A David; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Williams, Steven C; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    The second half of pregnancy is a crucial period for the development of structural brain connectivity, and an abrupt interruption of the typical processes of development during this phase caused by the very preterm birth (<33 weeks of gestation) is likely to result in long-lasting consequences. We used structural and diffusion imaging data to reconstruct the brain structural connectome in very preterm-born adults. We assessed its rich-club organization and modularity as 2 characteristics reflecting the capacity to support global and local information exchange, respectively. Our results suggest that the establishment of global connectivity patterns is prioritized over peripheral connectivity following early neurodevelopmental disruption. The very preterm brain exhibited a stronger rich-club architecture than the control brain, despite possessing a relative paucity of white matter resources. Using a simulated lesion approach, we also investigated whether putative structural reorganization takes place in the very preterm brain in order to compensate for its anatomical constraints. We found that connections between the basal ganglia and (pre-) motor regions, as well as connections between subcortical regions, assumed an altered role in the structural connectivity of the very preterm brain, and that such alterations had functional implications for information flow, rule learning, and verbal IQ. PMID:26742566

  15. Reinforcement of the Brain's Rich-Club Architecture Following Early Neurodevelopmental Disruption Caused by Very Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Karolis, Vyacheslav R.; Froudist-Walsh, Sean; Brittain, Philip J.; Kroll, Jasmin; Ball, Gareth; Edwards, A. David; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Williams, Steven C.; Murray, Robin M.; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The second half of pregnancy is a crucial period for the development of structural brain connectivity, and an abrupt interruption of the typical processes of development during this phase caused by the very preterm birth (<33 weeks of gestation) is likely to result in long-lasting consequences. We used structural and diffusion imaging data to reconstruct the brain structural connectome in very preterm-born adults. We assessed its rich-club organization and modularity as 2 characteristics reflecting the capacity to support global and local information exchange, respectively. Our results suggest that the establishment of global connectivity patterns is prioritized over peripheral connectivity following early neurodevelopmental disruption. The very preterm brain exhibited a stronger rich-club architecture than the control brain, despite possessing a relative paucity of white matter resources. Using a simulated lesion approach, we also investigated whether putative structural reorganization takes place in the very preterm brain in order to compensate for its anatomical constraints. We found that connections between the basal ganglia and (pre-) motor regions, as well as connections between subcortical regions, assumed an altered role in the structural connectivity of the very preterm brain, and that such alterations had functional implications for information flow, rule learning, and verbal IQ. PMID:26742566

  16. Rich club analysis in the Alzheimer's disease connectome reveals a relatively undisturbed structural core network.

    PubMed

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Nir, Talia M; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Bernstein, Matt A; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion imaging can assess the white matter connections within the brain, revealing how neural pathways break down in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed 3-Tesla whole-brain diffusion-weighted images from 202 participants scanned by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-50 healthy controls, 110 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 42 AD patients. From whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural brain connectivity networks to map connections between cortical regions. We tested whether AD disrupts the "rich club" - a network property where high-degree network nodes are more interconnected than expected by chance. We calculated the rich club properties at a range of degree thresholds, as well as other network topology measures including global degree, clustering coefficient, path length, and efficiency. Network disruptions predominated in the low-degree regions of the connectome in patients, relative to controls. The other metrics also showed alterations, suggesting a distinctive pattern of disruption in AD, less pronounced in MCI, targeting global brain connectivity, and focusing on more remotely connected nodes rather than the central core of the network. AD involves severely reduced structural connectivity; our step-wise rich club coefficients analyze points to disruptions predominantly in the peripheral network components; other modalities of data are needed to know if this indicates impaired communication among non rich club regions. The highly connected core was relatively preserved, offering new evidence on the neural basis of progressive risk for cognitive decline. PMID:26037224

  17. Rich club analysis in the Alzheimer's disease connectome reveals a relatively undisturbed structural core network

    PubMed Central

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Nir, Talia M.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Bernstein, Matthew; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion imaging can assess the white matter connections within the brain, revealing how neural pathways break down in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed 3-Tesla whole-brain diffusion-weighted images from 202 participants scanned by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative – 50 healthy controls, 110 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 42 AD patients. From whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural brain connectivity networks to map connections between cortical regions. We tested whether AD disrupts the ‘rich-club’ – a network property where high-degree network nodes are more interconnected than expected by chance. We calculated the rich-club properties at a range of degree thresholds, as well as other network topology measures including global degree, clustering coefficient, path length and efficiency. Network disruptions predominated in the low-degree regions of the connectome in patients, relative to controls. The other metrics also showed alterations, suggesting a distinctive pattern of disruption in AD, less pronounced in MCI, targeting global brain connectivity, and focusing on more remotely connected nodes rather than the central core of the network. AD involves severely reduced structural connectivity; our step-wise rich club coefficients analyze points to disruptions predominantly in the peripheral network components; other modalities of data are needed to know if this indicates impaired communication among non rich-club regions. The highly connected core was relatively preserved, offering new evidence on the neural basis of progressive risk for cognitive decline. PMID:26037224

  18. Suppression of bursting synchronization in clustered scale-free (rich-club) neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lameu, E. L.; Batista, C. A. S.; Batista, A. M.; Iarosz, K.; Viana, R. L.; Lopes, S. R.; Kurths, J.

    2012-12-01

    Functional brain networks are composed of cortical areas that are anatomically and functionally connected. One of the cortical networks for which more information is available in the literature is the cat cerebral cortex. Statistical analyses of the latter suggest that its structure can be described as a clustered network, in which each cluster is a scale-free network possessing highly connected hubs. Those hubs are, on their hand, connected together in a strong fashion ("rich-club" network). We have built a clustered scale-free network inspired in the cat cortex structure so as to study their dynamical properties. In this article, we focus on the synchronization of bursting activity of the cortical areas and how it can be suppressed by means of neuron deactivation through suitably applied light pulses. We show that it is possible to effectively suppress bursting synchronization by acting on a single, yet suitably chosen neuron, as long as it is highly connected, thanks to the "rich-club" structure of the network.

  19. Dwelling quietly in the rich club: brain network determinants of slow cortical fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Gollo, Leonardo L.; Zalesky, Andrew; Hutchison, R. Matthew; van den Heuvel, Martijn; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For more than a century, cerebral cartography has been driven by investigations of structural and morphological properties of the brain across spatial scales and the temporal/functional phenomena that emerge from these underlying features. The next era of brain mapping will be driven by studies that consider both of these components of brain organization simultaneously—elucidating their interactions and dependencies. Using this guiding principle, we explored the origin of slowly fluctuating patterns of synchronization within the topological core of brain regions known as the rich club, implicated in the regulation of mood and introspection. We find that a constellation of densely interconnected regions that constitute the rich club (including the anterior insula, amygdala and precuneus) play a central role in promoting a stable, dynamical core of spontaneous activity in the primate cortex. The slow timescales are well matched to the regulation of internal visceral states, corresponding to the somatic correlates of mood and anxiety. In contrast, the topology of the surrounding ‘feeder’ cortical regions shows unstable, rapidly fluctuating dynamics likely to be crucial for fast perceptual processes. We discuss these findings in relation to psychiatric disorders and the future of connectomics. PMID:25823864

  20. Emergence of rich-club topology and coordinated dynamics in development of hippocampal functional networks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Manuel S; Charlesworth, Paul; Kitzbichler, Manfred G; Paulsen, Ole; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the anatomical network of the human brain shows a "rich-club" organization. This complex topological feature implies that highly connected regions, hubs of the large-scale brain network, are more densely interconnected with each other than expected by chance. Rich-club nodes were traversed by a majority of short paths between peripheral regions, underlining their potential importance for efficient global exchange of information between functionally specialized areas of the brain. Network hubs have also been described at the microscale of brain connectivity (so-called "hub neurons"). Their role in shaping synchronous dynamics and forming microcircuit wiring during development, however, is not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of hubs during network development, using multi-electrode arrays and functional connectivity analysis during spontaneous multi-unit activity (MUA) of dissociated primary mouse hippocampal neurons. Over the first 4 weeks in vitro, functional connectivity significantly increased in strength, density, and size, with mature networks demonstrating a robust modular and small-world topology. As expected by a "rich-get-richer" growth rule of network evolution, MUA graphs were found to form rich-clubs at an early stage in development (14 DIV). Later on, rich-club nodes were a consistent topological feature of MUA graphs, demonstrating high nodal strength, efficiency, and centrality. Rich-club nodes were also found to be crucial for MUA dynamics. They often served as broker of spontaneous activity flow, confirming that hub nodes and rich-clubs may play an important role in coordinating functional dynamics at the microcircuit level. PMID:25855164

  1. Emergence of Rich-Club Topology and Coordinated Dynamics in Development of Hippocampal Functional Networks In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Paul; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; Paulsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the anatomical network of the human brain shows a “rich-club” organization. This complex topological feature implies that highly connected regions, hubs of the large-scale brain network, are more densely interconnected with each other than expected by chance. Rich-club nodes were traversed by a majority of short paths between peripheral regions, underlining their potential importance for efficient global exchange of information between functionally specialized areas of the brain. Network hubs have also been described at the microscale of brain connectivity (so-called “hub neurons”). Their role in shaping synchronous dynamics and forming microcircuit wiring during development, however, is not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of hubs during network development, using multi-electrode arrays and functional connectivity analysis during spontaneous multi-unit activity (MUA) of dissociated primary mouse hippocampal neurons. Over the first 4 weeks in vitro, functional connectivity significantly increased in strength, density, and size, with mature networks demonstrating a robust modular and small-world topology. As expected by a “rich-get-richer” growth rule of network evolution, MUA graphs were found to form rich-clubs at an early stage in development (14 DIV). Later on, rich-club nodes were a consistent topological feature of MUA graphs, demonstrating high nodal strength, efficiency, and centrality. Rich-club nodes were also found to be crucial for MUA dynamics. They often served as broker of spontaneous activity flow, confirming that hub nodes and rich-clubs may play an important role in coordinating functional dynamics at the microcircuit level. PMID:25855164

  2. Inferring social status and rich club effects in enterprise communication networks.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels--voice call, short message, and email--to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a "rich club" maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy. PMID:25822343

  3. Structural and functional connectivity of the human brain in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A rich club-organization study.

    PubMed

    Ray, Siddharth; Miller, Meghan; Karalunas, Sarah; Robertson, Charles; Grayson, David S; Cary, Robert P; Hawkey, Elizabeth; Painter, Julia G; Kriz, Daniel; Fombonne, Eric; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are two of the most common and vexing neurodevelopmental disorders among children. Although the two disorders share many behavioral and neuropsychological characteristics, most MRI studies examine only one of the disorders at a time. Using graph theory combined with structural and functional connectivity, we examined the large-scale network organization among three groups of children: a group with ADHD (8-12 years, n = 20), a group with ASD (7-13 years, n = 16), and typically developing controls (TD) (8-12 years, n = 20). We apply the concept of the rich-club organization, whereby central, highly connected hub regions are also highly connected to themselves. We examine the brain into two different network domains: (1) inside a rich-club network phenomena and (2) outside a rich-club network phenomena. The ASD and ADHD groups had markedly different patterns of rich club and non rich-club connections in both functional and structural data. The ASD group exhibited higher connectivity in structural and functional networks but only inside the rich-club networks. These findings were replicated using the autism brain imaging data exchange dataset with ASD (n = 85) and TD (n = 101). The ADHD group exhibited a lower generalized fractional anisotropy and functional connectivity inside the rich-club networks, but a higher number of axonal fibers and correlation coefficient values outside the rich club. Despite some shared biological features and frequent comorbity, these data suggest ADHD and ASD exhibit distinct large-scale connectivity patterns in middle childhood. PMID:25116862

  4. Structural and functional connectivity of the human brain in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A rich club organization study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Siddharth; Miller, Meghan; Karalunas, Sarah; Robertson, C.J.; Grayson, David; Cary, Paul; Hawkey, Elizabeth; Painter, Julia G.; Kriz, Daniel; Fombonne, Eric; Nigg, Joel T.; Fair, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are two of the most common and vexing neurodevelopmental disorders among children. Although the two disorders share many behavioral and neuropsychological characteristics, most MRI studies examine only one of the disorders at a time. Using graph theory combined with structural and functional connectivity, we examined the large-scale network organization among three groups of children: a group with ADHD (8-12 years, n = 20), a group with ASD (7-13 years, n = 16), and typically developing controls (TD) (8-12 years, n = 20). We apply the concept of the rich-club organization, whereby central, highly connected hub regions are also highly connected to themselves. We examine the brain into two different network domains: (1) inside a rich-club network phenomena, and (2) outside a rich-club network phenomena. ASD and ADHD populations had markedly different patterns of rich club and non rich-club connections in both functional and structural data. The ASD group exhibited higher connectivity in structural and functional networks but only inside the rich-club networks. These findings were replicated using the autism brain imaging data exchange (ABIDE) dataset with ASD (n = 85) and TD (n = 101). The ADHD group exhibited a lower generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and functional connectivity inside the rich-club networks, but a higher number of axonal fibers and correlation coefficient values outside the rich-club. Despite some shared biological features and frequent comorbity, these data suggest ADHD and ASD exhibit distinct large-scale connectivity patterns in middle childhood. PMID:25116862

  5. Selective vulnerability of Rich Club brain regions is an organizational principle of structural connectivity loss in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    McColgan, Peter; Seunarine, Kiran K; Razi, Adeel; Cole, James H; Gregory, Sarah; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A C; Stout, Julie C; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I; Clark, Chris A; Rees, Geraint; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-11-01

    Huntington's disease can be predicted many years before symptom onset, and thus makes an ideal model for studying the earliest mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Diffuse patterns of structural connectivity loss occur in the basal ganglia and cortex early in the disease. However, the organizational principles that underlie these changes are unclear. By understanding such principles we can gain insight into the link between the cellular pathology caused by mutant huntingtin and its downstream effect at the macroscopic level. The 'rich club' is a pattern of organization established in healthy human brains, where specific hub 'rich club' brain regions are more highly connected to each other than other brain regions. We hypothesized that selective loss of rich club connectivity might represent an organizing principle underlying the distributed pattern of structural connectivity loss seen in Huntington's disease. To test this hypothesis we performed diffusion tractography and graph theoretical analysis in a pseudo-longitudinal study of 50 premanifest and 38 manifest Huntington's disease participants compared with 47 healthy controls. Consistent with our hypothesis we found that structural connectivity loss selectively affected rich club brain regions in premanifest and manifest Huntington's disease participants compared with controls. We found progressive network changes across controls, premanifest Huntington's disease and manifest Huntington's disease characterized by increased network segregation in the premanifest stage and loss of network integration in manifest disease. These regional and whole brain network differences were highly correlated with cognitive and motor deficits suggesting they have pathophysiological relevance. We also observed greater reductions in the connectivity of brain regions that have higher network traffic and lower clustering of neighbouring regions. This provides a potential mechanism that results in a characteristic pattern of structural

  6. Selective vulnerability of Rich Club brain regions is an organizational principle of structural connectivity loss in Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Seunarine, Kiran K.; Razi, Adeel; Cole, James H.; Gregory, Sarah; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Stout, Julie C.; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I.; Clark, Chris A.; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease can be predicted many years before symptom onset, and thus makes an ideal model for studying the earliest mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Diffuse patterns of structural connectivity loss occur in the basal ganglia and cortex early in the disease. However, the organizational principles that underlie these changes are unclear. By understanding such principles we can gain insight into the link between the cellular pathology caused by mutant huntingtin and its downstream effect at the macroscopic level. The ‘rich club’ is a pattern of organization established in healthy human brains, where specific hub ‘rich club’ brain regions are more highly connected to each other than other brain regions. We hypothesized that selective loss of rich club connectivity might represent an organizing principle underlying the distributed pattern of structural connectivity loss seen in Huntington’s disease. To test this hypothesis we performed diffusion tractography and graph theoretical analysis in a pseudo-longitudinal study of 50 premanifest and 38 manifest Huntington’s disease participants compared with 47 healthy controls. Consistent with our hypothesis we found that structural connectivity loss selectively affected rich club brain regions in premanifest and manifest Huntington’s disease participants compared with controls. We found progressive network changes across controls, premanifest Huntington’s disease and manifest Huntington’s disease characterized by increased network segregation in the premanifest stage and loss of network integration in manifest disease. These regional and whole brain network differences were highly correlated with cognitive and motor deficits suggesting they have pathophysiological relevance. We also observed greater reductions in the connectivity of brain regions that have higher network traffic and lower clustering of neighbouring regions. This provides a potential mechanism that results in a characteristic

  7. Rich-club network topology to minimize synchronization cost due to phase difference among frequency-synchronized oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2013-03-01

    As exemplified by power grids and large-scale brain networks, some functions of networks consisting of phase oscillators rely on not only frequency synchronization, but also phase synchronization among the oscillators. Nevertheless, even after the oscillators reach frequency-synchronized status, the phase synchronization is not always accomplished because the phase difference among the oscillators is often trapped at non-zero constant values. Such phase difference potentially results in inefficient transfer of power or information among the oscillators, and avoids proper and efficient functioning of the networks. In the present study, we newly define synchronization cost by using the phase difference among the frequency-synchronized oscillators, and investigate the optimal network structure with the minimum synchronization cost through rewiring-based optimization. By using the Kuramoto model, we demonstrate that the cost is minimized in a network with a rich-club topology, which comprises the densely-connected center nodes and low-degree peripheral nodes connecting with the center module. We also show that the network topology is characterized by its bimodal degree distribution, which is quantified by Wolfson’s polarization index.

  8. The efficiency of second order orientation coherence detection.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Alex S; Husk, Jesse S; Edwards, Lauren; Hess, Robert F

    2015-04-01

    Neurons in early visual cortex respond to both luminance- (1st order) and contrast-modulated (2nd order) local features in the visual field. In later extra-striate areas neurons with larger receptive fields integrate information across the visual field. For example, local luminance-defined features can be integrated into contours and shapes. Evidence for the global integration of features defined by contrast-modulation is less well established. While good performance in some shape tasks has been demonstrated with 2nd order stimuli, the integration of contours fails with 2nd order elements. Recently we developed a global orientation coherence task that is more basic than contour integration, bearing similarity to the well-established global motion coherence task. Similar to our previous 1st order result for this task, we find 2nd order coherence detection to be scale-invariant. There was a small but significant threshold elevation for 2nd order relative to 1st order. We used a noise masking approach to compare the efficiency of orientation integration for the 1st and 2nd order. We find a significant deficit for 2nd order detection at both the local and global level, however the small size of this effect stands in stark contrast against previous results from contour-integration experiments, which are almost impossible with 2nd order stimuli. PMID:25749675

  9. Probable photographic detection of the natural seventh-order rainbow.

    PubMed

    Edens, Harald E; Können, Gunther P

    2015-02-01

    We present a stacked and contrast-enhanced image comprised of 12 digital photographs that shows a series of color hues in the correct order and location to be part of the seventh-order rainbow. The observation was made on September 22, 2013, near Magdalena in New Mexico (USA). The seventh-order rainbow is located at 64° from the Sun in a region of the sky with little interference from the zero-order glow. The color hues in the image range from red to blue-violet, spanning about 12° in total extent; their locations generally agree with a numerical Debye-series simulation of the seventh-order rainbow. Despite the low color contrast of the seventh-order rainbow, the current observation indicates that it is feasible with current digital-imaging technology to detect this higher-order rainbow in near-ideal atmospheric conditions. PMID:25967844

  10. Detection of a diffusive cloak via second-order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Milan; Yamilov, Alexey

    2016-08-01

    We propose a scheme to detect the diffusive cloak proposed by Schittny et al [Science 345, 427 (2014)]. We exploit the fact that diffusion of light is an approximation that disregards wave interference. The long-range contribution to intensity correlation is sensitive to locations of paths crossings and the interference inside the medium, allowing one to detect the size and position, including the depth, of the diffusive cloak. Our results also suggest that it is possible to separately manipulate the first- and the second-order statistics of wave propagation in turbid media.

  11. Detection of a diffusive cloak via second-order statistics.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Milan; Yamilov, Alexey

    2016-08-15

    We propose a scheme to detect the diffusive cloak proposed by Schittny et al. [Science345, 427 (2014).SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1254524]. We exploit the fact that diffusion of light is an approximation that disregards wave interference. The long-range contribution to intensity correlation is sensitive to the locations of path crossings and the interference inside the medium, allowing one to detect the size and position, including the depth, of the diffusive cloak. Our results also suggest that it is possible to separately manipulate the first- and the second-order statistics of wave propagation in turbid media. PMID:27519108

  12. Detecting magnetic ordering with atomic size electron probes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Rusz, Ján; Spiegelberg, Jakob; McGuire, Michael A.; Symons, Christopher T.; Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Cantoni, Claudia; Lupini, Andrew R.

    2016-05-27

    While magnetism originates at the atomic scale, the existing spectroscopic techniques sensitive to magnetic signals only produce spectra with spatial resolution on a larger scale. However, recently, it has been theoretically argued that atomic size electron probes with customized phase distributions can detect magnetic circular dichroism. Here, we report a direct experimental real-space detection of magnetic circular dichroism in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Using an atomic size-aberrated electron probe with a customized phase distribution, we reveal the checkerboard antiferromagnetic ordering of Mn moments in LaMnAsO by observing a dichroic signal in the Mn L-edge. The novel experimental setupmore » presented here, which can easily be implemented in aberration-corrected STEM, opens new paths for probing dichroic signals in materials with unprecedented spatial resolution.« less

  13. Detection of Ordered and Chaotic Motion Using the Dynamical Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voglis, N.; Contopoulos, G.; Efthymiopoulos, C.

    1999-01-01

    Two simple and efficient numerical methods to explore the phase space structure are presented, based on the properties of the "dynamical spectra". 1) We calculate a "spectral distance" D of the dynamical spectra for two different initial deviation vectors. D → 0 in the case of chaotic orbits, while D → const ≠ 0 in the case of ordered orbits. This method is by orders of magnitude faster than the method of the Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). 2) We define a sensitive indicator called ROTOR (ROtational TOri Recongnizer) for 2D maps. The ROTOR remains zero in time on a rotational torus, while it tends to infinity at a rate ∝ N = number of iterations, in any case other than a rotational torus. We use this method to locate the last KAM torus of an island of stability, as well as the most important cantori causing stickiness near it.

  14. A high-order statistical tensor based algorithm for anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Zhao, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    Recently, high-order statistics have received more and more interest in the field of hyperspectral anomaly detection. However, most of the existing high-order statistics based anomaly detection methods require stepwise iterations since they are the direct applications of blind source separation. Moreover, these methods usually produce multiple detection maps rather than a single anomaly distribution image. In this study, we exploit the concept of coskewness tensor and propose a new anomaly detection method, which is called COSD (coskewness detector). COSD does not need iteration and can produce single detection map. The experiments based on both simulated and real hyperspectral data sets verify the effectiveness of our algorithm. PMID:25366706

  15. Simulated performance of an order statistic threshold strategy for detection of narrowband signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satorius, E.; Brady, R.; Deich, W.; Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E.

    1988-01-01

    The application of order statistics to signal detection is becoming an increasingly active area of research. This is due to the inherent robustness of rank estimators in the presence of large outliers that would significantly degrade more conventional mean-level-based detection systems. A detection strategy is presented in which the threshold estimate is obtained using order statistics. The performance of this algorithm in the presence of simulated interference and broadband noise is evaluated. In this way, the robustness of the proposed strategy in the presence of the interference can be fully assessed as a function of the interference, noise, and detector parameters.

  16. Using unknown input observers for robust adaptive fault detection in vector second-order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetriou, Michael A.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to construct natural observers for vector second-order systems by utilising unknown input observer (UIO) methods. This observer is subsequently used for a robust fault detection scheme and also as an adaptive detection scheme for a certain class of actuator faults wherein the time instance and characteristics of an incipient actuator fault are detected. Stability of the adaptive scheme is provided by a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function for second-order systems. Numerical example on a mechanical system describing an automobile suspension system is used to illustrate the theoretical results.

  17. Resistively detected high-order magnetoplasmons in a high-quality 2D electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zudov, M. A.; Shi, Q.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Watson, J. D.; Manfra, M. J.

    We report on high-order magnetoplasmon resonances detected in photoresistance in high-mobility GaAs quantum wells. These resonances manifest themselves as a series of resistance extrema in the regime of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. Extending to orders above 20, the extrema exhibit alternating strength, being less (more) pronounced at even (odd) order magnetoplasmon modes. The lower magnetoplasmon modes reveal the importance of retardation effects.

  18. Resistively detected high-order magnetoplasmons in a high-quality two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Q.; Zudov, M. A.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Watson, J. D.; Manfra, M. J.

    2016-04-01

    We report on high-order magnetoplasmon resonances detected in photoresistance in high-mobility GaAs quantum wells. These resonances manifest themselves as a series of photoresistance extrema in the regime of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. Extending to orders as high as 25, the extrema exhibit alternating strength, being less (more) pronounced at even- (odd)-order magnetoplasmon modes. This experimental technique provides a sensitive and elegant means to detect and investigate multiple magnetoplasmon modes and could be applied to other systems.

  19. Measures of tactual detection and temporal order resolution in congenitally deaf and normal-hearing adults

    PubMed Central

    Moallem, Theodore M.; Reed, Charlotte M.; Braida, Louis D.

    2010-01-01

    To guide the development of tactile speech aids, tactual detection and temporal order discrimination by congenitally deaf and normal-hearing adults have been examined. Tactual detection thresholds for sinusoidal vibrations between 2 and 300 Hz were measured at the left thumb and index finger using an adaptive paradigm. Temporal onset- and offset-order discrimination were tested using stimuli of 50 Hz at the thumb and 250 Hz at the index finger, delivered asynchronously and varied independently in amplitude and duration. Mean detection thresholds for the deaf and normal-hearing groups did not differ significantly at any frequency tested. Temporal onset-order discrimination thresholds varied widely, particularly among congenitally deaf individuals, but no statistically significant difference was found between group means. Both experimental groups exhibited a broad range of discrimination thresholds for temporal offset-order, and mean thresholds did not differ significantly. On the whole, tactual offset-order thresholds were substantially higher than onset-order thresholds. Differences in the relative levels of paired stimuli systematically affected sensitivity to both onset- and offset-orders in most subjects. Differences in the relative durations of paired stimuli had little effect on onset-order discrimination, but had a robust effect on offset-order discrimination thresholds, which was consistent across all subjects. PMID:20550268

  20. Higher-order cumulants and spectral kurtosis for early detection of subterranean termites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Rosa, Juan José González; Moreno Muñoz, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    This paper deals with termite detection in non-favorable SNR scenarios via signal processing using higher-order statistics. The results could be extrapolated to all impulse-like insect emissions; the situation involves non-destructive termite detection. Fourth-order cumulants in time and frequency domains enhance the detection and complete the characterization of termite emissions, non-Gaussian in essence. Sliding higher-order cumulants offer distinctive time instances, as a complement to the sliding variance, which only reveal power excesses in the signal; even for low-amplitude impulses. The spectral kurtosis reveals non-Gaussian characteristics (the peakedness of the probability density function) associated to these non-stationary measurements, specially in the near ultrasound frequency band. Contrasted estimators have been used to compute the higher-order statistics. The inedited findings are shown via graphical examples.

  1. Prominence and Control: The Weighted Rich-Club Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opsahl, Tore; Colizza, Vittoria; Panzarasa, Pietro; Ramasco, José J.

    2008-10-01

    Complex systems are often characterized by large-scale hierarchical organizations. Whether the prominent elements, at the top of the hierarchy, share and control resources or avoid one another lies at the heart of a system’s global organization and functioning. Inspired by network perspectives, we propose a new general framework for studying the tendency of prominent elements to form clubs with exclusive control over the majority of a system’s resources. We explore associations between prominence and control in the fields of transportation, scientific collaboration, and online communication.

  2. Method and apparatus for automatically detecting patterns in digital point-ordered signals

    SciTech Connect

    Brudnoy, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    The present invention is a method and system for detecting a physical feature of a test piece by detecting a pattern in a signal representing data from inspection of the test piece. The pattern is detected by automated additive decomposition of a digital point-ordered signal which represents the data. The present invention can properly handle a non-periodic signal. A physical parameter of the test piece is measured. A digital point-ordered signal representative of the measured physical parameter is generated. The digital point-ordered signal is decomposed into a baseline signal, a background noise signal, and a peaks/troughs signal. The peaks/troughs from the peaks/troughs signal are located and peaks/troughs information indicating the physical feature of the test piece is output.

  3. An Evolutionary Approach for Joint Blind Multichannel Estimation and Order Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangjiong, Chen; Kwong, Sam; Gang, Wei

    2003-12-01

    A joint blind order-detection and parameter-estimation algorithm for a single-input multiple-output (SIMO) channel is presented. Based on the subspace decomposition of the channel output, an objective function including channel order and channel parameters is proposed. The problem is resolved by using a specifically designed genetic algorithm (GA). In the proposed GA, we encode both the channel order and parameters into a single chromosome, so they can be estimated simultaneously. Novel GA operators and convergence criteria are used to guarantee correct and high convergence speed. Simulation results show that the proposed GA achieves satisfactory convergence speed and performance.

  4. Detection of apoptosis through the lipid order of the outer plasma membrane leaflet.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Zeinab; Klymchenko, Andrey S; Kucherak, Oleksandr A; Richert, Ludovic; Mély, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Cell plasma membranes of living cells maintain their asymmetry, so that the outer leaflet presents a large quantity of sphingomyelin, which is critical for formation of ordered lipid domains. Here, a recently developed probe based on Nile Red (NR12S) was applied to monitor changes in the lipid order specifically at the outer leaflet of cell membranes. Important key features of NR12S are its ratiometric response exclusively to lipid order (liquid ordered vs. liquid disordered phase) and not to surface charge, the possibility of using it at very low concentrations (10-20nM) and the very simple staining protocol. Cholesterol extraction, oxidation and sphingomyelin hydrolysis were found to red shift the emission spectrum of NR12S, indicating a decrease in the lipid order at the outer plasma membrane leaflet. Remarkably, apoptosis induced by three different agents (actinomycin D, camptothecin, staurosporine) produced very similar spectroscopic effects, suggesting that apoptosis also significantly decreases the lipid order at this leaflet. The applicability of NR12S to detect apoptosis was further validated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, using the ratio between the blue and red parts of its emission band. Thus, for the first time, an environment-sensitive probe, sensitive to lipid order, is shown to detect apoptosis, suggesting a new concept in apoptosis sensing. PMID:22846507

  5. Ship detection in satellite imagery using rank-order greyscale hit-or-miss transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Neal R; Porter, Reid B; Theiler, James

    2010-01-01

    Ship detection from satellite imagery is something that has great utility in various communities. Knowing where ships are and their types provides useful intelligence information. However, detecting and recognizing ships is a difficult problem. Existing techniques suffer from too many false-alarms. We describe approaches we have taken in trying to build ship detection algorithms that have reduced false alarms. Our approach uses a version of the grayscale morphological Hit-or-Miss transform. While this is well known and used in its standard form, we use a version in which we use a rank-order selection for the dilation and erosion parts of the transform, instead of the standard maximum and minimum operators. This provides some slack in the fitting that the algorithm employs and provides a method for tuning the algorithm's performance for particular detection problems. We describe our algorithms, show the effect of the rank-order parameter on the algorithm's performance and illustrate the use of this approach for real ship detection problems with panchromatic satellite imagery.

  6. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, R. K.; Okatan, M. Baris; Rajapaksa, I.; Kim, Y.; Marincel, D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Jesse, S.; Valanoor, N.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of nth order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials. PMID:24045269

  7. Organic transistors with ordered nanoparticle arrays as a tailorable platform for selective, in situ detection.

    PubMed

    Hammock, Mallory L; Sokolov, Anatoliy N; Stoltenberg, Randall M; Naab, Benjamin D; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-04-24

    The use of organic transistors as sensing platforms provides a number of distinct advantages over conventional detection technologies, including their tunability, portability, and ability to directly transduce binding events without tedious and expensive labeling procedures. However, detection efforts using organic transistors lack a general method to uniquely specify and detect a target of interest. While highly sensitive liquid- and vapor-phase sensors have been previously reported, detection has been restricted either to the serendipitous interaction of the analyte molecules with the organic semiconductor or to the covalent functionalization of the semiconductor with receptor groups to enhance specificity. However, the former technique cannot be regularly relied upon for tailorable sensing while the latter may result in unpredictable decreases in electronic performance. Thus, a method to provide modular receptor sites on the surface of an organic transistor without damaging the device will significantly advance the field, especially regarding biological species detection. In this work, we utilized a block copolymer to template ordered, large-area arrays of gold nanoparticles, with sub-100 nm center-to-center spacing onto the surface of an organic transistor. This highly modular platform is designed for orthogonal modification with a number of available chemical and biological functional groups by taking advantage of the well-studied gold-thiol linkage. Herein, we demonstrate the functionalization of gold nanoparticles with a mercury-binding oligonucleotide sequence. Finally, we demonstrate the highly selective and robust detection of mercury(II) using this platform in an underwater environment. PMID:22397363

  8. Approach Detect Sensor System by Second Order Derivative of Laser Irradiation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tomohide; Yano, Yoshikazu; Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    In recent years, as a result of a large amount of greenhouse gas emission, atmosphere temperature at ground level gradually rises. Therefore the Kyoto Protocol was adopted to solve the matter in 1997. By the energy-saving law amended in 1999, it is advisable that an escalator is controlled to pause during no user. Now a photo-electric sensor is used to control escalator, but a pole to install the sensor is needed. Then, a new type of approach detection sensor using laser diode, CCD camera and CPLD, which can be built-in escalator, has been studied. This sensor can derive the irradiated area of laser beam by simple processing in which the laser beam is irradiated in only the odd field of the interlace video signal. By second order derivative of laser irradiated area, this sensor can detect only the approaching target but can not detect the target which crosses and stands in the sensing area.

  9. Automated feature detection and identification in digital point-ordered signals

    DOEpatents

    Oppenlander, Jane E.; Loomis, Kent C.; Brudnoy, David M.; Levy, Arthur J.

    1998-01-01

    A computer-based automated method to detect and identify features in digital point-ordered signals. The method is used for processing of non-destructive test signals, such as eddy current signals obtained from calibration standards. The signals are first automatically processed to remove noise and to determine a baseline. Next, features are detected in the signals using mathematical morphology filters. Finally, verification of the features is made using an expert system of pattern recognition methods and geometric criteria. The method has the advantage that standard features can be, located without prior knowledge of the number or sequence of the features. Further advantages are that standard features can be differentiated from irrelevant signal features such as noise, and detected features are automatically verified by parameters extracted from the signals. The method proceeds fully automatically without initial operator set-up and without subjective operator feature judgement.

  10. An online tacholess order tracking technique based on generalized demodulation for rolling bearing fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Xu, Guanghua; Luo, Ailing; Liang, Lin; Jiang, Kuosheng

    2016-04-01

    Vibration analysis has been proved to be an effective and powerful tool for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling bearings. During the past decades, the conventional envelope analysis has been one of the main approaches in vibration signal processing. However, the envelope analysis is based on stationary assumption, thus it is not applicable to the fault diagnosis of bearings under rotating speed variation conditions. This constraint limits the bearing diagnosis in industrial applications. In recent years, order tracking methods based on time-frequency representation have been proposed for bearing fault detection under speed variation operating conditions. However, the methods are only applicable for offline bearing fault detection. Aiming at the shortcomings of the current tacholess order tracking techniques, an online tacholess order tracking method is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is on the basis of extracting the instantaneous tachometer information from the collected vibration signal itself continuously, and resampling the original signal with equal angle increment. The envelope order spectrum is used for bearing fault identification. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been validated by both simulated and experimental bearing vibration signals.

  11. Application of order cyclostationary demodulation to damage detection in a direct-driven wind turbine bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Bo, Lin; Peng, Chang

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a method of fault detection and isolation for a direct-driven wind turbine (DWT) bearing. Computed order tracking is employed to convert the non-stationary envelope signal in the time domain into a quasi-stationary signal in the angular domain by even-angle resampling. Cyclostationary demodulation is then utilized to expose the orders related to fault characteristics in the demodulation spectrum. In order to realize the automatic fault diagnosis and emit a stable alarm about bearing damage, the peak value of the demodulation spectrum is scaled and compared to a defined threshold. The significant advantage of the proposed method is the implementation of an automatic algorithm for DWT bearing diagnostics under randomly varying speed and highly alternating load. Practical applications are provided to show that the proposed approach is able to achieve reliable failure warning in the bearing condition monitoring of a DWT.

  12. Which orbital and charge ordering in transition metal oxides can resonant X-ray diffraction detect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, Sergio

    2009-11-01

    The present article is a brief critical review about the possibility of detecting charge and/or orbital order in transition-metal oxides by means of resonant x-ray diffraction. Many recent models of transition-metal oxides are based on charge and/or orbitally ordered ground-states and it has been claimed in the past that resonant x-ray diffraction is able to confirm or reject them. However, in spite of the many merits of this technique, such claims are ambiguous, because the interpretative frameworks used to analyze such results in transition-metal oxides, where structural distortions are always associated to the claimed charged/orbitally ordered transition, strongly influence (not to say suggest) the answer. In order to clarify this point, I discuss the two different definitions of orbital and charge orderings which are often used in the literature without a clear distinction. My conclusion is that the answer to the question of the title depends on which definition is adopted.

  13. Detecting sperm whale clicks in the presence of ambient and shipping noise using higher order moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larue, James P.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.

    2001-05-01

    The single-receiver detection of various sources using higher order moments is demonstrated. The data for this study come from the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center experiment in the northern Gulf of Mexico in the summer of 2001. Results show that in a time-varying environment it may be more meaningful to use non-normalized statistics (e.g., using the fourth central moment rather than the kurtosis). A whale click is detected over a 35-ms window, i.e., with a sampling rate of 11718 samples per second, 40 samples are used to produce a statistic. In the past, energy and related detectors have been used for the single receiver detection of broadband signals produced by whale clicks. The presence of loud shipping noise, which is also broadband, tends to mask the clicks and make their detection difficult. Using short-time statistics may help mitigate this problem. Analysis with fractal exponents will be shown as well. [Research supported by ONR.

  14. Numerical simulation of surface-downhole geoelectrical measurements in order to detect brine plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovanni, María Victoria; Grünhut, Vivian; Osella, Ana; Tichno, Adrián

    2015-05-01

    A large amount of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the world are in the secondary recovery stage and improving this step in the exploitation of these reservoirs would greatly benefit the oil industry. Secondary recovery involves injecting brine in some wells in order to maintain reservoir pressure. The injected water moves mainly through the channels with higher permeability of the reservoir rock. The identification of these channels would allow the development of technical strategies to close them. In this context, the ability to detect brine flow pathways after injection is a goal of this work. Given the high electrical conductivity of brine, the use of geoelectrical methods can be useful to detect and monitor flow evolution. The limitations in the application of this method are due to the characteristics of the target: a very conductive fluid is usually contained in paths with dimensions that are much smaller than the depth at which it is located. Therefore, our objective is to overcome these constraints in order to find the strategies required to successfully detect and eventually monitor the movement of brine flowing from injection wells. In this work, we studied the feasibility of detecting brine in an oil reservoir with surface-downhole electrical measurements. To achieve this, we designed an electrical model of the reservoir from well data and numerically simulated the forward geoelectrical response to determine the conditions under which the anomaly, i.e., the accumulation of brine, can be identified. Our results show that once the initial location of the brine is known, by installing potential electrodes in a single well the direction of brine migration can be determined, even in unfavorable conditions with relatively few surface measurements. In the case of a well equipped with permanent electrodes, this could be an efficient method to monitor the evolution of the brine plume.

  15. Structural damage detection using higher-order finite elements and a scanning laser vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Si

    In contrast to conventional non-destructive evaluation methods, dynamics-based damage detection methods are capable of rapid integrity evaluation of large structures and have received considerable attention from aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering communities in recent years. However, the identifiable damage size using dynamics-based methods is determined by the number of sensors used, level of measurement noise, accuracy of structural models, and signal processing techniques. In this thesis we study dynamics of structures with damage and then derive and experimentally verify new model-independent structural damage detection methods that can locate small damage to structures. To find sensitive damage detection parameters we develop a higher-order beam element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, bending moments, and shear forces at all nodes, and a higher-order rectangular plate element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, and bending and twisting moments at all nodes. These two elements are used to study the dynamics of beams and plates. Results show that high-order spatial derivatives of high-frequency modes are important sensitive parameters that can locate small structural damage. Unfortunately the most powerful and popular structural modeling technique, the finite element method, is not accurate in predicting high-frequency responses. Hence, a model-independent method using dynamic responses obtained from high density measurements is concluded to be the best approach. To increase measurement density and reduce noise a Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to provide non-contact, dense, and accurate measurements of structural vibration velocities. To avoid the use of structural models and to extract sensitive detection parameters from experimental data, a brand-new structural damage detection method named BED (Boundary-Effect Detection) is developed for pinpointing damage locations using Operational

  16. Detection of sea mines in sonar imagery using higher-order spectral features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Vinod; Elgar, Steve L.

    1999-08-01

    A new approach to detection of sea-mines in sonar imagery that improves the detection density ACF method is presented. The steps are: 1) background normalization, 2) spatially adaptive Wiener filtering, 3) convolution with a 2D FIR filter matched to the target signature, 4) adaptive thresholding to reduce noise, 5) extraction of higher-order spectral features to capture the spatial correlations, 6) extraction of size, strength, and density features, 7) optimal feature selection, and 8) classification. An adaptive Wiener filter is applied to remove noise without destroying the structural information in the mine shapes. The FIR filter is designed to suppress noise and clutter, while enhancing the target signature. A double peak pattern is revealed as the filter passes over highlight and shadow regions. The location, size, and orientation of this pattern can vary. Higher-order spectral features capture the spatial correlations in this pattern and provide invariance to translation and scaling. The approach has been tested on the CSS Sonar 3 database of 60 images with about 84 percent classification accuracy and 11 percent probability of false alarm.

  17. A reverse order interview does not aid deception detection regarding intentions

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Elise; McGuire, Mollie; Langben, Sara; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Promising recent research suggests that more cognitively demanding interviews improve deception detection accuracy. Would these cognitively demanding techniques work in the same way when discriminating between true and false future intentions? In Experiment 1 participants planned to complete a task, but instead were intercepted and interviewed about their intentions. Participants lied or told the truth, and were subjected to high (reverse order) or low (sequential order) cognitive load interviews. Third-party observers watched these interviews and indicated whether they thought the person was lying or telling the truth. Subjecting participants to a reverse compared to sequential interview increased the misidentification rate and the appearance of cognitive load in truth tellers. People lying about false intentions were not better identified. In Experiment 2, a second set of third-party observers rated behavioral cues. Consistent with Experiment 1, truth tellers, but not liars, exhibited more behaviors associated with lying and fewer behaviors associated with truth telling in the reverse than sequential interview. Together these results suggest that certain cognitively demanding interviews may be less useful when interviewing to detect false intentions. Explaining a true intention while under higher cognitive demand places truth tellers at risk of being misclassified. There may be such a thing as too much cognitive load induced by certain techniques PMID:26379610

  18. Highly ordered graphene-isolated silver nanodot arrays as SERS substrate for detection of urinary nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Hu, Guodong; Wei, Jie; Wang, Li; Zhang, Junye; Li, Qiuju

    2015-11-01

    An efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate has been developed based on highly ordered arrays of graphene-isolated Ag nanodot (G/AgND) arrays. By combining the plasmonic activity of AgND arrays and unique physical/chemical properties of graphene, the G/AgND arrays show high performance in terms of sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility. The SERS signals of R6G are clearly detected even at very low concentration of 10-11M. The maximum deviations of SERS intensities from 20 positions of the SERS substrate are less than 5%. The G/AgND arrays were employed for detection of human urinary nucleosides. The diagnostic algorithms based on principal component analysis achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 91.1% and specificity of 93.3% for separating cancer from normal samples. This work demonstrates that G/AgND arrays used in Raman spectroscopy could be developed as a smart and promising system for detection and screening of cancers.

  19. Highly ordered Ni-Ti-O nanotubes for non-enzymatic glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yanlian; Gao, Ang; Bai, Long; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Lin, Naiming; Tang, Bin; Chu, Paul K

    2015-06-01

    Anodization is used to fabricate Ni-Ti-O nanotube (NT) electrodes for non-enzymatic glucose detection. The morphology, microstructure and composition of the materials are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our results show amorphous and highly ordered NTs with diameter of 50nm, length of 800nm, and Ni/Ti ratio (at %) of 0.35 can be fabricated in ethylene glycol electrolyte supplemented with 0.2 wt.% NH4F and 0.5 vol.% H2O at 30°C and 25V for 1h. Electrochemical experiments indicate that at an applied potential of 0.60V vs. Ag/AgCl, the electrode exhibits a linear response window for glucose concentrations from 0.002mM to 0.2mM with a response time of 10s, detection limit of 0.13μM (S/N=3), and sensitivity of 83μAmM(-1)cm(-2). The excellent performance of the electrode is attributed to its large specific area and fast electron transfer between the NT walls. The good electrochemical performance of the Ni-Ti-O NTs as well as their simple and low-cost preparation method make the strategy promising in non-enzymatic glucose detection. PMID:25842105

  20. [Application of fluorescence microscopic imaging technique with self-ordered ring to residues detection of antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Feng, Jin-Chao; Li, Dan; Cui, Jian; Xu, Si-Fan; Shen, Gang-Yi

    2009-08-01

    Fluorescence microscopic self-ordered ring (SOR) technique with microwave heating is proposed for minocycline based on the capillary flow of solvent on the surface of hydrophobic glass slide and applied to residues detection of the antibiotics in milks of Inner Mongolia. In the reaction medium of hexahydropyridine containing polyvinyl alcohol-124 (PVA-124), a SOR of minocycline with the outer diameter of 1.54 mm and the ring belt width of 22.6 microm can be formed. When a 0.30 microL droplet of minocycline mixture was spotted on the solid surface, minocycline in the range of 4.2 x 10(-2)-1.8 x 10(-11) mol x ring(-1) (1.4 x 10(-6)-0.60 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1)) can be detected, the maximum fluorescence intensity was found to be proportional to the minocycline concentration, and the limit of detection can reach 4.2 x 10(-13) mol x ring(-1) (1.4 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1)) with three times of signal to noise ratio. With the present method, the contents of minocycline in milk samples of Inner Mongolia and minocycline hydrochloride capsule sample were satisfactorily determined with recoveries of 97.2%-103% and 99.4%-102%, respectively, and RSD lower than 1.2%, correspondingly. Therefore, a highly sensitive and selective analysis method for detecting content of trace drug contaminations was established. The method provided theory basis to quantificational analysis of the residues of the antibiotics in milks which was Inner Mongolia' preponderant resource products. It has important realistic meaning and broad application prospect. PMID:19839342

  1. Nonlinearity detection for condition monitoring utilizing higher-order spectral analysis diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeonsu

    In this dissertation, we investigate the theory and application of higher-order spectral analysis techniques to condition monitoring in shipboard electrical power systems. Monitoring and early detection of faults in rotating machines, such as induction motors, are essential for both preventive maintenance and to avoid potentially severe damage. As machines degrade, they often tend to become more nonlinear. This increased nonlinearity results in the introduction of new frequencies which satisfy particular frequency selection rules; the exact selection rule depends on the order of the nonlinearity. In addition, the phases of the newly generated frequencies satisfy a similar phase selection rule. This results in a phase coherence, or phase coupling, between the "original" interacting frequencies and the "new" frequencies. This phase coupling is a true signature of nonlinearity. Since the classical auto-power spectrum contains no phase information, the phase coupling signature associated with nonlinear interactions is not available. However, various higher-order spectra (HOS) are capable of detecting such nonlinear-induced phase coupling. The efficacy of the various proposed HOS-based methodologies is investigated using real-world vibration time-series data from a faulted induction motor driving a dc generator. The fault is controlled by varying a resistor placed in one phase of the three-phase line to the induction motor. First, we propose a novel method using a bispectral change detection (BCD) for condition monitoring. Even though the bicoherence is dominant and powerful in the detection of phase coupling of nonlinearly interacting frequencies, it has some difficulties in its application to machine condition monitoring. Basically, the bicoherence may not be able to distinguish between intrinsic nonlinearities associated with healthy machines and fault-induced nonlinearities. Therefore, the ability to discriminate the fault-only nonlinearities from the intrinsic

  2. APFIM investigations on ordered γ-TiAl using single-layer detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesemann, J.; Frommeyer, G.; Kreuss, M.

    1995-03-01

    The defect structure in the γ-phase of an α 2/γ- Ti 51Al 46Cr 3 alloy and the site occupation of chromium has been studied using atom-probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM). Because of the difficult separation of adjacent atomic layers during conventional APFIM measurements a video-controlled field-evaporation technique was carried out. The γ-phase is hyperstoichiometric in aluminium. Many Al antistructure atoms were detected in Ti layers but no Ti antistructure atoms were found in Al layers. Chromium has a strong preference for occupying Ti sites in the ordered γ-phase (L1 0 type of superlattice). This seems to be in contrast with the results obtained by ALCHEMI (atom location by channelling-enhanced microanalysis). However, this discrepancy can be explained with the dependence of the site preference of chromium on the local Al concentration.

  3. Investigation of microcantilever array with ordered nanoporous coatings for selective chemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.-H.; Houk, R. T. J.; Robinson, A.; Greathouse, J. A.; Thornberg, S. M.; Allendorf, M. D.; Hesketh, P. J.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the potential for novel nanoporous framework materials (NFM) such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to provide selectivity and sensitivity to a broad range of analytes including explosives, nerve agents, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). NFM are highly ordered, crystalline materials with considerable synthetic flexibility resulting from the presence of both organic and inorganic components within their structure. Detection of chemical weapons of mass destruction (CWMD), explosives, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) devices, such as microcantilevers and surface acoustic wave sensors, requires the use of recognition layers to impart selectivity. Traditional organic polymers are dense, impeding analyte uptake and slowing sensor response. The nanoporosity and ultrahigh surface areas of NFM enhance transport into and out of the NFM layer, improving response times, and their ordered structure enables structural tuning to impart selectivity. Here we describe experiments and modeling aimed at creating NFM layers tailored to the detection of water vapor, explosives, CWMD, and VOCs, and their integration with the surfaces of MEMS devices. Force field models show that a high degree of chemical selectivity is feasible. For example, using a suite of MOFs it should be possible to select for explosives vs. CWMD, VM vs. GA (nerve agents), and anthracene vs. naphthalene (VOCs). We will also demonstrate the integration of various NFM with the surfaces of MEMS devices and describe new synthetic methods developed to improve the quality of VFM coatings. Finally, MOF-coated MEMS devices show how temperature changes can be tuned to improve response times, selectivity, and sensitivity.

  4. Investigation of microcantilever array with ordered nanoporous coatings for selective chemical detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Thornberg, Steven Michael; Lee, J. -H.; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Hesketh, Peter J.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Houk, Ronald J. T.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the potential for novel nanoporous framework materials (NFM) such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to provide selectivity and sensitivity to a broad range of analytes including explosives, nerve agents, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). NFM are highly ordered, crystalline materials with considerable synthetic flexibility resulting from the presence of both organic and inorganic components within their structure. Detection of chemical weapons of mass destruction (CWMD), explosives, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) devices, such as microcantilevers and surface acoustic wave sensors, requires the use of recognition layers to impart selectivity. Traditional organic polymers are dense, impeding analyte uptake and slowing sensor response. The nanoporosity and ultrahigh surface areas of NFM enhance transport into and out of the NFM layer, improving response times, and their ordered structure enables structural tuning to impart selectivity. Here we describe experiments and modeling aimed at creating NFM layers tailored to the detection of water vapor, explosives, CWMD, and VOCs, and their integration with the surfaces of MEMS devices. Force field models show that a high degree of chemical selectivity is feasible. For example, using a suite of MOFs it should be possible to select for explosives vs. CWMD, VM vs. GA (nerve agents), and anthracene vs. naphthalene (VOCs). We will also demonstrate the integration of various NFM with the surfaces of MEMS devices and describe new synthetic methods developed to improve the quality of VFM coatings. Finally, MOF-coated MEMS devices show how temperature changes can be tuned to improve response times, selectivity, and sensitivity.

  5. Weak signal amplification and detection by higher-order sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sarah N; Longtin, Andre; Maler, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    Sensory systems must extract behaviorally relevant information and therefore often exhibit a very high sensitivity. How the nervous system reaches such high sensitivity levels is an outstanding question in neuroscience. Weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus/albifrons) are an excellent model system to address this question because detailed background knowledge is available regarding their behavioral performance and its underlying neuronal substrate. Apteronotus use their electrosense to detect prey objects. Therefore, they must be able to detect electrical signals as low as 1 μV while using a sensory integration time of <200 ms. How these very weak signals are extracted and amplified by the nervous system is not yet understood. We studied the responses of cells in the early sensory processing areas, namely, the electroreceptor afferents (EAs) and pyramidal cells (PCs) of the electrosensory lobe (ELL), the first-order electrosensory processing area. In agreement with previous work we found that EAs cannot encode very weak signals with a spike count code. However, PCs can encode prey mimic signals by their firing rate, revealing a huge signal amplification between EAs and PCs and also suggesting differences in their stimulus encoding properties. Using a simple leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model we predict that the target neurons of PCs in the midbrain torus semicircularis (TS) are able to detect very weak signals. In particular, TS neurons could do so by assuming biologically plausible convergence rates as well as very simple decoding strategies such as temporal integration, threshold crossing, and combining the inputs of PCs. PMID:26843601

  6. Blind ICA detection based on second-order cone programming for MC-CDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Chih-Wei; Jou, Shyh-Jye

    2014-12-01

    The multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) technique has received considerable interest for its potential application to future wireless communication systems due to its high data rate. A common problem regarding the blind multiuser detectors used in MC-CDMA systems is that they are extremely sensitive to the complex channel environment. Besides, the perturbation of colored noise may negatively affect the performance of the system. In this paper, a new coherent detection method will be proposed, which utilizes the modified fast independent component analysis (FastICA) algorithm, based on approximate negentropy maximization that is subject to the second-order cone programming (SOCP) constraint. The aim of the proposed coherent detection is to provide robustness against small-to-medium channel estimation mismatch (CEM) that may arise from channel frequency response estimation error in the MC-CDMA system, which is modulated by downlink binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) under colored noise. Noncoherent demodulation schemes are preferable to coherent demodulation schemes, as the latter are difficult to implement over time-varying fading channels. Differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) is therefore the natural choice for an alternative modulation scheme. Furthermore, the new blind differential SOCP-based ICA (SOCP-ICA) detection without channel estimation and compensation will be proposed to combat Doppler spread caused by time-varying fading channels in the DPSK-modulated MC-CDMA system under colored noise. In this paper, numerical simulations are used to illustrate the robustness of the proposed blind coherent SOCP-ICA detector against small-to-medium CEM and to emphasize the advantage of the blind differential SOCP-ICA detector in overcoming Doppler spread.

  7. Robust two-parameter invariant CFAR detection utilizing order statistics applied to Weibull clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagle, Daniel T.; Saniie, Jafar

    1992-08-01

    Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detectors are designed to perform when the clutter information is partially unknown and/or varying. This is accomplished using local threshold estimates from background observations in which the CFAR level is maintained. However, when local observations contain target or irrelevant information, censoring is warranted to improve detection performance. Order Statistics (OS) processors have been shown to perform robustly (referring to type II errors or CFAR loss) for heterogeneous background clutter observations, and their performance has been analyzed for exponential clutter with unknown power. In this paper, several order statistics are used to create an invariant test statistic for Weibull clutter with two varying parameters (i.e., power and skewness). The robustness of a two-parameter invariant CFAR detector is analyzed and compared with an uncensored Weibull-Two Parameter (WTP) CFAR detector and conventional Cell Averaging (CA)-CFAR detector (i.e., designed invariant to exponential clutter). The performance trade-offs of these detectors are gaged for different scenarios of volatile clutter environments.

  8. MultiFacTV: module detection from higher-order time series biological data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying modules from time series biological data helps us understand biological functionalities of a group of proteins/genes interacting together and how responses of these proteins/genes dynamically change with respect to time. With rapid acquisition of time series biological data from different laboratories or databases, new challenges are posed for the identification task and powerful methods which are able to detect modules with integrative analysis are urgently called for. To accomplish such integrative analysis, we assemble multiple time series biological data into a higher-order form, e.g., a gene × condition × time tensor. It is interesting and useful to develop methods to identify modules from this tensor. Results In this paper, we present MultiFacTV, a new method to find modules from higher-order time series biological data. This method employs a tensor factorization objective function where a time-related total variation regularization term is incorporated. According to factorization results, MultiFacTV extracts modules that are composed of some genes, conditions and time-points. We have performed MultiFacTV on synthetic datasets and the results have shown that MultiFacTV outperforms existing methods EDISA and Metafac. Moreover, we have applied MultiFacTV to Arabidopsis thaliana root(shoot) tissue dataset represented as a gene×condition×time tensor of size 2395 × 9 × 6(3454 × 8 × 6), to Yeast dataset and Homo sapiens dataset represented as tensors of sizes 4425 × 6 × 6 and 2920×14×9 respectively. The results have shown that MultiFacTV indeed identifies some interesting modules in these datasets, which have been validated and explained by Gene Ontology analysis with DAVID or other analysis. Conclusion Experimental results on both synthetic datasets and real datasets show that the proposed MultiFacTV is effective in identifying modules for higher-order time series biological data. It provides, compared to traditional non

  9. Detection of antiferromagnetic order by cooling atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Teles, Rafael; Hazzard, Kaden; Hulet, Randall; Rice University Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We have realized the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermionic 6 Li atoms in a three-dimensional compensated optical lattice. The compensated optical lattice has provided low enough temperatures to produce short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) spin correlations, which we detect via Bragg scattering of light. Previously, we reached temperatures down to 1.4 times that of the AFM phase transition, more than a factor of 2 below temperatures obtained previously in 3D optical lattices with fermions. In order to further reduce the entropy in the compensated lattice, we implement an entropy conduit - which is a single blue detuned laser beam with a waist size smaller than the overall atomic sample size. This repulsive narrow potential provides a conductive metallic path between the low entropy core and the edges of the atomic sample where atoms may be evaporated. In addition, the entropy conduit may store entropy, thus further lowering the entropy in the core. We will report on the status of these efforts to further cool atoms in the optical lattice. Work supported by ARO MURI Grant, NSF and The Welch Foundation.

  10. Detection of the first order phase transition in water with carbon nanotube layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Poklonski, Nikolay

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a new generation of the icing conditions sensors. These sensors are based on the detection of a molecular thin layer of absorbed water molecules, transforming into ice by detection of nonmonotonic variation of the resistance of the carbon nanotube sensor. Carbon nanotube layers could be utilized as an inexpensive and effective sensors of humidity and icing conditions, suitable for applications in aviation and different industries.

  11. Semi-Nonparametric Methods for Detecting Latent Non-Normality: A Fusion of Latent Trait and Ordered Latent Class Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, J. Eric; Mehta, Paras D.; Aggen, Steven H.; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Neale, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    Ordered latent class analysis (OLCA) can be used to approximate unidimensional latent distributions. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the method of OLCA in detecting non-normality of an unobserved continuous variable (i.e., a common factor) used to explain the covariation between dichotomous item-level responses. Using simulation,…

  12. An ordered array of hierarchical spheres for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of traces of pesticide.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoye; Zheng, Peng; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhu, Chuhong; Han, Fangming; Huang, Zhulin; Li, Zhongbo; Wang, Zhaoming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2016-09-23

    An ordered array of hierarchically-structured core-nanosphere@space-layer@shell-nanoparticles has been fabricated for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. To fabricate this hierarchically-structured chip, a long-range ordered array of Au/Ag-nanospheres is first patterned in the nano-bowls on the planar surface of ordered nanoporous anodic titanium oxide template. A ultra-thin alumina middle space-layer is then conformally coated on the Au/Ag-nanospheres, and Ag-nanoparticles are finally deposited on the surface of the alumina space-layer to form an ordered array of Au/Ag-nanosphere@Al2O3-layer@Ag-nanoparticles. Finite-difference time-domain simulation shows that SERS hot spots are created between the neighboring Ag-nanoparticles. The ordered array of hierarchical nanostructures is used as the SERS-substrate for a trial detection of methyl parathion (a pesticide) in water and a limit of detection of 1 nM is reached, indicating its promising potential in rapid monitoring of organic pollutants in aquatic environment. PMID:27528554

  13. Detecting Majorana fermions in quasi-one-dimensional topological phases using nonlocal order parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, Yasaman; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2014-04-01

    Topological phases which host Majorana fermions can not be identified via local order parameters. We give simple nonlocal order parameters to distinguish quasi-one-dimensional (1D) topological superconductors of spinless fermions, for any interacting model in the absence of time reversal symmetry. These string or "brane" order parameters are natural for measurements in cold atom systems using quantum gas microscopy. We propose them as a way to identify symmetry-protected topological phases of Majorana fermions in cold atom experiments via bulk rather than edge degrees of freedom. Subsequently, we study two-dimensional (2D) topological superconductors via the quasi-1D limit of coupling N identical chains on the cylinder. We classify the symmetric, interacting topological phases protected by the additional ZN translation symmetry. The phases include quasi-1D analogs of (i) the p +ip chiral topological superconductor, which can be distinguished up to the 2D Chern number mod 2, and (ii) the 2D weak topological superconductor. We devise general rules for constructing nonlocal order parameters which distinguish the phases. These rules encode the signature of the fermionic topological phase in the symmetry properties of the terminating operators of the nonlocal string or brane. The nonlocal order parameters for some of these phases simply involve a product of the string order parameters for the individual chains. Finally, we give a physical picture of one of the topological phases as a condensate of certain defects, which motivates the form of the nonlocal order parameter and is reminiscent of higher dimensional constructions of topological phases.

  14. Effective and robust infrared small target detection with the fusion of polydirectional first order derivative images under facet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bing; Xin, Yunhong

    2015-03-01

    The robust detection of IR small target acts as one of the key techniques in the infrared search and tracking system (IRSTS). This paper presents a new method of small-target detection which formulates the problem as the detection of Gaussian-like spot. Initially, the amendatory first-order directional derivative (AFODD) based on facet model is applied to get the polydirectional derivative IR images, and the direction information of targets is reserved in these images. Then, the AFODD images are fused together to ensure the robustness and effectiveness of target detection. At last, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method is carried out to make targets in the fusion image more prominent, so that they can be extracted out by a simple threshold segmentation. Experiment results show that the presented method performs well even in the IR images with complex backgrounds.

  15. Detection and integration of oscillatory differential equations with initial stepsize, order and method selection

    SciTech Connect

    Gallivan, K. A.

    1980-12-01

    Within any general class of problems there typically exist subclasses possessed of characteristics that can be exploited to create techniques more efficient than general methods applied to these subclasses. Two such subclasses of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations are stiff and oscillatory problems. Indeed, the subclass of oscillatory problems can be further refined into stiff and nonstiff oscillatory problems. This refinement is discussed in detail. The problem of developing a method of detection for nonstiff and stiff oscillatory behavior in initial-value problems is addressed. For this method of detection a control structure is proposed upon which a production code could be based. An experimental code using this control structure is described, and results of numerical tests are presented. 3 figures.

  16. Design of second order grating couplers to detect the angle and polarization of the laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Tapas Kumar; Lu, Mingyu; Zhao, Deyin; Ma, Zhenqiang; Zhou, Weidong

    2012-03-01

    On-chip laser beam tracking finds innumerable applications. Popularly adopted quadrant photodiodes can only detect laser beam's angle variation up to 0.2° reliably. In this paper, a novel angle detector is designed based on grating coupling. It consists of a grating layer on top of a silicon-on-insulator slab waveguide. The incident light is coupled into guided modes within the waveguide via the grating layer, and then, the incident light's angle can be determined by reading the outputs of light detectors within the waveguide. Performance of the laser angle detector in this paper is demonstrated by full-wave finite-difference-time-domain simulations. Numerical results show that, the detectable angle range can be adjusted by several design parameters and can reach [-4°, 4°]. The device structure in this paper can be straightforwardly extended to two-dimensional photonic crystal configurations.

  17. Order in supported phospholipid monolayers detected by the dichroism of fluorescence excited with polarized evanescent illumination.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, N. L.; McConnell, H. M.; Burhardt, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is described and demonstrated for measuring the orientation distribution of fluorescent molecules in a two-dimensional system. A laser beam is totally internally reflected at the interface between a glass slide and an aqueous solution, which creates a thin layer of evanescent illumination that excites fluorescent molecules near the interface. Molecules with absorption dipoles at different tilts from the normal to the interface are preferentially excited when the laser polarization is rotated. Approximately one-half of the emitted fluorescence is collected with an inverted microscope using a high-aperture objective. The fluorescence vs. polarization curve yields the value of an order parameter that is related to the orientation distribution of absorption dipoles. This technique is applied to phospholipid monolayers made at an air/water interface and transferred to hydrophobic glass microscope slides. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers were doped with 2 mol% phosphatidylethanolamine labeled with the fluorescent moiety nitrobenzoxadiazole, either on an acyl chain or on the head group. The measured value of the order parameter for the head-labeled probe decreases as a function of the surface pressure at which the monolayer is transferred to the slide, as the surface pressure increases from 10 to 40 dyne/cm. The measured value of the order parameter for the chain-labeled probe is high for all coating pressures. These results can be interpreted in terms of probe partitioning into coexistent fluid and solid domains. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers were doped with 2 mol% chain-labeled phosphatidylethanolamine, either free or covalently conjugated to a small peptide. In these monolayers, the measured value of the order parameter is high at all pressures. The technique presented here may also prove useful for measuring the orientation distribution of proteins bound to or embedded in a planar model membrane. PMID:6518254

  18. Correction of the anion gap for albumin in order to detect occult tissue anions in shock

    PubMed Central

    Hatherill, M; Waggie, Z; Purves, L; Reynolds, L; Argent, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: It is believed that hypoalbuminaemia confounds interpretation of the anion gap (AG) unless corrected for serum albumin in critically ill children with shock. Aim: To compare the ability of the AG and the albumin corrected anion gap (CAG) to detect the presence of occult tissue anions. Methods: Prospective observational study in children with shock in a 22 bed multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit of a university childrenrsquo;s hospital. Blood was sampled at admission and at 24 hours, for acid-base parameters, serum albumin, and electrolytes. Occult tissue anions (lactate + truly "unmeasured" anions) were calculated from the strong ion gap. The anion gap ((Na + K) - (Cl + bicarbonate)) was corrected for serum albumin using the equation of Figge: AG + (0.25 x (44 - albumin)). Occult tissue anions (TA) predicted by the anion gap were calculated by (anion gap - 15 mEq/l). Optimal cut off values of anion gap were compared by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Ninety three sets of data from 55 children (median age 7 months, median weight 4.9 kg) were analysed. Data are expressed as mean (SD), and mean bias (limits of agreement). Results: The incidence of hypoalbuminaemia was 76% (n = 42/55). Mean serum albumin was 25 g/l (SD 8). Mean AG was 15.0 mEq/l (SD 6.1), compared to the CAG of 19.9 mEq/l (SD 6.6). Mean TA was 10.2 mmol/l (SD 6.3). The AG underestimated TA with mean bias 10.2 mmol/l (4.1–16.1), compared to the CAG, mean bias 5.3 mmol/l (0.4–10.2). A clinically significant increase of TA >5 mmol/l was present in 83% (n = 77/93) of samples, of which the AG detected 48% (n = 36/77), and the CAG 87% (n = 67/77). Post hoc ROC analysis revealed optimal cut off values for detection of TA >5 mmol/l to be AG >10 mEq/l, and CAG >15.5 mEq/l. Conclusion: Hypoalbuminaemia is common in critically ill children with shock, and is associated with a low observed anion gap that may fail to detect clinically significant amounts of

  19. Second-order robust regularization cost function for detecting and reconstructing phase discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, Carlos; Rivera, Mariano

    2006-01-10

    We propose a robust method for computing discontinuous phase maps from a fringe pattern with carrier frequency. Our algorithm is based on the minimization of an edge-preserving regularized cost function, specifically, on a robust regularized potential that uses a paradigm called the plate with adaptive rest condition, i.e., a second-order edge-preserving potential. Given that the proposed cost function is not convex, our method uses as its initial point an overly smoothed phase computed with a standard fringe analysis method and then reconstructs the phase discontinuities. Although the method is general purpose, it is introduced in the context of interferometric gauge-block calibration. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated by numerical experiments with both synthetic and real data.

  20. Detection of crossing white matter fibers with high-order tensors and rank-k decompositions

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Fangxiang; Gur, Yaniv; Johnson, Chris R.; Joshi, Sarang

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental to high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), is the estimation of a positive-semidefinite orientation distribution function (ODF) and extracting the diffusion properties (e.g., fiber directions). In this work we show that these two goals can be achieved efficiently by using homogeneous polynomials to represent the ODF in the spherical deconvolution approach, as was proposed in the Cartesian Tensor-ODF (CT-ODF) formulation. Based on this formulation we first suggest an estimation method for positive-semidefinite ODF by solving a linear programming problem that does not require special parameterization of the ODF. We also propose a rank-k tensor decomposition, known as CP decomposition, to extract the fibers information from the estimated ODF. We show that this decomposition is superior to the fiber direction estimation via ODF maxima detection as it enables one to reach the full fiber separation resolution of the estimation technique. We assess the accuracy of this new framework by applying it to synthetic and experimentally obtained HARDI data. PMID:21761684

  1. Detection of crossing white matter fibers with high-order tensors and rank-k decompositions.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Fangxiang; Gur, Yaniv; Johnson, Chris R; Joshi, Sarang

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental to high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), is the estimation of a positive-semidefinite orientation distribution function (ODF) and extracting the diffusion properties (e.g., fiber directions). In this work we show that these two goals can be achieved efficiently by using homogeneous polynomials to represent the ODF in the spherical deconvolution approach, as was proposed in the Cartesian Tensor-ODF (CT-ODF) formulation. Based on this formulation we first suggest an estimation method for positive-semidefinite ODF by solving a linear programming problem that does not require special parameterization of the ODF. We also propose a rank-k tensor decomposition, known as CP decomposition, to extract the fibers information from the estimated ODF. We show that this decomposition is superior to the fiber direction estimation via ODF maxima detection as it enables one to reach the full fiber separation resolution of the estimation technique. We assess the accuracy of this new framework by applying it to synthetic and experimentally obtained HARDI data. PMID:21761684

  2. Medium-range order in molecular materials: fluctuation electron microscopy for detecting fullerenes in disordered carbons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G; Buseck, P R; Rougée, A; Treacy, M M J

    2009-01-01

    During a fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) study of disordered carbons, we found that samples containing C(60) exhibit a normalized variance peak at 7.1 nm(-1) that appears to be a unique indicator of tight curvature in layered materials. This peak is associated with the characteristic in-plane carbon-carbon bond distance of approximately 0.14 nm in graphene. Diffraction from this spacing is normally forbidden in planar graphene (and graphite), but becomes allowed when the layer structure is interrupted. Such interruptions arise at the edges of graphite fragments and also when 5-rings are incorporated into a layer. We show that the curvature induced by a high density of 5-rings, such as that in C(60), can dominate the variance peak at 7.1 nm(-1). FEM simulations reveal that the variance peak at approximately 7.1 nm(-1), which we label F(1), is one of several fullerene-signature peaks, with others occurring at Q values of 10.6 nm(-1) (F(2)) and 12.4 nm(-1) (F(3)). We conclude that FEM is a sensitive method for detecting dilute quantities of highly curved pentagon-rich fullerenes, such as C(60), when dispersed within disordered graphitic carbon. PMID:19062186

  3. Highly ordered surfactant micelles function as the extraction matrix for direct electrochemical detection of halonitrobenzenes at the ppb level.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lina; Yan, Fei; Su, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Halonitrobenzenes (HNBs) are a class of molecules that are highly toxic to human health and the ecological environment. Thus, effective and efficient approaches capable of monitoring and detecting HNBs are greatly desired. We report herein a simple and sensitive method for the detection of HNBs. The detection was based on the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes modified with a binary assembly of highly ordered surfactant micelles (OSMs) and silica mesochannels (SMs). The SMs have a diameter of 2-3 nm and a vertical orientation, which provide a hard support to stabilize soft OSMs. Moreover, each OSM consists of a hydrophobic core due to the organized assembly of surfactant hydrocarbon chains, which can selectively extract and concentrate lipophilic HNBs from aqueous media, allow their transport to the underlying ITO electrode surface and therein their detection by voltammetry. As a proof-of-concept experiment, 1-chloro-3-nitrobenzene, 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene, 1-bromo-4-nitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrobromobenzene were analyzed in aqueous solutions. A simple and fast detection was achieved in all cases, with a wide linear dynamic range, a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection at the ppb level. Apart from the extraction ability, the OSMs also prohibited the access of and surface contamination by unwanted substances, showing excellent anti-fouling and anti-interference power. Indeed, as we demonstrated, the sensor could be employed for direct electrochemical detection of HNBs in complex samples, such as lake water and soil dispersion, without any pre-treatment, indicating its potential usefulness in practical analysis. PMID:26887641

  4. Relation of physicians' predicted probabilities of pneumonia to their utilities for ordering chest x-rays to detect pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Heckerling, P S; Tape, T G; Wigton, R S

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the relation between physicians' predicted probabilities of pneumonia and their utilities for ordering chest x-rays to detect pneumonia, the authors studied 52 physicians who ordered chest x-rays of 886 patients presenting to an emergency department with fever or respiratory complaints. Physicians estimated the probability of pneumonia prior to obtaining the results of the chest x-ray. Utilities were assessed by asking physicians to consider a hypothetical patient presenting with acute respiratory symptoms, with unknown chest x-ray status, and to rank on a scale from +50 ("best thing I could do") to -50 ("worst thing I could do") their rating scale utilities for not diagnosing pneumonia and not ordering a chest x-ray when the patient had pneumonia (i.e., missing a pneumonia), and for diagnosing pneumonia and ordering a chest x-ray when the patient did not have pneumonia (i.e., ordering an unnecessary x-ray). The utility for ordering an unnecessary x-ray was negatively correlated with average predicted probability (r = -0.1495, p = 0.29), whereas the utility for missing a pneumonia was positively correlated with average predicted probability (r = 0.2254, p = 0.11), although the correlations were not statistically significant. Relative chagrin, defined as the difference in these utilities, was significantly inversely correlated with average predicted probability (r = -0.2992, p less than 0.035), even after adjusting for the prevalence of pneumonia seen by each physician (partial r = -0.42, p less than 0.0027). It is concluded that physicians who experienced greater regret over missing a pneumonia than over ordering an unnecessary x-ray estimated lower probabilities of pneumonia for patients for whom they ordered x-rays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1538630

  5. Damage Detection in Flexible Plates through Reduced-Order Modeling and Hybrid Particle-Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Capellari, Giovanni; Eftekhar Azam, Saeed; Mariani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated. PMID:26703615

  6. Damage Detection in Flexible Plates through Reduced-Order Modeling and Hybrid Particle-Kalman Filtering.

    PubMed

    Capellari, Giovanni; Azam, Saeed Eftekhar; Mariani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated. PMID:26703615

  7. Detection of a parasitic amoeba (Order Dactylopodida) in the female gonads of oysters in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sühnel, Simone; Ivachuk, Celene da S; Schaefer, Ana L C; Pontinha, Vitor A; Martins, Maurício L; Figueras, Antonio; Meyer, Gary R; Jones, Simon R M; Stewart, Johnson C; Gurney-Smith, Helen J; Magalhães, Aimê R M; Bower, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of oocyte parasites on the reproductive success of molluscs are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the presence of gonad parasites in 6 species of marine bivalve molluscs native to southern Brazil. Cultured bivalves included the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (sometimes called C. brasiliana), the brown mussel Perna perna, the lion's paw scallop Nodipecten nodosus and the wing pearl oyster Pteria hirundo. Another species of mangrove oyster, C. rhizophorae, and the carib pointed venus clam Anomalocardia brasiliana (syn. A. flexuosa) were collected from the wild. Molluscs were collected in winter 2009 and summer 2010 for histopathological and molecular evaluation. An unknown ovarian parasite (UOP) was observed in histopathological sections of female gonads of C. gasar and C. rhizophorae. The UOP possessed features suggestive of amoebae, including an irregular outer membrane, frothy cytoplasm, a nucleus with a prominent central nucleolus and a closely associated basophilic parasome. PCR analysis was negative for Marteilioides chungmuensis, Perkinsus spp. and Paramoeba perurans. However, real-time PCR successfully amplified DNA from oyster gonads when using universal Paramoeba spp. primers. Also, conventional PCR amplified DNA using primers specific for Perkinsela amoebae-like organisms (syn. Perkinsiella), which are considered as endosymbionts of Parameoba spp., previously thought to be the parasome. Our results suggest that this UOP is a species of amoeba belonging to 1 of the 2 families of the order Dactylopodida, possibly related to Paramoeba spp. This study represents the first report of this type of organism in oysters. We found that C. gasar and C. rhizophorae were the most susceptible molluscs to these UOPs. PMID:24991850

  8. Tacholess Envelope Order Analysis and Its Application to Fault Detection of Rolling Element Bearings with Varying Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Lei, Yaguo

    2013-01-01

    Vibration analysis is an effective tool for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings. Conventional diagnostic methods are based on the stationary assumption, thus they are not applicable to the diagnosis of bearings working under varying speed. This constraint limits the bearing diagnosis to the industrial application significantly. In order to extend the conventional diagnostic methods to speed variation cases, a tacholess envelope order analysis technique is proposed in this paper. In the proposed technique, a tacholess order tracking (TLOT) method is first introduced to extract the tachometer information from the vibration signal itself. On this basis, an envelope order spectrum (EOS) is utilized to recover the bearing characteristic frequencies in the order domain. By combining the advantages of TLOT and EOS, the proposed technique is capable of detecting bearing faults under varying speeds, even without the use of a tachometer. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by both simulated signals and real vibration signals collected from locomotive roller bearings with faults on inner race, outer race and rollers, respectively. Analyzed results show that the proposed method could identify different bearing faults effectively and accurately under speed varying conditions. PMID:23959244

  9. Tacholess envelope order analysis and its application to fault detection of rolling element bearings with varying speeds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Lei, Yaguo

    2013-01-01

    Vibration analysis is an effective tool for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings. Conventional diagnostic methods are based on the stationary assumption, thus they are not applicable to the diagnosis of bearings working under varying speed. This constraint limits the bearing diagnosis to the industrial application significantly. In order to extend the conventional diagnostic methods to speed variation cases, a tacholess envelope order analysis technique is proposed in this paper. In the proposed technique, a tacholess order tracking (TLOT) method is first introduced to extract the tachometer information from the vibration signal itself. On this basis, an envelope order spectrum (EOS) is utilized to recover the bearing characteristic frequencies in the order domain. By combining the advantages of TLOT and EOS, the proposed technique is capable of detecting bearing faults under varying speeds, even without the use of a tachometer. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by both simulated signals and real vibration signals collected from locomotive roller bearings with faults on inner race, outer race and rollers, respectively. Analyzed results show that the proposed method could identify different bearing faults effectively and accurately under speed varying conditions. PMID:23959244

  10. Detection of venous needle dislodgement during haemodialysis using fractional order shape index ratio and fuzzy colour relation analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chen, Wei-Ling; Kan, Chung-Dann; Wu, Ming-Jui; Mai, Yi-Chen

    2015-12-01

    Venous needle dislodgement (VND) is a life-threatening complication during haemodialysis (HD) treatment. When VND occurs, it only takes a few minutes for blood loss in an adult patient. According to the ANNA (American Nephrology Nurses' Association) VND survey reports, VND is a concerning issue for the nephrology nurses/staff and patients. To ensure HD care and an effective treatment environment, this Letter proposes a combination of fractional order shape index ratio (SIR) and fuzzy colour relation analysis (CRA) to detect VND. If the venous needle drops out, clinical examinations show that both heart pulses and pressure wave variations have a low correlation at the venous anatomic site. Therefore, fractional order SIR is used to quantify the differences in transverse vibration pressures (TVPs) between the normal condition and meter reading. Linear regression shows that the fractional order SIR has a high correlation with the TVP variation. Fuzzy CRA is designed in a simple and visual message manner to identify the risk levels. A worst-case study demonstrated that the proposed model can be used for VND detection in clinical applications. PMID:26713159

  11. Measurement of the Second Order Non-linear Susceptibility of Collagen using Polarization Modulation and Phase-sensitive Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, P; Kim, B-M; Rubenchik, A M; Reiser, K M; Da Silva, L B

    2001-03-03

    The measurement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility of collagen in various biological tissues has potential applications in the detection of structural changes which are related to different pathological conditions. We investigate second harmonic generation in rat-tail tendon, a highly organized collagen structure consisting of parallel fibers. Using an electro-optic modulator and a quarter-wave plate, we modulate the linear polarization of an ultra-short pulse laser beam that is used to measure second harmonic generation (SHG) in a confocal microscopy setup. Phase-sensitive detection of the generated signal, coupled with a simple model of the collagen protein structures, allows us to measure a parameter {gamma} related to nonlinear susceptibility and to determine the relative orientation of the structures. Our preliminary results indicate that it may be possible to use this parameter to characterize the structure.

  12. Multi-Fault Detection of Rolling Element Bearings under Harsh Working Condition Using IMF-Based Adaptive Envelope Order Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    When operating under harsh condition (e.g., time-varying speed and load, large shocks), the vibration signals of rolling element bearings are always manifested as low signal noise ratio, non-stationary statistical parameters, which cause difficulties for current diagnostic methods. As such, an IMF-based adaptive envelope order analysis (IMF-AEOA) is proposed for bearing fault detection under such conditions. This approach is established through combining the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), envelope order tracking and fault sensitive analysis. In this scheme, EEMD provides an effective way to adaptively decompose the raw vibration signal into IMFs with different frequency bands. The envelope order tracking is further employed to transform the envelope of each IMF to angular domain to eliminate the spectral smearing induced by speed variation, which makes the bearing characteristic frequencies more clear and discernible in the envelope order spectrum. Finally, a fault sensitive matrix is established to select the optimal IMF containing the richest diagnostic information for final decision making. The effectiveness of IMF-AEOA is validated by simulated signal and experimental data from locomotive bearings. The result shows that IMF-AEOA could accurately identify both single and multiple faults of bearing even under time-varying rotating speed and large extraneous shocks. PMID:25353982

  13. Experimental detection of high-order or fractional orbital angular momentum of light based on a robust mode converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2016-03-01

    Based on our constructed robust π/2 mode converter, we report a concise yet high-efficient experiment to realize the detection of both high-order and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The π/2 mode converter that consists of a pair of cylindrical lens is actually not new. However, our experiment shows clearly its excellent robustness, as we have detected the high-order OAM numbers up to ℓ = 100 carried by standard Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes. The observed patterns of two-dimensional optical lattices indicate that the radial index p of LG beams can be straightforwardly inferred as well. The versatility of the converter is also manifested by input modified LG beams carrying tunable fractional OAM, where we observe the output lattices exhibiting an interesting evolvement from Hermite-Gaussian mode HG m , 0 to its adjacent HG m + 1 , 0 . Numeric simulations based on OAM eigen-mode decomposition support the experimental results. Our demonstration has potential in both classical and quantum information applications where high OAM modes are needed.

  14. Higher-Order Statistics for the Detection of Small Objects in a Noisy Background Application on Sonar Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maussang, F.; Chanussot, J.; Hétet, A.; Amate, M.

    2007-12-01

    An original algorithm for the detection of small objects in a noisy background is proposed. Its application to underwater objects detection by sonar imaging is addressed. This new method is based on the use of higher-order statistics (HOS) that are locally estimated on the images. The proposed algorithm is divided into two steps. In a first step, HOS (skewness and kurtosis) are estimated locally using a square sliding computation window. Small deterministic objects have different statistical properties from the background they are thus highlighted. The influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the results is studied in the case of Gaussian noise. Mathematical expressions of the estimators and of the expected performances are derived and are experimentally confirmed. In a second step, the results are focused by a matched filter using a theoretical model. This enables the precise localization of the regions of interest. The proposed method generalizes to other statistical distributions and we derive the theoretical expressions of the HOS estimators in the case of a Weibull distribution (both when only noise is present or when a small deterministic object is present within the filtering window). This enables the application of the proposed technique to the processing of synthetic aperture sonar data containing underwater mines whose echoes have to be detected and located. Results on real data sets are presented and quantitatively evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

  15. Integration of a highly ordered gold nanowires array with glucose oxidase for ultra-sensitive glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiewu; Adeloju, Samuel B; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-01-27

    A highly sensitive amperometric nanobiosensor has been developed by integration of glucose oxidase (GO(x)) with a gold nanowires array (AuNWA) by cross-linking with a mixture of glutaraldehyde (GLA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). An initial investigation of the morphology of the synthesized AuNWA by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) revealed that the nanowires array was highly ordered with rough surface, and the electrochemical features of the AuNWA with/without modification were also investigated. The integrated AuNWA-BSA-GLA-GO(x) nanobiosensor with Nafion membrane gave a very high sensitivity of 298.2 μA cm(-2) mM(-1) for amperometric detection of glucose, while also achieving a low detection limit of 0.1 μM, and a wide linear range of 5-6000 μM. Furthermore, the nanobiosensor exhibited excellent anti-interference ability towards uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) with the aid of Nafion membrane, and the results obtained for the analysis of human blood serum indicated that the device is capable of glucose detection in real samples. PMID:24418144

  16. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on orderly oriented conductive wires for the detection of human monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in serum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuliang; He, Junlin; Xia, Chunyong; Gao, Liuliu; Yu, Chao

    2015-08-15

    For the first time, a simple, ultrasensitive and label-free electrochemical monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) immunosensor based on orderly oriented conductive wires has been developed. A conductive wire, which is similar to an electron-conducting tunnel, was designed with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) joined to Au@Pt core-shell microspheres via a cysteamine (CA) crosslinker. To enhance the sensitivity of the immunosensor, Au nanoparticles were electrodeposited onto the gold electrode, and CA was self-assembled via strong Au-S covalent bonds, providing an appropriate surface and promoting electron transfer. Next, Au@Pt core-shell microspheres with large surface area were grafted onto the modified electrode to immobilize more MCP-1 antibodies. MCP-1 is an initiating factor and biomarker of atherosclerotic diseases. Under optimal experimental conditions, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current changes were used to detect MCP-1 with a broad linear range of 0.09-360 pg mL(-1) and a low detection limit of 0.03 pg mL(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed immunosensor exhibited good selectivity, reproducibility and reusability. When applied to spiked serum samples, the data for the developed immunosensor were in agreement with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, suggesting that the electrochemical immunosensor would be suitable for practical detection. PMID:25845330

  17. Ground-based direct detection of close-in extra-solar planets with nulling and high order adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, M.; Burrows, A.; Hinz, P.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based direct detection of extra-solar planets is very challenging due to high planet to star brightness contrasts. For giant close-in planets, such as have been discovered by the radial velocity method, closer than 0.1 AU, the reflected light is predicted to be fairly high yielding a contrast ratio ranging from 10-4 to 10-5 at near infra-red wavelengths. In this paper, we investigate direct detection of reflected light from such planets using nulling interferometry, and high-order adaptive optics in conjunction with large double aperture ground-based telescopes. In this configuration, at least 10-3 suppression of the entire stellar Airy pattern with small loss of planet flux as close as 0.03 arcsec is achievable. Distinguishing residual starlight from the planet signal is achieved by using the center of gravity shift method or multicolor differential imaging. Using these assumptions, we derive exposure times from a few minutes to several hours for direct detection of many of the known extra-solar planets with several short-baseline double aperture telescopes such as the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Keck Telescope.

  18. Statistical analysis of water-quality data containing multiple detection limits: S-language software for regression on order statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, L.; Helsel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Trace contaminants in water, including metals and organics, often are measured at sufficiently low concentrations to be reported only as values below the instrument detection limit. Interpretation of these "less thans" is complicated when multiple detection limits occur. Statistical methods for multiply censored, or multiple-detection limit, datasets have been developed for medical and industrial statistics, and can be employed to estimate summary statistics or model the distributions of trace-level environmental data. We describe S-language-based software tools that perform robust linear regression on order statistics (ROS). The ROS method has been evaluated as one of the most reliable procedures for developing summary statistics of multiply censored data. It is applicable to any dataset that has 0 to 80% of its values censored. These tools are a part of a software library, or add-on package, for the R environment for statistical computing. This library can be used to generate ROS models and associated summary statistics, plot modeled distributions, and predict exceedance probabilities of water-quality standards. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An optimized method for tremor detection and temporal tracking through repeated second order moment calculations on the surface EMG signal.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the problem of detecting and tracking tremor from the surface myoelectric signal is addressed. A method based on the calculation of a Second Order Moment Function (SOMF) inside a window W sliding over the sEMG signal is here presented. An analytical formulation of the detector allows the extraction of the optimal parameters characterizing the algorithm. Performance of the optimized method is assessed on a set of synthetic tremor sEMG signals in terms of sensitivity, precision and accuracy through the use of a properly defined cost function able to explain the overall detector performance. The obtained results are compared to those emerging from the application of optimized versions of traditional detection techniques. Once tested on a database of synthetic tremor sEMG data, a quantitative assessment of the SOMF algorithm performance is carried out on experimental tremor sEMG signals recorded from two patients affected by Essential Tremor and from two patients affected by Parkinson's Disease. The SOMF algorithm outperforms the traditional techniques both in detecting (sensitivity and positive predictive value >99% for SNR higher than 3dB) and in estimating timings of muscular tremor bursts (bias and standard deviation on the estimation of the onset and offset time instants lower than 8ms). Its independence from the SNR level and its low computational cost make it suitable for real-time implementation and clinical use. PMID:22257701

  20. Edge-crease detection and surface reconstruction from point clouds using a second-order variational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, Massimo; Bruzzone, Lorenzo

    2014-10-01

    The automatic detection of geometric features, such as edges and creases, from objects represented by 3D point clouds (e.g., LiDAR measurements, Tomographic SAR) is a very important issue in different application domains including urban monitoring and building reconstruction. A limitation of many methods in the literature is that they rely on rasterization or interpolation of the original grid, with consequent potential loss of detail. Recently, a second-order variational model for edge and crease detection and surface regularization has been presented in literature and succesfully applied to DSMs. In this paper we address the generalization of this model to unstructured grids. The model is based on the Blake-Zisserman energy and allows to obtain a regularization of the original data (noise reduction) which does not affect crucial regions containing jumps and creases. Specifically, we focus on the detection of these features by means of two auxiliary functions that are computable by solving specific differential equations. Results obtained on LiDAR data by solving the equations via Finite Element Method are presented.

  1. Differential Detection of Phospholipid Fluidity, Order, and Spacing by Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Bis-pyrene, Prodan, Nystatin, and Merocyanine 540

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Ashworth, Heather A.; Bahm, Quinn; Erickson, Joshua; Shinkle, Aaron; Vu, Mai P.; Woodbury, Dixon; Bell, John D.

    2006-01-01

    The properties of liquid-ordered, solid-ordered, and liquid-disordered phases were investigated by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy in liposomes composed of mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (0–40 mol %) as a function of temperature (24–51°C). The fluorescent probes used (bis-pyrene, nystatin, prodan, and merocyanine) were chosen because they differ in the location they occupy in the membrane and in the types of properties they sense. Comparison of phase diagrams with contour plots of the fluorescence data suggested that bis-pyrene is sensitive primarily to lipid order. In contrast, nystatin fluorescence intensity responded to changes in lipid fluidity. The shape of the prodan emission spectrum detected both liquid-solid and order-disorder transitions in the phase diagram. Merocyanine's behavior was more complex. First, it was more sensitive than any of the other probes to the membrane pretransition that occurs in the absence of cholesterol. Second, regardless of whether emission intensity, anisotropy, or spectral shape was observed, the probe appeared to distinguish two types of liquid-ordered phases, one with tightly packed lipids and one in which the apparent spacing among lipids was increased. The prodan data supported these results by displaying modest versions of these two observations. Together, the results identify eight regions within the phase diagram of distinguishable combinations of these physical properties. As an example of how this combined analysis can be applied to biological membranes, human erythrocytes were treated similarly. Temperature variation at constant cholesterol content revealed three of the eight combinations identified in our analysis of liposomes. PMID:16980369

  2. Ordered gold nanoparticle arrays as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates for label-free detection of nitroexplosives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Liang; Shen, Hao; Xu, Hongxing; Lu, Lehui

    2011-01-15

    Nitroexplosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) which is a leading example of nitroaromatic explosives, are causing wide concern. Motivated by the urgent demand for trace analysis of explosives, novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates based upon highly ordered Au nanoparticles have been fabricated by a simple droplet evaporation method. It is noteworthy that an ethylhexadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide bilayer surrounding each individual nanoparticle not only is responsible for these periodic gap structures, but also tends to promote the adsorption of TNT on the composite NPs, thus resulting in a considerable increase of Raman signal. These desirable features endow the resulting SERS substrates with excellent enhancement ability and allow for a label-free detection of common plastic explosive materials even with a concentration as low as 10(-9)M. PMID:21147353

  3. Detection of glucose based on direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase immobilized on highly ordered polyaniline nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyi; Liu, Shuna; Wu, Ping; Cai, Chenxin

    2009-02-15

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on the direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOx) was developed by electrochemically entrapping GOx onto the inner wall of highly ordered polyaniline nanotubes (nanoPANi), which was synthesized using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as a template. The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that GOx immobilized on the nanoPANi underwent direct electron transfer reaction, and the cyclic voltammogram displayed a pair of well-defined and nearly symmetric redox peaks with a formal potential of -405 +/- 5 mV and an apparent electron transfer rate constant of 5.8 +/- 1.6 s(-1). The biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of glucose and exhibited a rapid response (approximately 3 s), a low detection limit (0.3 +/- 0.1 microM), a useful linear range (0.01-5.5 mM), high sensitivity (97.18 +/- 4.62 microA mM(-1) cm(-2)), higher biological affinity (the apparent Michaelis-Mentan constant was estimated to be 2.37 +/- 0.5 mM) as well as good stability and repeatability. In addition, the common interfering species, such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, and 4-acetamidophenol, did not cause any interference due to the use of a low detection potential (-0.3 V vs SCE). The biosensor can also be used for quantification of the concentration of glucose in real clinical samples. PMID:19170516

  4. Novel Ordered Stepped-Wedge Cluster Trial Designs for Detecting Ebola Vaccine Efficacy Using a Spatially Structured Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Diakite, Ibrahim; Mooring, Eric Q.; Velásquez, Gustavo E.; Murray, Megan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, policy-makers were confronted with difficult decisions on how best to test the efficacy of EVD vaccines. On one hand, many were reluctant to withhold a vaccine that might prevent a fatal disease from study participants randomized to a control arm. On the other, regulatory bodies called for rigorous placebo-controlled trials to permit direct measurement of vaccine efficacy prior to approval of the products. A stepped-wedge cluster study (SWCT) was proposed as an alternative to a more traditional randomized controlled vaccine trial to address these concerns. Here, we propose novel “ordered stepped-wedge cluster trial” (OSWCT) designs to further mitigate tradeoffs between ethical concerns, logistics, and statistical rigor. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed a spatially structured mathematical model of the EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone. We used the output of this model to simulate and compare a series of stepped-wedge cluster vaccine studies. Our model reproduced the observed order of first case occurrence within districts of Sierra Leone. Depending on the infection risk within the trial population and the trial start dates, the statistical power to detect a vaccine efficacy of 90% varied from 14% to 32% for standard SWCT, and from 67% to 91% for OSWCTs for an alpha error of 5%. The model’s projection of first case occurrence was robust to changes in disease natural history parameters. Conclusions/Significance Ordering clusters in a step-wedge trial based on the cluster’s underlying risk of infection as predicted by a spatial model can increase the statistical power of a SWCT. In the event of another hemorrhagic fever outbreak, implementation of our proposed OSWCT designs could improve statistical power when a step-wedge study is desirable based on either ethical concerns or logistical constraints. PMID:27509037

  5. Using a low-order model to detect and characterize intense vortices in multiple-Doppler radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potvin, Corey Keith

    A new multiple-Doppler radar analysis technique is presented for the objective detection and characterization of intense vortices. The technique consists of fitting radial wind data from two or more radars to a simple analytical model of a vortex and its near-environment. The model combines a uniform flow, linear shear flow, linear divergence flow (all of which comprise a broadscale flow), and modified combined Rankine vortex. The vortex and its environment are allowed to translate. A cost-function accounting for the discrepancy between the model and observed radial winds is evaluated over space and time so that observations can be used at the actual times and locations they were acquired. The parameters in the low-order model are determined by minimizing this cost function. The development of the method is initially guided by emulated radial velocity observations of analytical vortices. A high-resolution Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) simulation of a supercellular tornado is then used to generate more realistic pseudo-observations. Finally, the technique is tested using real dual-Doppler tornado and mesocyclone observations from a variety of radar platforms including Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D), Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Doppler on Wheels (DOW). The technique shows skill in detecting intense vortices and, when the vortex is well-resolved, in retrieving key model parameters including vortex location, translational velocity, radius and maximum tangential wind speed. In cases where the vortex is not well-resolved, additional vortex characteristics computed from the retrieved model parameters and verified against radial velocity observations can still provide useful information about vortex size and strength.

  6. Measuring violations of general relativity from single gravitational wave detection by nonspinning binary systems: Higher-order asymptotic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tso, Rhondale; Zanolin, Michele

    2016-06-01

    A frequentist asymptotic expansion method for error estimation is employed for a network of gravitational wave detectors to assess the amount of information that can be extracted from gravitational wave observations. Mathematically we derive lower bounds in the errors that any parameter estimator will have in the absence of prior knowledge to distinguish between the post-Einsteinian (ppE) description of coalescing binary systems and that of general relativity. When such errors are smaller than the parameter value, there is a possibility to detect these violations from general relativity (GR). A parameter space with inclusion of dominant dephasing ppE parameters (β ,b ) is used for a study of first- and second-order (co)variance expansions, focusing on the inspiral stage of a nonspinning binary system of zero eccentricity detectible through Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Our procedure is an improvement of the Cramér-Rao lower bound. When Bayesian errors are lower than our bound it means that they depend critically on the priors. The analysis indicates the possibility of constraining deviations from GR in inspiral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) (ρ ˜15 - 17 ) regimes that are achievable in upcoming scientific runs (GW150914 had an inspiral SNR ˜12 ). The errors on β also increase errors of other parameters such as the chirp mass M and symmetric mass ratio η . Application is done to existing alternative theories of gravity, which include modified dispersion relation of the waveform; nonspinning models of quadratic modified gravity; and dipole gravitational radiation (i.e., Brans-Dicke-type) modifications.

  7. Inferring Social Status and Rich Club Effects in Enterprise Communication Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V.; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels — voice call, short message, and email — to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a “rich club” maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy. PMID:25822343

  8. A Hierarchically Ordered Array of Silver-Nanorod Bundles for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection of Phenolic Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuhong; Meng, Guowen; Zheng, Peng; Huang, Qing; Li, Zhongbo; Hu, Xiaoye; Wang, Xiujuan; Huang, Zhulin; Li, Fadi; Wu, Nianqiang

    2016-06-01

    A hierarchically ordered array of Ag-nanorod bundles is achieved using an inexpensive binary-template-assisted electrodeposition technique. In every bundle, many small gaps are formed between adjacent Ag-nanorods, where "hot spots" are generated. As a result, this plasmonic nanostructure exhibits SERS enhancements of approximately eight orders of magnitude with uniform and reproducible SERS signal throughout the whole chip. PMID:27112639

  9. High-order adaptive optics requirements for direct detection of extrasolar planets: Application to the SPHERE instrument.

    PubMed

    Fusco, T; Rousset, G; Sauvage, J-F; Petit, C; Beuzit, J-L; Dohlen, K; Mouillet, D; Charton, J; Nicolle, M; Kasper, M; Baudoz, P; Puget, P

    2006-08-21

    The detection of extrasolar planets implies an extremely high-contrast, long-exposure imaging capability at near infrared and probably visible wavelengths. We present here the core of any Planet Finder instrument, that is, the extreme adaptive optics (XAO) subsystem. The level of AO correction directly impacts the exposure time required for planet detection. In addition, the capacity of the AO system to calibrate all the instrument static defects ultimately limits detectivity. Hence, the extreme AO system has to adjust for the perturbations induced by the atmospheric turbulence, as well as for the internal aberrations of the instrument itself. We propose a feasibility study for an extreme AO system in the frame of the SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument, which is currently under design and should equip one of the four VLT 8-m telescopes in 2010. PMID:19529118

  10. Use of steady-state laurdan fluorescence to detect changes in liquid ordered phases in human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Vest, Rebekah; Wallis, Rachel; Jensen, Lauren B; Haws, Andrea C; Callister, Joseph; Brimhall, Brent; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2006-05-01

    In artificial phospholipid bilayers, dual measurements of laurdan steady-state anisotropy and emission spectra can be used to identify the presence of liquid ordered phases. Human erythrocytes were used as a model to test whether similar measurements could be applied to biological samples. Specifically, laurdan anisotropy and emission spectra were obtained from native erythrocytes before and after treatment with calcium ionophore and from the microvesicles (known to be enriched in liquid ordered domains) shed from the cells during calcium entry. Spectral and anisotropy data were consistent with an increased order and reduced fluidity of erythrocyte membrane lipids upon ionophore treatment. Microvesicle membranes appeared more ordered than native erythrocytes and similar to ionophore-treated cells based on laurdan emission. In contrast, the anisotropy value was lower in microvesicles compared to ionophore-treated cells, suggesting greater probe mobility. Parallel measurements of diphenylhexatriene anisotropy corroborated the laurdan data. These results were consistent with the liquid ordered property of microvesicle membranes based on comparisons to behavior in artificial membranes. Two-photon microscopy was used to examine the distribution of laurdan fluorescence along the surface of erythrocyte membranes before and after ionophore treatment. A dual spatial analysis of laurdan anisotropy, as revealed by the distribution of laurdan emission spectra, and intensity excited by polarized light suggested that the plasma membranes of ionophore-treated erythrocytes may also exhibit elevated numbers of liquid ordered domains. PMID:16988865

  11. Using Higher-Order Thinking To Improve Reading Comprehension. Rx [Grades 6-Adult]. Reading Detective[TM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cheryl; Broz, Christine; Hockett, Margaret; White, David

    Part of a series, the purpose of this low-readability/high interest book is to provide instruction and practice in using higher order thinking to develop students' reading comprehension skills. The comprehension skills addressed in the book meet state standards for secondary students grades six and up, and the reading level is fourth and fifth…

  12. Sodium interaction with ordered structures in mammalian red blood cells detected by Na-23 double quantum NMR.

    PubMed Central

    Shinar, H; Knubovets, T; Eliav, U; Navon, G

    1993-01-01

    Na-23 double and triple quantum filtered NMR spectra of intact dog and human red blood cells were measured with the pulse sequence 90 degrees-tau/2-180 degrees-tau/2-theta degrees-t1-theta degrees-t2(Acq). For theta = 90 degrees the triple quantum filtered spectra exhibited the typical multiple quantum filtered lineshape, characteristic of isotropic media, while the double quantum filtered ones presented a superposition of two signals, whose proportion depended on the creation time tau. This effect is due to the formation of both second and third rank tensors. The formation of the second rank tensor, T21 results from non-zero residual quadrupolar interaction and is related to the anisotropic motion of sodium ions. Measurements of the double quantum filtered spectra with theta = 54.7 degrees enabled the detection of the contribution of T21 exclusively. No residual quadrupolar interaction was detected for sodium in the cytoplasm, while unsealed ghosts displayed the double quantum filtered spectral pattern, similar to that of intact cells. The anisotropy of motion of the sodium at the plasma membrane of mammalian erythrocytes depended on the integrity of the cytoskeleton network. Theoretical analysis of the double quantum filtered spectra gave a value of residual quadrupolar splitting of approximately 20 Hz for intact unsealed ghosts. The data presented prove that double quantum filtering is a sensitive technique for detection of motional anisotropies in biological systems. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:8494983

  13. [Fabrication of silver ordered nanoarrays SERS-active substrates and their applications in bladder cancer cells detection].

    PubMed

    Liu, You; Huang, Li-qing; Wang, Jun; Tong, Hui-min; Yuan, Lin; Zhao, Li-hua; Zhang, Wei-wei; Wang, Leiz; Zhu, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Highly ordered silver nanopore and nanocap arrays, which were used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering active (SERS-active) substrates, were fabricated by electron-beam evaporating silver on the surface of porous layer and barrier layer of porous anodic alumina (PAA) membranes, respectively. The SERS characteristics of the SERS-active substrates were tested with bladder cancer cells as molecular probe. The results indicated that both the SERS-active substrates displayed a strong SERS enhancement effect. The silver nanocap ordered arrays SERS-active substrate displayed not only higher SERS and fluorescence quenching effect, but also no interferential spectrum related with oxalate impurity remaining in PAA membranes, and therefore can result in the high quality Raman spectroscopy of bladder cancer cells. PMID:22512174

  14. First order magnetic transition in single crystal CaFe2As2 detected by 75As NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Seung Ho; Curro, Nicholas J

    2008-01-01

    We report {sup 75}As Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data in a single crystal of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. The Knight shift, the electric field gradient, and the spin lattice relaxation rate are strongly temperature dependent in the paramagnetic state, and change discontinuously at the structural transition temperature, T{sub S} = T{sub N} = 167 K. Immediately below, the NMR spectra reveal an internal field at the As site associated with the presence of a commensurate magnetic order. These results indicate that the structural and magnetic transitions in CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} are first order and strongly coupled, and that the electron density in the FeAs plane is highly sensitive to the out-of-plane structure.

  15. Static magnetic order on the metallic triangular lattice in CrSe2 detected by μ <>SR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Jun; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Umegaki, Izumi; Uyama, Takeshi; Miwa, Kazutoshi; Brewer, Jess H.; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Michioka, Chishiro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    The magnetic nature of a metallic two-dimensional triangular compound, CrSe2, has been investigated by muon spin rotation and relaxation (μ <>SR ) measurements using both powder and single crystal samples. It is found that CrSe2 enters into a static antiferromagnetic (AF) ordered state below 157 K (=TN ). Furthermore, the AF state is slightly changed below around 20 K (=TN 2 ). Based on the analysis of the internal magnetic fields at the muon sites predicted with DFT calculations, collinear AF and helical 120° AF are clearly eliminated for the ground state of CrSe2. The most probable one is an incommensurate spin density wave order.

  16. Silver-Nanorod Bundles: A Hierarchically Ordered Array of Silver-Nanorod Bundles for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection of Phenolic Pollutants (Adv. Mater. 24/2016).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuhong; Meng, Guowen; Zheng, Peng; Huang, Qing; Li, Zhongbo; Hu, Xiaoye; Wang, Xiujuan; Huang, Zhulin; Li, Fadi; Wu, Nianqiang

    2016-06-01

    G. Meng, N. Wu, and co-workers develop a hierarchically ordered array of silver nanorod bundles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. As described on page 4871, in each bundle, small gaps are formed between adjacent silver nanorods upon solution evaporation. At these sites, "hot spots" are generated where analyte molecules are trapped, leading to high sensitivity of the SERS sensor. PMID:27311094

  17. Composition-selective fabrication of ordered intermetallic Au-Cu nanowires and their application to nano-size electrochemical glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si-In; Eom, Gayoung; Kang, Mijeong; Kang, Taejoon; Lee, Hyoban; Hwang, Ahreum; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-06-19

    Bimetallic nanostructures can provide distinct and improved physicochemical properties by the coupling effect of the two metal components, making them promising materials for a variety of applications. Herein, we report composition-selective fabrication of ordered intermetallic Au-Cu nanowires (NWs) by two-step chemical vapor transport method and their application to nano-electrocatalytic glucose detection. Ordered intermetallic Au3Cu and AuCu3 NWs are topotaxially fabricated by supplying Cu-containing chemicals to pre-synthesized single-crystalline Au NW arrays. The composition of fabricated Au-Cu NWs can be selected by changing the concentration of Cu-containing species. Interestingly, Au3Cu NW electrodes show unique electrocatalytic activity for glucose oxidation, allowing us to detect glucose without interference from ascorbic acid. Such interference-free detection of glucose is attributed to the synergistic effect, induced by incorporation of Cu in Au. We anticipate that Au3Cu NWs could show possibility as efficient nano-size electrochemical glucose sensors and the present fabrication method can be employed to fabricate valuable ordered intermetallic nanostructures. PMID:26016531

  18. Composition-selective fabrication of ordered intermetallic Au-Cu nanowires and their application to nano-size electrochemical glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si-In; Eom, Gayoung; Kang, Mijeong; Kang, Taejoon; Lee, Hyoban; Hwang, Ahreum; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-06-01

    Bimetallic nanostructures can provide distinct and improved physicochemical properties by the coupling effect of the two metal components, making them promising materials for a variety of applications. Herein, we report composition-selective fabrication of ordered intermetallic Au-Cu nanowires (NWs) by two-step chemical vapor transport method and their application to nano-electrocatalytic glucose detection. Ordered intermetallic Au3Cu and AuCu3 NWs are topotaxially fabricated by supplying Cu-containing chemicals to pre-synthesized single-crystalline Au NW arrays. The composition of fabricated Au-Cu NWs can be selected by changing the concentration of Cu-containing species. Interestingly, Au3Cu NW electrodes show unique electrocatalytic activity for glucose oxidation, allowing us to detect glucose without interference from ascorbic acid. Such interference-free detection of glucose is attributed to the synergistic effect, induced by incorporation of Cu in Au. We anticipate that Au3Cu NWs could show possibility as efficient nano-size electrochemical glucose sensors and the present fabrication method can be employed to fabricate valuable ordered intermetallic nanostructures.

  19. Controlled optical high-order sidebands via bichromatic driving of a cavity mode detected by an undriven second cavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiahua; Li, Jiahui; Yu, Rong; Wu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    We propose a scheme for optical high-order sideband generation and efficient sideband information transfer from one optical mode to the other in a hybrid system consisting of a quantum dot coupled to both modes of a lossy bimodal photonic crystal cavity. Here one mode of the cavity is coherently driven by a two-tone continuous-wave laser field and the two cavity modes are not coupled to each other due to their orthogonal polarizations. The influences of the system parameters including the cavity-waveguide coupling rate and all kinds of relative detunings on optical high-order sideband generation and transfer efficiency are discussed. In addition to numerical simulations demonstrating this effect, a physical explanation of the underlying mechanism and an experimental feasibility of the proposed bimodal cavity scheme are also presented. Due to an intrinsic highly multimode sideband structure in the proposed scheme, the ability to engineer and convert photons between different frequencies in a solid-state approach has extensive technological implications not only for classical communication systems, but also future integrated quantum networks.

  20. Detection of symmetry-protected topological order in AKLT states by exact evaluation of the strange correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierschem, K.; Beach, K. S. D.

    2016-06-01

    The strange correlator [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 247202 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.247202] has been proposed as a measure of symmetry protected topological order in one- and two-dimensional systems. It takes the form of a spin-spin correlation function, computed as a mixed overlap between the state of interest and a trivial local product state. We demonstrate that it can be computed exactly (asymptotically, in the Monte Carlo sense) for various Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki states by direct evaluation of the wave function within the valence bond loop gas framework. We present results for lattices with chain, square, honeycomb, cube, diamond, and hyperhoneycomb geometries. In each case, the spin quantum number S is varied such that 2 S (the number of valence bonds emerging from each site) achieves various integer multiples of the lattice coordination number. We introduce the concept of strange correlator loop winding number and point to its utility in testing for the presence of symmetry protected topological order.

  1. Application of mercapto ordered carbohydrate-derived porous carbons for trace detection of cadmium and copper ions in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mohammad; Abolhasani, Jafar; Amini, Mostafa M; Sadeghi, Omid; Omidi, Fariborz; Bagheri, Akbar; Salarian, Mani

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we have introduced nanoporous carbon modified with mercapto groups as a new solid-phase method for extraction of cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions. The modified nanoporous carbon sorbent was characterised by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption surface area (BET) measurements. Effects of pH value, flow rates, type, concentration and volume of the eluent, breakthrough volume, and effect of other ions were studied. The experimental results show that simultaneous trace cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated at pH 6.0 with recoveries >97%. Under optimised conditions, limits of detection are 0.04 and 0.09 ng mL(-1) for the ions of cadmium and copper respectively, and the precision of the method for analysis of cadmium and copper ions (5.0 μg of each target ions, N=8) are 2.4% and 2.1%, respectively. The obtained capacities of mercapto-nanoporous carbon were found to be 145 and 95 mg g(-1) for cadmium and copper ions, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing standard reference material. Finally, the introduced sorbent was successfully applied for trace determination of cadmium and copper ions in food samples. PMID:25466145

  2. Detection of Single-Domain Co2FeAl Nanoparticles Using First-Order Reversal Curve Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alikhanzadeh-Arani, Sima; Almasi-Kashi, Mohammad; Pezeshki-Nejad, Zahra; Ramazani, Abdolali; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Half-Heusler nanostructures of Co2FeAl alloys, synthesized via coprecipitation route, were found to contain both hard- and soft-phases magnetic grains, mapped using first-order reversal curves (FORCs) diagrams. The obtained results confirmed that these powders are highly interacting as a single-domain magnetizing system. A significant dependence of the morphology and particle size on the annealing rate was represented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM images. The presence of the strong magnetizing interaction between the nanoparticles led to the formation of chain-like structure stabilized by PVP polymer. By increasing the annealing rate from 278.15 K/min to 288.15 K/min (5 °C/min to 15 °C/min), the grain shape changed from long nanochain to nonuniform agglomerated grains. Additionally, the magnetic characteristics of the prepared alloys were found to be affected by tuning the annealing rate.

  3. Detection of gear wear on the 757/767 internal drive generator using higher order spectral analysis and wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Van Hoy, B.W.; Ayers, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    The 757/767 internal drive generator (IDG), which provides 400 Hz/120 volt ac power to the aircraft cabin experiences failures due to seizure of the scavenger drive pump and/or axial gears on the main drive shaft of the unit. These generators are an integral part of the aircraft`s engines sitting outboard, inside the engine cowling. The seizure of gears represents a significant loss with gear replacement estimated at $17,000 and unit replacement costs at $250,000. One of the U.S. commercial airline companies engaged Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a brief study to determine if a methodology could be developed to interrogate and diagnose gear wear with the ultimate goal of deploying an instrument for test stand and flight line use. Through a structured analysis it was determined that accelerometers mapped with higher order spectral analysis (HOSA) and/or wavelets could provide an analytic approach and basis for a diagnostic sensor/system capable of assessing IDG gear wear on the aircraft or the test stand.

  4. Detection of Potential TNA and RNA Nucleoside Precursors in a Prebiotic Mixture by Pure Shift Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Saidul; Aguilar, Juan A; Powner, Matthew W; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A; Sutherland, John D

    2013-01-01

    In the context of prebiotic chemistry, one of the characteristics of mixed nitrogenous-oxygenous chemistry is its propensity to give rise to highly complex reaction mixtures. There is therefore an urgent need to develop improved spectroscopic techniques if onerous chromatographic separations are to be avoided. One potential avenue is the combination of pure shift methodology, in which NMR spectra are measured with greatly improved resolution by suppressing multiplet structure, with diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, in which NMR signals from different species are distinguished through their different rates of diffusion. Such a combination has the added advantage of working with intact mixtures, allowing analyses to be carried out without perturbing mixtures in which chemical entities are part of a network of reactions in equilibrium. As part of a systems chemistry approach towards investigating the self-assembly of potentially prebiotic small molecules, we have analysed the complex mixture arising from mixing glycolaldehyde and cyanamide, in a first application of pure shift DOSY NMR to the characterisation of a partially unknown reaction composition. The work presented illustrates the potential of pure shift DOSY to be applied to chemistries that give rise to mixtures of compounds in which the NMR signal resolution is poor. The direct formation of potential RNA and TNA nucleoside precursors, amongst other adducts, was observed. These preliminary observations may have implications for the potentially prebiotic assembly chemistry of pyrimidine threonucleotides, and therefore of TNA, by using recently reported chemistries that yield the activated pyridimidine ribonucleotides. PMID:23371787

  5. Simultaneous even- and third-order distortion suppression in a microwave photonic link based on orthogonal polarization modulation, balanced detection, and optical sideband filtering.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiuyou; Chen, Xiang; Yao, Jianping

    2016-06-27

    A microwave photonic link (MPL) with simultaneous suppression of the even-order and third-order distortions using a polarization modulator (PolM), an optical bandpass filter (OBPF), and a balanced photodetector (BPD) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The even-order distortions are suppressed by utilizing orthogonal polarization modulation based on the PolM and balanced differential detection based on the BPD. The third-order distortions (IMD3) are suppressed by optimizing the spectral response of the OBPF with an optimal power ratio between the optical carrier and the sidebands of the phase-modulated signals from the PolM. Since the suppression of the IMD3 is achieved when the MPL is optimized for even-order distortion suppression, the proposed MPL can operate with simultaneous suppression of the even-order and third-order distortions. The proposed MPL is analyzed theoretically and is verified by an experiment. For a two-tone RF signal of f1 = 10 GHz and f2 = 19.95 GHz, the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR2) is enhanced by 23.4 dB for the second harmonic (2f1), and 29.1 and 27.6 dB for the second intermodulation (f2-f1 and f1 + f2), as compared with a conventional MPL. For a two-tone RF signal of f1 = 9.95 GHz and f2 = 10 GHz, the SFDR3 is increased by 13.1 dB as compared with a conventional MPL. PMID:27410633

  6. Detection of Methamphetamine and Morphine in Urine and Saliva Using Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorescence and a Second-Order Calibration Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B. Y.; Ye, Y.; Liao, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    A new method was developed to determine the methamphetamine and morphine concentrations in urine and saliva based on excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled to a second-order calibration algorithm. In the case of single-drug abuse, the results showed that the average recoveries of methamphetamine and morphine were 95.3 and 96.7% in urine samples, respectively, and 98.1 and 106.2% in saliva samples, respectively. The relative errors were all below 5%. The simultaneous determination of methamphetamine and morphine in urine using two second-order algorithms was also investigated. Satisfactory results were obtained with a self-weighted alternating trilinear decomposition algorithm. The root-mean-square errors of the predictions were 0.540 and 0.0382 μg/mL for methamphetamine and morphine, respectively. The limits of detection of the proposed methods were very low and sufficient for studying methamphetamine and morphine in urine.

  7. An enhanced sensing platform for ultrasensitive impedimetric detection of target genes based on ordered FePt nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zong, Peisong; Zheng, Xiuwen; Wang, Libin

    2013-04-15

    We demonstrate a novel high-performance DNA hybridization biosensor with a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based nanocomposite membrane as the enhanced sensing platform. The platform was constructed by homogenously distributing ordered FePt nanoparticles (NPs) onto the CNTs matrix. The surface structure and electrochemical performance of the FePt/CNTs nanocomposite membrane were systematically investigated. Such a nanostructured composite membrane platform could combine with the advantages of FePt NPs and CNTs, greatly facilitate the electron-transfer process and the sensing behavior for DNA detection, leading to excellent sensitivity and selectivity. The complementary target genes from acute promyelocytic leukemia could be quantified in a wide range of 1.0×10⁻¹² mol/L to 1.0×10⁻⁶ mol/L using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the detection limit was 2.1×10⁻¹³ mol/L under the optimal conditions. In addition, the DNA electrochemical biosensor was highly selective to discriminate single-base or double-base mismatched sequences. PMID:23238322

  8. Toward Higher-Order Mass Detection: Influence of an Adsorbate's Rotational Inertia and Eccentricity on the Resonant Response of a Bernoulli-Euler Cantilever Beam.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Stephen M; Dufour, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new theoretical model is derived, the results of which permit a detailed examination of how the resonant characteristics of a cantilever are influenced by a particle (adsorbate) attached at an arbitrary position along the beam's length. Unlike most previous work, the particle need not be small in mass or dimension relative to the beam, and the adsorbate's geometric characteristics are incorporated into the model via its rotational inertia and eccentricity relative to the beam axis. For the special case in which the adsorbate's (translational) mass is indeed small, an analytical solution is obtained for the particle-induced resonant frequency shift of an arbitrary flexural mode, including the effects of rotational inertia and eccentricity. This solution is shown to possess the exact first-order behavior in the normalized particle mass and represents a generalization of analytical solutions derived by others in earlier studies. The results suggest the potential for "higher-order" nanobeam-based mass detection methods by which the multi-mode frequency response reflects not only the adsorbate's mass but also important geometric data related to its size, shape, or orientation (i.e., the mass distribution), thus resulting in more highly discriminatory techniques for discrete-mass sensing. PMID:26610493

  9. Detection of a static eccentricity fault in a closed loop driven induction motor by using the angular domain order tracking analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akar, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a new method was presented for the detection of a static eccentricity fault in a closed loop operating induction motor driven by inverter. Contrary to the motors supplied by the line, if the speed and load, and therefore the amplitude and frequency, of the current constantly change then this also causes a continuous change in the location of fault harmonics in the frequency spectrum. Angular Domain Order Tracking analysis (AD-OT) is one of the most frequently used fault diagnosis methods in the monitoring of rotating machines and the analysis of dynamic vibration signals. In the presented experimental study, motor phase current and rotor speed were monitored at various speeds and load levels with a healthy and static eccentricity fault in the closed loop driven induction motor with vector control. The AD-OT method was applied to the motor current and the results were compared with the traditional FFT and Fourier Transform based Order Tracking (FT-OT) methods. The experimental results demonstrate that AD-OT method is more efficient than the FFT and FT-OT methods for fault diagnosis, especially while the motor is operating run-up and run-down. Also the AD-OT does not incur any additional cost for the user because in inverter driven systems, current and speed sensor coexist in the system. The main innovative parts of this study are that AD-OT method was implemented on the motor current signal for the first time.

  10. A multiple receiver - multiple transmitter VLF high-order differential analysis evaluation network for near real-time detection and discrimination of seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeberis, Christos; Zaharis, Zaharias; Xenos, Thomas; Spatalas, Spyridon; Stratakis, Dimitrios; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Biagi, Pier francesco

    2016-04-01

    This study provides an evaluation of the application of high-order differential analysis on VLF signals on a multiple-receiver multiple-transmitter network. This application provides a method for near-real-time detection of disturbances that can be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena and can discriminate disturbances that could be classified as false positives and thus should be attributed to other geomagnetic influences. VLF data acquired in Thessaloniki, Greece (40.59N, 22,78E) Herakleion, Greece (35.31N, 25.10E), Nicosia, Cyprus (35.17N, 33.35E), Italy (42.42N, 13.08E) and transmitted by the VLF station in Tavolara, Italy (ICV station 40.923N, 9.731E) and the station in Keflavik, Iceland (ICE 64.02N, 22.57W) from January 2015 to January 2016 were used for the purpose of this paper. The receivers have been developed by Elettronika Srl and are part of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP). The process applied for this study has been further developed and is based on differential analysis. The signals undergo transformation using an enhanced version of the Hilbert Huang Transform, and relevant spectra are produced. On the product of this process, differential analysis is applied. Finally, the method produces the correlation coefficient of signals that are on the same path over an earthquake epicenter in order to highlight disturbances, and on the opposite can make comparisons with unrelated transmitted signals of different paths to eliminate disturbances that are not localized to the area of interest. This improvement provides a simple method of noise cancellation to signals that would otherwise be considered as false positives. A further evaluation of the method is provided with the presentation and discussion of sample results. The method seems to be a robust tool of analysis of VLF signals and also an automatic detection tool with built-in noise cancellation of outside disturbances.

  11. Fast chromatographic method for the determination of dyes in beverages by using high performance liquid chromatography--diode array detection data and second order algorithms.

    PubMed

    Culzoni, María J; Schenone, Agustina V; Llamas, Natalia E; Garrido, Mariano; Di Nezio, Maria S; Band, Beatriz S Fernández; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2009-10-16

    A fast chromatographic methodology is presented for the analysis of three synthetic dyes in non-alcoholic beverages: amaranth (E123), sunset yellow FCF (E110) and tartrazine (E102). Seven soft drinks (purchased from a local supermarket) were homogenized, filtered and injected into the chromatographic system. Second order data were obtained by a rapid LC separation and DAD detection. A comparative study of the performance of two second order algorithms (MCR-ALS and U-PLS/RBL) applied to model the data, is presented. Interestingly, the data present time shift between different chromatograms and cannot be conveniently corrected to determine the above-mentioned dyes in beverage samples. This fact originates the lack of trilinearity that cannot be conveniently pre-processed and can hardly be modelled by using U-PLS/RBL algorithm. On the contrary, MCR-ALS has shown to be an excellent tool for modelling this kind of data allowing to reach acceptable figures of merit. Recovery values ranged between 97% and 105% when analyzing artificial and real samples were indicative of the good performance of the method. In contrast with the complete separation, which consumes 10 mL of methanol and 3 mL of 0.08 mol L(-1) ammonium acetate, the proposed fast chromatography method requires only 0.46 mL of methanol and 1.54 mL of 0.08 mol L(-1) ammonium acetate. Consequently, analysis time could be reduced up to 14.2% of the necessary time to perform the complete separation allowing saving both solvents and time, which are related to a reduction of both the costs per analysis and environmental impact. PMID:19748097

  12. Event Detection and Sub-state Discovery from Bio-molecular Simulations Using Higher-Order Statistics: Application To Enzyme Adenylate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Arvind; Savol, Andrej J.; Agarwal, Pratul K.; Chennubhotla, Chakra S.

    2012-01-01

    Biomolecular simulations at milli-second and longer timescales can provide vital insights into functional mechanisms. Since post-simulation analyses of such large trajectory data-sets can be a limiting factor in obtaining biological insights, there is an emerging need to identify key dynamical events and relating these events to the biological function online, that is, as simulations are progressing. Recently, we have introduced a novel computational technique, quasi-anharmonic analysis (QAA) (PLoS One 6(1): e15827), for partitioning the conformational landscape into a hierarchy of functionally relevant sub-states. The unique capabilities of QAA are enabled by exploiting anharmonicity in the form of fourth-order statistics for characterizing atomic fluctuations. In this paper, we extend QAA for analyzing long time-scale simulations online. In particular, we present HOST4MD - a higher-order statistical toolbox for molecular dynamics simulations, which (1) identifies key dynamical events as simulations are in progress, (2) explores potential sub-states and (3) identifies conformational transitions that enable the protein to access those sub-states. We demonstrate HOST4MD on micro-second time-scale simulations of the enzyme adenylate kinase in its apo state. HOST4MD identifies several conformational events in these simulations, revealing how the intrinsic coupling between the three sub-domains (LID, CORE and NMP) changes during the simulations. Further, it also identifies an inherent asymmetry in the opening/closing of the two binding sites. We anticipate HOST4MD will provide a powerful and extensible framework for detecting biophysically relevant conformational coordinates from long time-scale simulations. PMID:22733562

  13. Higher-order statistical moments and a procedure that detects potentially anomalous years as two alternative methods describing alterations in continuous environmental data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri L.; Dunham, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of central tendency and dispersion may not capture relevant or desired characteristics of the distribution of continuous phenomena and, thus, they may not adequately describe temporal patterns of change. Here, we present two methodological approaches that can help to identify temporal changes in environmental regimes. First, we use higher-order statistical moments (skewness and kurtosis) to examine potential changes of empirical distributions at decadal extents. Second, we adapt a statistical procedure combining a non-metric multidimensional scaling technique and higher density region plots to detect potentially anomalous years. We illustrate the use of these approaches by examining long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-influenced streams. In particular, we contrast predictions about thermal regime responses to changing climates and human-related water uses. Using these methods, we effectively diagnose years with unusual thermal variability and patterns in variability through time, as well as spatial variability linked to regional and local factors that influence stream temperature. Our findings highlight the complexity of responses of thermal regimes of streams and reveal their differential vulnerability to climate warming and human-related water uses. The two approaches presented here can be applied with a variety of other continuous phenomena to address historical changes, extreme events, and their associated ecological responses.

  14. Toward Higher-Order Mass Detection: Influence of an Adsorbate’s Rotational Inertia and Eccentricity on the Resonant Response of a Bernoulli-Euler Cantilever Beam

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Stephen M.; Dufour, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new theoretical model is derived, the results of which permit a detailed examination of how the resonant characteristics of a cantilever are influenced by a particle (adsorbate) attached at an arbitrary position along the beam’s length. Unlike most previous work, the particle need not be small in mass or dimension relative to the beam, and the adsorbate’s geometric characteristics are incorporated into the model via its rotational inertia and eccentricity relative to the beam axis. For the special case in which the adsorbate’s (translational) mass is indeed small, an analytical solution is obtained for the particle-induced resonant frequency shift of an arbitrary flexural mode, including the effects of rotational inertia and eccentricity. This solution is shown to possess the exact first-order behavior in the normalized particle mass and represents a generalization of analytical solutions derived by others in earlier studies. The results suggest the potential for “higher-order” nanobeam-based mass detection methods by which the multi-mode frequency response reflects not only the adsorbate’s mass but also important geometric data related to its size, shape, or orientation (i.e., the mass distribution), thus resulting in more highly discriminatory techniques for discrete-mass sensing. PMID:26610493

  15. Technical Decision-Making with Higher Order Structure Data: Detecting Reversible Concentration-Dependent Self-Association in a Monoclonal Antibody and a Preliminary Investigation to Eliminate It.

    PubMed

    Wei, Julie Y; Bou-Assaf, George M; Houde, Damian; Weiskopf, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Protein self-association or aggregation is a property of significant concern for biopharmaceutical products due to the potential ability of aggregates to cause adverse toxicological and immunological effects. Thus, during the development of a protein biopharmaceutical, it is important to detect and quantify the level and nature of aggregate species as early as possible in order to make well-informed decisions and to mitigate and control potential risks. Although a deeper understanding of the mechanism of aggregation (i.e., protein-protein interactions) is desirable, such detailed assessment is not always necessary from a biopharmaceutical process development point of view. In fact, the scope of characterization efforts is often focused on achieving a well-controlled process, which generates a product that reliably meets established acceptance criteria for safety and efficacy. In this brief note, we evaluated the utility of size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and analytical ultracentrifugation in their simplest forms, to effectively reveal and confirm the presence of concentration-dependent reversible self-association (RSA) in a monoclonal antibody in the early stages of formulation development. Using these techniques, we also initiated preliminary work aimed at reducing the occurrence of this RSA behavior by varying the pH of the formulation buffer. PMID:26308556

  16. Technical Note: Higher-order statistical moments and a procedure that detects potentially anomalous years as two alternative methods describing alterations in continuous environmental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arismendi, I.; Johnson, S. L.; Dunham, J. B.

    2015-03-01

    Statistics of central tendency and dispersion may not capture relevant or desired characteristics of the distribution of continuous phenomena and, thus, they may not adequately describe temporal patterns of change. Here, we present two methodological approaches that can help to identify temporal changes in environmental regimes. First, we use higher-order statistical moments (skewness and kurtosis) to examine potential changes of empirical distributions at decadal extents. Second, we adapt a statistical procedure combining a non-metric multidimensional scaling technique and higher density region plots to detect potentially anomalous years. We illustrate the use of these approaches by examining long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-influenced streams. In particular, we contrast predictions about thermal regime responses to changing climates and human-related water uses. Using these methods, we effectively diagnose years with unusual thermal variability and patterns in variability through time, as well as spatial variability linked to regional and local factors that influence stream temperature. Our findings highlight the complexity of responses of thermal regimes of streams and reveal their differential vulnerability to climate warming and human-related water uses. The two approaches presented here can be applied with a variety of other continuous phenomena to address historical changes, extreme events, and their associated ecological responses.

  17. Detection of Counter-Changing Contrast: Second-Order Apparent Motion Without Postrectification Motion-Energy Analysis or Salience Mapping/Feature Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Lee A.; Hock, Howard S.

    2004-01-01

    The perception of 2nd-order, texture-contrast-defined motion was studied for apparent-motion stimuli composed of a pair of spatially displaced, simultaneously visible checkerboards. It was found that background-relative, counter-changing contrast provided the informational basis for the perception of 2nd-order apparent motion; motion began where…

  18. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  19. Order Nidovirales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...

  20. Size-tunable Pt nanoparticles assembled on functionalized ordered mesoporous carbon for the simultaneous and on-line detection of glucose and L-lactate in brain microdialysate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanyan; Yang, Yan; Gu, Hui; Zhou, Tianshu; Shi, Guoyue

    2013-03-15

    This study presents a facile electrochemical method for simultaneous and selective on-line detection of glucose and L-lactate in the striatum of anesthetic rats through the integration of selective electrochemical detection with in vivo microdialysis system. A positively-charged polyelectrolyte, (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), was attached onto carbon mesoporous material (CMM) through non-covalent interaction, which provided an ideal environment for the assembling and dispersion of nanoparticle electrocatalysts. Platinum nanoparticles with wide loadings from 5 to 50 wt% were successfully self-assembled on PDDA-functionalized CMM via electrostatic interaction. TEM results showed that with the increase in the Pt loadings, both the size and interconnectivity between particles increased, with particle sizes ranging from 3.2±0.4 to 6.8±1.4 nm. Moreover, the electrocatalytic activities of the as-prepared six Pt/PDDA-CMM hybrid nanocomposites were also observed to show an inverted-V-shaped profile as a function of loading amount of Pt NPs. Integrated with glucose oxidase (GOx), L-lactate oxidase (LOD) and the in vivo microdialysis system, the constructed dual oxidase/Pt/PDDA-CMM/Nafion biosensors were successfully applied for the simultaneous and on-line detection of glucose and L-lactate. After post-calibration, the basal level of glucose and L-lactate in the striatum of anesthetic rats was calculated to be 0.27±0.03 and 0.71±0.05 mM (mean ±s.d., n=3), respectively. What is more important, the dual oxidase biosensors almost suffered from little cross-talk, which is characteristic of an excellent sensor with high performance. This property, along with the good linearity and a high stability substantially enables this method promising application in physiology and pathology. PMID:23089326

  1. Enhancement of fluorescence detection in chromatographic methods by computer analysis of second order data. Progress report, August 1, 1990--October 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rutan, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    Two types of experiments were studied during the course of this project. The first was liquid chromatographic separation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) followed by detection with full-spectrum fluorescence spectroscopy using anintensified diode array detector. Methods such as generalized rank annihilation and adaptive Kalman filtering were developed and evaluated. The second was the use of a thin-layer chromatographic or planar electrophoretic separation of analytes (amino acids or enzymes). The analytes are then reacted with a reagent or enzyme substrate; the reaction is followed by fluorescence intensity vs time and migration distance, and kinetic analysis is used to quantify the component species.

  2. Two orders of magnitude fluorescence enhancement of aluminum phthalocyanines by gold nanocubes: a remarkable improvement for cancer cell imaging and detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Kui; Hwang, Sekyu; Kim, Sungjee; Chen, Ji-Yao

    2014-04-23

    The metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) by metal nanoparticles is a useful technique for fluorescence detections in biological systems. The MEF effects with gold nanorods (AuNRs) and nanocubes (AuNCs) for fluorescence enhancements of sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS), a commonly used and clinical approved photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancers, were studied in this work. For the AuNRs which have the low aspect ratios with the corresponding longitudinal surface plasma resonance (LSPR) band in the region of 600-750 nm, the fluorescence quenching of conjugated AlPcS was found. Whereas for the AuNRs that have the LSPR bands of 800-900 nm, the MEF of AlPcS was obtained with the enhancing factor of 2-6 times, respectively. Using AuNCs, a great enhancement of AlPcS fluorescence was achieved with an enhancing factor of 150 times. Using two cancer cell lines as in vitro models, an outstanding fluorescence enhancement of AlPcS-AuNCs conjugates in cells, relative to AlPcS alone, was obtained under one-photon excitation (OPE) of 405 nm. Moreover, the bright fluorescence image of AlPcS-AuNCs in cells was also achieved under the two-photon excitation (TPE) of an 800 nm femtosecond laser. The high-quality cell imaging with either OPE or TPE demonstrated the potential of AlPcS-AuNCs in cancer cell detections. PMID:24660776

  3. Detection of short range order in SiO2 thin-films by grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Kohki; Ogura, Atsushi; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the fabrication process conditions on the microstructure of silicon dioxide thin films of <10 nm thickness are presented. The microstructure was investigated using grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering methods with synchrotron radiation. The combination of a high brilliance light source and grazing incident configuration enabled the observation of very weak diffuse X-ray scattering from SiO2 thin films. The results revealed different microstructures, which were dependent on oxidizing species or temperature. The micro-level properties differed from bulk properties reported in the previous literature. It was indicated that these differences originate from inner stress. The detailed structure in an amorphous thin film was not revealed owing to detection difficulties.

  4. Detection of an unconventional superconducting phase in the vicinity of the strong first-order magnetic transition in CrAs using (75)As-nuclear quadrupole resonance.

    PubMed

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Nakahara, Shingo; Akamatsu, Rui; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo

    2015-03-20

    Pressure-induced superconductivity was recently discovered in the binary helimagnet CrAs. We report the results of measurements of nuclear quadrupole resonance for CrAs under pressure. In the vicinity of the critical pressure P(c) between the helimagnetic (HM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases, a phase separation is observed. The large internal field remaining in the phase-separated HM state indicates that the HM phase disappears through a strong first-order transition. This indicates the absence of a quantum critical point in CrAs; however, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T(1) reveals that substantial magnetic fluctuations are present in the PM state. The absence of a coherence effect in 1/T(1) in the superconducting state provides evidence that CrAs is the first Cr-based unconventional superconductor. PMID:25839303

  5. Sensitivity improvement of a sandwich-type ELISA immunosensor for the detection of different prostate-specific antigen isoforms in human serum using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and an ordered and hierarchically organized interfacial supramolecular architecture.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Zúñiga, Gabriela Guadalupe; Hernández-López, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    A gold millielectrode (GME) functionalized with a mixed (16-MHA + EG3SH) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was used to fabricate an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunosensor for the sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a prostate cancer (PCa) biomarker, in human serum samples. To address and minimize the issue of non-specific protein adsorption, an organic matrix (amine-PEG3-biotin/avidin) was assembled on the previously functionalized electrode surface to build up an ordered and hierarchically organized interfacial supramolecular architecture: Au/16-MHA/EG3SH/amine-PEG3-biotin/avidin. The electrode was then exposed to serum samples at different concentrations of a sandwich-type immunocomplex molecule ((Btn)Ab-AgPSA-(HRP)Ab), and its interfacial properties were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Calibration curves for polarization resistance (RP) and capacitance (1/C) vs. total and free PSA concentrations were obtained and their analytical quality parameters were determined. This approach was compared with results obtained from a commercially available ELISA immunosensor. The results obtained in this work showed that the proposed immunosensor can be successfully applied to analyze serum samples of patients representative of the Mexican population. PMID:26703258

  6. Quantitative analysis of triazine herbicides in environmental samples by using high performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection combined with second-order calibration based on an alternating penalty trilinear decomposition algorithm.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Na; Wu, Hai-Long; Qing, Xiang-Dong; Li, Quan; Li, Shu-Fang; Fu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Yong-Jie; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2010-09-23

    A novel application of second-order calibration method based on an alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) algorithm is presented to treat the data from high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The method makes it possible to accurately and reliably analyze atrazine (ATR), ametryn (AME) and prometryne (PRO) contents in soil, river sediment and wastewater samples. Satisfactory results are obtained although the elution and spectral profiles of the analytes are heavily overlapped with the background in environmental samples. The obtained average recoveries for ATR, AME and PRO are 99.7±1.5, 98.4±4.7 and 97.0±4.4% in soil samples, 100.1±3.2, 100.7±3.4 and 96.4±3.8% in river sediment samples, and 100.1±3.5, 101.8±4.2 and 101.4±3.6% in wastewater samples, respectively. Furthermore, the accuracy and precision of the proposed method are evaluated with the elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) test. It lights a new avenue to determine quantitatively herbicides in environmental samples with a simple pretreatment procedure and provides the scientific basis for an improved environment management through a better understanding of the wastewater-soil-river sediment system as a whole. PMID:20869500

  7. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  8. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  9. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  10. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  11. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  12. First-order inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  13. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Multiple ordering in magnetite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, J. R.; Callen, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a self-consistent band calculation of the ground-state energy and charge orderings based on a tight-binding scheme in magnetite are presented. They show that below a critical (about 2.2) value of the ratio of interatomic Coulomb energy to bandwidth the lowest energy state has no order. Between this critical value and 2.5, the preferred state is multiply ordered.

  15. After order 636

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, M.G.

    1995-02-01

    Through its Order 636, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) completed a restructuring of the natural gas industry. The order severed the last links in the chain linking gas producers to pipeline companies to local gas distribution companies (LDCs) to customers. Before Order 636 took effect, many predicted electric power generation, particularly by cogenerators and independent power producers (IPPs), would be a major growth area for natural gas. In fact, what Order 636 has shown is, that timing is everything, and that it`s difficult to sort out the effect of one agent of change when many others are at work.

  16. Order, Disorder and Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.; Pica, C.

    2006-01-12

    Studying the order of the chiral transition for Nf = 2 is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of color confinement. We present results of a numerical investigation on the order of the transition by use of a novel strategy in finite size scaling analysis. The specific heat and a number of susceptibilities are compared with the possible critical behaviours. A second order transition in the O(4) and O(2) universality classes are excluded. Substantial evidence emerges for a first order transition. Results are in agreement with those found by studying the scaling properties of a disorder parameter related to the dual superconductivity mechanism of color confinement.

  17. Bioregions and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakthrough, 1985

    1985-01-01

    What bioregions can do to contribute to world order and security is discussed in this newsletter. A bioregion is defined as an identifiable geographical area of interacting life-systems that is relatively self-sustaining in the ever-renewing processes of nature. Articles included are: "Bioregionalism and World Order" (Gerald Mische); "Bioregions:…

  18. ASDC Order Tools

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-04-17

    ... users to search our data holdings without logging in to the system. The user, however, must log in before ordering the data. ... Reverb, developed by Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS), gives the user community an improved search and order ...

  19. Visual perception of order-disorder transition

    PubMed Central

    Katkov, Mikhail; Harris, Hila; Sagi, Dov

    2015-01-01

    Our experience with the natural world, as composed of ordered entities, implies that perception captures relationships between image parts. For instance, regularities in the visual scene are rapidly identified by our visual system. Defining the regularities that govern perception is a basic, unresolved issue in neuroscience. Mathematically, perfect regularities are represented by symmetry (perfect order). The transition from ordered configurations to completely random ones has been extensively studied in statistical physics, where the amount of order is characterized by a symmetry-specific order parameter. Here we applied tools from statistical physics to study order detection in humans. Different sets of visual textures, parameterized by the thermodynamic temperature in the Boltzmann distribution, were designed. We investigated how much order is required in a visual texture for it to be discriminated from random noise. The performance of human observers was compared to Ideal and Order observers (based on the order parameter). The results indicated a high consistency in performance across human observers, much below that of the Ideal observer, but well-approximated by the Order observer. Overall, we provide a novel quantitative paradigm to address order perception. Our findings, based on this paradigm, suggest that the statistical physics formalism of order captures regularities to which the human visual system is sensitive. An additional analysis revealed that some order perception properties are captured by traditional texture discrimination models according to which discrimination is based on integrated energy within maps of oriented linear filters. PMID:26113826

  20. Second order Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espin, Johnny; Krasnov, Kirill

    2015-06-01

    It is known, though not commonly, that one can describe fermions using a second order in derivatives Lagrangian instead of the first order Dirac one. In this description the propagator is scalar, and the complexity is shifted to the vertex, which contains a derivative operator. In this paper we rewrite the Lagrangian of the fermionic sector of the Standard Model in such second order form. The new Lagrangian is extremely compact, and is obtained from the usual first order Lagrangian by integrating out all primed (or dotted) 2-component spinors. It thus contains just half of the 2-component spinors that appear in the usual Lagrangian, which suggests a new perspective on unification. We sketch a natural in this framework SU (2) × SU (4) ⊂ SO (9) unified theory.

  1. Court Ordered Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the court ordered desegregation plans, on trends in segregation and white flight, are estimated. The effect of availability of school districts and other factors on the white flight across districts is also mentioned.

  2. 'Good palliative care' orders.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, I

    1993-01-01

    A Select Committee of the Parliament of South Australia, considering revisions to legislation governing care of the dying, did not support allowing doctors to assist suicide. They recommended that no liability attach to the provision of reasonable palliative care which happens to shorten life. The Committee affirmed the suggestion that positive open orders to provide 'good palliative care' should replace 'do not resuscitate' orders. PMID:7506978

  3. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    PubMed

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.' PMID:27242648

  4. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order. PMID:24479023

  5. Arguments from Developmental Order

    PubMed Central

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  6. Concomitant Ordering and Symmetry Lowering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, William O. J.; Mattern, Daniell L.

    2008-01-01

    Examples of concomitant ordering include magnetic ordering, Jahn-Teller cooperative ordering, electronic ordering, ionic ordering, and ordering of partially-filled sites. Concomitant ordering sets in when a crystal is cooled and always lowers the degree of symmetry of the crystal. Concomitant ordering concepts can also be productively applied to…

  7. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  8. The Order Pseudonocardiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Order Pseudonocardiales is made of up a single family Pseudonocardiaceae which forms a distinct cluster between the Frankineae and Streptomycineae when members of the taxa are subjected to 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The family contains 26 genera including Pseudonocardia, Actinoalloteic...

  9. Memory for Serial Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Murdock, Bennet B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An extension to Murdock's Theory of Distributed Associative Memory, based on associative chaining between items, is presented. The extended theory is applied to several serial order phenomena, including serial list learning, delayed recall effects, partial report effects, and buildup and release from proactive interference. (TJH)

  10. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  11. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  12. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on two recent molecular analyses, augmented by the discovery of several published or unpublished novel morphological synapomorphies, a new classification is proposed for the order Lepidoptera. The new classification is more consistent with our growing knowledge of the phylogeny of the group an...

  13. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  14. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  15. Audiotactile temporal order judgments.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Brown, Timothy; Shore, David I; Maravita, Angelo; Röder, Brigitte; Spence, Charles

    2005-03-01

    We report a series of three experiments in which participants made unspeeded 'Which modality came first?' temporal order judgments (TOJs) to pairs of auditory and tactile stimuli presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. The stimuli were presented from either the same or different locations in order to explore the potential effect of redundant spatial information on audiotactile temporal perception. In Experiment 1, the auditory and tactile stimuli had to be separated by nearly 80 ms for inexperienced participants to be able to judge their temporal order accurately (i.e., for the just noticeable difference (JND) to be achieved), no matter whether the stimuli were presented from the same or different spatial positions. More experienced psychophysical observers (Experiment 2) also failed to show any effect of relative spatial position on audiotactile TOJ performance, despite having much lower JNDs (40 ms) overall. A similar pattern of results was found in Experiment 3 when silent electrocutaneous stimulation was used rather than vibrotactile stimulation. Thus, relative spatial position seems to be a less important factor in determining performance for audiotactile TOJ than for other modality pairings (e.g., audiovisual and visuotactile). PMID:15698825

  16. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  17. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  18. Periodicity of high-order neural functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellaway, P.; Borda, R. P.; Frost, J. D.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Coats, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    The results of recent studies on higher order, integrative processes in the central nervous system are reported. Attempts were made to determine whether these processes exhibit any ongoing rhythmicity which might manifest itself in alterations of attention and alertness. Experiments were also designed to determine if a periodicity approximating that of the REM could be detected in various parameters of brain electrical activity.

  19. Fractional order junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, J. Tenreiro

    2015-01-01

    Gottfried Leibniz generalized the derivation and integration, extending the operators from integer up to real, or even complex, orders. It is presently recognized that the resulting models capture long term memory effects difficult to describe by classical tools. Leon Chua generalized the set of lumped electrical elements that provide the building blocks in mathematical models. His proposal of the memristor and of higher order elements broadened the scope of variables and relationships embedded in the development of models. This paper follows the two directions and proposes a new logical step, by generalizing the concept of junction. Classical junctions interconnect system elements using simple algebraic restrictions. Nevertheless, this simplistic approach may be misleading in the presence of unexpected dynamical phenomena and requires including additional "parasitic" elements. The novel γ -junction includes, as special cases, the standard series and parallel connections and allows a new degree of freedom when building models. The proposal motivates the search for experimental and real world manifestations of the abstract conjectures.

  20. Computerized Physician Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Raman; Yen, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has been promoted as an important component of patient safety, quality improvement, and modernization of medical practice. In practice, however, CPOE affects health care delivery in complex ways, with benefits as well as risks. Every implementation of CPOE is associated with both generally recognized and unique local factors that can facilitate or confound its rollout, and neurohospitalists will often be at the forefront of such rollouts. In this article, we review the literature on CPOE, beginning with definitions and proceeding to comparisons to the standard of care. We then proceed to discuss clinical decision support systems, negative aspects of CPOE, and cultural context of CPOE implementation. Before concluding, we follow the experiences of a Chief Medical Information Officer and neurohospitalist who rolled out a CPOE system at his own health care organization and managed the resulting workflow changes and setbacks. PMID:24381708

  1. Birth order and myopia

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A.; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A.; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L.; Williams, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in 4 subject groups. Methods Subject groups were participants in 1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N=4,401), 2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N=1,959), 3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N=1,344), and 4) Israeli Defense Force recruitment candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N=888,277). Main outcome: Odds ratio (OR) for myopia in first born versus non-first born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. Results The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first born versus fourth or higher born comparison than for the first born versus second/third born comparison (P<0.001) and (b) with increasing myopia severity (P<0.001). Conclusions Across all studies, the increased risk of myopia in first born individuals was low (OR <1.3). Indeed, only the studies with >4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism. PMID:24168726

  2. Order without design.

    PubMed

    Kurakin, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent) is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and their constituents. PMID

  3. Order without design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Experimental reality in molecular and cell biology, as revealed by advanced research technologies and methods, is manifestly inconsistent with the design perspective on the cell, thus creating an apparent paradox: where do order and reproducibility in living systems come from if not from design? I suggest that the very idea of biological design (whether evolutionary or intelligent) is a misconception rooted in the time-honored and thus understandably precious error of interpreting living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics and equilibrium thermodynamics. This error, introduced by the founders and perpetuated due to institutionalization of science, is responsible for the majority of inconsistencies, contradictions, and absurdities plaguing modern sciences, including one of the most startling paradoxes - although almost everyone agrees that any living organization is an open nonequilibrium system of continuous energy/matter flow, almost everyone interprets and models living systems/organizations in terms of classical mechanics, equilibrium thermodynamics, and engineering, i.e., in terms and concepts that are fundamentally incompatible with the physics of life. The reinterpretation of biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies in terms of open nonequilibrium organizations of energy/matter flow suggests that, in the domain of life, order and reproducibility do not come from design. Instead, they are natural and inevitable outcomes of self-organizing activities of evolutionary successful, and thus persistent, organizations co-evolving on multiple spatiotemporal scales as biomolecules, cells, organisms, ecosystems, and societies. The process of self-organization on all scales is driven by economic competition, obeys empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and is facilitated and, thus, accelerated by memories of living experience persisting in the form of evolutionary successful living organizations and their constituents. PMID

  4. 40 CFR 305.27 - Accelerated order, order to dismiss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accelerated order, order to dismiss... Prehearing Procedures § 305.27 Accelerated order, order to dismiss. (a) General. The Presiding Officer, upon motion of any party or sua sponte, may at any time render an accelerated order in favor of the...

  5. 48 CFR 53.216-1 - Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). 53.216-1 Section 53.216-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). OF 347, Order for Supplies or Services. OF 347, prescribed in 53.213(f), (or an approved agency form) may be used to place orders...

  6. Detective Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris Hills Regional School District, Rockaway, NJ.

    Intended for reluctant readers as well as for readers with a special interest in detective stories, this high school English course consists of the following eight units: the history of detective fiction, the psychology of violent crime, crime and society, the procedures of crime detection, the mind of the detective, analysis of the detective…

  7. Oligorotaxane Radicals under Orders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuping; Frasconi, Marco; Liu, Wei-Guang; Sun, Junling; Wu, Yilei; Nassar, Majed S; Botros, Youssry Y; Goddard, William A; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-02-24

    A strategy for creating foldameric oligorotaxanes composed of only positively charged components is reported. Threadlike components-namely oligoviologens-in which different numbers of 4,4'-bipyridinium (BIPY(2+)) subunits are linked by p-xylylene bridges, are shown to be capable of being threaded by cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)) rings following the introduction of radical-pairing interactions under reducing conditions. UV/vis/NIR spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations suggest that the reduced oligopseudorotaxanes fold into highly ordered secondary structures as a result of the formation of BIPY(•+) radical cation pairs. Furthermore, by installing bulky stoppers at each end of the oligopseudorotaxanes by means of Cu-free alkyne-azide cycloadditions, their analogous oligorotaxanes, which retain the same stoichiometries as their progenitors, can be prepared. Solution-state studies of the oligorotaxanes indicate that their mechanically interlocked structures lead to the enforced interactions between the dumbbell and ring components, allowing them to fold (contract) in their reduced states and unfold (expand) in their fully oxidized states as a result of Coulombic repulsions. This electrochemically controlled reversible folding and unfolding process, during which the oligorotaxanes experience length contractions and expansions, is reminiscent of the mechanisms of actuation associated with muscle fibers. PMID:27163033

  8. Oligorotaxane Radicals under Orders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A strategy for creating foldameric oligorotaxanes composed of only positively charged components is reported. Threadlike components—namely oligoviologens—in which different numbers of 4,4′-bipyridinium (BIPY2+) subunits are linked by p-xylylene bridges, are shown to be capable of being threaded by cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) rings following the introduction of radical-pairing interactions under reducing conditions. UV/vis/NIR spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations suggest that the reduced oligopseudorotaxanes fold into highly ordered secondary structures as a result of the formation of BIPY•+ radical cation pairs. Furthermore, by installing bulky stoppers at each end of the oligopseudorotaxanes by means of Cu-free alkyne–azide cycloadditions, their analogous oligorotaxanes, which retain the same stoichiometries as their progenitors, can be prepared. Solution-state studies of the oligorotaxanes indicate that their mechanically interlocked structures lead to the enforced interactions between the dumbbell and ring components, allowing them to fold (contract) in their reduced states and unfold (expand) in their fully oxidized states as a result of Coulombic repulsions. This electrochemically controlled reversible folding and unfolding process, during which the oligorotaxanes experience length contractions and expansions, is reminiscent of the mechanisms of actuation associated with muscle fibers. PMID:27163033

  9. 14 CFR 13.20 - Orders of compliance, cease and desist orders, orders of denial, and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orders of compliance, cease and desist orders, orders of denial, and other orders. 13.20 Section 13.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.20 Orders...

  10. Isotropic sequence order learning.

    PubMed

    Porr, Bernd; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2003-04-01

    In this article, we present an isotropic unsupervised algorithm for temporal sequence learning. No special reward signal is used such that all inputs are completely isotropic. All input signals are bandpass filtered before converging onto a linear output neuron. All synaptic weights change according to the correlation of bandpass-filtered inputs with the derivative of the output. We investigate the algorithm in an open- and a closed-loop condition, the latter being defined by embedding the learning system into a behavioral feedback loop. In the open-loop condition, we find that the linear structure of the algorithm allows analytically calculating the shape of the weight change, which is strictly heterosynaptic and follows the shape of the weight change curves found in spike-time-dependent plasticity. Furthermore, we show that synaptic weights stabilize automatically when no more temporal differences exist between the inputs without additional normalizing measures. In the second part of this study, the algorithm is is placed in an environment that leads to closed sensor-motor loop. To this end, a robot is programmed with a prewired retraction reflex reaction in response to collisions. Through isotropic sequence order (ISO) learning, the robot achieves collision avoidance by learning the correlation between his early range-finder signals and the later occurring collision signal. Synaptic weights stabilize at the end of learning as theoretically predicted. Finally, we discuss the relation of ISO learning with other drive reinforcement models and with the commonly used temporal difference learning algorithm. This study is followed up by a mathematical analysis of the closed-loop situation in the companion article in this issue, "ISO Learning Approximates a Solution to the Inverse-Controller Problem in an Unsupervised Behavioral Paradigm" (pp. 865-884). PMID:12689389

  11. Do-not-resuscitate order

    MedlinePlus

    ... order; DNR; DNR order; Advance care directive - DNR; Health care agent - DNR; Health care proxy - DNR; End-of-life - DNR; Living ... medical order written by a doctor. It instructs health care providers not to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) ...

  12. 49 CFR 453.3 - Detention orders and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention orders and other orders. 453.3 Section 453.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.3 Detention orders and other orders. (a) The terms of...

  13. 49 CFR 453.3 - Detention orders and other orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Detention orders and other orders. 453.3 Section 453.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT § 453.3 Detention orders and other orders. (a) The terms of...

  14. 48 CFR 53.216-1 - Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delivery orders and orders under basic ordering agreements (OF 347). 53.216-1 Section 53.216-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.216-1 Delivery orders and orders under...

  15. Specific RNA binding to ordered phospholipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Janas, Tadeusz; Janas, Teresa; Yarus, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We have studied RNA binding to vesicles bounded by ordered and disordered phospholipid membranes. A positive correlation exists between bilayer order and RNA affinity. In particular, structure-dependent RNA binding appears for rafted (liquid-ordered) domains in sphingomyelin-cholesterol-1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine vesicles. Binding to more highly ordered gel phase membranes is stronger, but much less RNA structure-dependent. All modes of RNA-membrane association seem to be electrostatic and headgroup directed. Fluorometry on 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes indicates that bound RNA broadens the gel-fluid melting transition, and reduces lipid headgroup order, as detected via fluorometric measurement of intramembrane electric fields. RNA preference for rafted lipid was visualized and confirmed using multiple fluorophores that allow fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy on RNA molecules closely associated with ordered lipid patches within giant vesicles. Accordingly, both RNA structure and membrane order could modulate biological RNA–membrane interactions. PMID:16641318

  16. Fault detection and isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernath, Greg

    1994-01-01

    In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

  17. Detective Scientist

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA has many detectives looking for clues to solve a mystery, like "science detective" Monsi Roman. She is making sure the water and air on board the International Space Station are safe for the a...

  18. Topology in Ordered Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Toyoki; Oda, Migaku; Asano, Yasuhiro; Yakubo, Kousuke

    2006-08-01

    .]. Nanofibers of hydrogen storage alloy / I. Saita ... [et al.]. Synthesis of stable icosahedral quasicrystals in Zn-Sc based alloys and their magnetic properties / S. Kashimoto and T. Ishimasa. One-armed spiral wave excited by eam pressure in accretion disks in Be/X-Ray binaries / K. Hayasaki and A. T. Okazaki -- IV. Topological defects and excitations. Topological excitations in the ground state of charge density wave systems / P. Monceau. Soliton transport in nanoscale charge-density-wave systems / K. Inagaki, T. Toshima and S. Tanda. Topological defects in triplet superconductors UPt3, Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol], etc. / K. Maki ... [et al.]. Microscopic structure of vortices in type II superconductors / K. Machida ... [et al.]. Microscopic neutron investigation of the Abrikosov state of high-temperature superconductors / J. Mesot. Energy dissipation at nano-scale topological defects of high-Tc superconductors: microwave study / A. Maeda. Pressure induced topological phase transition in the heavy Fermion compound CeAl[symbol] / H. Miyagawa ... [et al.]. Explanation for the unusual orientation of LSCO square vortex lattice in terms of nodal superconductivity / M. Oda. Local electronic states in Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]CaCu[symbol]O[symbol] / A. Hashimoto ... [et al.] -- V. Topology in quantum phenomena. Topological vortex formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate of alkali-metal atoms / M. Nakahara. Quantum phase transition of [symbol]He confined in nano-porous media / K. Shirahama, K. Yamamoto and Y. Shibayama. A new mean-field theory for Bose-Einstein condensates / T. Kita. Spin current in topological cristals / Y. Asano. Antiferromagnetic defects in non-magnetic hidden order of the heavy-electron system URu[symbol]Si[symbol] / H. Amitsuka, K. Tenya and M. Yokoyama. Magnetic-field dependences of thermodynamic quantities in the vortex state of Type-II superconductors / K. Watanabe, T. Kita and M. Arai. Three-magnon-mediated nuclear spin relaxation in quantum ferrimagnets of topological

  19. Order sets utilization in a clinical order entry system.

    PubMed

    Cowden, Daniel; Barbacioru, Catalin; Kahwash, Eiad; Saltz, Joel

    2003-01-01

    An order set is a predefined template that has been utilized in the standard care of hospitals for many years. While in the past, it took the form of pen and paper, today, it is, indeed, electronic. Within order sets are distinct ordering patterns that may yield fruitful results for clinicians and informaticians, alike. Protocols like there electronic counterpart, order sets, provide an 'indication' identifying the clinical scenario of the patient's condition when the ordering event occurred. This 'indication' is rarely captured by individual orders, and provides difficult challenges to developers of information systems. While mandating an 'indication' be entered for every medication or lab order makes the job much more tasking on the physician provider, it is appealing to researchers and accountants. We have attempted to bypasses that consideration by identifying ordering patterns that predict diagnostic related codes (DRGs) and diagnostic codes which would greatly facilitate the information gathering process and still provide a flexible and user friendly physician interface. PMID:14728324

  20. Protective orders: questions and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert; Faragher, Teri Marie

    2006-07-01

    Current media portrayal of protective orders is often negative, focusing on weaknesses in how protective orders are obtained and enforced. This review of research findings on protective orders examines issues and suggests areas in need of future research to clarify and improve public policy. More specifically, this review has five main objectives: (a) to provide background information about partner violence and the need for protective orders; (b) to describe what protective orders are, how many women obtain them, and the advantages and disadvantages of obtaining protective orders; (c) to examine characteristics of women who seek protective orders; (d) to explore research on whether protective orders actually increase women's safety; and (e) to highlight opportunities and gaps in the practice and research literature regarding the use of protective orders for women with violent partners or ex-partners. PMID:16785286

  1. Multiple-order staircase etalon spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetzbacher, M. K.; Miller, C. W.; Boudreau, A. J.; Christophersen, M.; Deprenger, M. J.

    2014-05-01

    Traditional Fabry-Perot (FP) spectroscopy is bandwidth limited to avoid mixing signals from different transmission orders of the interferometer. Unlike Fourier transformation, the extraction of spectra from multiple-order interferograms resulting from multiplexed optical signals is in general an ill-posed problem. Using a Fourier transform approach, we derive a generalized Nyquist limit appropriate to signal recovery from FP interferograms. This result is used to derive a set of design rules giving the usable wavelength range and spectral resolution of FP interferometers or etalon arrays given a set of accessible physical parameters. Numerical simulations verify the utility of these design rules for moderate resolution spectroscopy with bandwidths limited by the detector spectral response. Stable and accurate spectral recovery over more than one octave is accomplished by simple matrix multiplication of the interferogram. In analogy to recently developed single-order micro-etalon arrays (Proc. of SPIE v.8266, no. 82660Q), we introduce Multiple-Order Staircase Etalon Spectroscopy (MOSES), in which micro-arrays of multiple order etalons can be bonded to or co-fabricated with a sensor array. MOSES enables broader bandwidth multispectral and hyperspectral instruments than single-order etalon arrays while keeping a physical footprint insignificantly different from that of the detection array.

  2. Symmetry of charge order in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comin, R.; Sutarto, R.; He, F.; da Silva Neto, E. H.; Chauviere, L.; Fraño, A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W. N.; Bonn, D. A.; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Achkar, A. J.; Hawthorn, D. G.; Keimer, B.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Damascelli, A.

    2015-08-01

    Charge-ordered ground states permeate the phenomenology of 3d-based transition metal oxides, and more generally represent a distinctive hallmark of strongly correlated states of matter. The recent discovery of charge order in various cuprate families has fuelled new interest into the role played by this incipient broken symmetry within the complex phase diagram of high-Tc superconductors. Here, we use resonant X-ray scattering to resolve the main characteristics of the charge-modulated state in two cuprate families: Bi2Sr2-xLaxCuO6+δ (Bi2201) and YBa2Cu3O6+y (YBCO). We detect no signatures of spatial modulations along the nodal direction in Bi2201, thus clarifying the inter-unit-cell momentum structure of charge order. We also resolve the intra-unit-cell symmetry of the charge-ordered state, which is revealed to be best represented by a bond order with modulated charges on the O-2p orbitals and a prominent d-wave character. These results provide insights into the origin and microscopic description of charge order in cuprates, and its interplay with superconductivity.

  3. Symmetry of charge order in cuprates.

    PubMed

    Comin, R; Sutarto, R; He, F; da Silva Neto, E H; Chauviere, L; Fraño, A; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Bonn, D A; Yoshida, Y; Eisaki, H; Achkar, A J; Hawthorn, D G; Keimer, B; Sawatzky, G A; Damascelli, A

    2015-08-01

    Charge-ordered ground states permeate the phenomenology of 3d-based transition metal oxides, and more generally represent a distinctive hallmark of strongly correlated states of matter. The recent discovery of charge order in various cuprate families has fuelled new interest into the role played by this incipient broken symmetry within the complex phase diagram of high-T(c) superconductors. Here, we use resonant X-ray scattering to resolve the main characteristics of the charge-modulated state in two cuprate families: Bi2Sr(2-x)La(x)CuO(6+δ) (Bi2201) and YBa2Cu3O(6+y) (YBCO). We detect no signatures of spatial modulations along the nodal direction in Bi2201, thus clarifying the inter-unit-cell momentum structure of charge order. We also resolve the intra-unit-cell symmetry of the charge-ordered state, which is revealed to be best represented by a bond order with modulated charges on the O-2p orbitals and a prominent d-wave character. These results provide insights into the origin and microscopic description of charge order in cuprates, and its interplay with superconductivity. PMID:26006005

  4. Olson Order of Quantum Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvurečenskij, Anatolij

    2016-07-01

    M.P. Olson, Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 28, 537-544 (1971) showed that the system of effect operators of the Hilbert space can be ordered by the so-called spectral order such that the system of effect operators is a complete lattice. Using his ideas, we introduce a partial order, called the Olson order, on the set of bounded observables of a complete lattice effect algebra. We show that the set of bounded observables is a Dedekind complete lattice.

  5. Structural order in glassy water.

    PubMed

    Giovambattista, Nicolas; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Sciortino, Francesco; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-06-01

    We investigate structural order in glassy water by performing classical molecular dynamics simulations using the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model of water. We perform isochoric cooling simulations across the glass transition temperature at different cooling rates and densities. We quantify structural order by orientational and translational order metrics. Upon cooling the liquid into the glassy state, both the orientational order parameter Q and translational order parameter tau increase. At T=0 K, the glasses fall on a line in the Q-tau plane or order map. The position of this line depends only on density and coincides with the location in the order map of the inherent structures (IS) sampled upon cooling. We evaluate the energy of the IS, eIS(T), and find that both order parameters for the IS are proportional to eIS. We also study the structural order during the transformation of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) to high-density amorphous ice (HDA) upon isothermal compression and are able to identify distinct regions in the order map corresponding to these glasses. Comparison of the order parameters for LDA and HDA with those obtained upon isochoric cooling indicates major structural differences between glasses obtained by cooling and glasses obtained by compression. These structural differences are only weakly reflected in the pair correlation function. We also characterize the evolution of structural order upon isobaric annealing, leading at high pressure to very-high density amorphous ice (VHDA). PMID:16089741

  6. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623

  7. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  8. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  9. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  10. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.16 Order. Order...

  12. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  13. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  14. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.18 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.18 Order. Order...

  17. 40 CFR 305.27 - Accelerated order, order to dismiss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accelerated order, order to dismiss. 305.27 Section 305.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE,...

  18. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  19. Ordering within Moral Orders to Manage Classroom Trouble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Catherine; McGregor, Rowena; Shield, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how classroom trouble warranting teacher intervention can stem from transgressions in different layers of the complex moral order regulating classroom interactions. The paper builds from Durkheim's treatment of schooling as the institution responsible for the inculcation of a shared moral order, Bernstein's distinction…

  20. Surface melting of electronic order.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S. B.; Liu, X.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Ryan, P. J.; Mitchell, J. F.; Hill, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We report temperature-dependent surface x-ray scattering studies of the orbital ordered surface in La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}MnO{sub 4}. We find that as the bulk ordering temperature is approached from below the thickness of the interface between the electronically ordered and electronically disordered regions at the surface grows, though the bulk correlation length remains unchanged. Close to the transition, the surface is so rough that there is no well-defined electronic surface, despite the presence of bulk electronic order. That is, the electronic ordering at the surface has melted. Above the bulk transition, long-range ordering in the bulk is destroyed but finite-sized isotropic fluctuations persist, with a correlation length roughly equal to that of the low-temperature in-plane surface correlation length.

  1. Order stars and stiff integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairer, Ernst; Wanner, Gerhard

    2000-12-01

    Order stars, introduced in G. Wanner, E. Hairer, S.P. Nørsett (Order stars and stability theorems, BIT 18 (1978) 475-489), have become a fundamental tool for the understanding of order and stability properties of numerical methods for stiff differential equations. This survey retraces their discovery and their principal achievements. We also sketch some later extensions and describe some recent developments.

  2. Symmetry of Magnetically Ordered Quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifshitz, Ron

    1998-03-01

    The notion of magnetic symmetry is reexamined in light of the recent observation of long-range magnetic order in icosahedral quasicrystals [Charrier et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4637 (1997)]. The relation between the symmetry of a magnetically ordered (periodic or quasiperiodic) crystal, given in terms of a ``spin space group,'' and its neutron diffraction diagram is established. In doing so, an outline of a symmetry classification scheme for magnetically ordered quasiperiodic crystals, is provided. Predictions are given for the expected diffraction patterns of magnetically ordered icosahedral crystals, provided their symmetry is well described by icosahedral spin space groups.

  3. Orientational order in disordered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, J. )

    1991-05-13

    Orientational order in weakly pinned Abrikosov flux lattices is studied, taking into account two heretofore neglected effects: dislocations and orientational couplings to the underlying lattice. Without orientational couplings, arbitrarily weak pinning destroys long-ranged orientational order for all spatial dimensions {ital d}{lt}4. Orientational couplings stabilize long-ranged orientational order. For fields along an axis of {ital fourfold} symmetry, {ital sixfold} (hexatic) orientational order is described by a random-field Ising model, and so does not occur in {ital d}=2 (thin films) but does in {ital d}=3 (bulk).

  4. Portable pathogen detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Milanovich, Fred P.; Brown, Steve B.; Vendateswaran, Kodumudi; Simon, Jonathan N.

    2005-06-14

    A portable pathogen detection system that accomplishes on-site multiplex detection of targets in biological samples. The system includes: microbead specific reagents, incubation/mixing chambers, a disposable microbead capture substrate, and an optical measurement and decoding arrangement. The basis of this system is a highly flexible Liquid Array that utilizes optically encoded microbeads as the templates for biological assays. Target biological samples are optically labeled and captured on the microbeads, which are in turn captured on an ordered array or disordered array disposable capture substrate and then optically read.

  5. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  6. Ordered transport and identification of particles

    DOEpatents

    Shera, E. Brooks

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for application of electrical field gradients to induce particle velocities to enable particle sequence and identification information to be obtained. Particle sequence is maintained by providing electroosmotic flow for an electrolytic solution in a particle transport tube. The transport tube and electrolytic solution are selected to provide an electroosmotic radius of >100 so that a plug flow profile is obtained for the electrolytic solution in the transport tube. Thus, particles are maintained in the same order in which they are introduced in the transport tube. When the particles also have known electrophoretic velocities, the field gradients introduce an electrophoretic velocity component onto the electroosmotic velocity. The time that the particles pass selected locations along the transport tube may then be detected and the electrophoretic velocity component calculated for particle identification. One particular application is the ordered transport and identification of labeled nucleotides sequentially cleaved from a strand of DNA.

  7. Ordered transport and identification of particles

    DOEpatents

    Shera, E.B.

    1993-05-11

    A method and apparatus are provided for application of electrical field gradients to induce particle velocities to enable particle sequence and identification information to be obtained. Particle sequence is maintained by providing electroosmotic flow for an electrolytic solution in a particle transport tube. The transport tube and electrolytic solution are selected to provide an electroosmotic radius of >100 so that a plug flow profile is obtained for the electrolytic solution in the transport tube. Thus, particles are maintained in the same order in which they are introduced in the transport tube. When the particles also have known electrophoretic velocities, the field gradients introduce an electrophoretic velocity component onto the electroosmotic velocity. The time that the particles pass selected locations along the transport tube may then be detected and the electrophoretic velocity component calculated for particle identification. One particular application is the ordered transport and identification of labeled nucleotides sequentially cleaved from a strand of DNA.

  8. Constructing higher-order hydrodynamics: The third order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamics can be formulated as the gradient expansion of conserved currents in terms of the fundamental fields describing the near-equilibrium fluid flow. In the relativistic case, the Navier-Stokes equations follow from the conservation of the stress-energy tensor to first order in derivatives. In this paper, we go beyond the presently understood second-order hydrodynamics and discuss the systematization of obtaining the hydrodynamic expansion to an arbitrarily high order. As an example of the algorithm that we present, we fully classify the gradient expansion at third order for neutral fluids in four dimensions, thus finding the most general next-to-leading-order corrections to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations in curved space-time. In doing so, we list 20 new transport coefficient candidates in the conformal case and 68 in the nonconformal case. As we do not consider any constraints that could potentially arise from the local entropy current analysis, this is the maximal possible set of neutral third-order transport coefficients. To investigate the physical implications of these new transport coefficients, we obtain the third-order corrections to the linear dispersion relations that describe the propagation of diffusion and sound waves in relativistic fluids. We also compute the corrections to the scalar (spin-2) two-point correlation function of the third-order stress-energy tensor. Furthermore, as an example of a nonlinear hydrodynamic flow, we calculate the third-order corrections to the energy density of a boost-invariant Bjorken flow. Finally, we apply our field theoretic results to the N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills fluid at infinite 't Hooft coupling and an infinite number of colors to find the values of five new linear combinations of the conformal transport coefficients.

  9. High-Order/Low-Order methods for ocean modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Christopher; Womeldorff, Geoff; Chacón, Luis; Knoll, Dana A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine a High Order/Low Order (HOLO) approach for a z-level ocean model and show that the traditional semi-implicit and split-explicit methods, as well as a recent preconditioning strategy, can easily be cast in the framework of HOLO methods. The HOLO formulation admits an implicit-explicit method that is algorithmically scalable and second-order accurate, allowing timesteps much larger than the barotropic time scale. We demonstrate how HOLO approaches, in particular the implicit-explicit method, can provide a solid route for ocean simulation to heterogeneous computing and exascale environments.

  10. Birth Order: Reconciling Conflicting Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the confluence model as a theory specifying the process by which the intellectual environment modifies intellectual development. Using this model, explores the contradiction between prediction of secular trends in test scores by trends in aggregate birth order and the lack of prediction of individual test scores by birth order using…

  11. Problem Order Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Cohen, William W.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    The order of problems presented to students is an important variable that affects learning effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that solving problems in a blocked order, in which all problems of one type are completed before the student is switched to the next problem type, results in less effective performance than does solving the problems…

  12. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  13. Tensions between Liberty and Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    2002-01-01

    Explores the issue of balancing liberty and order within the United States. Discusses the role of the Bill of Rights, focusing on the amendments in the document and the later amendments that ensure the liberty of U.S. citizens. Explains how order and liberty are ensured and includes discussion questions. (CMK)

  14. Light nuclei with improved order-by-order chiral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Pieter; Vary, James

    2015-10-01

    We present recent results for light nuclei obtained with improved NN interactions derived from chiral effective field theory up to N4LO. The many-body calculations are performed order-by-order in the chiral expansion. We show results for the ground state energies and the low-lying spectrum; in addition we discuss other observables such as magnetic and quadrupole moments. We discuss both the theoretical uncertainties due to the truncation of the chiral expansion, as well as the numerical uncertainties associated with the many-body method. Depending on the value chiral order, additional renormalization using the Similarity Renormalization Group is needed in order to improve numerical convergence of the many-body calculations. Supported by the US DOE grants DESC0008485 (SciDAC/NUCLEI) and DE-FG02-87ER40371. Computational resources provided by NERSC (supported by US DOE contract DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  15. Mutation detection by chemical cleavage.

    PubMed

    Cotton, R G

    1999-02-01

    Detection and amplification of mutations in genes in a cheap, 100% effective manner is a major objective in modern molecular genetics. This ideal is some way away and many methods are used each of which have their own particular advantages and disadvantages. Sequencing is often thought of as the 'gold standard' for mutation detection. This perception is distorted due to the fact that this is the ONLY method of mutation identification but this does not mean it is the best for mutation detection. The fact that many scanning methods detect 5-10% of mutant molecules in a wild type environment immediately indicates these methods are advantageous over sequencing. One such method, the Chemical Cleavage method, is able to cut the costs of detecting a mutation on order of magnitude and guarantees mutation detection as evidenced by track record and the fact that each mutation has two chances of being detected. PMID:10084109

  16. Engineering charge ordering into multiferroicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan

    2016-04-01

    Multiferroic materials have attracted great interest but are rare in nature. In many transition-metal oxides, charge ordering and magnetic ordering coexist, so that a method of engineering charge-ordered materials into ferroelectric materials would lead to a large class of multiferroic materials. We propose a strategy for designing new ferroelectric or even multiferroic materials by inserting a spacing layer into each two layers of charge-ordered materials and artificially making a superlattice. One example of the model demonstrated here is the perovskite (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 (111) superlattice, in which the LaTiO3 layer acts as the donor and the spacing layer, and the LaFeO3 layer is half doped and performs charge ordering. The collaboration of the charge ordering and the spacing layer breaks the space inversion symmetry, resulting in a large ferroelectric polarization. As the charge ordering also leads to a ferrimagnetic structure, (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 is multiferroic. It is expected that this work can encourage the designing and experimental implementation of a large class of multiferroic structures with novel properties.

  17. Court-ordered obstetrical interventions.

    PubMed

    Kolder, V E; Gallagher, J; Parsons, M T

    1987-05-01

    In a national survey, we investigated the scope and circumstances of court-ordered obstetrical procedures in cases in which the women had refused therapy deemed necessary for the fetus. We also solicited the opinions of leading obstetricians regarding such cases. Court orders have been obtained for cesarean sections in 11 states, for hospital detentions in 2 states, and for intrauterine transfusions in 1 state. Among 21 cases in which court orders were sought, the orders were obtained in 86 percent; in 88 percent of those cases, the orders were received within six hours. Eighty-one percent of the women involved were black, Asian, or Hispanic, 44 percent were unmarried, and 24 percent did not speak English as their primary language. All the women were treated in a teaching-hospital clinic or were receiving public assistance. No important maternal morbidity or mortality was reported. Forty-six percent of the heads of fellowship programs in maternal-fetal medicine thought that women who refused medical advice and thereby endangered the life of the fetus should be detained. Forty-seven percent supported court orders for procedures such as intrauterine transfusions. We conclude from these data that court-ordered obstetrical procedures represent an important and growing problem that evokes sharply divided responses from faculty members in obstetrics. Such procedures are based on dubious legal grounds, and they may have far-reaching implications for obstetrical practice and maternal and infant health. PMID:3574370

  18. 7 CFR 1208.14 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.14 Order. Order means the Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order....

  19. 7 CFR 1208.14 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.14 Order. Order means the Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order....

  20. Second-order quasinormal mode of the Schwarzschild black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ioka, Kunihito

    2007-10-15

    We formulate and calculate the second-order quasinormal modes (QNMs) of a Schwarzschild black hole (BH). Gravitational waves (GW) from a distorted BH, the so-called ringdowns, are well understood as QNMs in general relativity. Since QNMs from binary BH mergers will be detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio by GW detectors, it is also possible to detect the second perturbative order of QNMs, generated by nonlinear gravitational interaction near the BH. In the BH perturbation approach, we derive the master Zerilli equation for the metric perturbation to second order and explicitly regularize it at the horizon and spatial infinity. We numerically solve the second-order Zerilli equation by implementing the modified Leaver continued fraction method. The second-order QNM frequencies are found to be twice the first-order ones, and the GW amplitude is up to {approx}10% that of the first order for the binary BH mergers. Since the second-order QNMs always exist, we can use their detections (i) to test the nonlinearity of general relativity, in particular, the no-hair theorem, (ii) to remove fake events in the data analysis of QNM GWs, and (iii) to measure the distance to the BH.

  1. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  2. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  3. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  4. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  5. 7 CFR 1218.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.12 Order....

  6. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  11. Mathematics Detective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry

    1997-01-01

    Presents 12 questions related to a given real-life situation about a man shaving and the number of hairs in his beard in order to help students see the connection between mathematics and the world around them. (ASK)

  12. Order, Chaos and All That!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of ideas about the concept of chaos is surveyed. Discussed are chaos in deterministic, dynamic systems; order in dissipative systems; and thermodynamics and irreversibility. Included are logistic and bifurcation maps to illustrate points made in the discussion. (CW)

  13. Birth Order and Vocational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1973-01-01

    Investigated birth order differences and the vocational interests of 150 male college students, making use of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Sibling sex and interaction effects were also investigated. (DP)

  14. Cation Ordering in Layered Nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Zhou, Hua; Cammarata, Antonio; Hoffman, Jason; Balachandran, Prasanna; Rondinelli, James; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2013-03-01

    The single layer Ruddlesden-Popper nickelates present a model system to understand how the effects of digital dopant cation ordering may affect the properties of 2-dimensional conducting sheets. We investigate the effects of aliovalent A-site cation order on LaSrNiO4 films. Using molecular beam epitaxy, we interleave full layers of SrO and LaO in a series of chemically equivalent films, varying the pattern of SrO and LaO layers relative to the NiO2 layers. Through synchrotron surface x-ray diffraction and Coherant Bragg Rod Analysis (COBRA), we directly investigate the A-site cation order and the resulting atomic displacements for each ordering pattern. We correlate these results with theoretical calculations and transport measurements of the layered nickelate films.

  15. Supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, K.; Liu, Q. P.

    2010-03-08

    This paper considers supersymmetric fifth order evolution equations. Within the framework of symmetry approach, we give a list containing six equations, which are (potentially) integrable systems. Among these equations, the most interesting ones include a supersymmetric Sawada-Kotera equation and a novel supersymmetric fifth order KdV equation. For the latter, we supply some properties such as a Hamiltonian structures and a possible recursion operator.

  16. Life from an orderly cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1980-12-01

    Recent astrophysical studies suggest a high degree of order in the inanimate universe, stemming from cosmic beginnings. This state is consistent with the nonrandomness observed experimentally in the thermal polymers of amino acids that figure as an early inanimate stage in organic evolution. The various stages in inanimate matter, protocells, and evolved cells and the degree of order that they represent comport with the second law of thermodynamics on a cosmic scale.

  17. Life from an orderly cosmos.

    PubMed

    Fox, S W

    1980-12-01

    Recent astrophysical studies suggest a high degree of order in the inanimate universe, stemming from cosmic beginnings. This state is consistent with the nonrandomness observed experimentally in the thermal polymers of amino acids that figure as an early inanimate stage in organic evolution. The various stages in inanimate matter, protocells, and evolved cells and the degree of order that they represent comport with the second law of thermodynamics on a cosmic scale. PMID:7231562

  18. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  19. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use. PMID:11696968

  20. Fingerprint detection

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, George C.

    1992-01-01

    A method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints is provided and includes contacting a substrate containing a latent print thereon with a colloidal metal composition for time sufficient to allow reaction of said colloidal metal composition with said latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print. Further, the method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints can include contacting the metal composition-latent print reaction product with a secondary metal-containing solution for time sufficient to allow precipitation of said secondary metal thereby enhancing the visibility of the latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print.

  1. Exploring intertwined orders in cuprate superconductors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tranquada, John M.

    2014-11-22

    In this study, the concept of intertwined orders has been introduced to describe the cooperative relationship between antiferromagnetic spin correlations and electron (or hole) pair correlations that develop in copper-oxide superconductors. This contrasts with systems in which, for example, charge-density-wave (CDW) order competes for Fermi surface area with superconductivity. La2-xBaxCuO4 with x = 0.125 provides an example in which the ordering of spin stripes coincides with the onset of two-dimensional superconducting correlations. The apparent frustration of the interlayer Josephson coupling has motivated the concept of the pair-density-wave superconductor, a state that theoretical calculations show to be energetically competitive with themore » uniform d-wave superconductor. Even at x = 0.095, where there is robust superconductivity below 32 K in zero field, the coexistence of strong, low-energy, incommensurate spin excitations implies a spatially modulated and intertwined pair wave function. Recent observations of CDW order in YBa2Cu3O6+x and other cuprate families have raised interesting questions regarding the general role of charge modulations and the relation to superconductivity. While there are differences in the doping dependence of the modulation wave vectors in YBa2Cu3O6+x and La2-xBaxCuO4, the maximum ordering strength is peaked at the hole concentration of 1/8 in both cases. There are also possible connections with the quantum oscillations that have been detected about the same hole concentration but at high magnetic fields. Resolving these relationships remains a research challenge.« less

  2. Exploring intertwined orders in cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Tranquada, John M.

    2014-11-22

    In this study, the concept of intertwined orders has been introduced to describe the cooperative relationship between antiferromagnetic spin correlations and electron (or hole) pair correlations that develop in copper-oxide superconductors. This contrasts with systems in which, for example, charge-density-wave (CDW) order competes for Fermi surface area with superconductivity. La2-xBaxCuO4 with x = 0.125 provides an example in which the ordering of spin stripes coincides with the onset of two-dimensional superconducting correlations. The apparent frustration of the interlayer Josephson coupling has motivated the concept of the pair-density-wave superconductor, a state that theoretical calculations show to be energetically competitive with the uniform d-wave superconductor. Even at x = 0.095, where there is robust superconductivity below 32 K in zero field, the coexistence of strong, low-energy, incommensurate spin excitations implies a spatially modulated and intertwined pair wave function. Recent observations of CDW order in YBa2Cu3O6+x and other cuprate families have raised interesting questions regarding the general role of charge modulations and the relation to superconductivity. While there are differences in the doping dependence of the modulation wave vectors in YBa2Cu3O6+x and La2-xBaxCuO4, the maximum ordering strength is peaked at the hole concentration of 1/8 in both cases. There are also possible connections with the quantum oscillations that have been detected about the same hole concentration but at high magnetic fields. Resolving these relationships remains a research challenge.

  3. Reduced Order Modeling in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiglio, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Reduced Order Modeling is an emerging yet fast developing filed in gravitational wave physics. The main goals are to enable fast modeling and parameter estimation of any detected signal, along with rapid matched filtering detecting. I will focus on the first two. Some accomplishments include being able to replace, with essentially no lost of physical accuracy, the original models with surrogate ones (which are not effective ones, that is, they do not simplify the physics but go on a very different track, exploiting the particulars of the waveform family under consideration and state of the art dimensional reduction techniques) which are very fast to evaluate. For example, for EOB models they are at least around 3 orders of magnitude faster than solving the original equations, with physically equivalent results. For numerical simulations the speedup is at least 11 orders of magnitude. For parameter estimation our current numbers are about bringing ~100 days for a single SPA inspiral binary neutron star Bayesian parameter estimation analysis to under a day. More recently, it has been shown that the full precessing problem for, say, 200 cycles, can be represented, through some new ideas, by a remarkably compact set of carefully chosen reduced basis waveforms (~10-100, depending on the accuracy requirements). I will highlight what I personally believe are the challenges to face next in this subarea of GW physics and where efforts should be directed. This talk will summarize work in collaboration with: Harbir Antil (GMU), Jonathan Blackman (Caltech), Priscila Canizares (IoA, Cambridge, UK), Sarah Caudill (UWM), Jonathan Gair (IoA. Cambridge. UK), Scott Field (UMD), Chad R. Galley (Caltech), Frank Herrmann (Germany), Han Hestahven (EPFL, Switzerland), Jason Kaye (Brown, Stanford & Courant). Evan Ochsner (UWM), Ricardo Nochetto (UMD), Vivien Raymond (LIGO, Caltech), Rory Smith (LIGO, Caltech) Bela Ssilagyi (Caltech) and MT (UMD & Caltech).

  4. Detection Apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H L

    1950-12-05

    This invention concerns a sensitive apparatus for detecting and counting neutrons, particularly neutrons liberated in an alpha, neutron reaction. The apparatus includes an improved ionization chamber structure together with an improved combination alpha-particle source and holder for the material under test.

  5. Detection device

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber, (2) a central chamber, and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  6. Detection device

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  7. Order-order transitions in ABC triblock nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong-Ren Chen; Kornfield, J.A.; Smith, S.; Satkowski, M.

    1996-12-31

    This report discusses a triblock copolymer of isoprene I, styrene S, and a random copolymer of styrene and isoprene. Optical methods are used to examine flow-induced alignment kinetics and final alignment state; nanostructures and global order are also studied.

  8. Using High-Order Methods on Lower-Order Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay

    1997-01-01

    The desire to obtain acoustic information from the numerical solution of a nonlinear system of equations is a demanding proposition for a computational algorithm. High-order accuracy is required for the propagation of high-frequency, low-amplitude waves. The accuracy of an algorithm can be compromised by low-order errors that naturally occur in the solution of a particular problem. Such errors arise from two sources: the presence of discontinuities in the flow field or because the geometry on which the problem is defined is not everywhere smooth to the order of the scheme. The performance of high-order accurate essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes on piecewise smooth solutions is well documented. Herein, the performance of these methods on smooth solutions defined on piecewise smooth geometries is investigated. The propagation of sound in a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle is considered as a test case. Some of the issues involved in the extension to two spatial dimensions are discussed.

  9. A Law of Order: Word Order Change in Classical Aztec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Susan M.

    1976-01-01

    The verb in Classical Aztec is slowly moving from the end of the sentence to the beginning due to the attraction of sentence initial modal particles to the verb. Not only the function but also the position of elements should be examined to account for word-order change. (SCC)

  10. Order-parameter scaling in fluctuation-dominated phase ordering.

    PubMed

    Kapri, Rajeev; Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Barma, Mustansir

    2016-01-01

    In systems exhibiting fluctuation-dominated phase ordering, a single order parameter does not suffice to characterize the order, and it is necessary to monitor a larger set. For hard-core sliding particles on a fluctuating surface and the related coarse-grained depth (CD) models, this set comprises the long-wavelength Fourier components of the density profile, which capture the breakup and remerging of particle-rich regions. We study both static and dynamic scaling laws obeyed by the Fourier modes Q_{mL} and find that the mean value obeys the static scaling law 〈Q_{mL}〉∼L^{-ϕ}f(m/L) with ϕ≃2/3 and ϕ≃3/5 for Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) surface evolution, respectively, and ϕ≃3/4 for the CD model. The full probability distribution P(Q_{mL}) exhibits scaling as well. Further, time-dependent correlation functions such as the steady-state autocorrelation and cross-correlations of order-parameter components are scaling functions of t/L^{z}, where L is the system size and z is the dynamic exponent, with z=2 for EW and z=3/2 for KPZ surface evolution. In addition we find that the CD model shows temporal intermittency, manifested in the dynamical structure functions of the density and the weak divergence of the flatness as the scaled time approaches 0. PMID:26871034

  11. High-order counting statistics and interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flindt, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Full counting statistics concerns the stochastic transport of electrons in mesoscopic structures [1]. Recently it has been shown that the charge transport statistics for noninteracting electrons in a two-terminal system is always generalized binomial: it can be decomposed into independent single-particle events, and the zeros of the generating function are real and negative [2]. In this talk I show how the zeros of the generating function move into the complex plane due to interactions and demonstrate how the positions of the zeros can be detected using high-order factorial cumulants [3]. As an illustrative example I discuss electron transport through a Coulomb blockade quantum dot for which the interactions on the quantum dot are clearly visible in the high-order factorial cumulants. These findings are important for understanding the influence of interactions on counting statistics, and the characterization in terms of zeros of the generating function provides a simple interpretation of recent experiments, where high-order statistics have been measured [4]. [4pt] [1] Yu. V. Nazarov, ed., Quantum Noise in Mesoscopic Physics, NATO Science Series, Vol. 97 (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2003) [2] A. G. Abanov and D. A. Ivanov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 086602 (2008), Phys. Rev. B 79, 205315 (2009) [3] D. Kambly, C. Flindt, and M. B"uttiker, Phys. Rev. B 83, 075432 (2011) -- Editors' Suggestion [4] C. Flindt, C. Fricke, F. Hohls, T. Novotn'y, K. Netocn'y, T. Brandes, and R. J. Haug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 10116 (2009)

  12. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, Matthew S.; Brake, Matthew R.W.

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  13. Temperature differential detection device

    DOEpatents

    Girling, Peter M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  14. Holographic particle detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Theodore

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of developing a novel particle track detector based on the detection of 1p-1s emission radiation from electron bubbles in liquid helium. The principles, design, construction, and initial testing of the detection system have been described in previous reports. The main obstacle encountered was the construction of the liquid-helium tight infrared windows. Despite numerous efforts in testing and redesigning the windows, the problem of window leakage at low temperature persisted. Due to limited time and resources, attention was switched to investigating the possibility of using room-temperature liquid as the detection medium. A possible mechanism was the detection of de-excitation radiation emitted from localized electrons in common liquids where electrons exhibit low mobilities, as suggested in the previous report. The purity of the liquid is critical in this method as the dissolved impurities (such as oxygen), even in trace amounts, will act as scavengers of electrons. Another mechanism is discussed whereby the formation of the superoxide ions by electron scavenging behavior of dissolved oxygen is exploited to detect the track of ionizing particles. An experiment to measure the ionization current produced in a liquid by a pulsed X-ray beam in order to study propertiies of the ions is also reported.

  15. Temperature differential detection device

    DOEpatents

    Girling, P.M.

    1986-04-22

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  16. Temporal order judgment in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Rusiak, Patrycja

    2008-01-01

    Hari et al. (Brain 174:1373-1380, 2001) demonstrated that dyslexics showed a sluggish attention capture in both visual hemifields. Additionally, they indicated a left-right asymmetry in the perception of temporal order of two visual stimuli (they performed worse than controls only if the stimulus in the left hemifield preceded that in right hemifield). They suggested that a left-sided minineglect is associated with dyslexia. We hypothesized that if a kind of neglect syndrome is responsible for the asymmetry they found, dyslexics should not only show a left-right asymmetry in temporal order judgment of two laterally presented stimuli but also perform equally well as controls when the stimuli are vertically aligned. Our results indicated that in both tasks dyslexics performed generally worse than normal readers. The results suggest that dyslexics suffer from a more general problem of order discrimination. PMID:17028891

  17. Ordering states with coherence measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. L.; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, G. F.; Tong, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    The quantification of quantum coherence has attracted a growing attention, and based on various physical contexts, several coherence measures have been put forward. An interesting question is whether these coherence measures give the same ordering when they are used to quantify the coherence of quantum states. In this paper, we consider the two well-known coherence measures, the l_1 norm of coherence and the relative entropy of coherence, to show that there are the states for which the two measures give a different ordering. Our analysis can be extended to other coherence measures, and as an illustration of the extension we further consider the formation of coherence to show that the l_1 norm of coherence and the formation of coherence, as well as the relative entropy of coherence and the coherence of formation, do not give the same ordering too.

  18. Judicial review of conservation orders

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Judicial review of orders issued by the Commissioner of Conservation may be sought under the authority of both Louisiana Revised Statutes 49:964 and Louisiana Revised Statutes 30:12. These statutes differ with respect to who may bring an action, the form of relief the reviewing court may grant, the scope of the evidence considered by the reviewing court, and the standards on the burden of proof. The application of laches under 30:12 is inconsistent with the 30-day delay periods provided by 49:964, and it is unworkable to the extent that it ignores the underlying need for finality of conservation orders. The continuing threat of subsequent court review destroys the credibility of the orders. Finality could be achieved under the current use of latches if a judicial determination established a definite length of reasonable delay. It is up to the legislature to correct the uncertainty introduced by 30:12. 91 references.

  19. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    PubMed

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradicted Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  20. Ordering Multiple Soft Gluon Emissions.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Martínez, René; Forshaw, Jeffrey R; Seymour, Michael H

    2016-05-27

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full color structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude. PMID:27284651

  1. High-order fluorescence fluctuation analysis of model protein clusters.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, A G; Thompson, N L

    1989-01-01

    The technique of high-order fluorescence fluctuation autocorrelation for detecting and characterizing protein oligomers was applied to solutions containing two fluorescent proteins in which the more fluorescent proteins were analogues for clusters of the less fluorescent ones. The results show that the model protein clusters can be detected for average numbers of observed subunits (free monomers plus monomers in oligomers) equal to 10-100 and for relative fluorescent yields that correspond to oligomers as small as trimers. High-order fluorescent fluctuation analysis may therefore be applicable to cell surface receptor clusters in natural or model membranes. PMID:2548201

  2. DNR Orders and School Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Angela Maynard; Balkman, Kathy

    This paper discusses the legal and ethical questions surrounding "Do Not Resuscitate" (DNR) orders in the school environment. It begins by reviewing federal and state case law that addresses the appropriateness of medical services and the responsibility of schools in terms of provision of medical services. The review finds that when medical-like…

  3. Generalized high order compact methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.; Kominiarczuk, Jakub

    2010-09-01

    The fundamental ideas of the high order compact method are combined with the generalized finite difference method. The result is a finite difference method that works on unstructured, nonuniform grids, and is more accurate than one would classically expect from the number of grid points employed.

  4. Suffix Ordering and Morphological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plag, Ingo; Baayen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate about the principles constraining the combinatorial properties of suffixes. Hay 2002 and Hay & Plag 2004 proposed a model in which suffixes can be ordered along a hierarchy of processing complexity. We show that this model generalizes to a larger set of suffixes, and we provide independent evidence supporting the…

  5. Peacekeeping. Perspectives in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, Jack R., Ed.; And Others

    This pamphlet, intended for senior high classroom use, defines war, peace, and peacekeeping systems; discusses the destructiveness of war; and proposes the case study method for studying world order. The major portion of the booklet explores ways of peacekeeping through analysis of four different models: collective security, collective force,…

  6. Moral Order and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that a society without reverence for myths and history inevitably falls prone to chaos and evil, pointing to abortion, Andy Warhol's celebrity, and Woodstock as evidence of this disintegration of society. Proposes that humanities education expose students to human experience based on some awesome and fixed moral order. (AYC)

  7. Nanoparticle Order through Entropic Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ren; Lee, Bongjoon; Stafford, Christopher; Douglas, Jack; Bockstaller, Michael; Karim, Alamgir

    As has been addressed in colloidal science, visual order transitions can be achieved with entropy contributions alone. Herein, entropy-driven ordering of nanoparticle (NP) structures is generated where entropy increase and visual order are achieved simultaneously. We study an ``athermal'' NP-polymer blends where NPs are densely grafted with polymer brush of the same chemical composition as the polymer matrix. Visual order of the NPs is induced by geometrically confining the thin film blends with meso-scale topographic patterns. When the residual layer thickness of the patterned blend films approaches the nanoparticle dimension, exclusive segregation of NPs to less confining imprinted mesa region occurs. This preferential segregation of NPs, defined by partition coefficient K = 0, is attributed to purely entropic penalty, where K denotes the particle density ratio at highly confined residual layer to that at mesa region. We further demonstrate K is fully tunable and even invertible with increasing matrix chain dimension. The associated entropic free energy change (ΔF = - ln K) is calculated to explain NP segregation preference. Accordingly, variation of residual layer thickness and polymer matrix molecule size can both affect NP distribution among patterned thick and thin regions.

  8. Spatial Processes in Linear Ordering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A -- B -- C -- D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial…

  9. Time ordering of gene coexpression.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiaoyan; Müller, Hans-Georg

    2006-10-01

    Temporal microarray gene expression profiles allow characterization of gene function through time dynamics of gene coexpression within the same genetic pathway. In this paper, we define and estimate a global time shift characteristic for each gene via least squares, inferred from pairwise curve alignments. These time shift characteristics of individual genes reflect a time ordering that is derived from ob- served temporal gene expression profiles. Once these time shift characteristics are obtained for each gene, they can be entered into further analyses, such as clustering. We illustrate the proposed methodology using Drosophila embryonic development and yeast cell-cycle gene expression profiles, as well as simulations. Feasibility is demonstrated through the successful recovery of time ordering. Estimated time shifts for Drosophila maternal and zygotic genes provide excellent discrimination between these two categories and confirm known genetic pathways through the time order of gene expression. The application to yeast cell-cycle data establishes a natural time order of genes that is in line with cell-cycle phases. The method does not require periodicity of gene expression profiles. Asymptotic justifications are also provided. PMID:16495429

  10. Macrojunctions ordering in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Gy; Lebedev, V. T.; Cser, L.; Buyanov, A. L.; Revelskaya, L. G.

    2000-03-01

    We studied the structure of polyelectrolyte hydrogels of sodium polyacrylate cross-linked by macromolecular allyldextran (supergels). Using high-resolution SANS we have found the specific ordering of macrojunctions (structure's period ∼130 nm) that may be reliable for the network's anomaly swelling.

  11. Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helenbrook, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    The details: a) Need stable numerical methods; b) Round off error can be considerable; c) Not convinced modes are correct for incompressible flow. Nonetheless, can derive compact and accurate reduced-order models. Can be used to generate actuator models or full flow-field models

  12. Weighted order statistic classifiers with large rank-order margin.

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R. B.; Hush, D. R.; Theiler, J. P.; Gokhale, M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe how Stack Filters and Weighted Order Statistic function classes can be used for classification problems. This leads to a new design criteria for linear classifiers when inputs are binary-valued and weights are positive . We present a rank-based measure of margin that can be directly optimized as a standard linear program and investigate its effect on generalization error with experiment. Our approach can robustly combine large numbers of base hypothesis and easily implement known priors through regularization.

  13. Symbols of a cosmic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  14. Higher order stationary subspace analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panknin, Danny; von Bünau, Paul; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Meinecke, Frank C.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-03-01

    Non-stationarity in data is an ubiquitous problem in signal processing. The recent stationary subspace analysis procedure (SSA) has enabled to decompose such data into a stationary subspace and a non-stationary part respectively. Algorithmically only weak non- stationarities could be tackled by SSA. The present paper takes the conceptual step generalizing from the use of first and second moments as in SSA to higher order moments, thus defining the proposed higher order stationary subspace analysis procedure (HOSSA). The paper derives the novel procedure and shows simulations. An obvious trade-off between the necessity of estimating higher moments and the accuracy and robustness with which they can be estimated is observed. In an ideal setting of plenty of data where higher moment information is dominating our novel approach can win against standard SSA. However, with limited data, even though higher moments actually dominate the underlying data, still SSA may arrive on par.

  15. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    Ordered intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides offer many advantages for structural use at high temperatures in hostile environments. Attractive properties include excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, light weight, and superior strength at high temperatures. The major concern for structural use of intermetallics was their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. For the past 10 years, considerable effort was devoted to R&D of ordered intermetallic alloys, and progress has been made on understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides. Parallel effort on alloy design has led to the development of a number of ductile and strong intermetallic alloys based on Ni{sub 3}Al, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, Ti{sub 3}Al, and TiAl systems for structural applications.

  16. Umbilic Lines in Orientational Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional orientational order in systems whose ground states possess nonzero gradients typically exhibits linelike structures or defects: λ lines in cholesterics or Skyrmion tubes in ferromagnets, for example. Here, we show that such lines can be identified as a set of natural geometric singularities in a unit vector field, the generalization of the umbilic points of a surface. We characterize these lines in terms of the natural vector bundles that the order defines and show that they give a way to localize and identify Skyrmion distortions in chiral materials—in particular, that they supply a natural representative of the Poincaré dual of the cocycle describing the topology. Their global structure leads to the definition of a self-linking number and helicity integral which relates the linking of umbilic lines to the Hopf invariant of the texture.

  17. Second-Order Footsteps Illusions

    PubMed Central

    Anstis, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In the “footsteps illusion”, light and dark squares travel at constant speed across black and white stripes. The squares appear to move faster and slower as their contrast against the stripes varies. We now demonstrate some second-order footsteps illusions, in which all edges are defined by colors or textures—even though luminance-based neural motion detectors are blind to such edges. PMID:27551366

  18. Second-Order Footsteps Illusions.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Akiyoshi; Anstis, Stuart

    2015-12-01

    In the "footsteps illusion", light and dark squares travel at constant speed across black and white stripes. The squares appear to move faster and slower as their contrast against the stripes varies. We now demonstrate some second-order footsteps illusions, in which all edges are defined by colors or textures-even though luminance-based neural motion detectors are blind to such edges. PMID:27551366

  19. Sight laser detection modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, Christophe; Deshors, Gilles; Lado-Bordowsky, Olga; Meyzonnette, Jean-Louis

    2003-08-01

    Since Sarajevo's sadly famous events (sniper alley), the military tried and hoped to detect snipers before they hit. The principle of the detection is based on the 'cat's eyes' effect according to which the light emitted by the system and incident on the sniper's sight reflects backward in the direction of the source. The system is thus composed of a laser emitter and a CCD array detector. Already existing equipment has been tested in operations and they present too low a probability of detection for the false alarm rate we want to reach. In order to specify equipment characteristics to industrials, it has been necessary to develop a sight laser detector model. The model presented here takes into account all the various elements of the system, from the laser emission to the CCD detection, and atmospheric propagation (ie attenuation and turbulence). The signal and noise probability density functions are calculated by combining the different elementary probability density functions encountered on the double-pass propagation. This Matlab coded model gives the probability of detection of the system for given geometrical (monostatic or bistatic) and electronic characteristics of the system and for a given probability of false alarms. In addition to this, measurements in the field made it possible to validate the budget link of the model and improve it. Those measurements also permitted to underline the importance of the target optical signature, namely its Laser Cross Section. The most significant parameters necessary to the validation of the model are measured. This study allows us to answer the question 'why is the probability of detection of existing systems too low and how could we increase it's efficiency?'

  20. Digital first order hold circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Fred N. (Inventor); Wensley, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    There is provided a digitally controlled first order hold circuit and waveform synthesizer for digitally controlling the representation of a function over an approximation interval. In accordance with the operation of the invention, the first order hold circuit and waveform generator receives a digital data input signal which contains initial condition data, up/down data, and slope data for the approximation interval. The initial condition data is loaded into an up/down counter which is incremented using counting data at a rate depending on the value of the slope data and in a direction depending on the value of the up-down data. In order to minimize delays arising from data acquistion, two frequency synthesizer circuits are provided such that one frequency synthesizer provides counting data while the other frequency synthesizer receives slope data. During alternating intervals, the other frequency synthesizer circuit provides counting data while the other circuit receives slope data. In addition, long length data input signals covering a plurality of approximation intervals are provided to reduce the demands on a main system central processing unit.

  1. RHO—Radiation Hybrid Ordering

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dor, Amir; Chor, Benny; Pelleg, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping is a somatic cell technique that is used for ordering markers along a chromosome and estimating the physical distances between them. With the advent of this mapping technique, analyzing the experimental data is becoming a challenging and demanding computational task. In this paper we present the software package RHO (radiation hybrid ordering). The package implements a number of heuristics that attempt to order genomic markers along a chromosome, given as input the results of an RH experiment. The heuristics are based on reducing an appropriate optimization problem to the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The reduced optimization problem is either the nonparametric obligate chromosome breaks (OCBs) or the parametric maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). We tested our package on both simulated and publicly available RH data. For synthetic RH data, the reconstructed markers' permutation is very close to the original permutation, even with fairly high error rates. For real data we used the framework markers' data from the Whitehead Institute maps. For most of the chromosomes (18 out of 23), there is a perfect agreement or nearly perfect agreement (reversal of chromosome arm or arms) between our maps and the Whitehead framework maps. For the remaining five chromosomes, our maps improve on the Whitehead framework maps with respect to both optimization criteria, having higher likelihood and fewer breakpoints. For three chromosomes, the results differ significantly (lod score >1.75), with chromosome 2 having the largest improvement (lod score 3.776). PMID:10720577

  2. Mycotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Anfossi, Laura; Giovannoli, Cristina; Baggiani, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites of certain fungi that growth on a variety of crops, pre-harvest, during and post-harvest. Because of their toxicity, maximum admissible levels of mycotoxins are regulated worldwide and monitoring of their occurrence in several commodities is mandatory for assuring food safety and consumers' health protection. Analytical methods for mycotoxins include immunochemical-based techniques that principally apply for routinely controls and rapid, on-site detection, and chromatographic-based techniques that provide sensitive, accurate and selective determination of known mycotoxins, besides identification of new or modified compounds through tandem mass spectrometric detectors. PMID:26723009

  3. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  4. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  5. 7 CFR 1214.12 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  6. Solar neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-04-30

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  7. Wake Signature Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spedding, Geoffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    An accumulated body of quantitative evidence shows that bluff-body wakes in stably stratified environments have an unusual degree of coherence and organization, so characteristic geometries such as arrays of alternating-signed vortices have very long lifetimes, as measured in units of buoyancy timescales, or in the downstream distance scaled by a body length. The combination of pattern geometry and persistence renders the detection of these wakes possible in principle. It now appears that identifiable signatures can be found from many disparate sources: Islands, fish, and plankton all have been noted to generate features that can be detected by climate modelers, hopeful navigators in open oceans, or hungry predators. The various types of wakes are reviewed with notes on why their signatures are important and to whom. A general theory of wake pattern formation is lacking and would have to span many orders of magnitude in Reynolds number.

  8. 19 CFR 210.75 - Proceedings to enforce exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND... provision of an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order. Such matters may be handled by... with the terms of an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order, or any part...

  9. 19 CFR 210.75 - Proceedings to enforce exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND... provision of an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order. Such matters may be handled by... with the terms of an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order, or any part...

  10. 19 CFR 210.75 - Proceedings to enforce exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND... provision of an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order. Such matters may be handled by... with the terms of an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order, or any part...

  11. 19 CFR 210.75 - Proceedings to enforce exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND... provision of an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order. Such matters may be handled by... with the terms of an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order, or any part...

  12. 19 CFR 210.75 - Proceedings to enforce exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, consent orders, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND... provision of an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order. Such matters may be handled by... with the terms of an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order, or any part...

  13. Hexatic order and surface ripples in spherical geometries.

    PubMed

    Lenz, P; Nelson, D R

    2001-09-17

    In flat geometries, two-dimensional hexatic order has only a minor effect on capillary waves on a liquid substrate and on undulation modes in lipid bilayers. However, extended bond-orientational order alters the long-wavelength spectrum of these ripples in spherical geometries. We calculate this frequency shift and suggest that it might be detectable in lipid bilayer vesicles, at the surface of liquid metals, and in multielectron bubbles in liquid helium at low temperatures. Hexatic order also leads to a shift in the threshold for the fission instability induced in the later two systems by an excess of electric charge. PMID:11580526

  14. Edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, E. C.

    1985-09-01

    For both biological systems and machines, vision begins with a large and unwieldly array of measurements of the amount of light reflected from surfaces in the environment. The goal of vision is to recover physical properties of objects in the scene such as the location of object boundaries and the structure, color and texture of object surfaces, from the two-dimensional image that is projected onto the eye or camera. This goal is not achieved in a single step: vision proceeds in stages, with each stage producing increasingly more useful descriptions of the image and then the scene. The first clues about the physical properties of the scene are provided by the changes of intensity in the image. The importance of intensity changes and edges in early visual processing has led to extensive research on their detection, description and use, both in computer and biological vision systems. This article reviews some of the theory that underlies the detection of edges, and the methods used to carry out this analysis.

  15. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  16. Third-order RKR procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, A.; Camacho, J. J.; Poyato, J. M. L.; Fernandez-Alonso, J. I.

    1986-03-01

    Potential energy curves for the X 1Σ +state of 6LiH, 7LiH and 6LiD, 7LiD molecules have been calculated by the third-order RKR inversion procedure by including the Kaise correction. The results are in agreement with previously obtained curves by other authors using differents methods. As a check, the exact vibrational eigenfunctions, appropriate to these potentials, are obtained by direct numerical solutions of the radical Schrödinger equation.

  17. Multiferroicity due to Charge Ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    2012-02-01

    In this contribution I discuss multiferroicity that is driven by different forms of charge ordering, presenting first the generic mechanisms by which charge ordering can induce ferroelectricity in magnetic systems. In type-I multiferroics [1], ferroelectricity and magnetism have different origins and occur at different temperatures. There is a number of specific classes of materials for which this is relevant. Discussed will be in some detail (i) perovskite manganites of the type (PrCa)MnO3 [2,3], (ii) the complex and interesting situation in magnetite Fe3O4, (iii) strongly ferroelectric frustrated LuFe2O4 and (iv) an example of a quasi-one-dimensional organic system [4]. In type-II multiferroics [1], ferroelectricity is completely due to magnetism, but with charge ordering playing an important role [5], such as (v) multiferroic Ca3CoMnO6, (vi) possible ferroelectricity in rare earth perovskite nickelates of the type RNiO3 [6,7], (vii) multiferroic properties of manganites of the type RMn2O5 [8], (viii) perovskite manganites with magnetic E-type ordering. [4pt] [1] J. van den Brink and D. Khomskii, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 20, 434217 (2008).[0pt] [2] D.V. Efremov, J. van den Brink and D.I. Khomskii, Nature Materials 3, 853 (2004).[0pt] [3] G. Giovannetti, S. Kumar, J. van den Brink, S. Picozzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 037601 (2009).[0pt] [4] G. Giovannetti, S. Kumar, A. Stroppa, J. van den Brink and S. Picozzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 266401 (2009). [0pt] [5] J. Betouras G. Giovannetti and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 257602 (2007).[0pt] [6] G. Giovannetti, S. Kumar, D. Khomskii, S. Picozzi and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 156401 (2009).[0pt] [7] S. Kumar, G. Giovannetti, J. van den Brink and S. Picozzi, Phys. Rev. B 82, 134429 (2010).[0pt] [8] G. Giovannetti and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 227603 (2008).

  18. Partial order of quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Pekka J.; Ma̧czynski, Maciej J.

    1995-04-01

    The set of effects is not a lattice with respect to its natural order. Projection operators do have the greatest lower bounds (and the least upper bounds) in that set, but there are also other (incomparable) effects which share this property. However, the coexistence, the commutativity, and the regularity of a pair of effects are not sufficient for the existence of their infima and suprema. The structure of the range of an observable (as a normalized POV measure) can vary from that of a commutative Boolean to a noncommutative non-Boolean subset of effects.

  19. The New International Economic Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streeten, Paul P.

    1982-12-01

    Starting from a premise of optimism, this paper first sets out the essence of the proposed New International Economic Order and then traces its origins and interpretations. It examines the options available for different groups of the developing countries and those open to the constructively-minded of the industrialized states. It also explores what avenues there might be for furthering common interests, for countering hidden biases which might be operating against developing states, and for avoiding unnecessary conflicts. The paper ends with a plea for the consideration of the higher interests both of the nation-state and of the human race.

  20. Detecting Falling Snow from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Ben; Munchak, Joe

    2012-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earth's surface in order to fully capture the atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations, snow event cloud structures and microphysics, snowflake particle electromagnetic properties, and surface types. In this work, cloud resolving model simulations of a lake effect and synoptic snow event were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W -band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) Ku and Ka band, and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) channels from 10 to 183 plus or minus 7 GHz. Eleven different snowflake shapes were used to compute radar reflectivities and passive brightness temperatures. Notable results include: (1) the W-Band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM sensors, (2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels, (3) the snowflake microphysics plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments, (4) with reasonable assumptions, "the passive 166 GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to the GPM DPR Ku and Ka band radars with approximately 0.05 g per cubic meter detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1 millimeter per hr. melted snow rate (equivalent to 0.5-2 centimeters per hr. solid fluffy snowflake rate). With detection levels of falling snow known, we can focus current and future retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. We will also have an understanding of the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in the global estimates.

  1. Radon detection

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-01-25

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

  2. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  3. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  4. Radon detection

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

  5. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 1280.113 Section 1280.113 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  6. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order. 1280.113 Section 1280.113 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  7. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service... AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which prohibits delivery of mail to a... order to be published in the Postal Bulletin and cause the order to be transmitted to such...

  8. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service... AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which prohibits delivery of mail to... order to be published in the Postal Bulletin and cause the order to be transmitted to such...

  9. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 1280.113 Section 1280.113 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  10. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service... AND LOTTERY ORDERS (EFF. UNTIL 7-22-2011) § 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which prohibits... shall cause notice of the order to be published in the Postal Bulletin and cause the order to...

  11. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 1280.113 Section 1280.113 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  12. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service... AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which prohibits delivery of mail to... order to be published in the Postal Bulletin and cause the order to be transmitted to such...

  13. 7 CFR 1280.113 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 1280.113 Section 1280.113 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.113 Order. Order means...

  14. 40 CFR 22.31 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final order. 22.31 Section 22.31... PERMITS Final Order § 22.31 Final order. (a) Effect of final order. A final order constitutes the final Agency action in a proceeding. The final order shall not in any case affect the right of the Agency...

  15. 39 CFR 952.28 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Orders. 952.28 Section 952.28 Postal Service... AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.28 Orders. (a) If an order is issued which prohibits delivery of mail to... order to be published in the Postal Bulletin and cause the order to be transmitted to such...

  16. The Fitness of Genomic Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiucen; Vyawahare, Saurabh; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Most bacteria have a single circular chromosome that can range in size from 160,000 to 12,200,000 base pairs. Considering the typical gene density, i.e. 1 gene per 1,000 base pairs, both the number of genes and the ways to arrange are huge. Intuitively, the arrangement of genes on the circle is not important if all of them can be replicated. However, there is typically one origin of replication, and when bacteria is attacked by genotoxic stress during replication, the whole replication process can not be finished. As a result, which gene is replicated first, which is second, ..., becomes very important. Experimentally, we found a broad increase of DNA copy number near the origin of replication (OriC) of bacteria E.coli (˜3200 genes) under genotoxic stress. Since the genes near OriC are mostly efflux pump genes, we propose that there is fitness advantage for those rapid stress response genes got replicated first, because they can facilitate the replication of the rest of genome. Similar to bacterial evolution to present genomic order, in the somatic evolution of cancer, genomic shuffling was also frequently observed, especially under genotoxic chemotherapy. Such re-arrangement of genome can be viewed as a journey to optimal point in the rugged fitness landscape of genomic order.

  17. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-05-11

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention--the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention--affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer's 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  18. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregrate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention—the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention—affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer’s 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  19. Spatial processes in linear ordering.

    PubMed

    von Hecker, Ulrich; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Wolf, Lukas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Memory performance in linear order reasoning tasks (A > B, B > C, C > D, etc.) shows quicker, and more accurate responses to queries on wider (AD) than narrower (AB) pairs on a hypothetical linear mental model (A - B - C - D). While indicative of an analogue representation, research so far did not provide positive evidence for spatial processes in the construction of such models. In a series of 7 experiments we report such evidence. Participants respond quicker when the dominant element in a pair is presented on the left (or top) rather than on the right (or bottom). The left-anchoring tendency reverses in a sample with Farsi background (reading/writing from right to left). Alternative explanations and confounds are tested. A theoretical model is proposed that integrates basic assumptions about acquired reading/writing habits as a scaffold for spatial simulation, and primacy/dominance representation within such spatial simulations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641448

  20. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-12-31

    This paper briefly summarizes recent advances in intermetallic research and development. Ordered intermetallics based on aluminides and silicides possess attractive properties for structural applications at elevated temperatures in hostile environments; however, brittle fracture and poor fracture resistance limit their use as engineering materials in many cases. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to the study of the brittle fracture behavior of intermetallic alloys; as a result, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing brittle fracture have been identified. Recent advances in first-principles calculations and atomistic simulations further help us in understanding atomic bonding, dislocation configuration, and alloying effects in intermetallics. The basic understanding has led to the development of nickel, iron, and titanium aluminide alloys with improved mechanical and metallurgical properties for structural use. Industrial interest in ductile intermetallic alloys is high, and several examples of industrial involvement are mentioned.

  1. Dependency Ordering of Atomic Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cīrulis, Jānis

    2015-12-01

    The notion of atomic observable was introduced by S.Gudder for effect test spaces in 1997. In this paper an observable is a σ-homomorphism from the Borel algebra on a line to some logic. Roughly, an observable on a logic is atomic, if it is completely determined by its restriction to one-element subsets of its point spectrum. In particular, every discrete observable is atomic. We study some elementary properties of such observables, and discuss a possible notion of functional dependency between them. Algebraically, a dependency is a certain preorder relation on the set of all atomic observables, which induces an order relation on the set of all maximal orthogonal subsets of the logic. Several properties, as well as characteristics in terms of the underlying logic, of these relations are stated.

  2. Ordered chlorinated monolayer silicene structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenbin; Sheng, Shaoxiang; Chen, Jian; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui

    2016-04-01

    We report on a systematic experimental study on the chlorination of monatomic silicene layer on Ag(111) by scanning tunneling microscopy. Monolayer silicene on Ag(111) can form 4×4, (√13×√13)R ± 13.9°, and (2√3×2√3)R30° reconstructions due to their different buckling configurations. We found that at low dosage, Cl atoms attach to the upper buckled Si atoms without changing the buckling configuration of the silicene monolayer. However, at high coverage, the global buckling configuration will be significantly changed, resulting in new ordered structures. Interestingly, all monolayer silicene structures, regardless of their initial reconstructions, tend to form a local silicene 1×1 structure at the saturation coverage. The mechanism for chlorination of monolayer silicene is explained.

  3. Discourse on order vs. disorder.

    PubMed

    Annila, Arto; Baverstock, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics is on one hand understood to account for irrevocable flow of energy from the top down, on the other hand it is seen to imply irreversible increase of disorder. This tension between the 2 stances is resolved in favor of the free energy consumption when entropy is derived from the statistical mechanics of open systems. The change in entropy is shown to map directly to the decrease in free energy without any connotation attached to disorder. Increase of disorder, just as order, is found to be merely a consequence of free energy consumption. The erroneous association of disorder with entropy stems from an unwarranted assumption that a system could undergo changes of state without concomitant dissipation, i.e., a change in energy. PMID:27574534

  4. Ordered structures and jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. A.; Kaplan, R. E.; Laufer, J.

    1974-01-01

    A series of measurements of near field pressures and turbulent velocity fluctuations were made in a jet having a Reynolds number of about 50,000 in order to investigate more quantitatively the character and behavior of the large scale structures, and to ascertain their importance to the jet noise problem. It was found that the process of interaction between vortices can be inhibited by artificially exciting the shear layers with periodic disturbances of certain frequency. The turbulent fluctuation amplitudes measured at four diameters downstream decreased considerably. Finally, it was observed that the passage frequency of the structures decreased with x in a similar manner as the frequency corresponding to the maximum intensity radiation emanating from the same value of x.

  5. Discourse on order vs. disorder

    PubMed Central

    Annila, Arto; Baverstock, Keith

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The second law of thermodynamics is on one hand understood to account for irrevocable flow of energy from the top down, on the other hand it is seen to imply irreversible increase of disorder. This tension between the 2 stances is resolved in favor of the free energy consumption when entropy is derived from the statistical mechanics of open systems. The change in entropy is shown to map directly to the decrease in free energy without any connotation attached to disorder. Increase of disorder, just as order, is found to be merely a consequence of free energy consumption. The erroneous association of disorder with entropy stems from an unwarranted assumption that a system could undergo changes of state without concomitant dissipation, i.e., a change in energy. PMID:27574534

  6. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    It took much effort in the early days of non-Euclidean geometry to break away from the mindset that all spaces are flat and that two distinct parallel lines do not cross. Up to that point, all that was known was Euclidean geometry, and it was difficult to imagine anything else. We have suffered a similar handicap brought on by the enormous relevance of Boolean algebra to the problems of our age-logic and set theory. Previously, I demonstrated that the algebra of questions is not Boolean, but rather is described by the free distributive algebra. To get to this stage took much effort, as many obstacles-most self-placed-had to be overcome. As Boolean algebras were all I had ever known, it was almost impossible for me to imagine working with an algebra where elements do not have complements. With this realization, it became very clear that the sum and product rules of probability theory at the most basic level had absolutely nothing to do with the Boolean algebra of logical statements. Instead, a measure of degree of inclusion can be invented for many different partially ordered sets, and the sum and product rules fall out of the associativity and distributivity of the algebra. To reinforce this very important idea, this paper will go over how these constructions are made, while focusing on the underlying assumptions. I will derive the sum and product rules for a distributive lattice in general and demonstrate how this leads to probability theory on the Boolean lattice and is related to the calculus of quantum mechanical amplitudes on the partially ordered set of experimental setups. I will also discuss the rules that can be derived from modular lattices and their relevance to the cross-ratio of projective geometry.

  7. Logistic equation of arbitrary order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Franciszek

    2010-08-01

    The paper is concerned with the new logistic equation of arbitrary order which describes the performance of complex executive systems X vs. number of tasks N, operating at limited resources K, at non-extensive, heterogeneous self-organization processes characterized by parameter f. In contrast to the classical logistic equation which exclusively relates to the special case of sub-extensive homogeneous self-organization processes at f=1, the proposed model concerns both homogeneous and heterogeneous processes in sub-extensive and super-extensive areas. The parameter of arbitrary order f, where -∞

  8. Extrasolar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, R. P.; Diner, D. J.; Tubbs, E. F.; Gaiser, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of extrasolar planet detection using a large-aperture infared imaging telescope. Coronagraphic stellar apodization techniques are less efficient at infrared wavelengths compared to the visible, as a result of practical limitations on aperture dimensions, thus necessitating additional starlight suppression to make planet detection feasible in this spectral domain. We have been investigating the use of rotational shearing interferometry to provide up to three orders of magnitude of starlight suppression over broad spectral bandwidths. We present a theoretical analysis of the system performance requirements needed to make this a viable instrument for planet detection, including specifications on the interferometer design and telescope aperture characteristics. The concept of using rotational shearing interferometry as a wavefront error detector, thus providing a signal that can be used to adaptively correct the wavefront, will be discussed. We also present the status of laboratory studies of on-axis source suppression using a recently constructed rotational shearing interferometer that currently operates in the visible.

  9. Reducing free-text communication orders placed by providers using association rule mining.

    PubMed

    Hajihashemi, Zahra; Pancoast, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) systems are used to collect, store and retrieve the details of patient care. Computer Provider Order Entry (CPOE) is a process by which providers directly enter patient care orders into the EHR. Providers may enter free-text orders when they are unable to find standard orders. These free-text orders require translation into a structured order which reducing efficiency, may bypass duplicate checking and can be associated with medical errors. To overcome these problems we developed a system to automatically detect free-text orders and assign them to the appropriate order categories. This system applies association rule mining on structured orders to extract the patterns of orders in the related categories. The extracted patterns were tested on a set of free-text orders for evaluation and to determine the closest matching category of structured orders. This process may be used to improve future iterations of CPOE applications. PMID:23304403

  10. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  11. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  12. Dislocation sources in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Appel, F.; Wagner, R.; Mecking, H.

    1996-09-01

    An overview on the current understanding of dislocation sources and multiplication mechanisms is made for ordered intermetallic alloys of the L1{sub 2}, B2, and D0{sub 19} structures. In L1{sub 2} alloys, a large disparity of edge/screw segments in their relative mobility reduces the efficiency of a Frank-Read Type multiplication mechanism. In Fe-40%Al of the B2 structure, a variety of dislocation sources are available for <111> slip, including ones resulting from condensation of thermal vacancies. In NiAl with the relatively high APB energy, <100> dislocations may result from the dislocation decomposition reactions, the prismatic punching out from inclusion particles, and/or steps and coated layers of the surface. Internal interfaces often provide sites for dislocation multiplication, e.g., grain boundaries, sub-boundaries in Ni{sub 3}Ga, NiAl and Ti{sub 3}Al, and antiphase domain boundaries in Ti{sub 3}Al. As for the crack tip as a dislocation source, extended SISFs trailed by super-Shockley partials emanating form the cracks in Ni{sub 3}Al and Co{sub 3}Ti are discussed in view of a possible toughening mechanism.

  13. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  14. Liquid crystalline order in mucus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viney, C.; Huber, A. E.; Verdugo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Mucus plays an exceptionally wide range of important biological roles. It operates as a protective, exchange, and transport medium in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems of humans and other vertebrates. Mucus is a polymer hydrogel. It is secreted as discrete packages (secretory granules) by specialized secretory cells. Mucus hydrogel is stored in a condensed state inside the secretory granules. Depending upon the architecture of their constituent macromolecules and on the composition of the solvent, polymer gels can form liquid crystalline microstructures, with orientational order being exhibited over optically resolvable distances. Individual mucin molecules consist of alternating rigid segments (heavily glycosylated; hydrophilic) and flexible segments (nonglycosylated; hydrophobic). Polymer molecules consisting of rigid units linked by flexible spacers are frequently associated with liquid crystalline behavior, which again raises the possibility that mucus could form anisotropic fluid phases. Suggestions that mucins may be self-associating in dilute solution have previously been challenged on the basis of sedimentation-equilibrium studies performed on mucus in which potential sites of association were competitively blocked with inhibitors. However, the formation of stable liquid crystalline phases does not depend on the existence of inter- or intramolecular associations; these phases can form on the basis of steric considerations alone.

  15. Interior order expands minerals management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a surprise move on May 10, Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt ordered the consolidation of all leasing and resource management functions for the outer continental shelf (OCS) into the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Among those programs shifted to MMS are ‘all functions in direct support of the OCS program’ in the Geologic Division and in the Office of the Assistant Director for Resource Programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including oil and gas resources, energy-related hazards, and marine geology investigations. It is unclear whether research associated with the OCS leasing functions will be considered ‘direct support’ and what will happen to the research if it is so considered.Also to be shuttled to MMS are the oil-spill trajectory functions of the Office of Earth Sciences Applications and all the functions of the Office of Policy Analysis relating to the OCS that had been transferred from the Department of Energy as a result of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

  16. Deriving Laws from Ordering Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Richard T. Cox's contribution to probability theory was to generalize Boolean implication among logical statements to degrees of implication, which are manipulated using rules derived from consistency with Boolean algebra. These rules are known as the sum rule, the product rule and Bayes Theorem, and the measure resulting from this generalization is probability. In this paper, I will describe how Cox s technique can be further generalized to include other algebras and hence other problems in science and mathematics. The result is a methodology that can be used to generalize an algebra to a calculus by relying on consistency with order theory to derive the laws of the calculus. My goals are to clear up the mysteries as to why the same basic structure found in probability theory appears in other contexts, to better understand the foundations of probability theory, and to extend these ideas to other areas by developing new mathematics and new physics. The relevance of this methodology will be demonstrated using examples from probability theory, number theory, geometry, information theory, and quantum mechanics.

  17. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  18. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution from which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.

  19. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution frommore » which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.« less

  20. 10 CFR 820.42 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final order. 820.42 Section 820.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Compliance Orders § 820.42 Final order. A Compliance Order is a Final Order that constitutes a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement that is effective...

  1. 10 CFR 1013.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective order. 1013.24 Section 1013.24 Energy... order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order with... availability or disclosure of evidence. (b) In issuing a protective order, the ALJ may make any order...

  2. 7 CFR 966.110 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 966.110 Section 966.110 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Definitions § 966.110 Order. Order means Order No. 966 (§§ 966.1 to 966.92) regulating...

  3. 7 CFR 966.110 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order. 966.110 Section 966.110 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Definitions § 966.110 Order. Order means Order No. 966 (§§ 966.1 to 966.92) regulating...

  4. 7 CFR 966.110 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 966.110 Section 966.110 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Definitions § 966.110 Order. Order means Order No. 966 (§§ 966.1 to 966.92) regulating...

  5. 7 CFR 927.102 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 927.102 Section 927.102 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.102 Order. Order means Marketing Order No. 927, as amended (§§...

  6. 7 CFR 966.110 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 966.110 Section 966.110 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Definitions § 966.110 Order. Order means Order No. 966 (§§ 966.1 to 966.92) regulating...

  7. 7 CFR 948.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 948.100 Section 948.100 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations General § 948.100 Order. Order means §§ 948.1 to 948.92 (Order No. 948 as amended) regulating...

  8. 7 CFR 946.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 946.100 Section 946.100 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 946.100 Order. Order means Order No. 946 (§§ 946.1 to 946.78), as...

  9. 7 CFR 946.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 946.100 Section 946.100 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 946.100 Order. Order means Order No. 946 (§§ 946.1 to 946.78), as...

  10. 7 CFR 948.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order. 948.100 Section 948.100 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations General § 948.100 Order. Order means §§ 948.1 to 948.92 (Order No. 948 as amended) regulating...

  11. 7 CFR 948.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 948.100 Section 948.100 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations General § 948.100 Order. Order means §§ 948.1 to 948.92 (Order No. 948 as amended) regulating...

  12. 7 CFR 966.110 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 966.110 Section 966.110 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Definitions § 966.110 Order. Order means Order No. 966 (§§ 966.1 to 966.92) regulating...

  13. 7 CFR 946.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order. 946.100 Section 946.100 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 946.100 Order. Order means Order No. 946 (§§ 946.1 to 946.78), as...

  14. 7 CFR 959.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 959.100 Section 959.100 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Rules and Regulations General § 959.100 Order. Order means Order No. 959 (§§ 959.1 to 959.92; 26 FR 704) regulating...

  15. 7 CFR 927.102 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 927.102 Section 927.102 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.102 Order. Order means Marketing Order No. 927, as amended (§§...

  16. 10 CFR 820.42 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final order. 820.42 Section 820.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Compliance Orders § 820.42 Final order. A Compliance Order is a Final Order that constitutes a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement that is effective...

  17. 7 CFR 959.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 959.100 Section 959.100 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Rules and Regulations General § 959.100 Order. Order means Order No. 959 (§§ 959.1 to 959.92; 26 FR 704) regulating...

  18. 7 CFR 959.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 959.100 Section 959.100 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Rules and Regulations General § 959.100 Order. Order means Order No. 959 (§§ 959.1 to 959.92; 26 FR 704) regulating...

  19. 7 CFR 959.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 959.100 Section 959.100 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Rules and Regulations General § 959.100 Order. Order means Order No. 959 (§§ 959.1 to 959.92; 26 FR 704) regulating...

  20. 7 CFR 927.102 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 927.102 Section 927.102 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.102 Order. Order means Marketing Order No. 927, as amended (§§...

  1. 7 CFR 927.102 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 927.102 Section 927.102 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.102 Order. Order means Marketing Order No. 927, as amended (§§...

  2. 7 CFR 948.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 948.100 Section 948.100 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations General § 948.100 Order. Order means §§ 948.1 to 948.92 (Order No. 948 as amended) regulating...

  3. 7 CFR 946.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 946.100 Section 946.100 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 946.100 Order. Order means Order No. 946 (§§ 946.1 to 946.78), as...

  4. 7 CFR 959.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order. 959.100 Section 959.100 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Rules and Regulations General § 959.100 Order. Order means Order No. 959 (§§ 959.1 to 959.92; 26 FR 704) regulating...

  5. 7 CFR 948.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 948.100 Section 948.100 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations General § 948.100 Order. Order means §§ 948.1 to 948.92 (Order No. 948 as amended) regulating...

  6. 7 CFR 946.100 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 946.100 Section 946.100 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 946.100 Order. Order means Order No. 946 (§§ 946.1 to 946.78), as...

  7. 10 CFR 590.402 - Conditional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.402 Conditional orders... issuance of a final opinion and order. The conditional order shall include the basis for not issuing a final opinion and order at that time and a statement of findings and conclusions. The findings...

  8. 10 CFR 590.402 - Conditional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.402 Conditional orders... issuance of a final opinion and order. The conditional order shall include the basis for not issuing a final opinion and order at that time and a statement of findings and conclusions. The findings...

  9. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of ~16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  10. Anomaly Detection Using Behavioral Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benferhat, Salem; Tabia, Karim

    Behavioral approaches, which represent normal/abnormal activities, have been widely used during last years in intrusion detection and computer security. Nevertheless, most works showed that they are ineffective for detecting novel attacks involving new behaviors. In this paper, we first study this recurring problem due on one hand to inadequate handling of anomalous and unusual audit events and on other hand to insufficient decision rules which do not meet behavioral approach objectives. We then propose to enhance the standard decision rules in order to fit behavioral approach requirements and better detect novel attacks. Experimental studies carried out on real and simulated http traffic show that these enhanced decision rules improve detecting most novel attacks without triggering higher false alarm rates.

  11. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify approximately 96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of approximately 16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees. PMID:14514217

  12. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.17 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.17...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION... Research and Promotion Order....

  18. 40 CFR 24.02 - Issuance of initial orders; definition of final orders and orders on consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Issuance of initial orders; definition of final orders and orders on consent. 24.02 Section 24.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL RULES GOVERNING ISSUANCE OF AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS ON INTERIM STATUS CORRECTIVE ACTION ORDERS General § 24.02...

  19. 17 CFR 201.141 - Orders and decisions: Service of orders instituting proceedings and other orders and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orders and decisions: Service of orders instituting proceedings and other orders and decisions. 201.141 Section 201.141 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.141 Orders and decisions:...

  20. 40 CFR 24.02 - Issuance of initial orders; definition of final orders and orders on consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Issuance of initial orders; definition of final orders and orders on consent. 24.02 Section 24.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL RULES GOVERNING ISSUANCE OF AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS ON INTERIM STATUS CORRECTIVE ACTION ORDERS General § 24.02...

  1. 40 CFR 24.02 - Issuance of initial orders; definition of final orders and orders on consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of initial orders; definition of final orders and orders on consent. 24.02 Section 24.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL RULES GOVERNING ISSUANCE OF AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS ON INTERIM STATUS CORRECTIVE ACTION ORDERS General § 24.02...

  2. Phase behavior and kinetics of disorder-order and order-order transitions in multi-block copolymers in selective solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Huifen

    The primary aim of this thesis is to investigate the phase behavior and kinetics of the disorder-order transition (ODT) and the order-order transition (OOT) in block copolymer solutions in selective solvents, using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. The kinetics of the ODT and OOT in a triblock of polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene-co-butylene) (PEB), in mineral oil, a selective solvent for the middle PEB block, was followed by time-resolved SAXS using temperature ramp and rapid temperature quench techniques. In semi-dilute solutions, spherical micelles exhibited liquid-like ordering at elevated temperatures and ordered onto body-centered-cubic (BCC) lattice at intermediate temperatures. In concentrated solutions, both BCC ordering of spherical micelles and hexagonal packing (HEX) of cylindrical micelles were detected. The disorder to order transformation kinetics exhibit two-stage growth: the first stage reflecting the temperature equilibration and supercooling of the micellar fluid, and the second stage corresponding to the nucleation and growth of the ordered state. The order-order transformation from HEX to BCC was characterized by a continuous shift in the primary peak position and simultaneous growth of all higher order Bragg diffraction peaks in the scattering profiles. The data were interpreted in terms of a model, according to which cylindrical micelles exhibit fluctuations with a characteristic wavelength along the cylindrical axis before breaking up into spherical micelles. Our results show that the wavelength of the fluctuation remains unchanged while the amplitude of the fluctuations grows with time. The association behavior of triblock, pentablock, and heptablock copolymers of polystyrene and polybutadiene in selective solvents was examined by SANS measurement. Comparison of the scattering profiles shows that: (i) multiblock copolymers with the outer block in a poor solvent environment have a

  3. Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqiong; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-05-01

    This Letter presents for the first time a scheme to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry orbital angular momentum in the extreme ultraviolet region based on relativistic harmonics from the surface of a solid target. In the three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, the high-order harmonics of the high-order vortex mode is generated in both reflected and transmitted light beams when a linearly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse impinges on a solid foil. The azimuthal mode of the harmonics scales with its order. The intensity of the high-order vortex harmonics is close to the relativistic region, with the pulse duration down to attosecond scale. The obtained intense vortex beam possesses the combined properties of fine transversal structure due to the high-order mode and the fine longitudinal structure due to the short wavelength of the high-order harmonics. In addition to the application in high-resolution detection in both spatial and temporal scales, it also presents new opportunities in the intense vortex required fields, such as the inner shell ionization process and high energy twisted photons generation by Thomson scattering of such an intense vortex beam off relativistic electrons. PMID:25978234

  4. 48 CFR 316.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ordering. 316.505 Section 316.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 316.505 Ordering. (b)(5) The HHS task-order and delivery-order ombudsman is the...

  5. 48 CFR 316.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ordering. 316.505 Section 316.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 316.505 Ordering. (b)(5) The HHS task-order and delivery-order ombudsman is the...

  6. 33 CFR 20.606 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protective orders. 20.606 Section....606 Protective orders. (a) In considering a motion for an order of discovery—or a motion, by a party... may enter any order that justice requires, to protect a person from annoyance,...

  7. 43 CFR 35.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protective order, the ALJ may make any order which justice requires to protect a party or person from... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protective order. 35.24 Section 35.24... CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.24 Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may...

  8. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating to..., producing, storing, transporting or refining oil. A supply order shall include a concise statement of...

  9. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating to..., producing, storing, transporting or refining oil. A supply order shall include a concise statement of...

  10. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating to..., producing, storing, transporting or refining oil. A supply order shall include a concise statement of...

  11. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  12. 40 CFR 90.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test orders. 90.503 Section 90.503....503 Test orders. (a) The Administrator shall require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the manufacturer. (b) The test order will be signed by the Assistant...

  13. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  14. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  16. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  17. 7 CFR 1212.15 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.15 Order. “Order” means the...

  18. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  19. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  20. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  1. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  2. 6 CFR 27.300 - Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orders. 27.300 Section 27.300 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.300 Orders. (a) Orders Generally. When the Assistant Secretary determines...

  3. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  4. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency Orders. 109.17 Section 109.17... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS FOR OPENING OF PACKAGES, EMERGENCY ORDERS, AND EMERGENCY RECALLS Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency Orders. (a) Determination of imminent hazard. When...

  5. 48 CFR 316.505 - Ordering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ordering. 316.505 Section 316.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 316.505 Ordering. (b)(5) The HHS task-order and delivery-order ombudsman is the...

  6. 15 CFR 25.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective order. 25.24 Section 25.24... Protective order. (a) A party of a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order... the availability or disclosure of evidence. (b) In issuing a protective order, the ALJ may make...

  7. 24 CFR 26.44 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protective orders. 26.44 Section 26... orders. (a) A party, a prospective witness, or a deponent may file a motion for a protective order with... availability or disclosure of evidence. (b) Protective orders may be issued by an ALJ if the ALJ...

  8. 40 CFR 89.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 89.503 Section 89.503... Test orders. (a) A test order addressed to the manufacturer is required for any testing under this subpart. (b) The test order is signed by the Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation or his or...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 1205.16 Section 1205.16 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.16 Order. The term Order means the...

  10. 49 CFR 190.219 - Consent order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consent order. 190.219 Section 190.219... REGULATORY PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders § 190.219 Consent order. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 58912, September 25, 2013. (a) At any time before the issuance of a compliance order...

  11. 39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental orders. 952.30 Section 952.30 Postal... REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS (EFF. UNTIL 7-22-2011) § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal... is evading or attempting to evade the provisions of any such orders by conducting the same or...

  12. 40 CFR 209.24 - Default order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default order. 209.24 Section 209.24... Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.24 Default order. (a) Default... remedial order proposed is binding on respondent without further proceedings upon the issuance by...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order. 1205.16 Section 1205.16 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.16 Order. The term Order means the...

  14. 33 CFR 156.112 - Suspension order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension order. 156.112 Section... § 156.112 Suspension order. The COTP or OCMI may issue a suspension order to suspend transfer operations... OCMI is unable to verify compliance with the regulations through an inspection. A suspension order:...

  15. 7 CFR 993.101 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 993.101 Section 993.101 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.101 Order. Order means Marketing Agreement No. 110,...

  16. 18 CFR 153.11 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental orders....11 Supplemental orders. The Commission also may make, at any time subsequent to the original order of authorization, after opportunity for hearing, such supplemental orders implementing its authority under...

  17. 7 CFR 993.101 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 993.101 Section 993.101 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.101 Order. Order means Marketing Agreement No. 110,...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 1220.608 Section 1220.608 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 1205.16 Section 1205.16 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.16 Order. The term Order means the...

  20. 33 CFR 20.606 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective orders. 20.606 Section....606 Protective orders. (a) In considering a motion for an order of discovery—or a motion, by a party or other person from whom discovery is sought, to reconsider or amend an order of discovery—the...

  1. 40 CFR 90.503 - Test orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Test orders. 90.503 Section 90.503....503 Test orders. (a) The Administrator shall require any testing under this subpart by means of a test order addressed to the manufacturer. (b) The test order will be signed by the Assistant...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 1220.608 Section 1220.608 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.16 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 1205.16 Section 1205.16 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.16 Order. The term Order means the...

  4. 7 CFR 993.101 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order. 993.101 Section 993.101 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.101 Order. Order means Marketing Agreement No. 110,...

  5. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  6. 78 FR 4833 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: James Allen Larrison... order, license or authorization issued thereunder; any regulation, license, or order issued under the... President, through Executive Order 13222 of August 17, 2001 (3 CFR, 2001 Comp. 783 (2002)), which has...

  7. 10 CFR 221.33 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 221.33 Section 221.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... PRODUCTION ACT Administrative Procedures and Sanctions § 221.33 Order. (a) Issuance. If ERA determines that... of the order, DOD may then place such priority rating on a supply order. (b) Compliance. Each...

  8. 12 CFR 210.30 - Payment orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment orders. 210.30 Section 210.30 Banks and... Through Fedwire § 210.30 Payment orders. (a) Rejection. A sender shall not send a payment order to a... reject, or impose conditions that must be satisfied before it will accept, a payment order for any...

  9. 7 CFR 993.101 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order. 993.101 Section 993.101 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.101 Order. Order means Marketing Agreement No. 110,...

  10. 49 CFR 209.207 - Consent order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consent order. 209.207 Section 209.207..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Compliance Orders § 209.207 Consent order. (a) At any time before the issuance of an order under § 209.211, the Chief Counsel and the...

  11. 10 CFR 590.402 - Conditional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditional orders. 590.402 Section 590.402 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.402 Conditional orders. The Assistant Secretary may issue a conditional order at any time during a proceeding prior...

  12. 10 CFR 221.33 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 221.33 Section 221.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... PRODUCTION ACT Administrative Procedures and Sanctions § 221.33 Order. (a) Issuance. If ERA determines that... of the order, DOD may then place such priority rating on a supply order. (b) Compliance. Each...

  13. 39 CFR 952.30 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental orders. 952.30 Section 952.30 Postal... REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.30 Supplemental orders. When the Chief Postal Inspector or his or her... person is evading or attempting to evade the provisions of any such orders by conducting the same or...

  14. 10 CFR 820.41 - Compliance order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance order. 820.41 Section 820.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Compliance Orders § 820.41 Compliance order. The Secretary may issue to any person involved in a DOE nuclear activity a Compliance Order that:...

  15. 49 CFR 190.219 - Consent order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consent order. 190.219 Section 190.219... PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders § 190.219 Consent order. (a) At any time before the issuance of a compliance order under § 190.213 the Associate Administrator, OPS and the respondent may agree to dispose...

  16. 33 CFR 20.606 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protective orders. 20.606 Section....606 Protective orders. (a) In considering a motion for an order of discovery—or a motion, by a party or other person from whom discovery is sought, to reconsider or amend an order of discovery—the...

  17. 18 CFR 153.11 - Supplemental orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental orders....11 Supplemental orders. The Commission also may make, at any time subsequent to the original order of authorization, after opportunity for hearing, such supplemental orders implementing its authority under...

  18. 78 FR 37518 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Lee Roy Perez, Inmate... order, license or authorization issued thereunder; any regulation, license, or order issued under the... President, through Executive Order 13222 of August 17, 2001 (3 CFR, 2001 Comp. 783 (2002)), which has...

  19. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  20. 24 CFR 26.44 - Protective orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protective orders. 26.44 Section 26... orders. (a) A party, a prospective witness, or a deponent may file a motion for a protective order with... availability or disclosure of evidence. (b) Protective orders may be issued by an ALJ if the ALJ...

  1. 22 CFR 521.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protective order. 521.24 Section 521.24 Foreign... Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order... the availability or disclosure of evidence. (b) In issuing a protective order, the ALJ may make...

  2. 33 CFR 156.112 - Suspension order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspension order. 156.112 Section... § 156.112 Suspension order. The COTP or OCMI may issue a suspension order to suspend transfer operations... OCMI is unable to verify compliance with the regulations through an inspection. A suspension order:...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order. 1220.608 Section 1220.608 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means...

  4. 7 CFR 993.101 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order. 993.101 Section 993.101 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.101 Order. Order means Marketing Agreement No. 110,...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order. 1220.608 Section 1220.608 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means...

  6. 15 CFR 25.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective order. 25.24 Section 25.24... Protective order. (a) A party of a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order... the availability or disclosure of evidence. (b) In issuing a protective order, the ALJ may make...

  7. 49 CFR 109.17 - Emergency Orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency Orders. 109.17 Section 109.17... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Emergency Orders § 109.17 Emergency Orders. (a) Determination of imminent hazard. When... transportation law, or a regulation or order prescribed under that law, or an unsafe condition or...

  8. 40 CFR 27.24 - Protective order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protective order. 27.24 Section 27.24... Protective order. (a) A party or a prospective witness or deponent may file a motion for a protective order... availability or disclosure of evidence. (b) In issuing a protective order, the presiding officer may make...

  9. 10 CFR 221.33 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 221.33 Section 221.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... PRODUCTION ACT Administrative Procedures and Sanctions § 221.33 Order. (a) Issuance. If ERA determines that... of the order, DOD may then place such priority rating on a supply order. (b) Compliance. Each...

  10. 14 CFR 16.243 - Consent orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consent orders. 16.243 Section 16.243... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.243 Consent orders. (a) The... order to dispose of the case by issuance of a consent order. Good faith efforts to resolve a...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.608 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order. 1220.608 Section 1220.608 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.608 Order. Order means...

  12. 40 CFR 24.19 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final order. 24.19 Section 24.19... ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS ON INTERIM STATUS CORRECTIVE ACTION ORDERS Post-Hearing Procedures § 24.19 Final order. If the Regional Administrator does not adopt portions of the initial order, or finds...

  13. MCFC diagnostics: HCl detection

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.A.; Oldenborgn, R.C.; Funk, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are being developed for large- scale power generation. One source of fuel is coal gasifiers, which presents the problem of coal gas contaminants and their effect on MCFC; HCl is the most serious and hence needs to be monitored. Different methods of detecting HCl in the gas phase were evaluated, and laser diode absorption is the most suitable. Temperature sensitivity and spectral interferences are discussed; it is shown that the P10 spectral line is the best. A diode for the P10 line is on order; experiments using the P5 line show the line to be unacceptable (overlap with CH{sub 4} line). Future planned work is outlined briefly. (DLC)

  14. MCFC diagnostics: HCl detection

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, B.A.; Oldenborgn, R.C.; Funk, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are being developed for large- scale power generation. One source of fuel is coal gasifiers, which presents the problem of coal gas contaminants and their effect on MCFC; HCl is the most serious and hence needs to be monitored. Different methods of detecting HCl in the gas phase were evaluated, and laser diode absorption is the most suitable. Temperature sensitivity and spectral interferences are discussed; it is shown that the P10 spectral line is the best. A diode for the P10 line is on order; experiments using the P5 line show the line to be unacceptable (overlap with CH{sub 4} line). Future planned work is outlined briefly. (DLC)

  15. Analysis Of Electronic Medication Orders With Large Overdoses

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, E.S.; Kouril, M.; Minich, T.; Spooner, SA.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Users of electronic health record (EHR) systems frequently prescribe doses outside recommended dose ranges, and tend to ignore the alerts that result. Since some of these dosing errors are the result of system design flaws, analysis of large overdoses can lead to the discovery of needed system changes. Objectives To develop database techniques for detecting and extracting large overdose orders from our EHR. To identify and characterize users’ responses to these large overdoses. To identify possible causes of large-overdose errors and to mitigate them. Methods We constructed a data mart of medication-order and dosing-alert data from a quaternary pediatric hospital from June 2011 to May 2013. The data mart was used along with a test version of the EHR to explain how orders were processed and alerts were generated for large (>500%) and extreme (>10,000%) overdoses. User response was characterized by the dosing alert salience rate, which expresses the proportion of time users take corrective action. Results We constructed an advanced analytic framework based on workflow analysis and order simulation, and evaluated all 5,402,504 medication orders placed within the 2 year timeframe as well as 2,232,492 dose alerts associated with some of the orders. 8% of orders generated a visible alert, with ¼ of these related to overdosing. Alerts presented to trainees had higher salience rates than those presented to senior colleagues. Salience rates were low, varying between 4–10%, and were lower with larger overdoses. Extreme overdoses fell into eight causal categories, each with a system design mitigation. Conclusions Novel analytic systems are required to accurately understand prescriber behavior and interactions with medication-dosing CDS. We described a novel analytic system that can detect apparent large overdoses (≥500%) and explain the sociotechnical factors that drove the error. Some of these large overdoses can be mitigated by system changes. EHR

  16. Steganographic system based on higher-order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzschoppe, Roman; Baeuml, Robert; Huber, Johannes; Kaup, Andre

    2003-06-01

    Universal blind steganalysis attempts to detect steganographic data without knowledge about the applied steganographic system. Farid proposed such a detection algorithm based on higher-order statistics for separating original images from stego images. His method shows an astonishing performance on current steganographic schemes. Starting from the statistical approach in Farid's algorithm, we investigate the well known steganographic tool Jsteg as well as a newer approach proposed by Eggers et al., which relies on histogram-preserving data mapping. Both schemes show weaknesses leading to a certain detectability. Further analysis shows which statistic characteristics make both schemes vulnerable. Based on these results, the histogram preserving approach is enhanced such that it achieves perfect security with respect to Farid's algorithm.

  17. Optimizing restriction fragment fingerprinting methods for ordering large genomic libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Branscomb, E.; Slezak, T.; Pae, R.; Carrano, A.V. ); Galas, D.; Waterman, M. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a statistical analysis of the problem of ordering large genomic cloned libraries through overlap detection based on restriction fingerprinting. Such ordering projects involve a large investment of effort involving many repetitious experiments. Their primary purpose here is to provide methods of maximizing the efficiency of such efforts. To this end, they adopt a statistical approach that uses the likelihood ratio as a statistic to detect overlap. The main advantages of this approach are that (1) it allows the relatively straightforward incorporation of the observed statistical properties of the data; (2) it permits the efficiency of a particular experimental method for detecting overlap to be quantitatively defined so that alternative experimental designs may be compared and optimized; and (3) it yields a direct estimate of the probability that any two library members overlap. This estimate is a critical tool for the accurate, automatic assembly of overlapping sets of fragments into islands called contigs.' These contigs must subsequently be connected by other methods to provide an ordered set of overlapping fragments covering the entire genome.

  18. Surgical force detection probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Roberts, Paul; Scott, Charles; Prass, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The development progress of a precision electro-mechanical instrument which allows the detection and documentation of the forces and moment applied to human tissue during surgery (under actual operation room conditions), is reported. The pen-shaped prototype probe which measures 1/2 inch in diameter and 7 inches in length was fabricated using an aerodynamic balance. The aerodynamic balance, a standard wind tunnel force and moment sensing transducer, measures the forces and the moments transmitted through the surgeon's hand to the human tissue during surgery. The prototype probe which was fabricated as a development tool was tested successfully. The final version of the surgical force detection probe will be designed based on additional laboratory tests in order to establish the full scale loads. It is expected that the final product will require a simplified aerodynamic balance with two or three force components and one moment component with lighter full scale loads. A signal conditioner was fabricated to process and display the outputs from the prototype probe. This unit will be interfaced with a PC-based data system to provide automatic data acquisition, data processing, and graphics display. The expected overall accuracy of the probe is better than one percent full scale.

  19. Parameters for burst detection

    PubMed Central

    Bakkum, Douglas J.; Radivojevic, Milos; Frey, Urs; Franke, Felix; Hierlemann, Andreas; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Bursts of action potentials within neurons and throughout networks are believed to serve roles in how neurons handle and store information, both in vivo and in vitro. Accurate detection of burst occurrences and durations are therefore crucial for many studies. A number of algorithms have been proposed to do so, but a standard method has not been adopted. This is due, in part, to many algorithms requiring the adjustment of multiple ad-hoc parameters and further post-hoc criteria in order to produce satisfactory results. Here, we broadly catalog existing approaches and present a new approach requiring the selection of only a single parameter: the number of spikes N comprising the smallest burst to consider. A burst was identified if N spikes occurred in less than T ms, where the threshold T was automatically determined from observing a probability distribution of inter-spike-intervals. Performance was compared vs. different classes of detectors on data gathered from in vitro neuronal networks grown over microelectrode arrays. Our approach offered a number of useful features including: a simple implementation, no need for ad-hoc or post-hoc criteria, and precise assignment of burst boundary time points. Unlike existing approaches, detection was not biased toward larger bursts, allowing identification and analysis of a greater range of neuronal and network dynamics. PMID:24567714

  20. Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion

    This artist's animation shows the explosion of a massive star, the remains of which are named Cassiopeia A. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that the star exploded with some degree of order, preserving chunks of its onion-like layers as it blasted apart.

    Cassiopeia A is what is known as a supernova remnant. The original star, about 15 to 20 times more massive than our sun, died in a cataclysmic 'supernova' explosion viewable from Earth about 340 years ago. The remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia.

    The movie begins by showing the star before it died, when its layers of elements (shown in different colors) were stacked neatly, with the heaviest at the core and the lightest at the top. The star is then shown blasting to smithereens. Spitzer found evidence that the star's original layers were preserved, flinging outward in all directions, but not at the same speeds. In other words, some chunks of the star sped outward faster than others, as illustrated by the animation.

    The movie ends with an actual picture of Cassiopeia A taken by Spitzer. The colored layers containing different elements are seen next to each other because they traveled at different speeds.

    The infrared observatory was able to see the tossed-out layers because they light up upon ramming into a 'reverse' shock wave created in the aftermath of the explosion. When a massive star explodes, it creates two types of shock waves. The forward shock wave darts out quickest, and, in the case of Cassiopeia A, is now traveling at supersonic speeds up to 7,500 kilometers per second (4,600 miles/second). The reverse shock wave is produced when the forward shock wave slams into a shell of surrounding material expelled before the star died. It tags along behind the forward shock wave at slightly slower speeds.

    Chunks

  1. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  2. Hanle detection for optical clocks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shengnan; Pan, Duo; Chen, Peipei; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2015-01-01

    Considering the strong inhomogeneous spatial polarization and intensity distribution of spontaneous decay fluorescence due to the Hanle effect, we propose and demonstrate a universe Hanle detection configuration of electron-shelving method for optical clocks. Experimental results from Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard with electron-shelving method show that a designed Hanle detection geometry with optimized magnetic field direction, detection laser beam propagation and polarization direction, and detector position can improve the fluorescence collection rate by more than one order of magnitude comparing with that of inefficient geometry. With the fixed 423 nm fluorescence, the improved 657 nm optical frequency standard signal intensity is presented. The potential application of the Hanle detection geometry designed for facilitating the fluorescence collection for optical lattice clock with a limited solid angle of the fluorescence collection has been discussed. The Hanle detection geometry is also effective for ion detection in ion optical clock and quantum information experiments. Besides, a cylinder fluorescence collection structure is designed to increase the solid angle of the fluorescence collection in Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard. PMID:25734183

  3. Integrated multisensor perimeter detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, P. J.; Fretwell, P.; Barrett, D. J.; Faulkner, D. A.

    2007-10-01

    The report describes the results of a multi-year programme of research aimed at the development of an integrated multi-sensor perimeter detection system capable of being deployed at an operational site. The research was driven by end user requirements in protective security, particularly in threat detection and assessment, where effective capability was either not available or prohibitively expensive. Novel video analytics have been designed to provide robust detection of pedestrians in clutter while new radar detection and tracking algorithms provide wide area day/night surveillance. A modular integrated architecture based on commercially available components has been developed. A graphical user interface allows intuitive interaction and visualisation with the sensors. The fusion of video, radar and other sensor data provides the basis of a threat detection capability for real life conditions. The system was designed to be modular and extendable in order to accommodate future and legacy surveillance sensors. The current sensor mix includes stereoscopic video cameras, mmWave ground movement radar, CCTV and a commercially available perimeter detection cable. The paper outlines the development of the system and describes the lessons learnt after deployment in a pilot trial.

  4. Hanle Detection for Optical Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shengnan; Pan, Duo; Chen, Peipei; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2015-01-01

    Considering the strong inhomogeneous spatial polarization and intensity distribution of spontaneous decay fluorescence due to the Hanle effect, we propose and demonstrate a universe Hanle detection configuration of electron-shelving method for optical clocks. Experimental results from Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard with electron-shelving method show that a designed Hanle detection geometry with optimized magnetic field direction, detection laser beam propagation and polarization direction, and detector position can improve the fluorescence collection rate by more than one order of magnitude comparing with that of inefficient geometry. With the fixed 423 nm fluorescence, the improved 657 nm optical frequency standard signal intensity is presented. The potential application of the Hanle detection geometry designed for facilitating the fluorescence collection for optical lattice clock with a limited solid angle of the fluorescence collection has been discussed. The Hanle detection geometry is also effective for ion detection in ion optical clock and quantum information experiments. Besides, a cylinder fluorescence collection structure is designed to increase the solid angle of the fluorescence collection in Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard. PMID:25734183

  5. 3 CFR 13497 - Executive Order 13497 of January 30, 2009. Revocation of Certain Executive Orders Concerning...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Order 13497 of January 30, 2009. Revocation of Certain Executive Orders Concerning Regulatory Planning and Review 13497 Order 13497 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13497 of January 30, 2009 EO 13497 Revocation of Certain Executive Orders Concerning Regulatory...

  6. 3 CFR 13516 - Executive Order 13516 of October 28, 2009. Amending Executive Order 13462

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Order 13516 of October 28, 2009. Amending Executive Order 13462 13516 Order 13516 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13516 of October 28, 2009 EO 13516 Amending Executive Order 13462 By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of...

  7. 3 CFR 13499 - Executive Order 13499 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12835...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Order 13499 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12835, Establishment of the National Economic Council 13499 Order 13499 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13499 of February 5, 2009 EO 13499 Further Amendments to Executive Order 12835,...

  8. 3 CFR 13500 - Executive Order 13500 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12859...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Order 13500 of February 5, 2009. Further Amendments to Executive Order 12859, Establishment of the Domestic Policy Council 13500 Order 13500 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13500 of February 5, 2009 EO 13500 Further Amendments to Executive Order 12859,...

  9. 76 FR 28241 - Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Act of 1976, 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6857 (56 FR 20551 (1991... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7767; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6857; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  10. 76 FR 62831 - Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6886 (56 FR 50661 (1991)), which withdrew 21,636.29 acres of... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7784; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6886; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  11. 76 FR 38207 - Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ..., 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6865 (56 FR 32515 (1991)), which... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order extends...

  12. 3 CFR 13644 - Executive Order 13644 of May 21, 2013. Amendment to Executive Order 13639

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Executive Order 13644 of May 21, 2013. Amendment to Executive Order 13639 13644 Order 13644 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13644 of May 21, 2013 EO 13644 Amendment to Executive Order 13639 By the authority vested in me as President...

  13. 3 CFR 13638 - Executive Order 13638 of March 15, 2013. Amendments to Executive Order 12777

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Executive Order 13638 of March 15, 2013. Amendments to Executive Order 12777 13638 Order 13638 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13638 of March 15, 2013 EO 13638 Amendments to Executive Order 12777 By the authority vested in me...

  14. 19 CFR 210.76 - Modification or rescission of exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, and consent orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT... conditions of fact or law, or the public interest, require that an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order be modified or set aside, in whole or in part, such person may file with...

  15. 19 CFR 210.76 - Modification or rescission of exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, and consent orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT... conditions of fact or law, or the public interest, require that an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order be modified or set aside, in whole or in part, such person may file with...

  16. 19 CFR 210.76 - Modification or rescission of exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, and consent orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT... conditions of fact or law, or the public interest, require that an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order be modified or set aside, in whole or in part, such person may file with...

  17. 19 CFR 210.76 - Modification or rescission of exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, and consent orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT... conditions of fact or law, or the public interest, require that an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order be modified or set aside, in whole or in part, such person may file with...

  18. 19 CFR 210.76 - Modification or rescission of exclusion orders, cease and desist orders, and consent orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT... conditions of fact or law, or the public interest, require that an exclusion order, cease and desist order, or consent order be modified or set aside, in whole or in part, such person may file with...

  19. Discovering the Botnet Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Aneel; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T.

    Botnet is a network of compromised computers. It just fellow the master slave concept. Bots are comprised computers and do the tasks what ever their master orders them. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is used for the communication between the master and bots. Information is also encrypted to avoid the effect of third party. In this paper we discuss the Botnets detection techniques and comparative analysis of these techniques on the basis of DNS query, History data and group activity.

  20. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.