Science.gov

Sample records for detection meter systems

  1. Acoustic velocity meter systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.

  2. Intelligent utility meter system

    SciTech Connect

    Frew, L.H.; Fuller, M.L.

    1989-02-07

    An intelligent utility meter system installation is described for measuring A.C. electric energy having repetitive A.C. cycles, comprising: (1) an ''outside'' principal meter unit including: (a) means for sampling current and voltage and for calculating power consumption at least 300 times per second; the sampling occurring asynchronously and not in any fixed time relationship with respect to the A.C. electricity cycles; (b) the outside unit further including means for determining the total kilowatt hours used, and the present billing status; and (c) alphanumeric display means for displaying power being used, total kilowatt hours and present billing status; (2) a remote ''inside'' unit including: (a) alphanumeric means for displaying the information displayed by the ''outside'' unit; (b) means for selectively retaining a desired continuously updated display; and (c) means for reading a credit card and automatically changing the billing status information within the intelligent utility meter as credit card information is read; and (3) the system including means for determining both the magnitude and direction of the electric power passing through the meter system.

  3. A transition detection study using a cryogenic hot film system in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Carraway, D. L.; Stainback, P. C.; Fancher, M. F.

    1987-01-01

    A transition detection study was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) using a specialized hot film system designed specifically for use in cryogenic wind tunnels. The quantitative transition location data obtained at near cryogenic conditions, 360 deg R (200K) represents the first definitive transition Reynolds numbers obtained in a cryogenic wind tunnel. The model was tested at both adiabatic and nonadiabatic wall conditions with a wall-to-total temperature ratio as low as 0.47. The test results indicated an improved technique for hot-film installation and a modified data acquisition system would allow the on-line determination of the location of boundary layer transition in cryogenic wind tunnels, such as the U.S. National Transonic Facility.

  4. Ultrasonic flow metering system

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Mauseth, Jason A.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

  5. Detection of smoldering combustion of coal with an odor meter

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A commercially available odor meter was evaluated as a detector of smoldering coal combustion, and compared with incipient carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) detection and a commercially available ionization-type smoke detector. Ten smoldering coal combustion experiments were conducted. For eight of the experiments, Pittsburgh seam coal with an average particle diameter of approximately 5 cm was heated by embedded electrical strip heaters. For two of the experiments mine size Pittsburgh seam coal was heated. Heating rates of 0.5, 0.8, and 1.1. kw were selected to provide experimental conditions characteristic of very slow and moderately fast heating for coal sample mass between 3 and 10 kg. It was found that the odor meter and smoke detector alarm had a good correlation, with the odor meter alarm occurring prior to the smoke alarm in four of the ten experiments. The odor meter gave an increase in its output signal above ambient equivalent to detecting 1 ppm of H{sub 2}S (ten times the odor threshold of H{sub 2}S) as an alarm value. This observed odor meter response occurred prior to the electrochemical detection of H{sub 2}S for five of the six experiments for which it was evaluated. In all six experiments for which the smoke optical density was evaluated, it was less than 0.023 m{sup -1} prior to the odor meter reaching alarm. In each of the eight experiments with 5 cm diameter coal particles the CO exceeded 5 ppm at odor meter alarm, while for the two experiments with mine size coal the CO was less than 3 ppm at odor meter alarm. The odor meter, as tested, is not a significant improvement over smoke and CO detectors. Because the odor meter responds to a variety of chemical compounds, with suitable modification and increased sensitivity it may be useful for detection of mine fires and thereby enhance mine safety.

  6. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  7. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  8. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  9. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  10. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  11. The 34-meter antenna drive control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Detailed definitions of the baseline antenna drive and control/instrumentation equipment for 34 meter antennas included in Network Consolidation Program of the Deep Space Network are presented. The overall antenna control and monitor system and its interfaces with other higher level control and monitor equipment is described. Explicit descriptions of the antenna axis drive motors and motor controllers, the axis angle encoding systems, and miscellaneous antenna located components are presented, and related to system functional and performance requirements. Some potential alternates to the baseline system configuration are described and discussed.

  12. Detection of protein biomarker using a blood glucose meter.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Xiang, Yu; Lu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    mHeath technologies are recognized to play important roles in the future of personal care and medicine. However, their full potentials have not been reached, as most of current technologies are restricted to monitoring physical and behavioral parameters, such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and physical movement, while direct monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids can provide much more accurate and useful information for medical diagnostics. A major barrier to realizing the full potential of mHealth is the high costs and long cycles of developing mHealth devices capable of monitoring biomarkers in body fluids. To lower the costs and shorten the developmental cycle, we have demonstrated the leveraging of the most successful portable medical monitoring device on the market, the blood glucose meter (BGM), with FDA-approved smartphone technologies that allow for wireless transmission and remote monitoring of a wide range of non-glucose targets. In this protocol, an aptamer-based assay for quantification of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) using an off-the-shelf BGM is described. In this assay, an aptamer-based target recognition system is employed. When IFN-γ binds to the aptamer, it triggers the release of a reporter enzyme, invertase, which can catalyze the conversion of sucrose (not detected by BGM) to glucose. The glucose being produced is then detected using a BGM. The system mimics a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), where the traditional immunoassay is replaced by an aptamer binding assay; the reporter protein is replaced by invertase, and finally the optical or fluorescence detector is replaced with widely available BGMs. PMID:25626534

  13. Engineered coating systems protect meters, station piping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes how the Gas Division of the Colorado Springs, Colorado Department of Public Utilities has cut the frequency of painting exposed pipe, valves and associated equipment at the five gate metering stations, as well as distribution stations within the city and manifold stations where natural gas is distributed to nearby Ft. Carson and the U.S. Air Force Academy. Because of tourism in these areas, the city is very conscious of the appearance it presents. The Gas Division selected New Color Horizons coatings made by the Rust-Oleum Corp. They have cut down on maintenance costs and their facilities still have an excellent appearance. Greater coating durability was obtained through a system consisting of shop-applied enamel finish and a color-matched fast-drying aerosol spray coating to resist corrosion and the elements.

  14. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  15. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  16. Development of the 15-meter hoop-column antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, T. G.; Butler, D. H.; Belvin, K.; Allen, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the 15-meter hoop/column antenna system is presented. The 15-meter deployable structure is discussed along with the mulitple-beam feed system development and the structures and RF testing planned in 1985. The topics presented are: overview of antenna development activities; development of 15-meter reflector and kinematic deployment tests; preliminary modal survey test results and future structural dynamics tests; and radio frequency subsystems and near field testing.

  17. Burst detection in district metering areas using a data driven clustering algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yipeng; Liu, Shuming; Wu, Xue; Liu, Youfei; Guan, Yisheng

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for burst detection in a water distribution system. The proposed method has two stages. In the first stage, a clustering algorithm was employed for outlier detection, while the second stage identified the presence of bursts. An important feature of this method is that data analysis is carried out dependent on multiple flow meters whose measurements vary simultaneously in a district metering area (DMA). Moreover, the clustering-based method can automatically cope with non-stationary conditions in historical data; namely, the method has no prior data selection process. An example application of this method has been implemented to confirm that relatively large bursts (simulated by flushing) with short duration can be detected effectively. Noticeably, the method has a low false positive rate compared with previous studies and appearance of detected abnormal water usage consists with weather changes, showing great promise in real application to multi-inlet and multi-outlet DMAs. PMID:27176651

  18. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following payment options (listed in order of preference): (1) Automated clearinghouse (ACH) debits/credits...) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at... companies (RCs). (b) A customer is required to have funds available on deposit with the Postal...

  19. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Darby, Scott G; Moore, Matthew R; Friedlander, Troy A; Schaffer, David K; Reiserer, Ron S; Wikswo, John P; Seale, Kevin T

    2010-12-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central camshaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanolitres of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL min(-1) to above 1.0 µL min(-1). At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices. PMID:20959938

  20. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Scott G.; Moore, Matthew R.; Friedlander, Troy A.; Schaffer, David K.; Reiserer, Ron S.; Wikswo, John P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central cam shaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanoliters of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL/min to above 1.0 µL/min. At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices. PMID:20959938

  1. A microcomputer based system for current-meter data acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting current measurements as part of an interdisciplinary study of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system. The current meters used in the study record current speed, direction, temperature, and conductivity in digital codes on magnetic tape cartridges. Upon recovery of the current meters, the data tapes are translated by a tape reader into computer codes for further analyses. Quite often the importance of the data processing phase of a current-measurement program is underestimated and downplayed. In this paper a data-processing system which performs the complete data processing and analyses is described. The system, which is configured around an LSI-11 microcomputer, has been assembled to provide the capabilities of data translation, reduction, and tabulation and graphical display immediately following recovery of current meters. The flexibility inherent in a microcomputer has made it available to perform many other research functions which would normally be done on an institutional computer.

  2. Fission meter and neutron detection using poisson distribution comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Mark S; Snyderman, Neal J

    2014-11-18

    A neutron detector system and method for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. Comparison of the observed neutron count distribution with a Poisson distribution is performed to distinguish fissile material from non-fissile material.

  3. Design and Construction of a New 1420 MHz Receiver System for a 12-meter Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, Cameron; Castelaz, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2013, a new 1420 MHz receiver system was designed and constructed for the 12-meter radio telescope at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). The new radio receiver system consists of a feedhorn (which is a duplicate of the feedhorn that is currently installed on PARI’s 4.6-meter radio telescope), a low-noise amplifier, a bandpass filter, a downconverter, a SpectraCyber 1420 MHz Hydrogen Line Spectrometer, CommScope CNT-600 braided coaxial cable, and a power supply. Each component was individually tested on the preexisting 4.6-meter radio telescope receiver system before being installed on the 12-meter telescope. This testing process revealed that the spectrometer that was intended for use in the new 12-meter receiver system would require 12-bit software, which was acquired soon thereafter. The new receiver system was then assembled on a rolling cart for further testing. After the 1420 MHz receiver system was moved outside, it successfully detected its first extraterrestrial radio signal. The next step of this project was the installation of the feedhorn at the focus of the 12-meter parabolic reflector and the mounting of the additional receiver system components inside the radio frequency (RF) room of the 12-meter telescope. Following its installation on the 12-meter telescope, the new receiver system was connected to the PARI network via ethernet using a device called a SitePlayer Telnet. The 12-meter telescope was focused by taking continuum scans of Virgo A during its meridian crossing. The positioning of the feedhorn had to be adjusted several times before the new radio receiver system was precisely focused. After focusing the 12-meter telescope, spectra were taken of both the Orion Nebula and the Crab Nebula to test the abilities of the new 1420 MHz receiver system. As a final test of both the angular resolution and time resolution of the new radio receiver system, the 12-meter telescope was used to observe the pulsar PSR J

  4. High-Resolution Gas Metering and Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    This thesis deals with design and implementation of a high-resolution metering system for residential natural gas meters. Detailed experimental measurements are performed on the meter to characterize and understand its measurement properties. Results from these experiments are used to develop a simple, fast and accurate technique to non-intrusively monitor the gas consumption of individual appliances in homes by resolving small amounts of gas usage. The technique is applied on an existing meter retrofitted with a module that includes a high-resolution encoder to collect gas flow data and a microprocessor to analyze and identify appliance load profiles. This approach provides a number of appealing features including low cost, easy installation and integration with automated meter reading (AMR) systems. The application of this method to residential gas meters currently deployed is also given. This is done by performing a load simulation on realistic gas loads with the aim of identifying the necessary parameters that minimize the cost and complexity of the mechanical encoder module. The primary benefits of the system are efficiency analysis, appliance health monitoring and real-time customer feedback of gas usage. Additional benefits of include the ability to detect very small leaks and theft. This system has the potential for wide scale market adoption.

  5. Solar Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The instrument pictured is an inexpensive solar meter which is finding wide acceptance among architects, engineers and others engaged in construction of solar energy facilities. It detects the amount of solar energy available at a building site, information necessary to design the most efficient type of solar system for a particular location. Incorporating technology developed by NASA's Lewis Research Center, the device is based upon the solar cell, which provides power for spacecraft by converting the sun's energy to electricity. The meter is produced by Dodge Products, Inc., Houston, Texas, a company formed to bring the technology to the commercial marketplace.

  6. Entropy meters and the entropy of non-extensive systems

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Elliott H.; Yngvason, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In our derivation of the second law of thermodynamics from the relation of adiabatic accessibility of equilibrium states, we stressed the importance of being able to scale a system's size without changing its intrinsic properties. This leaves open the question of defining the entropy of macroscopic, but unscalable systems, such as gravitating bodies or systems where surface effects are important. We show here how the problem can be overcome, in principle, with the aid of an ‘entropy meter’. An entropy meter can also be used to determine entropy functions for non-equilibrium states and mesoscopic systems. PMID:25002830

  7. NRAO 12-Meter Radio Telescope Detects Molecular Emission from Comet Hyakutake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-05-01

    Observations of Comet Hyakutake with the National Science Foundation's millimeter-wave radio telescope in Arizona have revealed new information about our Solar System's original material, including the first detection of the Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) molecule in a comet. Since mid-March, the 12-Meter telescope, part of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and located on Kitt Peak in Arizona, has been used by four separate research teams to measure the emission from primordial molecular species within the bright Comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2). Results obtained near the comet's closest approach on March 25th have yielded a wealth of information about the primordial composition of this comet. Comets are thought to be remnants from the formation of our Solar System, and as such, can provide valuable information about the early stages of our Solar System's chemical and physical development. Especially important is the study of cometary "parent molecules" -- molecules which have been present since the comet's birth, but have not been disturbed by chemical processing. Studying these molecules gives radio astronomers a very accurate "snapshot" of the material from which our Solar System, including Earth, was formed. The 12-Meter Telescope allows astronomers to observe what scientists call "millimeter waves," electromagnetic waves with wavelengths of just a few millimeters. These waves are shorter than radio microwaves and longer than infrared waves. Numerous molecules emit radiation at these wavelengths and thus can be detected by the 12-Meter telescope. The 12-Meter telescope, more than 25 years old, inaugurated the science of millimeter-wavelength molecular astronomy and is the instrument responsible for the discovery of dozens of molecules in space. Observations by Maria Womack (Pennsylvania State University), Michel C. Festou (Observatoire Midi Pyrenees, Toulouse), and Alan Stern (Southwest Research Institute) have measured the abundances of a number of suspected

  8. Accuracy of acoustic velocity metering systems for measurement of low velocity in open channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Curtis, R.E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) accuracy depends on equipment limitations, the accuracy of acoustic-path length and angle determination, and the stability of the mean velocity to acoustic-path velocity relation. Equipment limitations depend on path length and angle, transducer frequency, timing oscillator frequency, and signal-detection scheme. Typically, the velocity error from this source is about +or-1 to +or-10 mms/sec. Error in acoustic-path angle or length will result in a proportional measurement bias. Typically, an angle error of one degree will result in a velocity error of 2%, and a path-length error of one meter in 100 meter will result in an error of 1%. Ray bending (signal refraction) depends on path length and density gradients present in the stream. Any deviation from a straight acoustic path between transducer will change the unique relation between path velocity and mean velocity. These deviations will then introduce error in the mean velocity computation. Typically, for a 200-meter path length, the resultant error is less than one percent, but for a 1,000 meter path length, the error can be greater than 10%. Recent laboratory and field tests have substantiated assumptions of equipment limitations. Tow-tank tests of an AVM system with a 4.69-meter path length yielded an average standard deviation error of 9.3 mms/sec, and the field tests of an AVM system with a 20.5-meter path length yielded an average standard deviation error of a 4 mms/sec. (USGS)

  9. Interference Reduction in Glucose Detection by Redox Potential Tuning: New Glucose Meter Development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong Je; Cho, Chul-Ho; Kim, Kwang Bok; Lee, Min-Hyoung; Kim, Jae Hong; Lee, Suho; Cho, Jaegeol; Jung, Suntae; Kim, Dong-Min; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2015-01-01

    A new glucose meter was developed employing a novel disposable glucose sensor strip comprising a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-glucose dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) and a mixture of Fe compounds as a mediator. An iron complex, 5-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline iron(III) chloride (Fe-PhenTPy), was synthesized as a new mediator for the NAD-GDH system. Due to the high oxidation potential of the mediator, the detection potential was tuned to be more closely fitted toward the enzyme reaction potential, less than 400 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl), by mixing with an additional iron mediator. The impedance spectrometry for the enzyme sensor containing the mixed mediators showed an enhanced charge transfer property. In addition, a new cartridge-type glucose meter was manufactured using effective aligned-electrodes, which showed an enhanced response compared with conventional electrode alignment. The proposed glucose sensor resulted in a wide dynamic range in the concentration range of 30 - 500 mg dL(-1) with a reduced interference effect and a good sensitivity of 0.57 μA mM(-1). PMID:26165295

  10. LLNL current meter array--concept and system description

    SciTech Connect

    Mantrom, D.D.

    1994-11-15

    A measurement capability using a horizontal array of 10 S4 current meters mounted on a stiff floating structure with 35 m aperture has been developed to support interpretation of radar imaging of surface effects associated with internal waves. This system has been fielded three times and most recently, has collected data alongside the sea-surface footprint of a land-fixed radar imaging ship-generated internal waves. The underlying need for this measurement capability is described. The specifications resulting from this need are presented and the engineering design and deployment procedures of the platform and systems that resulted are described The current meter data are multiplexed along with meteorological and system status data on board the floating platform and are telemetered to a shore station and on to a data acquisition system. The raw data are recorded, and are then processed to form space-time images of current and strain rate (a spatial derivative of the current field). Examples of raw and processed data associated with ship-generated internal waves are presented.

  11. NFIRAOS: first facility AO system for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herriot, Glen; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Boyer, Corinne; Byrnes, Peter; Caputa, Kris; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Hill, Alexis; Ljusic, Zoran; Pazder, John; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Smith, Malcolm; Spano, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wevers, Ivan; Wang, Lianqi; Wooff, Robert

    2014-07-01

    NFIRAOS, the Thirty Meter Telescope's first adaptive optics system is an order 60x60 Multi-Conjugate AO system with two deformable mirrors. Although most observing will use 6 laser guide stars, it also has an NGS-only mode. Uniquely, NFIRAOS is cooled to -30 °C to reduce thermal background. NFIRAOS delivers a 2-arcminute beam to three client instruments, and relies on up to three IR WFSs in each instrument. We present recent work including: robust automated acquisition on these IR WFSs; trade-off studies for a common-size of deformable mirror; real-time computing architectures; simplified designs for high-order NGS-mode wavefront sensing; modest upgrade concepts for high-contrast imaging.

  12. TESTING OF A 20-METER SOLAR SAIL SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, J. L.; Behun, V.; Mann, T.; Murphy D.; Macy, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the structural dynamic tests conducted in-vacuum on the Scalable Square Solar Sail (S(sup 4)) System 20-meter test article developed by ATK Space Systems as part of a ground demonstrator system development program funded by NASA's In-Space Propulsion program1-3. These tests were conducted for the purpose of validating analytical models that would be required by a flight test program to predict in space performance4. Specific tests included modal vibration tests on the solar sail system in a 1 Torr vacuum environment using various excitation locations and techniques including magnetic excitation at the sail quadrant corners, piezoelectric stack actuation at the mast roots, spreader bar excitation at the mast tips, and bi-morph piezoelectric patch actuation on the sail cords. The excitation methods were evaluated for their suitability to in-vacuum ground testing and their traceability to the development of on-orbit flight test techniques. The solar sail masts were also tested in ambient atmospheric conditions and these results are also discussed.

  13. TESTING OF A 20-METER SOLAR SAIL SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Jim L.; Behun, Vaughan; Mann, Troy; Murphy, Dave; Macy, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the structural dynamic tests conducted in-vacuum on the Scalable Square Solar Sail (S(sup 4)) System 20-meter test article developed by ATK Space Systems as part of a ground demonstrator system development program funded by NASA's In-Space Propulsion program. These tests were conducted for the purpose of validating analytical models that would be required by a flight test program to predict in space performance. Specific tests included modal vibration tests on the solar sail system in a 1 Torr vacuum environment using various excitation locations and techniques including magnetic excitation at the sail quadrant corners, piezoelectric stack actuation at the mast roots, spreader bar excitation at the mast tips, and bi-morph piezoelectric patch actuation on the sail cords. The excitation methods are evaluated for their suitability to in-vacuum ground testing and their traceability to the development of on-orbit flight test techniques. The solar sail masts were also tested in ambient atmospheric conditions and these results are also discussed.

  14. An Improved Platform Levelling System for Airborne Gravity Meters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled Lacoste and Romberg type relative gravity meters to improve in accuracy to the point where other non-sensor related sources of error serve to limit the overall accuracy of the system. One of these sources of error is derived from the inability of the platform, in which the sensor is mounted, to keep the sensor perfectly level during survey flight. Off level errors occur when the aircraft is unable to maintain straight and level flight along a survey line. The levelling platform of a typical Lacoste and Romberg type dynamic gravity meter utilizes a complex feedback loop involving both accelerometers and gyroscopes with an output connected to torque motors mounted to the platform to sense an off level situation and correct for it. The current system is limited by an inability of the platform to distinguish between an acceleration of the platform due to a change in heading, altitude or speed of the aircraft and a true change in the local gravity vertical. Both of these situations cause the platform to tilt in reponse however the aircraft acceleration creates an error in the gravity measurement. These off level errors can be corrected for to a limited degree depending on the algorithm used and the size and duration of the causal acceleration. High precision GPS now provides accurate real time position information which can be used to determine if an accleration is a real level change or due to an anomalous acceleration. The correct implementation of the GPS position can significantly improve the accuracy of the platform levelling including keeping the platform level during course reversals or drape flying during a survey. This can typically improve the quality of the gravity data before any processing corrections. The enhanced platform also reduces the time taken to stabilize the platform at the beginning of a survey line therefore improving the efficiency of the data collection. This paper discusses the method and

  15. A reference radiance-meter system for thermodynamic temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S. G. R.; Briaudeau, S.; Bourson, F.; Rougié, B.; Truong, D.; Kozlova, O.; Coutin, J.-M.; Sadli, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the work carried out to evaluate the radiometric performance of a radiance-meter system which has been built at the LNE-Cnam to determine the thermodynamic temperature of high-temperature fixed points. The work comes as an integral part of the ‘implementing the new Kelvin’ (INK) project in which nine National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) strive to assign the thermodynamic temperatures to the melting curve of high-temperature fixed points with the lowest possible uncertainty. The method used in this research is based on the radiance approach. It exploits a system based on a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source whose radiance is absolutely measured by a trap detector through a well-defined geometry. The trap detector is calibrated traceable to the LNE-Cnam’s cryogenic radiometer. Once the radiance of the sphere is defined, a single grating-based spectroradiometer is used to measure the radiance of the fixed point source at the laser wavelength through direct comparison with the sphere radiance. This allows the thermodynamic temperature of the fixed point to be determined using Planck’s radiation law. The work provides a thorough evaluation of the system along with a detailed study of all related systematic effects and their corresponding uncertainties.

  16. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  17. Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.

  18. Transmutation of Personal Glucose Meters into Portable and Highly Sensitive Microbial Pathogen Detection Platform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Zhaowei; Gao, Nan; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-10-01

    Herein, for the first time, we presented a simple and general approach by using personal glucose meters (PGM) for portable and ultrasensitive detection of microbial pathogens. Upon addition of pathogenic bacteria, glucoamylase-quaternized magnetic nanoparticles (GA-QMNPS) conjugates were disrupted by the competitive multivalent interactions between bacteria and QMNPS, resulting in the release of GA. After magnetic separation, the free GA could catalyze the hydrolysis of amylose into glucose for quantitative readout by PGM. In such way, PGM was transmuted into a bacterial detection device and extremely low detection limits down to 20 cells mL(-1) was achieved. More importantly, QMNPS could inhibit the growth of the bacteria and destroy its cellular structure, which enabled bacteria detection and inhibition simultaneously. The simplicity, portability, sensitivity and low cost of presented work make it attractive for clinical applications. PMID:26153225

  19. 24 CFR 965.407 - Reevaluations of master-meter systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reevaluations of master-meter systems. 965.407 Section 965.407 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Existing PHA-Owned Projects § 965.407 Reevaluations of master-meter systems. Because of changes in the...

  20. Highly sensitive detection of M.SssI DNA methyltransferase activity using a personal glucose meter.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huimin; Peng, Si Ying; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    A simple method for highly sensitive and selective detection of M.SssI CpG methyltransferase (M.SssI MTase) activity is developed, leveraging on the portability and ease of use of a personal glucose meter (PGM). Briefly, DNA-invertase conjugates are hybridized with their complementary DNA strands pre-immobilized on magnetic beads. The 5'-CCGG-3' sequence present in the DNA duplexes serves as the recognition site for both Hpa II restriction enzyme and M.SssI MTase (5'-CG-3'). Hpa II restriction enzyme specifically cleaves at unmethylated 5'-CCGG-3' sequence, and the invertase that remains on the methylated DNA catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose. It is found that the amount of glucose is proportional to the M.SssI MTase methylation activity in the range of 0.5 to 80 U/mL with a detection limit of 0.37 U/mL. Due to the specific recognition sequence present in the DNA strands, this method also shows high selectivity for M.SssI MTase. In addition, inhibition studies with 5'-azacytidine demonstrate the capability of inhibition screening using this method. Graphical abstract Deteciton of M.SssI DNA methyltransferase activity by a personal glucose meter. PMID:27311957

  1. Control System Modeling for the Thirty Meter Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacMynowski, Douglas G.; Thompson, Peter M.; Shelton, J. Chris; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Colavita, M. Mark; Sirota, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror is composed of 492 segments that are controlled to high precision in the presence of wind and vibration disturbances, despite the interaction with structural dynamics. The higher bandwidth and larger number of segments compared with the Keck telescopes requires greater attention to modeling to ensure success. We focus here on the development and validation of a suite of quasi-static and dynamic modeling tools required to support the design process, including robustness verification, performance estimation, and requirements flowdown. Models are used to predict the dynamic response due to wind and vibration disturbances, estimate achievable bandwidth in the presence of control-structure-interaction (CSI) and uncertainty in the interaction matrix, and simulate and analyze control algorithms and strategies, e.g. for control of focus-mode, and sensor calibration. Representative results illustrate TMT performance scaling with parameters, but the emphasis is on the modeling framework itself.

  2. Personal glucose meters for detection and quantification of a broad range of analytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yi; Xiang, Yu

    2015-02-03

    A general methodology for the development of highly sensitive and selective sensors that can achieve portable, low-cost and quantitative detection of a broad range of targets using only a personal glucose meter (PGM) is disclosed. The method uses recognition molecules that are specific for a target agent, enzymes that can convert an enzyme substrate into glucose, and PGM. Also provided are sensors, which can include a solid support to which is attached a recognition molecule that permits detection of a target agent, wherein the recognition molecule specifically binds to the target agent in the presence of the target agent but not significantly to other agents as well as an enzyme that can catalyze the conversion of a substance into glucose, wherein the enzyme is attached directly or indirectly to the recognition molecule, and wherein in the presence of the target agent the enzyme can convert the substance into glucose. The disclosed sensors can be part of a lateral flow device. Methods of using such sensors for detecting target agents are also provided.

  3. A Mobile-Phone-Based Breath Carbon Monoxide Meter to Detect Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile phones hold considerable promise for delivering evidence-based smoking cessation interventions that require frequent and objective assessment of smoking status via breath carbon monoxide (Breath CO) measurement. However, there are currently no commercially available mobile-phone-based Breath CO meters. We developed a mobile-phone-based Breath CO meter prototype that attaches to and communicates with a smartphone through an audio port. We then evaluated the reliability and the validity of Breath CO measures collected with the mobile meter prototype and assessed the usability and acceptability of the meter. Methods: Participants included 20 regular smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day), 20 light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day), and 20 nonsmokers. Expired air samples were collected 4 times from each participant: twice with the mobile meter and twice with a commercially available Breath CO meter. Results: Measures calculated by the mobile meter correlated strongly with measures calculated by the commercial meter (r = .96, p < .001). Additionally, the mobile meter accurately distinguished between smokers and nonsmokers. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the mobile meter was 94.7%, and the meter had a combined sensitivity and specificity of 1.86 at an abstinence threshold of ≤6 ppm. Responses on an acceptability survey indicated that smokers liked the meter and would be interested in using it during a quit attempt. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that a mobile-phone-based Breath CO meter is a reliable, valid, and acceptable device for distinguishing between smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:24470633

  4. Oxygen-hydrogen meter assembly for use in remote sodium sampling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.B.; Bohringer, A.P.; Yount, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    An assembly of an electrolytic oxygen meter and a diffusion type hydrogen meter was designed to fit into the Multipurpose Sampler hardware already installed and operating on the four FFTF sodium systems. One of the key elements in this assembly is a ceramic-metal sealed oxygen sensor which allows use of a metal tube to extend the 51 cm (20 in.) between the sampler top and the flowing sodium region.

  5. A volumetric meter chip for point-of-care quantitative detection of bovine catalase for food safety control.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xingye; Hu, Jie; Choi, Jane Ru; Huang, Yalin; Wang, Xuemin; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2016-09-01

    A volumetric meter chip was developed for quantitative point-of-care (POC) analysis of bovine catalase, a bioindicator of bovine mastitis, in milk samples. The meter chip displays multiplexed quantitative results by presenting the distance of ink bar advancement that is detectable by the naked eye. The meter chip comprises a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layer, a double-sided adhesive (DSA) layer and a glass slide layer fabricated by the laser-etching method, which is typically simple, rapid (∼3 min per chip), and cost effective (∼$0.2 per chip). Specially designed "U shape" reaction cells are covered by an adhesive tape that serves as an on-off switch, enabling the simple operation of the assay. As a proof of concept, we employed the developed meter chip for the quantification of bovine catalase in raw milk samples to detect catalase concentrations as low as 20 μg/mL. The meter chip has great potential to detect various target analytes for a wide range of POC applications. PMID:27543029

  6. Orbital Debris Detection and Tracking Strategies for the NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulrooney, M.; Hickson, P.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2010-01-01

    MCAT (Meter-Class Autonomous Telescope) is a 1.3m f/4 Ritchey-Chr tien on a double horseshoe equatorial mount that will be deployed in early 2011 to the western pacific island of Legan in the Kwajalein Atoll to perform orbital debris observations. MCAT will be capable of tracking earth orbital objects at all inclinations and at altitudes from 200 km to geosynchronous. MCAT s primary objective is the detection of new orbital debris in both low-inclination low-earth orbits (LEO) and at geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). MCAT was thus designed with a fast focal ratio and a large unvignetted image circle able to accommodate a detector sized to yield a large field of view. The selected primary detector is a close-cycle cooled 4Kx4K 15um pixel CCD camera that yields a 0.9 degree diagonal field. For orbital debris detection in widely spaced angular rate regimes, the camera must offer low read-noise performance over a wide range of framing rates. MCAT s 4-port camera operates from 100 kHz to 1.5 MHz per port at 2 e- and 10 e- read noise respectively. This enables low-noise multi-second exposures for GEO observations as well as rapid (several frames per second) exposures for LEO. GEO observations will be performed using a counter-sidereal time delay integration (TDI) technique which NASA has used successfully in the past. For MCAT the GEO survey, detection, and follow-up prediction algorithms will be automated. These algorithms will be detailed herein. For LEO observations two methods will be employed. The first, Orbit Survey Mode (OSM), will scan specific orbital inclination and altitude regimes, detect new orbital debris objects against trailed background stars, and adjust the telescope track to follow the detected object. The second, Stare and Chase Mode (SCM), will perform a stare, then detect and track objects that enter the field of view which satisfy specific rate and brightness criteria. As with GEO, the LEO operational modes will be fully automated and will be

  7. Integrated modeling and systems engineering for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, George Z.; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; MacMynowski, Doug; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Nissly, Carl; Troy, Mitchell; Cho, Myung

    2011-09-01

    Modeling is an integral part of systems engineering. It is utilized in requirement validation, system verification, as well as for supporting design trade studies. Modeling highly complex systems poses particular challenges, including the definition and interpretation of system performance, and the combined evaluation of physical processes spanning a wide range of time frames. Our solution is based on statistical interpretation of system performance and a unique image quality metric developed by TMT. The Stochastic Framework and Point Source Sensitivity allow us to properly estimate and combine the optical effects of various disturbances and telescope imperfections.

  8. A suggested 12-meter telescope optical system configuration for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ding-qiang; Liang, Ming; Yuan, Xiangyan; Bai, Hua; Cui, Xiangqun

    2016-05-01

    In this optical/infrared telescope, a segmented primary mirror is adopted with diameter 12 m and f-ratio 1.6. This telescope has prime focus, Cassegrain, Nasmyth and coudé systems. The prime focus system has a 1.5° field of view corrector with excellent image quality. It will be used for multi-object fibre spectroscopic observation and CCD photography. In this 12 m telescope, all systems except the prime focus system share the same secondary mirror; the Nasmyth and coudé systems are formed by adding relay mirrors; and the method of moving a secondary mirror is used to enhance image quality. All these features originate from the innovative optical system of the Chinese 2.16 m telescope. At the Cassegrain focus, a dark object spectrograph, for example, can be installed without any corrector; and in case a field of view is needed, a corrector may be added. Both the Nasmyth and coudé systems have exceptionally excellent image quality and the exchange between them occurs very conveniently. Many instruments in visible and infrared wavebands, some with an adaptive optics system, will be installed at the Nasmyth platform. Coudé system will be used for interferometry and for those instruments which require high stability. This configuration has a nearly full range of systems but it is not complex, and it can even be adopted by 20-40 m class telescopes.

  9. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  10. A cable detection lidar system for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, Benoist; Capbern, Alain; Defour, Martin; Fertala, Remi

    1992-01-01

    Helicopters in low-level flight are endangered by power lines or telephone wires, especially when flying at night and under poor visibility conditions. In order to prevent 'wire strike', Thomson has developed a lidar system consisting of a pulsed diode laser emitting in the near infrared region (lambda = 0.9 microns). The HOWARD (Helicopter Obstacle Warning and Detection) System utilizes a high repetition rate diode laser (PRE = 20 KHz) along with counter-rotating prisms for laser beam deflection with a total field of view of 30 degrees. This system was successfully field tested in 1991. HOWARD can detect one inch wires at ranges up to 200 meters. We are presently in the process of developing a flyable compact lidar system capable of detection ranges in the order of 400 meters.

  11. Multispectral light metering system for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccoli, Matteo; Melis, Marcello

    2013-05-01

    In the world of Cultural Heritage the first concern is all about Conservation of the works of art. A piece of art in bad shape is meant to deteriorate to an irreversible stage. To avoid this, quite often it's needed to go through one or more cycles of restoration to clean and consolidate the various elements of the piece. The very second concern, once the work of art is restored and in good and stable shape, is its fruition. At the end of the day why one should do all that restoration work if nobody then can access and view? Yet viewing and enjoying an artwork means that a visitor would be able to see it at its best, and this means, almost always, to have a good lighting system. Today, both restoration and fruition can greatly benefit of all the available technologies, and achieve very high level quality. The goal of this paper is the development of an exposimetric system suitable to be extremely useful as a tool for the the non invasive analysis, as well as for the lighting design and lighting systems monitoring. Many diagnosis techniques that are used before the restoration stage, require a suitable lighting system to allow to extract from the painting the maximum amount of information through the acquisition of images in the range of visible as well as UV and IR light. A standard exposimeter is for its own nature, sensitive only to the visible light, constrained by the standard photometric sensitivity curve V(lambda). A wide band exposimeter would be, on the other hand, an invaluable tool to get higher precision and to speed up multispectral wide band images acquisition, avoiding time wasting fail and try cycles to record the subject under wide spectrum conditions. The same equipment can be used to monitor the quality of the light in a expo lighting system at, for example, a museum or a gallery. The light hitting a piece of art has to allow the visitor to see and appreciate all the color shades, and to appreciate the contrast of dark and bright areas due only to

  12. The Thirty Meter Telescope Site Conditions Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Warren; Travouillon, Tony

    2015-04-01

    We examine the experiences and ideas from operating observatories regarding the measurements of the characteristics of the atmosphere that must be gathered within the locality of the observatory in order to support safe, efficient and scientifically optimized observatory operations as well as commissioning, performance monitoring and support the scientific analysis of telescope observations. We describe the expected requirements for the measurement capabilities of the the TMT Site Conditions Monitoring System (SCMS) and discuss how these plans are being developed with input from staff at operating observatories and active observational astronomers.

  13. Portable modular detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, James S.; Singh, Anup; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Stamps, James F.

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  14. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  15. Using the ubiquitous pH meter combined with a loop mediated isothermal amplification method for facile and sensitive detection of Nosema bombycis genomic DNA PTP1.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shunbi; Yuan, Yali; Song, Yue; Zhuo, Ying; Li, Tian; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-12-28

    Here we show an amplification-coupled detection method for directly measuring released hydrogen ions during the loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) procedure by using a pH meter. The genomic DNA of Nosema bombycis (N. bombycis) was amplified and detected by employing this LAMP-pH meter platform for the first time. PMID:25381873

  16. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Roy M.; Montgomery, Edward E.; Montgomery, Sandy; Adams, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 separate, independent system design and development hardware demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter ground demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators. Descriptions of the system designs for both the ATK and L'Garde systems will be presented. Changes, additions and evolution of the system designs will be highlighted. A description of the modeling and analyses activities performed by both teams, as well as testing conducted to raise the TRL of solar sail technology will be presented. A summary of the results of model correlation activities will be presented. Finally, technology gaps identified during the assessment and gap closure plans will be presented, along with "lessons learned", subsequent planning activities and validation flight opportunities for solar sail propulsion technology.

  17. Evaluation of a metering, mixing, and dispensing system for mixing polysulfide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Kurt B.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate whether a metered mixing system can mix PR-1221 polysulfide adhesive as well as or better than batch-mixed adhesive; also, to evaluate the quality of meter-mixed PR-1860 and PS-875 polysulfide adhesives. These adhesives are candidate replacements for PR-1221 which will not be manufactured in the future. The following material properties were evaluated: peel strength, specific gravity and adhesive components of mixed adhesives, Shore A hardness, tensile adhesion strength, and flow rate. Finally, a visual test called the butterfly test was performed to observe for bubbles and unmixed adhesive. The results of these tests are reported and discussed.

  18. A system for calibrating seepage meters used to measure flow between ground water and surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Menheer, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The in-line flowmeter used with this system is incapable of measuring seepage rates below about 7 centimeters per day. Smaller seepage rates can be measured manually. The seepage- control system also can be modified for measuring slower seepage rates with the use of two flowmeters and a slightly different water-routing system, or a fluid-metering pump can be used to control flow through the flux tank instead of an adjustable-height reservoir.

  19. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. DSN 64-meter antenna L-band (1668-MHz) microwave system performance overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withington, J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, L-band (1668 MHz) receive-only feed systems were installed on the three Deep Space Network 64 meter antennas to provide tracking support for two non-NASA spacecraft. The specifications, design approach, and operational test results are presented. The L-band microwave system met all of its tracking goals and is currently being upgraded to include a C-band (5000 MHz) uplink.

  1. Non-invasive energy meter for fixed and variable flow systems

    DOEpatents

    Menicucci, David F.; Black, Billy D.

    2005-11-01

    An energy metering method and apparatus for liquid flow systems comprising first and second segments of one or more conduits through which a liquid flows, comprising: attaching a first temperature sensor for connection to an outside of the first conduit segment; attaching a second temperature sensor for connection to an outside of the second conduit segment; via a programmable control unit, receiving data from the sensors and calculating energy data therefrom; and communicating energy data from the meter; whereby the method and apparatus operate without need to temporarily disconnect or alter the first or second conduit segments. The invention operates with both variable and fixed flow systems, and is especially useful for both active and passive solar energy systems.

  2. Detection of Power Grid Harmonic Pollution Sources based on Upgraded Power Meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Predrag; Stevanović, Dejan

    2014-05-01

    The paper suggests a new and efficient method for location of nonlinear loads on a grid. It is based on measuring of distortion power. The paper reviews different definitions of distortion power and proves that the method is feasible independently on particular definition. The obtained results of simulation and measurement confirm the effectiveness and applicability of the method. The proposed solution is suitable for software update of existing electronic power-meters or can be implement as hardware upgrade.

  3. Systems engineering of the Thirty Meter Telescope for the construction phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Scott; Rogers, John; Thompson, Hugh; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; MacMartin, Douglas; Wilde, Eric; Troy, Mitchell; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Nissly, Carl

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the system design, architecture, and construction phase system engineering processes of the Thirty Meter Telescope project. We summarize the key challenges and our solutions for managing TMT systems engineering during the construction phase. We provide an overview of system budgets, requirements and interfaces, and the management thereof. The requirements engineering processes, including verification and plans for collection of technical data and testing during the assembly and integration phases, are described. We present configuration, change control and technical review processes, covering all aspects of the system design including performance models, requirements, and CAD databases.

  4. System modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope alignment and phasing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Troy, Mitchell

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a system model using the System Modeling Language (SysML) for the Alignment and Phasing System (APS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). APS is a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor that will be used to measure the alignment and phasing of the primary mirror segments, and the alignment of the secondary and tertiary mirrors. The APS system model contains the ow-down of the Level 1 TMT requirements to APS (Level 2) requirements, and from there to the APS sub-systems (Level 3) requirements. The model also contains the operating modes and scenarios for various activities, such as maintenance alignment, post-segment exchange alignment, and calibration activities. The requirements ow-down is captured in SysML requirements diagrams, and we describe the process of maintaining the DOORS database as the single-source-of-truth for requirements, while using the SysML model to capture the logic and notes associated with the ow-down. We also use the system model to capture any needed communications from APS to other TMT systems, and between the APS sub-systems. The operations are modeled using SysML activity diagrams, and will be used to specify the APS interface documents. The modeling tool can simulate the top level activities to produce sequence diagrams, which contain all the communications between the system and subsystem needed for that activity. By adding time estimates for the lowest level APS activities, a robust estimate for the total time on-sky that APS requires to align and phase the telescope can be obtained. This estimate will be used to verify that the time APS requires on-sky meets the Level 1 TMT requirements.

  5. Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using a1.0-meter Liquid Core Waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

    2005-02-15

    Detection and quantification of the aquo ions of Pu in 1 MHClO4 was carried out using a 1-meter liquid core waveguide (LCW) coupledto a fiber optic UV-Vis spectrometer. Detection limits of 7 x 10-7 M forPu(VI), 1.6 x 10-5 M for Pu(V), 5 x 10-6 M for Pu(IV) and 8 x 10-6 M forPu(III) were achieved. The limits of detection represent increases of 18to 33 times those achievable using a conventional 1-cm path length.Because of the much lower detection limits of the LCW, routineidentification of the oxidation states in dilute Pu solutions can bemade.

  6. Portable and sensitive quantitative detection of DNA based on personal glucose meters and isothermal circular strand-displacement polymerization reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xue-tao; Liang, Kai-yi; Zeng, Jia-ying

    2015-02-15

    A portable and sensitive quantitative DNA detection method based on personal glucose meters and isothermal circular strand-displacement polymerization reaction was developed. The target DNA triggered target recycling process, which opened capture DNA. The released target then found another capture DNA to trigger another polymerization cycle, which was repeated for many rounds, resulting in the multiplication of the DNA-invertase conjugation on the surface of Streptavidin-MNBs. The DNA-invertase was used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose for PGM readout. There was a liner relationship between the signal of PGM and the concentration of target DNA in the range of 5.0 to 1000 fM, which is lower than some DNA detection method. In addition, the method exhibited excellent sequence selectivity and there was almost no effect of biological complex to the detection performance, which suggested our method can be successfully applied to DNA detection in real biological samples. PMID:25441417

  7. Detection Performance of Upgraded "Polished Panel" Optical Receiver Concept on the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Research Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a "polished panel" optical receiver concept on the 34 meter research antenna of the Deep Space Network (DSN) has been the subject of recent papers. This concept would enable simultaneous reception of optical and microwave signals by retaining the original shape of the main reflector for microwave reception, but with the aluminum panels polished to high reflectivity to enable focusing of optical signal energy as well. A test setup has been installed on the DSN's 34 meter research antenna at Deep Space Station 13 (DSS-13) of NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex in California, and preliminary experimental results have been obtained. This paper describes the results of our latest efforts to improve the point-spread function (PSF) generated by a custom polished panel, in an attempt to reduce the dimensions of the PSF, thus enabling more precise tracking and improved detection performance. The design of the new mechanical support structure and its operation are described, and the results quantified in terms of improvements in collected signal energy and optical communications performance, based on data obtained while tracking the planet Jupiter with the 34 meter research antenna at DSS-13.

  8. Advanced real-time ramp metering system (ARMS): The system concept. Research report, January 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.C.S.; Kim, J.L.; Chen, Y.; Hao, Y.; Lee, S.

    1994-11-01

    The research report presents a three-level, highway ramp-metering control scheme. In the first level, ramp controllers distributively compute ramp metering rates based on system-wide information. The system adapts quickly to changing traffic conditions; it is modular and allows scalable and robust implementation. The O-D prediction algorithm is adaptive and very accurate. The second level consists of an optimal, self-learning congestion predictor algorithm that may predict all short-term traffic flow-breakdowns. The algorithm, using congestion resolution scheme which overcomes many of the drawbacks of existing techniques. It balances the congestion resolution time with the service quality of the surface streets.

  9. Design of the Magellan Project 6.5-meter telescope: telescope structure and mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnels, Steven M.; Carr, David

    1994-06-01

    The Magellan Project 6.5 Meter Telescope is an alt-azimuth Tripod-Disk design currently under construction. The telescope, which is a joint project of the Carnegie Observatories and the University of Arizona, will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. An overview of the structural design, including its evolutionary history, is presented. In addition, two critical mechanical systems which have been prototyped and tested are described. The direct friction drives are used on the telescope main axes and instrument rotators. The vane-end actuator system is used to maintain collimation and focus on any of the four secondary mirror assemblies for which the system is designed.

  10. Description of the insulation system for the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Dress, D. A.; Kilgore, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal insulation system of the Langley 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel is described. The insulation system is designed to operate from room temperature down to about 77.4 K, the temperature of liquid nitrogen at 1 atmosphere. A detailed description is given of the primary insulation sytem consists of glass fiber mats, a three part vapor barrier, and a dry positive pressure purge system. Also described are several secondary insulation systems required for the test section, actuators, and tunnel supports. An appendix briefly describes the original insulation system which is considered inferior to the one presently in place. The time required for opening and closing portions of the insulation system for modification or repair to the tunnel has been reduced, typically, from a few days for the original thermal insulating system to a few hours for the present system.

  11. Load Segmentation for Convergence of Distribution Automation and Advanced Metering Infrastructure Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamulaparthy, Balakrishna; KS, Swarup; Kommu, Rajagopal

    2014-12-01

    Distribution automation (DA) applications are limited to feeder level today and have zero visibility outside of the substation feeder and reaching down to the low-voltage distribution network level. This has become a major obstacle in realizing many automated functions and enhancing existing DA capabilities. Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) systems are being widely deployed by utilities across the world creating system-wide communications access to every monitoring and service point, which collects data from smart meters and sensors in short time intervals, in response to utility needs. DA and AMI systems convergence provides unique opportunities and capabilities for distribution grid modernization with the DA system acting as a controller and AMI system acting as feedback to DA system, for which DA applications have to understand and use the AMI data selectively and effectively. In this paper, we propose a load segmentation method that helps the DA system to accurately understand and use the AMI data for various automation applications with a suitable case study on power restoration.

  12. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  13. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  14. Dynamic modeling of the servovalves incorporated in the servo hydraulic system of the 70-meter DSN antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    As the pointing accuracy and service life requirements of the DSN 70 meter antenna increase, it is necessary to gain a more complete understanding of the servo hydraulic system in order to improve system designs to meet the new requirements. A mathematical model is developed for the servovalve incorporated into the hydraulic system of the 70 meter antenna and uses experimental data to verify the validity of the model and to identify the model parameters.

  15. Underwater laser detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Walid; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2015-02-01

    The conventional method used to detect an underwater target is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. But the acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy; while, the potential benefits of a laserbased underwater target detection include high directionality, high response, and high range accuracy. Lasers operating in the blue-green region of the light spectrum(420 : 570nm)have a several applications in the area of detection and ranging of submersible targets due to minimum attenuation through water ( less than 0.1 m-1) and maximum laser reflection from estimated target (like mines or submarines) to provide a long range of detection. In this paper laser attenuation in water was measured experimentally by new simple method by using high resolution spectrometer. The laser echoes from different targets (metal, plastic, wood, and rubber) were detected using high resolution CCD camera; the position of detection camera was optimized to provide a high reflection laser from target and low backscattering noise from the water medium, digital image processing techniques were applied to detect and discriminate the echoes from the metal target and subtract the echoes from other objects. Extraction the image of target from the scattering noise is done by background subtraction and edge detection techniques. As a conclusion, we present a high response laser imaging system to detect and discriminate small size, like-mine underwater targets.

  16. A 1.4 meter electron curing system for the finishing of sheet wood products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, D.; Quintal, B. S.; Nablo, S. V.

    The advantages of high performance electron curable clear and pigmented topcoats, suitable for both wood and paper application, have been known for some time. Since 1978, great progress has also been made in the application of this technology to laminating for the flexible web converting industry. The combination of these systems with a single electron curing station offers the opportunity for "single-pass" finishing of laminated board which performs both the lamination and topcoat steps inline. A system is described which is used for the simultaneous laminating and topcoating of printed paper or vinyl to board. Typical panel dimensions are 1.2 × 2.5 meters (4 feet × 8 feet) and the product-handling Selfshield TM system used in-line to convey the panel products continuously through the electron curing station is 12.4 m × 1.56 m × 1.67 m (40 feet × 5 feet × 5.5 feet). The system is designed for use at speeds to 60 meters/minute (200 fpm). The performance specifications of both the Electrocurtain ® curing unit, and of typical topcoats and adhesives used with this system, will be discussed. The provisions required for inerting and venting of the processor zone when using these 100% reactive coatings will also be presented.

  17. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Paxson, Vern; Campbell, Scott; leres, Craig; Lee, Jason

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or access to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.

  18. Enzyme-Encapsulated Liposome-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Enabling Sensitive Personal Glucose Meter Readout for Portable Detection of Disease Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bingqian; Liu, Dan; Yan, Jinmao; Qiao, Zhi; Zhong, Yunxin; Yan, Jiawei; Zhu, Zhi; Ji, Tianhai; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2016-03-23

    There is considerable demand for sensitive, selective, and portable detection of disease-associated proteins, particularly in clinical practice and diagnostic applications. Portable devices are highly desired for detection of disease biomarkers in daily life due to the advantages of being simple, rapid, user-friendly, and low-cost. Herein we report an enzyme-encapsulated liposome-linked immunosorbent assay for sensitive detection of proteins using personal glucose meters (PGM) for portable quantitative readout. Liposomes encapsulating a large amount of amyloglucosidase or invertase are surface-coated with recognition elements such as aptamers or antibodies for target recognition. By translating molecular recognition signal into a large amount of glucose with the encapsulated enzyme, disease biomarkers such as thrombin or C-reactive protein (CRP) can be quantitatively detected by a PGM with a high detection limit of 1.8 or 0.30 nM, respectively. With the advantages of portability, ease of use, and low-cost, the method reported here has potential for portable and quantitative detection of various targets for different POC testing scenarios, such as rapid diagnosis in clinic offices, health monitoring at the bedside, and chemical/biochemical safety control in the field. PMID:26918445

  19. Surface control system for the 15 meter hoop-column antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James B.; Ahl, Elvin L., Jr.; Butler, David H.; Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The 15-meter hoop-column antenna fabricated by the Harris Corporation under contract to the NASA Langley Research Center is described. The antenna is a deployable and restowable structure consisting of a central telescoping column, a 15-meter-diameter folding hoop, and a mesh reflector surface. The hoop is supported and positioned by 48 quartz cords attached to the column above the hoop, and by 24 graphite cords from the base of the antenna column. The RF reflective surface is a gold plated molybdenum wire mesh supported on a graphite cord truss structure which is attached between the hoop and the column. The surface contour is controlled by 96 graphite cords from the antenna base to the rear of the truss assembly. The antenna is actually a quadaperture reflector with each quadrant of the surface mesh shaped to produce an offset parabolic reflector. Results of near-field and structural tests are given. Controls structures and electromagnetics interaction, surface control system requirements, mesh control adjustment, surface control system actuator assembly, surface control system electronics, the system interface unit, and control stations are discussed.

  20. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Ford, E. B.

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  1. Automatic inspection of analog and digital meters in a robot vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trivedi, Mohan M.; Marapane, Suresh; Chen, Chuxin

    1988-01-01

    A critical limitation of most of the robots utilized in industrial environments arises due to their inability to utilize sensory feedback. This forces robot operation into totally preprogrammed or teleoperation modes. In order to endow the new generation of robots with higher levels of autonomy techniques for sensing of their work environments and for accurate and efficient analysis of the sensory data must be developed. In this paper detailed development of vision system modules for inspecting various types of meters, both analog and digital, encountered in a robotic inspection and manipulation tasks are described. These modules are tested using industrial robots having multisensory input capability.

  2. Analog/digital pH meter system I.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Paul; Park, Jea

    1992-01-01

    The project utilizes design automation software tools to design, simulate, and fabricate a pH meter integrated circuit (IC) system including a successive approximation type seven-bit analog to digital converter circuits using a 1.25 micron N-Well CMOS MOSIS process. The input voltage ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 V derived from a special type pH sensor, and the output is a three-digit decimal number display of pH with one decimal point.

  3. Development of strapdown inertial navigation system with MEMS sensors, barometric altimeter and ultrasonic range meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholopov, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    The results of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) tests with 9 degrees of freedom MEMS sensor MPU-9150 (triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer), pressure sensor LPS331 and ultrasonic range meter HC-SR04, implemented on the FPGA Altera Cyclone-II evaluation board DE1 is considered. SINS measures the spatial coordinates and altitude relative to the starting point, the orientation angles and distances to obstacles along the way. It is shown that the relative error of the spatial coordinates estimation does not exceed 1.1% in interval of some minutes.

  4. Thoron detection with an active Radon exposure meter--first results.

    PubMed

    Irlinger, J; Wielunski, M; Rühm, W

    2014-02-01

    For state-of-the-art discrimination of Radon and Thoron several measurement techniques can be used, such as active sampling, electrostatic collection, delayed coincidence method, and alpha-particle-spectroscopy. However, most of the devices available are bulky and show high power consumption, rendering them unfeasible for personal exposition monitoring. Based on a Radon exposure meter previously realized at the Helmholtz Center Munich (HMGU), a new electronic prototype for Radon/Thoron monitoring is currently being developed, which features small size and weight. Operating with pin-diode detectors, the low-power passive-sampling device can be used for continuous concentration measurements, employing alpha-particle-spectroscopy and coincidence event registration to distinguish decays originating either from Radon or Thoron isotopes and their decay products. In open geometry, preliminary calibration measurements suggest that one count per hour is produced by a 11 Bq m(-3) Radon atmosphere or by a 15 Bq m(-3) Thoron atmosphere. Future efforts will concentrate on measurements in mixed Radon/Thoron atmospheres. PMID:24593342

  5. Portable pathogen detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Milanovich, Fred P.; Brown, Steve B.; Vendateswaran, Kodumudi; Simon, Jonathan N.

    2005-06-14

    A portable pathogen detection system that accomplishes on-site multiplex detection of targets in biological samples. The system includes: microbead specific reagents, incubation/mixing chambers, a disposable microbead capture substrate, and an optical measurement and decoding arrangement. The basis of this system is a highly flexible Liquid Array that utilizes optically encoded microbeads as the templates for biological assays. Target biological samples are optically labeled and captured on the microbeads, which are in turn captured on an ordered array or disordered array disposable capture substrate and then optically read.

  6. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  7. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  8. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  9. Plugging meter

    DOEpatents

    Nagai, Akinori

    1979-01-01

    A plugging meter for automatically measuring the impurity concentration in a liquid metal is designed to have parallel passages including a cooling passage provided with a plugging orifice and with a flow meter, and a by-pass passage connected in series to a main passage having another flow meter, so that the plugging points may be obtained from the outputs of both flow meters. The plugging meter has a program signal generator, a flow-rate ratio setter and a comparator, and is adapted to change the temperature of the plugging orifice in accordance with a predetermined pattern or gradient, by means of a signal representative of the temperature of plugging orifice and a flow-rate ratio signal obtained from the outputs of both flow meters. This plugging meter affords an automatic and accurate measurement of a multi-plugging phenomenon taking place at the plugging orifice.

  10. Btu flow rate meter proof of concept demonstration for district heating and cooling systems: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mawardi, O.K.

    1988-10-01

    This report describes a research effort devoted to the development and subsequent feasibility demonstration of an instrument for the remote sensing of the Btu flow rate in a steam or hot water heating system. The concept of the Btu meter is based on a differential hot wire anemometer invented by Osman K. Mawardi. The incentive in the development of this device is the increased demand for an inexpensive and accurate (better than 1%) Btu meter. The ability of the meter to be read remotely is essential, since it is an effective way of reducing the manpower costs of the company operating the heating system. Other features of the Btu meter which are included in the design are simplicity of construction, ruggedness, and flexibility of the electronic interfacing system. The latter feature permits the incorporation of the telemetering circuit in a telephone or radio-based communication system. Both of these alternatives are commercially available today and are quite economical. With small modifications of the interfacing circuitry, the meter can be linked to a fiber optics automated meter reading network. 15 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Family housing metering test. A test program to determine the feasibility of installing utility meters in military family housing, developing energy ceilings, and operating a penalty billing system for occupants who overconsume energy. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Appendices: Feasibility Study of Utility Metering for Family Housing Units at Public Works Center, Great Lakes, Illinois; Photographs Showing Meter Reading Problems and Typical Meter Installations; Family Housing Survey; Family Housing Mock Utility Billing System User Manual; Analyses of Familiy Housing Norms; The Utility Norm Analysis Task of the Energy Conservation Program; ADP Portion of the Billing System; Occupant Guide to the Military Family Housing Utility Billing Test; NAVFAC Utility Billing System Study; PACNAVFACENGCOM Audit Report; Alternative Strategies for Optimizing Energy Supply, Distribution, and Consumption Systems on Naval Bases; Energy Conservation Attitudes and Behaviors of Navy Family Housing Residents; and The Corry Kil-A-Watt Newsletter.

  12. Evaluation of Microwave Landing System (MLS) effect on the delivery performance of a fixed-path metering and spacing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.; Davis, C. M.; Capron, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    Metering and spacing (M & S) system's algorithms described assume an aircraft two dimensional are navigation capability. The three navigation systems compared were: very high frequency omnidirectional range/distance measuring equipment (VOR/DME) and ILS, VOR/DME and + or - 40 MLS, and VOR/DME and + or - 60 MLS. Other factors studied were M & S tentative schedule point location, route geometry effects, and approach gate location effects. Summarized results are: the MLS offers some improvement over VOR/DME and ILS if all approach routes contain computer assisted turns; pilot reaction to moving the gate closer to the runway threshold may adversely affect M & S performance; and coupling en route metering to terminal scheduling transfers most of the terminal holding to more full efficient, higher altitude en route delay.

  13. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or accessmore » to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.« less

  14. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  15. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density <5 microcycle/(Hz)1/2 and to be capable of determining the power spectral density of the phase difference over the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 Hz. Such a phase meter could also be used on Earth to perform similar measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  16. Landmine detection by 3D GPR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Yokota, Yuya; Takahashi, Kazunori; Grasmueck, Mark

    2012-06-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for detection of small buried objects such as landmine and UXO, conducted demonstration tests by using the 3DGPR system, which is a GPR system combined with high accuracy positing system using a commercial laser positioning system (iGPS). iGPS can provide absolute and better than centimetre precise x,y,z coordinates to multiple mine sensors at the same time. The developed " 3DGPR" system is efficient and capable of high-resolution 3D shallow subsurface scanning of larger areas (25 m2 to thousands of square meters) with irregular topography . Field test by using a 500MHz GPR system equipped with 3DGPR system was conducted. PMN-2 and Type-72 mine models have been buried at the depth of 5-20cm in sand. We could demonstrate that the 3DGPR can visualize each of these buried land mines very clearly.

  17. Astrometric Detection of Extrasolar Planets: Results of a Feasibility Study with the Palomar 5 Meter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    1996-01-01

    The detection of extrasolar planets around stars like the Sun remains an important goal of astronomy. We present results from Palomar 5 m observations of the open cluster NGC 2420 in which we measure some of the sources of noise that will be present in an astrometric search for extrasolar planets. This is the first time that such a large aperture has been used for high-precision astrometry. We find that the atmospheric noise is 150 micro-arcsec hr(exp 1/2) across a 90 sec field of view and that differential chromatic refraction (DCR) can be calibrated to 128 micro-arcsec for observations within 1 hr of the meridian and 45 deg of zenith. These results confirm that a model for astrometric measurements can be extrapolated to large apertures. We demonstrate, based upon these results, that a large telescope achieves the sensitivity required to perform a statistically significant search for extra solar planets. We describe an astrometric technique to detect planets, the astrometric signals expected, the role of reference stars, and the sources of measurement noise: photometric noise, atmospheric motion between stars, sky background, instrumental noise, and DCR. For the latter, we discuss a method to reduce the noise further to 66 micro-arcsecond for observations within 1 hr of the meridian and 45 deg of zenith. We discuss optimal lists of target stars taken from the latest Gliese & Jahreiss catalog of nearby stars with the largest potential astrometric signals, declination limits for both telescope accessibility and reduced DCR, and galactic latitude limits for a sufficiant number of reference stars. Two samples are described from which one can perform statistically significant searches for gas giant planets around nearby stars. One sample contains 100 "solar class" stars with an average stellar mass of 0.82 solar mass; the other maximizes the number of stars, 574, by searching mainly low-mass M stars. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the statistical significance of

  18. Single Pulse Remote Raman Detection of Minerals and Organics Under Illuminated Condition from 10 Meters Distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Lucey, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    A directly coupled portable remote Raman instrument developed by the University of Hawaii has been shown here to identify several minerals, chemicals and organics from a distance of 10 m using a single laser pulse in a well illuminated background. Raman spectra, obtained during a very short period of time, of common minerals e.g., dolomite, calcite, marble, barite, gypsum, quarts, rutile, fluorapatite etc. clearly show Raman features which could be used as fingerprints for mineral identification. Raman features of organics such as benzene, cyclohexane, 2-propanol, naphthalene, etc. and other chemicals containing various functional groups like oxides, silicates, sulphates, nitrates, phosphates and carbonates were also easily detected. Ability to measure Raman spectra with a single laser pulse would be promising for future space missions where power consumption is critical and a rapid survey of the minerals with moderate to high Raman cross section might be desirable for selecting rocks that would provide high scientific return or for acquiring rocks for sample return to the Earth.

  19. The Adaptive Optics System for the New 6.5 Meter MMT Optical/Infrared Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Patrick C.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael; Angel, J. Roger P.; Angeli, George Z.; Johnson, Robert L.; Fitz-Patrick, Bruce C.; Davison, Warren B.; Sarlot, Roland J.; Bresloff, Cyndy J.; Hughes, John M.; Miller, Steve M.; Schaller, Phillip; Wildi, Francois P.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Cordova, Richard M.; Rademacher, Matthew L.; Rascon, Mario H.; Langlois, Maud; Roberts, Thomas; McCarthy, Don; Burge, James H.; Rhoadarmer, Troy A.; Shelton, J. Christopher; Jacobsen, Bruce; Salinari, Piero; Brusa, Guido; Del Vecchio, Ciro; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Sandler, David G.; Barrett, Todd K.

    1999-10-01

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) is currently being upgraded to a single 6.5 meter diameter mirror and should see first light at prime focus in September 1999. We are constructing an F/15 adaptive optics (AO) system which will be an integral part of the new MMT with first light in early 2000, removing the effect of atmospheric turbulence so that images near the diffraction limit in the near-infrared can be achieved. The deformable element of this system is a 64 cm diameter secondary mirror composed of a 1.8 mm thick thin glass shell and 336 voice coil actuators operating at 1 kHz. This is the first system that uses the secondary mirror as the correcting element, which means thermal background is minimized. We will primarily present an overview of the adaptive optics technique, followed by select results which will include the laboratory testing of the AO system components with a solid secondary, data taken with the wavefront sensor camera at prime focus of the new MMT, and tests of the secondary mirror control system.

  20. Ultrasonic Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for detecting ultrasonic vibrations. such as those generated by a small leak in a pressurized container. vessel. pipe. or the like. comprises an ultrasonic transducer assembly and a processing circuit for converting transducer signals into an audio frequency range signal. The audio frequency range signal can be used to drive a pair of headphones worn by an operator. A diode rectifier based mixing circuit provides a simple, inexpensive way to mix the transducer signal with a square wave signal generated by an oscillator, and thereby generate the audio frequency signal. The sensitivity of the system is greatly increased through proper selection and matching of the system components. and the use of noise rejection filters and elements. In addition, a parabolic collecting horn is preferably employed which is mounted on the transducer assembly housing. The collecting horn increases sensitivity of the system by amplifying the received signals. and provides directionality which facilitates easier location of an ultrasonic vibration source.

  1. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  2. Gas Flow Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  3. Stray light analysis of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Pfisterer, Richard N.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.

    2003-02-01

    A stray light analysis of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter telescope system was done to understand the performance for a variety of imaging modes. The telescope system consists of the 3.5-m telescope, its enclosure, and its associated imaging cameras. The purpose of the study was to assess the stray light performance of this system, identify where modification(s) would improve the system off-axis rejection characteristics, and assess the effectiveness of those modifications. A detailed telescope system geometry model was created, and scatter models were created for telescope and enclosure components. The computer model we created duplicated the pinhole stray light images taken with the telescope, thereby verifying the model. The Point Source Transmittance (PST), a commonly used metric for assessing stray light was used to evaluate the stray light performance of the system for a number of off-axis angles and to suggest modifications to enhance the system. The baseline PST of the existing system shows virtually no falloff with off-axis angle in the plane of the observatory slit. This is the result of (1) the focal plane having a large, unobstructed view of the Nasmyth mirror and cell, primary mirror cell, and baffles mounted on the Nasmyth cell, (2) relatively unobstructed illumination of telescope over a large range of angles in the plane of the slit, and (3) secondary and Nasmyth baffles that are not enclosed. These attributes create a series of first-level scatter paths that directly illuminate the focal plane. Our approach to stray light reduction was to address the light paths revealed by the various PST calculations. Our calculations have shown that significant gains can be realized with simple modifications to the telescope system.

  4. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  5. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  6. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  7. Onset of condensation effects as detected by total pressure probes in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Total pressure probes mounted in the test section of a 0.3 meter transonic cryogenic tunnel were used to detect the onset of condensation effects for free stream Mach numbers of 0.50, 0.75, 0.85, and 0.95 and for total pressure between one and five atmospheres. The amount of supercooling was found to be about 3 K and suggests that condensation was occurring on pre-existing liquid nitrogen droplets resulting from incomplete evaporation of the liquid nitrogen injected to cool the tunnel. The liquid nitrogen injection process presently being used for the 0.3 m tunnel was found to result in a wide spectrum of droplet sizes being injected into the flow. Since the relatively larger droplets took much more time to evaporate than the more numerous smaller droplets, the larger ones reached the test section first as the tunnel operating temperature was reduced. However, condensation effects in the test section were not immediately measurable because there was not a sufficient number of the larger droplets to have an influence on the thermodynamics of the flow.

  8. Comparison of Rumen Fluid pH by Continuous Telemetry System and Bench pH Meter in Sheep with Different Ranges of Ruminal pH

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Leonardo F.; Minervino, Antonio H. H.; Araújo, Carolina A. S. C.; Sousa, Rejane S.; Oliveira, Francisco L. C.; Rodrigues, Frederico A. M. L.; Meira-Júnior, Enoch B. S.; Barrêto-Júnior, Raimundo A.; Mori, Clara S.; Ortolani, Enrico L.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to compare the measurements of sheep ruminal pH using a continuous telemetry system or a bench pH meter using sheep with different degrees of ruminal pH. Ruminal lactic acidosis was induced in nine adult crossbred Santa Ines sheep by the administration of 15 g of sucrose per kg/BW. Samples of rumen fluid were collected at the baseline, before the induction of acidosis (T0) and at six, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the induction for pH measurement using a bench pH meter. During this 72-hour period, all animals had electrodes for the continuous measurement of pH. The results were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis of agreement, Pearson coefficients of correlation and determination, and paired analysis of variance with Student's t-test. The measurement methods presented a strong correlation (r = 0.94, P < 0.05) but the rumen pH that was measured continuously using a telemetry system resulted in lower values than the bench pH meter (overall mean of 5.38 and 5.48, resp., P = 0.0001). The telemetry system was able to detect smaller changes in rumen fluid pH and was more accurate in diagnosing both subacute ruminal lactic acidosis and acute ruminal lactic acidosis in sheep. PMID:24967422

  9. Unified Mars detection system. [life detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. P.; Kok, B.; Radmer, R.; Johnson, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A life-detection system is described which is designed to detect and characterize possible Martian biota and to gather information about the chemical environment of Mars, especially the water and amino acid contents of the soil. The system is organized around a central mass spectrometer that can sensitively analyze trace gases from a variety of different experiments. Some biological assays and soil-chemistry tests that have been performed in the laboratory as typical experiment candidates for the system are discussed, including tests for soil-organism metabolism, measurements of soil carbon contents, and determinations of primary aliphatic amines (amino acids and protein) in soils. Two possible test strategies are outlined, and the operational concept of the detection system is illustrated. Detailed descriptions are given for the mass spectrometer, gas inlet, incubation box, test cell modules, seal drive mechanism, soil distribution assembly, and electronic control system.

  10. Capabilities of the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) for Solar System Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otarola, Angel; Dumas, Christophe; Meech, Karen; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Skidmore, Warren; Tian, Feng; Travouillon, Tony; Wong, Michael H.; Ellerbroek, Brent; Simard, Luc

    2015-11-01

    The TMT will consist of a 30-m filled-aperture segmented primary mirror and will include non-sidereal rate tracking capabilities for observing Solar System objects. Its sensitivity will be 14 times larger than that of 8-m class telescopes for seeing-limited observations -up to 200 times larger for background limited adaptive optics (AO) observations- and will allow high angular/spatial resolution with diffraction-limited capability in the near infrared. AO guiding will accommodate faint, small angular size solar system objects to serve as natural guide stars for non-sidereal observations. For Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), on-instrument wavefront sensors can crawl the field-of-view to look for background natural stars that can be used for tip/tilt correction. We will describe the main characteristics of the Thirty Meter Telescope, its first light instrumentation suite, and the most relevant science-driven requirements for its design, emphasizing the strengths of the TMT for Solar System astronomical research. Some real-case scenarios of sensitivities for solar system targets will be presented for the first-light instruments.Complementary information about TMT, and the opportunities it offers for planetary science research, will be presented at this meeting by Dumas et al., and at the TMT Solar System Town Hall event on Tuesday.The international TMT partnership includes Canada, China, India, Japan, Caltech, the University of California, and Funding is also provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. AURA is an Associate Member of TMT on behalf of the US national community. Through a cooperative agreement with the NSF, TMT and a US TMT Science Working Group are developing a model for potential US national partnership in the TMT.

  11. Overcoming the Meter Barrier and The Formation of Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.; Ford, Eric B.

    2014-11-01

    The Kepler space mission has revealed numerous planetary types and systems, shaping our understanding of planet formation. Among the quickly-growing data is a subclass of multi-planet configurations referred to as Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs). Their large abundance (>10% of stars) suggests that they are one of the principal outcomes of planet formation. The prototype STIP is Kepler-11, which hosts six known transiting planets, five of which have measured masses in the super-Earth and mini-Neptune regimes. The known planetary orbits in this system are spaced between a=0.09 and 0.47 AU, with small eccentricities and mutual inclinations. The lack of low-order mean motion resonances among planets in STIPs suggests that migration may have not played a dominant role in placing all of these planets on short orbital periods. While the formation of massive planetary systems on the hot side of the water ice line may be difficult to reconcile under the current paradigm of planet formation, we must explore whether many STIP planets formed by and large in situ. We discuss an overlooked mechanism that may allow the in situ formation of planetary systems on very short orbital periods. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can reduce net evaporation of incoming material, which could promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth and overcoming the classic meter barrier.

  12. Neonatal Jaundice Detection System.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Mustafa; Hardalaç, Fırat; Ural, Berkan; Karap, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common condition that occurs in newborn infants in the first week of life. Today, techniques used for detection are required blood samples and other clinical testing with special equipment. The aim of this study is creating a non-invasive system to control and to detect the jaundice periodically and helping doctors for early diagnosis. In this work, first, a patient group which is consisted from jaundiced babies and a control group which is consisted from healthy babies are prepared, then between 24 and 48 h after birth, 40 jaundiced and 40 healthy newborns are chosen. Second, advanced image processing techniques are used on the images which are taken with a standard smartphone and the color calibration card. Segmentation, pixel similarity and white balancing methods are used as image processing techniques and RGB values and pixels' important information are obtained exactly. Third, during feature extraction stage, with using colormap transformations and feature calculation, comparisons are done in RGB plane between color change values and the 8-color calibration card which is specially designed. Finally, in the bilirubin level estimation stage, kNN and SVR machine learning regressions are used on the dataset which are obtained from feature extraction. At the end of the process, when the control group is based on for comparisons, jaundice is succesfully detected for 40 jaundiced infants and the success rate is 85 %. Obtained bilirubin estimation results are consisted with bilirubin results which are obtained from the standard blood test and the compliance rate is 85 %. PMID:27229489

  13. Isothermal calorimetry: a predictive tool to model drug-propellant interactions in pressurized metered dose systems.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Gaisford, Simon; Boyd, Ben J; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2014-01-30

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate gas perfusion isothermal calorimetry (ITC) as a method to characterize the physicochemical changes of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) intended to be formulated in pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) after exposure to a model propellant. Spray dried samples of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and salbutamol sulphate (SS) were exposed to controlled quantities of 2H,3H-decafluoropentane (HPFP) to determine whether ITC could be used as a suitable analytical method for gathering data on the behavioural properties of the powders in real time. The crystallization kinetics of BDP and the physiochemical properties of SS were successfully characterized using ITC and supported by a variety of other analytical techniques. Correlations between real and model propellant systems were also established using hydrofluoroalkane (HFA-227) propellant. In summary, ITC was found to be suitable for gathering data on the crystallization kinetics of BDP and SS. In a wider context, this work will have implications on the use of ITC for stability testing of APIs in HFA-based pMDIs. PMID:24325938

  14. Fission meter

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Snyderman, Neal J.

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source.

  15. Space Age Meter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Julie

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the history and evolution of measurement standards from 3000 BC to the modern metric system. Traces measurement techniques from comparisons with the human body to use of atomic clocks and lasers to establish the length of a meter. (JM)

  16. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or nearmore » surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift

  17. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Mohaghegh, Shahab D.

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise

  18. Saturation meter

    DOEpatents

    Gregurech, S.

    1984-08-01

    A saturation meter for use in a pressurized water reactor plant comprising a differential pressure transducer having a first and second pressure sensing means and an alarm. The alarm is connected to the transducer and is preset to activate at a level of saturation prior to the formation of a steam void in the reactor vessel.

  19. [An improved, more reliable and more marketable version of the Automatic Metering System

    SciTech Connect

    Patas, J.E.

    1993-07-01

    Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. (TRI/Austin) was tasked by Letco International to evaluate its Automatic Metering System (AMS), a proportional controller for heat tracing cable. The original objectives were focused primarily on the reliability of the AMS controller. However, from the time of the original TRI/Austin proposal, the AMS device evolved beyond the prototype level into an established market product with sufficient operational experience and data that product reliability evaluation was not a significant test objective. The goals of this effort have been to determine the relative energy usage of the AMS proportional control compared to existing thermostatic control in a realistic freeze protection installation (low temperature test), to perform an accelerated life test for self limiting heat tracing cables to determine the service life impact of AMS control vs. thermostat control, and to perform a reliability analysis of the AMS device according to the 1986 edition of MIL-HDBK-217E [1] specifications. TRI/Austin designed and constructed a test set-up for conducting the low temperature test and the accelerated life test. A conceptual diagram of the test hardware is shown in Figure 1. The control computer was programmed to monitor and collect data from both tests in parallel, using the relay box and control circuitry fabricated at TRI/Austin. Test data and control commands were transmitted to and from the computer via standard parallel and serial interfaces. The AMS controller and relay box switched the power to the test cables, the commercial freezer, and the ALT chamber.

  20. Incipient fire detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, Jr., William K.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for an incipient fire detection system that receives gaseous samples and measures the light absorption spectrum of the mixture of gases evolving from heated combustibles includes a detector for receiving gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy and determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples. The wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples are compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. The method includes receiving gaseous samples, subjecting the samples to light spectroscopy, determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples, comparing the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples to predetermined absorption wavelengths and generating a warning signal whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. In an alternate embodiment, the apparatus includes a series of channels fluidically connected to a plurality of remote locations. A pump is connected to the channels for drawing gaseous samples into the channels. A detector is connected to the channels for receiving the drawn gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy. The wavelengths of absorption are determined and compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths is provided. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths correspond.

  1. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  2. Fabrication and Deployment Testing of Solar Sail Quadrants for a 20-Meter Solar Sail Ground Test System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Greg; Case, David; Moore, Jim

    2005-01-01

    A 20-meter Scalable Square Solar Sail (S(sup 4)) System was produced and successfully completed functional vacuum testing in NASA Glenn's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station Ohio in May 2005. The S(sup 4) system was designed and developed by ATK Space Systems, and the design and production of the Solar Sails for this system was carried out by SRS Technologies. The S(sup 4) system consists of a central structure with four deployable carbon fiber masts that support four triangular sails. SRS has developed an effective and efficient design for triangular sail quadrants that are supported at three points and provide a flat reflective surface with a high fill factor. This sail design is robust enough for deployments in a one atmosphere, one gravity environment and incorporates several advanced features including adhesiveless seaming of membrane strips, compliant edge borders to allow for film membrane cord strain mismatch without causing wrinkling and low mass (3% of total sail mass) ripstop. This paper will outline some of the sail design and fabrication processes and the mature production, packaging and deployment processes that have been developed. This paper will also detail the successful ambient and vacuum testing of the sails and the ATK spacecraft structure. Based on recent experience and testing, SRS is confidant that high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5-6 solar sails in the 40-120-meter size range with areal density in the 4-5 grams per square meters (sail minus structure) range can be produced with existing technology. Additional film production research will lead to further reductions in film thickness to less than 1 micron enabling production of sails with areal densities as low as 2.0 grams per square meters using the current design, resulting in a system areal densities as low as 5.3 grams per square meters (sail and structure). These areal densities are low enough to allow nearly all of the Solar Sail missions that have been proposed by the

  3. [Investigations on the cardiovascular system at altitudes up to a height of 7,800 meters (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Aigner, A; Berghold, F; Muss, N

    1980-09-01

    During a Karakorum expedition electrocardiographic investigations were performed. In the basic camp, 4,800 meters above sea level, ECG of test persons were registered in the resting state and after physical exercise. In addition, long-time recordings of heart rate reactions were made during various phases of mounting up to a height of about 7,800 meters. The ascent in extreme altitudes without an artificial oxygen supply did not cause electrocardiographical signs of myocardial hypoxia. Only supraventricular or ventricular ectopic beats could be detected in some instances. During continuous mounting, the heart rate rises to 120-140 beats per minute and reached 150 beats per minute during the last part up to the summit. Resting blood pressure measured in the basic camp over a period of 15 days showed no significant changes. PMID:7210767

  4. Manufacturing Challenges and Benefits When Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15 Meter Class System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. T.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade of work has been conducted in the development of NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) deployable aeroshell technology. This effort has included multiple ground test campaigns and flight tests culminating in the HIAD project's second generation (Gen-2) aeroshell system. The HIAD project team has developed, fabricated, and tested stacked-torus inflatable structures (IS) with flexible thermal protection systems (F-TPS) ranging in diameters from 3-6 meters, with cone angles of 60 and 70 degrees. To meet NASA and commercial near-term objectives, the HIAD team must scale the current technology up to 12-15 meters in diameter. Therefore, the HIAD project's experience in scaling the technology has reached a critical juncture. Growing from a 6-meter to a 15-meter class system will introduce many new structural and logistical challenges to an already complicated manufacturing process. Although the general architecture and key aspects of the HIAD design scale well to larger vehicles, details of the technology will need to be reevaluated and possibly redesigned for use in a 15-meter-class HIAD system. These include: layout and size of the structural webbing that transfers load throughout the IS, inflatable gas barrier design, torus diameter and braid construction, internal pressure and inflation line routing, adhesives used for coating and bonding, and F-TPS gore design and seam fabrication. The logistics of fabricating and testing the IS and the F-TPS also become more challenging with increased scale. Compared to the 6-meter aeroshell (the largest HIAD built to date), a 12-meter aeroshell has four times the cross-sectional area, and a 15-meter one has over six times the area. This means that fabrication and test procedures will need to be reexamined to account for the sheer size and weight of the aeroshell components. This will affect a variety of steps in the manufacturing process, such as: stacking the tori during assembly, stitching the

  5. Capacitance Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Anders Precision Instrument Co.'s original meter could not measure dissipation leakage in capacitors. Seeking to add that capability, the company planned an advanced model. Before starting work, company president, Thomas Anderson, sought technical assistance from NASA's NERAC (New England Research Application Center). Anderson wanted a survey of the status and capabilities of NASA's electronic measuring devices. NERAC performed a search of six databases, including NASA's and provided a comprehensive report on state of the art worldwide.

  6. Combustion products generating and metering device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, R. E.; Klisch, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Device simulates incipient fire conditions in closely-controlled adjustable manner, to give predetermined degree of intensity at selected locations throughout area, and to verify that detection system will respond. Device can be used with and for cross calibration and experimentation in conjunction with commercially available products of combustion analyzing meters.

  7. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  8. The Mount Rainier Lahar Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A. B.; Murray, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    To mitigate the risk of unheralded lahars from Mount Rainier, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pierce County, Washington, installed a lahar-detection system on the Puyallup and Carbon rivers that originate on Mount Rainier's western slopes. The system, installed in 1998, is designed to automatically detect the passage of lahars large enough to potentially affect populated areas downstream (approximate volume threshold 40 million cubic meters), while ignoring small lahars, earthquakes, extreme weather and floods. Along each river valley upstream, arrays of independent lahar-monitoring stations equipped with geophones and short tripwires telemeter data to a pair of redundant computer base stations located in and near Tacoma at existing public safety facilities that are staffed around the clock. Monitored data consist of ground-vibration levels, tripwire status, and transmissions at regular intervals. The base stations automatically evaluate these data to determine if a dangerous lahar is passing through the station array. The detection algorithm requires significant ground vibration to occur at those stations in the array that are above the anticipated level of inundation, while lower level `deadman' stations, inundated by the flow, experience tripwire breakage or are destroyed. Once a base station detects a lahar, it alerts staff who execute a call-down of public-safety officials and schools, initiating evacuation of areas potentially at risk. Because the system's risk-mitigation task imposes high standards of reliability on all components, it has been under test for several years. To date, the system has operated reliably and without false alarms, including during the nearby M6.8 Nisqually Earthquake on February 28, 2001. The system is being turned over to Pierce County, and activated as part of their lahar warning system.

  9. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissue using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular methodology is chosen ...

  10. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  11. The concept of minimum detectable activity of radionuclide activity meters and their suitability for routine quality control of radiopharmaceuticals. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Zagni, F; Cesarini, F; Lucconi, G; Cicoria, G; Pancaldi, D; Infantino, A; Vichi, S; Marengo, M

    2016-07-01

    Radionuclide activity meters ("dose calibrators") are ionization chambers designed to measure relatively high amount of activities which are normally contained in radiopharmaceuticals. However, in the current radiopharmacy practice, these radiation detectors have been proposed to be used in measurements of samples with lower activity, such as in routine quality control (QC) tests. To check the feasibility of such measurements, in this work we assessed the performance of four different devices in the lower range of detectability, by means of experimental measurements of a radioactive sample. Accuracy and precision of each device was evaluated as a function of the activity contained in the sample in order to estimate a threshold value, or minimum detectable activity (MDA), which, according to our operational definition, may be used to express the concept of Limit of Quantification (LoQ). Moreover, a generalized procedure for the estimation of the MDA was established, which, being device- and radionuclide-independent, it may be adopted by every laboratory. Our results showed a significant variability in the MDA achieved by different activity meters. Hence a single QC test may result feasible with one specific instrument, and not with another one. Moreover, feasibility depends also on the confidence level required for each test. For these reasons, each activity meter should be qualified for its MDA or LoQ by each laboratory according to a procedure such as that described in this paper. PMID:27108071

  12. Stand-alone and Network Capable Pocket Radiation Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    R. Aryaeinejad

    2009-03-01

    A multi-functional and networked pocket radiation detection system has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) capable of detecting and storing gamma ray and neutron data. The device can be used as a stand-alone device or in conjunction with an array to cover a small or large area. The device has programmable alarm trigger levels that can be modified for specific applications. The data is stored with a date/time stamp and can be transferred and viewed on a PDA via direct connection or, in networked configuration, wireless connection to a remote central facility upon request. Data functional/bench tests have been completed successfully and the device was demonstrated to detect radiation from a 55.6 uCi Cf-252 source at 5 meters and from 1.4 mCi Cf-252 source at 10 meters which exceeds both ANSI and IAEA standards for pocket radiation detection. In terms of sensitivity, this detection system detects neutron and gamma-ray fields down to 10 micro rem/hr levels and therefore can find the location of the radioactive source quickly. The detection system is small enough to be put in a pocket or clipped to a belt.

  13. Protein detection system

    DOEpatents

    Fruetel, Julie A.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; McIlroy, Andrew

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  14. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  15. Particle detection systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2010-05-11

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  16. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOEpatents

    Peurrung, Anthony J.; Stromswold, David C.

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  17. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  18. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  19. Centrifugal unbalance detection system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Reeves, George; Mets, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A system consisting of an accelerometer sensor attached to a centrifuge enclosure for sensing vibrations and outputting a signal in the form of a sine wave with an amplitude and frequency that is passed through a pre-amp to convert it to a voltage signal, a low pass filter for removing extraneous noise, an A/D converter and a processor and algorithm for operating on the signal, whereby the algorithm interprets the amplitude and frequency associated with the signal and once an amplitude threshold has been exceeded the algorithm begins to count cycles during a predetermined time period and if a given number of complete cycles exceeds the frequency threshold during the predetermined time period, the system shuts down the centrifuge.

  20. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Whited, R.C.

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in relatively thick semiconductor radiation detectors, such as HgI/sub 2/, which exhibit significant hole trapping. Two amplifiers are used: the first measures the charge collected and the second the contribution of the electrons to the charge collected. The outputs of the two amplifiers are utilized to unfold the total charge generated within the detector in response to a radiation event.

  1. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  2. Diversified transmission multichannel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

    1984-07-03

    A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

  3. Decision support system to divide a large network into suitable District Metered Areas.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ricardo; Marques, Alfeu Sá; Sousa, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to divide large Water Distribution Networks (WDN) into suitable District Metered Areas (DMAs). It uses a hydraulic simulator and two operational models to identify the optimal number of DMAs, their entry points and boundary valves, and the network reinforcement/replacement needs throughout the project plan. The first model divides the WDN into suitable DMAs based on graph theory concepts and some user-defined criteria. The second model uses a simulated annealing algorithm to identify the optimal number and location of entry points and boundary valves, and the pipes reinforcement/replacement, necessary to meet the velocity and pressure requirements. The objective function is the difference between the economic benefits in terms of water loss reduction (arising from the average pressure reduction) and the cost of implementing the DMAs. To illustrate the proposed methodology, the results from a hypothetical case study are presented and discussed. PMID:22508131

  4. Simple Schlieren Light Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    Simple light-meter circuit used to position knife edge of schlieren optical system to block exactly half light. Enables operator to check quickly position of knife edge between tunnel runs to ascertain whether or not in alignment. Permanent measuring system made part of each schlieren system. If placed in unused area of image plane, or in monitoring beam from mirror knife edge, provides real-time assessment of alignment of schlieren system.

  5. Miniaturization of sub-meter resolution hyperspectral imagers on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Samuel L.; Clemens, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Traditional airborne environmental monitoring has frequently deployed hyperspectral imaging as a leading tool for characterizing and analyzing a scene's critical spectrum-based signatures for applications in agriculture genomics and crop health, vegetation and mineral monitoring, and hazardous material detection. As the acceptance of hyperspectral evaluation grows in the airborne community, there has been a dramatic trend in moving the technology from use on midsize aircraft to Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The use of UAS accomplishes a number of goals including the reduction in cost to run multiple seasonal evaluations over smaller but highly valuable land-areas, the ability to use frequent data collections to make rapid decisions on land management, and the improvement of spatial resolution by flying at lower altitudes (< 150 m). Despite this trend, there are several key parameters affecting the use of traditional hyperspectral instruments in UAS with payloads less than 0.5 kg (~1lb) where size, weight and power (SWaP) are critical to how high and how far a given UAS can fly. Additionally, on many of the light-weight UAS, users are frequently trying to capture data from one or more instruments to augment the hyperspectral data collection, thus reducing the amount of SWaP available to the hyperspectral instrumentation. The following manuscript will provide an analysis on a newly-developed miniaturized hyperspectral imaging platform that provides full hyperspectral resolution and traditional hyperspectral capabilities without sacrificing performance to accommodate the decreasing SWaP of smaller and smaller UAS platforms.

  6. The Stellar Spectra Acquisition, Reduction, and Archiving Systems at the Ondřejov Observatory 2-meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škoda, P.; Honsa, J.; Šlechta, M.

    The 2-meter telescope of the Ondřejov Observatory near Prague is a middle-class instrument fully devoted to high dispersion stellar spectroscopy. The data are produced by two acquisition systems of different generations. The older linear detector Reticon 1872 AF is controlled by a DOS program providing quick-look display capability as well. The second is a CCD driven by a stand-alone Linux program. The quick-look is provided by SAOimage or XImtool through data pipes. An easy access to both the raw and reduced data is provided by a simple WWW-based archiving system. We give a basic overview of these systems and software methods used for their communication with the spectrograph control system.

  7. Simulation and analysis of laser guide star adaptive optics systems for the eight to ten meter class telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.; Olivier, S.S.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses the design and analysis of laser-guided adaptive optic systems for the large, 8--10 meter class telescopes. We describe a technique for calculating the expected modulation transfer function and the point spread function for a closed loop adaptive optics system, parameterized by the degree of correction and the seeing conditions. The results agree closely with simulations and experimental data, and validate well known scaling law models even at low order correction. Scaling law.model analysis of a proposed adaptive optics system at the Keck telescope leads to the conclusion that a single laser guide star beacon will be adequate for diffraction limited imaging at wavelengths between 1 and 3 am with reasonable coverage of the sky. Cone anisoplanatism will dominate wavefront correction error at the visible wavelengths unless multiple laser guide stars are used.

  8. Integrated multisensor perimeter detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, P. J.; Fretwell, P.; Barrett, D. J.; Faulkner, D. A.

    2007-10-01

    The report describes the results of a multi-year programme of research aimed at the development of an integrated multi-sensor perimeter detection system capable of being deployed at an operational site. The research was driven by end user requirements in protective security, particularly in threat detection and assessment, where effective capability was either not available or prohibitively expensive. Novel video analytics have been designed to provide robust detection of pedestrians in clutter while new radar detection and tracking algorithms provide wide area day/night surveillance. A modular integrated architecture based on commercially available components has been developed. A graphical user interface allows intuitive interaction and visualisation with the sensors. The fusion of video, radar and other sensor data provides the basis of a threat detection capability for real life conditions. The system was designed to be modular and extendable in order to accommodate future and legacy surveillance sensors. The current sensor mix includes stereoscopic video cameras, mmWave ground movement radar, CCTV and a commercially available perimeter detection cable. The paper outlines the development of the system and describes the lessons learnt after deployment in a pilot trial.

  9. Tsunami Detection Systems for International Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    recognize these characteristics, and then immediately alerts a tsunami warning center through the communications buoy when the processor senses one of these waves. In addition to the tsunami detection buoy system, an end-to-end tsunami warning system was developed that builds upon the country's existing disaster warning infrastructure. This warning system includes 1) components that receive, process, and analyze buoy, seismic and tide gauge data; 2) predictive tools and a consequence assessment tool set to provide decision support; 3) operation center design and implementation; and 4) tsunami buoy operations and maintenance support. The first buoy was deployed Oct. 25, 2006, approximately 200 nautical miles west of San Diego in 3,800 meters of water. Just three weeks later, it was put to the test during an actual tsunami event. On Nov. 15, 2006, an 8.3 magnitude earthquake rocked the Kuril Islands, located between Japan and the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia. That quake generated a small tsunami. Waves from the tsunami propagated approximately 4,000 nautical miles across the Pacific Ocean in about nine hours-- a speed of about 445 nautical miles per hour when this commercial buoy first detected them. Throughout that event, the tsunami buoy system showed excellent correlation with data collected by a NOAA DART buoy located 28 nautical miles north of it. Subsequent analysis revealed that the STB matched DART operational capabilities and performed flawlessly. The buoy proved its capabilities again on Jan. 13, 2007, when an 8.1 magnitude earthquake occurred in the same region, and the STB detected the seismic event. As a result of the successes of this entire project, SAIC recently applied for and received a license from NOAA to build DART systems.

  10. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music. PMID:22367155

  11. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  12. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  13. Portable Microleak-Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin; Sikora, Joseph G.; Sankaran, Sankara N.

    2007-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a portable microleak-detection system that has been built especially for use in testing hydrogen tanks made of polymer-matrix composite materials. (As used here, microleak signifies a leak that is too small to be detectable by the simple soap-bubble technique.) The system can also be used to test for microleaks in tanks that are made of other materials and that contain gases other than hydrogen. Results of calibration tests have shown that measurement errors are less than 10 percent for leak rates ranging from 0.3 to 200 cm3/min. Like some other microleak-detection systems, this system includes a vacuum pump and associated plumbing for sampling the leaking gas, and a mass spectrometer for analyzing the molecular constituents of the gas. The system includes a flexible vacuum chamber that can be attached to the outer surface of a tank or other object of interest that is to be tested for leakage (hereafter denoted, simply, the test object). The gas used in a test can be the gas or vapor (e.g., hydrogen in the original application) to be contained by the test object. Alternatively, following common practice in leak testing, helium can be used as a test gas. In either case, the mass spectrometer can be used to verify that the gas measured by the system is the test gas rather than a different gas and, hence, that the leak is indeed from the test object.

  14. Your Glucose Meter

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  15. Analysis of road pricing, metering and the priority treatment of high occupancy vehicles using system dynamics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, W.

    1992-01-01

    Transportation Systems Management (TSM) employs various techniques such as road pricing, metering and the priority treatment of high occupancy vehicles (HOVs) in an effort to make more efficient use of existing transportation facilities. Efficiency is improved in terms of moving more people through the facility while simultaneously reducing the number of vehicles using the facility. This report uses a hypothetical toll facility and examines four computer modeling approaches to determine which of the approaches are valid in terms of predicting the behavior of trip makers seeking to use the facility in response to various combinations of TSM techniques. Once an approach has been determined to be valid, seven different combination of TSM techniques, or strategies, are compared to a base strategy to determine what strategy or strategies are most affective in achieving the goals of TSM.

  16. Tape Cassette Bacteria Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of an automatic bacteria detection system with a zero-g capability and based on the filter-capsule approach is described. This system is intended for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in a spacecraft. The principle of detection is based on measuring the increase in chemiluminescence produced by the action of bacterial porphyrins (i.e., catalase, cytochromes, etc.) on a luminol-hydrogen peroxide mixture. Since viable as well as nonviable organisms initiate this luminescence, viable organisms are detected by comparing the signal of an incubated water sample with an unincubated control. Higher signals for the former indicate the presence of viable organisms. System features include disposable sealed sterile capsules, each containing a filter membrane, for processing discrete water samples and a tape transport for moving these capsules through a processing sequence which involves sample concentration, nutrient addition, incubation, a 4 Molar Urea wash and reaction with luminol-hydrogen peroxide in front of a photomultiplier tube. Liquids are introduced by means of a syringe needle which pierces a rubber septum contained in the wall of the capsule. Detection thresholds obtained with this unit towards E. coli and S. marcescens assuming a 400 ml water sample are indicated.

  17. ShaneAO: an enhanced adaptive optics and IR imaging system for the Lick Observatory 3-meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupke, Renate; Gavel, Donald; Roskosi, Constance; Cabak, Gerald; Cowley, David; Dillon, Daren; Gates, Elinor L.; McGurk, Rosalie; Norton, Andrew; Peck, Michael; Ratliff, Christopher; Reinig, Marco

    2012-07-01

    The Lick Observatory 3-meter telescope has a history of serving as a testbed for innovative adaptive optics techniques. In 1996, it became one of the first astronomical observatories to employ laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics as a facility instrument available to the astronomy community. Work on a second-generation LGS adaptive optics system, ShaneAO, is well underway, with plans to deploy on telescope in 2013. In this paper we discuss key design features and implementation plans for the ShaneAO adaptive optics system. Once again, the Shane 3-m will host a number of new techniques and technologies vital to the development of future adaptive optics systems on larger telescopes. Included is a woofer-tweeter based wavefront correction system incorporating a voice-coil actuated, low spatial and temporal bandwidth, high stroke deformable mirror in conjunction with a high order, high bandwidth MEMs deformable mirror. The existing dye laser, in operation since 1996, will be replaced with a fiber laser recently developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. The system will also incorporate a high-sensitivity, high bandwidth wavefront sensor camera. Enhanced IR performance will be achieved by replacing the existing PICNIC infrared array with an Hawaii 2RG. The updated ShaneAO system will provide opportunities to test predictive control algorithms for adaptive optics. Capabilities for astronomical spectroscopy, polarimetry, and visible-light adaptive optical astronomy will be supported.

  18. Optical design for the narrow field infrared adaptive optics system (NFIRAOS) petite on the thirty meter telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Brian J.; Gavel, Donald T.; Dekany, Richard G.; Ellerbroek, Brent L.

    2005-08-01

    We describe an exploratory optical design for the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics (AO) System (NFIRAOS) Petite, a proposed adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope Project. NFIRAOS will feed infrared spectrograph and wide-field imaging instruments with a diffraction limited beam. The adaptive optics system will require multi-guidestar tomographic wavefront sensing (WFS) and multi-conjugate AO correction. The NFIRAOS Petite design specifications include two small 60 mm diameter deformable mirrors (DM's) used in a woofer/tweeter or multiconjugate arrangement. At least one DM would be a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) DM. The AO system would correct a 10 to 30 arcsec diameter science field as well as laser guide stars (LGS's) located within a 60 arcsec diameter field and low-order or tip/tilt natural guide stars (NGS's) within a 60 arcsec diameter field. The WFS's are located downstream of the DM's so that they can be operated in true closed-loop, which is not necessarily a given in extremely large telescope adaptive optics design. The WFS's include adjustable corrector elements which correct the static aberrations of the AO relay due to field position and LGS distance height.

  19. Optical design for the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) Petite on the Thirty Meter Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B; Gavel, D; Dekany, R; Ellerbroek, B

    2005-08-02

    We describe an exploratory optical design for the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics (AO) System (NFIRAOS) Petite, a proposed adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope Project. NFIRAOS will feed infrared spectrograph and wide-field imaging instruments with a diffraction limited beam. The adaptive optics system will require multi-guidestar tomographic wavefront sensing and multi-conjugate AO correction. The NFIRAOS Petite design specifications include two small 60 mm diameter deformable mirrors (DM's) used in a woofer/tweeter or multiconjugate arrangement. At least one DM would be a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) DM. The AO system would correct a 10 to 30 arcsec diameter science field as well as laser guide stars (LGS's) located within a 60 arcsec diameter field and low-order or tip/tilt natural guide stars (NGS's) within a 60 arcsec diameter field. The WFS's are located downstream of the DM's so that they can be operated in true closed-loop, which is not necessarily a given in extremely large telescope adaptive optics design. The WFS's include adjustable corrector elements which correct the static aberrations of the AO relay due to field position and LGS distance height.

  20. Mars meter-scale roughness: Goldstone Solar System Radar delay-doppler database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The entire fourteen-year database of Goldstone Solar System Radar Mars near-nadir radar scattering model fits is being revised using the latest topography from the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument.

  1. Fiber optic hydrogen detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.

    1999-12-01

    Commercial and military launch vehicles are designed to use hydrogen as the main propellant, which is very volatile, extremely flammable, and highly explosive. Current detection systems uses Teflon transfer tubes at a large number of vehicle locations through which gas samples are drawn and the stream analyzed by a mass spectrometer. A concern with this approach is the high cost of the system. Also, the current system does not provide leak location and is not in real-time. This system is very complex and cumbersome for production and ground support measurement personnel. The fiber optic micromirror sensor under development for cryogenic environment relies on a reversible chemical interaction causing a change in reflectivity of a thin film of coated Palladium. The magnitude of the reflectivity change is correlated to hydrogen concentration. The sensor uses only a tiny light beam, with no electricity whatsoever at the sensor, leading to devices that is intrinsically safe from explosive ignition. The sensor, extremely small in size and weight detects, hydrogen concentration using a passive element consisting of chemically reactive microcoatings deposited on the surface of a glass microlens, which is then bonded to an optical fiber. The system uses a multiplexing technique with a fiber optic driver-receiver consisting of a modulated LED source that is launched into the sensor, and a photodiode detector that synchronously measures the reflected signal. The system incorporates a microprocessor (or PC) to perform the data analysis and storage, as well as trending and set alarm function. As it is a low cost system with a fast response, many more detection sensors can be used that will be extremely helpful in determining leak location for safety of crew and vehicles during launch operations.

  2. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  3. Microfluidics-based integrated airborne pathogen detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northrup, M. Allen; Alleman-Sposito, Jennifer; Austin, Todd; Devitt, Amy; Fong, Donna; Lin, Phil; Nakao, Brian; Pourahmadi, Farzad; Vinas, Mary; Yuan, Bob

    2006-09-01

    Microfluidic Systems is focused on building microfluidic platforms that interface front-end mesofluidics to handle real world sample volumes for optimal sensitivity coupled to microfluidic circuitry to process small liquid volumes for complex reagent metering, mixing, and biochemical analysis, particularly for pathogens. MFSI is the prime contractor on two programs for the US Department of Homeland Security: BAND (Bioagent Autonomous Networked Detector) and IBADS (Instantaneous Bio-Aerosol Detection System). The goal of BAND is to develop an autonomous system for monitoring the air for known biological agents. This consists of air collection, sample lysis, sample purification, detection of DNA, RNA, and toxins, and a networked interface to report the results. For IBADS, MFSI is developing the confirmatory device which must verify the presence of a pathogen with 5 minutes of an air collector/trigger sounding an alarm. Instrument designs and biological assay results from both BAND and IBADS will be presented.

  4. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  5. Determination of mercaptans at microgram-per-cubic-meter levels in air by gas chromatography with photoionization detection

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, V.B.; Narang, R.S.

    1982-05-01

    A method for the gas chromatographic (GC) determination of ethyl, tert-butyl, propyl, sec-butyl, and n-butyl mercaptans in air using a photoionization detector (PID) was established by using air sampling bags. Up to 5 mL of sample was injected into a Hewlett-Packard Model 588OA GC fitted with a 9 ft glass column packed with 100/120 mesh Chromosorb W AW DMCS and coated with 15% SF-96 and 6% OV-225. The oven was held at 65 /sup 0/C and the nitrogen flow rate was 30 mL/min. The photoionization detector was attached to the GC and held at 200 /sup 0/C. The GC detection limit was determined to be 0.06 ng for n-butyl mercaptan and 0.02 ng for the remaining mercaptans with precisions (n = 8, 1sigma, 4 ng) of +/- 7.3, +/- 8.5, +/- 8.1, and +/- 10% for ethyl, tert-butyl, propyl, sec-butyl, and n-butyl mercaptan, respectively. With a 5-mL injection volume, sensitivity is about 2 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ which is as sensitive as detection by smell since the oder threshold is about 2-4 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/.

  6. Fabrication end Deployment Testing of Meter Solar Sail Quadrants for a Scaleable Square Solar Sail Ground Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Greg; Case, David; Moore, Jim

    2005-01-01

    In order for solar sail propulsion technologies to be considered as a viable option for a wide range of near term practical missions a predictable, stable, reliable, manufactureable, scaleable, and cost effective system must be developed and tested first on earth and then on orbit. The design and development of a Scaleable Square Solar Sail System (S^4) is well underway a t AEC-Able Engineering Co. Inc., and the design and production of the Solar Sails for this system is being carried out by SRS Technologies. In April and May of 2004 a single quadrant 10-meter system was tested at NASA LARC's vacuum chamber and a four quadrant 20-meter system has been designed and built for deployment and testing in the Spring of 2005 at NASA/Glenn Research Center's Plumb Brook Facility. SRS has developed an effective and efficient design for triangular sail quadrants that are supported are three points and provide a flat reflective surface with a high fill factor. This sail design is robust enough for deployments in a one atmosphere, one gravity environment and incorporates several advanced features including adhesiveless seaming of membrane strips, compliant edge borders to allow for film membrane cord strain mismatch without causing wrinkling and low mass (3% of total sail mass) ripstop. This paper will outline the sail design and fabrication process, the lessons learned and the resulting mature production, packaging and deployment processes that have been developed. It will also highlight the scalability of the equipment and processes that were developed to fabricate and package the sails. Based on recent experience, SRS is confidant that flight worthy solar sails in the 40-120-meter size range with areal density in the 4-5g/sq m (sail minus structure) range can be produced with existing technology. Additional film production research will lead to further reductions in film thickness to less than 1 micron enabling production of sails with areal densities as low as 20 g/sq m

  7. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  8. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  9. Advancement of the segment support system for the Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Eric C.; Baffes, Curtis; Mast, Terry; Nelson, Jerry; Platt, Benjamin; Ponchione, R. J.; Ponslet, Eric; Setoodeh, Shahriar; Sirota, Mark; Stephens, Vince; Stepp, Larry; Tubb, Alan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents refinements to the design of the TMT primary mirror segment passive-support system that are effective in reducing gravity print-through and thermal distortion effects. First, a novel analytical method is presented for tuning the axial and lateral support systems in a manner that results in improved optical performance when subject to varying gravity fields. The method utilizes counterweights attached to the whiffletrees to cancel astigmatic and comatic errors normally resulting when the lateral support system resists transverse loads induced by gravity. Secondly, several central diaphragm designs are presented and analyzed to assess lateral-gravity and thermal distortion performance: 1) a simple flat diaphragm, 2) a stress-relieving diaphragm having a slotted outer rim and a circumferential convolution near the outside diameter, and 3) a flat diaphragm having a slotted outer rim. The latter design is chosen based on results from analytical studies which show it to have better overall optical performance in the presence of gravity and thermal environments.

  10. The 27.3 meter neutron time-of-flight system for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, G. P.; Morgan, G. L.; Aragonez, R.; Archuleta, T. N.; Bower, D. E.; Danly, C. R.; Drury, O. B.; Dzenitis, J. M.; Fatherley, V. E.; Felker, B.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilke, M. D.

    2013-09-01

    One of the scientific goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA, is to obtain thermonuclear ignition by compressing 2.2 mm diameter capsules filed with deuterium and tritium to densities approaching 1000 g/cm3 and temperatures in excess of 4 keV. Thefusion reaction d + t --> n + a results in a 14.03 MeV neutron providing a source of diagnostic particles to characterize the implosion. The spectrum of neutrons emanating from the assembly may be used to infer the fusion yield, plasma ion temperature, and fuel areal density, all key diagnostic quantities of implosion quality. The neutron time-of-flight (nToF) system co-located along the Neutron Imaging System line-of-site, (NIToF), is a set of 4 scintillation detectors located approximately 27.3 m from the implosion source. Neutron spectral information is inferred using arrival time at the detector. The NIToF system is described below, including the hardware elements, calibration data, analysis methods, and an example of its basic performance characteristics.

  11. How to Represent 100-meter Spatial Heterogeneity in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Nathaniel; Shevliakova, Elena; Malyshev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems play a pivotal role in the Earth system; they have a profound impact on the global climate, food and energy production, freshwater resources, and biodiversity. One of the most fascinating yet challenging aspects of characterizing terrestrial ecosystems is their field-scale (~100 m) spatial heterogeneity. It has been observed repeatedly that the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at multiple temporal and spatial scales have deep ties to an ecosystem's spatial structure. Current Earth system models largely disregard this important relationship leading to an inadequate representation of ecosystem dynamics. In this presentation, we will show how existing hyperresolution environmental datasets can be harnessed to explicitly represent field-scale spatial heterogeneity in Earth system models. For each macroscale grid cell, these environmental data are clustered according to their field-scale soil and topographic attributes to define unique sub-grid tiles or hydrologic response units (HRUs). The novel Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) LM3-TiHy-PPA land model is then used to simulate these HRUs and their spatial interactions via the exchange of water, energy, and nutrients along explicit topographic gradients. Using historical simulations over the contiguous United States, we will show how a robust representation of field-scale spatial heterogeneity impacts modeled ecosystem dynamics including the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles as well as vegetation composition and distribution.

  12. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  13. Portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J P

    1997-02-01

    There are several portable peak flow meters available. These instruments vary in construction and performance. Guidelines are recommended for minimum performance and testing of portable peak flow meters, with the aim of establishing a procedure for standardizing all peak flow meters. Future studies to clarify the usefulness of mechanical test apparatus and clinical trials of peak flow meters are also recommended. PMID:9098706

  14. Acoustic leak-detection system for railroad transportation security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, P. C.; Spadaro, J.; Harrison, M. A.; Barzilov, A.; Harper, D.; Hopper, L.; Houchins, E.; Lemoff, B.; Martin, R.; McGrath, C.; Moore, R.; Novikov, I.; Paschal, J.; Rogers, S.

    2007-04-01

    Pressurized rail tank cars transport large volumes of volatile liquids and gases throughout the country, much of which is hazardous and/or flammable. These gases, once released in the atmosphere, can wreak havoc with the environment and local populations. We developed a system which can non-intrusively and non-invasively detect and locate pinhole-sized leaks in pressurized rail tank cars using acoustic sensors. The sound waves from a leak are produced by turbulence from the gas leaking to the atmosphere. For example, a 500 μm hole in an air tank pressurized to 689 kPa produces a broad audio frequency spectrum with a peak near 40 kHz. This signal is detectable at 10 meters with a sound pressure level of 25 dB. We are able to locate a leak source using triangulation techniques. The prototype of the system consists of a network of acoustic sensors and is located approximately 10 meters from the center of the rail-line. The prototype has two types of acoustic sensors, each with different narrow frequency response band: 40 kHz and 80 kHz. The prototype is connected to the Internet using WiFi (802.11g) transceiver and can be remotely operated from anywhere in the world. The paper discusses the construction, operation and performance of the system.

  15. Compensated intruder-detection systems

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, David R.; Miller, William R.

    1984-01-01

    Intruder-detection systems in which intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium also receive spurious signals induced by changes in a climatic condition affecting the medium. To combat this, signals received from the detection medium are converted to a first signal. The system also provides a reference signal proportional to climate-induced changes in the medium. The first signal and the reference signal are combined for generating therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the climatic changes in the medium. An alarm is energized if the output signal exceeds a preselected value. In one embodiment, an acoustic cable is coupled to a fence to generate a first electrical signal proportional to movements thereof. False alarms resulting from wind-induced movements of the fence (detection medium) are eliminated by providing an anemometer-driven voltage generator to provide a reference voltage proportional to the velocity of wind incident on the fence. An analog divider receives the first electrical signal and the reference signal as its numerator and denominator inputs, respectively, and generates therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the wind-induced movements in the fence.

  16. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  17. Description of the US Army small-scale 2-meter rotor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, Arthur E., III; Berry, John D.

    1987-01-01

    A small-scale powered rotor model was designed for use as a research tool in the exploratory testing of rotors and helicopter models. The model, which consists of a 29 hp rotor drive system, a four-blade fully articulated rotor, and a fuselage, was designed to be simple to operate and maintain in wind tunnels of moderate size and complexity. Two six-component strain-gauge balances are used to provide independent measurement of the rotor and fuselage aerodynamic loads. Commercially available standardized hardware and equipment were used to the maximum extent possible, and specialized parts were designed so that they could be fabricated by normal methods without using highly specialized tooling. The model was used in a hover test of three rotors having different planforms and in a forward flight investigation of a 21-percent-scale model of a U.S. Army scout helicopter equipped with a mast-mounted sight.

  18. Fish detection and classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidd, Richard A.; Wilder, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Marine biologists traditionally determine the presence and quantities of different types of fish by dragging nets across the bottom, and examining their contents. This method, although accurate, kills the collected fish, damages their habitat, and consumes large quantities of resources. This paper presents an alternative, a machine vision system capable of determining the presence of fish species. Illumination presents a unique problem in this environment, and the design of an effective illumination system is discussed. The related issues of object orientation and measurement are also discussed and resolved. Capturing images of fish in murky water also presents challenges. An adaptive thresholding technique is required to appropriately segment the fish from the background in these images. Mode detection, and histogram analysis are useful tools in determining these localized thresholds. It is anticipated that this system, created in conjunction with the Rutgers Institute for Marine and Coastal Science, will effectively classify fish in the estuarine environment.

  19. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

  20. PhenoMeter: A Metabolome Database Search Tool Using Statistical Similarity Matching of Metabolic Phenotypes for High-Confidence Detection of Functional Links

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Adam J.; Zhang, Peng; Whitehead, Lynne; Kaines, Sarah; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Badger, Murray R.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes PhenoMeter (PM), a new type of metabolomics database search that accepts metabolite response patterns as queries and searches the MetaPhen database of reference patterns for responses that are statistically significantly similar or inverse for the purposes of detecting functional links. To identify a similarity measure that would detect functional links as reliably as possible, we compared the performance of four statistics in correctly top-matching metabolic phenotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana metabolism mutants affected in different steps of the photorespiration metabolic pathway to reference phenotypes of mutants affected in the same enzymes by independent mutations. The best performing statistic, the PM score, was a function of both Pearson correlation and Fisher’s Exact Test of directional overlap. This statistic outperformed Pearson correlation, biweight midcorrelation and Fisher’s Exact Test used alone. To demonstrate general applicability, we show that the PM reliably retrieved the most closely functionally linked response in the database when queried with responses to a wide variety of environmental and genetic perturbations. Attempts to match metabolic phenotypes between independent studies were met with varying success and possible reasons for this are discussed. Overall, our results suggest that integration of pattern-based search tools into metabolomics databases will aid functional annotation of newly recorded metabolic phenotypes analogously to the way sequence similarity search algorithms have aided the functional annotation of genes and proteins. PM is freely available at MetabolomeExpress (https://www.metabolome-express.org/phenometer.php). PMID:26284240

  1. Embedded solution for a microwave moisture meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter is based on the free-space transmission measurement technique and uses low-intensity microwaves to measure the attenuation and p...

  2. Core-satellite populations and seasonality of water meter biofilms in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Ling, Fangqiong; Hwang, Chiachi; LeChevallier, Mark W; Andersen, Gary L; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) harbor the microorganisms in biofilms and suspended communities, yet the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution have been studied mainly in the suspended communities. This study examined the diversity of biofilms in an urban DWDS, its relationship with suspended communities and its dynamics. The studied DWDS in Urbana, Illinois received conventionally treated and disinfected water sourced from the groundwater. Over a 2-year span, biomass were sampled from household water meters (n=213) and tap water (n=20) to represent biofilm and suspended communities, respectively. A positive correlation between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and occupancy was observed. Examined under a 'core-satellite' model, the biofilm community comprised 31 core populations that encompassed 76.7% of total 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequences. The biofilm communities shared with the suspended community highly abundant and prevalent OTUs, which related to methano-/methylotrophs (i.e., Methylophilaceae and Methylococcaceae) and aerobic heterotrophs (Sphingomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae), yet differed by specific core populations and lower diversity and evenness. Multivariate tests indicated seasonality as the main contributor to community structure variation. This pattern was resilient to annual change and correlated to the cyclic fluctuations of core populations. The findings of a distinctive biofilm community assemblage and methano-/methyltrophic primary production provide critical insights for developing more targeted water quality monitoring programs and treatment strategies for groundwater-sourced drinking water systems. PMID:26251872

  3. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  4. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  5. StakeMeter: Value-Based Stakeholder Identification and Quantification Framework for Value-Based Software Systems

    PubMed Central

    Babar, Muhammad Imran; Ghazali, Masitah; Jawawi, Dayang N. A.; Zaheer, Kashif Bin

    2015-01-01

    Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS). Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ) approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called ‘StakeMeter’. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error. PMID:25799490

  6. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  7. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  8. Explosives detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  9. Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ulvila, Jacob W.; Gaffney, John E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive method for evaluating intrusion detection systems (IDSs). It integrates and extends ROC (receiver operating characteristic) and cost analysis methods to provide an expected cost metric. Results are given for determining the optimal operation of an IDS based on this expected cost metric. Results are given for the operation of a single IDS and for a combination of two IDSs. The method is illustrated for: 1) determining the best operating point for a single and double IDS based on the costs of mistakes and the hostility of the operating environment as represented in the prior probability of intrusion and 2) evaluating single and double IDSs on the basis of expected cost. A method is also described for representing a compound IDS as an equivalent single IDS. Results are presented from the point of view of a system administrator, but they apply equally to designers of IDSs.

  10. An Evaluation of a Dual Coriolis Meter System for In-Line Monitoring of Suspended Solids Concentrations in Radioactive Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.

    2000-09-01

    quickly to counteract conditions that could lead to pipeline pluggage (e.g., backflushing the pipeline with water). One of the highest priorities is to determine the concentration of suspended solids in each of the slurries. In the project described in this report, two Coriolis meters were used simultaneously to create a suspended solids monitoring system that would provide accurate results with high precision. One Coriolis meter was used to measure the density of the slurry, while the other meter was used to measure the density of the carrier fluid (i.e., after filtration to remove the solid particles). The suspended solids concentration was then calculated from the density relationships between the slurry, the carrier fluid, and the dry solid particles. The latter density was determined by laboratory analysis and was assumed to be constant throughout the periods that grab samples were collected.

  11. Recent advances in microfluidic detection systems

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher A; Duong, Cindy T; Grimley, Alix; Roper, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous detection methods available for methods are being put to use for detection on these miniaturized systems, with the analyte of interest driving the choice of detection method. In this article, we summarize microfluidic 2 years. More focus is given to unconventional approaches to detection routes and novel strategies for performing high-sensitivity detection. PMID:20414455

  12. Performance of a Cryogenic 21 Meter-Path Copper Herriott Cell Vacuum Coupled to a Bruker 125HR System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantz, Arlan W.; Sung, Keeyoon; Crawford, Timothy J.; Yu, Shanshan; Brown, Linda R.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris

    2013-06-01

    Accurate modeling of planetary atmospheres requires a detailed knowledge of the temperature and pressure dependence of spectroscopic line parameters of atmospheric molecules. With this requirement in mind, a new Herriott cell having a 21 meter folded absorption path was designed and fabricated with Oxygen-Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper body and gold coated OFHC copper mirrors to operate for the first time with a broad-band Fourier transform spectrometer. The cell, enclosed in an isolated vacuum box, is cooled by a CTI Cryogenics, Inc. model 1050 closed-cycle helium refrigerator which also cryopumps the vacuum box. The temperature of the cell is monitored by a silicon temperature sensor and regulated by a Lakeshore model 331 temperature controller. The new cell system was integrated to the JPL Bruker model 125HR interferometer with transfer optics which are fully evacuated to 12 mTorr (the pressure inside the interferometer). The optics were through-put matched for entrance apertures smaller than 2 mm. The system has successfully operated for several months at gas sample temperatures between 75 and 250 K with extremely good stability to obtain spectra of methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen bands between 0.76 and 3 μm. We present the characterization and performance of the Herriott cell system and preliminary analyses of newly recorded spectra. Research described in this paper was performed at Connecticut College, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, NASA Langley Research Center, and The College of William and Mary under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Innovative Gamma Ray Spectrometer Detection Systems for Conducting Scanning Surveys on Challenging Terrain - 13583

    SciTech Connect

    Palladino, Carl; Mason, Bryan; Engle, Matt; LeVangie, James; Dempsey, Gregg; Klemovich, Ron

    2013-07-01

    The Santa Susana Field Laboratory located near Simi Valley, California was investigated to determine the nature and extent of gamma radiation anomalies. The primary objective was to conduct gamma scanning surveys over 100 percent of the approximately 1,906,000 square meters (471 acre) project site with the most sensitive detection system possible. The site had challenging topography that was not conducive to traditional gamma scanning detection systems. Terrain slope varied from horizontal to 48 degrees and the ground surface ranged from flat, grassy meadows to steep, rocky hillsides. In addition, the site was home to many protected endangered plant and animal species, and archaeologically significant sites that required minimal to no disturbance of the ground surface. Therefore, four innovative and unique gamma ray spectrometer detection systems were designed and constructed to successfully conduct gamma scanning surveys of approximately 1,076,000 square meters (266 acres) of the site. (authors)

  14. Advanced metering techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools and procedures used to identify and evaluate efficiency improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy-use efficiency. To assist in implementing energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies with identifying efficiency opportunities and in implementing energy-efficiency and demand-side management programs at federal sites. As the lead laboratory for FEMP, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides technical assistance to federal agencies to better understand and characterize energy systems. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked PNL to provide technical assistance to characterize and modernize energy systems at FORSCOM installations. As part of that technical assistance, PNL performed an in-depth examination of automatic meter-reading system technologies currently available. The operating characteristics and relative merits of all the major systems were reviewed in the context of applicability to federal installations. That review is documented in this report.

  15. Site-specific scFv labelling with invertase via Sortase A mechanism as a platform for antibody-antigen detection using the personal glucose meter

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Nur Faezee; Lim, Theam Soon

    2016-01-01

    Antibody labelling to reporter molecules is gaining popularity due to its many potential applications for diagnostics and therapeutics. However, non-directional bioconjugation methods which are commonly used often results in the loss of target binding capabilities. Therefore, a site-specific enzymatic based bioconjugation such as sortase-mediated transpeptidation allows for a more rapid and efficient method of antibody conjugation for diagnostic applications. Here we describe the utilization of sortase A bioconjugation to conjugate a single chain fragment variable (scFv) to the extracellular invertase (invB) from Zymomonas mobilis with the aim of developing an invertase based immunoassay. In addition, conjugation to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was also validated to show the flexibility of the method. The invertase conjugated complex was successfully applied for the detection of antibody-antigen interaction using a personal glucose meter (PGM) for assay readout. The setup was used in both a direct and competitive assay highlighting the robustness of the conjugate for assay development. The method provides an alternative conjugation process to allow easy exchange of antibodies to facilitate rapid development of diagnostic assays for various diseases on the PGM platform. PMID:26782912

  16. Site-specific scFv labelling with invertase via Sortase A mechanism as a platform for antibody-antigen detection using the personal glucose meter.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Nur Faezee; Lim, Theam Soon

    2016-01-01

    Antibody labelling to reporter molecules is gaining popularity due to its many potential applications for diagnostics and therapeutics. However, non-directional bioconjugation methods which are commonly used often results in the loss of target binding capabilities. Therefore, a site-specific enzymatic based bioconjugation such as sortase-mediated transpeptidation allows for a more rapid and efficient method of antibody conjugation for diagnostic applications. Here we describe the utilization of sortase A bioconjugation to conjugate a single chain fragment variable (scFv) to the extracellular invertase (invB) from Zymomonas mobilis with the aim of developing an invertase based immunoassay. In addition, conjugation to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was also validated to show the flexibility of the method. The invertase conjugated complex was successfully applied for the detection of antibody-antigen interaction using a personal glucose meter (PGM) for assay readout. The setup was used in both a direct and competitive assay highlighting the robustness of the conjugate for assay development. The method provides an alternative conjugation process to allow easy exchange of antibodies to facilitate rapid development of diagnostic assays for various diseases on the PGM platform. PMID:26782912

  17. A Portable Infrasonic Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Lawrenson, Christopher C.; Masterman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    During last couple of years, NASA Langley has designed and developed a portable infrasonic detection system which can be used to make useful infrasound measurements at a location where it was not possible previously. The system comprises an electret condenser microphone, having a 3-inch membrane diameter, and a small, compact windscreen. Electret-based technology offers the lowest possible background noise, because Johnson noise generated in the supporting electronics (preamplifier) is minimized. The microphone features a high membrane compliance with a large backchamber volume, a prepolarized backplane and a high impedance preamplifier located inside the backchamber. The windscreen, based on the high transmission coefficient of infrasound through matter, is made of a material having a low acoustic impedance and sufficiently thick wall to insure structural stability. Close-cell polyurethane foam has been found to serve the purpose well. In the proposed test, test parameters will be sensitivity, background noise, signal fidelity (harmonic distortion), and temporal stability. The design and results of the compact system, based upon laboratory and field experiments, will be presented.

  18. Photoelectric detection system. [manufacturing automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.; Schansman, R. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A photoelectric beam system for the detection of the arrival of an object at a discrete station wherein artificial light, natural light, or no light may be present is described. A signal generator turns on and off a signal light at a selected frequency. When the object in question arrives on station, ambient light is blocked by the object, and the light from the signal light is reflected onto a photoelectric sensor which has a delayed electrical output but is of the frequency of the signal light. Outputs from both the signal source and the photoelectric sensor are fed to inputs of an exclusively OR detector which provides as an output the difference between them. The difference signal is a small width pulse occurring at the frequency of the signal source. By filter means, this signal is distinguished from those responsive to sunlight, darkness, or 120 Hz artificial light. In this fashion, the presence of an object is positively established.

  19. Planetary system detection by POINTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The final report and semiannual reports 1, 2, and 3 in response to the study of 'Planetary System Detection by POINTS' is presented. The grant covered the period from 15 Jun. 1988 through 31 Dec. 1989. The work during that period comprised the further development and refinement of the POINTS concept. The status of the POINTS development at the end of the Grant period was described by Reasenberg in a paper given at the JPL Workshop on Space Interferometry, 12-13 Mar. 1990, and distributed as CfA Preprint 3138. That paper, 'POINTS: a Small Astrometric Interferometer,' follows as Appendix-A. Our proposal P2276-7-09, dated July 1990, included a more detailed description of the state of the development of POINTS at the end of the tenure of Grant NAGW-1355. That proposal, which resulted in Grant NAGW-2497, is included by reference.

  20. Plant chlorophyll content meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

  1. Novel approach for low-cost muzzle flash detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voskoboinik, Asher

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost muzzle flash detection based on CMOS sensor technology is proposed. This low-cost technology makes it possible to detect various transient events with characteristic times between dozens of microseconds up to dozens of milliseconds while sophisticated algorithms successfully separate them from false alarms by utilizing differences in geometrical characteristics and/or temporal signatures. The proposed system consists of off-the-shelf smart CMOS cameras with built-in signal and image processing capabilities for pre-processing together with allocated memory for storing a buffer of images for further post-processing. Such a sensor does not require sending giant amounts of raw data to a real-time processing unit but provides all calculations in-situ where processing results are the output of the sensor. This patented CMOS muzzle flash detection concept exhibits high-performance detection capability with very low false-alarm rates. It was found that most false-alarms due to sun glints are from sources at distances of 500-700 meters from the sensor and can be distinguished by time examination techniques from muzzle flash signals. This will enable to eliminate up to 80% of falsealarms due to sun specular reflections in the battle field. Additional effort to distinguish sun glints from suspected muzzle flash signal is made by optimization of the spectral band in Near-IR region. The proposed system can be used for muzzle detection of small arms, missiles and rockets and other military applications.

  2. A Matter of Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Writing verse is a learning experience. Arranging words, sounds and syllables can turn everyday language into metered language (language that can be measured), and metered language is the definition of verse. This article discusses the use of meter in helping students establish sets of syllables and lines that can be counted, enabling them to…

  3. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: metering

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    Time-differentiated metering of electricity consumption and demand is required in both rate-structure experimentation and the implementation of most time-of-use rate designs. Time-differentiated metering takes three major forms: multi-register watthour meters, magnetic-tape recording meters, and remote automatic meter-reading systems. The majority of projects selected magnetic-tape meters for their flexibility with respect to rate structure, load-survey capabilities, and ready availability. The small-scale, experimental nature of the projects reduced the significance of the large difference in per-unit cost and operational/maintenance complexity between this form of metering and the multi-register form. Magnetic-tape meters are not likely candidates for system-wide implementation of time-differentiated metering. Automatic remote-meter-reading systems were not adequately available during the project years; those projects attempting to use these were unable to bring them to full operational status before project termination, due to the many problems of design, quality control, and equipment acquisition encountered. Delays in acquisition and problems of quality control also followed the selection of magnetic-tape meters and multi-register meters by a number of the projects. Though less complex than automatic remote-reading systems, these technologies are still new and more complex than standard watthour metering. Thus, both equipment vendors and utilities encountered numerous problems in getting properly functioning meters to the service entrances on time. A variety of factors contributed to installation delays, including unforeseen space limitations, incompatible wiring, problems of task organization, and customer reluctance.

  4. Mass meters for liquid measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Apple, C.

    1995-12-01

    Flowmeters that are capable of providing a direct mass flow measurement include: Coriolis, thermal, gyroscopic and angular momentum. However, Coriolis meters are the only commercially viable device that can cover the breadth of measurements required by the petroleum industry. In addition to providing a direct mass flow measurement, Coriolis meters are extremely accurate, typically {+-}0.1 % to {+-}0.2 %. The advantage of measuring mass is that the mass of a fluid is unaffected by changes in process temperature and pressure. Whereas, volume measurements must be corrected to standard conditions of temperature and pressure for accounting purposes. Although measuring a product on a mass basis would be the simplest approach, most petroleum products are accounted for on a volume basis. This is primarily because only volumetric flowmeters were available prior to the introduction of industrial quality Coriolis meter in the early 1980`s. Due to the lack of means to perform a mass measurement, the petroleum industry has standardized on volume measurement. Systems and procedures are currently in place for performing and verifying volume measurements. Therefore, the petroleum industry will be slow in moving to mass measurement. Coriolis meters are currently gaining acceptance in the petroleum industry for the metering of light hydrocarbons, which are difficult to properly account for on a volume basis. However, due to the many advantages that Coriolis meters provide, they will become a preferred flow measurement device for all areas of petroleum measurement.

  5. Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Seagraves, David T.

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.

  6. MicroSensors Systems: detection of a dismounted threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Bill; Berglund, Victor; Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian

    2005-05-01

    The Micro Sensor System (MSS) is a layered sensor network with the goal of detecting dismounted threats approaching high value assets. A low power unattended ground sensor network is dependant on a network protocol for efficiency in order to minimize data transmissions after network establishment. The reduction of network 'chattiness' is a primary driver for minimizing power consumption and is a factor in establishing a low probability of detection and interception. The MSS has developed a unique protocol to meet these challenges. Unattended ground sensor systems are most likely dependant on batteries for power which due to size determines the ability of the sensor to be concealed after placement. To minimize power requirements, overcome size limitations, and maintain a low system cost the MSS utilizes advanced manufacturing processes know as Fluidic Self-Assembly and Chip Scale Packaging. The type of sensing element and the ability to sense various phenomenologies (particularly magnetic) at ranges greater than a few meters limits the effectiveness of a system. The MicroSensor System will overcome these limitations by deploying large numbers of low cost sensors, which is made possible by the advanced manufacturing process used in production of the sensors. The MSS program will provide unprecedented levels of real-time battlefield information which greatly enhances combat situational awareness when integrated with the existing Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) infrastructure. This system will provide an important boost to realizing the information dominant, network-centric objective of Joint Vision 2020.

  7. Net metering programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y H

    1996-12-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest from the renewable energy industry and environmental groups in net metering. The reason for this interest is that net metering is a simple, low-cost, and easily administered method to encourage direct customer investment in renewable energy technologies. The renewable energy industry supports net metering because it removes an economic disincentive for potential customers by increasing the value of the electricity generated by renewable energy technologies. Environmental groups support net metering because it promotes clean energy production. The concept of net metering programs is to allow the electric meters of customers with generating facilities to turn backwards when their generators are producing more energy than the customers` demand. Net metering allows customers to use their generation to offset their consumption over the entire billing period, not just instantaneously. This offset would enable customers with generating facilities to receive retail prices for more of the electricity they generate. Without a net metering program, utilities usually install a second meter to measure any electricity that flows back to the utility grid and purchase it at a rate that is much lower than the retail prices. There are various net metering programs in the country. Most are available to customer-owned small generating facilities only, some further restrict the eligibility to renewable energy technologies. This Topical Issues Brief discusses how these net metering programs have been implemented by different utilities an states, what the rationales are behind may net metering programs, and what the potential impact of net metering may be on the deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  8. Whole-field digital vibrometer system for buried landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Amit; Hess, Cecil; Scott, Eddie; Dang, Michael; Nichols, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Previous results have shown the potential of acoustic-to-seismic coupling with Laser Doppler Vibrometry for the detection of buried landmines. An important objective of the present technology is to improve the spatial resolution and the speed of the measurement. In this paper, MetroLaser reports on a whole-field digital vibrometer (WDV) that measures an entire one meter area with sub-centimeter spatial resolution in just a few seconds. The WDV is based on a dual-pulsed laser such that each pulse illuminates a one meter area on the ground, and the temporal separation between the two laser pulses can be adjusted to match the ground excitation frequency. By sweeping this excitation frequency, a displacement map of the ground at each frequency can be quickly generated. In addition, an innovative speckle repositioning strategy allows for movement of the measurement platform at reasonable speeds while still obtaining measurements with interferometric precision. This paper describes the WDV instrument and presents preliminary experimental results obtained with this system. This research is being supported by the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD under Contract W909MY04-C-0004.

  9. Research of on-line detection system for power capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junda; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Xia, Jiuyun

    2016-01-01

    The hidden danger exists in the power capacitor of power system due to long-time operation under the environment of high voltage. Thus, it is possible to induce serious fault, and the on-line detection system is urgently required. In this paper, two methods of the on-line detection system are compared in order to realize the better real-time condition detection. The first method is based on the STM microprocessor with an internal 12 bit A/D converter, which converts analog signals which is arrived from the sample circuit into digital signals, and then the FFT algorithm is used to accomplish the measurement of the voltage and current values of the capacitor. The second method is based on the special electric energy metering IC, which can obtain RMS (Root Mean Square) of voltage and current by processing the sampled data of the voltage and current, and store RMS of voltage and current in its certain registers. The operating condition of the capacitor can be obtained after getting the values of voltage and current. By comparing the measuring results of two methods, the second method could achieve a higher measurement accuracy and more simple construction.

  10. CAXSS: an intelligent threat-detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Thomas; Guan, Ling; Lee-Kwen, Adrian; Paranjape, Raman B.

    1993-04-01

    Array Systems Computing Inc. (ASC) is developing a prototype Computer Assisted X-ray Screening System (CAXSS) which uses state-of-the-art image processing and computer vision technology to detect threats seen in x-ray images of passenger carry-on luggage at national and international airports. This system is successful in detecting weapons including guns, knives, grenades, aerosol cans, etc. Currently, bomb detection is also being implemented; preliminary results using this bomb detector are promising.

  11. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    DOEpatents

    Annala, Wayne C.

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  12. Airborne change detection system for the detection of route mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, Thomas P.; Jackson, Larry; Yeshnik, Mark; Petty, Thomas E.

    2003-09-01

    The US Army is interested in technologies that will enable it to maintain the free flow of traffic along routes such as Main Supply Routes (MSRs). Mines emplaced in the road by enemy forces under cover of darkness represent a major threat to maintaining a rapid Operational Tempo (OPTEMPO) along such routes. One technique that shows promise for detecting enemy mining activity is Airborne Change Detection, which allows an operator to detect suspicious day-to-day changes in and around the road that may be indicative of enemy mining. This paper presents an Airborne Change Detection that is currently under development at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The system has been tested using a longwave infrared (LWIR) sensor on a vertical take-off and landing unmanned aerial vehicle (VTOL UAV) and a midwave infrared (MWIR) sensor on a fixed wing aircraft. The system is described and results of the various tests conducted to date are presented.

  13. Reliability, Agreement and Minimal Detectable Change of the Timed Up & Go and the 10-Meter Walk Tests in Older Patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Marques, Alda; Cruz, Joana; Quina, Sara; Regêncio, Maria; Jácome, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the interrater and intrarater reliability and agreement and the minimal detectable change (MDC) of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test and the 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) in older patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Patients (≥ 60 years old) living in the community were asked to attend 2 sessions with 48-72-hour interval. In session 1, participants completed the TUG and 10MWT twice (2 trials) and were assessed by 2 raters. In session 2, they repeated the tests twice and were assessed by 1 rater. Interrater and intrarater reliability were calculated for the exact scores (using data from trial 1) and mean scores (mean of 2 trials) using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1 and ICC2,2, respectively). Interrater and intrarater agreement were explored with the Bland & Altman method. The MDC95 was calculated from the standard error of measurement. Sixty participants (72.43 ± 6.90 years old) completed session 1 and 41 participants session 2. Excellent ICC values were found for the TUG test (interrater: ICC2,1 = 0.997 ICC2,2 = 0.999; intrarater: ICC2,1 = 0.921 ICC2,2 = 0.964) and 10MWT (interrater: ICC2,1 = 0.992 ICC2,2 = 0.997; intrarater: ICC2,1 = 0.903 ICC2,2 = 0.946). Good interrater and intrarater agreement was also found for both tests. The MDC95 was 2.68 s and 1.84 s for the TUG and 0.40 m/s and 0.30 m/s for the 10MWT considering the exact and mean scores, respectively. Findings suggest that the TUG test and the 10MWT are reliable and have acceptable measurement error. Therefore, these measures may be used to assess functional balance (TUG) and gait (10MWT) deficits in older patients with COPD. PMID:26643361

  14. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W. Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device. PMID:27110459

  15. Thermal systems for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Marco; Del Vecchio, Luca; Esposito, Salvatore; Balsi, Marco; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents new techniques of landmine detection and localization using thermal methods. Described methods use both dynamical and static analysis. The work is based on datasets obtained from the Humanitarian Demining Laboratory of Università La Sapienza di Roma, Italy.

  16. Forward Obstacle Detection System by Stereo Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Saneyoshi, Keiji

    Forward obstacle detection is needed to prevent car accidents. We have developed forward obstacle detection system which has good detectability and the accuracy of distance only by using stereo vision. The system runs in real time by using a stereo processing system based on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Road surfaces are detected and the space to drive can be limited. A smoothing filter is also used. Owing to these, the accuracy of distance is improved. In the experiments, this system could detect forward obstacles 100 m away. Its error of distance up to 80 m was less than 1.5 m. It could immediately detect cutting-in objects.

  17. Toward detecting deception in intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Johnson, Gregory, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Contemporary decision makers often must choose a course of action using knowledge from several sources. Knowledge may be provided from many diverse sources including electronic sources such as knowledge-based diagnostic or decision support systems or through data mining techniques. As the decision maker becomes more dependent on these electronic information sources, detecting deceptive information from these sources becomes vital to making a correct, or at least more informed, decision. This applies to unintentional disinformation as well as intentional misinformation. Our ongoing research focuses on employing models of deception and deception detection from the fields of psychology and cognitive science to these systems as well as implementing deception detection algorithms for probabilistic intelligent systems. The deception detection algorithms are used to detect, classify and correct attempts at deception. Algorithms for detecting unexpected information rely upon a prediction algorithm from the collaborative filtering domain to predict agent responses in a multi-agent system.

  18. Hydrogen Fire Detection System Features Sharp Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, C. S.

    1966-01-01

    Hydrogen fire detection system discovers fires by detecting the flickering ultraviolet radiation emitted by the OH molecule, a short-lived intermediate combustion product found in hydrogen-air flames. In a space application, the system discriminates against false signals from sunlight and rocket engine exhaust plume radiation.

  19. Very high-capacity short-reach VCSEL systems exploiting multicarrier intensity modulation and direct detection.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Alberto; Argenio, Debora; Boffi, Pierpaolo

    2016-06-13

    Multicarrier intensity modulation of a bandwidth-limited long-wavelength VCSEL is exploited combined to direct detection to achieve very high capacity simple systems for short-reach applications. Tailored FDM subcarriers modulation and allocation allow to match the non-uniform frequency response of the system induced by the direct modulation and detection of the FDM signal and by the uncompensated SSMF propagation, overcoming the VCSEL bandwidth limitations. A whole transported throughput ranging from 34 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s from few hundreds meters to 20 km of SSMF propagation is experimentally demonstrated even by employing a 5-GHz band VCSEL source. PMID:27410296

  20. TV system for detection of latent fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Ban, Xianfu; Liu, Shaowu; Ding, Zhenfang

    1993-04-01

    A fingerprint is reliable evidence for recognizing criminals in detecting cases. There are many conventional chemical and physical methods in detecting fingerprints. In this paper, a newly developed portable TV system for detecting a latent fingerprint is described. This system is suited for field reconnaissance of cases as well as for laboratory testing. It can display a latent fingerprint, which is hard to identify and even cannot be displayed by conventional methods, and it can detect prints or stamps which are faded, altered, or falsified, etc.

  1. Real life experience with multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters

    SciTech Connect

    Sakariassen, R.

    1996-12-31

    Multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters are to be considered as newcomers among flow meters for large, high pressure gas flows. Although the advantages of this type of meters are many and obvious, the metering community is still hesitating to go for it mainly because of lack of experience. The objective of this paper is to present the experience of Statoil after more than six years experience with multipath ultrasonic gas flow meters. Their experience includes laboratory testing and operation in the field for a variety of designs and dimensions. This paper presents the accuracy achieved by such meters including comparison between ultrasonic meters and orifice metering systems in operation, the unique possibilities that this type of meter offers for on-line verification of performance and installation effects. Of particular interest should be noted that in the vicinity of low-noise control valves, such meters could stop functioning completely if no precautions are taken.

  2. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Downs, Janelle L.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Henderson, Jordan W.; Montgomery, Sadie A.; Vernon, Christopher R.; Parker, Steven A.

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  3. Groundwater-Seepage Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Harry G.; Reay, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Instrument measures seepage of groundwater into inland or coastal body of water. Positioned at depth as great as 40 meters, and measures flow at low rate and low pressure differential. Auxiliary pressure meter provides data for correlation of flow of groundwater with tides and sea states. Seepage meter operates independently for several weeks. Its sampling rate adjusted to suit hydrologic conditions; to measure more frequently when conditions changing rapidly. Used in water-quality management and for biological and geological research. Potential industrial uses include measurement of seepage of caustic and corrosive liquids.

  4. Modeling And Detecting Anomalies In Scada Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Nils; Wolthusen, Stephen

    The detection of attacks and intrusions based on anomalies is hampered by the limits of specificity underlying the detection techniques. However, in the case of many critical infrastructure systems, domain-specific knowledge and models can impose constraints that potentially reduce error rates. At the same time, attackers can use their knowledge of system behavior to mask their manipulations, causing adverse effects to observed only after a significant period of time. This paper describes elementary statistical techniques that can be applied to detect anomalies in critical infrastructure networks. A SCADA system employed in liquefied natural gas (LNG) production is used as a case study.

  5. Inertial navigation sensor integrated obstacle detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhanu, Bir (Inventor); Roberts, Barry A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system that incorporates inertial sensor information into optical flow computations to detect obstacles and to provide alternative navigational paths free from obstacles. The system is a maximally passive obstacle detection system that makes selective use of an active sensor. The active detection typically utilizes a laser. Passive sensor suite includes binocular stereo, motion stereo and variable fields-of-view. Optical flow computations involve extraction, derotation and matching of interest points from sequential frames of imagery, for range interpolation of the sensed scene, which in turn provides obstacle information for purposes of safe navigation.

  6. Voice activity detection for speaker verification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Filip

    2008-01-01

    Complex algorithm for speech activity detection was presented in this article. It is based on speech enhancement, features extraction and final detection algorithm. The first one was published in ETSI standard as a module of "Advanced front-end feature extraction algorithm" in distributed speech recognition system. It consists of two main parts, noise estimatiom and Wiener filtering. For the final detection modified linear prediction coefficients and spectral entropy features are extracted form denoised signal.

  7. Driver fatigue detection system based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Fu liang; Song, Lixin

    2012-01-01

    To detect driver fatigue states effectively and in real time, a driver fatigue detection system was built, which take ICETEK-DM6347 module as system core, near-infrared LED as light source, and CCD camera as picture gathering device. An improved PER-NORFACE detection method combined several simple and efficient image processing algorithms was proposed, which based on principle of PERCLOS method and take the human face location as the main detection target. To ensure the ability of real-time processing, the algorithms on the DM6437 DaVinci processor were optimized. Experiments show that the system could complete the driver fatigue states detection accurately and in real time.

  8. Multisensor cargo bay fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Brian L.; Anderson, Kaare J.; Renken, Christopher H.; Socha, David M.; Miller, Mark S.

    2004-08-01

    Current aircraft cargo bay fire detection systems are generally based on smoke detection. Smoke detectors in modern aircraft are predominately photoelectric particle detectors that reliably detect smoke, but also detect dust, fog, and most other small particles. False alarms caused by these contaminants can be very costly to the airlines because they can cause flights to be diverted needlessly. To minimize these expenses, a new approach to cargo bay fire detection is needed. This paper describes a novel fire detection system developed by the Goodrich Advanced Sensors Technical Center. The system uses multiple sensors of different technologies to provide a way of discriminating between real fire events and false triggers. The system uses infrared imaging along with multiple, distributed chemical sensors and smoke detectors, all feeding data to a digital signal processor. The processor merges data from the chemical sensors, smoke detectors, and processed images to determine if a fire (or potential fire) is present. Decision algorithms look at all this data in real-time and make the final decision about whether a fire is present. In the paper, we present a short background of the problem we are solving, the reasons for choosing the technologies used, the design of the system, the signal processing methods and results from extensive system testing. We will also show that multiple sensing technologies are crucial to reducing false alarms in such systems.

  9. Peak flow meter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  10. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  11. Ride-Quality Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Single- and combined-Axis discomfort are corrected by effects of noise and vibration to yield measure of total discomfort experienced by rider. Three modules transform mathematically-weighted rms accelerations, which represent physical vibration characteristics, into subjective discomfort units. Portable "ride-quality" meter measures passenger discomfort and acceptability of vehicle interior noise and vibration. Meter especially suited for determining vehicle comfort and design tradeoffs and for comparing ride quality of vehicles.

  12. DIGITAL Q METER

    DOEpatents

    Briscoe, W.L.

    1962-02-13

    A digital Q meter is described for measuring the Q of mechanical or electrical devices. The meter comprises in combination a transducer coupled to an input amplifier, and an upper and lower level discriminator coupled to the amplifier and having their outputs coupled to an anticoincidence gate. The output of the gate is connected to a scaler. The lower level discriminator is adjusted to a threshold level of 36.8 percent of the operating threshold level of the upper level discriminator. (AEC)

  13. RADIATION DETECTING AND TELEMETERING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Richards, H.K.

    1959-12-15

    A system is presented for measuring ionizing radiation at several remote stations and transmitting the measured information by radio to a central station. At each remote station a signal proportioned to the counting rate is applied across an electrical condenser made of ferroelectric material. The voltage across the condenser will vary as a function of the incident radiation and the capacitance of the condenser will vary accordingly. This change in capacitance is used to change the frequency of a crystalcontrolled oscillator. The output of the oscillator is coupled to an antenna for transmitting a signal proportional to the incident radiation.

  14. Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Minnesota net metering policy is to give the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, especially solar electric systems (MN 2008). However, according to a published set of best practices (NNEC 2008) that prioritize the maximum development of solar markets within states, the Minnesota policy does not incorporate many of the important best practices that may help other states transform their solar energy markets and increase the amount of grid-connected distributed solar generation assets. Reasons cited include the low system size limit of 40kW (the best practices document recommends a 2 MW limit) and a lack of language protecting generators from additional utility fees. This study was conducted to compare Minnesota's policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions' net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states.

  15. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  16. Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides an overview of the development of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Metering has historically served as the cash register for the utility industry. It measured the amount of energy used and supported the billing of customers for that usage. However, utilities are starting to look at meters in a whole different way, viewing them as the point of contact with customers in supporting a number of operational imperatives. The combination of smart meters and advanced communications has opened up a variety of methods for utilities to reduce operating costs while offering new services to customers. A concise look is given at what's driving interest in AMI, the components of AMI, and the creation of a business case for AMI. Topics covered include: an overview of AMI including the history of metering and development of smart meters; a description of the key technologies involved in AMI; a description of key government initiatives to support AMI; an evaluation of the current market position of AMI; an analysis of business case development for AMI; and, profiles of 21 key AMI vendors.

  17. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  18. Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Gencorp Aerojet Automated Hydrogen Gas Leak Detection System was developed through the cooperation of industry, academia, and the Government. Although the original purpose of the system was to detect leaks in the main engine of the space shuttle while on the launch pad, it also has significant commercial potential in applications for which there are no existing commercial systems. With high sensitivity, the system can detect hydrogen leaks at low concentrations in inert environments. The sensors are integrated with hardware and software to form a complete system. Several of these systems have already been purchased for use on the Ford Motor Company assembly line for natural gas vehicles. This system to detect trace hydrogen gas leaks from pressurized systems consists of a microprocessor-based control unit that operates a network of sensors. The sensors can be deployed around pipes, connectors, flanges, and tanks of pressurized systems where leaks may occur. The control unit monitors the sensors and provides the operator with a visual representation of the magnitude and locations of the leak as a function of time. The system can be customized to fit the user's needs; for example, it can monitor and display the condition of the flanges and fittings associated with the tank of a natural gas vehicle.

  19. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  20. Detection probability of EBPSK-MODEM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yu; Wu, Lenan

    2016-07-01

    Since the impacting filter-based receiver is able to transform phase modulation into amplitude peak, a simple threshold decision can detect the Extend-Binary Phase Shift Keying (EBPSK) modulated ranging signal in noise environment. In this paper, an analysis of the EBPSK-MODEM system output gives the probability density function for EBPSK modulated signals plus noise. The equation of detection probability (pd) for fluctuating and non-fluctuating targets has been deduced. Also, a comparison of the pd for the EBPSK-MODEM system and pulse radar receiver is made, and some results are plotted. Moreover, the probability curves of such system with several modulation parameters are analysed. When modulation parameter is not smaller than 6, the detection performance of EBPSK-MODEM system is more excellent than traditional radar system. In addition to theoretical considerations, computer simulations are provided for illustrating the performance.

  1. Windshear detection and avoidance - Airborne systems survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1990-01-01

    Functional requirements for airborne windshear detection and warning systems are discussed in terms of the threat posed to civil aircraft operations. A preliminary set of performance criteria for predictive windshear detection and warning systems is defined. Candidate airborne remote sensor technologies based on microwave Doppler radar, Doppler laser radar (lidar), and infrared radiometric techniques are discussed in the context of overall system requirements, and the performance of each sensor is assessed for representative microburst environments and ground clutter conditions. Preliminary simulation results demonstrate that all three sensors show potential for detecting windshear, and provide adequate warning time to allow flight crews to avoid the affected area or escape from the encounter. Radar simulation and analysis show that by using bin-to-bin automatic gain control, clutter filtering, limited detection range, and suitable antenna tilt management, windshear from wet microbursts can be accurately detected. Although a performance improvement can be obtained at higher radar frequency, the baseline X-band system also detected the presence of windshear hazard for a dry microburst. Simulation results of end-to-end performance for competing coherent lidar systems are presented.

  2. CD-ROM and Metering--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shear, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the need for security and metering features for CD-ROM products. Topics covered include user productivity issues, pricing problems, integrated information resources, advantages of CD-ROM distribution systems, unauthorized use, content encryption, and multiple simultaneous meters. (MES)

  3. Research on MEMS sensor in hydraulic system flow detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongpeng; Zhang, Yindong; Liu, Dong; Ji, Yulong; Jiang, Jihai; Sun, Yuqing

    2011-05-01

    With the development of mechatronics technology and fault diagnosis theory, people regard flow information much more than before. Cheap, fast and accurate flow sensors are urgently needed by hydraulic industry. So MEMS sensor, which is small, low cost, well performed and easy to integrate, will surely play an important role in this field. Based on the new method of flow measurement which was put forward by our research group, this paper completed the measurement of flow rate in hydraulic system by setting up the mathematical model, using numerical simulation method and doing physical experiment. Based on viscous fluid flow equations we deduced differential pressure-velocity model of this new sensor and did optimization on parameters. Then, we designed and manufactured the throttle and studied the velocity and pressure field inside the sensor by FLUENT. Also in simulation we get the differential pressure-velocity curve .The model machine was simulated too to direct experiment. In the static experiments we calibrated the MEMS sensing element and built some sample sensors. Then in a hydraulic testing system we compared the sensor signal with a turbine meter. It presented good linearity and could meet general hydraulic system use. Based on the CFD curves, we analyzed the error reasons and made some suggestion to improve. In the dynamic test, we confirmed this sensor can realize high frequency flow detection by a 7 piston-pump.

  4. Research on MEMS sensor in hydraulic system flow detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongpeng; Zhang, Yindong; Liu, Dong; Ji, Yulong; Jiang, Jihai; Sun, Yuqing

    2010-12-01

    With the development of mechatronics technology and fault diagnosis theory, people regard flow information much more than before. Cheap, fast and accurate flow sensors are urgently needed by hydraulic industry. So MEMS sensor, which is small, low cost, well performed and easy to integrate, will surely play an important role in this field. Based on the new method of flow measurement which was put forward by our research group, this paper completed the measurement of flow rate in hydraulic system by setting up the mathematical model, using numerical simulation method and doing physical experiment. Based on viscous fluid flow equations we deduced differential pressure-velocity model of this new sensor and did optimization on parameters. Then, we designed and manufactured the throttle and studied the velocity and pressure field inside the sensor by FLUENT. Also in simulation we get the differential pressure-velocity curve .The model machine was simulated too to direct experiment. In the static experiments we calibrated the MEMS sensing element and built some sample sensors. Then in a hydraulic testing system we compared the sensor signal with a turbine meter. It presented good linearity and could meet general hydraulic system use. Based on the CFD curves, we analyzed the error reasons and made some suggestion to improve. In the dynamic test, we confirmed this sensor can realize high frequency flow detection by a 7 piston-pump.

  5. Force protection demining system (FPDS) detection subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachery, Karen N.; Schultz, Gregory M.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2005-06-01

    This study describes the U.S. Army Force Protection Demining System (FPDS); a remotely-operated, multisensor platform developed for reliable detection and neutralization of both anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines. The ongoing development of the prototype multisensor detection subsystem is presented, which integrates an advanced electromagnetic pulsed-induction array and ground penetrating synthetic aperture radar array on a single standoff platform. The FPDS detection subsystem is mounted on a robotic rubber-tracked vehicle and incorporates an accurate and precise navigation/positioning module making it well suited for operation in varied and irregular terrains. Detection sensors are optimally configured to minimize interference without loss in sensitivity or performance. Mine lane test data acquired from the prototype sensors are processed to extract signal- and image-based features for automatic target recognition. Preliminary results using optimal feature and classifier selection indicate the potential of the system to achieve high probabilities of detection while minimizing false alarms. The FPDS detection software system also exploits modern multi-sensor data fusion algorithms to provide real-time detection and discrimination information to the user.

  6. A system for distributed intrusion detection

    SciTech Connect

    Snapp, S.R.; Brentano, J.; Dias, G.V.; Goan, T.L.; Heberlein, L.T.; Ho, Che-Lin; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B. . Div. of Computer Science); Grance, T. ); Mansur, D.L.; Pon, K.L. ); Smaha, S.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The study of providing security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because the network is the medium over which most attacks or intrusions on computer systems are launched. One approach to solving this problem is the intrusion-detection concept, whose basic premise is that not only abandoning the existing and huge infrastructure of possibly-insecure computer and network systems is impossible, but also replacing them by totally-secure systems may not be feasible or cost effective. Previous work on intrusion-detection systems were performed on stand-alone hosts and on a broadcast local area network (LAN) environment. The focus of our present research is to extend our network intrusion-detection concept from the LAN environment to arbitarily wider areas with the network topology being arbitrary as well. The generalized distributed environment is heterogeneous, i.e., the network nodes can be hosts or servers from different vendors, or some of them could be LAN managers, like our previous work, a network security monitor (NSM), as well. The proposed architecture for this distributed intrusion-detection system consists of the following components: a host manager in each host; a LAN manager for monitoring each LAN in the system; and a central manager which is placed at a single secure location and which receives reports from various host and LAN managers to process these reports, correlate them, and detect intrusions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Performance of ice meter and weight assemblies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, V.R.; Futrell, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of three ice meters and weight assemblies used by the U.S. Geological Survey and Environment Canada were compared in a towing tank. Each meter was rated individually on a rod suspension and then rerated on a cable suspension, with the appropriate weight assembly. Vertical and veer cable angles were measured along with meter yaw angle. The effect of the weight assembly on the rod-suspension rating for each meter was illustrated by computing a correction coefficient which ranged between 0.88 and 1.10 depending on the weight system used and the fluid velocity. A sluch-n-all type weight assembly least affected the meter rating and was the most stable in all flow conditions. (USGS)

  8. Capacitive system detects and locates fluid leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Electronic monitoring system automatically detects and locates minute leaks in seams of large fluid storage tanks and pipelines covered with thermal insulation. The system uses a capacitive tape-sensing element that is adhesively bonded over seams where fluid leaks are likely to occur.

  9. Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor DIAL Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; DeYoung, Russell J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The remote sensing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method to perform such measurement from aircraft and space. This thesis describes a new advanced detection system, which incorporates major improvements regarding sensitivity and size. These improvements include a low noise advanced avalanche photodiode detector, a custom analog circuit, a 14-bit digitizer, a microcontroller for on board averaging and finally a fast computer interface. This thesis describes the design and validation of this new water vapor DIAL detection system which was integrated onto a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with minimal weight and power consumption. Comparing its measurements to an existing DIAL system for aerosol and water vapor profiling validated the detection system.

  10. Application of USP inlet extensions to the TSI impactor system 3306/3320 using HFA 227 based solution metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Mogalian, Erik; Myrdal, Paul Brian

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to further evaluate the need for a vertical inlet extension when testing solution metered dose inhalers using the TSI Model 3306 Impactor Inlet in conjunction with the TSI Model 3320 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The configurations tested using the TSI system were compared to baseline measurements that were performed using the Andersen Mark II 8-stage cascade impactor (ACI). Seven pressurized solution metered dose inhalers were tested using varied concentrations of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), ethanol, and HFA 227 propellant. The inhalers were tested with the cascade impactor, and with the TSI system. The TSI system had three different configurations as the manufacturer provided (0 cm) or with inlet extensions of 20 and 40 cm. The extensions were located between the USP inlet and the Model 3306 Impactor Inlet. There were no practical differences between each system for the stem, actuator, or USP inlet. The fine particle mass (aerodynamic mass < 4.7 microm) was affected by extension length and correlated well with the ACI when an extension was present. APS particle size measurements were unaffected by the extension lengths and correlated well to particle size determined from the ACI analysis. It has been confirmed that an inlet extension may be necessary for the TSI system in order to give mass results that correlate to the ACI, especially for formulations having significant concentrations of low volatility excipients. Additionally, the results generated from this study were used to evaluate the product performance of HFA 227 based solution formulations that contain varying concentrations of ethanol as a cosolvent. PMID:16316853

  11. Penstock failure detection system at the "Valsan" hydro power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, A. M.; Coşoiu, C. I.; Alboiu, N.; Hlevca, D.; Tataroiu, R.; Popescu, O.

    2012-11-01

    "Valsan" is a small Hydro Power Plant, 5 MW, situated at about 160 km north of Bucharest, Romania, on the small "Valsan" river in a remote mountainous area. It is equipped with a single Francis turbine. The penstock is located in the access shaft of the HPP. "Hidroelectrica", the Romanian company that operates the HPP, was trying to implement a remote penstock failure detection system. Starting from a classic hydraulic problem, the authors of the paper derived a method for failure detection and localization on the pipe. The method assumes the existence of 2 flow meters and 2 pressure transducers at the inlet and outlet of the pressurized pipe. Calculations have to be based on experimental values measured in a permanent regime for different values of the flow rate. The method was at first tested on a pipe, in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest. Pipe failure was modelled by opening of a valve on a tee branch of the analyzed pipe. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with theoretical ones. The penstock of the "Valsan" HPP, was modelled in EPANET, in order to: i) test the method at a larger scale; ii) get the right flow and pressure transducers that are needed to implement it. At the request of "Hidroelectrica" a routine that computes the efficiency of the turbine was added to the monitoring software. After the system was implemented, another series of measurements were performed at the site in order to validate it. Failure was modelled by opening an existing valve on a branch of the penstock. Detection of the failure was correct and almost instantaneous, while failure location was accurate within 5% of the total penstock length.

  12. Coal-shale interface detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.; Hudgins, J. L.; Morris, P. W.; Reid, H., Jr.; Zimmerman, J. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detection system for use with coal cutting equipment consists of a reciprocating hammer on which an accelerometer is mounted to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. A pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface. The outputs of the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  13. Distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sonjian

    2013-05-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySenseTM) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySenseTM system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  14. Distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian

    2013-05-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySensTM) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySenseTM system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  15. Automated macromolecular crystal detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T.; Segelke, Brent; Rupp, Bernard; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-06-05

    An automated macromolecular method and system for detecting crystals in two-dimensional images, such as light microscopy images obtained from an array of crystallization screens. Edges are detected from the images by identifying local maxima of a phase congruency-based function associated with each image. The detected edges are segmented into discrete line segments, which are subsequently geometrically evaluated with respect to each other to identify any crystal-like qualities such as, for example, parallel lines, facing each other, similarity in length, and relative proximity. And from the evaluation a determination is made as to whether crystals are present in each image.

  16. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tania, U. T.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ibrahimy, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate.

  17. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  18. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Wegerich, Stephan

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component has degraded.

  19. Detecting the errors in solar system ephemeris by pulsar timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Guo, Li; Wang, Guang-Li

    2016-04-01

    Pulsar timing uses planetary ephemerides to convert the measured pulse arrival time at an observatory to the arrival time at the Solar System barycenter (SSB). Since these planetary ephemerides cannot be perfect, a method of detecting the associated errors based on a pulsar timing array is developed. By using observations made by an array of 18 millisecond pulsars from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, we estimated the vector uncertainty from the Earth to the SSB of JPL DE421, which reflects the offset of the ephemeris origin with respect to the ideal SSB, in different piecewise intervals of pulsar timing data, and found consistent results. To investigate the stability and reliability of our method, we divided all the pulsars into two groups. Both groups yield largely consistent results, and the uncertainty of the Earth-SSB vector is several hundred meters, which is consistent with the accuracy of JPL DE421. As an improvement in the observational accuracy, pulsar timing will be helpful to improve the solar system ephemeris in the future.

  20. Optoelectronic system for NO2 detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielecki, Zbigniew; Pregowski, Piotr; Wojtas, Jacek

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents application of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopic (CEAS) techniques with blue laser diodes-based system for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) detection. CES technique bases on integration of the light from a resonator. Since the integrated intensity is proportional to the decay time, the experimental signal can be related to the absorption process. The minimum detectable concentration of the absorber for a specific transition is inversely proportional to the effective sample-path length, and directly proportional to the minimum intensity fluctuation detected by a receiving system. In the presented system, the blue laser diode was mounted in a temperature-controlled housing. The light transmitted through the cavity was focused onto a PMT of H5783-03 type. The detector signal enters a lock-in amplifier and next a computer with a 16-bit data acquisition board.

  1. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bornn, Luke; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  2. Fault detection and diagnosis of HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, C.Y.; Xiao, Y.; Ruther, C.J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a model-based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) system for building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Model-based fault detection is based on the strategy of determining the difference or the residuals between the normal and the existing patterns. Their approach was to attack the problem on many levels of abstraction: from the signal level, controller programming level, and system component, all the way up to the information and knowledge processing level. The various issues of real implementation of the system and the processing of real-time on-line data in actual systems of campus buildings using the proven technology and off-the-shelf commercial tools are discussed. The research was based on input and output points and software control programs found in typical direct digital control systems used for variable-air-volume air handlers and VAV cooling and hot water reheat terminal units.

  3. System for detection of hazardous events

    DOEpatents

    Kulesz, James J.; Worley, Brian A.

    2006-05-23

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies, includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. Each controller is programmed to query its adjacent nodes to assess the status of the adjacent nodes and the communication links.

  4. System For Detection Of Hazardous Events

    DOEpatents

    Kulesz, James J [Oak Ridge, TN; Worley, Brian A [Knoxville, TN

    2005-08-16

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies, includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. Each controller is programmed to query its adjacent nodes to assess the status of the adjacent nodes and the communication links.

  5. Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, E. A.; Favela, F.; Curiel, Q.; Chavez, E; Huerta, A.; Varela, A.; Shapira, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

  6. System for particle concentration and detection

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Whaley, Josh A.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tran, Huu M.; Maurer, Scott M.; Munslow, William D.

    2013-03-19

    A new microfluidic system comprising an automated prototype insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) triggering microfluidic device for pathogen monitoring that can eventually be run outside the laboratory in a real world environment has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of automated trapping and detection of particles. The system broadly comprised an aerosol collector for collecting air-borne particles, an iDEP chip within which to temporarily trap the collected particles and a laser and fluorescence detector with which to induce a fluorescence signal and detect a change in that signal as particles are trapped within the iDEP chip.

  7. Idaho Explosives Detection System: Development and Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Ann E. Egger; Paul J. Petersen

    2007-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying bulk explosives into military bases. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of sodium iodide (NaI) detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A computer connects to the system by Ethernet and is able to control the system remotely. The system was developed to detect bulk explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. In 2004, a full-scale prototype IEDS system was built for testing and continued development. System performance was successfully tested using different types of real explosives with a variety of cargo at the INL from November 2005 through February 2006. Recently, the first deployable prototype system was constructed and shipped to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio and will be in operation by March 2007. The capability of passively detecting radiological material within a delivery truck has also been added.

  8. Advanced metering techniques in the federal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.; Halverson, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The lack of utility metering in the federal sector has hampered introduction of direct billing of individual activities at most military installations. Direct billing will produce accountability for the amount of energy used and is a positive step toward self-directed energy conservation. For many installations, automatic meter reading (AMR) is a cost-effective way to increase the number of meters while reducing labor requirements and providing energy conservation analysis capabilities. The communications technology used by some of the AMR systems provides other demand-side management (DSM) capabilities. This paper summarizes the characteristics and relative merits of several AMR/DSM technologies that may be appropriate for the federal sector. A case study of an AMR system being installed at Fort Irwin, California, describes a cost-effective two-way radio communication system used for meter reading and load control.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Hyperspectral Chemical Detection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truslow, Eric

    Remote sensing of chemical vapor plumes is a difficult but important task with many military and civilian applications. Hyperspectral sensors operating in the long wave infrared (LWIR) regime have well demonstrated detection capabilities. However, the identification of a plume's chemical constituents, based on a chemical library, is a multiple hypothesis-testing problem that standard detection metrics do not fully describe. Our approach partitions and weights a confusion matrix to develop both the standard detection metrics and an identification metric based on the Dice index. Using the developed metrics, we demonstrate that using a detector bank followed by an identifier can achieve superior performance relative to either algorithm individually. Performance of the cascaded system relies on the first pass reliably detecting the plume. However, detection performance is severely hampered by the inclusion of plume pixels in estimates of background quantities. We demonstrate that this problem, known as contamination, can be mitigated by iteratively applying a spatial filter to the detected pixels. Multiple detection and filtering passes can remove nearly all contamination from the background estimates, a vast improvement over single-pass techniques.

  10. Transformer and Meter Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  11. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  12. Rhythmic Meter Munchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity which allows students to construct various rhythm patterns in 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 meter by using M&Ms and pretzels as an extrinsic motivation. Rhythmic notation is a foundation for learning music concepts. Engaging students in representative modules helps them to learn and recognize note values and…

  13. A description of the active and passive sidewall-boundary-layer removal systems of the 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Murthy, A. V.; Ray, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented for an operational checkout and shakedown of the active sidewall-boundary-layer removal system newly installed in the Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). Prior to the installation of this active removal system, the sidewall-boundary layer was removed passively by exhausting directly to the atmosphere (i.e., no reinjection). With the active removal system using the reinjection compressor, the removal capability is greatly expanded to cover the entire operating envelope of the 0.3-m TCT. Details of the active removal system are presented including the compressor reinjection circuit, the compressor pressure ratio/surge control, and the compressor recirculation loop. The control logic and features of the compressor surge control are explained. Initial tests covering critical operating conditions show mass flow removal rates of about 5 percent at lower Mach numbers can be obtained with the active system. Measured performance characteristics of the compressor are presented. As part of the validation of the active system, limited airfoil tests were made using the new system.

  14. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  15. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  16. Materiel requirements for airborne minefield detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, Karl A.; Huegle, Helmut

    1997-07-01

    Within the concept study, Material Requirements for an airborne minefield detection systems (AMiDS) the following topics were investigated: (i) concept concerning airborne minefield detection technique sand equipment, (ii) verification analysis of the AMiDS requirements using simulation models and (iii) application concept of AMiDS with regard o tactics and military operations. In a first approach the problems concerning unmanned airborne minefield detection techniques within a well-defined area were considered. The complexity of unmanned airborne minefield detection is a result of the following parameters: mine types, mine deployment methods, tactical requirements, topography, weather conditions, and the size of the area to be searched. In order to perform the analysis, a simulation model was developed to analyze the usability of the proposed remote controlled air carriers. The basic flight patterns for the proposed air carriers, as well as the preparation efforts of military operations and benefits of such a system during combat support missions were investigated. The results of the conceptual study showed that a proposed remote controlled helicopter drone could meet the stated German MOD scanning requirements of mine barriers. Fixed wing air carriers were at a definite disadvantage because of their inherently large turning loops. By implementing a mine detection system like AMiDS minefields can be reconnoitered before an attack. It is therefore possible either to plan, how the minefields can be circumvented or where precisely breaching lanes through the mine barriers are to be cleared for the advancing force.

  17. Immunity-Based Aircraft Fault Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, D.; KrishnaKumar, K.; Wong, D.; Berry, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the study reported in this paper, we have developed and applied an Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for aircraft fault detection, as an extension to a previous work on intelligent flight control (IFC). Though the prior studies had established the benefits of IFC, one area of weakness that needed to be strengthened was the control dead band induced by commanding a failed surface. Since the IFC approach uses fault accommodation with no detection, the dead band, although it reduces over time due to learning, is present and causes degradation in handling qualities. If the failure can be identified, this dead band can be further A ed to ensure rapid fault accommodation and better handling qualities. The paper describes the application of an immunity-based approach that can detect a broad spectrum of known and unforeseen failures. The approach incorporates the knowledge of the normal operational behavior of the aircraft from sensory data, and probabilistically generates a set of pattern detectors that can detect any abnormalities (including faults) in the behavior pattern indicating unsafe in-flight operation. We developed a tool called MILD (Multi-level Immune Learning Detection) based on a real-valued negative selection algorithm that can generate a small number of specialized detectors (as signatures of known failure conditions) and a larger set of generalized detectors for unknown (or possible) fault conditions. Once the fault is detected and identified, an adaptive control system would use this detection information to stabilize the aircraft by utilizing available resources (control surfaces). We experimented with data sets collected under normal and various simulated failure conditions using a piloted motion-base simulation facility. The reported results are from a collection of test cases that reflect the performance of the proposed immunity-based fault detection algorithm.

  18. DCE Bio Detection System Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2007-12-01

    The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

  19. A Web Based Cardiovascular Disease Detection System.

    PubMed

    Alshraideh, Hussam; Otoom, Mwaffaq; Al-Araida, Aseel; Bawaneh, Haneen; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most catastrophic and life threatening health issue nowadays. Early detection of CVD is an important solution to reduce its devastating effects on health. In this paper, an efficient CVD detection algorithm is identified. The algorithm uses patient demographic data as inputs, along with several ECG signal features extracted automatically through signal processing techniques. Cross-validation results show a 98.29 % accuracy for the decision tree classification algorithm. The algorithm has been integrated into a web based system that can be used at anytime by patients to check their heart health status. At one end of the system is the ECG sensor attached to the patient's body, while at the other end is the detection algorithm. Communication between the two ends is done through an Android application. PMID:26293754

  20. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  1. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  2. Detection of abrupt changes in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the basic ideas associated with the detection of abrupt changes in dynamic systems are presented. Multiple filter-based techniques and residual-based method and the multiple model and generalized likelihood ratio methods are considered. Issues such as the effect of unknown onset time on algorithm complexity and structure and robustness to model uncertainty are discussed.

  3. Portable light detection system for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, R. L.; Carpenter, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    System can be used to detect "ready" light on automatic cooking device, to tell if lights are on for visitors, or to tell whether it is daylight or dark outside. Device is actuated like flashlight. Light impinging on photo cell activates transistor which energizes buzzer to indicate presence of light.

  4. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and...) Each fire detection system must be divided into zones to limit the area covered by any particular...

  5. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and...) Each fire detection system must be divided into zones to limit the area covered by any particular...

  6. APDS: The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J

    2004-10-04

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.

  7. APDS: the autonomous pathogen detection system.

    PubMed

    Hindson, Benjamin J; Makarewicz, Anthony J; Setlur, Ujwal S; Henderer, Bruce D; McBride, Mary T; Dzenitis, John M

    2005-04-15

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic acid-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for 7 days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported. PMID:15741059

  8. Laser Schlieren System Detects Sounds Of Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy P.; Alwar, A. Vijayaragavan

    1990-01-01

    Hostile environments monitored safely and noninvasively. Modified laser schlieren system acts as microphone to detect sounds of leaks remotely. Sensitive to acoustical frequencies above audible range and especially suited for monitoring leaks of high-pressure steam from boilers or chemical vapors from processing equipment. Does not require placement of delicate equipment in harsh environment monitored, and no contact needed with boiler or other unit being monitored. Detects sound waves via variation of index of refraction of air at acoustical frequencies. Used to monitor sound frequencies beyond range of human hearing.

  9. Portable chemical detection system with intergrated preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Hannum, David W.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2005-12-27

    A portable system for the detection of chemical particles such as explosive residue utilizes a metal fiber substrate that may either be swiped over a subject or placed in a holder in a collection module which can shoot a jet of gas at the subject to dislodge residue, and then draw the air containing the residue into the substrate. The holder is then placed in a detection module, which resistively heats the substrate to evolve the particles, and provides a gas flow to move the particles to a miniature detector in the module.

  10. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  11. Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

  12. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in systemic aspergillosis

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, M.H.

    1980-06-01

    Because of difficulties in antemortem diagnosis of systemic aspergillosis, a radioimmunoassay to an Aspergillus fumigatus carbohydrate was developed and evaluated in patients with mycotic or bacterial infections. Antigenemia was detected in sera obtained antemortem from four of seven patients with systemic aspergillosis and in pleural fluid from an Aspergillus empyema but not in control sera or pleural fluid from 43 patients or 27 normal donors. When characterized with reference to onset of disease, antigenemia was an early sign of infection. This study shows the usefulness of the Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay for early, specific immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis.

  13. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmore » degraded.« less

  14. Flow metering valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for metering fluids at high pressures of about 20,000 to 60,000 psi is disclosed. The apparatus includes first and second plates which are positioned adjacent each other to form a valve chamber. The plates are made of materials which have substantially equal elastic properties. One plate has a planar surface area, and the other a recessed surface area defined by periphery and central lips. When the two plates are positioned in adjacent contacting relationship, a valve chamber is formed between the planar surface area and the recessed surface area. Fluid is introduced into the chamber and exits therefrom when a deformation occurs at positions where they no longer form a valve seat. This permits the metering of fluids at high pressures and at slow variable rates. Fluid then exits from the chamber until an applied external force becomes large enough to bring the valve seats back into contact.

  15. Flow metering valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1983-11-03

    An apparatus for metering fluids at high pressures of about 20,000 to 60,000 psi is disclosed. The apparatus includes first and second plates which are positioned adjacent each other to form a valve chamber. The plates are made of materials which have substantially equal elastic properties. One plate has a planar surface area, and the other a recessed surface area defined by periphery and central lips. When the two plates are positioned in adjacent contacting relationship, a valve chamber is formed between the planar surface area and the recessed surface area. Fluid is introduced into the chamber and exits therefrom when a deformation occurs at positions where they no longer form a valve seat. This permits the metering of fluids at high pressures and at slow variable rates. Fluid then exits from the chamber until an applied external force becomes large enough to bring the valve seats back into contact.

  16. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  17. Detecting Anomalous Insiders in Collaborative Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Nyemba, Steve; Malin, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative information systems (CISs) are deployed within a diverse array of environments that manage sensitive information. Current security mechanisms detect insider threats, but they are ill-suited to monitor systems in which users function in dynamic teams. In this paper, we introduce the community anomaly detection system (CADS), an unsupervised learning framework to detect insider threats based on the access logs of collaborative environments. The framework is based on the observation that typical CIS users tend to form community structures based on the subjects accessed (e.g., patients’ records viewed by healthcare providers). CADS consists of two components: 1) relational pattern extraction, which derives community structures and 2) anomaly prediction, which leverages a statistical model to determine when users have sufficiently deviated from communities. We further extend CADS into MetaCADS to account for the semantics of subjects (e.g., patients’ diagnoses). To empirically evaluate the framework, we perform an assessment with three months of access logs from a real electronic health record (EHR) system in a large medical center. The results illustrate our models exhibit significant performance gains over state-of-the-art competitors. When the number of illicit users is low, MetaCADS is the best model, but as the number grows, commonly accessed semantics lead to hiding in a crowd, such that CADS is more prudent. PMID:24489520

  18. An Automated Flying-Insect-Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An automated flying-insect-detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect's wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real-time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically displayed. All AFIDS data are pre-processed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LABVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation.

  19. Demonstration and Evaluation of the Ka-Band Array Feed Compensation System on the 70-Meter Antenna at DSS 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Fort, D.

    1999-07-01

    This article documents the results of experiments designed to verify the gravity-compensation and tracking performance of a novel seven-channel 32-GHz (Ka-band) array feed compensation system (AFCS) for the DSN's 70-m antennas. The AFCS (along with other proposed compensation systems) was installed on the spare holography cone that was placed temporarily on the 70-m antenna in place of the X-band K-band radar (XKR) cone, which has been removed for repairs. These experiments took place from November 1998 through February 1999 and consisted of both quasar and spacecraft observations. Compensation performance was characterized in terms of both antenna-efficiency improvement and total signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain, while simultaneous-tracking capability was demonstrated by means of a least-squares tracking algorithm. A combined system consisting of the AFCS together with a deformable flat plate (DFP), designed to refocus divergent rays back in the array, also was examined briefly at low elevations. The results indicate that a properly designed real-time compensation system regains most of the SNR lost to deformations at low elevations and has the potential for similar improvements at high elevations, although this remains to be demonstrated.

  20. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  1. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-08-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design.

  2. Gaseous hydrogen leakage optical fibre detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouillet, Alain; Veillas, Colette; Sigronde, E.; Gagnaire, Henri; Clement, Michel

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen has been intensively used in aerospace applications during the past forty years and is of great interest for fuel cells technologies and future automotive applications. Following upon major explosive risks due to the use of hydrogen in air, previous studies were carried out in our laboratory in order to develop optical fiber sensors for the detection of hydrogen leakage. This communication is aimed towards a prototype optical fiber system designed for the detection of gaseous hydrogen leakage near the conecting flanges of the liquid hydrogen pipes on the test bench of the engine Vulcain of the rocket ARIANE V. Depending on the configuration, the prototype sensor provides a two-level alarm signal and the detection of gaseous hydrogen leakage is possible for concentrations lower than the lower explosive limit in air (between 0.1 and 4%) with alarm response times lower than 10 seconds in a wide range of temperatures between -35°C and 300°C. The sensing principle based on palladium-hydrogen interaction is presented as well as the detection system composed of an optical fiber probe and an optoelectronic device.

  3. Advanced smoke meter development survey and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitz, R. W.; Penney, C. M.; Stanforth, C. M.; Shaffernocker, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    Ideal smoke meter characteristics are determined to provide a basis for evaluation of candidate systems. Five promising techniques are analyzed in detail to evaluate compilance with the practical smoke meter requirements. Four of the smoke measurement concepts are optical methods: Modulated Transmission (MODTRAN), Cross Beam Absorption Counter (CBAC), Laser Induced Incandescence (LIN), and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS). A rapid response filter instrument called a Taper Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) is also evaluated. For each technique, the theoretical principles are described, the expected performance is determined, and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed The expected performance is evaluated against each of the smoke meter specifications, and the key questions for further study are given. The most promising smoke meter technique analyzed was MODTRAN, which is a variation on a direct transmission measurement. The soot-laden gas is passed through a transmission cell, and the gas pressure is modulated by a speaker.

  4. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters. PMID:22163551

  5. Space environmental effects: Construction and utilization of a system to measure low thermal strain in one meter graphite epoxy tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. H.; Rives, C.

    1982-01-01

    A system for measuring the expansion of low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) materials was constructed around a H.P. 5526-A laser measuring system. The vacuum CTE measurements in the -150 F to +120 F range were made over a 6 month period on a graphite epoxy tube yielding CTE values of 2.5 to one fifty-millionth/F above ambient and 2 + or - one ten-millionth F below ambient temperature. To assure that the below ambient, approximately 10 microns high open loop nature of the delta L/L vs. T curves was not apparatus related, similar size quartz tubes (A and B) were checked and found to have only a 2 micron (negligable for quartz) open loop component. These two quartz tubes, A and B, had ambient CTE values 20% and 45% respectively higher than the average handbook value. The overnight microcreep diminished an order of magnitude during the first several cycles after the system had been reopened.

  6. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    PubMed Central

    Aliane, Nourdine; Fernandez, Javier; Mata, Mario; Bemposta, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR) for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations. PMID:25421737

  7. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  8. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework; Request for Comments AGENCY: National... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework (Draft NISTIR 7823). This draft document... process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Smart Meters. The target audience for Draft...

  9. Detection probability of an in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag detection system for juvenile salmonids in the Klamath River, northern California, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hayes, Brian; Wright, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    A series of in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) detection antennas installed across the Klamath River in August 2010 were tested using tagged fish in the summer of 2011. Six pass-by antennas were constructed and anchored to the bottom of the Klamath River at a site between the Shasta and Scott Rivers. Two of the six antennas malfunctioned during the spring of 2011 and two pass-through antennas were installed near the opposite shoreline prior to system testing. The detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was evaluated using yearling coho salmon implanted with a PIT tag and a radio transmitter and then released into the Klamath River slightly downstream of Iron Gate Dam. Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methods were used to estimate the detection probability of the PIT tag detection system based on detections of PIT tags there and detections of radio transmitters at radio-telemetry detection systems downstream. One of the 43 PIT- and radio-tagged fish released was detected by the PIT tag detection system and 23 were detected by the radio-telemetry detection systems. The estimated detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was 0.043 (standard error 0.042). Eight PIT-tagged fish from other studies also were detected. Detections at the PIT tag detection system were at the two pass-through antennas and the pass-by antenna adjacent to them. Above average river discharge likely was a factor in the low detection probability of the PIT tag detection system. High discharges dislodged two power cables leaving 12 meters of the river width unsampled for PIT detections and resulted in water depths greater than the read distance of the antennas, which allowed fish to pass over much of the system with little chance of being detected. Improvements in detection probability may be expected under river discharge conditions where water depth over the antennas is within maximum read distance of the antennas. Improvements also may be expected if

  10. An Automated Flying-Insect Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An automated flying-insect detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland-security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect s wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing-beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically. All AFIDS data are preprocessed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LabVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al-GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing-beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation. Preliminary data indicate that AFIDS has

  11. The Recent Development of the 1-meter Yunnan Solar Telescope System at the FuXian Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.; YNST Team

    2012-08-01

    YNST (Yunnan Solar telescope) is a large solar instrument with a pure aperture of 980mm. It was designed for obtaining high-precision measurement for the solar magnetic field and atmospheric dynamic process. YNST is being installed at the Fuxian Lake in Yunnan, China. The solar observation tower includes two vertical multi-wavelength spectrographs and one Fabry-Perot interferometer system working in the 0.3 - 2.5 micron spectral range. The two spectrographs will supply high-resolution spectral data with short exposure time and a large field of view (180″×180″), as well as the ability to work in polarized light.

  12. Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

    2004-12-01

    Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors

  13. Bioinspired Synthesis of All-in-One Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanoflowers Combined with a Handheld pH Meter for On-Site Detection of Food Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ranfeng; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Yang; Lu, Qian; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Dan; Li, He; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-06-01

    With a mild elaborately bioinspired one-pot process, Con A-GOx-CaHPO4 nanoflowers are prepared. Employing the as-prepared all-in-one hybrid nanoflowers as signal tags, a simple but potentially powerful amplification biosensing technology for the detection of food pathogen with excellent simplicity, portability, sensitivity, and adaptability is achieved. PMID:27121135

  14. 20 Meter Solar Sail Analysis and Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B. K.; Lively, P. S.; Banik, J.; Murphy, D. M.; Trautt, T. A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes finite element analyses and correlation studies to predict deformations and vibration modes/frequencies of a 20-meter solar sail system developed by ATK Space Systems. Under the programmatic leadership of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's In-Space Propulsion activity, the 20-meter solar sail program objectives were to verify the design, to assess structural responses of the sail system, to implement lessons learned from a previous 10-meter quadrant system analysis and test program, and to mature solar sail technology to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. For this 20 meter sail system, static and ground vibration tests were conducted in NASA Glenn Research Center's 100 meter diameter vacuum chamber at Plum Brook station. Prior to testing, a preliminary analysis was performed to evaluate test conditions and to determine sensor and actuator locations. After testing was completed, an analysis of each test configuration was performed. Post-test model refinements included updated properties to account for the mass of sensors, wiring, and other components used for testing. This paper describes the development of finite element models (FEM) for sail membranes and masts in each of four quadrants at both the component and system levels, as well as an optimization procedure for the static test/analyses correlation.

  15. System and method for detecting gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  16. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  17. Microwave System for Detecting Ice on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Philip J.; Glynn, Dennis P., Jr.; Joseph, John C.

    2004-01-01

    A microwave-based system has been developed as a means of detecting ice on aircraft surfaces, with enough sensitivity to provide a warning before the ice accretes to a dangerous thickness. The system can measure the thickness of ice from a few mils (1 mil = 0.0254 mm) to about 1/4 in. (.6 mm) and can distinguish among (1) ice, (2) water (or deicing fluid), and (3) a mixture of ice and water (or deicing fluid). Sensors have been ruggedized to withstand the rain erosion environment.

  18. Research of laser ignition detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng; Zhao, Dong; Xu, Qie; Ai, Xin

    2010-10-01

    Laser ignition is an important means of detonation but the accuracy and security is requested strictly. Based on the above, two points were considered in the design: achieve ignition-Fiber-optical health monitoring in the condition of low-intensity light (ensure the safety of gunpowder); observant the explosive imaging. In the paper, the laser ignition equipment was designed with optical detection and inner optical imaging system for the real-time monitoring to the optical fiber and the process of ignition. This design greatly improved the reliability and the safety of laser ignition system and provided the guarantee for usage and industrialization.

  19. An aerodynamic investigation of two 1.83-meter-diameter fan systems designed to drive a subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, V. R.; Eckert, W. T.; Mort, K. W.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental, aerodynamic investigation was made of two 1.83 m diameter fan systems which are being considered for the repowered drive section of the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. One system was low speed, the other was high speed. The low speed fan was tested at various stagger angles from 32.9 deg to 62.9 deg. At a fan blade stagger angle of 40.8 deg and operating at a tip speed of 1155 m/sec, the low speed fan developed 207.3 m of head. The high speed fan had a design blade stagger angle of 56.2 deg and was tested at this stagger angle only. The high speed fan operating at 191.5 m/sec developed 207.3 m of head. Radial distributions of static pressure coefficients, total pressure coefficients, and angles of swirl are presented. Radial surveys were conducted at four azimuth locations in front of the fan, and repeated downstream of the fan. Data were taken for various flow control devices and for two inlet contraction lengths.

  20. Performance of the Zeeman analyzer system of the McDonald Observatory 2.7 meter telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S. S.; Tull, R. G.; Kelton, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer at the coude spectrograph of the McDonald 2.7 m reflector. A comparison of Lick and McDonald observations of HD 153882 reveals no significant difference in slopes or zero points of the two magnetic fields indicating that the systematic scale difference of 30-40% is probably instrumental in origin. Observations of the magnetic variable beta Cor Bor revealed a more nearly sinusoidal magnetic curve with less internal scatter than the photographically determined field measures of the Lick and Mauna Kea Zeeman systems. Investigation of periodicity in the secularly varying magnetic minima of beta Cor Bor did not yield evidence of previously noted periodicities other than that expected from the time structure of the data sampling.

  1. Design and Performance of the Monopulse Pointing System of the DSN 34-Meter Beam-Waveguide Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudim, M. A.; Gawronski, W.; Hurd, W. J.; Brown, P. R.; Strain, D. M.

    1999-04-01

    This article describes the design, analysis, and performance prediction of a monopulse pointing system in a 34-m beam-waveguide antenna of the Deep Space Network (DSN). While the basic concept of monopulse pointing is not new, its application in the DSN is novel in two ways: first, the large antenna structure made necessary by the extremely weak signal environment; and second, the use of the single monopulse feed at 31.8 to 32.3 GHz (Ka-band) frequencies. The conventional aircraft radar application has a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with a fast, hostile tracking scenario. The DSN application requires precise antenna pointing to minimize pointing loss, maximize amplitude stability, and track very low-SNR signals from a very distant spacecraft with a well-predicted trajectory. The combination of the large antenna size, the low SNR, and the precise pointing requirements makes the monopulse implementation in the DSN a challenging task.

  2. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. They are using a Schlumberger neutron generator for the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel, in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics for the detection of very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. They have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The results to data are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference.

  3. Operational test and evaluation of the meter engineering development model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damore, R. J.; Mah, C. P.

    1982-11-01

    The Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) of the Meaning Etraction Through Estimated Relevance (METER) System was conducted at Hq Military Airlift Command, Scott AFB, ILL. The Two year effort provided for continuing enhancement of the METER system, as well as tailoring it to interface with the operational message processing system. Analyst training and evaluation of METER's potential utility to the intelligence community were covered.

  4. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  5. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  6. Direct reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  7. Global ionospheric flare detection system (GIFDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Daniela; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Mayer, Christoph; Valladares, Cesar; Heber, Bernd

    2016-02-01

    The Global Ionospheric Flare Detection System (GIFDS) is currently under development at the German Aerospace Center as a ground based detector for continuous monitoring of the solar flare activity in order to provide real time warnings on solar X-ray events. GIFDS is using Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio transmissions in the northern hemisphere which respond to enhanced ionization in the bottomside ionosphere caused by X-ray flares. Since solar flares can only be detected during daytime, VLF receivers have to be installed around the globe to guarantee continuous records at the dayside sector. GIFDS consists of a network of Perseus SDR (Software Defined Radio) receivers equipped with a MiniWhip antenna each. Reliable detection of solar flares is ensured by recording multiple frequency channels ranging from 0 to 500 kHz. The applicability of the system is demonstrated in a first analysis by comparing VLF measurements with GOES's (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) X-ray flux data. The high potential of GIFDS for a permanent monitoring of solar flares in near real time is discussed.

  8. Advanced kick detection systems improve HPHT operations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, T.W.R.; Hendriks, P.; Surewaard, J.H.G.

    1995-09-01

    Many high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) wells are often characterized by the small margins that can exist between pore pressure and formation strength. Therefore, it is not surprising that kicks are far more likely to occur in HPHT wells and that a greater risk of internal blowout exists. The development and application of advanced kick detection systems for HPHT wells can help manage risks and improve drilling efficiency. Such systems enable earlier well shut-in, minimizing both the influx volume and the subsequent well bore pressures. This in turn lowers the risk, time and cost required for well control operations. Carefully considered application of these systems can also justify favorable economic benefits by optimization of the HPHT preliminary casing design. Minimizing kick volume can be important for the critical HPHT hole sections, where a reduced operating margin between pore pressure and fracture gradient exists, defining small design kick tolerance limits to permit safe drilling ahead to reach specified objectives. Kick detection for HPHT wells equivalent to less than 5 bbl of gas influx are often necessary to adequately minimize the risk of internal blowout and obtain the same levels of safety which are applied to conventional wells. This paper reviews these systems for both on-shore and off-shore operations.

  9. Viable and robust system for infrared detection of buried land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilgore, Roger; Swinehart, Steve

    1999-08-01

    An IR mine detection system has been developed which reliably detects buried land miens in certain environmental conditions. The system uses two commercial IR cameras, one using the 3-5 micron band and the other using the 8-12 micron band. The cameras are mounted above a HMMWV and are tilted down to look 2.5 to 7 meters ahead of the vehicle, covering almost a four meter wide swath. Software algorithms are used to de-warp the raw images to remove keystoning and lens curvature effects, producing rectilinear images of the terrain. The mines are observed in the images as cool spots or hot spots on the surface of the soil, with temperatures depending upon the mine type, the recent temperature history of the soil, and the moisture content and soil type. Raw video images are presented which show some of these effects, including when the contrast is so low to be visibly hidden in the background. Filtering algorithms are utilized to perform background identification and removal, producing an equalized image, which enhances the contrast of the buried mines. Statistical order filters are employed that further enhance the mines, with examples again shown. Threshold and object detection algorithms have been developed that autonomously detect mine-like objects in the images without operator intervention. Feature extraction algorithms then search for features that distinguish the mines sought, including such features as size and shape. The objects are classified as a mine or a non-mine and this decision passed on to the registration and hi-level inference detection subsystems of the mine detection platform.

  10. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and... alarm and an audible alarm in the pilothouse or at a normally manned control station for the system....

  11. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and... alarm and an audible alarm in the pilothouse or at a normally manned control station for the system....

  12. Arc burst pattern analysis fault detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting an arcing fault on a power line carrying a load current. Parameters indicative of power flow and possible fault events on the line, such as voltage and load current, are monitored and analyzed for an arc burst pattern exhibited by arcing faults in a power system. These arcing faults are detected by identifying bursts of each half-cycle of the fundamental current. Bursts occurring at or near a voltage peak indicate arcing on that phase. Once a faulted phase line is identified, a comparison of the current and voltage reveals whether the fault is located in a downstream direction of power flow toward customers, or upstream toward a generation station. If the fault is located downstream, the line is de-energized, and if located upstream, the line may remain energized to prevent unnecessary power outages.

  13. Optical imaging module for astigmatic detection system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Min; Cheng, Chung-Hsiang; Molnar, Gabor; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Hwu, En-Te

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an optical imaging module design for an astigmatic detection system (ADS) is presented. The module is based on a commercial optical pickup unit (OPU) and it contains a coaxial illuminant for illuminating a specimen. Furthermore, the imaging module facilitates viewing the specimen and the detection laser spot of the ADS with a lateral resolution of approximately 1 μm without requiring the removal of an element of the OPU. Two polarizers and one infrared filter are used to eliminate stray laser light in the OPU and stray light produced by the illuminant. Imaging modules designed for digital versatile disks (DVDs) and Blu-ray DVDs were demonstrated. Furthermore, the module can be used for imaging a small cantilever with approximate dimensions of 2 μm (width) × 5 μm (length), and therefore, it has the potential to be used in high-speed atomic force microscopy. PMID:27250434

  14. System and method for anomaly detection

    DOEpatents

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  15. Automated Microbiological Detection/Identification System

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, C.; Jones, P. W.; Gibson, S.; Lanham, J.; Meyer, M.; Vannest, R.; Charles, R.

    1977-01-01

    An automated, computerized system, the AutoMicrobic System, has been developed for the detection, enumeration, and identification of bacteria and yeasts in clinical specimens. The biological basis for the system resides in lyophilized, highly selective and specific media enclosed in wells of a disposable plastic cuvette; introduction of a suitable specimen rehydrates and inoculates the media in the wells. An automated optical system monitors, and the computer interprets, changes in the media, with enumeration and identification results automatically obtained in 13 h. Sixteen different selective media were developed and tested with a variety of seeded (simulated) and clinical specimens. The AutoMicrobic System has been extensively tested with urine specimens, using a urine test kit (Identi-Pak) that contains selective media for Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella-Enterobacter species, Serratia species, Citrobacter freundii, group D enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts (Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata). The system has been tested with 3,370 seeded urine specimens and 1,486 clinical urines. Agreement with simultaneous conventional (manual) cultures, at levels of 70,000 colony-forming units per ml (or more), was 92% or better for seeded specimens; clinical specimens yielded results of 93% or better for all organisms except P. aeruginosa, where agreement was 86%. System expansion in progress includes antibiotic susceptibility testing and compatibility with most types of clinical specimens. Images PMID:334798

  16. Supersensitive SQUID/magnetostrictor detecting system

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, Aleksander I; Zherikhina, L N; Tskhovrebov, Andrei M; Izmailov, G N

    2012-12-31

    It is shown that using the state-of-the-art quantum interferometer (SQUID) with the resolution 10{sup -6} {Phi}{sub 0} Hz{sup -1/2} = 2.07 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -21} Wb Hz{sup -1/2}, coupled to a magnetostrictor, playing the role of tensomagnetic transducer, it is possible to construct a system for detecting pressure variations with the ultimate sensitivity of 10{sup -13} Pa Hz{sup -1/2} and for measuring specific elongation with the sensitivity of 10{sup -24} Hz{sup -1/2}. The analysis of physical grounds of the inverse magnetostriction effect demonstrates concrete ways to essentially higher efficiency of tensomagnetic conversion. The estimates performed demonstrate the possibility of using the SQUID/magnetostrictor system as a detector of gravitational waves. Other possibilities of using this system for solving both fundamental and applied problems are also considered. (experimental techniques)

  17. Coherent detection in optical fiber systems.

    PubMed

    Ip, Ezra; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Barros, Daniel J F; Kahn, Joseph M

    2008-01-21

    The drive for higher performance in optical fiber systems has renewed interest in coherent detection. We review detection methods, including noncoherent, differentially coherent, and coherent detection, as well as a hybrid method. We compare modulation methods encoding information in various degrees of freedom (DOF). Polarization-multiplexed quadrature-amplitude modulation maximizes spectral efficiency and power efficiency, by utilizing all four available DOF, the two field quadratures in the two polarizations. Dual-polarization homodyne or heterodyne downconversion are linear processes that can fully recover the received signal field in these four DOF. When downconverted signals are sampled at the Nyquist rate, compensation of transmission impairments can be performed using digital signal processing (DSP). Linear impairments, including chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion, can be compensated quasi-exactly using finite impulse response filters. Some nonlinear impairments, such as intra-channel four-wave mixing and nonlinear phase noise, can be compensated partially. Carrier phase recovery can be performed using feedforward methods, even when phase-locked loops may fail due to delay constraints. DSP-based compensation enables a receiver to adapt to time-varying impairments, and facilitates use of advanced forward-error-correction codes. We discuss both single- and multi-carrier system implementations. For a given modulation format, using coherent detection, they offer fundamentally the same spectral efficiency and power efficiency, but may differ in practice, because of different impairments and implementation details. With anticipated advances in analog-to-digital converters and integrated circuit technology, DSP-based coherent receivers at bit rates up to 100 Gbit/s should become practical within the next few years. PMID:18542153

  18. Turbine meters for liquid measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wass, D.J.; Allen, C.R.

    1995-12-01

    Liquid turbine meters operate in response to fundamental engineering principles, Operation with a single moving part produces excellent longevity and reliability. Liquid turbine meters display wide rangeability, high accuracy, excellent repeatability, low pressure drop and moderate cost. Liquid turbine meters may be applied to many different fluids with different physical properties and corrosive tendencies. The marriage of liquid turbine meters to electronic instruments allows instantaneous flow calculations and produces the flexibility to display data, store data, transmit data in the most convenient form. Liquid turbine meters should be the first flow measurement instrument considered for liquid measurement applications.

  19. Bathroom watching using a breath detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiura, Tomofumi; Nakajima, Masato

    2004-10-01

    Recently, domestic accidents have been increasing in Japan. These kinds of accidents occur in private areas such as bedrooms, toilets and bathrooms, and tend to be found too late. Accidents, particularly those occurring in the bathroom, can often result in death. Many systems which have been proposed or which are in use are designed to detect body motion in the bathroom, and determine that a bather has suddenly taken ill when movement ceases. However, the relaxed posture of a person bathing is actually very similar to that of a person who has passed out. It is therefore very difficult to differentiate between the two postures. We have developed a watching system for bathrooms. The new feature of this system lies in its ability to detect a person"s breathing by using an FG vision sensor. From the experiment, it was found that the false alarm rate is expected to reach less than 0.0001% when waiting time is set to 36.8 seconds.

  20. Detection of damage in axial (membrane) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Baker, W.E.; Farrar, C.R.; Rhee, W.H.

    1998-12-31

    In a recent paper, two methods of damage identification (Modified Damage Index and Change-in-Flexibility) were applied to detection of damage in an 8-DOF vibrating system. The goal of the work was to detect damage (reduction in stiffness of one or more of the elements) as well as to locate the particular damaged elements (S). However, the investigation was limited to numerical simulations only. In this paper, a physical, spring-mass model of a similar, degenerate 8-DOF system (7 normal modes plus a rigid-body mode) was constructed. Experiments were then performed and the modal properties of the system were determined in undamaged and damaged states. Excitation was provided either by an impact hammer or by an electromechanical shaker. Damage was induced by replacing one of the springs with a spring of lower stiffness. The Modified Damage Index method clearly isolated the location of damage for a variety of damage locations and levels of damage. The Change-in-Flexibility method, however, was found to be less reliable. The ability of the method to locate damage depended strongly on location and the level of damage as well as the number of modes included.

  1. WCEDS: A waveform correlation event detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.J.; Beiriger, J.I.; Trujillo, J.R.; Withers, M.M.; Aster, R.C.; Astiz, L.; Shearer, P.M.

    1995-08-01

    We have developed a working prototype of a grid-based global event detection system based on waveform correlation. The algorithm comes from a long-period detector but we have recast it in a full matrix formulation which can reduce the number of multiplications needed by better than two orders of magnitude for realistic monitoring scenarios. The reduction is made possible by eliminating redundant multiplications in the original formulation. All unique correlations for a given origin time are stored in a correlation matrix (C) which is formed by a full matrix product of a Master Image matrix (M) and a data matrix (D). The detector value at each grid point is calculated by following a different summation path through the correlation matrix. Master Images can be derived either empirically or synthetically. Our testing has used synthetic Master Images because their influence on the detector is easier to understand. We tested the system using the matrix formulation with continuous data from the IRIS (Incorporate Research Institutes for Seismology) broadband global network to monitor a 2 degree evenly spaced surface grid with a time discretization of 1 sps; we successfully detected the largest event in a two hour segment from October 1993. The output at the correct gridpoint was at least 33% larger than at adjacent grid points, and the output at the correct gridpoint at the correct origin time was more than 500% larger than the output at the same gridpoint immediately before or after. Analysis of the C matrix for the origin time of the event demonstrates that there are many significant ``false`` correlations of observed phases with incorrect predicted phases. These false correlations dull the sensitivity of the detector and so must be dealt with if our system is to attain detection thresholds consistent with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

  2. Systems and methods for detecting and processing

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Michael M.; Yoshimura, Ann S.

    2006-03-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provides systems and method for detecting. Sensing modules are provided in communication with one or more detectors. In some embodiments, detectors are provided that are sensitive to chemical, biological, or radiological agents. Embodiments of sensing modules include processing capabilities to analyze, perform computations on, and/or run models to predict or interpret data received from one or more detectors. Embodiments of sensing modules form various network configurations with one another and/or with one or more data aggregation devices. Some embodiments of sensing modules include power management functionalities.

  3. Coseismic and initial postseismic deformation from the 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake, observed by global positioning system, electronic distance meter, creepmeters, and borehole strainmeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, J.; Murray, J.R.; Snyder, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS), electronic distance meter, creepmeter, and strainmeter measurements spanning the M 6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquake are examined. Using these data from 100 sec through 9 months following the main-shock, the Omori's law, with rate inversely related to time, l/t p and p ranging between 0.7 and 1.3, characterizes the time-dependent deformation during the post-seismic period; these results are consistent with creep models for elastic solids. With an accurate function of postseismic response, the coseismic displacements can be estimated from the high-rate, 1-min sampling GPS; and the coseismic displacements are approximately 75% of those estimated from the daily solutions. Consequently, fault-slip models using daily solutions overestimate coseismic slip. In addition, at 2 months and at 8 months following the mainshock, postseismic displacements are modeled as slip on the San Andreas fault with a lower bound on the moment exceeding that of the coseismic moment.

  4. Autonomous system for pathogen detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgrader, Philip; Benett, William J.; Bergman, Werner; Langlois, Richard G.; Mariella, Raymond P., Jr.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Miles, Robin R.; Venkateswaran, Kodumudi; Long, Gary; Nelson, William

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world's leading, proven assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: (1) collect samples form aerosols, water, or surface; (2) perform sample preparation prior to the assays; (3) incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; (4) transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; (5) perform the assays; (6) interpret and report the result of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantify of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity and specificity of the assay must be combined with no false alarms. Today, we have assays that can, in under 30 minutes, detect and identify simulants for BW agents at concentrations of a few hundred colony- forming units per ml of solution. If the bio-aerosol sampler of this system collects 1000 1/min and concentrates the respirable particles into 1 ml of solution with 70 percent processing efficiency over a period of 5 minutes, then this translates to a detection/ID capability of under 0.1 agent- containing particle/liter of air.

  5. Autonomous system for pathogen detection and identification

    SciTech Connect

    Belgrader, P.; Benett, W.; Bergman, W.; Langlois, R.; Mariella, R.; Milanovich, F.; Miles, R.; Venkateswaran, K.; Long, G.; Nelson, W.

    1998-09-24

    This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world' s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity and specificity of the assay must be combined with no false alarms. Today, we have assays that can, in under 30 minutes, detect and identify simulants for BW agents at concentrations of a few hundred colony-forming units per ml of solution. If the bio-aerosol sampler of this system collects 1000 Ymin and concentrates the respirable particles into 1 ml of solution with 70% processing efficiency over a period of 5 minutes, then this translates to a detection/ID capability of under 0.1 agent-containing particle/liter of air.

  6. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1993-01-01

    The System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failures as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient conditions. This task assignment originally specified developing a platform for executing the algorithm during hot fire tests at Technology Test Bed (TTB) and installing the SAFD algorithm on that platform. Two units were built and installed in the Hardware Simulation Lab and at the TTB in December 1991. Since that time, the task primarily entailed improvement and maintenance of the systems, additional testing to prove the feasibility of the algorithm, and support of hot fire testing. This document addresses the work done since the last report of June 1992. The work on the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection during this period included improving the platform and the algorithm, testing the algorithm against previous test data and in the Hardware Simulation Lab, installing other algorithms on the system, providing support for operations at the Technology Test Bed, and providing routine maintenance.

  7. Mammographic computer-aided detection systems.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    While mammography is regarded as the best means available to screen for breast cancer, reading mammograms is a tedious, error-prone task. Given the repetitiveness of the process and the fact that less than 1% of mammograms in the average screening population contain cancer, it's no wonder that a significant number of breast cancers--about 28%--are missed by radiologists. The fact that human error is such a significant obstacle makes mammography screening an ideal application for computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. CAD systems serve as a "second pair of eyes" to ensure that radiologists don't miss a suspect area on an image. They analyze patterns on a digitized mammographic image, identify regions that may contain an abnormality indicating cancer, and mark these regions. The marks are then inspected and classified by a radiologist. But CAD systems provide no diagnosis of any kind--it's up to the radiologist to analyze the marked area and decide if it shows cancer. In this Evaluation, we describe the challenges posed by screening mammography, the operating principles and overall efficacy of CAD systems, and the characteristics to consider when purchasing a system. We also compare the performance of two commercially available systems, iCAD's MammoReader and R2's ImageChecker. Because the two systems offer comparable sensitivity, our judgments are based on other performance characteristics, including their ease of use, the number of false marks they produce, the degree to which they can integrate with hospital information systems, and their processing speed. PMID:12760158

  8. A polarization system for persistent chemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Appelhans, Leah; Couphos, Eric; Embree, Todd; Finnegan, Patrick; Goldstein, Dennis; Karelitz, David; LaCasse, Charles; Luk, Ting S.; Mahamat, Adoum; Massey, Lee; Tanbakuchi, Anthony; Washburn, Cody; Vigil, Steven

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development of a prototype polarization tag based system for detecting chemical vapors. The system primarily consists of two components, a chemically sensitive tag that experiences a change in its optical polarization properties when exposed to a specific chemical of interest, and an optical imaging polarimeter that is used to measure the polarization properties of the tags. Although the system concept could be extended to other chemicals, for the initial system prototype presented here the tags were developed to be sensitive to hydrogen fluoride (HF) vapors. HF is used in many industrial processes but is highly toxic and thus monitoring for its presence and concentration is often of interest for personnel and environmental safety. The tags are periodic multilayer structures that are produced using standard photolithographic processes. The polarimetric imager has been designed to measure the degree of linear polarization reflected from the tags in the short wave infrared. By monitoring the change in the reflected polarization signature from the tags, the polarimeter can be used to determine if the tag was exposed to HF gas. In this paper, a review of the system development effort and preliminary test results are presented and discussed, as well as our plan for future work.

  9. Method and system for detecting explosives

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  10. Threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocoy, Edward H.; Pierowicz, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Calspan SRL Corporation is currently developing an on- vehicle threat detection system for intersection collision avoidance (ICA) as part of its ICA program with the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Crash scenarios were previously defined and an on-board radar sensor was designed. This paper describes recent efforts that include the development of a simulation of a multitarget tracker and collision avoidance algorithm used to predict system performance in a variety of target configurations in the various ICA crash scenarios. In addition, a current headway radar was mounted on the Calspan Instrumented Vehicle and in-traffic data were recorded for two limited crash scenarios. Warning functions were developed through the simulation and applied to the recorded data.

  11. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. PMID:23583920

  12. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  13. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  14. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  15. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  16. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the...

  17. Doppler-corrected differential detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Doppler in a communication system operating with a multiple differential phase-shift-keyed format (MDPSK) creates an adverse phase shift in an incoming signal. An open loop frequency estimation is derived from a Doppler-contaminated incoming signal. Based upon the recognition that, whereas the change in phase of the received signal over a full symbol contains both the differentially encoded data and the Doppler induced phase shift, the same change in phase over half a symbol (within a given symbol interval) contains only the Doppler induced phase shift, and the Doppler effect can be estimated and removed from the incoming signal. Doppler correction occurs prior to the receiver's final output of decoded data. A multiphase system can operate with two samplings per symbol interval at no penalty in signal-to-noise ratio provided that an ideal low pass pre-detection filter is employed, and two samples, at 1/4 and 3/4 of the symbol interval T sub s, are taken and summed together prior to incoming signal data detection.

  18. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  19. 8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes using the unprecedented capability of the planned Ares V launch vehicle, to place a 8 meter monolithic space telescope at the Earth-Sun L2 point. This new capability enables a new design pardigm -- simplicity. The six to eight meter class telescope with a massive high Technical Readiness Level ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror has been determined feasible. The proposed design, structural analysis, spacecraft design and shroud integration, thermal analysis, propulsion system, guidance navigation and pointing control assumptions about the avionics, and power systems, operational lifetime, and the idea of in-space servicing are reviewed.

  20. Radiation dose rate meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1981-07-28

    A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts.

  1. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  2. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  3. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1992-07-01

    This task specified developing the hardware and software necessary to implement the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm, developed under Technology Test Bed (TTB) Task 21, on the TTB engine stand. This effort involved building two units; one unit to be installed in the Block II Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Hardware Simulation Lab (HSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and one unit to be installed at the TTB engine stand. Rocketdyne personnel from the HSL performed the task. The SAFD algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failure as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient condition.

  4. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, D.

    1992-01-01

    This task specified developing the hardware and software necessary to implement the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm, developed under Technology Test Bed (TTB) Task 21, on the TTB engine stand. This effort involved building two units; one unit to be installed in the Block II Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Hardware Simulation Lab (HSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and one unit to be installed at the TTB engine stand. Rocketdyne personnel from the HSL performed the task. The SAFD algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failure as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient condition.

  5. Medical isotope identification with large mobile detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard

    2012-10-01

    The Remote Sensing laboratory (RSL) of National Security Technologies Inc. has built an array of large (5.08 - cm x 10.16 - cm x 40.6 - cm) thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI: Tl) scintillators to locate and screen gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes that are of interests to radiological emergency responders [1]. These vehicle mounted detectors provide the operators with rapid, simple, specific information for radiological threat assessment. Applications include large area inspection, customs inspection, border protection, emergency response, and monitoring of radiological facilities. These RSL mobile units are currently being upgraded to meet the Defense Threat Reduction Agency mission requirements for a next-generation system capable of detecting and identifying nuclear threat materials. One of the challenging problems faced by these gamma-ray detectors is the unambiguous identification of medical isotopes like 131I (364.49 keV [81.7%], 636.99 keV [7.17%]), 99Tcm (140.51 keV [89.1%]) and 67Ga (184.6 keV [19.7%], 300.2 [16.0%], 393.5 [4.5%] that are used in radionuclide therapy and often have overlapping gamma-ray energy regions of interest (ROI). The problem is made worse by short (about 5 seconds) acquisition time of the spectral data necessary for dynamic mobile detectors. This article describes attempts to identify medical isotopes from data collected from this mobile detection system in a short period of time (not exceeding 5 secs) and a large standoff distance (typically ~ 10 meters) The mobile units offer identification capabilities that are based on hardware auto stabilization of the amplifier gain. The 1461 keV gamma-energy line from 40K is tracked. It uses gamma-ray energy windowing along with embedded mobile Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) [2] simultaneously to deconvolve any overlapping gamma-energy ROIs. These high sensitivity detectors are capable of resolving complex masking scenarios and exceed all ANSI N42.34 (2006) requirements

  6. Active wideband 350GHz imaging system for concealed-weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Valdez, Patrick L. J.

    2009-05-01

    A prototype active wideband 350 GHz imaging system has been developed to address the urgent need for standoff concealed-weapon detection. This system is based on a wideband, heterodyne, frequency-multiplier-based transceiver system coupled to a quasi-optical focusing system and high-speed conical scanner. This system is able to quickly scan personnel for concealed weapons. Additionally, due to the wideband operation, this system provides accurate ranging information, and the images obtained are fully three-dimensional. Waves in the microwave, millimeter-wave, and terahertz (3 GHz to 1 THz) frequency bands are able to penetrate many optical obscurants, and can be used to form the basis of high-resolution imaging systems. Waves in the sub-millimeter-wave band (300 GHz to 1 THz) are particularly interesting for standoff concealed-weapon detection at ranges of 5 - 20+ meters, due to their unique combination of high resolution and clothing penetration. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has previously developed portal screening systems that operate at the lower end of the millimeter-wave frequency range around 30 GHz. These systems are well suited for screening within portals; however, increasing the range of these systems would dramatically reduce the resolution due to diffraction at their relatively long wavelength. In this paper, the standoff 350 GHz imaging system is described in detail and numerous imaging results are presented.

  7. Quench detection system for twin coils HTS SMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badel, A.; Tixador, P.; Simiand, G.; Exchaw, O.

    2010-10-01

    The quench detection and protection system is a critical element in superconducting magnets. After a short summary of the quench detection and protection issues in HTS magnets, an original detection system is presented. The main feature of this system is an active protection of the detection electronics during the discharges, making it possible to use standard electronics even if the discharge voltage is very high. The design of the detection system is therefore easier and it can be made very sensitive. An implementation example is presented for a twin coil HTS SMES prototype, showing the improvements when compared to classical detection systems during operation.

  8. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    PubMed

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed. PMID:20804980

  9. How to use your peak flow meter

    MedlinePlus

    Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter ... your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can check ...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  11. System Would Detect Foreign-Object Damage in Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed data-fusion system, to be implemented mostly in software, would further process the digitized and preprocessed outputs of sensors in a turbofan engine to detect foreign-object damage (FOD) [more precisely, damage caused by impingement of such foreign objects as birds, pieces of ice, and runway debris]. The proposed system could help a flight crew to decide what, if any, response is necessary to complete a flight safely, and could aid mechanics in deciding what post-flight maintenance action might be needed. The sensory information to be utilized by the proposed system would consist of (1) the output of an accelerometer in an engine-vibration-monitoring subsystem and (2) features extracted from a gas path analysis. ["Gas path analysis" (GPA) is a term of art that denotes comprehensive analysis of engine performance derived from readings of fuel-flow meters, shaft-speed sensors, temperature sensors, and the like.] The acceleration signal would first be processed by a wavelet-transform-based algorithm, using a wavelet created for the specific purpose of finding abrupt FOD-induced changes in noisy accelerometer signals. Two additional features extracted would be the amplitude of vibration (determined via a single- frequency Fourier transform calculated at the rotational speed of the engine), and the rate of change in amplitude due to an FOD-induced rotor imbalance. This system would utilize two GPA features: the fan efficiency and the rate of change of fan efficiency with time. The selected GPA and vibrational features would be assessed by two fuzzy-logic inference engines, denoted the "Gas Path Expert" and the "Vibration Expert," respectively (see Figure 1). Each of these inference engines would generate a "possibility" distribution for occurrence of an FOD event: Each inference engine would assign, to its input information, degrees of membership, which would subsequently be transformed into basic probability assignments for the gas path and vibration

  12. Advanced Water Vapor Lidar Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    1998-01-01

    In the present water vapor lidar system, the detected signal is sent over long cables to a waveform digitizer in a CAMAC crate. This has the disadvantage of transmitting analog signals for a relatively long distance, which is subjected to pickup noise, leading to a decrease in the signal to noise ratio. Generally, errors in the measurement of water vapor with the DIAL method arise from both random and systematic sources. Systematic errors in DIAL measurements are caused by both atmospheric and instrumentation effects. The selection of the on-line alexandrite laser with a narrow linewidth, suitable intensity and high spectral purity, and its operation at the center of the water vapor lines, ensures minimum influence in the DIAL measurement that are caused by the laser spectral distribution and avoid system overloads. Random errors are caused by noise in the detected signal. Variability of the photon statistics in the lidar return signal, noise resulting from detector dark current, and noise in the background signal are the main sources of random error. This type of error can be minimized by maximizing the signal to noise ratio. The increase in the signal to noise ratio can be achieved by several ways. One way is to increase the laser pulse energy, by increasing its amplitude or the pulse repetition rate. Another way, is to use a detector system with higher quantum efficiency and lower noise, on the other hand, the selection of a narrow band optical filter that rejects most of the day background light and retains high optical efficiency is an important issue. Following acquisition of the lidar data, we minimize random errors in the DIAL measurement by averaging the data, but this will result in the reduction of the vertical and horizontal resolutions. Thus, a trade off is necessary to achieve a balance between the spatial resolution and the measurement precision. Therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to increase the signal to noise ratio by a factor of

  13. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  14. Wireless Falling Detection System Based on Community.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Wu, Yanqi; Zhang, Bobo; Li, Zhiyang; He, Nongyue; Li, Song

    2015-06-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer the aches or pains from the accidental falls, and both the physiology and psychology of patients would subject to a long-term disturbance, especially when the emergency treatment was not given timely and properly. Although many methods and devices have been developed creatively and shown their efficiency in experiments, few of them are suitable for commercial applications routinely. Here, we design a wearable falling detector as a mobile terminal, and utilize the wireless technology to transfer and monitor the activity data of the host in a relatively small community. With the help of the accelerometer sensor and the Google Mapping service, information of the location and the activity data will be send to the remote server for the downstream processing. The experimental result has shown that SA (Sum-vector of all axes) value of 2.5 g is the threshold value to distinguish the falling from other activities. A three-stage detection algorithm was adopted to increase the accuracy of the real alarm, and the accuracy rate of our system was more than 95%. With the further improvement, the falling detecting device which is low-cost, accurate and user-friendly would become more and more common in everyday life. PMID:26369050

  15. Optical biosensor system with integrated microfluidic sample preparation and TIRF based detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, Eduard; Scheicher, Sylvia R.; Suppan, Michael; Pichler, Heinz; Rumpler, Markus; Satzinger, Valentin; Palfinger, Christian; Reil, Frank; Hajnsek, Martin; Köstler, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    There is a steadily growing demand for miniaturized bioanalytical devices allowing for on-site or point-of-care detection of biomolecules or pathogens in applications like diagnostics, food testing, or environmental monitoring. These, so called labs-on-a-chip or micro-total analysis systems (μ-TAS) should ideally enable convenient sample-in - result-out type operation. Therefore, the entire process from sample preparation, metering, reagent incubation, etc. to detection should be performed on a single disposable device (on-chip). In the early days such devices were mainly fabricated using glass or silicon substrates and adapting established fabrication technologies from the electronics and semiconductor industry. More recently, the development focuses on the use of thermoplastic polymers as they allow for low-cost high volume fabrication of disposables. One of the most promising materials for the development of plastic based lab-on-achip systems are cyclic olefin polymers and copolymers (COP/COC) due to their excellent optical properties (high transparency and low autofluorescence) and ease of processing. We present a bioanalytical system for whole blood samples comprising a disposable plastic chip based on TIRF (total internal reflection fluorescence) optical detection. The chips were fabricated by compression moulding of COP and microfluidic channels were structured by hot embossing. These microfluidic structures integrate several sample pretreatment steps. These are the separation of erythrocytes, metering of sample volume using passive valves, and reagent incubation for competitive bioassays. The surface of the following optical detection zone is functionalized with specific capture probes in an array format. The plastic chips comprise dedicated structures for simple and effective coupling of excitation light from low-cost laser diodes. This enables TIRF excitation of fluorescently labeled probes selectively bound to detection spots at the microchannel surface

  16. Method and system for turbomachinery surge detection

    DOEpatents

    Faymon, David K.; Mays, Darrell C.; Xiong, Yufei

    2004-11-23

    A method and system for surge detection within a gas turbine engine, comprises: measuring the compressor discharge pressure (CDP) of the gas turbine over a period of time; determining a time derivative (CDP.sub.D ) of the measured (CDP) correcting the CDP.sub.D for altitude, (CDP.sub.DCOR); estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2 ; estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR ; and determining a short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change (CDP.sub.roc) based upon the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR and the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2. The method and system then compares the short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change with a pre-determined threshold (CDP.sub.proc) and signals an output when CDP.sub.roc >CDP.sub.proc. The method and system provides a signal of a surge within the gas turbine engine when CDP.sub.roc remains>CDP.sub.proc for pre-determined period of time.

  17. Automatic system for detecting pornographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kevin I. C.; Chen, Tung-Shou; Ho, Jun-Der

    2002-09-01

    Due to the dramatic growth of network and multimedia technology, people can more easily get variant information by using Internet. Unfortunately, it also makes the diffusion of illegal and harmful content much easier. So, it becomes an important topic for the Internet society to protect and safeguard Internet users from these content that may be encountered while surfing on the Net, especially children. Among these content, porno graphs cause more serious harm. Therefore, in this study, we propose an automatic system to detect still colour porno graphs. Starting from this result, we plan to develop an automatic system to search porno graphs or to filter porno graphs. Almost all the porno graphs possess one common characteristic that is the ratio of the size of skin region and non-skin region is high. Based on this characteristic, our system first converts the colour space from RGB colour space to HSV colour space so as to segment all the possible skin-colour regions from scene background. We also apply the texture analysis on the selected skin-colour regions to separate the skin regions from non-skin regions. Then, we try to group the adjacent pixels located in skin regions. If the ratio is over a given threshold, we can tell if the given image is a possible porno graph. Based on our experiment, less than 10% of non-porno graphs are classified as pornography, and over 80% of the most harmful porno graphs are classified correctly.

  18. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Trevor J.; Ferguson, Jeffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system to enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  19. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  20. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  1. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  2. Nucleic acid detection systems for enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rotbart, H A

    1991-01-01

    The enteroviruses comprise nearly 70 human pathogens responsible for a wide array of diseases including poliomyelitis, meningitis, myocarditis, and neonatal sepsis. Current diagnostic tests for the enteroviruses are limited in their use by the slow growth, or failure to grow, of certain serotypes in culture, the antigenic diversity among the serotypes, and the low titer of virus in certain clinical specimens. Within the past 6 years, applications of molecular cloning techniques, in vitro transcription vectors, automated nucleic acid synthesis, and the polymerase chain reaction have resulted in significant progress toward nucleic acid-based detection systems for the enteroviruses that take advantage of conserved genomic sequences across many, if not all, serotypes. Similar approaches to the study of enteroviral pathogenesis have already produced dramatic advances in our understanding of how these important viruses cause their diverse clinical spectra. PMID:1649002

  3. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... through 154.1015. (k) Each flammable gas detection system must have enough flame arrestors for all gas... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... through 154.1015. (k) Each flammable gas detection system must have enough flame arrestors for all gas... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... through 154.1015. (k) Each flammable gas detection system must have enough flame arrestors for all gas... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... through 154.1015. (k) Each flammable gas detection system must have enough flame arrestors for all gas... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... through 154.1015. (k) Each flammable gas detection system must have enough flame arrestors for all gas... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flammable gas detection system. 154.1350 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1350 Flammable gas detection system. (a) The vessel must have a...

  8. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Dzenitis, J

    2004-09-22

    Shaped like a mailbox on wheels, it's been called a bioterrorism ''smoke detector.'' It can be found in transportation hubs such as airports and subways, and it may be coming to a location near you. Formally known as the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System, or APDS, this latest tool in the war on bioterrorism was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to continuously sniff the air for airborne pathogens and toxins such as anthrax or plague. The APDS is the modern day equivalent of the canaries miners took underground with them to test for deadly carbon dioxide gas. But this canary can test for numerous bacteria, viruses, and toxins simultaneously, report results every hour, and confirm positive samples and guard against false positive results by using two different tests. The fully automated system collects and prepares air samples around the clock, does the analysis, and interprets the results. It requires no servicing or human intervention for an entire week. Unlike its feathered counterpart, when an APDS unit encounters something deadly in the air, that's when it begins singing, quietly. The APDS unit transmits a silent alert and sends detailed data to public health authorities, who can order evacuation and begin treatment of anyone exposed to toxic or biological agents. It is the latest in a series of biodefense detectors developed at DOE/NNSA national laboratories. The manual predecessor to APDS, called BASIS (for Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System), was developed jointly by Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. That system was modified to become BioWatch, the Department of Homeland Security's biological urban monitoring program. A related laboratory instrument, the Handheld Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA), was first tested successfully at LLNL in September 1997. Successful partnering with private industry has been a key factor in the rapid advancement and deployment of biodefense instruments such as these

  9. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A. J. H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M. A. G.; den Toonder, J. M. J.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes place. A proof-of-principle device of the digital flow meter was designed, fabricated, and tested. The device was built on foil-based technology. In the proof-of-principle experiments, good agreement was found between set flow rates and the evaporation rates estimated from reading the number of wetted pore structures. The measurement range of the digital flow meter can be tuned and extended in a straightforward manner by changing the pore structure of the device.

  10. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40-180 km h-1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology.

  11. Chaotic system detection of weak seismic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Yang, B. J.; Badal, J.; Zhao, X. P.; Lin, H. B.; Li, R. L.

    2009-09-01

    When the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is less than -3 dB or even 0 dB, seismic events are generally difficult to identify from a common shot record. To overcome this type of problem we present a method to detect weak seismic signals based on the oscillations described by a chaotic dynamic system in phase space. The basic idea is that a non-linear chaotic oscillator is strongly immune to noise. Such a dynamic system is less influenced by noise, but it is more sensitive to periodic signals, changing from a chaotic state to a large-scale periodic phase state when excited by a weak signal. With the purpose of checking the possible contamination of the signal by noise, we have performed a numerical experiment with an oscillator controlled by the Duffing-Holmes equation, taking a distorted Ricker wavelet sequence as input signal. In doing so, we prove that the oscillator system is able to reach a large-scale periodic phase state in a strong noise environment. In the case of a common shot record with low S/N ratio, the onsets reflected from a same interface are similar to one other and can be put on a single trace with a common reference time and the periodicity of the so-generated signal follows as a consequence of moveout at a particular scanning velocity. This operation, which is called `horizontal dynamic correction' and leads to a nearly periodic signal, is implemented on synthetic wavelet sequences taking various sampling arrival times and scanning velocities. Thereafter, two tests, both in a noisy ambient of -3.7 dB, are done using a chaotic oscillator: the first demonstrates the capability of the method to really detect a weak seismic signal; the second takes care of the fundamental weakness of the dynamic correction coming from the use of a particular scanning velocity, which is investigated from the effect caused by near-surface lateral velocity variation on the periodicity of the reconstructed seismic signal. Finally, we have developed an application of the

  12. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  13. Integration of the TDWR and LLWAS wind shear detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornman, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Operational demonstrations of a prototype TDWR/LLWAS (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar/Low Level Wind shear Alarm System) integrated wind shear detection system were conducted. The integration of wind shear detection systems is needed to provide end-users with a single, consensus source of information. A properly implemented integrated system provides wind shear warnings of a higher quality than stand-alone LLWAS or TDWR systems. The algorithmic concept used to generate the TDWR/LLWAS integrated products and several case studies are discussed, indicating the viability and potential of integrated wind shear detection systems. Implications for integrating ground and airborne wind shear detection systems are briefly examined.

  14. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.; Feldman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10.sup.8. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing.

  15. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.

    1992-12-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.

  16. The Metering Guide for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammed H.

    This volume provides a guide to management of utilities metering in educational facilities, especially colleges and universities. Chapter 1 gives an overview of why utility measurement, specifically the metering of energy consumption, is important in facilities management. Chapter 2 defines the basic units of measurement for both electric and…

  17. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  18. Measurement error analysis of taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Hang; Zhang, Da-Jian; Hou, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Shi-pu

    2011-12-01

    The error test of the taximeter is divided into two aspects: (1) the test about time error of the taximeter (2) distance test about the usage error of the machine. The paper first gives the working principle of the meter and the principle of error verification device. Based on JJG517 - 2009 "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", the paper focuses on analyzing the machine error and test error of taxi meter. And the detect methods of time error and distance error are discussed as well. In the same conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class A) are evaluated, while in different conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class B) are also evaluated and measured repeatedly. By the comparison and analysis of the results, the meter accords with JJG517-2009, "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", thereby it improves the accuracy and efficiency largely. In actual situation, the meter not only makes up the lack of accuracy, but also makes sure the deal between drivers and passengers fair. Absolutely it enriches the value of the taxi as a way of transportation.

  19. Development of Fall Detection System Using Ultrasound Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Takuya; Abe, Takehiko; Kimura, Haruhiko

    This paper proposes a sensing system for detecting bather's fall. The fall detection system uses ultrasound sensors installed on the ceiling of bathroom to measure the distance between sensor and a bather. The merits of utilizing ultrasound sensor are easy installation and easy use. Moreover the apparatus has an advantage of enhancing the privacy of bathers and having robustness against humidity. In order to detect bather's fall, the proposed system uses the following two methods: status detection and behavior detection. The function of status detection is to estimate bather's postures such as standing and sitting by monitoring the highest part of bather's body. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to grasp the speed of bather's vertical movement by monitoring the change of distance between sensor and the bather. The system estimates the occurrence of bather's fall when the distance changes suddenly. As a result of experiment with some subjects, the system was possible to detect bather's falling behavior with high accuracy.

  20. 46 CFR 76.05-1 - Fire detecting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detecting systems. 76.05-1 Section 76.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-1 Fire detecting systems....

  1. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so requires by an amendment to an aircraft...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so requires by an amendment to an aircraft...

  3. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  4. BacT/Alert: an automated colorimetric microbial detection system.

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, T C; Wilson, M L; Turner, J E; DiGuiseppi, J L; Willert, M; Mirrett, S; Reller, L B

    1990-01-01

    BacT/Alert (Organon Teknika Corp., Durham, N.C.) is an automated microbial detection system based on the colorimetric detection of CO2 produced by growing microorganisms. Results of an evaluation of the media, sensor, detection system, and detection algorithm indicate that the system reliably grows and detects a wide variety of bacteria and fungi. Results of a limited pilot clinical trial with a prototype research instrument indicate that the system is comparable to the radiometric BACTEC 460 system in its ability to grow and detect microorganisms in blood. On the basis of these initial findings, large-scale clinical trials comparing BacT/Alert with other commercial microbial detection systems appear warranted. PMID:2116451

  5. Analyzing and Detecting Problems in Systems of Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Christopher; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Many software systems are evolving complex system of systems (SoS) for which inter-system communication is mission-critical. Evidence indicates that transmission failures and performance issues are not uncommon occurrences. In a NASA-supported Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) project, we are researching a new approach addressing such problems. In this paper, we are presenting an approach for analyzing inter-system communications with the goal to uncover both transmission errors and performance problems. Our approach consists of a visualization and an evaluation component. While the visualization of the observed communication aims to facilitate understanding, the evaluation component automatically checks the conformance of an observed communication (actual) to a desired one (planned). The actual and the planned are represented as sequence diagrams. The evaluation algorithm checks the conformance of the actual to the planned diagram. We have applied our approach to the communication of aerospace systems and were successful in detecting and resolving even subtle and long existing transmission problems.

  6. WENDI: an improved neutron rem meter.

    PubMed

    Olsher, R H; Hsu, H H; Beverding, A; Kleck, J H; Casson, W H; Vasilik, D G; Devine, R T

    2000-08-01

    Neutron rem meters are routinely used for real-time field measurements of neutron dose equivalent where neutron spectra are unknown or poorly characterized. These meters are designed so that their response per unit fluence approximates an appropriate fluence-to-dose conversion function. Typically, a polyethylene moderator assembly surrounds a thermal neutron detector, such as a BF3 counter tube. Internal absorbers may also be used to further fine-tune the detector response to the shape of the desired fluence conversion function. Historical designs suffer from a number of limitations. Accuracy for some designs is poor at intermediate energies (50 keV-250 keV) critical for nuclear power plant dosimetry. The well-known Andersson-Braun design suffers from angular dependence because of its lack of spherical symmetry. Furthermore, all models using a pure polyethylene moderator have no useful high-energy response, which makes them inaccurate around high-energy accelerator facilities. This paper describes two new neutron rem meter designs with improved accuracy over the energy range from thermal to 5 GeV. The Wide Energy Neutron Detection Instrument (WENDI) makes use of both neutron generation and absorption to contour the detector response function. Tungsten or tungsten carbide (WC) powder is added to a polyethylene moderator with the expressed purpose of generating spallation neutrons in tungsten nuclei and thus enhance the high-energy response of the meter beyond 8 MeV. Tungsten's absorption resonance structure below several keV was also found to be useful in contouring the meter's response function. The WENDI rem meters were designed and optimized using the Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes MCNP, MCNPX, and LAHET. A first generation prototype (WENDI-I) was built in 1995 and its testing was completed in 1996. This design placed a BF3 counter in the center of a spherical moderator assembly, whose outer shell consisted of 30% by weight WC in a matrix of polyethylene. A borated

  7. Detecting Planets Outside The Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Terrile, Richard J.; Ftaclas, Christ; Gatewood, George

    1993-01-01

    Report describes proposed Astrometric Imaging Telescope, used to detect planets in orbit around distant stars. Includes executive summary and statement of scientific objectives of Astrometric Imaging Telescope program.

  8. Full scale Kick Detection System Testing relevant for slim-hole/HPHT drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Steine, O.G.; Rommetveit, R.; Harris, T.W.R.

    1995-12-31

    During June 1994 tests in the project {open_quotes}HPHT Kick Detection System Testing{close_quotes} were performed in Ullrigg well U-2. Experimental parameters such as influx type (liquid/gas), gas concentration, kick injection rate, flow rate, rpm`s, pipe reciprocation, pump speed changes, etc. were varied. Three kick detection systems were operating during the experiments. Two delta flow systems were supplied by Baker Hughes INTEQ (DrillByte {open_quotes}Kick detect{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}KDS{close_quotes}) and one acoustic system was provided by Smedvig (Gas Kick Warner). In addition, the Petreco J-Meter flow out measuring device was also tested. A total number of 14 kicks were performed during these experiments. The majority of kicks were performed at slim hole conditions. Raw data files containing approx. 14 Mbytes of downhole pressure data from bottom P-sensor, and surface data have been gathered for further analysis. The data was of high quality and provide opportunities to improve existing well control procedures and to incorporate this knowledge into future drilling operations. This paper summarizes the experimental conditions during which data were recorded, main results and operational recommendations.

  9. Life Detection System DTIVA for Monitoring Parameter in Fossilization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Garcia-Descalzo, L.; Cockell, C. S.; Schwendner, P.; Rettberg, P.; Beblo-Vranesevic, K.; Bohmeier, M.; Rabbow, E.; Westall, F.; Gaboyer, F.; Walter, N.; Moissl-Eichinger, M.; Perras, A.; Amils, R.; Malki, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Monaghan, E.; Marteinsson, V.; Vannier, P.

    2016-05-01

    Using Life Detection System LDS we followed the physicochemical parameter in a growth culture under fossilization/mineralization-induced process with the objectives of biomarkers detection. Biomarkers study is crucial for the search for life on Mars.

  10. Wavefront detection method of a single-sensor based adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chongchong; Hu, Lifa; Xu, Huanyu; Wang, Yukun; Li, Dayu; Wang, Shaoxin; Mu, Quanquan; Yang, Chengliang; Cao, Zhaoliang; Lu, Xinghai; Xuan, Li

    2015-08-10

    In adaptive optics system (AOS) for optical telescopes, the reported wavefront sensing strategy consists of two parts: a specific sensor for tip-tilt (TT) detection and another wavefront sensor for other distortions detection. Thus, a part of incident light has to be used for TT detection, which decreases the light energy used by wavefront sensor and eventually reduces the precision of wavefront correction. In this paper, a single Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based wavefront measurement method is presented for both large amplitude TT and other distortions' measurement. Experiments were performed for testing the presented wavefront method and validating the wavefront detection and correction ability of the single-sensor based AOS. With adaptive correction, the root-mean-square of residual TT was less than 0.2 λ, and a clear image was obtained in the lab. Equipped on a 1.23-meter optical telescope, the binary stars with angle distance of 0.6″ were clearly resolved using the AOS. This wavefront measurement method removes the separate TT sensor, which not only simplifies the AOS but also saves light energy for subsequent wavefront sensing and imaging, and eventually improves the detection and imaging capability of the AOS. PMID:26367988

  11. Evaluating Detection and Diagnostic Decision Support Systems for Bioterrorism Response

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vandana; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Smith, Wendy M.; Szeto, Herbert; Schleinitz, Mark D.; Owens, Douglas K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. We performed a systematic review by searching relevant databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and Web sites for reports of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems that could be used during bioterrorism responses. We reviewed over 24,000 citations and identified 55 detection systems and 23 diagnostic decision support systems. Only 35 systems have been evaluated: 4 reported both sensitivity and specificity, 13 were compared to a reference standard, and 31 were evaluated for their timeliness. Most evaluations of detection systems and some evaluations of diagnostic systems for bioterrorism responses are critically deficient. Because false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised. We describe a framework for the design of future evaluations of such systems. PMID:15078604

  12. The architecture of a network level intrusion detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.; Maccabe, A.; Servilla, M.

    1990-08-15

    This paper presents the preliminary architecture of a network level intrusion detection system. The proposed system will monitor base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, and time), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  13. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Doyle, Robert T.; Grubisha, Desiree S.; Rahman, Salma

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  14. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  15. Ground standoff mine detection system (GSTAMIDS) block 0 contractor test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressley, J. R. R.; Page, Lochlin; Green, Brian; Schweitzer, Timothy W.; Howard, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Under contact to the United States Army, EG&G Technical Services currently is conducting field tests of the Ground Standoff Mine Detection System (GSTAMIDS) Block 0 Engineering, Manufacturing and Development (EMD) systems. GSTAMIDS is a spiral development effort designed to provide the war fighter an incremental, near-term capability to execute on-road countermine missions. GSTAMIDS is being developed in three distinct blocks. The primary mission for GSTAMIDS Block 0 is route clearance, automatically detecting and marking all metallic and non-metallic Anti-Tank (AT) mines. It consists of a Mine Detection and marking System (MDS) mounted on a teleoperated Mine Detection Vehicle (MDV) and a Main Computer System (MCS) mounted in a Mine Protected Clearance Vehicle (MPCV). Both vehicles have overpass capability for AT mines, as well as armor anti-mine blast protection. The MPCV mounted MCS receives sensor data, along with inertial navigation data, from the MDS via an RF PCM telemetry link, automatically processes and fuses the data for mine detection and sends mine marking commands back to the MDV. The MDS sensors provide a three-meter detection swath and include nine (9) Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR), nine (9) Pulsed Magnetic Induction (PMI) metal detectors, and (as an option) two (2) long-wave infrared (LWIR) cameras. Contractor testing includes raw sensor data collection and sensor evaluation, performance (Pd and FAR), operating and storage environment, and EMI/EMC radiated emissions and susceptibility, as well as maintenance demonstrations. Testing has been conducted at a number of test mine lanes in different climates under a wide range of weather conditions over the past year and a half. This paper will present contractor test results to date.

  16. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  17. Blind Leak Detection for Closed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter; Johnson, Ricky; Todd, Douglas; Russell, Samuel; Walker, James

    2003-01-01

    The current inspection technique for locating interstitial leaking in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles is the application of a liquid leak check solution in the openings where the interstitials space between the tubing and the structural jacket vent out the aft end of the nozzle, while its cooling tubes are pressurized to 25 psig with Helium. When a leak is found, it is classified, and if the leak is severe enough the suspect tube is cut open so that a boroscope can be inserted to find the leak point. Since the boroscope can only cover a finite tube length and since it is impossible to identify which tube (to the right or left of the identified interstitial) is leaking, many extra and undesired repairs have been made to fix just one leak. In certain instances when the interstitials are interlinked by poor braze bonding, many interstitials will show indications of leaking from a single source. What is desired is a technique that can identify the leak source so that a single repair can be performed. Dr, Samuel Russell and James Walker, both with NASA/MSFC have developed a thermographic inspection system that addresses a single repair approach. They have teamed with Boeing/Rocketdyne to repackage the inspection processes to be suitable to address full scale Shuttle development and flight hardware and implement the process at NASA centers. The methods and results presented address the thermographic identification of interstitial leaks in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles. A highly sensitive digital infrared camera (capable of detecting a delta temperature difference of 0.025 C) is used to record the cooling effects associated with a leak source, such as a crack or pinhole, hidden within the nozzle wall by observing the inner hot wall surface as the nozzle is pressurized, These images are enhanced by digitally subtracting a thermal reference image taken before pressurization. The method provides a non-intrusive way of locating the tube that is leaking and the

  18. Intrusion Detection in Control Systems using Sequence Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Mai; Onoda, Takashi

    Intrusion detection is considered effective in control systems. Sequences of the control application behavior observed in the communication, such as the order of the control device to be controlled, are important in control systems. However, most intrusion detection systems do not effectively reflect sequences in the application layer into the detection rules. In our previous work, we considered utilizing sequences for intrusion detection in control systems, and demonstrated the usefulness of sequences for intrusion detection. However, manually writing the detection rules for a large system can be difficult, so using machine learning methods becomes feasible. Also, in the case of control systems, there have been very few observed cyber attacks, so we have very little knowledge of the attack data that should be used to train the intrusion detection system. In this paper, we use an approach that combines CRF (Conditional Random Field) considering the sequence of the system, thus able to reflect the characteristics of control system sequences into the intrusion detection system, and also does not need the knowledge of attack data to construct the detection rules.

  19. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a...

  20. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a...

  1. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a...

  2. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a...

  3. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a...

  4. Multiphase pumps and flow meters avoid platform construction

    SciTech Connect

    Elde, J.

    1999-02-01

    One of the newest wrinkles in efficiency in BP`s Eastern Trough Area Project (ETAP) is the system for moving multiphase oil, water and gas fluids from the Machar satellite field to the Marnock Central Processing Facility (CPF). Using water-turbine-driven multiphase pumps and multiphase flow meters, the system moves fluid with no need for a production platform. In addition, BP has designed the installation so it reduces and controls water coning, thereby increasing recoverable reserves. Both subsea multiphase booster stations (SMUBS) and meters grew out of extensive development work and experience at Framo Engineering AS (Framo) in multiphase meters and multiphase pump systems for subsea installation. Multiphase meter development began in 1990 and the first subsea multiphase meters were installed in the East Spar Project in Australia in 1996. By September 1998, the meters had been operating successfully for more than 1 year. A single multiphase meter installed in Marathon`s West Brae Project has also successfully operated for more than 1 year. Subsea meters for ETAP were installed and began operating in July 1998.

  5. What's a Peak Flow Meter?

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... the meter reads (this is known as a reading). Repeat three times and note the highest recorded ...

  6. Angular velocity and acceleration meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melamed, L.

    1972-01-01

    Meter uses a liquid crystalline film which changes coloration due to shear-stresses produced by a rotating disk. Device is advantageous in that it is not subject to bearing failure or electrical burnouts as are conventional devices.

  7. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  8. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  9. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  10. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  11. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  12. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  13. [Development of ultrasonic power meter].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongxin; Hu, Changming; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Honglei; Zhou, Wohua; Wu, Ziwen; Yu, Liudan; Hao, Jiandong; Luo, Yifan

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision. PMID:25330604

  14. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-08-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  15. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  16. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  17. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  18. Low volume flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Meixler, Lewis D.

    1993-01-01

    The low flow monitor provides a means for determining if a fluid flow meets a minimum threshold level of flow. The low flow monitor operates with a minimum of intrusion by the flow detection device into the flow. The electrical portion of the monitor is externally located with respect to the fluid stream which allows for repairs to the monitor without disrupting the flow. The electronics provide for the adjustment of the threshold level to meet the required conditions. The apparatus can be modified to provide an upper limit to the flow monitor by providing for a parallel electronic circuit which provides for a bracketing of the desired flow rate.

  19. Raman efficiencies of natural rocks and minerals: performance of a remote Raman system for planetary exploration at a distance of 10 meters.

    PubMed

    Stopar, Julie D; Lucey, Paul G; Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Taylor, G Jeffrey; Hubble, Hugh W

    2005-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for materials analysis, and we are developing and analyzing a remote Raman system for use on a planetary lander or rover. We have acquired data at a distance of 10m from a variety of geologic materials using different instrument designs. We have employed a pulsed laser with both an ungated detector and a gated detector. A gated detector can reduce long-lived fluorescence while still collecting all Raman signal. In order to design a flight instrument, we need to quantify how natural surfaces will respond to laser stimulus. We define remote Raman efficiency of natural surfaces as the ratio of radiant exitance leaving a natural surface to the irradiance of the incident laser. The radiant exitance of a natural surface is the product of the sample radiance, the projected solid angle, and the full-width-half-maximum of the Raman signal. We have determined the remote Raman efficiency for a variety of rocks and minerals. The best efficiencies are achieved for large, clear, single crystals that produce the most radiant exitance, while darker fine-grained mineral mixtures produce lower efficiencies. By implementing a pulsed laser, gated detector system we have improved the signal detection and have generally decreased the integration time necessary to detect Raman signal from natural surfaces. PMID:16029852

  20. Adjusting the detection window to improve the soliton communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Sien; Kao, Chuan-Yuan; Dung, Jeng-Cherng; Wen, Senfar

    2000-12-01

    The improvements of the Q factors of 10-Gb/s soliton systems detected by adjusting detection window are studied. We have found that the optimal width of the detection window depends on the noise-induced timing jitter, noise-induced soliton energy fluctuation, amplifier noise, dispersive wave, and soliton pulse width.

  1. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-12-05

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement over traditional signal-processing methods for the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the output of a thermionic detector attached to a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above the threshold. In addition, two of six spikes were detected at levels of 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. Another two of the six would have been detected correctly if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was subsequently identified by analyzing a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods should be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  2. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  3. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  4. Mid-infrared, broadly tunable, active hyperspectral imaging system for the detection of gaseous hydrocarbon species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stothard, David J. M.; Rae, Cameron F.; Ross, Mark; Dunn, Malcolm H.

    2007-10-01

    We describe a compact mid-infrared active spectroscopic imaging system for the rapid, stand-off detection of gas / chemical agents. Based upon the back-scatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) technique, the system utilises a miniaturised, extremely efficient all solid state intracavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as the imaging illumination source. The OPO produces up to 250mW of tunable radiation in the signal and idler fields over the range 1.3-4.5μm, for a diode pump power of only 3W. Due to the nature of the nonlinear crystal employed within the OPO, the system can be tuned across its spectral range in ~1 second. We obviate the very high cost and complexity of a cooled MCT or InSb video array by raster-scanning the collimated illumination beam over the area of interest and reconstructing the image by sampling the back-scattered radiation with a single element MCT photo-detector at each pixel point. This approach also improves the ultimate signal to noise ratio. Video-like frame rates of 10 f.p.s. have been demonstrated via this technique. The range limit of the instrument is currently <10 meters which is limited by the detector we currently employ. We demonstrate how the system has been used to detect, in real time, leaks of multi-species hydrocarbon gases.

  5. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-06-18

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement in the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds over traditional signal-processing methods in analyzing the output of a thermionic detector attached to the output of a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above. In addition, two of six were detected at levels 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. We would have had another two correct hits if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was identified by running a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  6. An Adaptive Database Intrusion Detection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Rita M.

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection is difficult to accomplish when attempting to employ current methodologies when considering the database and the authorized entity. It is a common understanding that current methodologies focus on the network architecture rather than the database, which is not an adequate solution when considering the insider threat. Recent…

  7. All row, planar fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-07-23

    An apparatus, program product and method for detecting nodal faults may simultaneously cause designated nodes of a cell to communicate with all nodes adjacent to each of the designated nodes. Furthermore, all nodes along the axes of the designated nodes are made to communicate with their adjacent nodes, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  8. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  9. Man as a Meter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoonian, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Describes the main lecture hall at the University of Michigan's Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, which contains state-of-the-art computing, sound, lighting, and projection systems. This working audiovisual (AV) laboratory allows its designer, professor Mojtaba Navvab, to teach the basics of environmental technology and AV design…

  10. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    DOEpatents

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  11. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  12. Recent advances in high speed detection systems for ammunition plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapmeier, K. M.

    1984-08-01

    The application of UV detection systems in radioactive environments and the application considerations of infrared, and combinations of ultraviolet and infrared are discussed. Recent developments in high speed single frequency infrared detection systems and their applications to munitions processes are also reviewed.

  13. Automatic patient respiration failure detection system with wireless transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Pope, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Automatic respiration failure detection system detects respiration failure in patients with a surgically implanted tracheostomy tube, and actuates an audible and/or visual alarm. The system incorporates a miniature radio transmitter so that the patient is unencumbered by wires yet can be monitored from a remote location.

  14. 46 CFR 78.17-65 - Smoke detecting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smoke detecting system. 78.17-65 Section 78.17-65..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-65 Smoke detecting system. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that the smoke inlets in cargo holds are examined at least once in each 3 months by the...

  15. 46 CFR 78.17-65 - Smoke detecting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smoke detecting system. 78.17-65 Section 78.17-65..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-65 Smoke detecting system. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that the smoke inlets in cargo holds are examined at least once in each 3 months by the...

  16. 46 CFR 78.17-65 - Smoke detecting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Smoke detecting system. 78.17-65 Section 78.17-65..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-65 Smoke detecting system. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that the smoke inlets in cargo holds are examined at least once in each 3 months by the...

  17. 46 CFR 78.17-65 - Smoke detecting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Smoke detecting system. 78.17-65 Section 78.17-65..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-65 Smoke detecting system. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that the smoke inlets in cargo holds are examined at least once in each 3 months by the...

  18. 46 CFR 78.17-65 - Smoke detecting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke detecting system. 78.17-65 Section 78.17-65..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-65 Smoke detecting system. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that the smoke inlets in cargo holds are examined at least once in each 3 months by the...

  19. Upconverting nanoparticles for optimizing scintillator based detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kross, Brian; McKisson, John E; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew; Xi, Wenze; Zom, Carl

    2013-09-17

    An upconverting device for a scintillation detection system is provided. The detection system comprises a scintillator material, a sensor, a light transmission path between the scintillator material and the sensor, and a plurality of upconverting nanoparticles particles positioned in the light transmission path.

  20. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

  1. Pothole Detection System Using a Black-box Camera.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youngtae; Ryu, Seungki

    2015-01-01

    Aging roads and poor road-maintenance systems result a large number of potholes, whose numbers increase over time. Potholes jeopardize road safety and transportation efficiency. Moreover, they are often a contributing factor to car accidents. To address the problems associated with potholes, the locations and size of potholes must be determined quickly. Sophisticated road-maintenance strategies can be developed using a pothole database, which requires a specific pothole-detection system that can collect pothole information at low cost and over a wide area. However, pothole repair has long relied on manual detection efforts. Recent automatic detection systems, such as those based on vibrations or laser scanning, are insufficient to detect potholes correctly and inexpensively owing to the unstable detection of vibration-based methods and high costs of laser scanning-based methods. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a new pothole-detection system using a commercial black-box camera. The proposed system detects potholes over a wide area and at low cost. We have developed a novel pothole-detection algorithm specifically designed to work with the embedded computing environments of black-box cameras. Experimental results are presented with our proposed system, showing that potholes can be detected accurately in real-time. PMID:26610498

  2. Pothole Detection System Using a Black-box Camera

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Youngtae; Ryu, Seungki

    2015-01-01

    Aging roads and poor road-maintenance systems result a large number of potholes, whose numbers increase over time. Potholes jeopardize road safety and transportation efficiency. Moreover, they are often a contributing factor to car accidents. To address the problems associated with potholes, the locations and size of potholes must be determined quickly. Sophisticated road-maintenance strategies can be developed using a pothole database, which requires a specific pothole-detection system that can collect pothole information at low cost and over a wide area. However, pothole repair has long relied on manual detection efforts. Recent automatic detection systems, such as those based on vibrations or laser scanning, are insufficient to detect potholes correctly and inexpensively owing to the unstable detection of vibration-based methods and high costs of laser scanning-based methods. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a new pothole-detection system using a commercial black-box camera. The proposed system detects potholes over a wide area and at low cost. We have developed a novel pothole-detection algorithm specifically designed to work with the embedded computing environments of black-box cameras. Experimental results are presented with our proposed system, showing that potholes can be detected accurately in real-time. PMID:26610498

  3. Wireless tamper detection sensor and sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A wireless tamper detection sensor is defined by a perforated electrical conductor. The conductor is shaped to form a geometric pattern between first and second ends thereof such that the conductor defines an open-circuit that can store and transfer electrical and magnetic energy. The conductor resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response. The harmonic response changes when the conductor experiences a change in its geometric pattern due to severing of the conductor along at least a portion of the perforations. A magnetic field response recorder is used to wirelessly transmit the time-varying magnetic field and wirelessly detecting the conductor's harmonic response.

  4. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  5. Detection and quantification system for monitoring instruments

    DOEpatents

    Dzenitis, John M.; Hertzog, Claudia K.; Makarewicz, Anthony J.; Henderer, Bruce D.; Riot, Vincent J.

    2008-08-12

    A method of detecting real events by obtaining a set of recent signal results, calculating measures of the noise or variation based on the set of recent signal results, calculating an expected baseline value based on the set of recent signal results, determining sample deviation, calculating an allowable deviation by multiplying the sample deviation by a threshold factor, setting an alarm threshold from the baseline value plus or minus the allowable deviation, and determining whether the signal results exceed the alarm threshold.

  6. Stand-off detection and classification of CBRNe using a Lidar system based on a high power femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, Jun; Yokozawa, Takeshi; Kurata, Takao; Yoshida, Akihiro; Mastunaga, Yasushi; Somekawa, Toshihiro; Eto, Shuzo; Manago, Naohiro; Horisawa, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Fujii, Takashi; Kuze, Hiroaki

    2014-10-01

    We propose a stand-off system that enables detection and classification of CBRNe (Chemical, Biological, Radioactive, Nuclear aerosol and explosive solids). The system is an integrated lidar using a high-power (terawatt) femtosecond laser. The detection and classification of various hazardous targets with stand-off distances from several hundred meters to a few kilometers are achieved by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) techniques. In this work, we report on the technical considerations on the system design of the present hybrid lidar system consisting of a nanosecond laser and a femtosecond laser. Also, we describe the current progress in our laboratory experiments that have demonstrated the stand-off detection and classification of various simulants. For the R and N detection scheme, cesium chloride aerosols have successfully been detected by LIBS using a high-power femtosecond laser. For the B detection scheme, TPF signals of organic aerosols such as riboflavin have clearly been recorded. In addition, a compact femtosecond laser has been employed for the LIBS classification of organic plastics employed as e-simulants.

  7. Characterization of mobile radiation detection systems at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.; Schmidt, J.W.; Gunnink, D.S.; Nelsen, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of vehicle-mounted radiation detection systems for characterizing large areas contaminated with radioactive materials at the Hanford Reservation were examined. Detection capabilities as a function of vehicle speed, detector-source geometry, and source characteristics were evaluated for each of the three systems currently used at the Hanford Site. Large-area radioactive sources (1 ft{sup 2}) with varying source strengths containing gamma- and beta-emitting radionuclides were used to measure detection-system performance. Detection capability was found to be most influenced by vehicle speed and detector-source geometry. As the vehicle`s speed was increased, the probability of detecting a given source decreased dramatically. The probability of detecting a given source was significantly lower under ``poor`` geometry conditions. Each vehicle`s monitoring performance was found to compare favorably with portable survey instrument capabilities. The use of vehicle-mounted detectors proves to be far more economical for surveying large surface areas.

  8. Development of an adaptive failure detection and identification system for detecting aircraft control element failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundick, W. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for designing a failure detection and identification (FDI) system to detect and isolate control element failures in aircraft control systems is reviewed. An FDI system design for a modified B-737 aircraft resulting from this methodology is also reviewed, and the results of evaluating this system via simulation are presented. The FDI system performed well in a no-turbulence environment, but it experienced an unacceptable number of false alarms in atmospheric turbulence. An adaptive FDI system, which adjusts thresholds and other system parameters based on the estimated turbulence level, was developed and evaluated. The adaptive system performed well over all turbulence levels simulated, reliably detecting all but the smallest magnitude partially-missing-surface failures.

  9. An intelligent control system for failure detection and controller reconfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Saroj K.

    1994-01-01

    We present an architecture of an intelligent restructurable control system to automatically detect failure of system components, assess its impact on system performance and safety, and reconfigure the controller for performance recovery. Fault detection is based on neural network associative memories and pattern classifiers, and is implemented using a multilayer feedforward network. Details of the fault detection network along with simulation results on health monitoring of a dc motor have been presented. Conceptual developments for fault assessment using an expert system and controller reconfiguration using a neural network are outlined.

  10. A Sensor System for Detection of Hull Surface Defects

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Fernández, Carlos; Sánchez, Pedro; Suardíaz, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results. PMID:22163590

  11. Development of a rapid optic bacteria detecting system based on ATP bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun Tao; Luo, JinPing; Liu, XiaoHong; Cai, XinXia

    2014-12-01

    A rapid optic bacteria detecting system based on the principle of Adenosine triphosphate(ATP) bioluminescence was presented in this paper. This system consisted of bioluminescence-based biosensor and the high-sensitivity optic meter. A photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT) module was used to improve the detection sensitivity, and a NIOS II/f processor based on a Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA) was used to control the system. In this work, Micrococcus luteus were chosen as the test sample. Several Micrococcus luteus suspension with different concentration was tested by both T2011 and plate counting method. By comparing the two group results, an calibration curve was obtained from the bioluminescence intensity for Micrococcus luteus in the range of 2.3×102 ~ 2.3×106 CFU/mL with a good correlation coefficient of 0.960. An impacting Air microorganism sampler was used to capture Airborne Bacteria, and 8 samples were collected in different place. The TBC results of 8 samples by T2011 were between 10 ~ 2×103 cfu/mL, consistent with that of plate counting method, which indicated that 8 samples were between 10 ~ 3×103 cfu/mL. For total airborne bacteria count was small, correlation coefficient was poor. Also no significant difference was found between T2011 and plate counting method by statistical analyses.

  12. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  13. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  14. Development of a compact flow meter for residential natural gas metering. Final report, May 1989-February 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.S.; Nutt, W.E.

    1992-05-01

    A prototype compact gas flow meter based on the thermal time-of-flight (TOF) concept was built and tested. The flow meter is all electronic and has no mechanical moving parts. The prototype unit demonstrates the elements of the TOF flow metering technology. Tests with the TOF flow meter were performed using a variety of gases including a range of natural gas compositions. Test results show promise toward meeting system accuracy requirements by improving the calibration methods and reducing electronics noise. The battery life with the prototype electronics is less than the 10 year goal, but device substitutions and low duty cycle operation would significantly extend the life time to allow realistic field trials with an improved flow meter.

  15. THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. DETAIL OF THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. Microwave ice accretion meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magenheim, Bertram (Inventor); Rocks, James K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for indicating ice thickness and rate of ice thickness growth on surfaces is disclosed. The region to be monitored for ice accretion is provided with a resonant surface waveguide which is mounted flush, below the surface being monitored. A controlled oscillator provides microwave energy via a feed point at a controllable frequency. A detector is coupled to the surface waveguide and is responsive to electrical energy. A measuring device indicates the frequency deviation of the controlled oscillator from a quiescent frequency. A control means is provided to control the frequency of oscillation of the controlled oscillator. In a first, open-loop embodiment, the control means is a shaft operated by an operator. In a second, closed-loop embodiment, the control means is a processor which effects automatic control.

  19. Fiji South Pacific Severe Storm Detection and Warning System Project (SPSSD/WS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, C.; Maurer, H.; Williams, M.; Kamowski, J.; Moore, T.; Maksimovich, W.; Hasler, A.

    1988-01-01

    In August 1986, a South Pacific Severe Storm Detection and Warning System (SPSSD/WS) was installed by NASA at the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) in Nadi, Fiji. The system consists of a 6.1 meter parabolic dish antenna, a satellite ground station, and computer and image processing facilities. The system allows tracking of all South Pacific tropical cyclones with real-time, high resolution reception of visible and infrared cloud images from both the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) and the U.S. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-WEST). Training was also provided in system usage and operations. In December 1986, the U.S. AID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) commissioned an evaluation of the SPSSD/WS. The system was recognized as one of the most advanced of its kind in the Pacific Basin. It has functioned successfully since installation with only minor interruptions, and it has become the prime tool in supporting the FMS' role as the regional tropical cyclone warning center for the Southwest Pacific. However, it was noted that there are needed enhancements to the system.

  20. A stereo vision-based obstacle detection system in vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Kunsoo; Park, Jaehak; Hwang, Junyeon; Hong, Daegun

    2008-02-01

    Obstacle detection is a crucial issue for driver assistance systems as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance function and it has to be performed with high reliability to avoid any potential collision with the front vehicle. The vision-based obstacle detection systems are regarded promising for this purpose because they require little infrastructure on a highway. However, the feasibility of these systems in passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. In this paper, an obstacle detection system using stereo vision sensors is developed. This system utilizes feature matching, epipoplar constraint and feature aggregation in order to robustly detect the initial corresponding pairs. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the obstacles. The proposed system can detect a front obstacle, a leading vehicle and a vehicle cutting into the lane. Then, the position parameters of the obstacles and leading vehicles can be obtained. The proposed obstacle detection system is implemented on a passenger car and its performance is verified experimentally.

  1. An FPGA-based rapid wheezing detection system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Yen, Tian-Shiue

    2014-02-01

    Wheezing is often treated as a crucial indicator in the diagnosis of obstructive pulmonary diseases. A rapid wheezing detection system may help physicians to monitor patients over the long-term. In this study, a portable wheezing detection system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. This system accelerates wheezing detection, and can be used as either a single-process system, or as an integrated part of another biomedical signal detection system. The system segments sound signals into 2-second units. A short-time Fourier transform was used to determine the relationship between the time and frequency components of wheezing sound data. A spectrogram was processed using 2D bilateral filtering, edge detection, multithreshold image segmentation, morphological image processing, and image labeling, to extract wheezing features according to computerized respiratory sound analysis (CORSA) standards. These features were then used to train the support vector machine (SVM) and build the classification models. The trained model was used to analyze sound data to detect wheezing. The system runs on a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 platform. The experimental results revealed that the system offered excellent wheezing recognition performance (0.912). The detection process can be used with a clock frequency of 51.97 MHz, and is able to perform rapid wheezing classification. PMID:24481034

  2. Entanglement detection in hybrid optomechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro; Palma, G. Massimo

    2011-05-15

    We study a device formed by a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) coupled to the field of a cavity with a moving end mirror and find a working point such that the mirror-light entanglement is reproduced by the BEC-light quantum correlations. This provides an experimentally viable tool for inferring mirror-light entanglement with only a limited set of assumptions. We prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in the hybrid device, persisting up to temperatures of a few milli-Kelvin, and discuss a scheme to detect it.

  3. The MANX Muon Cooling Experiment Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, S. A.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Robertsa, T. J.; Yoneharab, K.

    2010-03-30

    The MANX experiment is being proposed to demonstrate the reduction of 6D muon phase space emittance, using a continuous liquid absorber to provide ionization cooling in a helical solenoid magnetic channel. The experiment involves the construction of a two-period-long helical cooling channel (HCC) to reduce the muon invariant emittance by a factor of two. The HCC would replace the current cooling section of the MICE experiment now being set up at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The MANX experiment would use the existing MICE spectrometers and muon beam line. We discuss the placement of detection planes to optimize the muon track resolution.

  4. A Novel Vision Sensing System for Tomato Quality Detection.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Satyam; Boyat, Sachin; Sadistap, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    Producing tomato is a daunting task as the crop of tomato is exposed to attacks from various microorganisms. The symptoms of the attacks are usually changed in color, bacterial spots, special kind of specks, and sunken areas with concentric rings having different colors on the tomato outer surface. This paper addresses a vision sensing based system for tomato quality inspection. A novel approach has been developed for tomato fruit detection and disease detection. Developed system consists of USB based camera module having 12.0 megapixel interfaced with ARM-9 processor. Zigbee module has been interfaced with developed system for wireless transmission from host system to PC based server for further processing. Algorithm development consists of three major steps, preprocessing steps like noise rejection, segmentation and scaling, classification and recognition, and automatic disease detection and classification. Tomato samples have been collected from local market and data acquisition has been performed for data base preparation and various processing steps. Developed system can detect as well as classify the various diseases in tomato samples. Various pattern recognition and soft computing techniques have been implemented for data analysis as well as different parameters prediction like shelf life of the tomato, quality index based on disease detection and classification, freshness detection, maturity index detection, and different suggestions for detected diseases. Results are validated with aroma sensing technique using commercial Alpha Mos 3000 system. Accuracy has been calculated from extracted results, which is around 92%. PMID:26904620

  5. Seepage meters and Bernoulli's revenge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, E.A.; Reich, C.D.; Hickey, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of seepage data from a network of 50 permanently deployed submarine seepage meters, specially constructed from fiberglass, indicates that the devices artificially advect (Bernoulli effect) shallow ground water. Reverse flow into the rock was not observed even when adjacent piezometers installed 2-m to 20-m below the rock-water interface indicated negative groundwater heads. Quantitative testing of five different designs, including conventional end-of-oil-drum designs, indicates that meters presenting positive relief on the sea floor are subject to the Bernoulli effect when placed in areas where there are waves and/or currents. Advection does not appear to be caused by flexing of the collection bags.

  6. Robust Fault Detection and Isolation for Stochastic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jemin; Gregory, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the formulation of a robust fault detection and isolation scheme that can precisely detect and isolate simultaneous actuator and sensor faults for uncertain linear stochastic systems. The given robust fault detection scheme based on the discontinuous robust observer approach would be able to distinguish between model uncertainties and actuator failures and therefore eliminate the problem of false alarms. Since the proposed approach involves precise reconstruction of sensor faults, it can also be used for sensor fault identification and the reconstruction of true outputs from faulty sensor outputs. Simulation results presented here validate the effectiveness of the robust fault detection and isolation system.

  7. A smart capsule system of gastric occult blood detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongying; Qiao, Panpan; Wu, Xueli; Wang, Li; Ao, Yilu; Jia, Ziru; Pi, Xitian

    2014-01-01

    Prior research indicated that occult blood screening can be used to detect early gastric cancer. Based on capsule endoscopy and occult blood detection theory, an automatic detection capsule system for gastric occult blood (GOB) was proposed. This paper designed the detecting sensor, image acquisition system and wireless transmitter module respectively based on collaurum immune theory, the image sensor and radio frequency chip. In vitro experiments were conducted to testify the system, and the detecting result image information was acquired by the image acquisition (IMAQ) system and transmitted to the outside of the body through the wireless transmitter module. The receiver module received and displayed the information on the computer, from which doctors could diagnose whether there was occult blood (OB) or not. Therefore, this paper provides a new idea for the screening of early-stage gastric cancer with reliability and simplicity. PMID:24211935

  8. Monitoring of corneal allograft rejection using laser flare meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnowski, Tomasz; Haszcz, Dariusz; Rakowska, Ewa; Zagorski, Zbigniew

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify noninvasively, with the use of laser-flare meter the alterations of the blood-aqueous barrier following penetrating keratoplasty. This could diagnose objectively disruption of this barrier in eyes with early allograft rejection, possible even before manifestation of the clinical signs and would help to monitor the efficacy of the treatment. We used the laser flare-meter (Kowa FM-500) to investigate alteration of the blood-aqueous barrier following uncomplicated penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and in corneal allograft rejection. Examination was performed in 50 eyes of 48 patients after uncomplicated PK (7 days to 12 months after PK), in 20 normal control eyes and in 8 patients with acute allograft rejection. Flare values after uncomplicated keratoplasty slowly decreased in time reaching nearly control values 6 - 12 months postoperatively. They were considerably higher for acute allograft rejection compared to eyes following uncomplicated PK and normal control group. Actually, they tended to diminish gradually after systemic and topical administration of steroids and/or immunosuppressants. Application of laser tyndalometry has been proven to be highly useful in the follow up of patients after perforating keratoplasty-especially high risk grafts, it helps to detect objectively early allograft rejection and is beneficial in monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment.

  9. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system.

    PubMed

    Schenk, A; Porter, A L; Alenciks, E; Frazier, K; Best, A A; Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S

    2016-04-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n=1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n=8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks' body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P<0.001) scores for eyes, nostrils, feather quality, feather cleanliness, and foot pads. We also compared water condition, water quality, and duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P<0.001), nitrites (P<0.001), pH (P<0.01), and bacterial growth (P<0.001). The bacterial growth was shown to have higher (P<0.001)E. coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcusin the water troughs. Water lines typically showed no bacterial growth in culture-based assays. Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P=0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P=0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  10. Improved close-in detection for the mine hunter/killer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Steven S.; Campana, Stephen B.; Duston, Brian M.; Lang, David A.; Wiggins, Carl M.

    2001-10-01

    The Close-In Detector (CID) is the vehicle-mounted multi-sensor anti-tank landmine detection technology for the Army CECOM Night Vision Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) Mine Hunter-Killer (MH/K) Program. The CID includes two down-looking sensor arrays: a 20-antenna ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and a 16-coil metal detector (MD). These arrays span 3-meters in front of a high mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The CID also includes a roof-mounted, forward looking infrared (FLIR) camera that images a trapezoidal area of the road ahead of the vehicle. Signals from each of the three sensors are processed separately to detect and localize objects of interest. Features of candidate objects are integrated in a processor that uses them to discriminates between anti-tank (AT) mines and clutter and produces a list of suspected mine locations which are passed to the neutralization subsystem of MH/K. This paper reviews the current design and performance of the CID based on field test results on dirt and gravel mine test lanes. Improvements in CID performance for probability of detection, false alarm rate, target positional accuracy and system rate of advance over the past year and a half that meet most of the program goals are described. Sensor performances are compared, and the effectiveness of six different sensor fusion approaches are measured and compared.

  11. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Oldaker, Mark E.

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  12. High voltage spark carbon fiber detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    The pulse discharge technique was used to determine the length and density of carbon fibers released from fiber composite materials during a fire or aircraft accident. Specifications are given for the system which uses the ability of a carbon fiber to initiate spark discharge across a high voltage biased grid to achieve accurate counting and sizing of fibers. The design of the system was optimized, and prototype hardware proved satisfactory in laboratory and field tests.

  13. Fabrication of 4-meter class astronomical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, M. J.; Kim, D. W.; Oh, C. J.; Novak, M. J.; Burge, J. H.

    2010-07-01

    The 8-meter mirror production capacity at the University of Arizona is well known. As the Arizona Stadium facility is occupied with giant mirrors, we have developed capability for grinding, polishing, and testing 4-m mirrors in the large optics shop in the College of Optical Sciences. Several outstanding capabilities for optics up to 4.3 meters in diameter are in place: A 4.3-m computer controlled grinding and polishing machine allows efficient figuring of steeply aspheric and nonaxisymmetric surfaces. Interferometry (IR and visible wavelengths) and surface profilometry making novel use of a laser tracker allows quick, accurate in-process measurements from a movable platform on a 30-m vertical tower. A 2-meter class flat measured with a 1-m vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer and scanning pentaprism system; stitching of 1-m sub-apertures provides complete surface data with the technology ready for extension to the 4 m level. These methods were proven successful by completion of several optics including the 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope primary mirror. The 10 cm thick ULE substrate was ground and polished to 16 nm rms accuracy, corresponding to 80% encircled energy in 0.073 arc-second, after removing low order bending modes. The successful completion of the DCT mirror demonstrates the engineering and performance of the support system, ability to finish large aspheric surfaces using computer controlled polishing, and accuracy verification of surface measurements. In addition to the DCT mirror, a 2-meter class flat was produced to an unprecedented accuracy of <10 nm-rms, demonstrating the combined 1-m Fizeau interferometer and scanning pentaprism measurement techniques.

  14. SCREEN photometric property detection system based on area CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fu-cai; Ye, Wei; Xu, Yu; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yu-wei

    2011-08-01

    The photometric property detection of screen display is crucial for screen display quality test. Traditional photometry detection technologies were based on photoelectric sensors such as silicon photocell, photo-electric multiplier and CdS, which can detect only some isolated points. To break the limitation of randomness, incompleteness and detection accuracy in current technologies, we designed a screen photometric detection system based on area CCD. The system consists of photometric image sensor, photometric image acquisition hardware and photometric image analyzing software. The photometric image sensor, which adopts optical lens, optical filters and area CCD, adapts its spectrum response property to fit the spectrum luminous efficiency curve V (λ) by adjusting the thickness and quantity of appropriate optical filters. photometric image acquisition hardware adopts the DSP as a core processor to drive the area CCD, to sample, acquire , process and save the image from image sensor, to transmit the image to computer. For real-time performance of transmitting, the hardware system adopts the transmission protocol of USB2.0. The uploaded image will be processed by photometric image analyzing software, and then displayed in real time with detection results. The screen photometric detection technology based on area CCD can detect specifications of the whole screen such as luminance, contrast, onoff ratio and uniformity, breaks the limitation of randomness and incompleteness in current detection technology, exactly and fully reflects the integrated display quality of the whole screen. According to the test results, the accuracy of this system has reached the accuracy level one in China.

  15. Configurable Middleware-Level Intrusion Detection for Embedded Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Naess, Eivind; Frincke, Deborah A.; McKinnon, A. D.; Bakken, David E.

    2005-06-20

    Embedded systems have become integral parts of a diverse range of systems from automobiles to critical infrastructure applications such as gas and electric power distribution. Unfortunately, research on computer security in general and intrusion detection in particular, has not kept pace. Furthermore, embedded systems, by their very nature, are application specific and therefore frameworks for developing application-specific intrusion detection systems for distributed embedded systems must be researched, designed, and implemented. In this paper, we present a configurable middleware-based intrusion detection framework. In particular, this paper presents a system model and a concrete implementation of a highly configurable intrusion detection framework that is integrated into MicroQoSCORBA, a highly configurable middleware framework developed for embedded systems. By exploiting the application-specific logic available to a middleware framework (e.g., object interfaces and method signatures), our integrated framework is able to autogenerate application-specific intrusion detection systems. Next, a set of configurable intrusion detection mechanisms suitable for embedded systems is presented. A performance evaluation of these mechanisms, run on two hardware platforms, is presented at the end of the paper.

  16. Proposal of Multiple Detection Method in Human Detection System using Terrestrial Digital TV Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Masahiro; Shin, Koichi; Yoshida, Teruaki

    This paper newly proposes Multiple Detection (MD) method in the human detection system using terrestrial digital TV broadcasting waves. In the conventional human detection system using analog TV waves, human motion in a room can be detected by monitoring Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of the TV waves. The human detection system using TV waves works in the environments where there are no disturbances such as moving car and passing human outside the room. However, the digitalization of the terrestrial TV system deteriorates the detection performance of this system even in such environments. The radio propagation properties of the digital TV system are different from those of the analog one since the digital system is operated in the Single Frequency Network (SFN). In the SFN environment, there are some rooms under the condition that the received TV waves come from several broadcasting stations with same frequency. In such case, our measurement results indicate that the RSSI hardly fluctuates even under condition of human presence and the detection method only using RSSI has a possibility of overlooking the human motion. In the proposed MD method, not only RSSI but also Carrier to Noise Ratio (CNR) and Bit Error Rate (BER) are utilized for human detection. Today most digital TV tuners are capable of monitoring the quality of received signal, such as CNR and BER in addition to RSSI. In this paper, based on the practical measurements by using the digital TV tuners, we evaluate the fluctuation performances of RSSI, CNR and BER affected by human motion in a wooden detached house, and clarify that the MD method can effectively detect human motion even in the SFN environment.

  17. Network Anomaly Detection System with Optimized DS Evidence Theory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kaiyu

    2014-01-01

    Network anomaly detection has been focused on by more people with the fast development of computer network. Some researchers utilized fusion method and DS evidence theory to do network anomaly detection but with low performance, and they did not consider features of network—complicated and varied. To achieve high detection rate, we present a novel network anomaly detection system with optimized Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (ODS) and regression basic probability assignment (RBPA) function. In this model, we add weights for each senor to optimize DS evidence theory according to its previous predict accuracy. And RBPA employs sensor's regression ability to address complex network. By four kinds of experiments, we find that our novel network anomaly detection model has a better detection rate, and RBPA as well as ODS optimization methods can improve system performance significantly. PMID:25254258

  18. Network anomaly detection system with optimized DS evidence theory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kaiyu

    2014-01-01

    Network anomaly detection has been focused on by more people with the fast development of computer network. Some researchers utilized fusion method and DS evidence theory to do network anomaly detection but with low performance, and they did not consider features of network-complicated and varied. To achieve high detection rate, we present a novel network anomaly detection system with optimized Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (ODS) and regression basic probability assignment (RBPA) function. In this model, we add weights for each sensor to optimize DS evidence theory according to its previous predict accuracy. And RBPA employs sensor's regression ability to address complex network. By four kinds of experiments, we find that our novel network anomaly detection model has a better detection rate, and RBPA as well as ODS optimization methods can improve system performance significantly. PMID:25254258

  19. Universal explosive detection system for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Vincent Y.; Bromberg, Edward E. A.

    2010-04-01

    L-3 Communications CyTerra Corporation has developed a high throughput universal explosive detection system (PassPort) to automatically screen the passengers in airports without requiring them to remove their shoes. The technical approach is based on the patented energetic material detection (EMD) technology. By analyzing the results of sample heating with an infrared camera, one can distinguish the deflagration or decomposition of an energetic material from other clutters such as flammables and general background substances. This becomes the basis of a universal explosive detection system that does not require a library and is capable of detecting trace levels of explosives with a low false alarm rate. The PassPort is a simple turnstile type device and integrates a non-intrusive aerodynamic sampling scheme that has been shown capable of detecting trace levels of explosives on shoes. A detailed description of the detection theory and the automated sampling techniques, as well as the field test results, will be presented.

  20. Fast full resolution saliency detection based on incoherent imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guang; Zhao, Jufeng; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting

    2016-05-01

    Image saliency detection is widely applied in many tasks in the field of the computer vision. In this paper, we combine the saliency detection with the Fourier optics to achieve acceleration of saliency detection algorithm. An actual optical saliency detection system is constructed within the framework of incoherent imaging system. Additionally, the application of our system to implement the bottom-up rapid pre-saliency process of primate visual saliency is discussed with dual-resolution camera. A set of experiments over our system are conducted and discussed. We also demonstrate the comparisons between our method and pure computer methods. The results show our system can produce full resolution saliency maps faster and more effective.