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Sample records for detection nuclear explosions

  1. Explosives detection by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garroway, Allen N.; Buess, Michael L.; Yesinowski, James P.; Miller, Joel B.; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1994-10-01

    Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are not relevant. Because NQR frequencies of different compounds are quite distinct, we do not encounter false alarms from the NQR signals of other benign materials. We have constructed a laboratory prototype NQR explosives detector which interrogates a volume of 300 liters (10 ft3). This paper presents abbreviated results from a demonstration of the laboratory prototype NQR explosives detector conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center in May 1994 on RDX-based explosives.

  2. Review of Nuclear Methodologies for Explosive Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip C.; Vourvopoulos, George; Novikov, Ivan; Paschal, Jon

    2001-10-01

    Nuclear techniques show a number of advantages for non-destructive elemental characterization. These include the ability to examine bulk quantities with speed, high elemental specificity, and no memory effects from the previously measured object. These qualities are important for an effective detection system for explosives and drugs. High explosives (TNT, RDX, C-4, etc.) are composed primarily of the chemical elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Many innocuous materials are also primarily composed of these same elements. These elements, however, are found in each material with very different elemental ratios and concentrations. It is thus possible to identify and differentiate e.g. TNT from paraffin. For narcotics, the C/O ratio is at least a factor of two larger than the innocuous materials. Explosives have been shown to be differentiated by the utilization of both C/O ratio and N/O ratios. The problem of identifying explosives is thus reduced to the problem of elemental identification and quantization. We will review the methods of explosive detection with emphasis on nuclear techniques. We will discuss where improvements are desired on current techniques for landmine detection and unexploded ordnance.

  3. Nuclear quadrupole resonance detection of explosives: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joel B.

    2011-06-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a spectroscopic technique closely related to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). These techniques, and NQR in particular, induce signals from the material being interrogated that are very specific to the chemical and physical structure of the material, but are relatively insensitive to the physical form of the material. NQR explosives detection exploits this specificity to detect explosive materials, in contrast to other well known techniques that are designed to detect explosive devices. The past two decades have seen a large research and development effort in NQR explosives detection in the United States aimed at transportation security and military applications. Here, I will briefly describe the physical basis for NQR before discussing NQR developments over the past decade, with particular emphasis on landmine detection and the use of NQR in combating IED's. Potential future directions for NQR research and development are discussed.

  4. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The detection and recognition of underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, P.; Clark, R. A.; Douglas, A.; Gupta, V.; Hassard, J.; Lewis, P. M.; Maguire, P. K. H.; Playford, K.; Ringdal, F.

    1995-07-01

    This paper reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society's Joint Association for Geophysics and VERTIC (the Verification Technology Information Centre) held in London in 1992. The topics presented focused on the detection and recognition of underground nuclear explosions. The objective of the meeting was to emphasize the multi-methodological approach that is important in verifying compliance with test-ban treaties. An overview of seismological monitoring was followed by a discussion of the technical and scientific aspects of a global seismic monitoring network, and in particular of the 1991 experiment to test the large-scale international exchange of seismic data between recording stations and data centres world-wide. The current capabilities of satellite remote-sensing were presented, and their use explained in terms of both the provision of information for monitoring the development of foreign nuclear testing programmes and also for providing sufficient information for the evaluation of treaty compliance. A review of radio-isotope sampling showed how the isotopic signature of both air and ground based sampling programmes can be diagnostic of the nuclear source. Finally, previously classified research on the ionospheric effects of underground nuclear explosions was presented, the generated acoustic waves disturbing the ionosphere and producing detectable changes in the reflection of radio and radar signals which have potential as a monitoring technique.

  6. GPS detection and monitoring of underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihye; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota; von Frese, Ralph; Morton, Yu; Gaya-Pique, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies by Park et al. (2011) revealed that an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) induces the acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and generate the traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID). GPS technique allows for the ionospheric disturbance observation with high accuracy, which, in turn, enables detection of the TID induced by the UNE. This study suggests the detection and verification method of the TID using GPS observations. TID waves can be identified from the continuous data span of the total electron content (TEC) along the ray path between the GPS satellites and the observing stations. Since the TID is a high frequency and low amplitude signal, it should be properly isolated from the raw TEC observation. In this study, we applied the numerical derivative method, referred to as the numerical third order horizontal 3-point derivative method. The detected TID-like signals can be verified by its array signature under the assumption that the TID induced from a point source tends to propagate with the constant speed. Moreover, the location of the point source can be computed using the array pattern of TID observations from multiple GPS stations. In this study, two UNEs conducted by the U.S. in 1992 and two UNEs conducted by North Korea in 2006 and 2009 were investigated. The propagation speed of the U.S. UNEs was about 573 m/s and 740 m/s, respectively, while the recent North Korean UNEs propagation speed was less than 300 m/s. This result can be explained by the explosion yields and the depth of the UNEs: the depth of the US UNEs were about 0.3 km with the explosion yield of up to 20 kiloton, while the North Korean UNEs were at about 1 km depth with the yield of less than a few kilotons. In addition, we observed that the TID waves from these four UNE events were highly correlative, and distinguished from waveforms due to other types of events, such as an earthquake. As a case study, we selected the recent Tohoku earthquake of 2011, and

  7. Merging Infrasound and Electromagnetic Signals as a Means for Nuclear Explosion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Joseph; Lipshtat, Azi; Kesar, Amit S.; Pistinner, Shlomo; Ben Horin, Yochai

    2016-04-01

    The infrasound monitoring network of the CTBT consists of 60 stations. These stations are capable of detecting atmospheric events, and may provide approximate location within time scale of a few hours. However, the nature of these events cannot be deduced from the infrasound signal. More than two decades ago it was proposed to use the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) as a means of discriminating nuclear explosion from other atmospheric events. An EMP is a unique signature of nuclear explosion and is not detected from chemical ones. Nevertheless, it was decided to exclude the EMP technology from the official CTBT verification regime, mainly because of the risk of high false alarm rate, due to lightning electromagnetic pulses [1]. Here we present a method of integrating the information retrieved from the infrasound system with the EMP signal which enables us to discriminate between lightning discharges and nuclear explosions. Furthermore, we show how spectral and other characteristics of the electromagnetic signal emitted from a nuclear explosion are distinguished from those of lightning discharge. We estimate the false alarm probability of detecting a lightning discharge from a given area of the infrasound event, and identifying it as a signature of a nuclear explosion. We show that this probability is very low and conclude that the combination of infrasound monitoring and EMP spectral analysis may produce a reliable method for identifying nuclear explosions. [1] R. Johnson, Unfinished Business: The Negotiation of the CTBT and the End of Nuclear Testing, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 2009.

  8. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1993-12-01

    A-prototype explosives detection system that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear resonance absorption techniques is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection- alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  9. Prototype explosives-detection system based on nuclear-resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    A prototype explosives-detection system (EDS) that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear-resonance absorption technique is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  10. Liquid explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lowell J.

    1994-03-01

    A Liquid Explosives Screening System capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives has been developed. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly, or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to interrogate the liquid. NMR produces an extremely rich data set and many parameters of the NMR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple NMR signatures may be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat.

  11. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.J.; Cappiello, C.C.

    1996-05-01

    A laboratory prototype system has been developed for the experimental evaluation of an explosives detection technique based on nuclear resonance absorption of gamma rays in nitrogen. Major subsystems include a radiofrequency quadrupole proton accelerator and associated beam transport system, a high-power gamma-ray production target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection system, and an image- processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  12. A new vacuum insulated tandem accelerator for detection of explosives and special nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J. Paul; Powell, James; Murzina, Marina; Dudnikov, Vadim; Ivanov, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a radiation source that can be used to actively interrogate containers, trucks, trains, cars, etc to determine the presence and location of chemical explosives and special nuclear materials such as uranium and plutonium. Active interrogation methods using high energy photon or neutron sources to induce fission are the only feasible option for detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) because passive detection methods are easily compromised by even moderate amounts of shielding. For detection of chemical explosives, the same active interrogation device can be used to produce resonant photons that can detect nitrogen that is used in most chemical explosives. The accelerator based system described here produces a penetrating beam of high energy photons or neutrons that can "see" inside a sealed container. If chemical explosives or special nuclear materials are present, they will emit a characteristic signal that is detected and interpreted by electronic sensors. Shielded "dirty bombs" can be detected by the attenuation of high energy photons caused by the density of the shield material. The interrogating source of radiation is based upon a new high current negative ion source and high current tandem accelerator. The accelerator accelerates ions and projects them onto an appropriately designed target. The target converts the energy of the ion beam into a high energy highly penetrating photon or neutron beam. The beam is made to pass through the container. If explosives, special nuclear materials or shielded dirty bombs are present, the beam together with a suitable detection system uniquely identifies the location, amount and density of material.

  13. Gamma-ray nuclear resonance absorption (γ-NRA) for explosives detection in air cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartsky, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Engler, G.; Goldschmidt, A.; Feldman, G.; Bar, D.; Sayag, E.; Katz, D.; Krauss, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The γ-NRA method has been utilized to detect explosives concealed in aviation containers loaded with a variety of cargo. In γ-NRA, gamma-rays at an energy of 9.17 MeV undergo a resonant nuclear attenuation component proportional to the integrated density of 14N nuclei along the line of sight from source to detector. When inspecting objects in transmission mode, projected images of nitrogen density of their contents can be generated. In an experiment performed earlier this year at the Dynamitron accelerator lab. of Birmingham Univ., U.K., diverse items such as passenger bags, electronic equipment, paper goods and mixed cargo were scanned along with explosives simulants. The results from this run will be presented and anticipated performance ratings of an operational explosives detection system (EDS) discussed.

  14. Narcotics and explosives detection by 14N pure nuclear quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garroway, Allen N.; Buess, Michael L.; Yesinowski, James P.; Miller, Joel B.

    1994-03-01

    Pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) of 14N nuclei is quite promising as a method for detecting explosives such as RDX and contraband narcotics such as cocaine and heroin in quantities of interest. Pure NQR is conducted without an external applied magnetic field, so potential concerns about damage to magnetically encoded data or exposure of personnel to large magnetic fields are not relevant. Because NQR frequencies of different compounds are quite distinct, we do not encounter false alarms from the NQR signals of other benign materials. We have constructed a proof-of-concept NQR explosives detector which interrogates a volume of 300 liters (10 ft3). With minimal modification to the existing explosives detector, we can detect operationally relevant quantities of (free base) cocaine within the 300-liter inspection volume in 6 seconds. We are presently extending this approach to the detection of heroin base and also examining 14N and 35,37Cl pure NQR for detection of the hydrochloride forms of both materials. An adaptation of this NQR approach may be suitable for scanning personnel for externally carried contraband and explosives. We first outline the basics of the NQR approach, highlighting strengths and weaknesses, and then present representative results for RDX and cocaine detection. We also present a partial compendium of relevant NQR parameters measured for some materials of interest.

  15. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A. ); Peters, C.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by electronic collimation'' (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs.

  16. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A.; Peters, C.W.

    1992-07-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by ``electronic collimation`` (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs.

  17. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: New technologies: nuclear quadrupole resonance as an explosive and narcotic detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechishkin, Vadim S.; Sinyavskii, Nikolai Ya

    1997-04-01

    Possibilities of detecting nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals in explosives and drugs are considered. Direct and indirect NQR techniques for searching substances are described and the potentialities of various experimental methods are compared.

  18. APSTNG: neutron interrogation for detection of explosives, drugs, and nuclear and chemical warfare materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar A.; Peters, Charles W.

    1993-02-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14- MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators.

  19. Nuclear-Reaction-Based Radiation Source For Explosives-And SNM-Detection In Massive Cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandis, Michal; Dangendorf, Volker; Piel, Christian; Vartsky, David; Bromberger, Benjamin; Bar, Doron; Friedman, Eliahu; Mardor, Israel; Mor, Ilan; Tittelmeier, Kai; Goldberg, Mark B.

    2011-06-01

    An automatic, nuclear-reaction-based, few-view transmission radiography method and system concept is presented, that will simultaneously detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of chemical explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM) in objects up to the size of LD-3 aviation containers. Detection of all threat materials is performed via the 11B(d,n+γ) reaction on thick, isotopically-enriched targets; SNM are primarily detected via Dual Discrete-Energy Radiography (DDER), using 15.11 MeV and 4.43 MeV 12C γ-rays, whereas explosives are primarily detected via Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), employing the broad-energy neutron spectra produced in a thick 11B-target. To achieve a reasonable throughput of ˜20 containers per hour, ns-pulsed deuteron beam of the order of 0.5 mA intensity at energies of 5-7 MeV is required. As a first step towards optimizing parameters and sensitivities of an operational system, the 0° spectra and yields of both γ-rays and neutrons in this reaction have been measured up to Ed = 6.65 MeV.

  20. An assessment of antineutrino detection as a tool for monitoring nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Bernstein; Todd West; Vipin Gupta

    1999-06-01

    The antineutrino is the only real-time nuclear signature from a fission explosion that propagates great distances through air, water, and ground. The size and sensitivity of antineutrino detectors has increased dramatically in the last decade, and will continue to do so in the next, thanks in part to the renewed interest in neutrino physics brought on by the recent discovery that neutrinos may have mass. The evolution of antineutrino detectors, and the evident interest of the signature as a means for monitoring nuclear tests motivates this review of the capabilities of existing and possible future detectors as test ban verification tools. The authors find that existing liquid scintillator ionization detectors, operating a few tens of meters below the Earth's surface and containing a few thousand tons of active material, could be used to monitor an area of a few square kilometers for nuclear explosions at the 1 kt level. Purified water Cerenkov detectors of sizes comparable to existing detectors (50,000 m{sup 3}) could be used to detect 1 kt explosions at distances of a few tens of kilometers. If neutron-absorbing dopants such as sodium chloride or gadolinium could be added to purified water, the resulting background reduction would allow extension of the range for sensitivity to a pulse of 10 antineutrino events from a 1 kt explosion out to approximately 1000 km. Beyond 1000 km, backgrounds from the world's nuclear reactors would become prohibitively large. The engineering hurdles for such detectors would be formidable. The size of a doped detector operating at the 100 km range, suitable for cooperative monitoring of existing nuclear test sites, is about 60 times that of the largest existing water detector, and would require a factor of several dozen more photomultiplier tubes than what is now used in large scale physics experiments. At a price per phototube of $1000, capital costs would amount to several billions of dollars, even for a detector at this modest

  1. Defence Research and Development Canada: Suffield research on nuclear methods for detection of buried bulk explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2011-06-01

    Defence R&D Canada - Suffield has conducted research and development on nuclear methods for detection of bulk explosives since 1994. Initial efforts were directed at confirmation of the presence of bulk explosives in land mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In close collaboration with a few key Canadian companies, methods suitable for vehicle-mounted or fixed position applications and those suitable for person- or small robotportable roles have been studied. Vehicle-mounted systems mainly employ detection of characteristic radiation, whereas person-portable systems use imaging of back scattered radiation intensity distributions. Two key design tenets have been reduction of personnel shielding by the use of teleoperation and custom design of sensors to address the particular problem, rather than adapting an existing sensor to a problem. This is shown in a number of recent research examples. Among vehicle-mounted systems, recent research to improve the thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensors, which were put into service with the Canadian Forces in 2002, are discussed. Research on fast neutron analysis (FNA) and associated particle imaging (API), which can augment or replace TNA, depending on the application, are described. Monoenergetic gamma ray induced photoneutron spectroscopy is a novel method which has a number of potential advantages and disadvantages over TNA and FNA. Sources, detectors and geometries have been identified and modelling studies have suggested feasibility. Among person-portable systems, research on neutron backscatter imaging and X-ray coded aperture backscatter imaging are discussed.

  2. Associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe: Detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    Continued research and development of the APSTNG shows the potential for practical field use of this technology for detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials. The APSTNG (associated-particle sealed-tube generator) inspects the item to be examined using penetrating 14-MeV neutrons generated by the deuterium-tritium reaction inside a compact accelerator tube. An alpha detector built into the sealed tube detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron emitted in a cone encompassing the volume to be inspected. Penetrating high-energy gamma-rays from the resulting neutron reactions identify specific nuclides inside the volume. Flight-times determined from the detection times of gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and allow a coarse 3-D image to be obtained of nuclides identified in the prompt spectrum. The generator and detectors can be on the same side of the inspected object, on opposite sides, or with intermediate orientations. Thus, spaces behind walls and other confined regions can be inspected. Signals from container walls can be discriminated against using the flight-time technique. No collimators or shielding are required, the neutron generator is relatively small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. The use of 14-MeV neutrons yields a much higher cross-section for detecting nitrogen than that for systems based on thermal-neutron reactions alone, and the broad range of elements with significant 14-MeV neutron cross-sections extends explosives detection to other elements including low-nitrogen compounds, and allows detection of many other substances. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully performed for conventional explosives, chemical warfare agents, cocaine, and fissionable materials.

  3. Stand-off explosive detection utilizing low power stimulated emission nuclear quadrupole resonance detection and subwavelength focusing wideband super lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolos, John; Mouyos, William; Feng, Judy; Chase, Walter

    2015-05-01

    The need for advanced techniques to detect improvised explosive devices (IED) at stand-off distances greater than ten (10) meters has driven AMI Research and Development (AMI) to develop a solution to detect and identify the threat utilizing a forward looking Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) combined with our CW radar technology Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) detection system. The novel features include a near-field sub-wavelength focusing antenna, a wide band 300 KHz to 300 MHz rapidly scanning CW radar facilitated by a high Q antenna/tuner, and an advanced processor utilizing Rabi transitions where the nucleus oscillates between states under the time dependent incident electromagnetic field and alternately absorbs energy from the incident field while emitting coherent energy via stimulated emission. AMI's Sub-wavelength Focusing Wide Band Super Lens uses a Near-Field SAR, making detection possible at distances greater than ten (10) meters. This super lens is capable of operating on the near-field and focusing electromagnetic waves to resolutions beyond the diffraction limit. When applied to the case of a vehicle approaching an explosive hazard the methodologies of synthetic aperture radar is fused with the array based super resolution and the NQR data processing detecting the explosive hazard.

  4. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  5. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  6. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  7. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  8. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  9. A Fast Pulsed Neutron Source for Time-of-Flight Detection of Nuclear Materials and Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; James, Colt; Madden, Robert; Hennig, Wolfgang; Breus, Dimitry; Asztalos, Stephen; Sabourov, Konstantin; Lane, Stephen

    2011-12-13

    AASC has built a fast pulsed neutron source based on the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The more current version stores only 100 J but fires at {approx}10-50 Hz and emits {approx}10{sup 6}n/pulse at a peak current of 100 kA. Both sources emit 2.45{+-}0.1 MeV(DD) neutron pulses of {approx}25-40 ns width. Such fast, quasi-monoenergetic pulses allow time-of-flight detection of characteristic emissions from nuclear materials or high explosives. A test is described in which iron targets were placed at different distances from the point neutron source. Detectors such as Stilbene and LaBr3 were used to capture inelastically induced, 847 keV gammas from the iron target. Shielding of the source and detectors eliminated most (but not all) of the source neutrons from the detectors. Gated detection, pulse shape analysis and time-of-flight discrimination enable separation of gamma and neutron signatures and localization of the target. A Monte Carlo simulation allows evaluation of the potential of such a fast pulsed source for a field-portable detection system. The high rep-rate source occupies two 200 liter drums and uses a cooled DPF Head that is <500 cm{sup 3} in volume.

  10. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  11. Overhead Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions by Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, John R.; Smith, Milton O.; Zelinski, Michael E.

    2014-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty allows for Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging from an aircraft and on the ground to help reduce the search area for an underground nuclear explosion from the initial 1,000 km2. Satellite data, primarily from Landsat, have been used as a surrogate for aircraft data to investigate whether there are any multi-spectral features associated with the nuclear tests in Pakistan, India or North Korea. It is shown that there are multi-spectral observables on the ground that can be associated with the nominal surface ground zero for at least some of these explosions, and that these are likely to be found by measurements allowed by the treaty.

  12. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  13. An assessment on the PTS global radionuclide monitoring capabilities to detect the atmospheric traces of nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Andreas; Wotawa, Gerhard; Auer, Matthias; Krysta, Monika

    2010-05-01

    In order to detect any kind of nuclear explosion world-wide the Provisional Technical Secretariat to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is building up a verification regime that performs global monitoring for typical signals expected from such an event. Backbone of this regime is the 321 facilities International Monitoring System (IMS) comprising 80 stations to monitor for particulate radionuclides known to be fission or activation products of a nuclear explosion. Every second station is also equipped with a system capable to monitor for the occurrence of the CTBT relevant isotopes Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m, and Xe-135, which have the highest post-explosion fission yields among the noble gases, and are also not subject to wet deposition in the atmosphere. Moreover, they have a good chance to escape from the cavity of an underground nuclear explosion in contrast to the particulates. Effective radionuclide monitoring requires an optimum overall probability of a one-station detection of an atmospheric or underground nuclear explosion within 14 days. Consequently, the distribution of this detection probability is crucial for assessing the capacity of the radionuclide IMS to meet this requirement. The CTBT monitoring capabilities of the RN IMS are quite different in dependence on the environment in which the nuclear test is conducted (underground, underwater or atmospheric) as this determines the first crucial factor for the overall detection probability, the degree of containment. Secondly, the detection probability is subject to the nuclide specific decay and the dilution of any release (containment failure) during its atmospheric dispersion from the release location to one of the IMS stations. Thirdly, the detection limits of the measurement systems in use factor in. In the study presented here the radionuclide monitoring capabilities for detecting atmospheric and underground explosions, the latter mimicked by a 90% contained atmospheric release (first

  14. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  15. Detection of hidden explosives in different scenarios with the use of nuclear probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G.; Cinausero, M.; Barbui, M.; Fioretto, E.; Filippini, V.; Sudac, D.; Nađ, K.; Blagus, S.; Valković, V.

    2005-04-01

    The detection of landmines by using available technologies is a time consuming, expensive and extremely dangerous job, so that there is a need for a technological breakthrough in this field. Atomic and nuclear physics based sensors might offer new possibilities in de-mining. Technology and methods derived from the studies applied to the detection of landmines can be successfully applied to the screening of cargo in customs inspections.

  16. Transport calculations in support of simulation of nuclear-based explosive detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shayer, Z.; Bendahan, J.; Schulze, M.

    1993-12-31

    Explosives concealed in trucks or large containers can be detected utilizing a system based on pulse fast neutron analysis (PFNA) or thermal neutron analysis (TNA). These systems are able to determine the spatial distribution of the various elements in interrogated volume. In the design of the above systems, the charged and neutral particles are traced from the source through their arrival time in the detectors. On-line analysis of the signals from the detectors is used to identify the materials which constitute the sample employing statistical and inverse methods. An extensive research program to develop the computational capability to model this process is underway. The results will produce an optimized and cost effective design of a TNA and PFNA system.

  17. Nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1986-11-01

    The US Plowshare program, designed to develop peaceful uses of nuclear explosives, was vigorous between 1957-73 and was of concern during US and USSR nuclear treaty negotiations within that period. In order to accommodate possible future applications, the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty was signed in 1976. The US program explored the phenomenology of nuclear explosions and tested their use in industrial applications. Due to waning industrial interest and public concern over environmental issues, the US program was terminated in 1977. The Soviet counterpart to the Plowshare program, which has involved more than 100 experiments throughout the USSR, continued until the self-imposed moratorium in 1985. As any peaceful use of nuclear explosives has the potential of furthering weapons research, the US takes the position that all such experiments would have to be banned in a comprehensive test ban treaty. 24 refs.

  18. Nuclear resonance fluorescence and effective Z determination applied to detection and imaging of special nuclear material, explosives, toxic substances and contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertozzi, William; Korbly, Stephen E.; Ledoux, Robert J.; Park, William

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) provides a signal that is unique and present for almost all nuclei with Z > 2. This uniqueness would enable, for example, the discrimination between 235U from 238U. Explosives can be detected by the characteristic signatures of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen and their respective densities in a common space. Effective Z algorithms (EZ-3D) have been developed for the examination of the non-resonant spectrum of back-scattered photons that yield a signal with very high contrast between materials of moderately different Z. Both the NRF and EZ-3D non-intrusive inspection techniques provide a three dimensional display of the contents of a container; respectively, the isotopic concentrations, and effective Z and mass. NRF combined with EZ-3D provides the possibility for rapid scanning of seagoing containers, trucks and other vehicles. They do so in short times with high detection probabilities for SNM, explosives and other contraband and with low false alarms.

  19. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  20. Nuclear explosion source terms for CTBT monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lougheed, R.W.; Wild, J.F.; Harvey, T.

    1996-10-01

    Detection of radionuclides from a suspected nuclear explosion is required to provide absolute proof that the event was nuclear. Various evasion scenarios could be employed to attempt to hide the radionuclide signals. We will present estimates of the possible reduction in specific gaseous and particulate fission products for explosion scenarios from underground to underwater and the use of rain storms that a potential CTBT violator might employ to evade detection. We will consider the effect that the chemical behavior of the fission products that are initially formed in nuclear explosions will have on the possible release and transport of the longer-lived fission products that would actually be measured by remote monitoring stations or by using on-site inspection techniques.

  1. Numerical modeling of explosions for nuclear monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring the Earth for underground nuclear explosions requires a detailed understanding of the explosion source. In this context, "source" refers to the source of seismic waves, and it is generated by the complex nonlinear near-source motion that accompanies the nuclear explosion. In particular, nuclear monitoring requires understanding the transition from the hydrodynamic to elastic regimes, and propagation of waveforms from the source to stations at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. In the transition region, shear strength is critically important, as are changes in shear strength as the shock wave propagates. Numerical modeling using 1D spherically symmetric, 2D axisymmetric and full 3D calculations provides important insights into the seismic source and the waveforms it generates. Important considerations for numerical modeling include emplacement conditions (tamped or in a cavity), source type (chemical or nuclear), material models for strength and strength reduction, and geologic conditions including topography and tectonic stresses in the source region. In addition to calculating the near source ground motion, we propagate the near source solution to regional and teleseismic distances where the observations of seismic signals from nuclear explosions are made. The objectives of nuclear monitoring are detection of seismic events (earthquakes, quarry blasts and other sources in addition to nuclear explosions), accurate location of these events, discrimination of nuclear explosions from other types of sources, and estimation of nuclear explosion yield. Numerical modeling is particularly important for discrimination and yield estimation. Numerical modeling is used to understand unexpected anomalies that occur, such as the large surface waves generated by the three North Korean nuclear tests, which may have been caused by a difference in tectonic stress state between North Korea and other test sites. Another important issue that can be addressed

  2. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, Sergei M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Victor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexogen (RDX), trotyl-hexogen (Comp B), octogen (HMX), and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  3. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  4. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  5. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  6. Evaluating Gas-Phase Transport And Detection Of Noble Gas Signals From Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Chemical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Hunter, S. L.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Ruddle, D.; Anderson, G.; Felske, D.; Myers, K.; Zucca, J. J.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.; Chipman, V.; Snelson, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) involved detonating 1 kiloton of chemical explosive in a subsurface cavity which also contained bottles of tracer gases (ref 1). That experiment provided an improved understanding of transport processes relevant to the detection of noble gas signals at the surface emanating from a clandestine underground nuclear explosion (UNE). As an alternative to performing large chemical detonations to simulate gas transport from UNEs, we have developed a test bed for subsurface gas transport, sampling and detection studies using a former UNE cavity. The test bed site allows for the opportunity to evaluate pathways to the surface created by the UNE as well as possible transport mechanisms including barometric pumping and cavity pressurization (ref 2). With the test bed we have monitored long-term chemical tracers as well as newly injected tracers. In order to perform high temporal resolution tracer gas monitoring, we have also developed a Subsurface Gas Smart Sampler (SGSS) which has application during an actual On Site Inspection (OSI) and is available for deployment in OSI field exercises planned for 2014. Deployment of five SGSS at the remote test bed has provided unparalleled detail concerning relationships involving tracer gas transport to the surface, barometric fluctuations and temporal variations in the natural radon concentration. We anticipate that the results of our tracer experiments will continue to support the development of improved noble gas detection technology for both OSI and International Monitoring System applications. 1. C.R. Carrigan et al., 1996, Nature, 382, p. 528. 2. Y. Sun and C.R. Carrigan, 2012, Pure Appl. Geophys., DOI 10.1007/s00024-012-0514-4.

  7. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Phelan, James M.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  8. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  9. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Mcgrane, Shawn D; Greenfield, Margo T; Scharff, R J; Rabitz, Herschel A; Roslund, J

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  10. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.B. )

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to as low as 5.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]6]. Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson[sup 8] provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10[sup [minus]1].

  11. Ionospheric Effects of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; von Frese, R. R.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; Morton, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Telemetry from the Russian INTERCOSMOS 24 satellite recorded ELF and VLF electromagnetic disturbances in the outer ionosphere from an underground nuclear explosion that was detonated at Novaya Zemlya Island on 24 October 1994. The IC24 satellite observations were obtained at about 900 km altitude within a few degrees of ground zero. The disturbances were interpreted for magnetohydrodynamic excitation of the ionosphere’s E layer by the acoustic wave. Electrons are accelerated along the magnetic force lines to amplify longitudinal currents and magnetic disturbances that may be measured by magnetometers at ground-based observatories and on-board satellites. The underground nuclear test near P’unggye, North Korea on 25 May 2009 provides a further significant opportunity for studying the utility of ionospheric disturbances for characterizing ground zero. Of the seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide detection elements of the International Monitoring System (IMS) established by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), only the first two elements detected this event. However, the event also appears to have been recorded as a direct traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) in the slant total electron content (TEC) observations derived from a network of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. The TID was observed to distances of at least 600 km from the explosion site propagating with a speed of about 281m/s. Thus, the global distributions and temporal variations of the TEC, may provide important information to help detect and characterize clandestine underground nuclear explosions.

  12. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Leslie; Ziagos, John; Rodgers, Arthur; Bell, Randy

    2010-05-01

    This talk reviews research and development highlights and accomplishments (https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/mrr) as well as future research directions of the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D (GNEM R&D) program within the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection, NA-222. GNEM R&D's mission is "…to develop, demonstrate, and deliver advanced technologies and systems to operational monitoring agencies to fulfill US monitoring requirements and policies for detecting, locating, and identifying nuclear explosions."* Work sponsored by GNEM R&D and collaborators is conducted by world-class scientists and engineers in national laboratories, universities, and private industry. In the past ten years, significant progress has been made in detection, location and identification with substantial improvements yet possible. There is increasing interest in GNEM R&D technology particularly in light of its relevance to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. GNEM R&D direction is captured in roadmaps: waveform technologies, including seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasound and radionuclide monitoring. The roadmaps have the same four areas: source physics, signal propagation, sensors, and signal analysis. Within each area illustrative R&D themes, program metrics, and future R&D directions will be presented. The goals of the R&D program are to: perform innovative scientific research, deliver capability-enhancing technologies to monitoring agencies and to motivate and nurture human capital to meet future monitoring challenges. * Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program Strategic Plan, DOE/NNSA/NA-22-NEMRE-2004, https://na22.nnsa.doe.gov/cgi-bin/prod/nemre/index.cgi?Page=Strategic+Plan

  13. Liquids and homemade explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbogen, Michael; Bijjani, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Excerpt from the US Transportation Security Agency website: "The ban on liquids, aerosols and gels was implemented on August 10 after a terrorist plot was foiled. Since then, experts from around the government, including the FBI and our national labs have analyzed the information we now have and have conducted extensive explosives testing to get a better understanding of this specific threat." In order to lift the ban and ease the burden on the flying public, Reveal began an extensive effort in close collaboration with the US and several other governments to help identify these threats. This effort resulted in the successful development and testing of an automated explosive detection system capable of resolving these threats with a high probability of detection and a low false alarm rate. We will present here some of the methodology and approach we took to address this problem.

  14. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  15. Explosives detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  16. Application of Dipole-dipole, Induced Polarization, and CSAMT Electrical Methods to Detect Evidence of an Underground Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. J.; Felske, D.

    2013-12-01

    There is little experience with application of electrical methods that can be applied during the continuation period of an on-site inspection (OSI), one of the verification methods of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In order add to such experience, we conducted controlled source audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT), dipole-dipole resistivity, and induced polarization electrical measurements along three survey lines over and near to ground zero of an historic nuclear explosion. The presentation will provide details and results of the surveys, an assessment of application of the method toward the purposes of an OSI, and an assessment of the manpower and time requirements for data collection and processing that will impact OSI inspection team operations. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  18. Explosive detection program at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    A brief, general description of the Explosive Detection Program at Sandia National Laboratories is given. The six major topics of the program are: (1) Coated or Uncoated Metallic Preconcentrators; (2) a Derivatization Study; (3) a Portable Ion Mobility Spectrometer; (4) an Explosive Screening Portal; (5) Mass Spectrometer Development; and (6) an Explosive Vapor Generator.

  19. Explosives Detection: Exploitation of the Physical Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David

    2010-10-01

    Explosives based terrorism is an ongoing threat that is evolving with respect to implementation, configuration and materials used. There are a variety of devices designed to detect explosive devices, however, each technology has limitations and operational constraints. A full understanding of the signatures available for detection coupled with the array of detection choices can be used to develop a conceptual model of an explosives screening operation. Physics based sensors provide a robust approach to explosives detection, typically through the identification of anomalies, and are currently used for screening in airports around the world. The next generation of detectors for explosives detection will need to be more sensitive and selective, as well as integrate seamlessly with devices focused on chemical signatures. An appreciation for the details of the physical signature exploitation in cluttered environments with time, space, and privacy constraints is necessary for effective explosives screening of people, luggage, cargo, and vehicles.

  20. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.

  1. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, Charles R; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L; Ruddle, David G; Wagoner, Jeffrey L; Myers, Katherine B L; Emer, Dudley F; Drellack, Sigmund L; Chipman, Veraun D

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates. PMID:26979288

  2. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    PubMed Central

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates. PMID:26979288

  3. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-16

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. Here, we observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be anmore » indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). In conclusion, our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.« less

  4. Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2007-11-01

    Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

  5. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  6. Explosives detection: a challenge for physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Steinfeld, J I; Wormhoudt, J

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosives, energetic materials, and their associated compounds for security screening, demining, detection of unexploded ordnance, and pollution monitoring is an active area of research. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. This review focuses on techniques such as optical and mass spectrometry and chromatography for detection of trace amounts of explosives with short response times. We also review techniques for detecting the decomposition fragments of these materials. Molecular data for explosive compounds are reviewed where available. PMID:15012428

  7. Szilard Prize Lecture: Seismic Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul

    2006-04-01

    Seismic monitoring of the more than 2000 nuclear test explosions since 1945 has been vigorously pursued, both to track the weapons development of potential adversaries, and to support initiatives in nuclear arms control, including various test ban treaties. Major funding from the US Department of Defense built up new global seismographic networks and over several decades established practical capability in monitoring nuclear explosions ``teleseismically'' (i.e. from distances more than about 1500 km), for tests that the testing nation did not attempt to conceal. What then is the capability to monitor compliance with, for example, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) of 1996, particularly if evasion scenarios are considered? Note that the CTBT, though not ratified by some countries (including the US), is now being monitored by networks that include seismographic stations at ``regional'' distances (< 1500 km) from candidate explosion locations. Years of R and D have shown that regional signals can be used to monitor down to yields significantly lower than can be detected and identified teleseismically. A US National Academy of Sciences study in 2002 concluded that ``an underground nuclear explosion cannot be confidently hidden if its yield is larger than 1 or 2 kt.'' About 1000 earthquakes and chemical explosions are now detected per day, and documented via seismic data, providing plenty of challenges for nuclear explosion monitoring organizations. Explosion monitoring capability will improve in many parts of the world, due to the growth of networks that monitor even small earthquakes to study seismic hazard. But political problems can impede improved international explosion monitoring, due to national restrictions on data access.

  8. Detection and dispersal of explosives by ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve; Faust, Anthony A.; Puckrin, Eldon; House, Andrew; Reynolds, Damon; McDougall, William; Asquini, Adam

    2009-05-01

    The ability of animals to detect explosives is well documented. Mammalian systems, insects and even single celled organisms have all been studied and in a few cases employed to detect explosives. This paper will describe the potential ability of ants to detect, disperse and possibly neutralize bulk explosives. In spring 2008 a team of DRDC and Itres scientists conducted experiments on detecting surface-laid and buried landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and their components. Measurements were made using state-of-the-art short wave and thermal infrared hyperspectral imagers mounted on a personnel lift. During one of the early morning measurement sessions, a wispy, long linear trail was seen to emanate several meters from piles of explosives that were situated on the ground. Upon close visual inspection, it was observed that ants had found the piles of explosives and were carrying it to their ant hill, a distance of almost 20 meters from the piles. Initial analysis of the hyperspectral images clearly revealed the trail to the ant hill of explosives, despite being present in quantities not visible to the unaided eye. This paper details these observations and discusses them in the context of landmine and IED detection and neutralization. Possible reasons for such behaviour are presented. A number of questions regarding the behaviour, many pertinent to the use of ants in a counter-landmine/IED role, are presented and possible methods of answering them are discussed. Anecdotal evidence from deminers of detection and destruction of explosives by ants are presented.

  9. Method and apparatus for detecting explosives

    DOEpatents

    Moore, David Steven

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

  10. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M.; Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J.

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  11. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kercel, Stephen W.; Burlage, Robert S.; Patek, David R.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Rayner, Timothy J.

    1997-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, one has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  12. Forensic Seismology and Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Wallace, T.

    2002-12-01

    Forensic seismology was first termed by H.I.S. Thirlaway in the late 1950s to describe what is now known as verification seismology. In nuclear monitoring it is often the study of anomalous events that for some reason caused an operational system to break down. Examples of events that have elicited study include abnormal mining explosions, mine collapse and rockbursts, earthquakes near nuclear test sites and anomalous nuclear explosions. Analysis of these anomalous disturbances has been the key to understanding source physics. This information in turn, has improved our understanding of the physical basis of seismic event identification, yield estimation, and evasion scenarios. In this talk, we will review examples of anomalous disturbances from different types of sources and how the subsequent analysis led to an improved understanding the effect of source phenomenology on nuclear explosion monitoring.

  13. NQR detection of explosive simulants using RF atomic magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Mark C.; Alexson, Dimitri A.; Okamitsu, Jeffrey K.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a highly selective spectroscopic method that can be used to detect and identify a number of chemicals of interest to the defense, national security, and law enforcement community. In the past, there have been several documented attempts to utilize NQR to detect nitrogen bearing explosives using induction sensors to detect the NQR RF signatures. We present here our work on the NQR detection of explosive simulants using optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers. RF atomic magnetometers can provide an order of magnitude (or more) improvement in sensitivity versus induction sensors and can enable mitigation of RF interference, which has classically has been a problem for conventional NQR using induction sensors. We present the theory of operation of optically pumped RF atomic magnetometers along with the result of laboratory work on the detection of explosive simulant material. An outline of ongoing work will also be presented along with a path for a fieldable detection system.

  14. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  15. Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-03-01

    The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

  16. Explosive Vapor Detection Using Microcantilever Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A

    2004-01-01

    MEMS-based microcantilever platforms have been used to develop extremely sensitive explosive vapour sensors. Two unique approaches of detecting of explosive vapours are demonstrated. In the first approach a cantilever beam coated with a selective layer undergoes bending and resonance frequency variation due to explosive vapour adsorption. The resonance frequency variation is due to mass loading while adsorption-induced cantilever bending is due to a differential stress due molecular adsorption. In the second approach that does not utilize selective coatings for speciation, detection is achieved by deflagration of adsorbed explosive molecules. Deflagration of adsorbed explosive molecules causes the cantilever to bend due to released heat while its resonance frequency decreases due to mass unloading.

  17. Advances in neutron based bulk explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Strellis, Dan

    2007-08-01

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of national security threats. The inspection is founded on the detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted as the result of neutron interactions with materials. Generally these are gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering reactions in most materials and fast and thermal neutron fission in fissile (e.g.235U and 239Pu) and fertile (e.g.238U) materials. Cars or trucks laden with explosives, drugs, chemical agents and hazardous materials can be detected. Cargo material classification via its main elements and nuclear materials detection can also be accomplished with such neutron based platforms, when appropriate neutron sources, gamma ray spectroscopy, neutron detectors and suitable decision algorithms are employed. Neutron based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can be used as stand alones for complete scan of objects such as vehicles, or for spot-checks to clear (or validate) alarms indicated by another inspection system such as X-ray radiography. The technologies developed over the last two decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last few years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The advances range from the synchronous inspection of two sides of vehicles, increasing throughput and sensitivity and reducing imparted dose to the inspected object and its occupants (if any), to taking advantage of the neutron kinetic behavior of cargo to remove systematic errors, reducing background effects and improving fast neutron signals.

  18. Explosive vapor detection payload for small robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimac, Phil J.; Pettit, Michael; Wetzel, John P.; Haas, John W.

    2013-05-01

    Detection of explosive hazards is a critical component of enabling and improving operational mobility and protection of US Forces. The Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) developed by the US Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) is addressing this challenge for dismounted soldiers. Under the AMDS program, ARA has developed a vapor sampling system that enhances the detection of explosive residues using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors. The Explosives Hazard Trace Detection (EHTD) payload is designed for plug-and-play installation and operation on small robotic platforms, addressing critical Army needs for more safely detecting concealed or exposed explosives in areas such as culverts, walls and vehicles. In this paper, we describe the development, robotic integration and performance of the explosive vapor sampling system, which consists of a sampling "head," a vapor transport tube and an extendable "boom." The sampling head and transport tube are integrated with the boom, allowing samples to be collected from targeted surfaces up to 7-ft away from the robotic platform. During sample collection, an IR lamp in the sampling head is used to heat a suspected object/surface and the vapors are drawn through the heated vapor transport tube to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for detection. The EHTD payload is capable of quickly (less than 30 seconds) detecting explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX at nanogram levels on common surfaces (brick, concrete, wood, glass, etc.).

  19. Infrasound signals from the underground nuclear explosions of North Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Park, Junghyun; Kim, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Lee, Hee-Il

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the infrasound signals from seismic ground motions induced by North Korea's underground nuclear explosions, including the recent third explosion on 2013 February 12. For the third explosion, the epicentral infrasound signals were detected not only by three infrasound network stations (KSGAR, ULDAR and YAGAR) in South Korea but also by two nearby International Monitoring System infrasound stations, IS45 and IS30. The detectability of the signals was limited at stations located on the relatively east side of the epicentre, with large azimuth deviations due to very favourable atmospheric conditions for eastward propagation at stratospheric height in 2013. The stratospheric wind direction was the reverse of that when the second explosion was conducted in 2009 May. The source location of the epicentral infrasound with wave parameters determined at the multiple stations has an offset by about 16.6 km from the reference seismic location. It was possible to determine the infrasonic location with moderate accuracy by the correction of the azimuth deviation due to the eastward winds in the stratosphere. In addition to the epicentral infrasonic signals, diffracted infrasound signals were observed from the second underground nuclear explosion in 2009. The exceptional detectability of the diffracted infrasound was a consequence of the temporal formation of a thin atmospheric inversion layer over the ocean surface when the event occurred.

  20. Electromagnetic signals from underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, J.; Fitzhugh, R.; Homuth, F.

    1985-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields and ground currents resulting from underground nuclear explosions have been observed since the first such event. A few measurements have been reported, but most have not. There also have been some speculations as to their origin; the two most generally proposed are the magnetic bubble and the seismoelectric effect. The evidence seems to favor the latter mechanism. 15 refs., 36 figs.

  1. Calculation of ionospheric effects due to acoustic radiation from an underground nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, G. V.; Uralov, A. M.

    1995-03-01

    Within the framework of the ionospheric detection of underground nuclear tests, we have developed analytic computing technique for the acoustic effect of a confined nuclear explosion on upper layers of the Earth's atmosphere. The relationship is obtained, which relates the nuclear test parameters (depth, explosion yield, and mechanical properties of the rock) to the vertical displacement of the ionosphere produced by the shock wave over the explosion's epicenter. It is also shown that most of the acoustic energy produced by a confined underground nuclear explosion escapes upward, with only a small fraction being captured by the atmospheric waveguide.

  2. Pixelated diffraction signatures for explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flynn, Daniel; Reid, Caroline; Christodoulou, Christiana; Wilson, Matt; Veale, Matthew C.; Seller, Paul; Speller, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is a technique which can be used to improve the detection and characterisation of explosive materials. This study has performed EDXRD measurements of various explosive compounds using a novel, X-ray sensitive, pixelated, energy resolving detector developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK (RAL). EDXRD measurements are normally performed at a fixed scattering angle, but the 80×80 pixel detector makes it possible to collect both spatially resolved and energy resolved data simultaneously. The detector material used is Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), which can be utilised at room temperature and gives excellent spectral resolution. The setup uses characteristics from both energy dispersive and angular dispersive scattering techniques to optimise specificity and speed. The purpose of the study is to develop X-ray pattern "footprints" of explosive materials based on spatial and energy resolved diffraction data, which can then be used for the identification of such materials hidden inside packages or baggage. The RAL detector is the first energy resolving pixelated detector capable of providing an energy resolution of 1.0-1.5% at energies up to 150 keV. The benefit of using this device in a baggage scanner would be the provision of highly specific signatures to a range of explosive materials. We have measured diffraction profiles of five explosives and other compounds used to make explosive materials. High resolution spectra have been obtained. Results are presented to show the specificity of the technique in finding explosives within baggage.

  3. Advancing Explosion Source Theory through Experimentation: Results from Seismic Experiments Since the Moratorium on Nuclear Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J. L.; Stump, B. W.

    2011-12-01

    On 23 September 1992, the United States conducted the nuclear explosion DIVIDER at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It would become the last US nuclear test when a moratorium ended testing the following month. Many of the theoretical explosion seismic models used today were developed from observations of hundreds of nuclear tests at NTS and around the world. Since the moratorium, researchers have turned to chemical explosions as a possible surrogate for continued nuclear explosion research. This talk reviews experiments since the moratorium that have used chemical explosions to advance explosion source models. The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment examined single-point, fully contained chemical-nuclear equivalence by detonating over a kiloton of chemical explosive at NTS in close proximity to previous nuclear explosion tests. When compared with data from these nearby nuclear explosions, the regional and near-source seismic data were found to be essentially identical after accounting for different yield scaling factors for chemical and nuclear explosions. The relationship between contained chemical explosions and large production mining shots was studied at the Black Thunder coal mine in Wyoming in 1995. The research led to an improved source model for delay-fired mining explosions and a better understanding of mining explosion detection by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The effect of depth was examined in a 1997 Kazakhstan Depth of Burial experiment. Researchers used local and regional seismic observations to conclude that the dominant mechanism for enhanced regional shear waves was local Rg scattering. Travel-time calibration for the IMS was the focus of the 1999 Dead Sea Experiment where a 10-ton shot was recorded as far away as 5000 km. The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments provided a comparison of fully- and partially-contained chemical shots with mining explosions, thus quantifying the reduction in seismic amplitudes associated with partial

  4. The First Man-Made Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worth Seagondollar, L.

    2004-10-01

    This talk is part Nuclear Physics, part description of the greatest war-time experience possible for a young graduate student, and part eye-witness description of the 1945 plutonium fission devise explosion in the New Mexico desert. Living and working in the secret Manhattan District laboratory was truly unique. Hearing talks by Nobel Laureates (past & future), participating in nuclear experiments that determined the critical masses for U-235 and Pu-239, having near-catastrophic accidents, working with an armed guard watching you, having Enrico Fermi ask you to come to his office--these are unforgettable memories. There will be a description of 3 days in the New Mexico desert and a description of the early morning nuclear explosion at the Trinity Site and a description of that Site 30 days later.

  5. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.B.

    1989-12-31

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to as low as 5.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson{sup 8} provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10{sup {minus}1}.

  6. Observations on military exploitation of explosives detection technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Anthony A.; de Ruiter, C. J.; Ehlerding, Anneli; McFee, John E.; Svinsås, Eirik; van Rheenen, Arthur D.

    2011-06-01

    Accurate and timely detection of explosives, energetic materials, and their associated compounds would provide valuable information to military commanders in a wide range of military operations: protection of fast moving convoys from mobile or static IED threats; more deliberate countermine and counter-IED operations during route or area clearance; and static roles such as hasty or deliberate checkpoints, critical infrastructure protection and support to public security. The detection of hidden explosive hazards is an extremely challenging problem, as evidenced by the fact that related research has been ongoing in many countries for at least seven decades and no general purpose solution has yet been found. Technologies investigated have spanned all major scientific fields, with emphasis on the physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, robotics, computer technology and mathematics. This paper will present a limited, operationally-focused overview of the current status of detection technologies. Emphasis will be on those technologies that directly detect the explosive hazard, as opposed to those that detect secondary properties of the threat, such as the casing, associated wires or electronics. Technologies that detect explosives include those based on nuclear radiation and terahertz radiation, as well as trace and biological detection techniques. Current research areas of the authors will be used to illustrate the practical applications.

  7. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  8. Explosives detection using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Suarez, John R.; Pollock, Yadira S.; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    An infrared spectroscopy based explosives detection system using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) as excitation source was used to record mid infrared spectral signals of highly energetic materials (HEM) deposited on real world substrates such as travel baggage, cardboard and wood. The HEMs used were nitroaromatic military explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT), aliphatic nitrate ester pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and aliphatic nitramine hexahydrotrinitrotriazine (RDX). Various deposition methods including sample smearing, spin coating, spray deposition and partial immersion were evaluated for preparing samples and standards used as part of the study. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression with various preprocessing steps were applied to the recorded infrared spectra of explosives deposited as trace contaminants on target substrates. The results show that the dispersive infrared vibrational technique investigated using QCL is useful for detection of HEMs in the types of substrates studied.

  9. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  10. Propulsion of space ships by nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhart, J. G.; Kravárik, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the research on deuterium-tritium (D-T) inertially confined microexplosions encourages one to reconsider the nuclear propulsion of spaceships based on the concept originally proposed in the Orion project. We discuss first the acceleration of medium-sized spaceships by D-T explosions whose output is in the range of 0.1 10 t of TNT. The launching of such a ship into an Earth orbit or beyond by a large nuclear explosion in an underground cavity is sketched out in the second section of the paper, and finally we consider a hypothetical Mars mission based on these concepts. In the conclusion it is argued that propulsion based on the Orion concept only is not the best method for interplanetary travel owing to the very large number of nuclear explosion required. A combination of a super gun and subsequent rocket propulsion using advanced chemical fuels appears to be the best solution for space flights of the near future.

  11. Conjugated polymer sensors for explosive vapor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Turnbull, Graham A.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.

    2011-10-01

    Explosive sensing is a promising, emerging application for conjugated polymers. One exciting potential area of application is to clear landmines left after military actions. In this work, we demonstrate three ways to detect 10 partsper- billion of the model explosive, 1,4-dinitrobenzene (DNB): by monitoring fluorescence intensity, by measuring fluorescence lifetime, and by distributed-feedback (DFB) laser emission. A quenching of the fluorescence is observed upon DNB exposure. The reversibility of the quenching process has been demonstrated by purging with nitrogen.

  12. Idaho Explosives Detection System: Development and Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Ann E. Egger; Paul J. Petersen

    2007-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying bulk explosives into military bases. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of sodium iodide (NaI) detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A computer connects to the system by Ethernet and is able to control the system remotely. The system was developed to detect bulk explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. In 2004, a full-scale prototype IEDS system was built for testing and continued development. System performance was successfully tested using different types of real explosives with a variety of cargo at the INL from November 2005 through February 2006. Recently, the first deployable prototype system was constructed and shipped to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio and will be in operation by March 2007. The capability of passively detecting radiological material within a delivery truck has also been added.

  13. Differential thermal analysis microsystem for explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jesper K.; Greve, Anders; Senesac, L.; Thundat, T.; Boisen, A.

    2011-06-01

    A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed as a small silicon nitride membrane incorporating heater elements and a temperature measurement resistor. In this manuscript the DTA system is described and tested by measuring calorimetric response of 3 different kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX and PETN). This project is carried out under the framework of the Xsense project at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) which combines four independent sensing techniques, these micro DNT sensors will be included in handheld explosives detectors with applications in homeland security and landmine clearance.

  14. Gamma detectors in explosives and narcotics detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Zubarev, E. V.; Krasnoperov, A. V.; Porohovoi, S. Yu.; Rapatskii, V. L.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Sadovskii, A. B.; Salamatin, A. V.; Salmin, R. A.; Slepnev, V. M.; Andreev, E. I.

    2013-11-01

    Gamma detectors based on BGO crystals were designed and developed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These detectors are used in explosives and narcotics detection systems. Key specifications and design features of the detectors are presented. A software temperature-compensation method that makes it possible to stabilize the gamma detector response and operate the detector in a temperature range from -20 to 50°C is described.

  15. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-08-13

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m/sup 3/. Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m/sup 3/. By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

  16. Explosives detection with quadrupole resonance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy J.; Thorson, Benjamin D.; Beevor, Simon; West, Rebecca; Krauss, Ronald A.

    1997-02-01

    The increase in international terrorist activity over the past decade has necessitated the exploration of new technologies for the detection of plastic explosives. Quadrupole resonance analysis (QRA) has proven effective as a technique for detecting the presence of plastic, sheet, and military explosive compounds in small quantities, and can also be used to identify narcotics such as heroin and cocaine base. QRA is similar to the widely used magnetic resonance (MR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, but has the considerable advantage that the item being inspected does not need to be immersed in a steady, homogeneous magnetic field. The target compounds are conclusively identified by their unique quadrupole resonance frequencies. Quantum magnetics has develop and introduced a product line of explosives and narcotics detection devices based upon QRA technology. The work presented here concerns a multi-compound QRA detection system designed to screen checked baggage, cargo, and sacks of mail at airports and other high-security facilities. The design philosophy and performance are discussed and supported by test results from field trials conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom. This detection system represents the current state of QRA technology for field use in both commercial and government sectors.

  17. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  18. Explosive Detection in Aviation Applications Using CT

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C R

    2011-02-15

    CT scanners are deployed world-wide to detect explosives in checked and carry-on baggage. Though very similar to single- and dual-energy multi-slice CT scanners used today in medical imaging, some recently developed explosives detection scanners employ multiple sources and detector arrays to eliminate mechanical rotation of a gantry, photon counting detectors for spectral imaging, and limited number of views to reduce cost. For each bag scanned, the resulting reconstructed images are first processed by automated threat recognition algorithms to screen for explosives and other threats. Human operators review the images only when these automated algorithms report the presence of possible threats. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has requirements for future scanners that include dealing with a larger number of threats, higher probability of detection, lower false alarm rates and lower operating costs. One tactic that DHS is pursuing to achieve these requirements is to augment the capabilities of the established security vendors with third-party algorithm developers. A third-party in this context refers to academics and companies other than the established vendors. DHS is particularly interested in exploring the model that has been used very successfully by the medical imaging industry, in which university researchers develop algorithms that are eventually deployed in commercial medical imaging equipment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for third-parties to develop advanced reconstruction and threat detection algorithms.

  19. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so requires by an amendment to an aircraft...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a) Use of explosive detection equipment. If TSA so requires by an amendment to an aircraft...

  1. Electronic Nose for Detection of Explosives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, Landon; Dobrokhotov, Vladimir

    2010-03-01

    The ability to sense the environment is of critical importance for a broad array of applications ranging from ecosystem health, hazardous materials avoidance/chemical warfare to medical applications. In this research project we use the self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-functionalized nanoparticle-decorated nanosprings as a novel design for sensing vapors associated with explosives. The common requirements for any sensor application are sensitivity, selectivity, refreshability, repeatability, low cost of manufacture, and ease of use. The project goal is to answer these needs through the use of mats of functionalized metal nanoparticle-coated nanosprings as a novel type of low-cost nanomaterials-based gas sensor. The advantage of this approach is that very dilute quantities of airborne explosive products can be accumulated over a few seconds to a few minutes onto our high surface area nanospring electrodes. This will facilitate electronic detection, which in contrast to optical detection methods reduces false positive signals, reduces detector sizes and complexity.

  2. SERS substrate for detection of explosives.

    PubMed

    Chou, Alison; Jaatinen, Esa; Buividas, Ricardas; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Izake, Emad L; Fredericks, Peter M

    2012-12-01

    A novel gold coated femtosecond laser nanostructured sapphire surface - an "optical nose" - based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for detecting vapours of explosive substances was investigated. Four different nitroaromatic vapours at room temperature were tested. Sensor responses were unambiguous and showed response in the range of 0.05-15 μM at 25 °C. The laser fabricated substrate nanostructures produced up to an eight-fold increase in Raman signal over that observed on the unstructured portions of the substrate. This work demonstrates a simple sensing system that is compatible with commercial manufacturing practices to detect taggants in explosives which can undertake as part of an integrated security or investigative mission. PMID:23085837

  3. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, Terry

    2010-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  4. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.

    1983-03-01

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed. (DLC)

  5. Possible ozone depletions following nuclear explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Turco, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The degree of depletion of the ozone layer ensuing after delivery of strategic nuclear warheads (5000 and 10,000 Mton) due to production of nitrogen oxides is theoretically assessed. Strong depletions are calculated for 16-km and 26-km altitudes, peaking 1-2 months after detonation and lasting for three years, while a significant depletion at 36 km would peak after one year. Assuming the explosions occur between 30 and 70 deg N, these effects should be much more pronounced in this region than over the Northern Hemisphere as a whole. It is concluded that Hampson's concern on this matter (1974) is well-founded.-

  6. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring History and Research and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, W. L.; Zucca, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Within a year after the nuclear detonations over Hiroshima and Nagasaki the Baruch Plan was presented to the newly formed United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (June 14, 1946) to establish nuclear disarmament and international control over all nuclear activities. These controls would allow only the peaceful use of atomic energy. The plan was rejected through a Security Council veto primarily because of the resistance to unlimited inspections. Since that time there have been many multilateral, and bilateral agreements, and unilateral declarations to limit or eliminate nuclear detonations. Almost all of theses agreements (i.e. treaties) call for some type of monitoring. We will review a timeline showing the history of nuclear testing and the more important treaties. We will also describe testing operations, containment, phenomenology, and observations. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which has been signed by 179 countries (ratified by 144) established the International Monitoring System global verification regime which employs seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring techniques. The CTBT also includes on-site inspection to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Nuclear Security Agency's Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Program supports research by US National Laboratories, and universities and industry internationally to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations. This research program builds on the broad base of monitoring expertise developed over several decades. Annually the DOE and the US Department of Defense jointly solicit monitoring research proposals. Areas of research include: seismic regional characterization and wave propagation, seismic event detection and location, seismic identification and source characterization, hydroacoustic monitoring, radionuclide monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and

  7. Scientists train honeybees to detect explosives

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-07-24

    Members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Stealthy Insect Sensor Project team have been able to harness the honeybee's exceptional olfactory sense by using the bees' natural reaction to nectar, a proboscis extension reflex (sticking out their tongue) to record an unmistakable response to a scent. Using Pavlovian techniques, researchers were able to train the bees to give a positive detection response via the PER when exposed to vapors from TNT, C4, and TATP explosives. The Stealthy Insect Sensor Project was born out of a global threat from the growing use of improvised explosive devices or IEDs, especially those that present a critical vulnerability for American military troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as an emerging danger for civilians worldwide. Current strategies to detect explosives are expensive and, in the case of trained detection dogs, too obtrusive to be used very discreetly. With bees however, they are small and discreet, offering the element of surprise. They're also are inexpensive to maintain and even easier to train than dogs. As a result of this need, initial funding for the work was provided by a development grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  8. Scientists train honeybees to detect explosives

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-21

    Members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Stealthy Insect Sensor Project team have been able to harness the honeybee's exceptional olfactory sense by using the bees' natural reaction to nectar, a proboscis extension reflex (sticking out their tongue) to record an unmistakable response to a scent. Using Pavlovian techniques, researchers were able to train the bees to give a positive detection response via the PER when exposed to vapors from TNT, C4, and TATP explosives. The Stealthy Insect Sensor Project was born out of a global threat from the growing use of improvised explosive devices or IEDs, especially those that present a critical vulnerability for American military troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as an emerging danger for civilians worldwide. Current strategies to detect explosives are expensive and, in the case of trained detection dogs, too obtrusive to be used very discreetly. With bees however, they are small and discreet, offering the element of surprise. They're also are inexpensive to maintain and even easier to train than dogs. As a result of this need, initial funding for the work was provided by a development grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  9. Raman and photothermal spectroscopies for explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finot, Eric; Brulé, Thibault; Rai, Padmnabh; Griffart, Aurélien; Bouhélier, Alexandre; Thundat, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Detection of explosive residues using portable devices for locating landmine and terrorist weapons must sat- isfy the application criteria of high reproducibility, specificity, sensitivity and fast response time. Vibrational spectroscopies such as Raman and infrared spectroscopies have demonstrated their potential to distinguish the members of the chemical family of more than 30 explosive materials. The characteristic chemical fingerprints in the spectra of these explosives stem from the unique bond structure of each compound. However, these spectroscopies, developed in the early sixties, suffer from a poor sensitivity. On the contrary, MEMS-based chemical sensors have shown to have very high sensitivity lowering the detection limit down to less than 1 picogram, (namely 10 part per trillion) using sensor platforms based on microcantilevers, plasmonics, or surface acoustic waves. The minimum amount of molecules that can be detected depends actually on the transducer size. The selectivity in MEMS sensors is usually realized using chemical modification of the active surface. However, the lack of sufficiently selective receptors that can be immobilized on MEMS sensors remains one of the most critical issues. Microcantilever based sensors offer an excellent opportunity to combine both the infrared photothermal spectroscopy in their static mode and the unique mass sensitivity in their dynamic mode. Optical sensors based on localized plasmon resonance can also take up the challenge of addressing the selectivity by monitoring the Surface Enhanced Raman spectrum down to few molecules. The operating conditions of these promising localized spectroscopies will be discussed in terms of reliability, compactness, data analysis and potential for mass deployment.

  10. Remote detection of explosives using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Jack

    2011-05-01

    Stand-off detection of potentially hazardous small molecules at distances that allow the user to be safe has many applications, including explosives and chemical threats. The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, with EYZtek, Inc. of Ohio, developed a prototype stand-off, eye-safe Raman spectrometer. With a stand-off distance greater than twenty meters and scanning optics, this system has the potential of addressing particularly difficult challenges in small molecule detection. An overview of the system design and desired application space is presented.

  11. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  12. Liquid explosive detection using near infrared LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Ito, Shiori; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Miyato, Yuji

    2015-10-01

    A bottle scanner to detect liquid explosive has been developed using technologies of near infrared. Its detection rate of liquid explosive is quite high and its false alarm rate of safe liquids quite low. It uses a light source with wide spectrum such as a halogen lamp. Recently a variety of LEDs have been developed and some of them have near infrared spectrum. Here a near infrared LED is tested as a light source of the liquid explosive detector. Three infrared LEDs that have a main peak of spectrum at 901nm, 936nm, and 1028 nm have been used as a light source to scan liquids. Spectrum widths of these LEDs are quite narrow typically less than 100 nm. Ten typical liquids have been evaluated by these LEDs and the correlation coefficients of a spectrum by an LED and a tungsten lamp were more than 0.98. This experiment shows that the infrared LED can be used as a light source for the liquid scanner. An LED has some merits, such as long life of more than some ten thousand hours and small consumption electric power of less than 0.2 W. When the LED is used as a light source for the liquid scanner, it is also more compact and handy.

  13. Method and system for detecting explosives

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  14. A Portable System for Nuclear, Chemical Agent and Explosives Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W.E.; Buckley, W.M.; Kreek, S.A.; Caffrey, A.J.; Mauger, G.J.; Lavietes, A.D.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-09-29

    The FRIS/PINS hybrid integrates the LLNL-developed Field Radionuclide Identification System (FRIS) with the INEEL-developed Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) chemical assay system to yield a combined general radioisotope, special nuclear material, and chemical weapons/explosives detection and identification system. The PINS system uses a neutron source and a high-purity germanium {gamma}-ray detector. The FRIS system uses an electrochemically cooled germanium detector and its own analysis software to detect and identify special nuclear material and other radioisotopes. The FRIS/PINS combined system also uses the electromechanically-cooled germanium detector. There is no other currently available integrated technology that can combine an active neutron interrogation and analysis capability for CWE with a passive radioisotope measurement and identification capability for special nuclear material.

  15. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  16. Nuclear based techniques for detection of contraband

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, T.

    1993-12-31

    The detection of contraband such as explosives and drugs concealed in luggage or other container can be quite difficult. Nuclear techniques offer capabilities which are essential to having effective detection devices. This report describes the features of various nuclear techniques and instrumentation.

  17. Nuclear explosions and distant earthquakes: A search for correlations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Marshall, P.A.

    1970-01-01

    An apparent correlation between nuclear explosions and earthquakes has been reported for the events between September 1961 and September 1966. When data from the events between September 1966 and December 1968 are examined, this correlation disappears. No relationship between the size of the nuclear explosions and the number of distant earthquakes is apparent in the data.

  18. FAA bulk technology overview for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakoff, Alan K.

    1993-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the leading federal agency responsible for encouraging and fostering the development of a safe, secure, and efficient national airspace system (NAS). Our goal is to establish an operating environment that ensures a threat-free system to preclude acts of terrorism and fatalities. As part of the process to meet this goal, our research and development activities continually search for technologies to ensure aviation security. Recent acts of terrorism against the aviation community have demonstrated an increasing level of sophistication in the design and deployment of explosive devices. In order to prevent the introduction of explosives onto an aircraft they must be detected prior to passenger and baggage loading. The Bulk Detection program is one method of developing a number of technologies that 'see' into and 'alarm' on suspect baggage. These detection devices must be capable of providing this serve with a confidence commensurate with the state-of-the- art available today. This program utilizes the expertise of government agencies, universities and industries working toward constructing their plans and executing their designs to produce the best available equipment.

  19. Portable sensors for drug and explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leginus, Joseph M.

    1994-03-01

    Westinghouse Electric is developing portable, hand-held sensors capable of detecting numerous drugs of abuse (cocaine, heroin, amphetamines) and explosives (trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, nitroglycerin). The easy-to-use system consists of a reusable electronics module and disposable probes. The sensor illuminates and detects light transmitted through optical cells of the probe during an antibody-based latex agglutination reaction. Each probe contains all the necessary reagents to carry out a test in a single step. The probe has the ability to lift minute quantities of samples from a variety of surfaces and deliver the sample to a reaction region within the device. The sensor yields a qualitative answer in 30 to 45 seconds and is able to detect illicit substances at nanogram levels.

  20. HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R

    2010-05-02

    Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions exist. Pipe ruptures at nuclear facilities were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, in nuclear facilities, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents an ignition source for hydrogen was questionable, but these accidents, demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein.

  1. Seismic signals from asymmetric underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.G.

    1993-09-01

    The methods discussed to estimate the effect on the seismic signals from asymmetric underground nuclear explosions, depends on the use of large-scale numerical codes and high-speed computers. The use of a two-dimensional (2D) radiation diffusion coupled Eulerian hydrodynamic code (SOIL) for the early time phenomenology is discussed. The results from this calculation are then coupled into a 2D Lagrangian code that treats the strength of the materials and the effects of fractures, ground reflections and spells. The final step in the simulation is the use of a seismic code (which uses the representation theory) to develop the actual far field seismic signals. These calculations were run on the CRAY YMP computers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  2. Shell nuclear explosions in degenerate dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, O. A.; Tutukov, A. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    1989-08-01

    Numerical gas dynamics simulations are used to study shell nuclear explosions of degenerate carbon-oxygen dwarfs with masses of 1.17, 1.36, and 1.42 solar masses. It is assumed that the calorific capacity of the burning shell matter is between 5 X 10 to the 17th and 5 X 10 to the 18th erg/g. It is shown that, at a low calorific capacity, a remnant may form if the mass of the shell is less than 90 percent of the mass of the degenerate dwarf. In the case of high calorific capacity, a remnant may form only if the mass of the shell is less than half of the dwarf's mass.

  3. Extension of a standoff explosive detection system to CBRN threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alan; Waterbury, Rob; Rose, Jeremy; Pohl, Ken; Eisterhold, Megan; Thorn, Thelma; Lee, Keesoo; Dottery, Ed

    2010-04-01

    Recent progress has been made on an explosive laser standoff detection system called TREDS-2 constructed from COTS components. The TREDS-2 system utilizes combination of Laser Induced Breakdown (LIBS), Townsend Effect Plasma Spectroscopy (TEPS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques with chemometric algorithms to detect hazardous materials. Extension of the detection capability of the TREDS-2 system on the real-time point detection of chemical, biological, radioactive, and nuclear threats has been tested and presented in this report. System performance of surface detection of a variety of CBRNE materials is shown. An overview of improvements to the explosives detection capabilities is given first. Challenges to sensing some specific CBRN threats are then discussed, along with the initial testing of TREDS-2 on CBRN surrogates on a limited number of surfaces. Signal processing using chemometric algorithms are shown as a demonstration of the system's capabilities. A path forward for using the specific technologies is also provided, as well as a discussion of the advantages that each technology brings to the CBRNE detection effort.

  4. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    2000-07-26

    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  5. Trace Explosive Detection using Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Adam R; Van Neste, Charles W; Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George; Finot, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Satisfying the conditions of high sensitivity and high selectivity using portable sensors that are also reversible is a challenge. Miniature sensors such as microcantilevers offer high sensitivity but suffer from poor selectivity due to the lack of sufficiently selective receptors. Although many of the mass deployable spectroscopic techniques provide high selectivity, they do not have high sensitivity. Here, we show that this challenge can be overcome by combining photothermal spectroscopy on a bimaterial microcantilever with the mass induced change in the cantilever's resonance frequency. Detection using adsorption-induced resonant frequency shift together with photothermal deflection spectroscopy shows extremely high selectivity with a subnanogram limit of detection for vapor phase adsorbed explosives, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  6. Multi-Phenomenology Explosion Monitoring (Multi-PEM). Signal Detection. Research to target smaller sources for tomorrow’s missions

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Joshua Daniel

    2015-12-12

    This a guide on how to detect and identify explosions from various sources. For example, nuclear explosions produce acoustic, optical, and EMP outputs. Each signal can be buried in noise, but fusing detection statistics from seismic, acoustic, and electromagnetic signals results in clear detection otherwise unobtainable.

  7. Nonisotropic radiation of the 2013 North Korean nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavryčuk, Václav; Kim, So Gu

    2014-10-01

    On 12 February 2013, North Korea conducted an underground nuclear test in the northeastern mountainous part of the country. The explosion reached magnitude mb = 5.1 being recorded at most of seismic stations around the world and becoming one of the best ever recorded nuclear explosions in history. Similarly, as other nuclear explosions buried in Nevada, Kazakhstan, or China, the 2013 North Korean explosion is characterized by a significant nonisotropic radiation. This radiation is manifested by distinct SH and Love waves in the wave field and is inconsistent with the model of a spherically symmetric source. We show that the Love waves are not generated by a tectonic earthquake triggered on a nearby fault structures but produced by asymmetry of the explosive source caused by presence of deviatoric stress in the surrounding rock. The retrieved moment tensor of the 2013 explosion is characterized by the isotropic component of 57 ± 5%, the double-couple component of 17 ± 9%, and the compensated linear vector dipole component of 24 ± 7%. The P, T, and N axes of the moment tensor are consistent with the principal axes of the regional tectonic stress in the Korean Peninsula. A comparison of waveforms and particle motions of the 2013 explosion and the previous North Korean nuclear explosion buried in 2009 indicates that the 2013 explosion was slightly more nonisotropic.

  8. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration for trace explosives detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin Lane

    2004-05-01

    A trace explosives detection system typically contains three subsystems: sample collection, preconcentration, and detection. Sample collection of trace explosives (vapor and particulate) through large volumes of airflow helps reduce sampling time while increasing the amount of dilute sample collected. Preconcentration of the collected sample before introduction into the detector improves the sensitivity of the detector because of the increase in sample concentration. By combining large-volume sample collection and preconcentration, an improvement in the detection of explosives is possible. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration is presented using a systems level approach. In addition, the engineering of large-volume sampling and preconcentration for the trace detection of explosives is explained.

  9. Seismic Discrimination of Underground Nuclear Explosions at Low Yield (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.

    2009-12-01

    On 9 October 2006, and on 25 May 2009, North Korea carried out widely-reported nuclear explosions. The body-wave magnitude for these tests were mb 4.3 and mb 4.7 respectively. These events typify the handling of problem events under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring regime, in that these were small events that could not be readily identified based on teleseismic records (although these provided detections and good location estimates). Hence it was important to obtain good regional records at distances of a few hundred kilometer. For seismic events of magnitude > 4.0, focal mechanisms, mb:Ms, depth phases and analysis of teleseismic body-wave and long-period surface-wave can be used to identify these events. However, for the majority of small events with magnitude mb < 4.0, regional phases Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg must be used to characterize those small events. We analyze regional three-component seismic records to characterize those events and seek the best regional phases and frequency bands that can help us to classify explosions from the earthquake population. Analysis of earthquakes that occurred within 100 km from the Lop Nor Chinese test site indicates that vertical P-wave to S-wave ratios (Pn/Lg) of earthquakes and underground nuclear tests in the frequency band 1-16 Hz are well separated, suggesting that the high-frequency P/S spectral ratios can be an efficient method to classify explosions from the earthquakes in the Lop Nor region, western China. In the case of the earthquakes and explosions around the North Korean test sites, the P/S spectral ratios from the earthquake and explosion population overlap significantly at frequencies of 1-7 Hz, but the spectral ratios from the two populations are fairly well separated at 9-15 Hz. These studies indicate that high-frequency P/S spectral ratio is an efficient method to identify seismic source types for seismic events of magnitude < 4.0. We note that mb:Ms discriminant did not work well for

  10. Investigations into seismic discrimination between earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnichev, Y.F.; Aptikaev, F.F.; Antonova, L.V.

    1995-08-01

    In this report we describe some results of investigations on a problem of discrimination between nuclear explosions, chemical explosions and earthquakes, carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Records of underground nuclear explosions from the Semipalatinsk test site, and from region the Pre-Caspian depression, and also records of nearby chemical explosions and earthquakes were processed. We analysed records of permanent and temporary stations, located mainly in the North Tien Shan, northern Kazakhstan and Urals regions. We studied the influence of regional conditions on the effectiveness of seismic monitoring of nuclear explosions. Various amplitude criteria of the discrimination between explosions and earthquakes are considered. We analyzed possibilities to discriminate different source types using spectral-temporal characteristics of seismograms. The nature of some wave types, recorded at region distances, is investigated. We consider possibilities of discrimination between nuclear and chemical explosions and earthquakes using analysis of characteristics of irregular waves. We outline future investigations, connected with the study of the unique set of seismograms kept in the CSE.

  11. Underground Nuclear Explosions and Release of Radioactive Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubasov, Yuri V.

    2010-05-01

    Over a period in 1961-1990 496 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purpose and in different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk and anovaya Zemlya Test Sites. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. One hundred seventy-nine explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation, and four excavation explosions with ground ejection (1.1%). Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them - in shafts. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without sedimental contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature.

  12. Photoluminescent detection of dissolved underwater trace explosives.

    PubMed

    Langston, Tye

    2010-01-01

    A portable, rapid, and economical method for in situ trace explosive detection in aqueous solutions was demonstrated using photoluminescence. Using europium/ thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the reagent, dissolved nitroglycerin was fluorescently tagged and detected in seawater solutions without sample preparation, drying, or preconcentration. The chemical method was developed in a laboratory setting and demonstrated in a flow-through configuration using lightweight, inexpensive, commercial components by directly injecting the reagents into a continually flowing seawater stream using a small amount of organic solvent (approximately 8% of the total solution). Europium's vulnerability to vibrational fluorescence quenching by water provided the mode of detection. Without nitroglycerin in the seawater solution, the reagent's fluorescence was quenched, but when dissolved nitroglycerin was present, it displaced the water molecules from the europium/thenoyltrifluoroacetone compound and restored fluorescence. This effort focused on developing a seawater sensor, but performance comparisons were made to freshwater. The method was found to perform better in freshwater and it was shown that certain seawater constituents (such as calcium) have an adverse impact. However, the concentrations of these constituents are not expected to vary significantly from the natural seawater used herein. PMID:20364240

  13. Development in the Detection and Identification of Explosive Residues.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, A D

    1992-06-01

    In the past 2 decades, developments in the sensitivity and selectivity of instrument detectors have significantly improved the detection limits for explosives, particularly nitrated organic compounds. Significant improvements have also been made in clean up and recovery procedures for explosive residues. Methods which also have met the criterion of proven effectiveness in identifying explosive components in "real-world" residues from test explosions have been incorporated into systematic analysis protocols for explosive residues. This article first reviews developments in the application of both traditional and novel methods to analysis of unreacted explosives and explosive residues. Compounds used to formulate commercial, military, and "homemade" explosives are then cross-referenced to the analytical methods that have been specifically applied to them, both as pure chemicals and in explosive mixtures. The subsequent focus is on the combinations of methods used to systematically analyze and positively identify residues from improvised explosive devices, from handswabs derived from persons suspected of handling explosives, and from organic gunshot residue. Technology is available to positively identify virtually any unreacted explosive in residue, but no one method can detect all components of all explosives. Investigators and the courts are best served by well-equipped forensic science laboratories staffed with scientists who have gained experience by the successful analysis of post-blast residues from an explosives range and have comprehensive reference collections of physical material, analytical data, and literature. The greatest progress has been made with respect to nitrated organic compounds, but the new generation of commercial explosive slurries and emulsions which are primarily formulated with inorganic salts and non-nitrated organic compounds offer an ongoing challenge. PMID:26267286

  14. Visible Hyperspectral Imaging for Standoff Detection of Explosives on Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Blake, Thomas A.; Mendoza, Albert; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2010-11-01

    There is an ever-increasing need to be able to detect the presence of explosives, preferably from standoff distances. This paper presents an application of visible hyperspectral imaging using anomaly, polarization and spectral identification approaches for the standoff detection (13 meters) of nitroaromatic explosives on realistic painted surfaces based upon the colorimetric differences between tetryl and TNT which are enhanced by solar irradiation.

  15. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  16. Stochastic source comparisons between nuclear and chemical explosions detonated at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, B.W.; Pearson, D.C.; Reinke, R.E.

    1994-07-01

    The focus of this study is the understanding of the time function effects for chemical and nuclear explosion sources detonated in a spherical geometry. Information developed here in combination with similar studies for earthquakes and mining explosions will be used to improve current discriminants, address the transportability of the discriminants to new regions and suggest new discriminants utilizing current data sources. The quantification of the seismic source time function for nuclear and chemical explosions provides the basis for identifying source differences that may develop as a function of yield as well as explosive type (chemical or nuclear). The yield effects are useful in yield determination as well as assessing detection and identification capabilities if seismic monitoring of such sources is important. Source effects attributable to yield can be used to establish new or verify existing scaling relations.

  17. Detection of Chemical Precursors of Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Certain selected chemicals associated with terrorist activities are too unstable to be prepared in final form. These chemicals are often prepared as precursor components, to be combined at a time immediately preceding the detonation. One example is a liquid explosive, which usually requires an oxidizer, an energy source, and a chemical or physical mechanism to combine the other components. Detection of the oxidizer (e.g. H2O2) or the energy source (e.g., nitromethane) is often possible, but must be performed in a short time interval (e.g., 5 15 seconds) and in an environment with a very small concentration (e.g.,1 100 ppm), because the target chemical(s) is carried in a sealed container. These needs are met by this invention, which provides a system and associated method for detecting one or more chemical precursors (components) of a multi-component explosive compound. Different carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are loaded (by doping, impregnation, coating, or other functionalization process) for detecting of different chemical substances that are the chemical precursors, respectively, if these precursors are present in a gas to which the CNTs are exposed. After exposure to the gas, a measured electrical parameter (e.g. voltage or current that correlate to impedance, conductivity, capacitance, inductance, etc.) changes with time and concentration in a predictable manner if a selected chemical precursor is present, and will approach an asymptotic value promptly after exposure to the precursor. The measured voltage or current are compared with one or more sequences of their reference values for one or more known target precursor molecules, and a most probable concentration value is estimated for each one, two, or more target molecules. An error value is computed, based on differences of voltage or current for the measured and reference values, using the most probable concentration values. Where the error value is less than a threshold, the system concludes that the target

  18. Comparison of radiation safety and nuclear explosive safety disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Winstanley, J. L.

    1998-10-10

    In August 1945, U.S. Navy Captain William Parsons served as the weaponeer aboard the Enola Gay for the mission to Hiroshima (Shelton 1988). In view of the fact that four B-29s had crashed and burned on takeoff from Tinian the night before, Captain Parsons made the decision to arm the gun-type weapon after takeoff for safety reasons (15 kilotons of TNT equivalent). Although he had no control over the success of the takeoff, he could prevent the possibility of a nuclear detonation on Tinian by controlling what we now call the nuclear explosive. As head of the Ordnance Division at Los Alamos and a former gunnery officer, Captain Parsons clearly understood the role of safety in his work. The advent of the pre-assembled implosion weapon where the high explosive and nuclear materials are always in an intimate configuration meant that nuclear explosive safety became a reality at a certain point in development and production not just at the time of delivery by the military. This is the only industry where nuclear materials are intentionally put in contact with high explosives. The agency of the U.S. Government responsible for development and production of U.S. nuclear weapons is the Department of Energy (DOE) (and its predecessor agencies). This paper will be limited to nuclear explosive safety as it is currently practiced within the DOE nuclear weapons

  19. Use of Romanian Seismic Network to monitor nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Neagoe, Cristian; Grecu, Bogdan; Popa, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, three underground nuclear tests were conducted by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK): on October 9, 2006, May 25, 2009, and February 12, 2013. The magnitude of the events, estimated by International Data Centre (IDC) as 4.1, 4.5 and 4.9, indicates that the latest was more powerful than its predecessors. We analyze seismic signals generated by the DPRK tests and recorded with Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). The location estimates performed at Romania National Data Centre (NDC) using RSN data, were compared with those obtained at IDC. As a consequence of the global superior coverage with seismic stations included in the International Monitoring System, IDC locations are better constrained. The signals generated by 2006 DPRK nuclear test were observed on 8 RSN stations, the 2009 test on 33, and the 2013 test on 47. This continuous increase is due to the rise in the number of stations installed during last five years, as well as to the larger magnitude of the 2013 test. The recent development of RSN has enabled NDC to locate the events with more accuracy, based on the higher-quality parameters estimated from data processing. For all three events, a high signal coherency is observed for the data recorded by the Romanian seismic array, BURAR, reconfirming the superiority of the arrays to single stations for detecting and characterizing signals from nuclear explosions. Array processing techniques are applied for signal detection and to estimate the slowness vector (back-azimuth and apparent velocity). The comparison of vertical displacement seismograms recorded at RSN stations shows a remarkably similarity of the signals generated by the three events analyzed. The records are nearly identical, except that the amplitude is directly proportional to the event magnitude. Spectrograms of the recorded RSN data were examined, showing that the nuclear explosions produce seismic signals with a high energy in the 0.5 to 2.0 Hz frequency range

  20. There is more to do, in building key datasets on nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul

    2015-04-01

    More than 2000 nuclear test explosions have been conducted in and above the atmosphere, underwater, and underground, from 1945 to 2013. They constitute an extraordinary human activity from several perspectives. The physical and radiochemical signals from such testing provide the basis for training sophisticated modern monitoring systems, both national and international, that are designed to detect future nuclear explosions in the context of international efforts at nuclear arms control. These same signals also have many uses in the study of Earth processes and Earth structures. Of principal interest for monitoring purposes, are regional signals from explosions---conducted in a wide variety of environments---that were too small to be reliably identified via teleseismic recordings. The great majority of stations operated today, even those in networks established for nuclear explosion monitoring, have never recorded explosion signals at regional distances, because most stations were installed long after the period when most underground nuclear explosions were conducted; and the few nuclear explosions that have been conducted since the early 1990s were mostly recorded only at teleseismic distances. Of principal interest for studies of Earth structure and processes, are the larger explosions whose signals were clearly recorded on global scales, with accurate knowledge of source depth, epicenter, and origin time. This presentation will review accomplishments of two substantial projects, each of them conducted over about twenty years, that have emphasized the rescue of regional seismic waveform data from nuclear test explosions conducted in Eurasia. These data are now available in modern digital formats. Because of these two projects, openly available seismogram archives for Eurasian explosions are in several respects now better than those for explosions conducted by the United States, France, and the UK, especially for the era from 1960 to about 1985. The opportunity to

  1. Universal explosive detection system for homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Vincent Y.; Bromberg, Edward E. A.

    2010-04-01

    L-3 Communications CyTerra Corporation has developed a high throughput universal explosive detection system (PassPort) to automatically screen the passengers in airports without requiring them to remove their shoes. The technical approach is based on the patented energetic material detection (EMD) technology. By analyzing the results of sample heating with an infrared camera, one can distinguish the deflagration or decomposition of an energetic material from other clutters such as flammables and general background substances. This becomes the basis of a universal explosive detection system that does not require a library and is capable of detecting trace levels of explosives with a low false alarm rate. The PassPort is a simple turnstile type device and integrates a non-intrusive aerodynamic sampling scheme that has been shown capable of detecting trace levels of explosives on shoes. A detailed description of the detection theory and the automated sampling techniques, as well as the field test results, will be presented.

  2. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  3. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program - Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2004-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (NEM R&E) Program is dedicated to providing knowledge, technical expertise, and products to US agencies responsible for monitoring nuclear explosions in all environments and is successful in turning scientific breakthroughs into tools for use by operational monitoring agencies. To effectively address the rapidly evolving state of affairs, the NNSA NEM R&E program is structured around three program elements described within this strategic plan: Integration of New Monitoring Assets, Advanced Event Characterization, and Next-Generation Monitoring Systems. How the Program fits into the National effort and historical accomplishments are also addressed.

  4. Benefits of explosive cutting for nuclear-facility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.; Allen, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    The study discussed in this report was a cost/benefit analysis to determine: (1) whether explosive cutting is cost effective in comparison with alternative metal sectioning methods and (2) whether explosive cutting would reduce radiation exposure or provide other benefits. Two separate approaches were pursued. The first was to qualitatively assess cutting methods and factors involved in typical sectioning cases and then compare the results for the cutting methods. The second was to prepare estimates of work schedules and potential radiation exposures for candidate sectioning methods for two hypothetical, but typical, sectioning tasks. The analysis shows that explosive cutting would be cost effective and would also reduce radiation exposure when used for typical nuclear facility sectioning tasks. These results indicate that explosive cutting should be one of the principal cutting methods considered whenever steel or similar metal structures or equipment in a nuclear facility are to be sectioned for repair or decommissioning. 13 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)

  5. Direct real-time detection of vapors from explosive compounds.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Robert G; Clowers, Brian H; Atkinson, David A

    2013-11-19

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX, and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances was demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a nonradioactive ionization source coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was accomplished in less than 5 s at ambient temperature without sample preconcentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provided a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3(-) and NO3(-)·HNO3), enabled highly sensitive explosives detection from explosive vapors present in ambient laboratory air. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicated detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284, and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX, and NG, respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations sampled in ambient laboratory air, including double base propellants, plastic explosives, and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN, and RDX product ions. PMID:24090362

  6. DTRA's Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J.; Dainty, A.; Phillips, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a Program in Basic Research and Development for Nuclear Explosion Technology within the Nuclear Treaties Branch of the Arms Control Technology Division. While the funding justification is Arms Control Treaties (i.e., Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, CTBT), the results are made available for any user. Funding for the Program has averaged around \\10m per year recently. By Congressional mandate, the program has disbursed money through competitive, peer-reviewed, Program Research and Development Announcements (PRDAs); there is usually (but not always) a PRDA each year. Typical awards have been for about three years at ~\\100,000 per year, currently there are over 60 contracts in place. In addition to the "typical" awards, there was an initiative 2000 to fund seismic location calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT; there are three three-year contracts of ~\\$1,000,000 per year to perform such calibration for Eurasia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Scientifically, four technological areas have been funded, corresponding to the four technologies in the IMS: seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide, with the lion's share of the funding going to the seismic area. The scientific focus of the Program for all four technologies is detection of signals, locating their origin, and trying to determine of they are unambiguously natural in origin ("event screening"). Location has been a particular and continuing focus within the Program.

  7. Contributed Review: Quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. S. Yu, B.; Fischer, H.; Chen, W.; Yalin, A. P.

    2015-03-15

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade.

  8. Contributed Review: Quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. S.; Yu, B.; Fischer, H.; Chen, W.; Yalin, A. P.

    2015-03-01

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade.

  9. Seismic decoupling with chemical and nuclear explosions in salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, L. A.; Goldstein, P.

    1994-06-01

    An extensive series of simulations was perfomed of underground explosions in salt, using both chemical and nuclear explosives. In both cases, the radius of the initial emplacement cavity was varied from the fully tamped configuration to as large as 80 m/kt(sup 1/3); when not fully tamped, the cavity was assumed initially to contain air at ambient temperature and pressure. In the nuclear source case, the simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the Salmon/Sterling events conducted by the United States and with recently released Russian data on a similar pair of explosions in an Azgir salt dome. Simulation of the U.S. Cowboy series of chemical explosions in a Louisiana salt mine are also shown to be in very good agreement with the experimental data; however, the constitutive model for the salt that best explains these data is different from that derived for Salmon; both salt models are amply supported by laboratory and field data. The main result of these simulations is that cvaity decoupling with chemical explosives is much less efficient htna with nuclear explosives. Although maximum decoupling factors, f(sub max), near 200 may be attainable with either of the two sources, the cavity size required to achieve this value appears to be greater than 40 m/kt(sup 1/3). For cavity radii half as large, f(sub max) is roughly 4 times lower with nuclear explosives, and lower by another factor of 4 with chemical sources. Moreover, if the initial cavity radius is a more modest 10 m/kt(sup 1/3), f(sub max) less than 3 event with a nuclear source.

  10. Detection of explosives by olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Corcelli, Angela; Lobasso, Simona; Lopalco, Patrizia; Dibattista, Michele; Araneda, Ricardo; Peterlin, Zita; Firestein, Stuart

    2010-03-15

    The response of olfactory sensory neurons to TNT and RDX as well as to some volatile organic compounds present in the vapors of antipersonnel landmines has been studied both in the pig and in the rat. GC/MS analyses of different plastic components of six different kinds of landmines were performed in order to identify the components of the "perfume" of mines. Studies on rat olfactory mucosa were carried out with electro-olfactogram and calcium imaging techniques, while changes in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels following exposure to odorants and explosives were used as a criterion to evaluate the interaction of TNT and RDX with olfactory receptors in a preparation of isolated pig olfactory cilia. These studies indicate that chemical compounds associated with explosives and explosive devices can activate mammalian olfactory receptors. PMID:19913995

  11. Visible hyperspectral imaging for standoff detection of explosives on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Blake, Thomas A.; Mendoza, Albert; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2010-10-01

    There is an ever-increasing need to be able to detect the presence of explosives, preferably from standoff distances of tens of meters. This paper presents an application of visible hyperspectral imaging using anomaly, polarization, and spectral identification approaches for the standoff detection (13 meters) of nitroaromatic explosives on realistic painted surfaces based upon the colorimetric differences between tetryl and TNT which are enhanced by solar irradiation.

  12. Modeling of Qr Sensors for Optimized Explosives Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Hector; Bussandri, Alejandro; Derby, Kevin

    Quadrupole Resonance (QR) sensors have the unique capability of detecting explosives with remarkably high detection rates and low number of false alarms. The sensitivity of a QR-based sensor in inductive detection can be assessed in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which determines the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves of the detector and provides a fundamental limitation to the performance of the QR explosive detection system. The main goal of the QR sensor design is, therefore, to maximize the SNR to achieve the highest possible detection performance with the lowest number of nuisances.

  13. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2010-12-06

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  14. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-•HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  15. Detection of Plastic Explosive Traces in the Human Thermal Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowadia, Huban A.; Settles, Gary S.

    1998-11-01

    Aviation security requires the detection of explosive devices which terrorists, posing as passengers, may conceal beneath their clothing. Our goal is to understand the generation, transport, and collection of trace signals from such concealed explosives, which are found in the natural convective plume produced by the human body. Previous work (APS/DFD96, CG10) has visualized this plume and shown that concealed volatile explosives (e.g. TNT) produce a detectable vapor signal therein. Plastic explosives, on the other hand, have vanishingly low vapor pressures and are thus considered very difficult to detect. Present experiments use a dispersal chamber to collect and sample the plumes of human subjects wearing concealed gauze patches containing milligrams of RDX, the primary component of plastic explosives such as C-4. These experiments address the effects of agitation, clothing, temperature and humidity on trace detectability. Further experiments address the effects of oily vs. dry skin, contaminated clothing vs. gauze patches, and residual contamination left on skin previously in contact with RDX. The key role of airborne contaminated textile fibers is noted. Knowledge thus gained contributes to the design of an explosive detection portal for aviation security screening. (Research supported by FAA Grant 93-G-052.)

  16. The limit of detection for explosives in spectroscopic differential reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Vishwanathan, Karthik; Hummel, Rolf E.

    2011-05-01

    In the wake of recent terrorist attacks, such as the 2008 Mumbai hotel explosion or the December 25th 2009 "underwear bomber", our group has developed a technique (US patent #7368292) to apply differential reflection spectroscopy to detect traces of explosives. Briefly, light (200-500 nm) is shone on a surface such as a piece of luggage at an airport. Upon reflection, the light is collected with a spectrometer combined with a CCD camera. A computer processes the data and produces in turn a differential reflection spectrum involving two adjacent areas of the surface. This differential technique is highly sensitive and provides spectroscopic data of explosives. As an example, 2,4,6, trinitrotoluene (TNT) displays strong and distinct features in differential reflectograms near 420 nm. Similar, but distinctly different features are observed for other explosives. One of the most important criteria for explosive detection techniques is the limit of detection. This limit is defined as the amount of explosive material necessary to produce a signal to noise ratio of three. We present here, a method to evaluate the limit of detection of our technique. Finally, we present our sample preparation method and experimental set-up specifically developed to measure the limit of detection for our technology. This results in a limit ranging from 100 nano-grams to 50 micro-grams depending on the method and the set-up parameters used, such as the detector-sample distance.

  17. Underground nuclear explosions at Azgir, Kazakhstan, and implications for identifying decoupled nuclear testing in salt. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, L.R.

    1993-06-28

    Bodywave magnitudes, mb are recomputed for 17 nuclear explosions with yields of about 0.01 to 100 kilotons (kt) at Azgir in western Kazakhstan. Station corrections were developed for Azgir using larger events and then applied in recomputing magnitude of other explosions. Revised values of mb for three tamped (fully coupled) explosions in salt at Azgir and one at Orenburg of announced yield, Y, were used to obtain the relationship, mb = 4.425 + 0.832 log Y. Salt is one of the best coupling geological media for generating seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions. In a special study made of the Azgir explosion of 1.1 kt of 1966 mb was determined for 16 stations at 4.52 + or - .06. For purposes of appreciating the detection capability of a given seismic network, it is important to recognize that a fully-coupled explosion of 1 kt in salt in high-Q (low attenuation) areas of the Former Soviet Union (FSU), like Azgir, has an mb of 4.4; fully decoupled events of 1 and 10 kt have mb's of about 2.6 and 3.4. Most areas of thick salt deposits in the C.I.S. are typified by high Q for P waves and low natural seismic activity. Yields of all known nuclear explosions at Azgir and in other areas of thick salt deposits in the C.I.S. through May 1993 are recalculated. The yields of fully decoupled nuclear explosions of Y > or = 0.5 kt that possibly could be detonated in the cavities produced by those events are calculated.

  18. Detection of explosives by positive corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Ilbeigi, Vahideh

    2010-04-15

    In this work, thermal decomposition has been used to detect explosives by IMS in positive polarity. Explosives including Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN), Cyclo-1,3,5-Trimethylene-2,4,6-Trinitramine (RDX), 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-Dihydro-5-nitro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO), 1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), have been evaluated at temperatures between 150 and 250 degrees C in positive polarity in air. Explosives yield NO(x) which causes NO(+) peak to increase. Additional peaks may be used to identify the type of explosive. The limit of detection for RDX, HMX, PETN, NTO, and TNT were obtained to be 1, 10, 40, 1000, and 1000 ng, respectively. PMID:20004055

  19. Explosives detection portal for high-volume personnel screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmeter, John E.; Linker, Kevin L.; Rhykerd, Charles L.; Hannum, David W.; Bouchier, Francis A.

    1998-12-01

    We discuss a trace explosive detection portal for high-volume personnel screening, which has been developed recently at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), using funding provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS). This portal screens individuals for explosives using noninvasive means to collect explosive residue in the forms of vapor and particulate contamination. The portal combines a commercially available ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a preconcentrator developed at SNL to perform detection of explosives. The prototype portal has undergone one series of tests at the Albuquerque International Airport, and we are now proceeding to develop an improved, second-generation portal, and to find a company to market the portal.

  20. Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2012-12-31

    This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

  1. Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

  2. Identification of process controls for nuclear explosive operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Houghton, K.; Wilson, M.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear explosive assembly/disassembly operations that are carried out under United States Department of Energy (DOE) purview are characterized by activities that primarily involve manual tasks. These process activities are governed by procedural and administrative controls that traditionally have been developed without a formal link to process hazards. This work, which was based on hazard assessment (HA) activities conducted as part of the W69 Integrated Safety Process (ISP), specifies an approach to identifying formal safety controls for controlling (i.e., preventing or mitigating) hazards associated with nuclear explosive operations. Safety analysis methods are used to identify controls, which then are integrated into a safety management framework to provide assurance to the DOE that hazardous activities are managed properly. As a result of the work on the W69 ISP dismantlement effort, the authors have developed an approach to identify controls and safety measures to improve the safety of nuclear explosive operations. The methodology developed for the W69 dismantlement effort is being adapted to the W76 ISP effort. Considerable work is still ongoing to address issues such as the adequacy or effectiveness of controls. DOE nuclear explosive safety orders and some historical insights are discussed briefly in this paper. The safety measure identification methodology developed as part of the W69 ISP dismantlement process then is summarized.

  3. Radionuclide Gas Transport through Nuclear Explosion-Generated Fracture Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-01-01

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. Seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable. PMID:26676058

  4. Radionuclide Gas Transport through Nuclear Explosion-Generated Fracture Networks.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B; Stauffer, Philip H; Knight, Earl E; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N

    2015-01-01

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. Seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable. PMID:26676058

  5. Radionuclide gas transport through nuclear explosion-generated fracture networks

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-12-17

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. In conclusion, seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.

  6. Radionuclide gas transport through nuclear explosion-generated fracture networks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-12-17

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gasmore » breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. In conclusion, seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.« less

  7. Radionuclide Gas Transport through Nuclear Explosion-Generated Fracture Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-12-01

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. Seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.

  8. Detection of vehicle-based improvised explosives using ultra-trace detection equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Mark; Sikes, John; Prather, Mark; Wichert, Clint

    2005-05-01

    Vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs) have become the weapon of choice for insurgents in Iraq. At the same time, these devices are becoming increasingly sophisticated and effective. VBIEDs can be difficult to detect during visual inspection of vehicles. This is especially true when explosives have been hidden behind a vehicle"s panels, inside seat cushions, under floorboards, or behind cargo. Even though the explosive may not be visible, vapors of explosive emanating from the device are often present in the vehicle, but the current generation of trace detection equipment has not been sensitive enough to detect these low concentrations of vapor. This paper presents initial test results using the Nomadics Fido sensor for detection of VBIEDs. The sensor is a small, explosives detector with unprecedented levels of sensitivity for detection of nitroaromatic explosives. Fido utilizes fluorescence quenching of novel polymer materials to detect traces of explosive vapor emanating from targets containing explosives. These materials, developed by collaborators at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), amplify the quenching response that occurs when molecules of explosive bind to films of the polymer. These materials have enabled development of sensors with performance approaching that of canines trained to detect explosives. The ability of the sensor to detect explosives in vehicles and on persons who have recently been in close proximity to explosives has recently been demonstrated. In these tests, simulated targets were quickly and easily detected using a Fido sensor in conjunction with both direct vapor and swipe sampling methods. The results of these tests suggest that chemical vapor sensing has utility as a means of screening vehicles for explosives at checkpoints and on patrols.

  9. Lidar Detection of Explosive Vapors in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, S. M.; Vorozhtsov, A. B.; Gorlov, E. V.; Zharkov, V. I.; Maksimov, E. M.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Sakovich, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents results of studying the feasibility of remote detection of explosive vapors in the atmosphere based on the lidar principle using the method of laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence. A project of the mobile, automated, fast-response scanning UV lidar for explosives detection at distances of 10-50 m is presented. Experimental data on the detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexogen (RDX), and Composition B (CompB) vapors at a distance of 13 m are given. The threshold sensitivity of the lidar detector of explosive vapors is estimated. For TNT vapors, the threshold sensitivity of the lidar detector is estimated to be 1•10-12 g/cm-3 for the detection probability P = 97%.

  10. Multidimensional detection of explosives and explosive signatures via laser electrospray mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, John J.; Flanigan, Paul M., IV; Perez, Johnny J.; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2012-06-01

    Nitro- and inorganic-based energetic material is vaporized at atmospheric pressure using nonresonant, 70 femtosecond laser pulses prior to electrospray post-ionization and transfer into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for mass analysis. Measurements of a nitro-based energetic molecule, cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), adsorbed on metal and dielectric surfaces indicate nonresonant vaporization of intact molecules, demonstrating the universality of laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) technique for explosives. In addition, RDX is analyzed at a distance of 2 meters to demonstrate the remote detection capability of LEMS. Finally, the analysis and multivariate statistical classification of inorganic-based explosives containing ammonium nitrate, chlorate, perchlorate, black powder, and an organic-based explosive is presented, further expanding the capabilities of the LEMS technique for detection of energetic materials.

  11. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Alistair P.; Nicklin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites. PMID:26252765

  12. Comparison of terahertz technologies for detection and identification of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigang, René; Biedron, Sandra G.; Dyjak, Slawomir; Ellrich, Frank; Haakestad, Magnus W.; Hübsch, Daniel; Kartaloglu, Tolga; Ozbay, Ekmel; Ospald, Frank; Palka, Norbert; Puc, Uroš; Czerwińska, ElŻbieta; Sahin, Asaf B.; Sešek, Aleksander; Trontelj, Janez; Å vigelj, Andrej; Altan, Hakan; van Rheenen, Arthur D.; Walczakowski, Michał

    2014-05-01

    We present results on the comparison of different THz technologies for the detection and identification of a variety of explosives from our laboratory tests that were carried out in the framework of NATO SET-193 "THz technology for stand-off detection of explosives: from laboratory spectroscopy to detection in the field" under the same controlled conditions. Several laser-pumped pulsed broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) systems as well as one electronic frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) device recorded THz spectra in transmission and/or reflection.

  13. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ulaeto, David O; Hutchinson, Alistair P; Nicklin, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites. PMID:26252765

  14. Fluorescence based explosive detection: from mechanisms to sensory materials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangcheng; Wang, Ying; Lei, Yu

    2015-11-21

    The detection of explosives is one of the current pressing concerns in global security. In the past few decades, a large number of emissive sensing materials have been developed for the detection of explosives in vapor, solution, and solid states through fluorescence methods. In recent years, great efforts have been devoted to develop new fluorescent materials with various sensing mechanisms for detecting explosives in order to achieve super-sensitivity, ultra-selectivity, as well as fast response time. This review article starts with a brief introduction on various sensing mechanisms for fluorescence based explosive detection, and then summarizes in an exhaustive and systematic way the state-of-the-art of fluorescent materials for explosive detection with a focus on the research in the recent 5 years. A wide range of fluorescent materials, such as conjugated polymers, small fluorophores, supramolecular systems, bio-inspired materials and aggregation induced emission-active materials, and their sensing performance and sensing mechanism are the centerpiece of this review. Finally, conclusions and future outlook are presented and discussed. PMID:26335504

  15. The science case for 37Ar as a monitor for underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Derek A.; Orrell, John L.; Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hayes, James C.

    2010-06-04

    A new calculation of the production of 37Ar from nuclear explosion neutron interactions on 40Ca in a suite of common sub-surface materials (rock, etc) is presented. Even in mineral structures that are relatively low in Ca, the resulting 37Ar signature is large enough for detection in cases of venting or gaseous diffusion driven by barometric pumping. Field and laboratory detection strategies and projected sensitivities are presented.

  16. Seismic Source Characteristics of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. R.; Kitov, I. O.; Barker, B. W.; Sultanov, D. D.

    - During the period 1965 to 1988, the former Soviet Union (FSU) conducted over 120 peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) at locations widely dispersed throughout the territories of the FSU. These explosions sample a much wider range of source conditions than do the historical explosions at the known nuclear test sites and, therefore, seismic data recorded from these PNE tests provide a unique resource for use in deriving improved quantitative bounds on the ranges of seismic signal characteristics which may require consideration in global monitoring of the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In this paper we summarize the results of a detailed statistical analysis of broadband seismic data recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory from 21 of these PNE tests at regional distances extending from about 7 to 19 degrees, as well as the results of theoretical waveform simulation analyses of near-regional (Δ<25km) seismic data observed from a selected sample of nine of these PNE tests. The results of these analyses have been found to be consistent with those of previous teleseismic investigations in that they indicate that the seismic source coupling efficiencies are very similar for explosions in a wide variety of hardrock and water-saturated media, while explosions in water-saturated clay are observed to have significantly higher coupling efficiencies. Moreover, the scaling of the seismic source function with explosion yield and depth of burial inferred from these analyses of the Soviet PNE data are shown to be generally consistent with the predictions of the Mueller/Murphy source model. These results suggest that the Mueller/Murphy source model can provide a reasonable basis for estimating the expected variation in regional phase spectral composition over a wide range of nuclear source conditions of potential interest in CTBT monitoring.

  17. Solid state gas sensors for detection of explosives and explosive precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yun

    The increased number of terrorist attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) over the past few years has made the trace detection of explosives a priority for the Department of Homeland Security. Considerable advances in early detection of trace explosives employing spectroscopic detection systems and other sensing devices have been made and have demonstrated outstanding performance. However, modern IEDs are not easily detectable by conventional methods and terrorists have adapted to avoid using metallic or nitro groups in the manufacturing of IEDs. Instead, more powerful but smaller compounds, such as TATP are being more frequently used. In addition, conventional detection techniques usually require large capital investment, labor costs and energy input and are incapable of real-time identification, limiting their application. Thus, a low cost detection system which is capable of continuous online monitoring in a passive mode is needed for explosive detection. In this dissertation, a thermodynamic based thin film gas sensor which can reliably detect various explosive compounds was developed and demonstrated. The principle of the sensors is based on measuring the heat effect associated with the catalytic decomposition of explosive compounds present in the vapor phase. The decomposition mechanism is complicated and not well known, but it can be affected by many parameters including catalyst, reaction temperature and humidity. Explosives that have relatively high vapor pressure and readily sublime at room temperature, like TATP and 2, 6-DNT, are ideal candidate for vapor phase detection using the thermodynamic gas sensor. ZnO, W2O 3, V2O5 and SnO2 were employed as catalysts. This sensor exhibited promising sensitivity results for TATP, but poor selectivity among peroxide based compounds. In order to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the thermodynamic sensor, a Pd:SnO2 nanocomposite was fabricated and tested as part of this dissertation. A

  18. Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William; Reid, Ray; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of Raman and native fluorescence emission using ultraviolet (UV) sources (<400 nm) on targeted materials is suitable for both sensitive detection and accurate identification of explosive materials. When the UV emission data are analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, chemicals and biological samples can be differentiated based on the geometric arrangement of molecules, the number of repeating aromatic rings, associated functional groups (nitrogen, sulfur, hydroxyl, and methyl), microbial life cycles (spores vs. vegetative cells), and the number of conjugated bonds. Explosive materials can be separated from one another as well as from a range of possible background materials, which includes microbes, car doors, motor oil, and fingerprints on car doors, etc. Many explosives are comprised of similar atomic constituents found in potential background samples such as fingerprint oils/skin, motor oil, and soil. This technique is sensitive to chemical bonds between the elements that lead to the discriminating separability between backgrounds and explosive materials.

  19. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy for the detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy-Hoppa, Megan R.; Fitch, Michael J.; Osiander, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology has been demonstrated as a promising tool for detection of explosives and is being developed for aviation screening and sensing of improvised explosive devices. THz radiation is attractive for many applications due to its ability to penetrate through a wide range of dielectric materials including clothing, paper, cardboard, plastics, and wood. Of course, metals block THz waves as is the case for microwave, IR, and visible light. Our work has involved investigating the reflection spectroscopy of a variety of materials including explosives such as RDX and PETN, plastic explosive taggants such as DMDNB, and other organic materials. We have also investigated the changes of the reflection spectra in varying grades of sucrose. Spectral differences are observed between three grades of crystalline sugar in the region from 0.1 to 1 THz. By exploiting the unique spectral features, the discrimination capabilities of THz reflection spectroscopy points to the broad applicability of identifying a wide variety of materials.

  20. Explosives detection and identification using surface plasmon-coupled emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja, Shiou-Jyh

    2012-06-01

    To fight against the explosives-related threats in defense and homeland security applications, a smarter sensing device that not only detects but differentiates multiple true threats from false positives caused by environmental interferents is essential. A new optical detection system is proposed to address these issues by using the temporal and spectroscopic information generated by the surface plasmon coupling emission (SPCE) effect. Innovative SPCE optics have been designed using Zemax software to project the fluorescence signal into clear "rainbow rings" on a CCD with subnanometer wavelength resolution. The spectroscopic change of the fluorescence signal and the time history of such changes due to the presence of a certain explosive analyte are unique and can be used to identify explosives. Thanks to high optical efficiency, reporter depositions as small as 160-μm in diameter can generate a sufficient signal, allowing a dense array of different reporters to be interrogated with wavelength multiplexing and detect a wide range of explosives. We have demonstrated detection and classification of explosives, such as TNT, NT, NM, RDX, PETN, and AN, with two sensing materials in a prototype.

  1. Explosives (and other threats) detection using pulsed neutron interrogation and optimized detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strellis, Dan A.; Elsalim, Mashal; Gozani, Tsahi

    2011-06-01

    We have previously reported results from a human-portable system using neutron interrogation to detect contraband and explosives. We summarized our methodology for distinguishing threat materials such as narcotics, C4, and mustard gas in the myriad of backgrounds present in the maritime environment. We are expanding our mission for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) to detect Special Nuclear Material (SNM) through the detection of multiple fission signatures without compromising the conventional threat detection performance. This paper covers our initial investigations into using neutrons from compact pulsed neutron generators via the d(D,n)3He or d(T,n)α reactions with energies of ~2.5 and 14 MeV, respectively, for explosives (and other threats) detection along with a variety of gamma-ray detectors. Fast neutrons and thermal neutrons (after successive collisions) can stimulate the emission of various threat detection signatures. For explosives detection, element-specific gamma-ray signatures via the (n,n'γ) inelastic scattering reaction and the (n,'γ) thermal capture reaction are detected. For SNM, delayed gamma-rays following fission can be measured with the same detector. Our initial trade-off investigations of several gamma-ray detectors types (NaI, CsI, LaBr3, HPGe) for measuring gamma-ray signatures in a pulsed neutron environment for potential application in a human-portable active interrogation system are covered in this paper.

  2. Photofragmentation of nitro-based explosives with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Monterola, Maria Pamela P; Smith, Benjamin W; Omenetto, Nicolò; Winefordner, James D

    2008-08-01

    A simple, fast, reliable, sensitive and potentially portable explosive detection device was developed employing laser photofragmentation (PF) followed by heterogeneous chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The PF process involves the release of NO(x(x = 1,2)) moieties from explosive compounds such as TNT, RDX, and PETN through a stepwise excitation-dissociation process using a 193 nm ArF laser. The NO(x(x = 1,2)) produced upon PF is subsequently detected by its CL reaction with basic luminol solution. The intensity of the CL signal was detected by a thermoelectrically cooled photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency and negligible dark current counts. The system was able to detect trace amounts of explosives in various forms in real time under ambient conditions. Detection limits of 3 ppbv for PETN, 2 ppbv for RDX, and 34 ppbv for TNT were obtained. It was also demonstrated that the presence of PETN residue within the range of 61 to 186 ng/cm(2) can be detected at a given signal-to-background ratio of 10 using a few microjoules of laser energy. The technique also demonstrated its potential for the direct analysis of trace explosive in soil. An LOD range of 0.5-4.3 ppm for PETN was established, which is comparable to currently available techniques. PMID:18551285

  3. A Critical Review of Ion Mobility Spectrometry for the Detection of Explosives and Explosive Related Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert Gordon; Atkinson, David Alan; Eiceman, G. A.; Ewing, G. J.

    2001-05-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry has become the most successful and widely used technology for the detection of trace levels of nitro-organic explosives on handbags and carry on-luggage in airports throughout the US. The low detection limits are provided by the efficient ionization process, namely, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) reactions in negative polarity. An additional level of confidence in a measurement is imparted by characterization of ions for mobilities in weak electric fields of a drift tube at ambient pressure. Findings from over 30 years of investigations into IMS response to these explosives have been collected and assessed to allow a comprehensive view of the APCI reactions characteristic of nitro-organic explosives. Also, the drift tube conditions needed to obtain particular mobility spectra have been summarized. During the past decade, improvements have occurred in IMS on the understanding of reagent gas chemistries, the influence of temperature on ion stability, and sampling methods. In addition, commercial instruments have been refined to provide fast and reliable measurements for on-site detection of explosives. The gas phase ion chemistry of most explosives is mediated by the fragile C---ONO2 bonds or the acidity of protons. Thus, M- or M·Cl- species are found with only a few explosives and loss of NO2, NO3 and proton abstraction reactions are common and complicating pathways. However, once ions are formed, they appear to have stabilities on time scales equal to or longer than ion drift times from 5–20 ms. As such, peak shapes in IMS are suitable for high selectivity and sensitivity.

  4. Detection of explosives using THz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Châteauneuf, Marc; Dubois, Jacques; Allard, Jean-François; Houde, Daniel; Morris, Denis

    2007-06-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are a major threat to Canadian and allies troups involved in peacekeeping and minor conflict operations and despite their relative low technology they represent a major challenge in terms of detection and countermeasures. In order to provide tools to detect these threats, Defence Research & Development Canada - Valcartier initiated a research project to the feasibility of using terahertz (THz) radiations to detect and identify the presence of commonly used explosives and concealed weapons in a standoff method. This paper presents the initial results of the first year of the project and the future directions. A compact THz time domain spectroscopy was developed to build a THz signature table of commonly used explosives.

  5. Development of a trace explosives detection portal for personnel screening

    SciTech Connect

    Parmeter, J.E.; Linker, K.L.; Rhykerd, C.L. Jr.; Bouchier, F.A.; Hannum, D.W.

    1998-08-01

    The authors discuss the development, design, and operation of a walk-through trace detection portal designed to screen personnel for explosives. Developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with primary funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and additional support from the Department of Energy office of Safeguards and Security, this portal is intended primarily for use in airport terminals and in other localities where a very high throughput of pedestrian traffic is combined with stringent security requirements. The portal is capable of detecting both vapor and particulate contamination, with the collection of explosive material being based upon the entrainment of that material in air flows over the body of the person being screened. This portal is capable of detecting most types of common high explosives of interest to the FAA. The authors discuss the results of field testing of the portal in the Albuquerque International Airport in September, 1997 and more recent steps towards commercialization of the portal.

  6. Characteristics of regional seismic waves from large explosive events including Korean nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Eunyoung; Lee, Ha-sung

    2015-04-01

    Three North Korean underground nuclear explosion (UNE) tests were conducted in 2006, 2009 and 2013. Discrimination of explosions from natural earthquakes is important in monitoring the seismic activity in the Korean Peninsula. The UNEs were well recorded by dense regional seismic networks in South Korea. The UNEs provide unique regional seismic waveforms with high signal-to-noise ratios. However, the continental crust in the Korean Peninsula changes abruptly into a transitional structure between continental and oceanic crusts across the eastern coast. The complex geological and tectonic structures around the Korean Peninsula cause significant variations in regional waveforms. Outstanding question is whether conventional discrimination techniques can be applicable for explosions including the North Korean UNEs. P/S amplitude ratios are widely used for seismic discrimination. To understand the regional shear-energy composition, we analyze the frequency contents of waveforms. The shear-energy contents for the UNEs are compared with those for natural earthquakes with comparable magnitudes. The result shows that the UNEs are successfully discriminated from earthquakes in the Korean Peninsula. We also analyze the explosive events from North Korean not UNEs to test the applicability of the discrimination technique. The result of high frequency Pn/Sn regional discrimination in the explosions show that as magnitude of event is smaller, available distance of discrimination is decreased particularly in high frequency range. The poor signal to noise ratio of Pn phase in the explosions, and inefficient propagation of Sn phase in the Western part of the peninsula frustrate Pn/Sn discriminant, while the UNEs show good performance using both discriminants because of propagation path effects in the eastern part of the peninsula.

  7. Gamma-Ray Imaging for Explosives Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deNolfo, G. A.; Hunter, S. D.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a gamma-ray imaging camera (GIC) for active interrogation of explosives being developed by NASA/GSFC and NSWCICarderock. The GIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approx.0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of gamma rays, E, > 6 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the electron-positron pair resulting from interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The optimization of the 3-DTI technology for this specific application and the performance of the GIC from laboratory tests is presented.

  8. SENNA: device for explosives' detection based on nanosecond neutron analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor

    2006-05-01

    Portable device for explosives' detection (SENNA) based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis (NNA) / Associated Particles Technique (APT) has been created and tested. SENNA is a single suitcase weighting 35 kg; it is remotely controlled from any PC-compatible computer. Inside is an APT neutron generator with a 3×3 matrix of semiconductor detectors of associated alpha-particles, two BGO-based detectors of gamma-rays, fully-digital data acquisition electronics, data analysis and decision-making software, and batteries. Detection technology is based on determining chemical composition of the concealed substance by analyzing secondary gamma-rays from interaction of tagged fast neutrons with its material. A combination of position-sensitive alpha-detector and time-of-flight analysis allows one to determine the location of the detected material within the inspected volume and its approximate mass. Fully digital data acquisition electronics is capable of performing alpha-gamma coincidence analysis at very high counting rates, which leads to reduction of the detection time down to dozens of seconds. SENNA's scenario-driven automatic decisionmaking algorithm based of "fuzzy logic" mechanism allows one to detect not only standard military or industrial explosives, but also improvised explosives (including those containing no nitrogen), even if their chemical composition differs from that of standard explosives. SENNA can also be "trained" to detect other hazardous materials, such as chemical/toxic materials, if their chemical composition is in any way different from that of the surrounding materials.

  9. Standoff trace detection of explosives with infrared hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Hugger, S.; Jarvis, J.-P.; Yang, Q. K.; Zaum, F.; Ostendorf, R.; Schilling, Ch.; Bronner, W.; Driad, R.; Aidam, R.; Wagner, J.

    2015-05-01

    In this work we present a hyperspectral image sensor based on MIR-laser backscattering spectroscopy for contactless detection of explosive substance traces. The spectroscopy system comprises a tunable Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) with a tuning range of 7.5 μm to 9.5 μm as an illumination source and a high performance MCT camera for collecting the backscattered light. The resulting measurement data forms a hyperspectral image, where each pixel vector contains the backscattering spectrum of a specific location in the scene. The hyperspectral image data is analyzed for traces of target substances using a state of the art target detection algorithm (the Adaptive Matched Subspace Detector) together with an appropriate background extraction method. The technique is eye-safe and allows imaging detection of a large variety of explosive substances including PETN, RDX, TNT and Ammonium Nitrate. For short stand-off detection distances (<3 m), residues of explosives at an amount of just a few 10 μg, i.e. traces corresponding to a single fingerprint, could be detected. For larger concentration of explosives, stand-off detection over distances of up to 20 m has already been demonstrated.

  10. Standoff detection of explosive residues on unknown surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Neste, C. W.; Liu, Xunchen; Gupta, Manisha; Kim, Seonghwan; Tsui, Ying; Thundat, T.

    2012-06-01

    Standoff identification of explosive residues may offer early warnings to many hazards plaguing present and future military operations. The greatest challenge is posed by the need for molecular recognition of trace explosive compounds on real-world surfaces. Most techniques that offer eye-safe, long-range detection fail when unknown surfaces with no prior knowledge of the surface spectral properties are interrogated. Inhomogeneity in the surface concentration and optical absorption from background molecules can introduce significant reproducibility challenges for reliable detection when surface residue concentrations are below tens of micrograms per square centimeter. Here we present a coupled standoff technique that allows identification of explosive residues concentrations in the sub microgram per square centimeter range on real-world surfaces. Our technique is a variation of standoff photoacoustic spectroscopy merged with ultraviolet chemical photodecomposition for selective identification of explosives. We demonstrate the detection of standard military grade explosives including RDX, PETN, and TNT along with a couple of common compounds such as diesel and sugar. We obtain identification at several hundred nanograms per centimeter square at a distance of four meters.

  11. Nuclear Explosives in Peacetime, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodine, Virginia, Ed.; Bradford, Albert, Ed.

    Discussed are the commercial uses of nuclear explosives as well as the testing of nuclear weapons. Case histories of the use of nuclear explosives to stimulate oil and natural gas production are examined, and problems associated with nuclear blasting are discussed with special reference to canal construction. Effects of nuclear weapons testing are…

  12. Liquid explosive detection from outside of the bottle by IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Yamauchi, Yuji

    2009-05-01

    Liquid explosives have been used in terrorism recently. Inspection of bottles becomes very important, because these liquid explosive or it raw materials can be carried by bottles easily. Hydrogen peroxide is typical raw materials of liquid explosives. It was difficult to evaluate concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the drink in the bottle, because of similarity of its optical properties to those of water. Using near infrared spectrum and multivariate statistical analysis, concentration of percent order of hydrogen peroxide in the bottle can be evaluated from outside of the bottle instantly. Hydrogen peroxide has been detected in not only a clear PET or glass bottle but also a colored glass bottle. Hydrogen peroxide mixed by soft drink such as coke or orange juice with pulp also detected by this method easily. This technique can be applied to inspection of a bottle at airport security so on.

  13. Liquid explosive detection from outside of the bottle by NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Yamauchi, Yuji

    2009-09-01

    Liquid explosives have recently been used in terrorism. Inspection of bottles has become very important, because these liquid explosives and their raw materials can be easily carried in bottles. Hydrogen peroxide is a typical raw material of liquid explosives. It was difficult to evaluate the concentration of hydrogen peroxide a bottled drink, because of the similarity of its optical properties to those of water. Using the near-infrared spectrum and multivariate statistical analysis, concentrations of a percent order of hydrogen peroxide can be evaluated from outside of the bottle instantly. Hydrogen peroxide has been detected not only in clear PET or glass bottles but also in colored glass bottles. Hydrogen peroxide mixed with soft drink such as coke or orange juice with pulp was also easily detected by this method. This technique can be applied to the inspection of bottles at airport security and so on.

  14. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A; Patterson, Eileen F

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  15. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar-chang, Julio; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Revelle, Douglas; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. Proceedings of the 23rd Seismic Research Symposium: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, N. Jill; Chavez, Francesca C.

    2001-10-02

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 23rd Seismic Research Review: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, held 2-5 October, 2001 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-09-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide.

  1. Explosives detection studies using Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Micklich, B.J.; Sagalovsky, L.; Smith, D.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) is being investigated for detection of explosives in luggage or air cargo. We present here the principle results of a two-year study of a few-view tomographic FNTS system using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP to simulate neutron transmission through simple luggage phantoms and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to determine system performance. Elemental distributions along projections through the interrogated object are obtained by analyzing MCNP generated neutron transmission data. Transmission data for few (3-5) angles and relatively coarse resolution ({approximately}2 cm) are used to create a tomographic reconstruction of elemental distributions within the object. The elemental unfolding and tomographic reconstruction algorithms and the concept of transmission-derived cross sections for use in elemental analysis have been validated by application to experimental data. Elemental distributions are combined in an explosives detection algorithm to provide an indication of the presence or absence of explosives. The algorithm in current use, termed the ``equivalent explosive`` algorithm, determines the quantity of explosive that can be formed using the measured amount of the constituent elements in each pixel. Reconstruction and explosives detection algorithms have been applied to a series of randomly packed suitcases to generated ROC that describe system performance in terms of the probability of detection and of false alarms. System studies have been performed to study the operational characteristics and limitations of a FNTS system, and to determine the system`s sensitivity to several important parameters such as neutron source reaction and incident particle energy, flight path length, and the position of the interrogated object.

  2. Standoff ultraviolet raman scattering detection of trace levels of explosives.

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2011-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) Raman scattering with a 244-nm laser is evaluated for standoff detection of explosive compounds. The measured Raman scattering albedo is incorporated into a performance model that focused on standoff detection of trace levels of explosives. This model shows that detection at {approx}100 m would likely require tens of seconds, discouraging application at such ranges, and prohibiting search-mode detection, while leaving open the possibility of short-range point-and-stare detection. UV Raman spectra are also acquired for a number of anticipated background surfaces: tile, concrete, aluminum, cloth, and two different car paints (black and silver). While these spectra contained features in the same spectral range as those for TNT, we do not observe any spectra similar to that of TNT.

  3. Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Detection of Pesticides and Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe nanomaterial-based biosensors for detecting OP pesticides and explosives. CNTs and functionalized silica nanoparticles have been chosen for this study. The biosensors were combined with the flow-injection system, providing great advantages for onsite, real-time, and continuous detection of environmental pollutants such as OPs and TNT. The sensors take advantage of the electrocatalytic properties of CNTs, which makes it feasible to achieve a sensitive electrochemical detection of the products from enzymatic reactions at low potential. This approach uses a large aspect ratio of silica nanoparticles, which can be used as a carrier for loading a large amount of electroactive species, such as poly(guanine), for amplified detection of explosives. These methods offer a new environmental monitoring tool for rapid, inexpensive, and highly sensitive detection of OPs or TNT compounds.

  4. Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bethe, H. A.

    1950-01-31

    The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)

  5. Canine detection odor signatures for mine-related explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, James M.; Williams, Marc; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Dugan, Regina E.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-09-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives used in land mines. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to (1) blank air, (2) a target odor such as an explosive, and (3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like the target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT and C-4. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  6. Crustal structure in Nevada and southern Idaho from nuclear explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pakiser, L.C.; Hill, D.P.

    1962-01-01

    The time of first arrival of seismic waves generated by 4 underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and recorded along a line extending north into southern Idaho is expressed as T0 = 0. 00 + Δ/3.0 (assumed), T1 = 0 .40 + Δ/6.03, and T2 = 6.15 + Δ/7.84, where time is in seconds and the shot-detector distance (Δ) is in km. Assuming constant velocities and horizontal layers, crustal thickness in the vicinity of NTS was determined to be 28 km. Delays in the traveltime segment T2, which represents Pn, indicate that the crust may thicken to 32 km in northern Nevada. A third phase, expressed as T3 = 14.48 + Δ/7.84, was also recognized and has arrival times appropriate for SPS. Amplitudes of Pn were determined at 7 places from recordings of seismic waves from one underground nuclear explosion (ANTLER).

  7. Direct calibration of the yield of nuclear explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.; Nikolayev, A.

    1994-06-01

    The determination of the power of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) is of great significance. The seismic method of UNE yield determination allows monitoring at large distances, but is less precise than local monitoring methods. A way is proposed to calibrate UNE based on the idea of the vibroseis method in which powerful vibrators are used to produce seismic waves in the UNE epicenter; UNE calibration is carried out by comparison of the vibroseis record with a UNE seismogram. Results of preliminary work on the problem are presented. It is based on experience with vibrosounding of the Earth as well as earthquakes and chemical and nuclear explosions wave field structure studies. It is concluded that UNE calibration with the aid of seismic vibrators is both possible and expedient.

  8. Nuclear Explosives for the Purpose of Deflecting Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Dave

    2001-06-01

    In order to deflect asteroids or comets having a diameter over 1 kilometer, it will be necessary to use nuclear explosives. Nuclear devices which deliver a large fraction of their total yield in the form of neutrons are considerably more effective for producing a velocity change in the target than devices which deliver x-rays or gamma rays. Typical megaton-range nuclear weapons currently deployed are a three-stage design (fission-fusion-fission) which emit most of their energy in the form of x-rays. Certain megaton-range nuclear weapons currently deployed are a two-stage design. These devices are often described as "tactical" or "clean" nuclear weapons. Because of the density of fusion fuel required to give an efficient burn, each neutron produced by the device experiences a large number of collisions before it is able to escape from the device. These collisions remove energy from the neutrons and cause most of the total device energy to be emitted as x-rays. (High-yield devices developed for military purposes have been optimized for maximum yield or for maximum yield subject to some limit on total radioactive isotope emissions. Those devices which have been optimized for radiation, known as "neutron bombs", are in the kiloton range, not the megaton range. If it is necessary to develop megaton-range nuclear explosives which have been optimized for total neutron energy output, then these devices should be developed while experienced bomb designers are still available.)

  9. Myth of nuclear explosions at waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W.R.

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 25 years ago, an event is said to have occurred in the plains immediately west of the southern Ural mountains of the Soviet Union that is being disputed to this very day. One person says it was an explosion of nuclear wastes buried in a waste disposal site; other people say it was an above-ground test of an atomic weapon; still others suspect that an alleged contaminated area (of unknown size or even existence) is the result of a series of careless procedures. Since the event, a number of articles about the disposal-site explosion hypothesis written by a Soviet exile living in the United Kingdom have been published. Although the Soviet scientist's training and background are in the biological sciences and his knowledge of nuclear physics or chemistry is limited, people who oppose the use of nuclear energy seem to want to believe what he says without question. The work of this Soviet biologist has received wide exposure both in the United Kingdom and the United States. This report presents arguments against the disposal-site explosion hypothesis. Included are discussions of the amounts of plutonium that would be in a disposal site, the amounts of plutonium that would be needed to reach criticality in a soil-water-plutonium mixture, and experiments and theoretical calculations on the behavior of such mixtures. Our quantitative analyses show that the postulated nuclear explosion is so improbable that it is essentially impossible and can be found only in the never-never land of an active imagination. 24 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Radiotomographical Detection of Ionosphere Disturbances Caused by Ground Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, E. S.; Gokhberg, M. B.; Kunitsyn, V. E.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Khudukon, B. Z.; Shalimov, S. L.

    2001-01-01

    Long-lived local disturbances of the ionospheric density over the site of ground industrial explosions were detected by the ionosphere radiotomography method. It is assumed that the density anomalies arise because of the initiation of vortex motion in a neutral component after acoustic impulse passage.

  11. Active spectral imaging for standoff detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Skvortsov, L A

    2011-12-31

    Laser methods of standoff detection of explosive traces on surfaces of objects are considered. These methods are based on active formation of multi- and hyperspectral images of an object examined. The possibilities of these methods and the prospects of their development are discussed. Emphasis is laid on the justification of the most preferred field of application of the technique under consideration.

  12. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... inspection of photographic equipment and film. (1) At locations at which an aircraft operator or TSA uses an... and advise them to remove all X-ray, scientific, and high-speed film from checked baggage before... photographic equipment and film packages without exposure to an explosives detection system. (2) If...

  13. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inspection of photographic equipment and film. (1) At locations at which an aircraft operator or TSA uses an... and advise them to remove all X-ray, scientific, and high-speed film from checked baggage before... photographic equipment and film packages without exposure to an explosives detection system. (2) If...

  14. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... inspection of photographic equipment and film. (1) At locations at which an aircraft operator or TSA uses an... and advise them to remove all X-ray, scientific, and high-speed film from checked baggage before... photographic equipment and film packages without exposure to an explosives detection system. (2) If...

  15. Joint GPS and radio astronomical observations of underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Helmboldt, J.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; von Frese, R. R.; Wilson, T.

    2012-12-01

    Observations from US GPS receivers and the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico recorded traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) from the roughly 20 kiloton Hunters Trophy underground nuclear explosion (UNE), which was detonated at the Nevada Test site (NTS) on 18 September 1992 at 17:00 UTC. GPS data from six stations of the International GNSS Service (IGS) were converted to total electron content (TEC) estimates. The continuous slant TEC (STEC) data spans for all ray paths between the stations and the satellites they observed were processed for numerical third order horizontal 3-point derivatives. The STEC derivatives detailed the propagation of TIDs from the UNE as acoustic-gravity waves with velocities ranging over 562 - 1088 m/s. In the VLA observations, the disturbance lasted until about 18:30 UTC. Two-dimensional TEC fluctuation spectra were generated at time epochs with intervals of about 15 minutes. This spectral analysis detected the TID signature, revealing very little activity that increased slightly at 17:17.4 UTC. However, at 17:27 UTC significant activity was detected with a notable peak in the power spectrum corresponding to a wavelength of about 20 km propagating from the test site. The ionospheric disturbances were diminished by the end of the observing run at 18:17.4 UTC. The TID velocities observed by the VLA ranged over roughly 450 - 500 m/s. These lower velocities were due probably to the much longer 15 minute observation interval of the VLA data relative to the 30 second GPS sampling interval that resulted in higher velocity estimates. However, these results point to the possible utility of joint observations with GPS and radio telescopes like the VLA in monitoring for clandestine UNEs.

  16. Investigation of Wavelet-Based Enhancements to Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Explosives Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, Stephen W.; Dress, William B.; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.

    1998-06-01

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is effective for the detection and identification of certain types of explosives such as RDX, PETN and TNT. In explosive detection, the NQR response of certain 14N nuclei present in the crystalline material is probed. The 14N nuclei possess a nuclear quadrupole moment which in the presence of an electric field gradient produces an energy level splitting which may be excited by radio-frequency magnetic fields. Pulsing on the sample with a radio signal of the appropriate frequency produces a transient NQR response which may then be detected. Since the resonant frequency is dependent upon both the quadrupole moment of the 14N nucleus and the nature of the local electric field gradients, it is very compound specific. Under DARPA sponsorship, the authors are using multiresolution methods to investigate the enhancement of operation of NQR explosives detectors used for land mine detection. For this application, NQR processing time must be reduced to less than one second. False alarm responses due to acoustic and piezoelectric ringing must be suppressed. Also, as TNT is the most prevalent explosive found in land mines, NQR detection of TNT must be made practical despite unfavorable relaxation tunes. All three issues require improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, and all would benefit from improved feature extraction. This paper reports some of the insights provided by multiresolution methods that can be used to obtain these improvements. It includes results of multiresolution analysis of experimentally observed NQR signatures for RDX responses and various false alarm signatures in the absence of explosive compounds.

  17. Tagged neutron capabilities for detecting hidden explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Belichenko, S. G.; Bestaev, R. R.; Gavryuchenkov, A. V.; Karetnikov, M. D.

    2015-05-01

    The work is devoted to illegal materials detection via tagged neutron method (TNM). The detection of hazardous substances is based on recording of gamma radiation from a neutron-irradiated object and analysis of its elemental composition. As against other neutron radiation methods the TNM enables to obtain 3D distribution of elements in the inspected area. The results of experimental part of the research show operational capabilities (probabilities of missing and false alarm) of a portable TNM inspection system when inspecting small hand-luggage-type objects.

  18. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar - Chang, Julio; Anderson, Dale; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Francesca C.; Mendius, E. Louise

    2003-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, N. Jill

    2002-09-17

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration, held 17-19 September, 2002 in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Francesca C; Benson, Jody; Hanson, Stephanie; Mark, Carol; Wetovsky, Marvin A

    2004-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. Geophysical Models for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Flanagan, M

    2003-07-16

    Geophysical models are increasingly recognized as an important component of regional calibrations for seismic monitoring. The models can be used to predict geophysical measurements, such as body wave travel times, and can be derived from direct regional studies or even by geophysical analogy. While empirical measurements of these geophysical parameters might be preferred, in aseismic regions or regions without seismic stations, this data might not exist. In these cases, models represent a 'best guess' of the seismic properties in a region, which improves on global models such as the PREM (Preliminary Reference Earth Model) or the IASPEI (International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior) models. The model-based predictions can also serve as a useful background for the empirical measurements by removing trends in the data. To this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the WENA model for Western Eurasia and North Africa. This model is constructed using a regionalization of several dozen lithospheric (crust and uppermost mantle) models, combined with the Laske sediment model and 3SMAC upper mantle. We have evaluated this model using a number of data sets, including travel times, surface waves, receiver functions, and waveform analysis. Similarly, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a geophysical model for East Asia, allowing LLNL/LANL to construct a model for all of Eurasia and North Africa. These models continue to evolve as new and updated datasets are used to critically assess the predictive powers of the model. Research results from this meeting and other reports and papers can be used to update and refine the regional boundaries and regional models. A number of other groups involved in monitoring have also developed geophysical models. As these become available, we will be assessing the models and their constitutive components for their suitability for inclusion in the National Nuclear Security

  4. Micro-calorimetric sensor for trace explosive particle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jesper K.; Greve, Anders; Privorotskaya, N.; Senesac, L.; Thundat, T.; King, W. P.; Boisen, A.

    2010-04-01

    A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed as a small silicon nitride bridge incorporating heater elements and a temperature measurement resistor. In this manuscript the DTA system is described and tested by measuring calorimetric response of DNT (2,4-Dinitrotoluene). The design of the senor is described and the temperature uniformity investigated using finite element modelings and Raman temperature measurements. The functionality is tested using two different kinds of explosive deposition techniques and calorimetric responses are obtained. Under the framework of the Xsense project at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) which combines four independent sensing techniques, these micro DNT sensors will be included in handheld explosives detectors with applications in homeland security and landmine clearance.

  5. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) explosive detection based on electronic neutron generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. C.; Mahood, D. B.; Ryge, P.; Shea, P.; Gozani, T.

    1995-05-01

    Thermal neutron analysis explosive detection systems have been developed and demonstrated for inspection of checked airline baggage and for detection of buried land mines. Thermal neutrons from a moderated neutron source impinge on the inspected object, and the resulting capture gamma ray signatures provide detection information. Isotopic neutron sources, e.g. 252Cf, are compact, economical and reliable, but they are subject to the licensing requirements, safety concerns and public perception problems associated with radioactive material. These are mitigated by use of an electronic neutron generator — an ion accelerator with a target producing neutrons by a nuclear reaction such as D(d, n) 3He or 9Be(d, n) 10B. With suitable moderator designs based on neutron transport codes, operational explosive detection systems can be built and would provide effective alternatives to radioactive neutron sources. Calculations as well as laboratory and field experience with three generator types will be presented.

  6. Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Hua; Ge, Cong-Hui; Huang, Zhi-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Our recent work on the detection of explosives by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is reviewed in this paper. We have studied the physical mechanism of laser-induced plasma of an organic explosive, TNT. The LIBS spectra of TNT under single-photon excitation are simulated using MATLAB. The variations of the atomic emission lines intensities of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen versus the plasma temperature are simulated too. We also investigate the time-resolved LIBS spectra of a common inorganic explosive, black powder, in two kinds of surrounding atmospheres, air and argon, and find that the maximum value of the O atomic emission line SBR of black powder occurs at a gate delay of 596 ns. Another focus of our work is on using chemometic methods such as principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to distinguish the organic explosives from organic materials such as plastics. A PLS-DA model for classification is built. TNT and seven types of plastics are chosen as samples to test the model. The experimental results demonstrate that LIBS coupled with the chemometric techniques has the capacity to discriminate organic explosive from plastics.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator.

    PubMed

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    An explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5). Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma emission (10.82MeV) following radiative neutron capture by (14)N nuclei. The explosive detection system was built based on a fully high-voltage-shielded, axial D-D neutron generator with a radio frequency (RF) driven ion source and nominal yield of about 10(10) fast neutrons per second (E=2.5MeV). Polyethylene and paraffin were used as moderators with borated polyethylene and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The shape and the thickness of the moderators and shields are optimized to produce the highest thermal neutron flux at the position of the explosive and the minimum total dose at the outer surfaces of the explosive detection system walls. In addition, simulation of the response functions of NaI, BGO, and LaBr3-based γ-ray detectors to different explosives is described. PMID:25154568

  8. Quantum control for initiation and detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Margo T; Mc Grane, Shawn D; Scharff, R. Jason; Moore, David S

    2010-01-01

    We employ quantum control methods towards detection and quantum controlled initiation (QCI) of energetic materials. Ultrafast pulse shaping of broadband Infrared ({approx}750 nm to 850 run) and ultraviolet (266 nm, 400 nm) light is utilized for control. The underlying principals behind optimal control can be utilized to both detect and initiate explosives. In each case, time dependent phase shaped electric fields drive the chemical systems towards a desired state. For optimal dynamic detection of explosives (ODD-Ex) a phase specific broadband infrared pulse is created which increases not only the sensitivity of detection but also the selectivity of an explosive's spectral signatures in a background of interferents. QCI on the other hand, seeks to initiate explosives by employing shaped ultraviolet light. QCI is ideal for use with explosive detonators as it removes the possibility of unintentional initiation from an electrical source while adding an additional safety feature, initiation only with the proper pulse shape. Quantum control experiments require: (1) the ability to phase and amplitude shape the laser pulse and (2) the ability to effectively search for the pulse shape which controls the reaction. In these adaptive experiments we utilize both global and local optimization search routines such as genetic algorithm, differential evolution, and downhill simplex. Pulse shaping the broadband IR light, produced by focusing 800 nm light through a pressurized tube of Argon, is straightforward as commercial pulse shapers are available at and around 800 nm. Pulse shaping in the UV requires a home built shaper. Our system is an acoustic optical modulator (AOM) pulse shaper in which consists of a fused silica AOM crystal placed in the Fourier plane of a 4-f zero dispersion compressor.

  9. Security training symposium: Meeting the challenge: Firearms and explosives recognition and detection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    These conference proceedings have been prepared in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Security Training Symposium on Meeting the Challenge -- Firearms and Explosives Recognition and Detection,'' November 28 through 30, 1989, in Bethesda, Maryland. This document contains the edited transcripts of the guest speakers. It also contains some of the speakers' formal papers that were distributed and some of the slides that were shown at the symposium (Appendix A).

  10. Possibilities for standoff Raman detection applications for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Sara; Pettersson, Anna; Önnerud, Hans; Östmark, Henric; Nordberg, Markus; Ceco, Ema; Ehlerding, Anneli; Johansson, Ida; Käck, Petra

    2012-06-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the Raman-based standoff detection methods developed at FOI for the purpose of standoff explosives detection. The methods concerned are Raman imaging for particle detection and Resonance Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for vapor detection. These methods are today reaching a maturity level that makes it possible to consider applications such as trace residue field measurements, on site post blast analysis and other security of explosives related applications. The paper will look into future possible applications of these technologies. Our group has extensive activities in applications of the technology, among others in projects for the Seventh Framework Program of the European Union. Some of these possible applications will be described and a look into future development needs will be made. As far as possible, applicability will be discussed with a view on realistic explosives trace availability for detection. Necessary data to make such realistic applicability assessment is not always available and a brief discussion on the applicability of using the developed Raman technology to obtain this kind of data will also be made. The aspects of transitioning from research to practical applications, considering also eye-safety of the system, will be discussed as well.

  11. Standoff detection of explosive molecules using nanosecond gated Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jin Hyuk; Cho, Soo Gyeong

    2013-06-01

    Recently, improvised explosive device (IED) has been a serious threat for many countries. One of the approaches to alleviate this threat is standoff detection of explosive molecules used in IEDs. Raman spectroscopy is a prospective method among many technologies under research to achieve this goal. It provides unique information of the target materials, through which the ingredients used in IEDs can be analyzed and identified. The main problem of standoff Raman spectroscopic detection is the large background noise hindering weak Raman signals from the target samples. Typical background noise comes from both ambient fluorescent lights indoor and sunlight outdoor whose intensities are usually much larger than that of Raman scattering from the sample. Under the proper condition using pulse laser and ICCD camera with nanosecond pulse width and gating technology, we succeed to separate and remove these background noises from Raman signals. For this experiment, we build an optical system for standoff detection of explosive molecules. We use 532 nm, 10 Hz, Q-switching Nd:YAG laser as light source, and ICCD camera triggered by laser Qswitching time with proper gate delay regarding the flight time of Raman from target materials. Our detection system is successfully applied to detect and identify more than 20 ingredients of IEDs including TNT, RDX, and HMX which are located 10 to 54 meters away from the system.

  12. Standoff detection of explosive materials by differential reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Anna M.; Hummel, Rolf E.; Schöllhorn, Claus; Holloway, Paul H.

    2006-10-01

    It is shown that 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) displays strong and distinct structures in differential reflectograms, near 420 nm and 250 nm. These characteristic peaks are not observed from approximately two dozen organic and inorganic substances which we tested and which may be in or on a suitcase. This exclusivity infers an ideal technique for explosives detection in mass transit and similar locations. The described technique for detection of explosives is fast, inexpensive, reliable, portable, and is applicable from some distance, that is, it does not require contact with the surveyed substance. Moreover, we have developed a curve discrimination program for field applications of the technique. Other explosives such as 1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5 triazacyclohexane (RDX), 1, 3, 5, 7-Tetranitro-1, 3, 5, 7- tetraazacyclooctane (HMX), 2, 4, 6, N-Tetranitro-N-methylaniline (Tetryl), Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and nitroglycerin have also been investigated and demonstrate similar, but unique, characteristic spectra. The technique utilizes near-ultraviolet to visible light reflected from two spots on the same sample surface yielding a differential reflectogram corresponding to the absorption of the sample. The origin of the spectra is attributed to the highest occupied molecular orbital to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) transitions of the respective explosive molecule. Experiments using transmission spectrophotometry have also been performed to compliment and confirm the specific transitions. The results are supported by computer modeling of the molecular orbitals that yield UV and visible transitions.

  13. Nuclear techniques for finding chemical explosives in airport luggage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzins, Lee

    1991-05-01

    Chemical explosives are composed of concentrated densities of nitrogen and oxygen. High values of the nitrogen alert the presence of a bomb; high values of both nitrogen and oxygen densities certify the bomb's presence uniquely. More than a dozen nuclear-based techniques have been proposed for rapidly scanning airport luggage to find hidden explosives by measuring these elemental distributions. In almost every scheme, the technological challenge is the accelerator, which must be small, well-shielded, cost-effective, and be operable in busy airports by nominally-trained personnel, with minimum unscheduled downtime for repairs or service. This paper will summarize, within the limits imposed by security, four of the imaging schemes.

  14. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  15. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I.

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  16. Low cost mobile explosive/drug detection devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, T.; Bendahan, J.

    1999-06-01

    Inspection technologies based on Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA®) and/or Fast Neutron Analysis (FNA) are the basis for relatively compact and low-cost, material-sensitive devices for a wide variety of inspection needs. The TNA allows the use of either isotropic neutron sources such as a 252Cf, or electronic neutron generators such as the d-T sealed neutron generator tubes. The latter could be used in a steady state mode or in slow (>μs) pulsing mode, to separate the thermal neutron capture signatures following the pulse from the combination of the FNA plus TNA signatures during the pulse. Over the years, Ancore Corporation has built and is continuing to develop a variety of inspection devices based on its TNA and FNA technologies: SPEDS—an explosive detection device for small parcels, portable electronics, briefcases and other similar carry-on items; MDS—a system for the detection or confirmation of buried mines; VEDS—a system for the detection of varied amounts of explosives and/or drugs concealed in passenger vehicles, pallets, lightly loaded trucks or containers, etc.; ACD—a device to clear alarms from a primary, non-specific explosive detection system for passenger luggage. The principle and performance of these devices will be shown and discussed.

  17. Remote Detection of Explosive Molecules by a Microfluidic SERS Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorek, Brian; Lee, Seung Joon; Moskovits, Martin; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Meinhart, Carl

    2007-11-01

    Free-surface microfluidics (FSF) is combined with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect trace explosives vapors at room temperature and pressure. A free surface, with a large surface to volume ratio, is created using an open microchannel. Since surface tension is a dominant force at the microscale, it can be used to confine the fluid in the microchannel and create a pressure gradient to drive the flow with velocities ranging from ˜ 1um/s - 1mm/s. The curvature of the free surface is measured by confocal microscopy in order to determine the local Laplace pressure in the free-surface microchannel flow. The system has been used for the molecular-specific detection of vapor emanated from explosives such as DNT, TNT and picric acid. The system does not show signs of performance degradation from common interferents such as saturated gasoline vapor and perfume.

  18. Parameters of explosives detection through tagged neutron method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdasaryan, Kh. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Belichenko, S. G.; Bestaev, R. R.; Gavryuchenkov, A. V.; Karetnikov, M. D.

    2015-06-01

    The potentialities of tagged neutron method (TNM) for explosives detection are examined on the basis of an idealized geometrical model. The model includes ING-27 14 MeV neutron generator with a built-in α-detector, a LYSO γ-detector and samples of material to be identified of approximately 0.3 kg each: explosives imitators (trinitrotoluene - TNT, tetryl, RDX and ammonium nitrate), legal materials (sugar, water, silk and polyethylene). The samples were unshielded or shielded by a paper layer of various thicknesses. The experimental data were interpreted by numerical simulation using a Poisson distribution of signals with the statistical parameters defined experimentally. The detection parameters were obtained by a pattern classification theory and a Bayes classifier.

  19. Explosions within a Deep Crater: Detection from Land and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, A. K.; Dehn, J.; De Angelis, S.

    2012-12-01

    -2010. These datasets are then compared to determine if there is a relationship that can be carried through the data, or if there is any other connecting factor to aid in the detection and monitoring of small scale explosive activity at volcanoes with vents deep within a crater. If a distinguishing factor can be verified by looking at a location with both satellite and seismic monitoring, it may aid in the monitoring of volcanoes where land based monitoring is not safe or financially viable.

  20. The Use of Nuclear Explosives To Disrupt or Divert Asteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D S; Patenaude, S; Managan, R A

    2007-02-20

    Nuclear explosives are a mature technology with well-characterized effects. Proposed utilizations include a near asteroid burst to ablate surface material and nudge the body to a safer orbit, or a direct sub-surface burst to fragment the body. For this latter method, previous estimates suggest that for times as short as 1000 days, over 99.999% of the material is diverted, and no longer impacts the Earth, a huge mitigation factor. To better understand these possibilities, we have used a multidimensional radiation/hydrodynamics code to simulate sub-surface and above surface bursts on an inhomogeneous, 1 km diameter body with an average density of 2 g/cc. The body, or fragments (up to 750,000) are then tracked along 4 representative orbits to determine the level of mitigation achieved. While our code has been well tested in simulations on terrestrial structures, the greatest uncertainty in these results lies in the input. These results, particularly the effort to nudge a body into a different orbit, are dependant on NEO material properties, like the dissipation of unconsolidated material in a low gravity environment, as well as the details on an individual body's structure. This problem exists in simulating the effect of any mitigation technology. In addition to providing an greater understanding of the results of applying nuclear explosives to NEO-like bodies, these simulations suggest what must be learned about these bodies to improve the predictive capabilities. Finally, we will comment on some of the popular misinformation abounding about the utility of nuclear explosives.

  1. The Nuclear Detonation Detection System on the GPS satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Higbie, P.R.; Blocker, N.K.

    1993-07-27

    This article begins with a historical perspective of satellite usage in monitoring nuclear detonations. Current capabilities of the 24 GPS satellites in detecting the light, gamma rays, x-rays and neutrons from a nuclear explosion are described. In particular, an optical radiometer developed at Sandia National Laboratories is characterized. Operational information and calibration procedures are emphasized.

  2. Coded-aperture Raman imaging for standoff explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCain, Scott T.; Guenther, B. D.; Brady, David J.; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the design of a deep-UV Raman imaging spectrometer operating with an excitation wavelength of 228 nm. The designed system will provide the ability to detect explosives (both traditional military explosives and home-made explosives) from standoff distances of 1-10 meters with an interrogation area of 1 mm x 1 mm to 200 mm x 200 mm. This excitation wavelength provides resonant enhancement of many common explosives, no background fluorescence, and an enhanced cross-section due to the inverse wavelength scaling of Raman scattering. A coded-aperture spectrograph combined with compressive imaging algorithms will allow for wide-area interrogation with fast acquisition rates. Coded-aperture spectral imaging exploits the compressibility of hyperspectral data-cubes to greatly reduce the amount of acquired data needed to interrogate an area. The resultant systems are able to cover wider areas much faster than traditional push-broom and tunable filter systems. The full system design will be presented along with initial data from the instrument. Estimates for area scanning rates and chemical sensitivity will be presented. The system components include a solid-state deep-UV laser operating at 228 nm, a spectrograph consisting of well-corrected refractive imaging optics and a reflective grating, an intensified solar-blind CCD camera, and a high-efficiency collection optic.

  3. Mass spectrometric detection of solid and vapor explosive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, William R.; Green, D.; Mercado, Alvaro G.

    1994-10-01

    The detection by chemical sensors of explosive devices in a terrorist or contraband scenario usually involves the acquisition of material in the vapor or solid form. Whether in the vapor form in ambient air or in solid form in a matrix of innocuous material, the chemical compounds may be present at very low concentrations or may be present in concentrations higher by orders of magnitude. In this study, a characterization of a tandem mass spectrometer detection system has been made to evaluate a variety of parameters as it relates to explosive chemicals in both the vapor and solid phases. In particular, a range of concentrations of standard solutions of RDX, PETN and TNT have been injected in determine the sensitivity, dynamic range, and lower level of detection of the SCIEX contraband tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. Techniques for the introduction of samples include heated nebulization and direct injection/thermal desorption from a real time sampler belt. As well, explosive vapors produced by a special generator were injected in a 1 l/min stream of room air and used to characterize instrumental performance. Solid material was presented in a form simulating fingerprint material and then transferred to the detector using a real time sampling system and then thermally desorbed into the mass spectrometer ionization chamber.

  4. A Hydrogen Ignition Mechanism for Explosions in Nuclear Facility Piping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.

    2013-09-18

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  5. Shock strength versus range from underwater nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1987-01-27

    Annotated viewgraphs describe the variation in pulse strength and duration as strong and weak spherical shock waves propagate through uniform, homogeneous water from a nuclear explosive source. Asymptotic relationships for strong and weak shocks are re-expressed in intrinsic non-dimensional units. These relationships are combined to obtain continuous interpolation formulas, which span the entire spatial range from the near-source region out through the far field of interest in submarine damage prediction. Comparisons are made between the semi-empirical results of Snay and some more recent hydrocode calculations by Kamegai. 8 refs., 20 figs.

  6. Detection of explosives traces on documents by attenuated total reflection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreysho, A. S.; Bertseva, E. V.; Korepanov, V. S.; Morosov, A. V.; Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Y.

    2007-06-01

    The technical devices of explosives trace detection are discussed in this work. The attenuated total reflection method (ATR) is considered for detection of explosives traces on different things (documents, clothes, fingers). The results of experiments with Fourier spectrometer and ATR attachment for explosive trace detection are presented. The optical scheme and design of the compact testing device are discussed. The device includes the document information scanner and at the same time - the trace detector of explosives on the document cover.

  7. Improved thermal neutron activation sensor for detection of bulk explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.; Andrews, H. Robert; Clifford, Edward T. H.; Mosquera, Cristian M.

    2012-06-01

    Defence R&D Canada - Suffield and Bubble Technology Industries have been developing thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensors for detection of buried bulk explosives since 1994. First generation sensors, employing an isotopic source and NaI(Tl) gamma ray detectors, were deployed by Canadian Forces in 2002 as confirmation sensors on the ILDS teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor anti-tank landmine detection systems. The first generation TNA could detect anti-tank mines buried 10 cm or less in no more than a minute, but deeper mines and those significantly displaced horizontally required considerably longer times. Mines as deep as 30 cm could be detected with long counting times (1000 s). The second generation TNA detector is being developed with a number of improvements aimed at increasing sensitivity and facilitating ease of operation. Among these are an electronic neutron generator to increase sensitivity for deeper and horizontally displaced explosives; LaBr3(Ce) scintillators, to improve time response and energy resolution; improved thermal and electronic stability; improved sensor head geometry to minimize spatial response nonuniformity; and more robust data processing. This improved sensitivity can translate to either decreased counting times, decreased minimum detectable explosive quantities, increased maximum sensor-to-target displacement, or a trade off among all three. Experiments to characterize the performance of the latest generation TNA in detecting buried landmines and IEDs hidden in culverts were conducted during 2011. This paper describes the second generation system. The experimental setup and methodology are detailed and preliminary comparisons between the performance of first and second generation systems are presented.

  8. Progress in Nuclear Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtech, Richard

    2010-02-01

    The Transformational and Applied Research Directorate (TAR) was established within the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) to conduct, support, coordinate, and encourage near- and long-term Research and Development (R&D) programs for break-through technologies designed to dramatically improve capabilities to detect and report illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials. These programs cover a wide range of technologies and high-level technical challenges associated with the DNDO mission and the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA). They encompass a range of technology levels, ranging from feasibility and proof of concept studies to technology demonstrations of systems. Even though the focus is on high level challenges, the direction of some topic areas can change from year to year. This presentation will provide an overview of the TAR mission and discuss the current status of transformational R&D efforts in three major program areas: Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATD), Exploratory Research (ER) and Academic Research Initiative (ARI). )

  9. Nuclear winter - Global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, C.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a computerized simulation of the potential global environmental effects of dust and smoke clouds that would be generated by a nuclear war are presented. Short term effects of blast, fire, and radiation are neglected in the series of physical models that include a nuclear war scenario, a particle microphysics model, and a radiative convective model. Account is taken of the altitude-dependent dust, smoke, radioactivity, and NO(x) injections, the temporal evolution of dust and smoke clouds, land and ocean environments, and temperature contrasts. A nuclear exchange would produce thousands of individual smoke and dust clouds rising up to 30 km altitude in the midlatitudes. The smoke, dust, and radioactive debris would cover the entire midlatitudes within 1-2 weeks. The smoke would arise from conflagrations of forests, suburbs, and urban areas. Obscuration of sunlight would induce subfreezing temperatures for several months, disruption of the global circulation patterns, and the arrival of a nuclear winter, followed and accompanied by radioactive fallout, pyrogenic air pollution, and UV-B flux enhancements. It is estimated that a total of only 100 Mtons would be sufficient to plunge the Northern Hemisphere summer to subfreezing temperatures lasting months. Since the probable exchange in a nuclear war would exceed 5000 Mtons, it is expected that many species, including humans, may not survive the war.

  10. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  11. Detection of explosives and illicit drugs using neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Király, B.; Sanami, T.; Dóczi, R.; Csikai, J.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure developed for the determination of the flux perturbation factor required for the thermal neutron activation analysis of bulky samples of unknown composition has been extended for epithermal neutrons using hydrogenous and graphite moderators. Measurements on the diffusion and backscattering of thermal neutrons in soil components were carried out for the development of novel nuclear methods in order to speed up the humanitarian demining process. Results obtained for the diffusion length were checked by MCNP-4C calculations. In addition, the effect of the weight and density of the explosives on the observation of the anomaly in the reflected thermal neutrons was examined by using different dummy landmines.

  12. Detection of explosives via photolytic cleavage of nitroesters and nitramines.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Trisha L; Swager, Timothy M

    2011-05-01

    The nitramine-containing explosive RDX and the nitroester-containing explosive PETN are shown to be susceptible to photofragmentation upon exposure to sunlight. Model compounds containing nitroester and nitramine moieties are also shown to fragment upon exposure to UV irradiation. The products of this photofragmentation are reactive, electrophilic NO(x) species, such as nitrous and nitric acid, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide. N,N-Dimethylaniline is capable of being nitrated by the reactive, electrophilic NO(x) photofragmentation products of RDX and PETN. A series of 9,9-disubstituted 9,10-dihydroacridines (DHAs) are synthesized from either N-phenylanthranilic acid methyl ester or a diphenylamine derivative and are similarly shown to be rapidly nitrated by the photofragmentation products of RDX and PETN. A new (turn-on) emission signal at 550 nm is observed upon nitration of DHAs due to the generation of fluorescent donor-acceptor chromophores. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, the presence of ca. 1.2 ng of RDX and 320 pg of PETN can be detected by DHA indicators in the solid state upon exposure to sunlight. The nitration of aromatic amines by the photofragmentation products of RDX and PETN is presented as a unique, highly selective detection mechanism for nitroester- and nitramine-containing explosives and DHAs are presented as inexpensive and impermanent fluorogenic indicators for the selective, standoff/remote identification of RDX and PETN. PMID:21452828

  13. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry for explosives trace detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersson, Anna; Elfving, Anders; Elfsberg, Mattias; Hurtig, Tomas; Johansson, Niklas; Al-Khalili, Ahmed; Käck, Petra; Wallin, Sara; Östmark, Henric

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the ongoing development of a laser ionization mass spectrometric system to be applied for screening for security related threat substances, specifically explosives. The system will be part of a larger security checkpoint system developed and demonstrated within the FP7 project EFFISEC to aid border police and customs at outer border checks. The laser ionization method of choice is SPI (single photon ionization), but the system also incorporates optional functionalities such as a cold trap and/or a particle concentrator to facilitate detection of minute amounts of explosives. The possibility of using jet-REMPI as a verification means is being scrutinized. Automated functionality and user friendliness is also considered in the demo system development.

  14. Regional source properties of the North Korean nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic analyses based on regional waveforms receive increasing attention for discrimination and source studies of recent moderate-size underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Two North Korean underground nuclear explosion tests were conducted in 9 October 2006 and 25 May 2009. The Noth Korean UNEs were well observed by dense regional seismic networks with high signal-to-noise ratios. The source properties of the two North Korean UNEs are estimated using source-spectral inversions of regional phases. Ray-path effects including attenuation are corrected in the inversion. The source properties of the UNEs are compared each other. The apparent moments of high-frequency regional phases of the 2009 UNE are estimated to be about 5 times greater than those of the 2006 UNE. The corner frequencies and overshoot parameters are determined to be similar between the UNEs. The North Korean UNEs are well discriminated from natural earthquakes using P/S spectral ratios. The S waves from the North Korean UNEs display fairly weak overshooting feature in the spectra unlike P waves.

  15. Digital micromirror devices in Raman trace detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glimtoft, Martin; Svanqvist, Mattias; Ågren, Matilda; Nordberg, Markus; Östmark, Henric

    2016-05-01

    Imaging Raman spectroscopy based on tunable filters is an established technique for detecting single explosives particles at stand-off distances. However, large light losses are inherent in the design due to sequential imaging at different wavelengths, leading to effective transmission often well below 1 %. The use of digital micromirror devices (DMD) and compressive sensing (CS) in imaging Raman explosives trace detection can improve light throughput and add significant flexibility compared to existing systems. DMDs are based on mature microelectronics technology, and are compact, scalable, and can be customized for specific tasks, including new functions not available with current technologies. This paper has been focusing on investigating how a DMD can be used when applying CS-based imaging Raman spectroscopy on stand-off explosives trace detection, and evaluating the performance in terms of light throughput, image reconstruction ability and potential detection limits. This type of setup also gives the possibility to combine imaging Raman with non-spatially resolved fluorescence suppression techniques, such as Kerr gating. The system used consists of a 2nd harmonics Nd:YAG laser for sample excitation, collection optics, DMD, CMOScamera and a spectrometer with ICCD camera for signal gating and detection. Initial results for compressive sensing imaging Raman shows a stable reconstruction procedure even at low signals and in presence of interfering background signal. It is also shown to give increased effective light transmission without sacrificing molecular specificity or area coverage compared to filter based imaging Raman. At the same time it adds flexibility so the setup can be customized for new functionality.

  16. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besaw, Lance E.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  17. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-03-30

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.

  18. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  19. Detection and classification of explosive compounds utilizing laser ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmeier, A.; Heep, W.; Oberhuettinger, C.; Oberpriller, H.; Kessler, M.; Goebel, J.; Mueller, G.

    2009-05-01

    Detection of explosives by ion mobility spectroscopy has become common in recent years. We demonstrate explosive detection with a novel Laser Ion Mobility Spectrometer (LIMS) developed at EADS Innovation Works. A Laser operating at 266nm was used for the two-photon ionisation of dopant and calibrant substances. Quantitative measurements of trace residues of explosives have been performed to quantify the sensitivity of the LIMS system. Findings demonstrate the suitability of this technique as a screening tool for explosive compounds.

  20. Explosives detection using photoneutrons produced by X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yigang; Li, Yuanjing; Wang, Haidong; Li, Tiezhu; Wu, Bin

    2007-08-01

    The detection of explosives has become a critical issue after recent terrorist attacks. This paper describes research on explosives detection using photoneutrons from a photoneutron convertor that consists of 20 kg heavy water in an aluminum container whose shape was optimized to most effectively convert X-rays to photoneutrons. The X-rays were produced by a 9 MeV electron accelerator with an average electron current of 100 μA, resulted in a photoneutron yield of >10 11 n/s. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the radiation field is composed of X-ray pulses, fast neutron pulses and thermal neutrons. Both the X-ray and fast neutron pulses are 5 μs wide with a 300 Hz repetition frequency. The thermal neutron flux, which is higher than 10 4 n/cm 2/s, is essentially time invariant. A time shielding circuit was developed for the spectrometry system to halt the sampling process during the intense X-ray pulses. Paraffin, boron carbide and lead were used to protect the detector from interference from the X-rays, fast neutrons, thermal neutrons and background γ-rays coming from the system materials induced by photoneutrons. 5″×5″ NaI (Tl) scintillators were chosen as the detectors to detect the photoneutrons induced γ-rays from the inspected explosive simulant. Nitrogen (6.01 cps) 10.828 MeV γ-rays were detected with one detector from a 50 kg carbamide block placed 60 cm in front of the detector. A collimator was used to reduce the number of background 10.828 MeV γ-rays coming from the nitrogen in the air to improve the signal to background ratio from 0.136 to 1.81. A detector array of seven 5″×5″ NaI (Tl) detectors was used to measure the 2-D distributions of N and H in the sample. The combination of photoneutron analysis and X-ray imaging shows promise for enhancing explosives detection capabilities.

  1. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  2. Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Short Jr., Billy Joe

    2009-06-01

    Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided ~2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and ~800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of ~25-fold at 244 nm and ~190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

  3. neu-VISION: an explosives detection system for transportation security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warman, Kieffer; Penn, David

    2008-04-01

    Terrorists were targeting commercial airliners long before the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Despite heightened security measures, commercial airliners remain an attractive target for terrorists, as evidenced by the August 2006 terrorist plot to destroy as many as ten aircraft in mid-flight from the United Kingdom to the United States. As a response to the security threat air carriers are now required to screen 100-percent of all checked baggage for explosives. The scale of this task is enormous and the Transportation Security Administration has deployed thousands of detection systems. Although this has resulted in improved security, the performance of the installed systems is not ideal. Further improvements are needed and can only be made with new technologies that ensure a flexible Concept of Operations and provide superior detection along with low false alarm rates and excellent dependability. To address security needs Applied Signal Technology, Inc. is developing an innovative and practical solution to meet the performance demands of aviation security. The neu-VISION TM system is expected to provide explosives detection performance for checked baggage that both complements and surpasses currently deployed performance. The neu-VISION TM system leverages a 5 year R&D program developing the Associated Particle Imaging (API) technique; a neutron based non-intrusive material identification and imaging technique. The superior performance afforded by this neutron interrogation technique delivers false alarm rates much lower than deployed technologies and "sees through" dense, heavy materials. Small quantities of explosive material are identified even in the cluttered environments.

  4. Effectiveness of quality-control aids in verifying K-9-team explosive detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallowell, Susan F.; Fischer, Douglas S.; Brasher, Jeffrey D.; Malone, Robert L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Rae, Cathy

    1997-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and supporting agencies conducted a developmental test and evaluation (DTE) to determine if quality control aids (QCAs) could be developed that would provide effective surrogates to actual explosives used for training and testing K-9 explosives detection teams. Non-detonable surrogates are required to alleviate logistics and contamination issues with explosives used sa training aids. Comparative K-9 team detection performance for explosives used as training aids and QCAs configurations of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCA configuration of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCAs. The configurations were a paper patch impregnated with a solution of the explosive, a cloth pouch filed with small amounts of solid explosive, and the non-hazardous explosive for security training and testing material. The DTE was conducted at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, where the K-9 teams undergo initial training. Six FAA certified operational teams participated. All explosives and QCAs were presented to the K-9 teams using a 10 scent box protocol. The results show that K-9 team as are more sensitive to explosives than the candidate QCAs. More importantly, it was discovered that the explosives at Lackland AFB are cross-contaminated, meaning that explosives possessed volatile artifacts from other explosives. There are two potential hypotheses explaining why the dogs did not detect the QCAs. First, the cross-contamination of Lackland training explosives may mean that K-9 teams are only trained to detect the explosives with the most volatile chemical signatures. Alternatively, the QCA configurations may have been below the trained detection threshold of the K-9s. It is recommended that K-9 teams train on uncontaminated odors from properly designed QCAs to ensure that dogs respond to the appropriate explosive components, and not some

  5. Ag-ZnO nanostructure for ANTA explosive molecule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Gaur, Anshu; Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam

    2016-05-01

    Ag/ZnO nanostructure for surface enhanced Raman scattering application in the detection of ANTA explosive molecule is demonstrated. A highly rough ZnO microstructure was achieved by rapid thermal annealing of metallic Zn film. Different thickness Ag nanostructures are decorated over these ZnO microstructures by ion beam sputtering technique. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies carried out over Ag/ZnO substrates have shown three orders higher enhancement compared to bare Ag nanostructure deposited on the same substrate. The reasons behind such huge enhancement are discussed based on the morphology of the sample.

  6. Coda Spectral Peaking for Nevada Nuclear Test Site Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, K R; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R

    2007-09-10

    We have applied the regional S-wave coda calibration technique of Mayeda et al. (2003) to earthquake data in and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) using 4 regional broadband stations from the LLNL seismic network. We applied the same path and site corrections to tamped nuclear explosion data and averaged the source spectra over the four stations. Narrowband coda amplitudes from the spectra were then regressed against inferred yield based on the regional m{sub b}(Pn) magnitude of Denny et al. (1987), along with the yield formulation of Vergino and Mensing (1990). We find the following: (1) The coda-derived spectra show a peak which is dependent upon emplacement depth, not event size; (2) Source size estimates are stable for the coda and show a dependence upon the near-source strength and gas porosity; (3) For explosions with the same m{sub b}(Pn) or inferred yield, those in weaker material have lower coda amplitudes at 1-3 Hz.

  7. Recent development of two new UV Raman standoff explosive detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterbury, Rob; Babnick, Robert; Cooper, Justin L.; Ford, Alan R.; Herrera, Francisco; Hopkins, Adam J.; Pohl, Ken; Profeta, Luisa T. M.; Sandoval, Juan; Vunck, Darius

    2016-05-01

    Alakai Defense Systems has created two new short range UV Raman standoff explosive detection sensors. These are called the Critical Infrastructure Protection System (CIPS) and Portable Raman Improvised Explosive Detection System (PRIED) and work at standoff ranges of 10cm and 1-10m respectively. Both these systems are designed to detect neartrace quantities of explosives and Homemade Explosives. A short description of the instruments, design trades, and CONOPS of each design is presented. Data includes a wide variety of explosives, precursors, TIC/TIM's, narcotics, and CWA simulants

  8. A non-imaging polarized terahertz passive system for detecting and identifying concealed explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Meyer, Doug

    2011-06-01

    Existing terahertz THz systems for detecting concealed explosives are not capable of identifying explosive type which leads to higher false alarm rates. Moreover, some of those systems are imaging systems that invade personal privacy, and require more processing and computational resources. Other systems have no polarization preference which makes them incapable of capturing the geometric features of an explosive. In this study a non-imaging polarized THz passive system for detecting and identifying concealed explosives overcoming the forgoing shortcomings is developed. The system employs a polarized passive THz sensor in acquiring emitted data from a scene that may have concealed explosives. The acquired data are decomposed into their natural resonance frequencies, and the number of those frequencies is used as criteria in detecting the explosive presence. If the presence of an explosive is confirmed, a set of physically based retrieval algorithms is used in extracting the explosive dielectric constant/refractive index value from natural resonance frequencies and amplitudes of associated signals. Comparing the refractive index value against a database of refractive indexes of known explosives identifies the explosive type. As an application, a system having a dual polarized radiometer operating within the frequency band of 0.62- 0.82 THz is presented and used in detecting and identifying person borne C-4 explosive concealed under a cotton garment. The system showed higher efficiencies in detecting and identifying the explosive.

  9. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Walter, W. R.; Myers, S. C.; Matzel, E.; Gok, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Ford, S. R.; Rodgers, A. J.; Ruppert, S.; Hauk, T. F.; Dodge, D.; Ganzberger, M.; Ramirez, A. L.; Ryall, F.

    2010-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a long-standing research and development program for nuclear explosion monitoring. Here, we cover aspects of recent work applied to the Middle East region, specifically data management, seismic location, event identification, and magnitude estimation. Seismic data from broadband stations in the region is available through a combination of expanding global networks, improved and increasingly available national networks, and temporary deployments. Managing the huge amounts of data necessary to perform the work is an underappreciated aspect of monitoring research. Our research database provides vertically-integrated management of seismic data, catalogs, picks, magnitudes, etc., as well as analysis tools that are fully integrated into the database. Seismic locations have improved significantly through a succession of models starting with empirical corrections to 1-D models, progressing through to 2 1/2 -D models which significantly improve regional body-wave travel times by characterizing the upper mantle as a gradient, and on through high-resolution fully 3-D models that are currently in development. Our surface wave tomography results provide additional constraints on Earth lithospheric structure and can be used to improve Ms determination. Event identification has been achieved through a number of methods including the traditional mb:Ms discriminant, regional high-frequency P/S discriminants, and analysis of the complete moment tensor solution, which also has the possibility of distinguishing between explosions and mining-type events. Optimal use of these methods requires calibration, such as the multi-phase attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle that has been developed for the region. Use of the models reduces scatter of the earthquake population and reduces misclassification. Another important aspect of explosion monitoring is getting robust estimates of event magnitude, and hence explosive yield. This has been

  10. Regional Seismic Signals from Chemical Explosions, Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: Results from the Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Gok, R; Mayeda, K; Sicherman, A; Bonner, J; Leidig, M

    2005-09-02

    Routine industrial mining explosions play two important roles in seismic nuclear monitoring research: (1) they are a source of background events that need to be discriminated from potential nuclear explosions; (2) as some of the only explosions occurring in the current de facto global moratoria on nuclear testing, their signals should be exploited to improve the calibration of seismic m monitoring systems. A common issue monitoring arising in both of these roles is our limited physical understanding of the causes behind observed differences and similarities in the seismic signals produced by routine industrial mining blasts and small underground nuclear tests. In 2003 a consortium (Weston, SMU, LLNL, LANL and UTEP) carried out a Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE), a series of dedicated explosions designed to improve this physical understanding, particularly as it relates to seismic methods of discriminating between signals from three different source types: earthquakes, industrial blasts, and nuclear tests. Here we very briefly review prior field experimental work that examined the seismic relationships between these source types.

  11. Wireless system for explosion detection in underground structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhradze, M.; Bochorishvili, N.; Akhvlediani, I.; Kukhalashvili, D.; Kalichava, I.; Mataradze, E.

    2009-06-01

    Considering the growing threat of terrorist or accidental explosions in underground stations, underground highway and railway sections improvement of system for protecting people from explosions appears urgent. Current automatic protective devices with blast identification module and blast damping absorbers of various designs as their basic elements cannot be considered effective. Analysis revealed that low reliability of blast detection and delayed generation of start signal for the activation of an absorber are the major disadvantages of protective devices. Besides the transmission of trigger signal to an energy absorber through cable communication reduces the reliability of the operation of protective device due to a possible damage of electric wiring under blast or mechanical attack. This paper presents the outcomes of the studies conducted to select accurate criteria for blast identification and to design wireless system of activation of defensive device. The results of testing of blast detection methods (seismic, EMP, optical, on overpressure) showed that the proposed method, which implies constant monitoring of overpressure in terms of its reliability and response speed, best meets the requirements. Proposed wireless system for explosions identification and activation of protective device consists of transmitter and receiver modules. Transmitter module contains sensor and microprocessor equipped with blast identification software. Receiver module produces activation signal for operation of absorber. Tests were performed in the underground experimental base of Mining Institute. The time between the moment of receiving signal by the sensor and activation of absorber - 640 microsecond; distance between transmitter and receiver in direct tunnel - at least 150m; in tunnel with 900 bending - 50m. This research is sponsored by NATO's Public Diplomacy Division in the framework of "Science for Peace".

  12. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  13. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    SciTech Connect

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock. In order to learn more about the response of hard rock to underground nuclear explosions, we have attempted to model the PILEDRIVER event. PILEDRIVER was fired on June 2, 1966 in the granite stock of Area 15 at the Nevada Test Site. The working point was at a depth of 462.7 m and the yield was determined to be 61 kt. Numerous surface, sub-surface and free-field measurements were made and analyzed by SRI. An attempt was made to determine the contribution of spall to the teleseismic signal, but proved unsuccessful because most of the data from below-shot-level gauges was lost. Nonetheless, there is quite a bit of good quality data from a variety of locations. We have been able to obtain relatively good agreement with the experimental PILEDRIVER waveforms. In order to do so, we had to model the granodiorite as being considerably weaker than good quality'' granite, and it had to undergo considerable weakening due to shock damage as well. In addition, the near-surface layers had to be modeled as being weak and compressible and as have a much lower sound speed than the material at depth. The is consistent with a fractured and jointed material at depth, and a weathered material near the surface.

  14. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    SciTech Connect

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-05-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock. In order to learn more about the response of hard rock to underground nuclear explosions, we have attempted to model the PILEDRIVER event. PILEDRIVER was fired on June 2, 1966 in the granite stock of Area 15 at the Nevada Test Site. The working point was at a depth of 462.7 m and the yield was determined to be 61 kt. Numerous surface, sub-surface and free-field measurements were made and analyzed by SRI. An attempt was made to determine the contribution of spall to the teleseismic signal, but proved unsuccessful because most of the data from below-shot-level gauges was lost. Nonetheless, there is quite a bit of good quality data from a variety of locations. We have been able to obtain relatively good agreement with the experimental PILEDRIVER waveforms. In order to do so, we had to model the granodiorite as being considerably weaker than ``good quality`` granite, and it had to undergo considerable weakening due to shock damage as well. In addition, the near-surface layers had to be modeled as being weak and compressible and as have a much lower sound speed than the material at depth. The is consistent with a fractured and jointed material at depth, and a weathered material near the surface.

  15. PINS Measurements and Simulations for Stand-Off Detection of High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury

    2011-07-01

    There has been some interest in the ability of Idaho National Laboratory's (INL) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System's (PINS) ability to detect high explosives at a distance. In order to assess the system's ability to perform this task, laboratory experiments on simulated or mock explosives and Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP on both mock and real explosives have been performed. The simulations and experiments on mock explosives have essentially identical configurations, allowing the models to be confirmed with experiment. This provides greater confidence in the simulations on real explosives without the need for experiment on live explosives.

  16. Explosive hazard detection using synthetic aperture acoustic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewster, E.; Keller, J. M.; Stone, K.; Popescu, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to detect explosive hazards designed to attack vehicles from the side of a road, using a side looking synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) sensor. This is done by first processing the raw data using a back-projection algorithm to form images. Next, an RX prescreener creates a list of possible targets, each with a designated confidence. Initial experiments are performed on libraries of the highest confidence hits for both target and false alarm classes generated by the prescreener. Image chips are extracted using pixel locations derived from the target's easting and northing. Several feature types are calculated from each image chip, including: histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and generalized column projection features where the column aggregator takes the form of the minimum, maximum, mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, and the one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT). A support vector machine (SVM) classifier is then utilized to evaluate feature type performance during training and testing in order to determine whether the two classes are separable. This will be used to build an online detection system for road-side explosive hazards.

  17. Trace Explosives Detection by Photoluminescence with Applications to Time-Resolved Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldin, Kimberly

    2003-10-01

    Trace explosive detection field methods based on chemical reactions have until recently utilized only colorimetric products. To increase the sensitivity of such detection, a field explosive test kit which produces a product that is both colorimetric and luminescent is studied. Detection sensitivity can be gained by taking advantage of the luminescence of these products, something that has not been done to date. When the appropriate chemistry is chosen for explosive detection, time-resolved imaging techniques may again be applicable. Thus, in this talk, the possibilities of taking trace explosives detection to this next level will be discussed.

  18. Generation of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields during large- scale chemical and nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.V.; Dubinya, V.A.; Karaseva, V.A.; Soloviev, S.P.; Surkov, V.V.

    1995-06-01

    We discuss the main parameters of the electric field in the surface layer of the atmosphere and the results of the investigations of the natural electric field variations. Experimental investigations of the electromagnetic field for explosions in air are presented. Electromagnetic signals generated by underground nuclear and chemical explosions are discussed and explosions for 1976--1991 are listed. Long term anomalies of the earth`s electromagnetic field in the vicinity of underground explosions were also investigated. Study of the phenomenon of the irreversible shock magnetization showed that in the zone nearest to the explosion the quasistatic magnetic field decreases in inverse proportion to the distance.

  19. Particle generators for the calibration and testing of narcotic and explosive vapor/particle detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, John P.; Hallowell, Susan F.; Hoglund, David E.

    1994-03-01

    A review of data on narcotics and explosives particulates is presented. Methods to generate particles of narcotics and explosives will be discussed with respect to resulting particle size distribution and mass output. The application of these standards to the testing of narcotic and explosive particle detection systems will be addressed.

  20. A Safer Nuclear Enterprise - Application to Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES)(U)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Tommy J.

    2012-07-05

    Activities and infrastructure that support nuclear weapons are facing significant challenges. Despite an admirable record and firm commitment to make safety a primary criterion in weapons design, production, handling, and deployment - there is growing apprehension about terrorist acquiring weapons or nuclear material. At the NES Workshop in May 2012, Scott Sagan, who is a proponent of the normal accident cycle, presented. Whether a proponent of the normal accident cycle or High Reliability Organizations - we have to be diligent about our safety record. Constant vigilance is necessary to maintain our admirable safety record and commitment to Nuclear Explosive Safety.

  1. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

    1999-06-15

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

  2. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the optical emission produced thereby is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  3. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  4. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Larry; Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. PMID:22136814

  5. Accurate location of nuclear explosions at Azgir, Kazakhstan, from satellite images and seismic data: Implications for monitoring decoupled explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Lynn R.; Deng, Jishu; Lyubomirskiy, Paul

    1993-09-01

    The 10 largest tamped nuclear explosions detonated by the Former Soviet Union in and near two salt domes near Azgir were relocated using seismic data and the locations of shot points on a SPOT satellite image taken in 1988. Many of the shot points are clearly recognized on the satellite image and can be located with an accuracy of 60 m even though testing was carried out at those points many years earlier, i. e. between 1966 and 1979. Onsite inspections and a local seismic monitoring network combined with our accurate locations of previous explosions would insure that any cavities that remain standing from those events could not be used for undetected decoupled nuclear testing down to a very small yield. Since the Azgir area, like much of the Pre-Caspian depression, is arid, it would not be a suitable place for constructing large cavities in salt by solution mining and then using them for clandestine nuclear testing.

  6. A Model-Based Signal Processing Approach to Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Harris, D; Pasyanos, M

    2007-03-14

    This report describes research performed under Laboratory Research and Development Project 05-ERD-019, entitled ''A New Capability for Regional High-Frequency Seismic Wave Simulation in Realistic Three-Dimensional Earth Models to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring''. A more appropriate title for this project is ''A Model-Based Signal Processing Approach to Nuclear Explosion Monitoring''. This project supported research for a radically new approach to nuclear explosion monitoring as well as allowed the development new capabilities in computational seismology that can contribute to NNSA/NA-22 Programs.

  7. Simulation of the underwater nuclear explosion and its effects. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.

    1992-06-01

    This research was conducted to enhance understanding of the use of high explosives to simulate the effects of a nuclear underwater explosion. A review of the known characteristics of the nuclear, spherical conventional, and tapered conventional underwater pressure-time histories illustrates the selection of the tapered charge to simulate the underwater nuclear explosion. Three areas of study were then pursued. The first compared the structural response resulting from attack by conventional and nuclear type pressure profiles, verifying the need to match duration as well as peak pressure when simulating the underwater nuclear explosion. The second employed finite element analysis to study the three dimensional shock generated by a tapered charge. Third, a computer program was written to couple an optimizer with an existing tapered charge pressure-profile generating code to improve the tapered charge design process.

  8. A range muon tomography performance study for the detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, Leticia; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Chung, Andrew; Nicolas, Hengartner W; Morris, Christopher; Schultz, Larry J; Reimus, Nathaniel P; Bacon, Jeffrey D; Vogan - Mc Neil, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Soft cosmic ray tomography has been shown to successfully discriminate materials with various density levels due to their ability to deeply penetrate matter, allowing sensitivity to atomic number, radiation length and density. Because the multiple muon scattering signal from high Z-materials is very strong, the technology is well suited to the detection of the illicit transportation of special and radiological nuclear materials. In addition, a recent detection technique based on measuring the lower energy particles that do not traverse the material (range radiography), allows to discriminate low and medium Z-materials. This is shown in [4] using Monte Carlo simulations. More recently, using a mini muon tracker developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we performed various experiments to try out the radiation length technology. This paper presents the results from real experiments and evaluates the likelihood that soft cosmic ray tomography may be applied to detect high-explosives.

  9. Real-time change detection for countering improvised explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wouw, Dennis W. J. M.; van Rens, Kris; van Lint, Hugo; Jaspers, Egbert G. T.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2014-03-01

    We explore an automatic real-time change detection system to assist military personnel during transport and surveillance, by detection changes in the environment with respect to a previous operation. Such changes may indicate the presence of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), which can then be bypassed. While driving, images of the scenes are acquired by the camera and stored with their GPS positions. At the same time, the best matching reference image (from a previous patrol) is retrieved and registered to the live image. Next a change mask is generated by differencing the reference and live image, followed by an adaptive thresholding technique. Post-processing steps such as Markov Random Fields, local texture comparisons and change tracking, further improve time- and space-consistency of changes and suppress noise. The resulting changes are visualized as an overlay on the live video content. The system has been extensively tested on 28 videos, containing over 10,000 manually annotated objects. The system is capable of detecting small test objects of 10 cm3 at a range of 40 meters. Although the system shows an acceptable performance in multiple cases, the performance degrades under certain circumstances for which extensions are discussed.

  10. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for standoff explosives detection : LDRD 138733 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Theisen, Lisa Anne; Linker, Kevin Lane

    2009-09-01

    Continued acts of terrorism using explosive materials throughout the world have led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially technologies that have a potential for remote or standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the benefit of the possible use of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff explosives detection equipment. Standoff detection of explosives is currently one of the most difficult problems facing the explosives detection community. Increased domestic and troop security could be achieved through the remote detection of explosives. An effective remote or standoff explosives detection capability would save lives and prevent losses of mission-critical resources by increasing the distance between the explosives and the intended targets and/or security forces. Many sectors of the US government are urgently attempting to obtain useful equipment to deploy to our troops currently serving in hostile environments. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff detection systems. This report documents the potential opportunities that Sandia National Laboratories can contribute to the field of QCL development. The following is a list of areas where SNL can contribute: (1) Determine optimal wavelengths for standoff explosives detection utilizing QCLs; (2) Optimize the photon collection and detection efficiency of a detection system for optical spectroscopy; (3) Develop QCLs with broader wavelength tunability (current technology is a 10% change in wavelength) while maintaining high efficiency; (4) Perform system engineering in the design of a complete detection system and not just the laser head; and (5) Perform real-world testing with explosive materials with commercial prototype detection systems.

  11. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  12. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  13. Numerical Model for Atmospheric Contaminant Clouds from Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanarska, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Our numerical approach includes fluid mechanical model which is the combination of a compressible GEODYN code and a Low Mach code (LMC). The first one is an explicit code and it is intended to simulate early stages of nuclear explosions up to 15 s. The second one is an implicit code based on a pressure projection method and it is intended to simulate subsequent cloud rise events up to few hours. We perform series of cloud rise scenarios ranging from idealized bubble rise problem to realistic air bursts. We analyze effects of compressible dynamics and different turbulent parameterizations on the cloud evolution. It is found that in a realistic configuration interaction of a reflected shock wave from the ground with a fireball affects significantly cloud evolution in contrast to idealized bubble rise simulations. We show that by providing initial source from compressible GEODYN code, later times flow evolution can be successfully simulated with fast and efficient LMC code. Finally, we develop formalism for tracer particles and their fallout and present some preliminary results. This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  14. A New Database of Digitized Regional Seismic Waveforms from Nuclear Explosions in Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, I. N.; Richards, P. G.; Kim, W. Y.; Mikhailova, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    Seismology is an observational science. Hence, the effort to understand details of seismic signals from underground nuclear explosions requires analysis of waveforms recorded from past nuclear explosions. Of principal interest, are regional signals from explosions too small to be reliably identified via teleseismic recording. But the great majority of stations operated today, even those in networks for nuclear explosion monitoring, have never recorded explosion signals at regional distances, because most stations were installed long after the period when most underground nuclear explosions were conducted; and the few nuclear explosions since the early 1990s were mostly recorded only at teleseismic distances. We have therefore gathered thousands of nuclear explosion regional seismograms from more than 200 analog stations operated in the former Soviet Union. Most of them lie in a region stretching approximately 6000 km East-West and 2000 km North-South and including much of Central Asia. We have digitized them and created a modern digital database, including significant metadata. Much of this work has been done in Kazakhstan. Most of the explosions were underground, but several were conducted in the atmosphere. This presentation will characterize the content and overall quality of the new database for signals from nuclear explosions in Eurasia, which were conducted across substantial ranges of yield and shot-point depth, and under a great variety of different geological conditions. This work complements a 20-year collaborative effort which made the original digital recordings of the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, Kazakhstan, openly available in a modern format (see http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/pi/Monitoring/Data/). For purposes of characterizing explosive sources, it would be of assistance to have seismogram archives from explosions conducted in all regions including the Pacific, North Africa, and the United States (including the Aleutians). Openly available

  15. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  16. Characteristics of acoustic wave from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2015-04-01

    Availability of the acoustic wave on the record of microbarograph is one of discriminate signs of atmospheric (surface layer of atmosphere) and contact explosions. Nowadays there is large number of air wave records from chemical explosions recorded by the IMS infrasound stations installed during recent decade. But there is small number of air wave records from nuclear explosions as air and contact nuclear explosions had been conducted since 1945 to 1962, before the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963 (the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water) by the Great Britain, USSR and USA. That time there was small number of installed microbarographs. First infrasound stations in the USSR appeared in 1954, and by the moment of the USSR collapse the network consisted of 25 infrasound stations, 3 of which were located on Kazakhstan territory - in Kurchatov (East Kazakhstan), in Borovoye Observatory (North Kazakhstan) and Talgar Observatory (Northern Tien Shan). The microbarograph of Talgar Observatory was installed in 1962 and recorded large number of air nuclear explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site and Novaya Zemlya Test Site. The epicentral distance to the STS was ~700 km, and to Novaya Zemlya Test Site ~3500 km. The historical analog records of the microbarograph were analyzed on the availability of the acoustic wave. The selected records were digitized, the database of acoustic signals from nuclear explosions was created. In addition, acoustic signals from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites were recorded by analogue broadband seismic stations at wide range of epicentral distances, 300-3600 km. These signals coincide well by its form and spectral content with records of microbarographs and can be used for monitoring tasks and discrimination in places where infrasound observations are absent. Nuclear explosions which records contained acoustic wave were from 0.03 to 30 kt yield for

  17. Sensor array and preconcentrator for the detection of explosives in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodka, Marc D.; Shpil, J. Cory; Schnee, Vincent P.; Polcha, J. Michael P.

    2012-06-01

    A sensor system has been constructed that is capable of detecting and discriminating between various explosives presented in ocean water with detection limits at the 10-100 parts per trillion level. The sensor discriminates between different compounds using a biologically-inspired fluorescent polymer sensor array, which responds with a unique fluorescence quenching pattern during exposure to different analytes. The sensor array was made from commercially available fluorescent polymers coated onto glass beads, and was demonstrated to discriminate between different electron-withdrawing analytes delivered in salt water solutions, including the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and tetryl, the explosive hydrolysis products 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, as well as other explosive-related compounds and explosive simulants. Sensitivities of 10-100 parts per trillion were achieved by employing a preconcentrator (PC) upstream of the sensor inlet. The PC consists of the porous polymer Tenax, which captures explosives from contaminated water as it passes through the PC. As the concentration of explosives in water decreased, longer loading times were required to concentrate a detectable amount of explosives within the PC. Explosives accumulated within the PC were released to the sensor array by heating the PC to 190 C. This approach yielded preconcentration factors of up to 100-1000x, however this increased sensitivity towards lower concentrations of explosives was achieved at the expense of proportionally longer sampling times. Strategies for decreasing this sampling time are discussed.

  18. UTEX modeling of xenon signature sensitivity to geology and explosion cavity characteristics following an underground nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrey, J. D.; Haas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce anthropogenic isotopes that can potentially be used in the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Several isotopes of radioactive xenon gas have been identified as radionuclides of interest within the International Monitoring System (IMS) and in an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Substantial research has been previously undertaken to characterize the geologic and atmospheric mechanisms that can drive the movement of radionuclide gas from a well-contained UNE, considering both sensitivities on gas arrival time and signature variability of xenon due to the nature of subsurface transport. This work further considers sensitivities of radioxenon gas arrival time and signatures to large variability in geologic stratification and generalized explosion cavity characteristics, as well as compares this influence to variability in the shallow surface.

  19. Ultimate Levels of Explosives Detection via Tagged Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Belichenko, S. G.; Bestaev, R. R.; Gavryuchenkov, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    Capabilities of the Tagged Neutron (TN) method for detection and identification of explosives materials (EM) are explored using an idealized geometrical model that includes a 14 MeV neutron generator with an integrated alpha detector, a gamma-ray detector based on BGO/LYSO crystals, and irradiated samples in the form of simulated EM (TNT, tetryl, RDX, etc.) or benign material (BM) such as cotton, paper, etc. Research was carried out under the framework of computational simulations of neutron physics processes by Monte Carlo methods as well as experimental measurements using an ING-27 neutron generator produced by VNIIA. The work resulted in a comparison between measured and simulated ROC (receiver operating characteristics) curves obtained via integration of analytically expressed functions of irradiation time, mass, and type of EM and BM. Experimental results indicate that 0.3 kg of tetryl simulant located 45 cm from the neutron generator is detected in 97% of cases after a one minute measurement, with the false-alarm rate being highly dependent on the type of BM present: from ˜0% in the case of water to ˜5% in the case of silk. Comparison of simulated and experimental data for these results shows they are in agreement in cases where the simulations account for neutron scattering from the object and background effects.

  20. Evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for explosive residue detection.

    PubMed

    De Lucia, Frank C; Gottfried, Jennifer L; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2009-01-19

    Recently laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated as a potential technique for trace explosive detection. Typically LIBS is performed using nanosecond laser pulses. For this work, we have investigated the use of femtosecond laser pulses for explosive residue detection at two different fluences. Femtosecond laser pulses have previously been shown to provide several advantages for laser ablation and other LIBS applications. We have collected LIBS spectra of several bulk explosives and explosive residues at different pulse durations and energies. In contrast to previous femtosecond LIBS spectra of explosives, we have observed atomic emission peaks for the constituent elements of explosives - carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Preliminary results indicate that several advantages attributed to femtosecond pulses are not realized at higher laser fluences. PMID:19158854

  1. Chemicapacitive microsensors for detection of explosives and TICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sanjay V.; Hobson, Stephen T.; Cemalovic, Sabina; Mlsna, Todd E.

    2005-10-01

    Seacoast Science develops chemical sensors that use polymer-coated micromachined capacitors to measure the dielectric permittivity of an array of selectively absorbing materials. We present recent results demonstrating the sensor technology's capability to detect components in explosives and toxic industrial chemicals. These target chemicals are detected with functionalized polymers or network materials, chosen for their ability to adsorb chemicals. When exposed to vapors or gases, the permittivity of these sorbent materials changes depending on the strength of the vapor-sorbent interaction. Sensor arrays made of ten microcapacitors on a single chip have been previously shown to detect vapors of organic compounds (chemical warfare agents, industrial solvents, fuels) and inorganic gases (SO2, CO2, NO2). Two silicon microcapacitor structures were used, one with parallel electrode plates and the other with interdigitated "finger-like" electrodes. The parallel-plates were approximately 300 μm wide and separated by 750 nm. The interdigitated electrodes were approximately 400 μm long and were elevated above the substrate to provide faster vapor access. Eight to sixteen of these capacitors are fabricated on chips that are 5 x 2 mm and are packaged in less than 50 cm3 with supporting electronics and batteries, all weighing less than 500 grams. The capacitors can be individually coated with different materials creating a small electronic nose that produces different selectivity patterns in response to different chemicals. The resulting system's compact size, low-power consumption and low manufacturing costs make the technology ideal for integration into various systems for numerous applications.

  2. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Angela L.; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$136\\pm 38~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$\\end{document}136±38kcal⋅BWkg0.75 or two times the calculated resting energy requirement (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mathrm{RER}=70~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$\\end{document}RER=70kcal⋅BWkg0.75). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study’s population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council’s (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt

  3. Detection of Explosives by Millimeter-wave Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2007-08-30

    Millimeter-wave imaging has emerged over the last several years as an effective method for screening people for non-metallic weapons, including explosives. Millimeter-waves are effective for personnel screening, since the waves pass through common clothing materials and are reflected by the human body and any concealed objects. Completely passive imaging systems have also been developed that rely on the natural thermal emission of millimeter-waves from the body and concealed objects. Millimeter-waves are non-ionizing and are harmless to people at low or moderate power levels. Active and passive imaging systems have been developed by several research groups, with several commercial imaging sensors becoming available recently. These systems provide images revealing concealed items, and as such, do not specifically identify detected materials. Rather, they provide indications of unusual concealed items. The design of practical, effective, high-speed (real-time or near real-time) imaging systems presents a number of scientific and engineering challenges, and this chapter will describe the current state-of-the-art in active and passive millimeter-wave imaging for personnel screening. Numerous imaging results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques described. The authors have been involved in the development of active wideband millimeter-wave imaging systems at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since 1991.

  4. Flow immunosensor detection of explosives and drugs of abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterbeck, Anne W.; Judd, Linda L.; Yu, Hao; Myles, June; Ligler, Frances S.

    1994-03-01

    An antibody-based biosensor has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory which is capable of detecting both drugs and explosives present at low levels in an aqueous sample. In the flow immunosensor, antibodies are immobilized onto a solid substrate, allowed to bind a fluorescently labeled signal molecule, placed in a small column and attached to a buffer flow. Upon sample introduction, an amount of the fluorescent signal molecule is released that is proportional to the concentration of applied sample. The response time of the sensor is under a minute, and multiple samples can be analyzed without the need for additional reagents. Quantitative assays are being developed for a variety of compounds, including TNT, DNT, PETN, and cocaine. The laboratory prototype has been used to study how choice of fluorophore, antibody density, and flow rate affect the signal intensity and column lifetime. A self-contained commercial instrument which can analyze up to seven different compounds from a single sample is currently being engineered under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement.

  5. Progress on detection of liquid explosives using ultra-low field MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle A; Matlashov, Andrei N; Volegov, Petr L; Schuttz, Larry M; Baguisa, Shermiyah; Dunkerley, David; Magnelind, Per; Owens, Tuba; Sandin, Henrik; Urbaitis, Algis

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are widely used in medicine, chemistry and industry. Over the past several years there has been increasing interest in performing NMR and MRI in the ultra-low field (ULF) regime, with measurement field strengths of 10-100 microTesla and pre-polarization fields of 30-50 mTesla. The real-time signal-to-noise ratio for such measurements is about 100. Our group at LANL has built and demonstrated the performance of SQUID-based ULF NMR/MRI instrumentation for classification of materials and detection of liquid explosives via their relaxation properties measured at ULF, using T{sub 1}, and T{sub 2}, and T{sub 1} frequency dispersion. We are also beginning to investigate the performance of induction coils as sensors. Here we present recent progress on the applications of ULF MR to the detection of liquid explosives, in imaging and relaxometry.

  6. Compact standoff Raman system for detection of homemade explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Bates, David E.; Acosta, Tayro E.

    2010-04-01

    We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a compact portable standoff Raman system developed at the University of Hawaii. Data presented in this article show that good quality Raman spectra of various organic and inorganic chemicals, including hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, and gasoline, can be easily obtained from remote distances with a compact standoff Raman system utilizing only a regular 85 mm Nikon camera lens as collection optics. Raman spectra of various chemicals showing clear Raman fingerprints obtained from targets placed at 50 m distance in daylight with 1 to 10 second of integration time are presented in this article. A frequency-doubled mini Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 30 mJ/pulse, 20 Hz, pulse width 8 ns) is used in an oblique geometry to excite the target located at 50 m distance. The standoff Raman system uses a compact spectrograph of size 10 cm (length) × 8.2 cm (width) × 5.2 cm (height) with spectral coverage from 100 to 4500 cm-1 Stokes-Raman shifted from 532 nm laser excitation and is equipped with a gated thermo-electrically cooled ICCD detector. The system is capable of detecting both the target as well as the atmospheric gases before the target. Various chemicals could be easily identified through glass, plastic, and water media. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  7. A virtual prototype for an explosives detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.; Berman, B.L.; Zahrt, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The development of the resonance-absorption based explosives detection system (EDS), as initially planned, involved the parallel development of a high-current proton accelerator (with a long development time) and the other detection subsystems. The design approach for the latter was to develop a capability for computer modeling the essential processes of each subsystem, benchmark these models by experiment, and link the models, i.e., creating a virtual prototype, to explore the effect of subsystem design changes on the EDS system performance. Additionally, when the EDS prototype system was completed, the linked models would be used to investigate further trade-offs in defining an airport system. Most of the necessary subsystem modeling was completed and used in subsystem design. Linking of all of the subsystems was accomplished to some degree or another. There are many physical and mathematical processes that take place between the acceleration of the proton beam and the final display of the reconstructed image. Figure 1 summarizes these processes and indicates which code was used to model each particular process. Section II reports on the modeling of the proton beam incident on a {sup 13}C target. The gamma-ray output is the desired output from this phase of modeling. Section III describes the tools used to investigate the transport of the gamma-rays through computer simulated phantoms (suitcases). Two different codes were used in this investigation: a Monte Carlo photon transport code and a ray tracing code. One benchmark between these codes was accomplished. Section IV is concerned with the model calculations performed on single detectors. The calculations again were performed with a Monte Carlo transport code. The reconstruction code, used throughout in the simulations and as the workhorse in the analysis of the real experiments. The authors conclude, in Section VII, with the assessment of the simulation/virtual prototyping of the real experiment.

  8. Feature Extraction and Selection From the Perspective of Explosive Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S K

    2009-09-01

    Features are extractable measurements from a sample image summarizing the information content in an image and in the process providing an essential tool in image understanding. In particular, they are useful for image classification into pre-defined classes or grouping a set of image samples (also called clustering) into clusters with similar within-cluster characteristics as defined by such features. At the lowest level, features may be the intensity levels of a pixel in an image. The intensity levels of the pixels in an image may be derived from a variety of sources. For example, it can be the temperature measurement (using an infra-red camera) of the area representing the pixel or the X-ray attenuation in a given volume element of a 3-d image or it may even represent the dielectric differential in a given volume element obtained from an MIR image. At a higher level, geometric descriptors of objects of interest in a scene may also be considered as features in the image. Examples of such features are: area, perimeter, aspect ratio and other shape features, or topological features like the number of connected components, the Euler number (the number of connected components less the number of 'holes'), etc. Occupying an intermediate level in the feature hierarchy are texture features which are typically derived from a group of pixels often in a suitably defined neighborhood of a pixel. These texture features are useful not only in classification but also in the segmentation of an image into different objects/regions of interest. At the present state of our investigation, we are engaged in the task of finding a set of features associated with an object under inspection ( typically a piece of luggage or a brief case) that will enable us to detect and characterize an explosive inside, when present. Our tool of inspection is an X-Ray device with provisions for computed tomography (CT) that generate one or more (depending on the number of energy levels used) digitized 3

  9. Tracing airborne particles after Japan's nuclear plant explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Hisashi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2011-11-01

    The powerful Tohoku earthquake and consequent tsunami that occurred off the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 devastated dozens of coastal cities and towns, causing the loss of more than 15,000 lives and leaving close to 4000 people still missing. Although nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, located on the Pacific coast, stopped their operation automatically upon the occurrence of the Mw 9.0 quake [Showstack, 2011], the cooling system for nuclear fuel broke down. From 12 to 16 March, vapor and hydrogen blasts destroyed the buildings that had contained the reactors, resulting in the release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials such as sulfur-35, iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137, which collectively can cause harmful health effects such as tissue damage and increased risk of cancer (particularly in children), depending on dose. Most of those materials emitted from the power plant rained out onto the grounds within its vicinity and forced tens of thousands within a 20-kilometer radius to evacuate (residents to the northwest of the site within about 40 kilometers also were moved from their homes). Some of the radioactive materials were transported and then detected at such distant locations as North America and Europe, although the level of radiation dose was sufficiently low not to affect human health in any significant manner.

  10. Explosives trace detection in the process of biometrical fingerprint identification for access control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertseva, Elena V.; Savin, Andrey V.

    2007-02-01

    A method for trace detection of explosives on the surface of biometric fingerprint scanner is proposed and its sensitivity explored. The method is based on attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The detection limit is about several microgram and the detectivity increases with the wavelength used for scanning. The advantages of the proposed method include high selectivity and thus low false alarm level, applicability to low vapor pressure explosives and low cost.

  11. New/Future Approaches to Explosive/Chemicals Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovic, Vlado

    2009-03-01

    Although there has been some reported progress in many systems used for threat material detection and identification a promising one seems to be the use of tagged fast neutrons generated in d+t→α+n nuclear reaction. Among others, EU-FP6 project EURITRACK has been a successful demonstration of the use of tagged neutrons for ship container inspections. It has been shown that the deployment of the same technology under-water is a feasibility to be realized in the near future (i.e. EU-FP7 project UNCOSS).

  12. Explosives tester

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Eckels, Joel D.; Nunes, Peter J.

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  13. Tracking the North Korean nuclear explosion of 2006, using seismic data from Japan and satellite data from Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bor-Shouh

    2008-03-01

    The location of the 2006 nuclear explosion in North Korea has been accurately imaged by back-projected regional Pn waves recorded by the Japanese Hi-net array. Based on the determined location, the nuclear explosion site can be identified from geo-referenced FORMOSAT-2 satellite images. The seismically determined epicenter is about 2.5 km northeast of the original estimate of its absolute location. Results indicate that a remote suspect event had been unambiguously detected and accurately located by a dense array within a regional distance. Employing ground truth correction, the satellite images can be referenced for shifting the array-determined epicenter to its absolute position. After correction, this event can be treated as a reference event for accurately locating future nuclear explosions. Our study utilizes public information from a dense seismic network and further demonstrates that commercial observation satellites can accurately monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, as well as earthquake and tsunami hazards almost in real time.

  14. Behavioural and Genetic Evidence for C. elegans' Ability to Detect Volatile Chemicals Associated with Explosives

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunyan; Gock, Andrew; Michie, Michelle; Morton, Bethany; Anderson, Alisha; Trowell, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. Methodology/Principal Findings We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. Conclusions/Significance: The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles. PMID:20830309

  15. Chemical sensing system for classification of mine-like objects by explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, W.B.; Rodacy, P.J.; Jones, E.E.; Gomez, B.J.; Woodfin, R.L.

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted research in chemical sensing and analysis of explosives for many years. Recently, that experience has been directed towards detecting mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) by sensing the low-level explosive signatures associated with these objects. The authors focus has been on the classification of UXO in shallow water and anti-personnel/anti tank mines on land. The objective of this work is to develop a field portable chemical sensing system which can be used to examine mine-like objects (MLO) to determine whether there are explosive molecules associated with the MLO. Two sampling subsystems have been designed, one for water collection and one for soil/vapor sampling. The water sampler utilizes a flow-through chemical adsorbent canister to extract and concentrate the explosive molecules. Explosive molecules are thermally desorbed from the concentrator and trapped in a focusing stage for rapid desorption into an ion-mobility spectrometer (IMS). The authors describe a prototype system which consists of a sampler, concentrator-focuser, and detector. The soil sampler employs a light-weight probe for extracting and concentrating explosive vapor from the soil in the vicinity of an MLO. The chemical sensing system is capable of sub-part-per-billion detection of TNT and related explosive munition compounds. They present the results of field and laboratory tests on buried landmines which demonstrate their ability to detect the explosive signatures associated with these objects.

  16. Chemical sensing system for classification of minelike objects by explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Jones, Edwin E.; Gomez, Bernard J.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    1998-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted research in chemical sensing and analysis of explosives for many years. Recently, that experience has been directed towards detecting mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) by sensing the low-level explosive signatures associated with these objects. Our focus has been on the classification of UXO in shallow water and anti-personnel/anti tank mines on land. The objective of this work is to develop a field portable chemical sensing system which can be used to examine mine-like objects (MLO) to determine whether there are explosive molecules associated with the MLO. Two sampling subsystems have been designed, one for water collection and one for soil/vapor sampling. The water sampler utilizes a flow-through chemical adsorbent canister to extract and concentrate the explosive molecules. Explosive molecules are thermally desorbed from the concentrator and trapped in a focusing stage for rapid desorption into an ion-mobility spectrometer (IMS). We will describe a prototype system which consists of a sampler, concentrator-focuser, and detector. The soil sampler employs a light-weight probe for extracting and concentrating explosive vapor from the soil in the vicinity of an MLO. The chemical sensing system is capable of sub-part-per-billion detection of TNT and related explosive munition compounds. We will present the results of field and laboratory tests on buried landmines, which demonstrate our ability to detect the explosive signatures associated with these objects.

  17. Portable thin layer chromatography for field detection of explosives and propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satcher, Joe H.; Maienschein, Jon L.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Racoveanu, Ana; Carman, M. Leslie; Whipple, Richard E.; Reynolds, John G.

    2012-06-01

    A field deployable detection kit for explosives and propellants using thin layer chromatography (TLC) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The chemistry of the kit has been modified to allow for field detection of propellants (through propellant stabilizers), military explosives, peroxide explosives, nitrates and inorganic oxidizer precursors. For many of these target analytes, the detection limit is in the μg to pg range. A new miniaturized, bench prototype, field portable TLC (Micro TLC) kit has also been developed for the detection and identification of common military explosives. It has been demonstrated in a laboratory environment and is ready for field-testing. The kit is comprised of a low cost set of commercially available components specifically assembled for rapid identification needed in the field and identifies the common military explosives: HMX, RDX, Tetryl, Explosive D or picric acid, and TNT all on one plate. Additional modifications of the Micro TLC system have been made with fluorescent organosilicon co-polymer coatings to detect a large suite of explosives.

  18. Mini-fission fusion explosive devices (mini-nukes) for nuclear pulse propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear pulse propulsion demands low-yield nuclear explosive devices. Because the critical mass of a fission explosive is rather large, this leads to extravagant fission devices with a very low fuel burn-up. For non-fission ignited pure fusion microexplosions the problem is the large ignition apparatus (laser, particle beam, etc.). Fission ignited large fusion explosive devices are for obvious reasons even less desirable. A third category (mini-nukes) are devices where the critical mass of the fission explosive is substantially reduced by its coupling to a DT fusion reaction, with the DT fusion neutrons increasing the fission rate. Whereas in pure fission devices a reduction of the critical mass is achieved by the implosive compression of the fissile core with a chemical high explosive, in the third category the implosion must at the same time heat the DT surrounding the fissile core to a temperature of ⩾107K, at which enough fusion neutrons are generated to increase the fission rate which in turn further increases the temperature and fusion neutron production rate. As has been shown by the author many years ago, such mini-nukes lead to astonishingly small critical masses. In their application to nuclear pulse propulsion the combustion products from the chemical high explosive are further heated by the neutrons and are becoming part of the propellant.

  19. Photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace vapor detection and standoff detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holthoff, Ellen L.; Marcus, Logan S.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2016-05-01

    The Army is investigating several spectroscopic techniques (e.g., infrared spectroscopy) that could allow for an adaptable sensor platform. Current sensor technologies, although reasonably sized, are geared to more classical chemical threats, and the ability to expand their capabilities to a broader range of emerging threats is uncertain. Recently, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), employed in a sensor format, has shown enormous potential to address these ever-changing threats. PAS is one of the more flexible IR spectroscopy variants, and that flexibility allows for the construction of sensors that are designed for specific tasks. PAS is well suited for trace detection of gaseous and condensed media. Recent research has employed quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in combination with MEMS-scale photoacoustic cell designs. The continuous tuning capability of QCLs over a broad wavelength range in the mid-infrared spectral region greatly expands the number of compounds that can be identified. We will discuss our continuing evaluation of QCL technology as it matures in relation to our ultimate goal of a universal compact chemical sensor platform. Finally, expanding on our previously reported photoacoustic detection of condensed phase samples, we are investigating standoff photoacoustic chemical detection of these materials. We will discuss the evaluation of a PAS sensor that has been designed around increasing operator safety during detection and identification of explosive materials by performing sensing operations at a standoff distance. We investigate a standoff variant of PAS based upon an interferometric sensor by examining the characteristic absorption spectra of explosive hazards collected at 1 m.

  20. Detecting Weak Explosions at Local Distances by Fusing Multiple Geophysical Phenomenologies

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Nemzek, Robert J.; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Sentz, Kari

    2015-03-23

    Comprehensive explosion monitoring requires the technical capability to identify certain signatures at low signal strengths. For particularly small, evasively conducted explosions, conventional monitoring methods that use single geophysical phenomenologies may produce marginal or absent detections. To address this challenge, we recorded coincident acoustic, seismic and radio-frequency emissions during the above-ground detonation of ~ 2-12 kg solid charges and assessed how waveform data could be fused to increase explosion-screening capability. Our data provided identifiable explosion signatures that we implemented as template-events in multichannel correlation detectors to search for similar, matching waveforms. We thereby observed that these highly sensitive correlation detectors missed explosive events when applied separately to data streams that were heavily contaminated with noise and signal clutter. By then adding the p-values of these statistics through Fisher’s combined probability test, we correctly identified the explosion signals at thresholds consistent with the false alarm rates of the correlation detectors. This resulting Fisher test thereby provided high-probability detections, zero false alarms, and higher theoretical detection capability. We conclude that inclusion of these fusion methods in routine monitoring operations will likely lower both detection thresholds for small explosions, while reducing false attribution rates.

  1. REVIEW: Application of laser photothermal spectroscopy for standoff detection of trace explosive residues on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, L. A.; Maksimov, E. M.

    2010-09-01

    Laser photothermal methods of standoff detection of trace explosive residues on surfaces are considered. The analysis is restricted to the most promising methods: photoacoustic spectroscopy, deflection spectroscopy, and IR photothermal imaging of objects under resonant irradiation. Particular attention is paid to the choice of radiation sources and detectors. Comparative analysis of the existing standoff detection methods for explosive particles on the object surface is performed. Prospects of laser photothermal spectroscopy in this field are discussed.

  2. Application of laser photothermal spectroscopy for standoff detection of trace explosive residues on surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Skvortsov, L A; Maksimov, E M

    2010-09-10

    Laser photothermal methods of standoff detection of trace explosive residues on surfaces are considered. The analysis is restricted to the most promising methods: photoacoustic spectroscopy, deflection spectroscopy, and IR photothermal imaging of objects under resonant irradiation. Particular attention is paid to the choice of radiation sources and detectors. Comparative analysis of the existing standoff detection methods for explosive particles on the object surface is performed. Prospects of laser photothermal spectroscopy in this field are discussed. (review)

  3. Solid state nuclear track detection

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, S.A.; Bull, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a basic work on the technique variously known as 'nuclear track analysis', 'track-etch technique', or 'solid state nuclear tract detection'. This has greatly expanded in range, scope and depth since the early 1960's, soon after its discovery, until there is hardly a field now in which it has not found an actual or potential use. Such applications range from archaeology, geology, space physics, medicine and biology to reactor physics and nuclear physics-to name but a few.

  4. The acoustic field in the ionosphere caused by an underground nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, V. M.; Drobzheva, Ya. V.

    2005-07-01

    The problem of describing the generation and propagation of an infrasonic wave emitted by a finite extended source in the inhomogeneous absorbing atmosphere is the focus of this paper. It is of interest since the role of infrasonic waves in the energy balance of the upper atmosphere remains largely unknown. We present an algorithm, which allows adaptation of a point source model for calculating the infrasonic field from an underground nuclear explosion at ionospheric altitudes. Our calculations appear to agree remarkably well with HF Doppler sounding data measured for underground nuclear explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. We show that the temperature and ionospheric electron density perturbation caused by an acoustic wave from underground nuclear explosion can reach 10% of background levels.

  5. Materials Science for Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, Anthony J.

    2008-03-01

    In response to the elevated importance of nuclear detection technology, a variety of research efforts have sought to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials These efforts have goals such as improving our understanding of how these materials perform, supporting the development of formalized discovery tools, or enabling rapid and effective performance characterization. This article provides an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of these materials.

  6. Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves for Explosives Detection Using Different Sampling and Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mimy; Fan, Wen; Raeva, Anna; Almirall, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Reported for the first time are receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves constructed to describe the performance of a sorbent-coated disk, planar solid phase microextraction (PSPME) unit for non-contact sampling of a variety of volatiles. The PSPME is coupled to ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs) for the detection of volatile chemical markers associated with the presence of smokeless powders, model systems of explosives containing diphenylamine (DPA), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and nitroglycerin (NG) as the target analytes. The performance of the PSPME-IMS was compared with the widely accepted solid-phase microextraction (SPME), coupled to a GC-MS. A set of optimized sampling conditions for different volume containers (1–45 L) with various sample amounts of explosives, were studied in replicates (n = 30) to determine the true positive rates (TPR) and false positive detection rates (FPR) for the different scenarios. These studies were obtained in order to construct the ROC curves for two IMS instruments (a bench-top and field-portable system) and a bench top GC-MS system in low and high clutter environments. Both static and dynamic PSPME sampling were studied in which 10–500 mg quantities of smokeless powders were detected within 10 min of static sampling and 1 min of dynamic sampling.

  7. Detection of Explosives Using Differential Laser-Induced Perturbation Spectroscopy with a Raman-based Probe.

    PubMed

    Oztekin, Erman K; Burton, Dallas J; Hahn, David W

    2016-04-01

    Explosives detection is carried out with a novel spectral analysis technique referred to as differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS) on thin films of TNT, RDX, HMX, and PETN. The utility of Raman spectroscopy for detection of explosives is enhanced by inducing deep ultraviolet laser perturbation on molecular structures in combination with a differential Raman sensing scheme. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used to quantify the DLIPS method as benchmarked against a traditional Raman scattering probe, and the related photo-induced effects on the molecular structure of the targeted explosives are discussed in detail. Finally, unique detection is observed with TNT samples deposited on commonly available background substrates of nylon and polyester. Overall, the data support DLIPS as a noninvasive method that is promising for screening explosives in real-world environments and backgrounds. PMID:26865581

  8. RoboHound:developing sample collection and preconcentration hardware for a remote trace explosives detection system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, David J.; Denning, David J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Lenz, Michael C.; Anderson, Robert J.; Carlson, Dennis L.; Hunter, John Anthony; Gladwell, T. Scott; Mitchell, Mary-Anne; Hannum, David W.; Baumann, Mark J.

    2005-09-01

    The RoboHound{trademark} Project was a three-year, multiphase project at Sandia National Laboratories to build and refine a working prototype trace explosive detection system as a tool for a commercial robot. The RoboHound system was envisioned to be a tool for emergency responders to test suspicious items (i.e., packages or vehicles) for explosives while maintaining a safe distance. The project investigated combining Sandia's expertise in trace explosives detection with a wheeled robotic platform that could be programmed to interrogate suspicious items remotely for the presence of explosives. All of the RoboHound field tests were successful, especially with regards to the ability to collect and detect trace samples of RDX. The project has gone from remote sampling with human intervention to a fully automatic system that requires no human intervention until the robot returns from a sortie. A proposal is being made for additional work leading towards commercialization.

  9. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Sources Used in The Detection of Explosives by Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Waltman, Melanie J.

    2010-05-01

    Explosives detection is a necessary and wide spread field of research. From large shipping containers to airline luggage, numerous items are tested for explosives every day. In the area of trace explosives detection, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the technique employed most often because it is a quick, simple, and accurate way to test many items in a short amount of time. Detection by IMS is based on the difference in drift times of product ions through the drift region of an IMS instrument. The product ions are created when the explosive compounds, introduced to the instrument, are chemically ionized through interactions with the reactant ions. The identity of the reactant ions determines the outcomes of the ionization process. This research investigated the reactant ions created by various ionization sources and looked into ways to manipulate the chemistry occurring in the sources.

  10. Recent advances and remaining challenges for the spectroscopic detection of explosive threats.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Augustus W; Christesen, Steven D; Moon, Raphael P; Guicheteau, Jason A; Emmons, Erik D

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Army initiated a program through the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to identify viable spectroscopic signatures of explosives and initiate environmental persistence, fate, and transport studies for trace residues. These studies were ultimately designed to integrate these signatures into algorithms and experimentally evaluate sensor performance for explosives and precursor materials in existing chemical point and standoff detection systems. Accurate and validated optical cross sections and signatures are critical in benchmarking spectroscopic-based sensors. This program has provided important information for the scientists and engineers currently developing trace-detection solutions to the homemade explosive problem. With this information, the sensitivity of spectroscopic methods for explosives detection can now be quantitatively evaluated before the sensor is deployed and tested. PMID:25061781

  11. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionizataion and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for explosives vapor detection

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Glish, G.L.; Grant, B.C.; Chambers, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    The detection and identification of trace vapors of hidden high explosives is an excellent example of a targeted analysis problem. It is desirable to push to ever lower levels the quantity or concentration of explosives material that provides an analytical signal, while at the same time discriminating against all other uninteresting material. The detection system must therefore combine high sensitivity with high specificity. This report describes the philosophy behind the use of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, which is a sensitive, rugged, and convenient means for forming anions from explosives molecules, with tandem mass spectrometry, which provides unparalleled specificity in the identification of explosives-related ions. Forms of tandem mass spectrometry are compared and contrasted to provide a summary of the characteristics to be expected from an explosives detector employing mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The instrument developed for the FAA, an atmospheric sampling glow discharge/triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, is described in detail with particular emphasis on the ion source/spectrometer interface and on the capabilities of the spectrometer. Performance characteristics of the system are also described as they pertain to explosives of interest including a description of an automated procedure for the detection and identification of specific explosives. A comparison of various tandem mass spectrometers mated with atmospheric sampling glow discharge is then described and preliminary studies with a vapor preconcentration system provided by the FAA will be described.

  12. Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool.

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Amigo, José Manuel; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples. PMID:25086347

  13. Quantified explosives transfer on surfaces for the evaluation of trace detection equipment.

    PubMed

    Tam, Maggie; Pilon, Pierre; Zaknoun, Hafid

    2013-09-01

    Trace explosive test surfaces are often required for the evaluation of trace detection equipment to determine the equipment performance. Test surfaces of C-4, Detasheet, Semtex-H, TNT, and HMTD were prepared by transferring trace amount of explosive deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) transfer strips onto different surfaces (Kraft paper, hard plastic, woven fabric, and soft vinyl). The amount of explosive transferred was deduced from the amount of explosive remaining on the PTFE strips after transfer, as quantified by direct analysis using tandem mass spectrometry with thermal desorption. From the data set of over 2000 transfers, we experienced lower transfer efficiency for Semtex-H and Detasheet, and for soft vinyl and hard plastic. However, the rapid quantification mass spectrometric method allowed the transfer efficiency to be determined for all test surfaces used in an evaluation of trace explosive detectors, thereby permitting only the test surfaces with desired transfer to be accepted for the assessment. PMID:23879631

  14. Synthetics vs. real waveforms from underground nuclear explosions as master templates for CTBT monitoring with cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, M.; Kitov, I. O.; Bobrov, D.

    2013-12-01

    The cross-correlation (CC) and master event technique is efficient in Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. Two primary goals of CTBT monitoring are detection and location of nuclear explosions. Therefore, the CC global monitoring should be focused on finding such events. The use of physically adequate masters may increase the number of valid events in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Centre by a factor of 2. Inadequate master events may increase the number of irrelevant events in REB and reduce the sensitivity of the CC technique to valid events. In order to cover the entire earth, including vast aseismic territories, with the CC based nuclear test monitoring we conducted a thorough research and defined the most appropriate real and synthetic master events representing underground explosion sources. A procedure was developed on optimizing the master event simulation based on principal component analysis with bootstrap aggregation as a dimension reduction technique narrowing the classes of CC templates used in global detection and location process. Actual waveforms and metadata from the DTRA Verification Database (http://www.rdss.info) were used to validate our approach. The detection and location results based on real and synthetic master events were compared

  15. The Surface Wave Magnitude for the 9 October 2006 North Korean Nuclear Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, J; Herrmann, R; Harkrider, D; Pasyanos, M

    2008-03-11

    Surface waves were generated by the North Korean nuclear explosion of 9 October 2006 and recorded at epicentral distances up to 34 degrees, from which we estimated a surface wave magnitude (M{sub s}) of 2.94 with an interstation standard deviation of 0.17 magnitude units. The International Data Centre estimated a body wave magnitude (m{sub b}) of 4.1. This is the only explosion we have analyzed that was not easily screened as an explosion based on the differences between the M{sub s} and m{sub b} estimates. Additionally, this M{sub s} predicts a yield, based on empirical M{sub s}/Yield relationships, that is almost an order of magnitude larger then the 0.5 to 1 kiloton reported for this explosion. We investigate how emplacement medium effects on surface wave moment and magnitude may have contributed to the yield discrepancy.

  16. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. Final technical report, June 9, 1994--October 9, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Spivak, A.A.

    1995-04-01

    It was found that in the first approximation the mechanical effect of underground nuclear explosion is analogous to the effect of chemical explosion. Really qualitative analysis shows that accompanying mechanical effects of nuclear and chemical explosions are the same: in the both cases explosion consequences are characterized by formation of the camouplet cavity (crater after explosion near free surface), destruction of the rock massif near explosion centre, creation of the stress wave, which forms seismoexplosive effect a long distance from explosion epicentre. Qualitative likeness of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions is the base of modelling the mechanical effects of the underground nuclear explosion. In this paper we`ll compare two explosions: nuclear (15-04-84) and chemical (27.06.95) with large power. These explosions were realized at the same geological conditions at Degelen test area, which is a part of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. In the case of the nuclear explosion, the charge was disposed in the face of the deep horizontal gallery. The charge of the chemical explosion was a semisphere from explosives at the rock massif surface. In the both case rock massif behavior after explosions was investigated at underground conditions (in the case of chemical explosion -- in the long underground excavation from explosion epicentre). Mechanical effects from the nuclear and chemical explosions were investigated with the same methods. The changes in geological medium after a large-scale explosive actions will be analyzed in detail too. Investigations of the influence of tectonic energy on the mechanical effects after underground nuclear, explosions represents the main interest. In this paper we`ll discuss this question on the data from underground nuclear explosion, realized 08.09.89 in the deep well at the Balapan test area, at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  17. Comparison of Mount Saint Helens volcanic eruption to a nuclear explosion. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomena and effects of airblast, ground shock, thermal radiation, cratering and ejecta, and debris cloud and deposition from the eruption of Mt. St. Helens were compared to those that would result from a nuclear explosion to determine if phenomena or effects were analogous and thus might provide useful data for military nuclear weapon effects studies. It is concluded that the phenomena are not analogous. In particular, airblast destruction was caused by clouds of ash driven by subsonic winds, rather than by a supersonic shock wave that would be the damage mechanism of a nuclear explosion. Because of the lack of analogy between the eruption and nuclear explosion phenomena, it appears questionable that any of the effects are analogous; therefore, it is unlikely that anything more of military interest can be gained from studying the effects of the eruption. However, key contacts for further information on the eruption and the associated research studies are given. The comparison of the eruption of Mt. St. Helens to the explosion of a 10- to 20-megaton nuclear weapon is misleading. Such comparisons serve no useful purpose and should be avoided.

  18. Portable flow immunosensor for detecting drugs and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterbeck, Anne W.; Gauger, Paul R.; Charles, Paul T.

    1997-02-01

    To assist in airport surveillance efforts, a biosensor based on antibody recognition of individual explosives and drugs has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. Analysis of samples containing ng/mL levels of the material are completed in under one minute. Immunoassays for the explosives and the five major drugs of abuse are currently available. The intrinsic nature of antigen-antibody binding also provides the unit with an inherently high degree of selectivity. A portable version of the biosensor that can be run by non-technical personnel is also being engineered. The device, including pumps and fluorometer, will be housed on a modified PCMCIA cartridge fitted into a laptop computer. To run assays, a disposable coupon containing the antibody/fluorescent-antigen complex is inserted into the unit and samples are introduced via a sampling port. Results can be viewed in real time or stored on the computer for later data retrieval and analysis.

  19. Development of SRM 2907 trace terrorist explosives simulants for the detection of Semtex and triacetone triperoxide.

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, William; Moore, Stephanie; Hancock, Diane

    2011-12-01

    Effective and accurate detection of trace explosives is crucial in the effort to thwart terrorist explosives attacks. A National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) has been developed for the evaluation of trace explosives detectors that sample by collection of residue particles using swiping or air filtration. SRM 2907 Trace Terrorist Explosives Simulants consists of two materials individually simulating the residues of the plastic explosive Semtex [for pentaerytritol tetranitrate (PETN)] and the improvised explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP). Unique challenges were encountered in the development of these materials, including the selection of suitable inert substrates, material preparation, thermal stability testing, and analytical method development. Two independent analytical methods based on liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance and mass spectrometric detection, LC-UV and LC/MS, respectively, were developed and used to certify the mass fractions of PETN and TATP. These materials were further evaluated for their suitability on a field swipe-sampled trace explosives detectors based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). PMID:22004378

  20. Training Protocols for the Detection of Explosive Vapors in Interior Spaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James M.; Webb, Stephen W.

    2007-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations for dispersal of explosive vapors in interior spaces have been performed including details of typical ventilation systems. The interior spaces investigated include an office area, a single-family house, and a warehouse store. Explosive vapor sources are defined in the various interior spaces, and contours of the vapor concentration in the interior spaces relative to the source concentration are presented for relative concentrations down to 10-5. Training protocols for detection of explosive vapors in interior spaces should include an awareness of the time to equilibrium evident in these simulations as well as the significance of ventilation zones.3

  1. Detection of explosive hazards using spectrum features from forward-looking ground penetrating radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Justin; Havens, Timothy C.; Ho, K. C.; Keller, James M.; Ton, Tuan T.; Wong, David C.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2011-06-01

    Buried explosives have proven to be a challenging problem for which ground penetrating radar (GPR) has shown to be effective. This paper discusses an explosive hazard detection algorithm for forward looking GPR (FLGPR). The proposed algorithm uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain spectral features of anomalies in the FLGPR imagery. Results show that the spectral characteristics of explosive hazards differ from that of background clutter and are useful for rejecting false alarms (FAs). A genetic algorithm (GA) is developed in order to select a subset of spectral features to produce a more generalized classifier. Furthermore, a GA-based K-Nearest Neighbor probability density estimator is employed in which targets and false alarms are used as training data to produce a two-class classifier. The experimental results of this paper use data collected by the US Army and show the effectiveness of spectrum based features in the detection of explosive hazards.

  2. Latent fingerprint and trace explosives detection by photoluminescence and time-resolved imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldin, Kimberly Kay

    Latent fingerprint detection by photoluminescence is a well-developed field. Many development techniques exist and are currently being employed in forensic laboratories to detect fingerprints by making them luminescent. However, in forensic science, time-resolved imaging techniques, designed to suppress background fluorescence that interferes with fingerprint detectability, are to date not used outside of the research laboratory, and the chemistry necessary to use time-resolved imaging for fingerprint detection is somewhat limited. For this reason, the first section of this dissertation deals with fingerprint detection methods that have direct application to time-resolved imaging techniques. Trace explosive detection field methods based on chemical reactions have until recently utilized only colorimetric products. To increase the sensitivity of such detection, a field explosive test kit which produces a product that is both colorimetric and luminescent is studied. Detection sensitivity can be gained by taking advantage of the luminescence of these products, something that has not been done to date. When the appropriate chemistry is chosen for explosive detection, time-resolved imaging techniques may again be applicable. This dissertation thus looks at possibilities of taking trace explosives detection to this next level.

  3. Production and dissolution of nuclear explosive melt glasses at underground test sites in the Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.; Smith, D.K.

    1998-11-06

    From 1975 to 1996 the French detonated 140 underground nuclear explosions beneath the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa in the South Pacific; from 1965 to 1971 the United States detonated three high yield nuclear tests beneath Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain. Approximately 800 metric tons of basalt is melted per kiloton of nuclear yield; almost lo7 metric tons of basalt were melted in these tests. Long-lived and toxic radionuclides are partitioned into the melt glass at the time of explosion and are released by dissolution with seawater under saturated conditions. A glass dissolution model predicts that nuclear melt glasses at these sites will dissolve in lo6 to lo7 yea

  4. Trace Detection of RDX, HMX and PETN Explosives Using a Fluorescence Spot Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Huang, Helin; Bunes, Benjamin R.; Wu, Na; Xu, Miao; Yang, Xiaomei; Yu, Li; Zang, Ling

    2016-05-01

    1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), the major components in plastic explosives, pose a significant threat to public safety. A quick, sensitive, and low-cost detection method for these non-volatile explosives is eagerly demanded. Here we present a fluo-spot approach, which can be employed for in situ detection of trace amount of explosives. The sensor molecule is a charge-transfer fluorophore, DCM, which is strongly fluorescent in its pristine state, but non-fluorescent after the quick reaction with NO2· (or NO2+) generated from the UV photolysis of RDX, HMX (or PETN). When fabricated within silica gel TLC plate, the fluo-spot sensor features high sensitivity owing to the large surface area and porous structure of the substrate. The sensor reaction mechanism was verified by various experimental characterizations, including chromatography, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, MS and 1H NMR spectrometry. The fluo-spot also demonstrated high selectivity towards RDX, HMX and PETN, as no significant fluorescence quenching was observed for other chemical compounds including common nitro-aromatic explosives and inorganic oxidative compounds. The DCM sensor can also be used as an economical spray kit to directly spot the explosives by naked eyes, implying great potential for quick, low-cost trace explosives detection.

  5. Trace Detection of RDX, HMX and PETN Explosives Using a Fluorescence Spot Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Huang, Helin; Bunes, Benjamin R; Wu, Na; Xu, Miao; Yang, Xiaomei; Yu, Li; Zang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), the major components in plastic explosives, pose a significant threat to public safety. A quick, sensitive, and low-cost detection method for these non-volatile explosives is eagerly demanded. Here we present a fluo-spot approach, which can be employed for in situ detection of trace amount of explosives. The sensor molecule is a charge-transfer fluorophore, DCM, which is strongly fluorescent in its pristine state, but non-fluorescent after the quick reaction with NO2· (or NO2(+)) generated from the UV photolysis of RDX, HMX (or PETN). When fabricated within silica gel TLC plate, the fluo-spot sensor features high sensitivity owing to the large surface area and porous structure of the substrate. The sensor reaction mechanism was verified by various experimental characterizations, including chromatography, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, MS and (1)H NMR spectrometry. The fluo-spot also demonstrated high selectivity towards RDX, HMX and PETN, as no significant fluorescence quenching was observed for other chemical compounds including common nitro-aromatic explosives and inorganic oxidative compounds. The DCM sensor can also be used as an economical spray kit to directly spot the explosives by naked eyes, implying great potential for quick, low-cost trace explosives detection. PMID:27146290

  6. Laser-based standoff detection of surface-bound explosive chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, David L.; Smith, Gregory P.; Oser, Harald

    2010-04-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential damage from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as suicide, roadside, or vehicle bombs requires that the explosive device be detected and neutralized outside its effective blast radius. Only a few seconds may be available to both identify the device as hazardous and implement a response. As discussed in a study by the National Research Council, current technology is still far from capable of meeting these objectives. Conventional nitrocarbon explosive chemicals have very low vapor pressures, and any vapors are easily dispersed in air. Many pointdetection approaches rely on collecting trace solid residues from dust particles or surfaces. Practical approaches for standoff detection are yet to be developed. For the past 5 years, SRI International has been working toward development of a novel scheme for standoff detection of explosive chemicals that uses infrared (IR) laser evaporation of surfacebound explosive followed by ultraviolet (UV) laser photofragmentation of the explosive chemical vapor, and then UV laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of nitric oxide. This method offers the potential of long standoff range (up to 100 m or more), high sensitivity (vaporized solid), simplicity (no spectrometer or library of reference spectra), and selectivity (only nitrocompounds).

  7. Trace Detection of RDX, HMX and PETN Explosives Using a Fluorescence Spot Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Huang, Helin; Bunes, Benjamin R.; Wu, Na; Xu, Miao; Yang, Xiaomei; Yu, Li; Zang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), the major components in plastic explosives, pose a significant threat to public safety. A quick, sensitive, and low-cost detection method for these non-volatile explosives is eagerly demanded. Here we present a fluo-spot approach, which can be employed for in situ detection of trace amount of explosives. The sensor molecule is a charge-transfer fluorophore, DCM, which is strongly fluorescent in its pristine state, but non-fluorescent after the quick reaction with NO2· (or NO2+) generated from the UV photolysis of RDX, HMX (or PETN). When fabricated within silica gel TLC plate, the fluo-spot sensor features high sensitivity owing to the large surface area and porous structure of the substrate. The sensor reaction mechanism was verified by various experimental characterizations, including chromatography, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, MS and 1H NMR spectrometry. The fluo-spot also demonstrated high selectivity towards RDX, HMX and PETN, as no significant fluorescence quenching was observed for other chemical compounds including common nitro-aromatic explosives and inorganic oxidative compounds. The DCM sensor can also be used as an economical spray kit to directly spot the explosives by naked eyes, implying great potential for quick, low-cost trace explosives detection. PMID:27146290

  8. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    PubMed

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined. PMID:16920155

  9. Fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions. 1982 Asilomar Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.B.; Alger, R.S.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a Federal Emergency Management Agency-sponsored Conference on fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions (with passing attention to earthquakes and other nonnuclear mishaps). This conference, the fifth of an annual series (formally called Blast/Fire Interaction Conferences), was held during the week of April 25, 1982, again at Asilomar, California.

  10. A Story Too Good to Kill: The "Nuclear" Explosion in San Francisco Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badash, Lawrence; Hewlett, Richard G.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an explosion in Port Chicago (California) that a journalist later ascribed to a nuclear weapon, explains how his conclusions can be refuted, discusses the sociology of publishing such spectacular claims, and suggests how historians might better assist journalists in evaluating such claims. (40 references) (LRW)

  11. Unambiguous detection of nitrated explosive vapours by fluorescence quenching of dendrimer films

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yan; Ali, Mohammad A.; Clulow, Andrew J.; Fan, Shengqiang; Burn, Paul L.; Gentle, Ian R.; Meredith, Paul; Shaw, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Unambiguous and selective standoff (non-contact) infield detection of nitro-containing explosives and taggants is an important goal but difficult to achieve with standard analytical techniques. Oxidative fluorescence quenching is emerging as a high sensitivity method for detecting such materials but is prone to false positives—everyday items such as perfumes elicit similar responses. Here we report thin films of light-emitting dendrimers that detect vapours of explosives and taggants selectively—fluorescence quenching is not observed for a range of common interferents. Using a combination of neutron reflectometry, quartz crystal microbalance and photophysical measurements we show that the origin of the selectivity is primarily electronic and not the diffusion kinetics of the analyte or its distribution in the film. The results are a major advance in the development of sensing materials for the standoff detection of nitro-based explosive vapours, and deliver significant insights into the physical processes that govern the sensing efficacy. PMID:26370931

  12. Shell and explosive hydrogen burning. Nuclear reaction rates for hydrogen burning in RGB, AGB and Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeltzig, A.; Bruno, C. G.; Cavanna, F.; Cristallo, S.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; deBoer, R. J.; Di Leva, A.; Ferraro, F.; Imbriani, G.; Marigo, P.; Terrasi, F.; Wiescher, M.

    2016-04-01

    The nucleosynthesis of light elements, from helium up to silicon, mainly occurs in Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and Novae. The relative abundances of the synthesized nuclides critically depend on the rates of the nuclear processes involved, often through non-trivial reaction chains, combined with complex mixing mechanisms. In this paper, we summarize the contributions made by LUNA experiments in furthering our understanding of nuclear reaction rates necessary for modeling nucleosynthesis in AGB stars and Novae explosions.

  13. An explosives detection system for airline security using coherent x-ray scattering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Robert W.; Mahdavieh, Jacob; Smith, Richard C.; Subramanian, Ravi

    2008-08-01

    L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems (SDS) has developed a new system for automated alarm resolution in airline baggage Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) based on coherent x-ray scattering spectroscopy. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated in tests with concealed explosives at the Transportation Security Laboratory and airline passenger baggage at Orlando International Airport. The system uses x-ray image information to identify suspicious objects and performs targeted diffraction measurements to classify them. This extra layer of detection capability affords a significant reduction in the rate of false alarm objects that must presently be resolved by opening passenger bags for hand inspection.

  14. Surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, H.J.

    1980-11-03

    Seismic surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain is studied through a series of synthetic radiation-pattern calculations based on the earthquake-trigger model. From amplitude and phase radiation patterns for 20-s Rayleigh waves, inferences are made about effects on surface-wave magnitude, M/sub s/, and waveform character. The focus of this study is a comparison between two mechanisms of tectonic strain release: strike-slip motion on vertical faults and thrust motion on 45/sup 0/ dipping faults. The results of our calculations show that Rayleigh-wave amplitudes of the dip-slip model at F values between 0.75 and 1.5 are significantly lower than amplitudes of the strike-slip model or of the explosion source alone. This effect translates into M/sub s/ values about 0.5 units lower than M/sub s/ of the explosion alone. Waveform polarity reversals occur in two of four azimuthal quadrants for the strike-slip model and in all azimuths of the dip-slip-thrust model for F values above about 3. A cursory examination of waveforms from presumed explosions in eastern Kazakhstan suggests that releases of tectonic strain are accompanying the detonation of many of these explosions. Qualitatively, the observations seem to favor the dip-slip-thrust model, which, in the case of a few explosions, must have F values above 3.

  15. Ambient pressure laser desorption and laser-induced acoustic desorption ion mobility spectrometry detection of explosives.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Sven; Walte, Andreas; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-11-19

    The development of fast, mobile, and sensitive detection systems for security-relevant substances is of enormous importance. Because of the low vapor pressures of explosives and improvised explosive devices, adequate sampling procedures are crucial. Ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs) are fast and sensitive instruments that are used as detection systems for explosives. Ambient pressure laser desorption (APLD) and ambient pressure laser-induced acoustic desorption (AP-LIAD) are new tools suitable to evaporate explosives in order to detect them in the vapor phase. Indeed, the most important advantage of APLD or AP-LIAD is the capability to sample directly from the surface of interest without any transfer of the analyte to other surfaces such as wipe pads. A much more gentle desorption, compared to classical thermal-based desorption, is possible with laser-based desorption using very short laser pulses. With this approach the analyte molecules are evaporated in a very fast process, comparable to a shock wave. The thermal intake is reduced considerably. The functionality of APLD and AP-LIAD techniques combined with a hand-held IMS system is shown for a wide range of common explosives such as EGDN (ethylene glycol dinitrate), urea nitrate, PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate), HMTD (hexamethylene triperoxide diamine), RDX (hexogen), tetryl (2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine), and TNT (trinitrotoluene). Detection limits down to the low nanogram range are obtained. The successful combination of IMS detection and APLD/AP-LIAD sampling is shown. PMID:24116702

  16. Multichannel Detection and Differentiation of Explosives with a Quantum Dot Array.

    PubMed

    Peveler, William J; Roldan, Alberto; Hollingsworth, Nathan; Porter, Michael J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2016-01-26

    The sensing and differentiation of explosive molecules is key for both security and environmental monitoring. Single fluorophores are a widely used tool for explosives detection, but a fluorescent array is a more powerful tool for detecting and differentiating such molecules. By combining array elements into a single multichannel platform, faster results can be obtained from smaller amounts of sample. Here, five explosives are detected and differentiated using quantum dots as luminescent probes in a multichannel platform: 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), tetryl (2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). The sharp, variable emissions of the quantum dots, from a single excitation wavelength, make them ideal for such a system. Each color quantum dot is functionalized with a different surface receptor via a facile ligation process. These receptors undergo nonspecific interactions with the explosives, inducing variable fluorescence quenching of the quantum dots. Pattern analysis of the fluorescence quenching data allows for explosive detection and identification with limits-of-detection in the ppb range. PMID:26579950

  17. Trace Level Detection of Explosives in Solution Using Leidenfrost Phenomenon Assisted Thermal Desorption Ambient Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Shida, Yasuo; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates the detection of explosives in solution using thermal desorption technique at a temperature higher than Leidenfrost temperature of the solvent in combination with low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization. Leidenfrost temperature of a solvent is the temperature above which the solvent droplet starts levitation instead of splashing when placed on a hot metallic surface. During this desorption process, slow and gentle solvent evaporation takes place, which leads to the pre-concentration of less-volatile explosive molecules in the droplet and the explosive molecules are released at the last moment of droplet evaporation. The limits of detection for explosives studied by using this thermal desorption LTP ionization method varied in a range of 1 to 10 parts per billion (ppb) using a droplet volume of 20 μL (absolute sample amount 90–630 fmol). As LTP ionization method was applied and ion–molecule reactions took place in ambient atmosphere, various ion–molecule adduct species like [M+NO2]−, [M+NO3]−, [M+HCO3]−, [M+HCO4]− were generated together with [M−H]− peak. Each peak was unambiguously identified using ‘Exactive Orbitrap’ mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode within 3 ppm deviation compared to its exact mass. This newly developed technique was successfully applied to detect four explosives contained in the pond water and soil sample with minor sample pre-treatment and the explosives were detected with ppb levels. The present method is simple, rapid and can detect trace levels of explosives with high specificity from solutions. PMID:24349927

  18. Nuclear subsurface explosion modeling and hydrodynamic fragmentation simulation of hazardous asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premaratne, Pavithra Dhanuka

    Disruption and fragmentation of an asteroid using nuclear explosive devices (NEDs) is a highly complex yet a practical solution to mitigating the impact threat of asteroids with short warning time. A Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) concept, developed at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC), consists of a primary vehicle that acts as kinetic impactor and a secondary vehicle that houses NEDs. The kinetic impactor (lead vehicle) strikes the asteroid creating a crater. The secondary vehicle will immediately enter the crater and detonate its nuclear payload creating a blast wave powerful enough to fragment the asteroid. The nuclear subsurface explosion modeling and hydrodynamic simulation has been a challenging research goal that paves the way an array of mission critical information. A mesh-free hydrodynamic simulation method, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) was utilized to obtain both qualitative and quantitative solutions for explosion efficiency. Commercial fluid dynamics packages such as AUTODYN along with the in-house GPU accelerated SPH algorithms were used to validate and optimize high-energy explosion dynamics for a variety of test cases. Energy coupling from the NED to the target body was also examined to determine the effectiveness of nuclear subsurface explosions. Success of a disruption mission also depends on the survivability of the nuclear payload when the secondary vehicle approaches the newly formed crater at a velocity of 10 km/s or higher. The vehicle may come into contact with debris ejecting the crater which required the conceptual development of a Whipple shield. As the vehicle closes on the crater, its skin may also experience extreme temperatures due to heat radiated from the crater bottom. In order to address this thermal problem, a simple metallic thermal shield design was implemented utilizing a radiative heat transfer algorithm and nodal solutions obtained from hydrodynamic simulations.

  19. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  20. A simulation study of fast neutron interrogation for standoff detection of improvised explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heider, S. A.; Dunn, W. L.

    2015-11-01

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique utilizes radiation detector responses, called "signatures," and compares these to "templates" in order to differentiate targets that contain certain materials, such as explosives or drugs, from those that do not. Our investigations are aimed at the detection of nitrogen-rich explosives contained in improvised explosive devices. We use the term "clutter" to refer to any non-explosive materials with which the interrogating radiation may interact between source and detector. To deal with the many target types and clutter configurations that may be encountered in the field, the use of "artificial templates" is proposed. The MCNP code was used to simulate 14.1 MeV neutron source beams incident on one type of target containing various clutter and sample materials. Signatures due to inelastic-scatter and prompt-capture gamma rays from hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and two scattered neutron signatures were considered. Targets containing explosive materials in the presence of clutter were able to be identified from targets that contained only non-explosive ("inert") materials. This study demonstrates that a finite number of artificial templates is sufficient for IED detection with fairly good sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Fingerprinting postblast explosive residues by portable capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Kobrin, Eeva-Gerda; Lees, Heidi; Fomitšenko, Maria; Kubáň, Petr; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2014-04-01

    A portable capillary electrophoretic system with contactless conductivity detection was used for fingerprint analysis of postblast explosive residues from commercial organic and improvised inorganic explosives on various surfaces (sand, concrete, metal witness plates). Simple extraction methods were developed for each of the surfaces for subsequent simultaneous capillary electrophoretic analysis of anions and cations. Dual-opposite end injection principle was used for fast (<4 min) separation of 10 common anions and cations from postblast residues using an optimized separation electrolyte composed of 20 mM MES, 20 mM l-histidine, 30 μM CTAB and 2 mM 18-crown-6. The concentrations of all ions obtained from the electropherograms were subjected to principal component analysis to classify the tested explosives on all tested surfaces, resulting in distinct cluster formations that could be used to verify (each) type of the explosive. PMID:24375169

  2. Laminography using resonant neutron attenuation for detection of drugs and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveman, R. A.; Feinstein, R. L.; Bendahan, J.; Gozani, T.; Shea, P.

    1997-02-01

    Resonant neutron attenuation has been shown to be usable for assaying elements which constitute explosives, cocaine, and heroin. By careful analysis of attenuation measurements, the determination of the presence or absence of explosives can be determined. Simple two dimensional radiographic techniques only give results for areal density and consequently will be limited in their effectiveness. Classical tomographic techniques are both computationally very intensive and place strict requirements on the quality and amount of data acquired. These requirements and computations take time and are likely to be very difficult to perform in real time. Simulation studies described in this article have shown that laminographic image reconstruction can be used effectively with resonant neutron attenuation measurements to interrogate luggage for explosives or drugs. The design of the system described in this article is capable of pseudo-three dimensional image reconstruction of all of the elemental densities pertinent to explosive and drug detection.

  3. Standoff detection of explosive substances at distances of up to 150 m.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anadi; Von der Porten, Steven; Patel, C Kumar N

    2010-04-10

    We report detection and identification of trace quantities of explosives at standoff distances up to 150 m with high sensitivity (signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 70) and high selectivity. The technique involves illuminating the target object with laser radiation at a wavelength that is strongly absorbed by the target. The resulting temperature rise is observed by remotely monitoring the increased blackbody radiation from the sample. An unambiguous determination of the target, TNT, in soil samples collected from an explosives test site in China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station is achieved through the use of a tunable CO(2) laser that scans over the absorption fingerprint of the target explosives. The theoretical analysis supports the observation and indicates that, with optimized detectors and data processing algorithms, the measurement capability can be improved significantly, permitting rapid standoff detection of explosives at distances approaching 1 km. The detection sensitivity varies as R(-2) and, thus, with the availability of high power, room-temperature, tunable mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers, this technology may play an important role in screening personnel and their belongings at short distances, such as in airports, for detecting and identifying explosives material residue on persons. PMID:20390007

  4. Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kaazik, P.B.; Kostyuchenko, V.N.; Kuznetsov, O.P.; Nedoshivin, N.I.; Rubinshtein, K.D.; Sultanov, D.D.

    1995-04-01

    The report is carried out by the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences under contract NB280344 with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California. The work includes investigation of seismic waves generation and propagation from Soviet peaceful underground nuclear explosions in salt based on the data from temporary and permanent seismic stations. The explosions were conducted at the sites Azgir and Vega within the territory of the Caspian depression of the Russian platform. The data used were obtained in the following conditions of conduction: epicentral distance range from 0 to 60 degrees, yields from 1 to 65 kt and depths of burial from 160 to 1500 m.

  5. REGIONAL SEISMIC CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR EXPLOSION DISCRIMINATION: WESTERN U.S. EXAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Taylor, S R; Matzel, E; Gok, R; Heller, S; Johnson, V

    2006-07-07

    We continue exploring methodologies to improve regional explosion discrimination using the western U.S. as a natural laboratory. The western U.S. has abundant natural seismicity, historic nuclear explosion data, and widespread mine blasts, making it a good testing ground to study the performance of regional explosion discrimination techniques. We have assembled and measured a large set of these events to systematically explore how to best optimize discrimination performance. Nuclear explosions can be discriminated from a background of earthquakes using regional phase (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg) amplitude measures such as high frequency P/S ratios. The discrimination performance is improved if the amplitudes can be corrected for source size and path length effects. We show good results are achieved using earthquakes alone to calibrate for these effects with the MDAC technique (Walter and Taylor, 2001). We show significant further improvement is then possible by combining multiple MDAC amplitude ratios using an optimized weighting technique such as Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). However this requires data or models for both earthquakes and explosions. In many areas of the world regional distance nuclear explosion data is lacking, but mine blast data is available. Mine explosions are often designed to fracture and/or move rock, giving them different frequency and amplitude behavior than contained chemical shots, which seismically look like nuclear tests. Here we explore discrimination performance differences between explosion types, the possible disparity in the optimization parameters that would be chosen if only chemical explosions were available and the corresponding effect of that disparity on nuclear explosion discrimination. Even after correcting for average path and site effects, regional phase ratios contain a large amount of scatter. This scatter appears to be due to variations in source properties such as depth, focal mechanism, stress drop, in the near source

  6. Detection of bulk explosives using the GPR only portion of the HSTAMIDS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabony, Joshua; Carlson, Douglas O.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Torres-Rosario, Juan

    2010-04-01

    The legacy AN/PSS-14 (Army-Navy Portable Special Search-14) Handheld Mine Detecting Set (also called HSTAMIDS for Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System) has proven itself over the last 7 years as the state-of-the-art in land mine detection, both for the US Army and for Humanitarian Demining groups. Its dual GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) and MD (Metal Detection) sensor has provided receiver operating characteristic curves (probability of detection or Pd versus false alarm rate or FAR) that routinely set the mark for such devices. Since its inception and type-classification in 2003 as the US (United States) Army standard, the desire for use of the AN/PSS-14 against alternate threats - such as bulk explosives - has recently become paramount. To this end, L-3 CyTerra has developed and tested bulk explosive detection and discrimination algorithms using only the Stepped Frequency Continuous Wave (SFCW) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) portion of the system, versus the fused version that is used to optimally detect land mines. Performance of the new bulk explosive algorithm against representative zero-metal bulk explosive target and clutter emplacements is depicted, with the utility to the operator also described.

  7. Laser based in-situ and standoff detection of chemical warfare agents and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-09-01

    Laser based detection of gaseous, liquid and solid residues and trace amounts has been developed ever since lasers were invented. However, the lack of availability of reasonably high power tunable lasers in the spectral regions where the relevant targets can be interrogated as well as appropriate techniques for high sensitivity, high selectivity detection has hampered the practical exploitation of techniques for the detection of targets important for homeland security and defense applications. Furthermore, emphasis has been on selectivity without particular attention being paid to the impact of interfering species on the quality of detection. Having high sensitivity is necessary but not a sufficient condition. High sensitivity assures a high probability of detection of the target species. However, it is only recently that the sensor community has come to recognize that any measure of probability of detection must be associated with a probability of false alarm, if it is to have any value as a measure of performance. This is especially true when one attempts to compare performance characteristics of different sensors based on different physical principles. In this paper, I will provide a methodology for characterizing the performance of sensors utilizing optical absorption measurement techniques. However, the underlying principles are equally application to all other sensors. While most of the current progress in high sensitivity, high selectivity detection of CWAs, TICs and explosives involve identifying and quantifying the target species in-situ, there is an urgent need for standoff detection of explosives from safe distances. I will describe our results on CO2 and quantum cascade laser (QCL) based photoacoustic sensors for the detection of CWAs, TICs and explosives as well the very new results on stand-off detection of explosives at distances up to 150 meters. The latter results are critically important for assuring safety of military personnel in battlefield

  8. Fusing geophysical signatures of locally recorded surface explosions to improve blast detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Nemzek, Robert; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Sentz, Kari

    2016-03-01

    We recorded acoustic, seismic and radio-frequency signatures of 70 solid charge (˜2-12 kg) surface explosions (shots) at local distances (0.1-1.5 km) to determine if such signals could be fused for blast monitoring. We observed that each geophysical signature was sufficiently repeatable between similar shots to be identifiable with multichannel correlation detectors. Using template signals from a large explosion, we then processed heavily contaminated data recording a smaller shot with these detectors, and missed or marginally detected the resultant target signals. By then fusing the p-values of these statistics through Fisher's combined probability test, we clearly identified the same explosion signals at thresholds consistent with the false alarm on noise rates of the correlation detectors. This resulting Fisher test thereby provided high-probability detections, zero false alarms and higher theoretical detection capability.

  9. Morphologically manipulated Ag/ZnO nanostructures as surface enhanced Raman scattering probes for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Hamad, Syed; Ahamad Mohiddon, Md.; Soma, Venugopal Rao; Ghanashyam Krishna, M.

    2016-03-01

    The detection of secondary explosive molecules (e.g., ANTA, FOX-7, and CL-20) using Ag decorated ZnO nanostructures as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes is demonstrated. ZnO nanostructures were grown on borosilicate glass substrates by rapid thermal oxidation of metallic Zn films at 500 °C. The oxide nanostructures, including nanosheets and nanowires, emerged over the surface of the Zn film leaving behind the metal residue. We demonstrate that SERS measurements with concentrations as low as 10 μM, of the three explosive molecules ANTA, FOX-7, and CL-20 over ZnO/Ag nanostructures, resulted in enhancement factors of ˜107, ˜107, and ˜104, respectively. These measurements validate the high sensitivity of detection of explosive molecules using Ag decorated ZnO nanostructures as SERS substrates. The Zn metal residue and conditions of annealing play an important role in determining the detection sensitivity.

  10. Extreme Ground Motion Recorded in the Near-Source Region of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W

    2005-01-04

    Free-field recordings of underground nuclear explosions constitute a unique data set within the near-source region of seismic events ranging in magnitude from M3 to M6.5. The term ''free-field'' in this context refers to recordings from instruments emplaced in boreholes or tunnel walls such that the initial portions of the records ({approx}0.1 to 1 second) do not contain effects resulting from reflections at the free surface. In addition to the free-field instruments deployed to record ground motions from selected underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere, surface arrays were routinely deployed to record surface accelerations and velocities from underground nuclear tests conducted at NTS.

  11. Tunable infrared laser detection of pyrolysis products of explosives in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormhoudt, J.; Shorter, J. H.; McManus, J. B.; Kebabian, P. L.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, Charles E.; Davis, W. M.; Cespedes, E. R.

    1996-07-01

    A research program involving two applications of tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) with multipass, long-path absorption cells to the detection of explosives contamination in soils is reported. In the first application, sensitive, specific real-time species concentration measurements by TILDAS have led to new understanding of the processes involved in explosives detection by the heating of contaminated soils and the quantification of the resulting pyrolysis gases. In the second, we present results of our calculations of the properties of astigmatic off-axis resonator absorption cells, which show that useful TILDAS path lengths can be achieved inside a cone penetrometer probe.

  12. Trace detection of explosives using an in-line high-volume sampler, preconcentrator, and Fido explosives detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Russ; Sikes, John

    2010-04-01

    This paper shall demonstrate the results of a prototype system to detect explosive objects and obscured contaminated targets. By combining a high volume sampling nozzle with an inline 2-stage preconcentrator and a Fido, greater standoff is achieved than with the Fido alone. The direct application of this system is on the Autonomous Mine Detection System (AMDS) but could be deployed on a large variety of robotic platforms. It is being developed under the auspices of the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, Countermine Division. This device is one of several detection tools and technologies to be used on the AMDS. These systems will have multiple, and at times, overlapping objectives. One objective is trace detection on the surface of an unknown potential target. By increasing the standoff capabilities of the detector, the fine manipulation of the robot deploying the detector is less critical. Current detectors used on robotic systems must either be directly in the vapor plume or make direct contact with the target. By increasing the standoff, detection is more easily and quickly achieved. The end result detector must overcome cross-contamination, sample throughput, and environmental issues. The paper will provide preliminary results of the prototype system to include data, and where feasible, video of testing results.

  13. Non-aerosol detection of explosives with a continuous flow immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Charles, Paul T; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2003-10-01

    Contamination of groundwater, soil, and the marine environment by explosives is a global issue. Identification, characterization and remediation are all required for a site recognized as contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). For each step, a method to accurately measure the contaminant level is needed. This paper reviews some of the current methods with emphasis on a single biosensor developed in our laboratory. Current regulatory methods require samples to be sent off-site to a certified laboratory resulting in time delays up to a month. A continuous flow biosensor for detection of explosives has been developed and tested for the rapid field screening of environmental samples. The detection system is based on a displacement immunoassay in which monoclonal antibodies to (TNT) and RDX are immobilized on solid substrates, allowed to bind fluorescently labeled antigens, and then exposed to explosives in aqueous samples. Explosive compounds present in the sample displace proportional amounts of the fluorescent label, which can then be measured to determine the original TNT or RDX concentration. The system can accurately detect ppb to ppt levels of explosives in groundwater or seawater samples and in extracts of contaminated soil. The biosensor has applications in environmental monitoring at remediation sites or in the location of underwater unexploded ordnance. PMID:12920500

  14. Dopant-assisted reactive low temperature plasma probe for sensitive and specific detection of explosives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendong; Hou, Keyong; Hua, Lei; Li, Haiyang

    2015-09-01

    A dopant-assisted reactive low temperature plasma (DARLTP) probe was developed for sensitive and specific detection of explosives by a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer. The DARLTP probe was fabricated using a T-shaped quartz tube. The dopant gas was introduced into the plasma stream through a side-tube. Using CH2Cl2 doped wet air as the dopant gas, the detection sensitivities were improved about 4-fold (RDX), 4-fold (PETN), and 3-fold (tetryl) compared with those obtained using the conventional LTP. Furthermore, the formation of [M + (35)Cl](-) and [M + (37)Cl](-) for these explosives enhanced the specificity for their identification. Additionally, the quantities of fragment ions of tetryl and adduct ions such as [RDX + NO2](-) and [PETN + NO2](-) were dramatically reduced, which simplified the mass spectra and avoided the overlap of mass peaks for different explosives. The sensitivity improvement may be attributed to the increased intensity of reactant ion [HNO3 + NO3](-), which was enhanced 4-fold after the introduction of dopant gas. The limits of detection (LODs) for RDX, tetryl, and PETN were down to 3, 6, and 10 pg, respectively. Finally, an explosive mixture was successfully analyzed, demonstrating the potential of the DARLTP probe for qualitative and quantitative analysis of complicated explosives. PMID:26191543

  15. Traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 2009 North Korean underground nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) can induce acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and initiate traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In this paper, we employ a multi-step and multi-order numerical difference method with dual-frequency GPS data to detect ionospheric disturbances triggered by the North Korean UNE on 25 May 2009. Several International GNSS Service (IGS) stations with different distances (400 to 1200 km) from the epicenter were chosen for the experiment. The results show that there are two types of disturbances in the ionospheric disturbance series: high-frequency TIDs with periods of approximately 1 to 2 min and low-frequency waves with period spectrums of 2 to 5 min. The observed TIDs are situated around the epicenter of the UNE, and show similar features, indicating the origin of the observed disturbances is the UNE event. According to the amplitudes, periods and average propagation velocities, the high-frequency and low-frequency TIDs can be attributed to the acoustic waves in the lower ionosphere and higher ionosphere, respectively.

  16. Ionospheric observations of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) using GPS and the Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihye; Helmboldt, Joseph; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Frese, Ralph R. B.; Wilson, Thomas L.

    2013-07-01

    Observations from Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope recorded traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs), detonated in September 1992. The slant TEC (STEC) data derived from GPS observations were processed for all ray paths to isolate TIDs. For the TIDs from the Hunters Trophy test on 18 September 1992 and the Divider test on 23 September 1992, the propagated mean velocities of the TIDs were about 573 m/s and 740 m/s with standard deviations of 85 m/s and 135 m/s, respectively. For the VLA observations, the spectral analysis produced three-dimensional fluctuation spectral cubes for the Hunters Trophy event. The arrival time of the TID at the VLA implied a propagation speed of 570-710 m/s. This study suggests the global availability of GNSS tracking networks and new low-frequency (VHF) radio telescopes may offer a method of UNE detection and characterization, which could complement the International Monitoring System (IMS).

  17. Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) based sensor for the detection of explosive compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, Erwan; Howieson, Iain; McCulloch, Michael; Black, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Following Cascade Technologies first success at using Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) for trace gas detection in the continuous emission monitoring market, the core technology platform is now being developed towards homeland security applications. This paper will highlight the potential of QCL based trace gas sensor for detecting vapours of explosives. Furthermore we will present results that let foresee the use of such technologies at addressing security gaps for protection against terrorism in infrastructures where high throughput screening of individuals or items is required. Preliminary measurements have shown that rapid identification, or fingerprinting, of explosive is achievable in 10ms at extrapolated sensitivities in the sub-part per billion range. The experiments were carried out with support form the Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) in the UK and were focused at selecting a variety of explosive compounds and showing their detection using a novel sniffer platform system based on the use of quantum cascade lasers. Preliminary studies on the technology have indicated that direct fingerprinting (detection - identification) of explosive compounds such as NG and tagging agents such as EGDN by sniffing surrounding ambient air is achievable. Furthermore these studies have also indicated that detection of such compounds on packaging used to ship the sealed compounds is possible, making this platform a strong contender for detection through cross contamination on material that have been in contact with each other. Additionally, it was also possible to detect breakdown products associated with sample material NG providing a further capability that could be exploited to enhance the detection and identification of explosive compounds.

  18. Determining the effects of routine fingermark detection techniques on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues on various substrates.

    PubMed

    King, Sam; Benson, Sarah; Kelly, Tamsin; Lennard, Chris

    2013-12-10

    An offender who has recently handled bulk explosives would be expected to deposit latent fingermarks that are contaminated with explosive residues. However, fingermark detection techniques need to be applied in order for these fingermarks to be detected and recorded. Little information is available in terms of how routine fingermark detection methods impact on the subsequent recovery and analysis of any explosive residues that may be present. If an identifiable fingermark is obtained and that fingermark is found to be contaminated with a particular explosive then that may be crucial evidence in a criminal investigation (including acts of terrorism involving improvised explosive devices). The principal aims of this project were to investigate: (i) the typical quantities of explosive material deposited in fingermarks by someone who has recently handled bulk explosives; and (ii) the effects of routine fingermark detection methods on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues in such fingermarks. Four common substrates were studied: paper, glass, plastic (polyethylene plastic bags), and metal (aluminium foil). The target explosive compounds were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), as well as chlorate and nitrate ions. Recommendations are provided in terms of the application of fingermark detection methods on surfaces that may contain explosive residues. PMID:24314527

  19. A human reliability analysis of a nuclear explosives dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in a human reliability analysis (HRA) conducted during a quantitative hazard assessment of a nuclear weapon disassembly process performed at the Pantex plant. The probability of human errors during the disassembly process is an extremely important aspect of estimating accident-sequence frequency for nuclear weapons processing. The methods include the systematic identification of potential human-initiated or enabled accident sequences using an accident-sequence fault tree, the extensive use of walkthroughs and videotaping of the disassembly process, and hands-on testing of postulated human errors. THERP modeling of rule-based behavior and operational data analysis of errors in skill-based behavior are described. A simple method for evaluating the approximate likelihood of nonmalevolent violations of procedures was developed and used to examine the process. The HRA occurred concurrently with process design, so considerable interaction between the analysts and designers occurred and resulted in design changes that are discussed in the paper.

  20. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  1. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  2. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  3. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided wave guided fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2012-10-16

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  4. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided waveguided fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2011-10-18

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  5. Detection of buried explosives using portable neutron sources with nanosecond timing.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A V; Evsenin, A V; Gorshkov, I Yu; Osetrov, O I; Vakhtin, D N

    2004-07-01

    Significant reduction of time needed to identify hidden explosives and other hazardous materials by the "neutron in, gamma out" method has been achieved by introducing timed (nanosecond) neutron sources-the so-called nanosecond neutron analysis technique. Prototype mobile device for explosives' detection based on a timed (nanosecond) isotopic (252)Cf neutron source has been created. The prototype is capable of identifying 400 g of hidden explosives in 10 min. Tests have been also made with a prototype device using timed (nanosecond) neutron source based on a portable D-T neutron generator with built-in segmented detector of accompanying alpha-particles. The presently achieved intensity of the neutron generator is 5x10(7)n/s into 4pi, with over 10(6) of these neutrons being correlated with alpha-particles detected by the built-in alpha-particle detector. Results of measurements with an anti-personnel landmine imitator are presented. PMID:15145438

  6. A portable fluorescence detector for fast ultra trace detection of explosive vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yunhong; He, Gang; Wang, Qi; Fang, Yu

    2011-10-01

    This paper developed a portable detector based on a specific material-based fluorescent sensing film for an ultra trace detection of explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) or its derivate 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), in ambient air or on objects tainted by explosives. The fluorescent sensing films are based on single-layer chemistry and the signal amplification effect of conjugated polymers, which exhibited higher sensitivity and shorter response time to TNT or DNT at their vapor pressures. Due to application of the light emitting diode and the solid state photomultiplier and the cross-correlation-based circuit design technology, the device has the advantages of low-power, low-cost, small size, and an improved signal to noise ratio. The results of the experiments showed that the detector can real-time detect and identify of explosive vapors at extremely low levels; it is suitable for the identification of suspect luggage, forensic analyses, or battlefields clearing.

  7. Optimized thermal desorption for improved sensitivity in trace explosives detection by ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Najarro, Marcela; Dávila Morris, Melissa E; Staymates, Matthew E; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2012-06-01

    In this work we evaluate the influence of thermal desorber temperature on the analytical response of a swipe-based thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for detection of trace explosives. IMS response for several common high explosives ranging from 0.1 ng to 100 ng was measured over a thermal desorber temperature range from 60 °C to 280 °C. Most of the explosives examined demonstrated a well-defined maximum IMS signal response at a temperature slightly below the melting point. Optimal temperatures, giving the highest IMS peak intensity, were 80 °C for trinitrotoluene (TNT), 100 °C for pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 160 °C for cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and 200 °C for cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX). By modifying the desorber temperature, we were able to increase cumulative IMS signal by a factor of 5 for TNT and HMX, and by a factor of 10 for RDX and PETN. Similar signal enhancements were observed for the same compounds formulated as plastic-bonded explosives (Composition 4 (C-4), Detasheet, and Semtex). In addition, mixtures of the explosives exhibited similar enhancements in analyte peak intensities. The increases in sensitivity were obtained at the expense of increased analysis times of up to 20 seconds. A slow sample heating rate as well as slower vapor-phase analyte introduction rate caused by low-temperature desorption enhanced the analytical sensitivity of individual explosives, plastic-bonded explosives, and explosives mixtures by IMS. Several possible mechanisms that can affect IMS signal response were investigated such as thermal degradation of the analytes, ionization efficiency, competitive ionization from background, and aerosol emission. PMID:22498665

  8. Mobile TNA system to detect explosives and drugs concealed in cars and trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendahan, Joseph; Gozani, Tsahi

    1998-12-01

    The drug problem in the U.S. is serious and efforts to fight it are constrained by the lack of adequate means to curb the inflow of smuggled narcotics into the country through cargo containers. Also, events such as the disastrous explosion in Oklahoma City, the IRA bombing in London, and the bombing of the U.S. military residence in Dharan make the development of new tools for the detection of explosives and drugs in vehicles imperative. Thermal neutron analysis (TNA) technology, developed for the detection of explosives in suitcases, and detection of landmines and unexploded ordnance is presently being applied to the nonintrusive detection of significant amounts of explosives and drugs concealed in cars, trucks and large cargo containers. TNA technology is based on the analysis of characteristic gamma rays emitted following thermal neutron capture. A TNA system can be used in a variety of operational scenarios, such as inspection before an unloaded cargo container from a spit is moved to temporary storage, inspection of trucks unloaded from a ferry, or inspection of vehicles parked close to Federal building or military bases. This paper will discuss the detection process and operational scenarios, and will present results from recent simulations and measurements.

  9. Observations of Nuclear Explosive Melt Glass Textures and Surface Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, A B; Smith, D K

    2006-01-17

    This memo report summarizes our current knowledge of the appearance of melt glass formed and subsequently deposited in the subsurface after an underground nuclear test. We have collected archived pictures and melt glass samples from a variety of underground nuclear tests that were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the U.S. nuclear testing program. The purpose of our work is to better determine the actual variation in texture and surface area of the melt glass material. This study is motivated by our need to better determine the rate at which the radionuclides incorporated in the melt glass are released into the subsurface under saturated and partially saturated conditions. The rate at which radionuclides are released from the glass is controlled by the dissolution rate of the glass. Glass dissolution, in turn, is a strong function of surface area, glass composition, water temperature and water chemistry (Bourcier, 1994). This work feeds into an ongoing experimental effort to measure the change in surface area of analog glasses as a function of dissolution rate. The conclusions drawn from this study help bound the variation in the textures of analog glass samples needed for the experimental studies. The experimental work is a collaboration between Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Earth and Environmental Sciences-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (EES-LLNL). On March 4, 1999 we hosted a meeting at LLNL to present and discuss our findings. The names of the attendees appear at the end of this memo. This memo report further serves to outline and summarize the conclusions drawn from our meeting. The United States detonated over 800 underground nuclear tests at the NTS between 1951 and 1992. In an effort to evaluate the performance of the nuclear tests, drill-back operations were carried out to retrieve samples of rock in the vicinity of the nuclear test. Drill-back samples were sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore

  10. Feature optimization in chemometric algorithms for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkham, Daniel W.; Bonick, James R.; Woodka, Marc D.

    2012-06-01

    This paper details the use of a genetic algorithm (GA) as a method to preselect spectral feature variables for chemometric algorithms, using spectroscopic data gathered on explosive threat targets. The GA was applied to laserinduced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy (UVRS) data, in which the spectra consisted of approximately 10000 and 1000 distinct spectral values, respectively. The GA-selected variables were examined using two chemometric techniques: multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM), and the performance from LDA and SVM was fed back to the GA through a fitness function evaluation. In each case, an optimal selection of features was achieved within 20 generations of the GA, with few improvements thereafter. The GA selected chemically significant signatures, such as oxygen and hydron peaks from LIBS spectra and characteristic Raman shifts for AN, TNT, and PETN. Successes documented herein suggest that this GA approach could be useful in analyzing spectroscopic data in complex environments, where the discriminating features of desired targets are not yet fully understood.

  11. Effects of oral administration of metronidazole and doxycycline on olfactory capabilities of explosives detection dogs.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Eileen K; Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Angle, T Craig; Behrend, Ellen N; Moore, George E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of oral administration of metronidazole or doxycycline on olfactory function in explosives detection (ED) dogs. ANIMALS 18 ED dogs. PROCEDURES Metronidazole was administered (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days); the day prior to drug administration was designated day 0. Odor detection threshold was measured with a standard scent wheel and 3 explosives (ammonium nitrate, trinitrotoluene, and smokeless powder; weight, 1 to 500 mg) on days 0, 5, and 10. Lowest repeatable weight detected was recorded as the detection threshold. There was a 10-day washout period, and doxycycline was administered (5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days) and the testing protocol repeated. Degradation changes in the detection threshold for dogs were assessed. RESULTS Metronidazole administration resulted in degradation of the detection threshold for 2 of 3 explosives (ammonium nitrate and trinitrotoluene). Nine of 18 dogs had a degradation of performance in response to 1 or more explosives (5 dogs had degradation on day 5 or 10 and 4 dogs had degradation on both days 5 and 10). There was no significant degradation during doxycycline administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Degradation in the ability to detect odors of explosives during metronidazole administration at 25 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours, indicated a potential risk for use of this drug in ED dogs. Additional studies will be needed to determine whether lower doses would have the same effect. Doxycycline administered at the tested dose appeared to be safe for use in ED dogs. PMID:27463556

  12. Study of thermal decomposition mechanisms and low-level detection of explosives using pulsed photoacoustic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehya, F.; Chaudhary, A. K.; Srinivas, D.; Muralidharan, K.

    2015-11-01

    We report a novel time-resolved photoacoustic-based technique for studying the thermal decomposition mechanisms of some secondary explosives such as RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), picric acid, 4,6-dinitro-5-(4-nitro-1 H-imidazol-1-yl)-1 H-benzo[ d] [1-3] triazole, and 5-chloro-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1 H-tetrazole. A comparison of the thermal decomposition mechanisms of these secondary explosives was made by detecting NO2 molecules released under controlled pyrolysis between 25 and 350 °C. The results show excellent agreement with the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) results. A specially designed PA cell made of stainless steel was filled with explosive vapor and pumped using second harmonic, i.e., λ = 532 nm, pulses of duration 7 ns at a 10 Hz repetition rate, obtained using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The use of a combination of PA and TGA-DTA techniques enables the study of NO2 generation, and this method can be used to scale the performance of these explosives as rocket fuels. The minimum detection limits of the four explosives were 38 ppmv to 69 ppbv, depending on their respective vapor pressures.

  13. Detection and mapping of trace explosives on surfaces under ambient conditions using multiphoton electron extraction spectroscopy (MEES).

    PubMed

    Tang, Shisong; Vinerot, Nataly; Fisher, Danny; Bulatov, Valery; Yavetz-Chen, Yehuda; Schechter, Israel

    2016-08-01

    Multiphoton electron extraction spectroscopy (MEES) is an analytical method in which UV laser pulses are utilized for extracting electrons from solid surfaces in multiphoton processes under ambient conditions. Counting the emitted electrons as a function of laser wavelength results in detailed spectral features, which can be used for material identification. The method has been applied to detection of trace explosives on a variety of surfaces. Detection was possible on dusty swabs spiked with explosives and also in the standard dry-transfer contamination procedure. Plastic explosives could also be detected. The analytical limits of detection (LODs) are in the sub pmole range, which indicates that MEES is one of the most sensitive detection methods for solid surface under ambient conditions. Scanning the surface with the laser allows for its imaging, such that explosives (as well as other materials) can be located. The imaging mode is also useful in forensic applications, such as detection of explosives in human fingerprints. PMID:27216679

  14. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  15. Detection of explosives and related compounds by low-temperature plasma ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Reyes, Juan F; Harper, Jason D; Salazar, Gary A; Charipar, Nicholas A; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-02-01

    Detection of explosives is important for public safety. A recently developed low-temperature plasma (LTP) probe for desorption and ionization of samples in the ambient environment ( Anal. Chem. 2008 , 80 , 9097 ) is applied in a comprehensive evaluation of analytical performance for rapid detection of 13 explosives and explosives-related compounds. The selected chemicals [pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), tetryl, cyclo-1,3,5,7-tetramethylenetetranitrate (HMX), hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 4-nitrotoluene) were tested at levels in the range 1 pg-10 ng. Most showed remarkable sensitivity in the negative-ion mode, yielding limits of detection in the low picogram range, particularly when analyzed from a glass substrate heated to 120 °C. Ions typically formed from these molecules (M) by LTP include [M + NO(2)](-), [M](-), and [M - NO(2)](-). The LTP-mass spectrometry methodology displayed a linear signal response over three orders of magnitude of analyte amount for the studied explosives. In addition, the effects of synthetic matrices and different types of surfaces were evaluated. The data obtained demonstrate that LTP-MS allows detection of ultratrace amounts of explosives and confirmation of their identity. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to confirm the presence of selected explosives at low levels; for example, TNT was confirmed at absolute levels as low as 0.6 pg. Linearity and intra- and interday precision were also evaluated, yielding results that demonstrate the potential usefulness and ruggedness of LTP-MS for the detection of explosives of different classes. The use of ion/molecule reactions to form adducts with particular explosives such as RDX and HMX was shown to enhance the selectivity and specificity. This was accomplished

  16. Numerical simulations of blast/shock wave propagations after nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seungho; Choi, Jung-Il; Li, Yibao; Lee, Changhoon

    2013-11-01

    Pressure waves develop immediately after nuclear explosions and start to move outward from the fireball. The most of initial damages are caused by the blast waves. We performed the blast wave propagations by solving two-dimensional and axisymmetric Euler equations. For shock capturing, inviscid fluxes are discretized using a variant of the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) and an approximate Riemann solver based on Roe's method is used. A clean air burst of fireball above the ground zero is considered. The initial condition of fireball is given at the point of breakaway that shock waves are appeared on the surface of the fireball. The growth of fireball is also calculated by solving one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) equation from point explosion. Characteristics of the blast wave propagations due to the various heights of burst and amount of the nuclear detonations are investigated. The results of parametric studies will be shown in the final presentation. Supported by Agency for Defense Development.

  17. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  18. Seismic Source Characteristics of Nuclear and Chemical Explosions in Granite from Hydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Heming; Rodgers, Arthur J.; Lomov, Ilya N.; Vorobiev, Oleg Y.

    2014-03-01

    Seismic source characteristics of low-yield (0.5-5 kt) underground explosions are inferred from hydrodynamic simulations using a granite material model on high-performance (parallel) computers. We use a non-linear rheological model for granite calibrated to historical near-field nuclear test data. Equivalent elastic P-wave source spectra are derived from the simulated hydrodynamic response using reduced velocity potentials. Source spectra and parameters are compared with the models of M ueller and M urphy (Bull Seism Soc Am 61:1675-1692, 1971, hereafter MM71) and D enny and J ohnson (Explosion source phenomenology, pp 1-24, 1991, hereafter DJ91). The source spectra inferred from the simulations of different yields at normal scaled depth-of-burial (SDOB) match the MM71 spectra reasonably well. For normally buried nuclear explosions, seismic moments are larger for the hydrodynamic simulations than MM71 (by 25 %) and for DJ91 (by over a factor of 2), however, the scaling of moment with yield across this low-yield range is consistent for our calculations and the two models. Spectra from our simulations show higher corner frequencies at the lower end of the 0.5-5.0 kt yield range and stronger variation with yield than the MM71 and DJ91 models predict. The spectra from our simulations have additional energy above the corner frequency, probably related to non-linear near-source effects, but at high frequencies the spectral slopes agree with the f -2 predictions of MM71. Simulations of nuclear explosions for a range of SDOB from 0.5 to 3.9 show stronger variations in the seismic moment than predicted by the MM71 and DJ91 models. Chemical explosions are found to generate higher moments by a factor of about two compared to nuclear explosions of the same yield in granite and at normal depth-of-burial, broadly consistent with comparisons of nuclear and chemical shots at the US Nevada Test Site (D enny, Proceeding of symposium on the non-proliferation experiment, Rockville

  19. Tetrathiafulvalene-capped hybrid materials for the optical detection of explosives.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Yolanda; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Jeppesen, Jan O; Petersen, Lars H; Sancenón, Félix; Marcos, María Dolores; Soto, Juan; Guillem, Carmen; Amorós, Pedro

    2013-03-13

    Mesoporous silica microparticles capped with TTF moieties and containing a ruthenium dye in the pores were used for the turn-on optical detection of the nitroaromatic explosives Tetryl and TNT via a selective pore uncapping and release of the entrapped dye. PMID:23373746

  20. Apparatus and methods for real-time detection of explosives devices

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, Brandon W; Hunt, Alan W; Chichester, David L

    2014-01-07

    The present disclosure relates, according to some embodiments, to apparatus, devices, systems, and/or methods for real-time detection of a concealed or camouflaged explosive device (e.g., EFPs and IEDs) from a safe stand-off distance. Apparatus, system and/or methods of the disclosure may also be operable to identify and/or spatially locate and/or detect an explosive device. An apparatus or system may comprise an x-ray generator that generates high-energy x-rays and/or electrons operable to contact and activate a metal comprised in an explosive device from a stand-off distance; and a detector operable to detect activation of the metal. Identifying an explosive device may comprise detecting characteristic radiation signatures emitted by metals specific to an EFP, an IED or a landmine. Apparatus and systems of the disclosure may be mounted on vehicles and methods of the disclosure may be performed while moving in the vehicle and from a safe stand-off distance.

  1. Stand-off detection of explosives and precursors using compressive sensing Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanqvist, Mattias; Glimtoft, Martin; Ågren, Matilda; Nordberg, Markus; Östmark, Henric

    2016-05-01

    We present initial results on the performance of a compressive sensing setup for Raman imaging spectroscopy for standoff trace explosives detection. Hyperspectral image reconstruction is demonstrated under low signal conditions and successful spatial separation of substances with close lying Raman peaks is shown.

  2. Detection of explosive as an indicator of landmines: BIOSENS project methodology and field tests in Southeast Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabbe, Stephen; Eng, Lars; Gardhagen, Peter; Berg, Anders

    2005-06-01

    The IST-2000-25348-BIOSENS project carried out a number of studies to assess the use of explosive detection technology for humanitarian demining. This paper presents sampling/collection technology developed, test methodology and results including comparisons with dogs and soil sampling. Findings are presented in terms of the detection of explosive from mines in the environment and demining.

  3. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  4. Kink-bands: Shock deformation of biotite resulting from a nuclear explosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, D.

    1965-01-01

    Microscopic examination of granodiorite samples from the shock region around a nuclear explosion reveals sharply folded lens-shaped zones (kink-bands) in the mineral biotite. Fifty percent of these zones are oriented approximately 90?? to the direction of shock-wave propagation, but other zones are symmetrically concentrated at shear angles of 50?? and 70?? to the direction of shock-wave propagation.

  5. A preliminary study on the use of (10)Be in forensic radioecology of nuclear explosion sites.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, N E; Endo, S; Tanaka, K; Takatsuji, T; Hoshi, M; Fukutani, S; Ditchburn, R G; Zondervan, A

    2008-02-01

    Cosmogenic (10)Be, known for use in dating studies, unexpectedly is also produced in nuclear explosions with an atom yield almost comparable to (e.g.) (137)Cs. There are major production routes via (13)C(n, alpha)(10)Be, from carbon dioxide in the air and the organic explosives, possibly from other bomb components and to a minor extent from the direct fission reaction. Although the detailed bomb components are speculative, carbon was certainly present in the explosives and an order of magnitude calculation is possible. The (n, alpha) cross-section was determined by irradiating graphite in a nuclear reactor, and the resulting (10)Be estimated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) giving a cross-section of 34.5+/-0.7mb (6-9.3MeV), within error of previous work. (10)Be should have applications in forensic radioecology. Historical environmental samples from Hiroshima, and Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) showed two to threefold (10)Be excesses compared with the background cosmogenic levels. A sample from Lake Chagan (a Soviet nuclear cratering experiment) contained more (10)Be than previously reported soils. (10)Be may be useful for measuring the fast neutron dose near the Hiroshima bomb hypocenter at neutron energies double those previously available. PMID:17904707

  6. Seismic Source Characteristics of Nuclear Explosions in Water-filled Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. R.; Sultanov, D. D.; Rimer, N.; Barker, B. W.

    - During the period from 1975 to 1979, the former Soviet Union conducted a series a six nuclear explosions in a water-filled cavity in salt which was created in 1968 by a tamped 27kt explosion at a depth of 597m at the Azgir test site at the north end of the Caspian Sea. Broadband, near-regional seismic data recorded from these tests have been processed and analyzed in an attempt to characterize the seismic source characteristics of these explosions and assess their relevance to the cavity decoupling evasion scenario. The results of these analyses indicate that the explosions in the water-filled cavity were not decoupled, but rather show evidence of enhanced seismic coupling with respect to that which would be expected from tamped explosions of the same yields in salt. Theoretical finite difference simulations of these tests have been conducted in which the complex, nonlinear interactions between the shock effects in both the water and surrounding salt medium have been explicitly modeled. The results of these simulations indicate that the most prominent yield dependent features of the observed seismic source functions can be largely explained by the dynamic interactions between the expanding and contracting steam bubbles generated by the explosions in water and the shock-wave reflections from the cavity wall. More specifically, it has been found that the shock-wave reflection from the cavity wall retards the expansion of the steam bubble in a yield dependent fashion relative to that expected in the open ocean, resulting in a smaller maximum bubble radius and a shorter bubble oscillation period.

  7. Hyperspectral microscopy using an external cavity quantum cascade laser and its applications for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, M. C.; Suter, J. D.; Bernacki, B. E.

    2012-01-01

    Using infrared hyperspectral imaging, we demonstrate microscopy of small particles of the explosives compounds RDX, tetryl, and PETN with near diffraction-limited performance. The custom microscope apparatus includes an external cavity quantum cascade laser illuminator scanned over its tuning range of 9.13-10.53 μm in four seconds, coupled with a microbolometer focal plane array to record infrared transmission images. We use the hyperspectral microscopy technique to study the infrared absorption spectra of individual explosives particles, and demonstrate sub-nanogram detection limits.

  8. Highly sensitive detection of nitroaromatic explosives at discrete nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Barry, Sean; Dawson, Karen; Correa, Elon; Goodacre, Royston; O'Riordan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We show a photolithography technique that permits gold nanowire array electrodes to be routinely fabricated at reasonable cost. Nanowire electrode arrays offer the potential for enhancements in electroanalysis such as increased signal-to-noise ratio and increased sensitivity while also allowing quantitative detection at much lower concentrations. We explore application of nanowire array electrodes to the detection of different nitroaromatic species. Characteristic reduction peaks of nitro groups are not observed at nanowire array electrodes using sweep voltammetric methods. By contrast, clear and well-defined reduction peaks are resolved using potential step square wave voltammetry. A Principle Component Analysis technique is employed to discriminate between nitroaromatic species including structural isomers of DNT. The analysis indicates that all compounds are successfully discriminated by unsupervised cluster analysis. Finally, the magnitude of the reduction peak at -671 mV for different concentrations of TNT exhibited excellent linearity with increasing concentrations enabling sub-150 ng mL(-1) limits of detection. PMID:24466670

  9. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents. PMID:27260452

  10. THz standoff detection and imaging of explosives and weapons (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, John F.; Gary, Dale; Barat, Robert; Zimdars, David

    2005-05-01

    Recently, there has been a significant interest in employing Terahertz (THz) technology, spectroscopy and imaging for standoff detection applications. There are three prime motivations for this interest: (a) THz radiation can detect concealed weapons since many non-metallic, non-polar materials are transparent to THz radiation, (b) target compounds such as explosives, and bio/chemical weapons have characteristic THz spectra that can be used to identify these compounds and (c) THz radiation poses no health risk for scanning of people. This paper will provide an overview of THz standoff detection of explosives and weapons including discussions of effective range, spatial resolution, and other limitations. The THz approach will be compared to alternative detection modalities such as x-ray and millimeter wave imaging.

  11. GPS Detection of Ionospheric Waves following the 2003 Explosion of the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Dautermann, T.; Calais, E.

    2006-12-01

    Sources such as volcanic explosions or shallow earthquakes are known to produce pressure waves that propagate at infrasonic speeds in the atmosphere. Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density that are detectable by GPS measurements. We used near- and far-field GPS data around Montserrat (Lesser Antilles) and detected ionospheric perturbations following explosion of the Soufriere Hills Volcano on July 13th , 2003. The wave is detected north of the island, in an area of maximum alignment between a spherical shockwave and the Earth's magnetic field, and travels at an apparent velocity consistent with sound speed. Frequency content ranges between 0.6 mHz and 5 mHz, consistent with previous observations after volcanic explosions. Some of these frequencies are also recorded by borehole strainmeters and seismic stations installed on Montserrat. Using normal mode theory, we show that the coupling of atmospheric waves (triggered by the explosion) back to solid Earth explains the signal observed in the strainmeter data.

  12. Miniaturized Explosive Preconcentrator for Use in a Man-Portable Field Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, David W.; Linker, Kevin L.; Parmeter, John E.; Rhykerd, Charles L.; Varley, Nathan R.

    1999-08-02

    We discuss the design and testing of a miniaturized explosives preconcentrator that can be used to enhance the capabilities of man-portable field detection systems, such as those based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). The preconcentrator is a smaller version of a similar device that was developed recently at Sandia National Laboratories for use in a trace detection portal that screens personnel for explosives. Like its predecessor, this preconcentrator is basically a filtering device that allows a small amount of explosive residue in a large incoming airflow to be concentrated into a much smaller air volume via adsorption and resorption, prior to delivery into a chemical detector. We discuss laboratory testing of this preconcentrator interfaced to a commercially available IMS-based detection system, with emphasis on the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX). The issues investigated include optimization of the preconcentrator volume and inlet airflow, the use of different types of adsorbing surfaces within the preconcentrator, Wd preconcentrator efficiency and concentration factor. We discuss potential field applications of the preconcentrator, as well as avenues for further investigations and improvements.

  13. Detecting the bonding state of explosive welding structures based on EEMD and sensitive IMF time entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Yue; Zhang, Zhousuo; Liu, Qiang; Cheng, Wei; Yuan, Feichen

    2014-07-01

    With the increasing application of explosive welding structures in many engineering fields, interface bonding state detection has become more and more significant to avoid catastrophic accidents. However, the complexity of the interface bonding state makes this task challenging. In this paper, a new method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and sensitive intrinsic mode function (IMF) time entropy is proposed for this task. As a self-adaptive non-stationary signal analysis method, EEMD can decompose a complicated signal into a set of IMFs with truly physical meaning, which is beneficial to allocate the structural vibration response signal containing a wealth of bonding state information to certain IMFs. Then, the time entropies of these IMFs are calculated to quantitatively assess the bonding state of the explosive welding structure. However, the IMF time entropies have different sensitivities to the bonding state. Therefore, the most sensitive IMF time entropy is selected based on a distance evaluation technique to detect the bonding state of explosive welding structures. The proposed method is applied to bonding state detection of explosive welding pipes in three cases, and the results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  14. Noninvasive detection of concealed explosives: depth profiling through opaque plastics by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Ingeborg E Iping; López-López, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Gooijer, Cees; Buijs, Joost B; Ariese, Freek

    2011-11-15

    The detection of explosives concealed behind opaque, diffusely scattering materials is a challenge that requires noninvasive analytical techniques for identification without having to manipulate the package. In this context, this study focuses on the application of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) with a picosecond pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector for the noninvasive identification of explosive materials through several millimeters of opaque polymers or plastic packaging materials. By means of a short (250 ps) gate which can be delayed several hundred picoseconds after the laser pulse, the ICCD detector allows for the temporal discrimination between photons from the surface of a sample and those from deeper layers. TRRS was applied for the detection of the two main isomers of dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene as well as for various other components of explosive mixtures, including akardite II, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Spectra were obtained through different diffuse scattering white polymer materials: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polyethylene (PE). Common packaging materials of various thicknesses were also selected, including polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). With the demonstration of the ability to detect concealed, explosives-related compounds through an opaque first layer, this study may have important applications in the security and forensic fields. PMID:21967622

  15. A NIST standard reference material (SRM) to support the detection of trace explosives.

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, William A

    2009-09-01

    SRM 2905 Trace Particulate Explosives was developed to simulate the residues produced by handling plastic and military explosives. A series of nine candidate materials were prepared by coating chromatographic supports with either Composition C-4 (containing RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine)) or TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene). Criteria for selection of the best material for the SRM included: coating efficiency, extractability with organic solvents, thermal storage stability, consistency of the particle size with fingerprint residues, and suitability for calibration of trace explosives detectors. The final base material selected for the SRM was octadecylsilane-modified silica (C(18)) with a nominal 20-30 microm particle size. Four materials comprise the SRM, with two nominal concentrations of explosive, 0.01% and 0.1% (mass fraction) for both C-4 and TNT, respectively. The final certified concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet absorbance detection (LC/UV) and a liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric (LC/MS) method using negative ion atmospheric pressure ionization (APCI(-)) with an acetate ionization additive that improves quantitation. The SRM was tested on a table-top field explosives detector based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). PMID:19637901

  16. Estimation Source Parameters of Large-Scale Chemical Surface Explosions and Recent Underground Nuclear Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Kim, S.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR), Negev desert: 82 tons of strong HE explosives in August 2009, and 10&100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. The main goal was to provide strong controlled sources in different wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations. Numerous dense observations of blast waves were provided by high-pressure, acoustic and seismic sensors at near-source (< 1 km) and close local (1-40 km) distances. The rarely reported Secondary Shock (SS) phenomenon was clearly observed at the all sensors. A novel empirical relationship for the new air-blast parameter - SS time delay - versus distance (both scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charge) was developed and analyzed. The scaled SS delays were found clearly separated for 2009 and 2011 shots, thus demonstrating dependence on the type of explosives with different detonation velocity. Additional acoustic and seismic records from very large (> 2000 tons) ANFO surface shots at White Sands Military Range (WSMR) were analyzed for SS time delay. The Secondary Shocks were revealed on the records in the range 1.5-60 km and showed consistency with the SMR data, thus extending the charge and distance range for the developed SS delay relationship. Obtained results suggest that measured SS delays can provide important information about an explosion source character, and can be used as a new simple cost-effective yield estimator for explosions with known type of explosives. The new results are compared with analogous available data of surface nuclear explosions. Special distinctions in air-blast waves are revealed and analyzed, resulting from the different source phenomenology (energy release). Two underground nuclear explosions conducted by North Korea in 2009 and 2013 were recorded by several stations of Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the

  17. Physical Limitations of Neutron-Based Explosives Detection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip; Barzilov, Alexander; Paschal, Jon; Hopper, Lindsay; Moore, Ryan; Board, Jeremy; Houchins, Eric; Rice, Ian; Howard, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    Recent events in Madrid and London have once again focused attention on the problem of threat detection using elemental analysis. Neutron-based systems are utilized to perform bulk chemical analysis due to their high chemical specificity and their fairly rapid response time. While there are many acronyms for these systems, their working principle is typically to interrogate the sample with a beam of neutrons and to identify and quantify secondary particle emissions (e.g. photons) and relate these emissions back to number of atoms present of a given element. These systems perform optimally when their designers and operators are aware of the physical limitations inherent in these devices. For example, minimum detection limits are strongly constrained by the signal-to-noise ratio in a given system. The purpose of this paper is not to denigrate any of these systems but to discuss the strengths and limitations of various approaches.

  18. Prediction of ground motion and dynamic stress change in Baekdusan (Changbaishan) volcano caused by a North Korean nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Choi, Eunseo; Park, Seongjun; Shin, Jin Soo

    2016-02-01

    Strong ground motions induce large dynamic stress changes that may disturb the magma chamber of a volcano, thus accelerating the volcanic activity. An underground nuclear explosion test near an active volcano constitutes a direct treat to the volcano. This study examined the dynamic stress changes of the magma chamber of Baekdusan (Changbaishan) that can be induced by hypothetical North Korean nuclear explosions. Seismic waveforms for hypothetical underground nuclear explosions at North Korean test site were calculated by using an empirical Green’s function approach based on a source-spectral model of a nuclear explosion; such a technique is efficient for regions containing poorly constrained velocity structures. The peak ground motions around the volcano were estimated from empirical strong-motion attenuation curves. A hypothetical M7.0 North Korean underground nuclear explosion may produce peak ground accelerations of 0.1684 m/s2 in the horizontal direction and 0.0917 m/s2 in the vertical direction around the volcano, inducing peak dynamic stress change of 67 kPa on the volcano surface and ~120 kPa in the spherical magma chamber. North Korean underground nuclear explosions with magnitudes of 5.0-7.6 may induce overpressure in the magma chamber of several tens to hundreds of kilopascals.

  19. Prediction of ground motion and dynamic stress change in Baekdusan (Changbaishan) volcano caused by a North Korean nuclear explosion.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Choi, Eunseo; Park, Seongjun; Shin, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    Strong ground motions induce large dynamic stress changes that may disturb the magma chamber of a volcano, thus accelerating the volcanic activity. An underground nuclear explosion test near an active volcano constitutes a direct treat to the volcano. This study examined the dynamic stress changes of the magma chamber of Baekdusan (Changbaishan) that can be induced by hypothetical North Korean nuclear explosions. Seismic waveforms for hypothetical underground nuclear explosions at North Korean test site were calculated by using an empirical Green's function approach based on a source-spectral model of a nuclear explosion; such a technique is efficient for regions containing poorly constrained velocity structures. The peak ground motions around the volcano were estimated from empirical strong-motion attenuation curves. A hypothetical M7.0 North Korean underground nuclear explosion may produce peak ground accelerations of 0.1684 m/s(2) in the horizontal direction and 0.0917 m/s(2) in the vertical direction around the volcano, inducing peak dynamic stress change of 67 kPa on the volcano surface and ~120 kPa in the spherical magma chamber. North Korean underground nuclear explosions with magnitudes of 5.0-7.6 may induce overpressure in the magma chamber of several tens to hundreds of kilopascals. PMID:26884136

  20. Prediction of ground motion and dynamic stress change in Baekdusan (Changbaishan) volcano caused by a North Korean nuclear explosion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Choi, Eunseo; Park, Seongjun; Shin, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    Strong ground motions induce large dynamic stress changes that may disturb the magma chamber of a volcano, thus accelerating the volcanic activity. An underground nuclear explosion test near an active volcano constitutes a direct treat to the volcano. This study examined the dynamic stress changes of the magma chamber of Baekdusan (Changbaishan) that can be induced by hypothetical North Korean nuclear explosions. Seismic waveforms for hypothetical underground nuclear explosions at North Korean test site were calculated by using an empirical Green’s function approach based on a source-spectral model of a nuclear explosion; such a technique is efficient for regions containing poorly constrained velocity structures. The peak ground motions around the volcano were estimated from empirical strong-motion attenuation curves. A hypothetical M7.0 North Korean underground nuclear explosion may produce peak ground accelerations of 0.1684 m/s2 in the horizontal direction and 0.0917 m/s2 in the vertical direction around the volcano, inducing peak dynamic stress change of 67 kPa on the volcano surface and ~120 kPa in the spherical magma chamber. North Korean underground nuclear explosions with magnitudes of 5.0–7.6 may induce overpressure in the magma chamber of several tens to hundreds of kilopascals. PMID:26884136

  1. Explosives and landmine detection using an artificial olfactory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Kauer, John S.

    2004-09-01

    We are developing a portable, artificial olfactory system based on multiple attributes of the sense of smell to identify air-borne odors, including those associated with buried landmines. Brief (1-2 sec) air samples are drawn over an array of optically-interrogated, cross-reactive chemical sensors. These consist of polymers with high sensitivity and relatively narrow specificity for nitroaromatics (Timothy Swager, MIT), as well as those with broader responses, thus permitting discrimination among substances that may be confused for nitroaromatics. Biologically-based pattern matching algorithms automatically identify odors as one of several to which the device has been trained. In discrimination tests, after training to one concentration of 6 odors, the device gave 95% correct identification when tested at the original plus three different concentrations. Thus, as required in real world applications, the device can identify odors at multiple concentrations without explicitly training on each. In sensitivity tests, the device showed 100% detection and no false alarms for the landmine-related compound DNT at concentrations as low as 500 pp-trillion (quantified by GC/MS) - 10 times lower than average canine behavioral thresholds. To investigate landmine detection capabilities, field studies were conducted at Ft. Leonard Wood, MO. In calibration tests, signals from buried PMA1A anti-personnel landmines were clearly discriminated from background. In a limited 9 site "blind" test, PMA1A detection was 100% with false alarms of 40%. Although requiring further development, these data indicate that a device with appropriate sensors and exploiting olfactory principles can detect and discriminate low concentration vapor signatures, including those of buried landmines.

  2. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  3. Regional Observations of the 2006 and 2009 Declared North Korea Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pasyanos, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The October 2006 and May 2009 declared North Korean nuclear tests produced regional seismic phases, Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg that were observed at publically available seismic stations such as MDJ and TJN. In comparison with nearby earthquakes, the relatively low amplitudes of the S-wave phases at high frequencies can be used to identify these events as explosion-like, particularly when contrasted with P-waves, as in P/S ratios. However regional phase amplitudes can vary greatly over small distances, particularly as the crust and lithosphere thicknesses and velocity structures change due to tectonic activity. These variations can complicate simple methods to use P/S ratios to discriminate explosions from earthquakes over broad regions, particularly when there are not nearby events for comparison. In addition, when S-waves do not propagate effectively due to strong attenuation or structural variability, all events below a certain magnitude threshold from a source region to a station may have S-wave amplitudes below the P-wave coda level, leading to the large P/S amplitude ratios characteristic of explosions. Here we make use of earthquake spectral source models, and regional propagation models to compare events over the broad region around the Korean Peninsula. In particular we investigate the ability of the multi-phase regional attenuation tomography technique of Pasyanos et al. (2009) to reduce the geographic variability of earthquake P/S values in this region and enhance the ability to identify explosions by their regional phase characteristics.

  4. Detection of explosive materials by differential reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Rolf E.; Fuller, Anna M.; Schöllhorn, Claus; Holloway, Paul H.

    2006-06-01

    It is shown that traces of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) display strong and distinct structures in differential reflectograms, near 420 and 250nm. These characteristic peaks are not observed from moth balls, nail polish, polyvinyl chloride, starch, soap, paper, epoxy, aspirin, polycarbonate, aspartame, polystyrene, polyester, fertilizer, or sugar, to mention a few substances which may be in or on a suitcase. The described technique for detection of TNT is fast, inexpensive, reliable, and portable and does not require contact with the surveyed substance. Moreover, we have developed a curve recognition program for field applications of the technique. The origin of the spectra is discussed.

  5. Laser desorption with corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry for direct surface detection of explosives.

    PubMed

    Sabo, M; Malásková, M; Matejčík, S

    2014-10-21

    We present a new highly sensitive technique for the detection of explosives directly from the surface using laser desorption-corona discharge-ion mobility spectrometry (LD-CD-IMS). We have developed LD based on laser diode modules (LDM) and the technique was tested using three different LDM (445, 532 and 665 nm). The explosives were detected directly from the surface without any further preparation. We discuss the mechanism of the LD and the limitations of this technique such as desorption time, transport time and desorption area. After the evaluation of experimental data, we estimated the potential limits of detection of this method to be 0.6 pg for TNT, 2.8 pg for RDX and 8.4 pg for PETN. PMID:25118619

  6. A Neutron Based Scanner to Detect Explosives in Small, Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Koltick, D.; Sword, E.

    2009-03-10

    A scanning system has been designed for portal protection applications, with the capability of detecting explosive materials after an initial scan of 30 seconds. The scanner operates using the principle of neutron induced return gamma-ray spectrometry. This system utilizes high purity germanium detectors, a neutron generator based on deuterium-tritium fusion and a unique neutron reflector and guide design. The neutron reflector amplifies the flux and alters the energy spectrum of neutrons produced by the generator. A depleted uranium reflector is shown to perform 7.3 times better than no reflector, and is found to perform 1.5 times better than a tungsten reflector using MCNP simulation. This improvement is due to neutron knockout and induced fission occurring in depleted uranium. The system is capable of detecting 300 g of explosives with 90% detection probability, which includes a 15% rescan rate after a 30 second initial scan.

  7. Mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates: a reusable chemsensor for the detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongdong; Yu, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of explosives is in high demand for homeland security and public safety. In this work, electron-rich of anthracene functionalized mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates (En-AlPs) were synthesized by a one-pot condensation process. The mesoporous structure and strong blue emission of En-AlPs were confirmed by the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy images and fluorescence spectra. The materials En-AlPs can serve as sensitive chemosensors for various electron deficient nitroderivatives, with the quenching constant and the detection limit up to 1.5×106 M-1 and 0.3 ppm in water solution. More importantly, the materials can be recycled for many times by simply washed with ethanol, showing potential applications in explosives detection.

  8. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  9. Standoff detection of explosives and buried landmines using fluorescent bacterial sensor cells.

    PubMed

    Kabessa, Yossef; Eyal, Ori; Bar-On, Ofer; Korouma, Victor; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Agranat, Aharon J

    2016-05-15

    A standoff detection scheme for buried landmines and concealed explosive charges is presented. The detection procedure consists of the following: Live bacterial sensor strains, genetically engineered to produce a dose-dependent amount of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence of explosives' vapors, are encapsulated and spread on the suspected area. The fluorescence produced by the bacteria in response to traces of the explosive material in their microenvironment is remotely detected by a phase-locked optoelectronic sampling system. This scheme enables fast direct access to a large minefield area, while obviating the need to endanger personnel and equipment. Moreover, the employment of phase locking detection efficiently isolates the bacterial sensors' fluorescent output from the background optical signals. This facilitates the application of bacterial sensors in an outdoor environment, where control of background illumination is not possible. Using this system, we demonstrate standoff detection of 2,4-DNT both in aqueous solution and when buried in soil, by sensor bacteria either in liquid culture or agar-immobilized, respectively, at a distance of 50 m in a realistic optically noisy environment. PMID:26774094

  10. Explosive and chemical threat detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering: a review.

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Aron; Andersson, Per Ola; Stenbæk Schmidt, Michael; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Käll, Mikael

    2015-09-17

    Acts of terror and warfare threats are challenging tasks for defense agencies around the world and of growing importance to security conscious policy makers and the general public. Explosives and chemical warfare agents are two of the major concerns in this context, as illustrated by the recent Boston Marathon bombing and nerve gas attacks on civilians in the Middle East. To prevent such tragic disasters, security personnel must be able to find, identify and deactivate the threats at multiple locations and levels. This involves major technical and practical challenges, such as detection of ultra-low quantities of hazardous compounds at remote locations for anti-terror purposes and monitoring of environmental sanitation of dumped or left behind toxic substances and explosives. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is one of todays most interesting and rapidly developing methods for label-free ultrasensitive vibrational "fingerprinting" of a variety of molecular compounds. Performance highlights include attomolar detection of TNT and DNT explosives, a sensitivity that few, if any, other technique can compete with. Moreover, instrumentation needed for SERS analysis are becoming progressively better, smaller and cheaper, and can today be acquired for a retail price close to 10,000 US$. This contribution aims to give a comprehensive overview of SERS as a technique for detection of explosives and chemical threats. We discuss the prospects of SERS becoming a major tool for convenient in-situ threat identification and we summarize existing SERS detection methods and substrates with particular focus on ultra-sensitive real-time detection. General concepts, detection capabilities and perspectives are discussed in order to guide potential users of the technique for homeland security and anti-warfare purposes. PMID:26398417

  11. Trace detection and discrimination of explosives using electrochemical potentiometric gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Praveen K; Brosha, Eric L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Linker, Kevin L; Brusseau, Charles; Garzon, Fernando H

    2011-06-15

    In this article, selective and sensitive detection of trace amounts of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) is demonstrated. The screening system is based on a sampling/concentrator front end and electrochemical potentiometric gas sensors as the detector. Preferential hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide(s) mixed potential sensors based on lanthanum strontium chromite and Pt electrodes with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolyte were used to capture the signature of the explosives. Quantitative measurements based on hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide sensor responses indicated that the detector sensitivity scaled proportionally with the mass of the explosives (1-3 μg). Moreover, the results showed that PETN, TNT, and RDX samples could be discriminated from each other by calculating the ratio of nitrogen oxides to hydrocarbon integrated area under the peak. Further, the use of front-end technology to collect and concentrate the high explosive (HE) vapors make intrinsically low vapor pressure of the HE less of an obstacle for detection while ensuring higher sensitivity levels. In addition, the ability to use multiple sensors each tuned to basic chemical structures (e.g., nitro, amino, peroxide, and hydrocarbon groups) in HE materials will permit the construction of low-cost detector systems for screening a wide spectrum of explosives with lower false positives than present-day technologies. PMID:21435779

  12. Gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry as a hyphenated technique for improved explosives detection and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercado, AL; Marsden, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is currently being successfully applied to the problem of on-line trace detection of plastic and other explosives in airports and other facilities. The methods of sample retrieval primarily consist of batch sampling for particulate residue on a filter card for introduction into the IMS. The sample is desorbed into the IMS using air as the carrier and negative ions of the explosives are detected, some as an adduct with a reagent ion such as Cl(-). Based on studies and tests conducted by different airport authorities, this method seems to work well for low vapor pressure explosives such as RDX and PETN, as well as TNT that are highly adsorptive and can be found in nanogram quantities on contaminated surfaces. Recently, the changing terrorist threat and the adoption of new marking agents for plastic explosives has meant that the sample introduction and analysis capabilities of the IMS must be enhanced in order to keep up with other detector developments. The IMS has sufficient analytical resolution for a few threat compounds but the IMS Plasmogram becomes increasingly more difficult to interpret when the sample mixture gets more complex.

  13. Ag nanocluster/DNA hybrids: functional modules for the detection of nitroaromatic and RDX explosives.

    PubMed

    Enkin, Natalie; Sharon, Etery; Golub, Eyal; Willner, Itamar

    2014-08-13

    Luminescent Ag nanoclusters (NCs) stabilized by nucleic acids are implemented as optical labels for the detection of the explosives picric acid, trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The sensing modules consist of two parts, a nucleic acid with the nucleic acid-stabilized Ag NCs and a nucleic acid functionalized with electron-donating units, including L-DOPA, L-tyrosine and 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA, self-assembled on a nucleic acid scaffold. The formation of donor-acceptor complexes between the nitro-substituted explosives, exhibiting electron-acceptor properties, and the electron-donating sites, associated with the sensing modules, concentrates the explosives in close proximity to the Ag NCs. This leads to the electron-transfer quenching of the luminescence of the Ag NCs by the explosive molecule. The quenching of the luminescence of the Ag NCs provides a readout signal for the sensing process. The sensitivities of the analytical platforms are controlled by the electron-donating properties of the donor substituents, and 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA was found to be the most sensitive donor. Picric acid, TNT, and RDX are analyzed with detection limits corresponding to 5.2 × 10(-12) M, 1.0 × 10(-12) M, and 3.0 × 10(-12) M, respectively, using the 6-hydroxy-L-DOPA-modified Ag NCs sensing module. PMID:25072885

  14. Development of chemiresponsive sensors for detection of common homemade explosives.

    SciTech Connect

    Brotherton, Christopher M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2012-05-01

    Field-structured chemiresistors (FSCRs) are polymer based sensors that exhibit a resistance change when exposed to an analyte of interest. The amount of resistance change depends on the polymer-analyte affinity. The affinity can be manipulated by modifying the polymer within the FSCRs. In this paper, we investigate the ability of chemically modified FSCRs to sense hydrogen peroxide vapor. Five chemical species were chosen based on their hydrophobicity or reactivity with hydrogen peroxide. Of the five investigated, FSCRs modified with allyl methyl sulfide exhibited a significant response to hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additionally, these same FSCRs were evaluated against a common interferrant in hydrogen peroxide detection, water vapor. For the conditions investigated, the FSCRs modified with allyl methyl sulfide were able to successfully distinguish between water vapor and hydrogen peroxide vapor. A portion of the results presented here will be submitted to the Sensors and Actuators journal.

  15. Ground motion analyses: OSSY (a high explosive experiment) and MERLIN (a nuclear event)

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, R.P.

    1991-10-01

    We have analyzed recorded data and conducted numerical simulations of the seismic-calibration high explosive experiment OSSY and of the underground nuclear event MERLIN to determine if there is any physical correlation in their ground motion response. Waveforms recorded on OSSY and MERLIN show a distinct similarity in the form of a dual-pulse structure, with the second pulse as large or larger than the first pulse. Results with 1D and 2D simulations show that there is no correlation. The dual-pulse structure for OSSY can best be accounted for by a dilatancy feature resulting from pore recovery during unloading. There is also a notable influence on the pulse shape caused by the large length-to-diameter ratio of the high explosive charge. The dual-pulse structure recorded in MERLIN is most likely due to refraction from a higher-impedance layer about 60 m below the workout. 15 refs., 26 figs.

  16. Disturbances in the lower ionosphere caused by a low altitude nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xunjie, Zhang; Xueqin, Ruan; Wenzhen, Wang

    1995-03-01

    Observations of the lower ionospheric disturbance caused by a low altitude nuclear explosion are presented. A forward scatter radar, frequency 41 MHz, power 2.5 kW, was used to study these disturbances. The first radar scattering signal consisting of three peaks appeared 40 s after the explosion. It was due to early ionization by delayed gamma rays. The second kind of disturbance generated after 190 s was clearly different from the first. The scattering signal had a constant component which indicated a strong specular reflection. The field strength increased by more than 20 db. This disturbance was produced by the direct shock wave. The third kind of disturbance began after 8 min, lasted 5.0 min, and was probably dominated by the fireball/smoke cloud oscillation when it reached its stabilization altitude and approached hydrodynamical equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere. Using numerical computation techniques, we have explained the above results well.

  17. Thermally driven advection for radioxenon transport from an underground nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2016-05-01

    Barometric pumping is a ubiquitous process resulting in migration of gases in the subsurface that has been studied as the primary mechanism for noble gas transport from an underground nuclear explosion (UNE). However, at early times following a UNE, advection driven by explosion residual heat is relevant to noble gas transport. A rigorous measure is needed for demonstrating how, when, and where advection is important. In this paper three physical processes of uncertain magnitude (oscillatory advection, matrix diffusion, and thermally driven advection) are parameterized by using boundary conditions, system properties, and source term strength. Sobol' sensitivity analysis is conducted to evaluate the importance of all physical processes influencing the xenon signals. This study indicates that thermally driven advection plays a more important role in producing xenon signals than oscillatory advection and matrix diffusion at early times following a UNE, and xenon isotopic ratios are observed to have both time and spatial dependence.

  18. Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

  19. Optimizing convergence rates of alternating minimization reconstruction algorithms for real-time explosive detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Carl; Degirmenci, Soysal; Barlow, Jason; Mesika, Assaf; Politte, David G.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography reconstruction for medical, security and industrial applications has evolved through 40 years of experience with rotating gantry scanners using analytic reconstruction techniques such as filtered back projection (FBP). In parallel, research into statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms has evolved to apply to sparse view scanners in nuclear medicine, low data rate scanners in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) [5, 7, 10] and more recently to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation in conventional X-ray CT scanners. Multiple approaches to statistical iterative reconstruction have been developed based primarily on variations of expectation maximization (EM) algorithms. The primary benefit of EM algorithms is the guarantee of convergence that is maintained when iterative corrections are made within the limits of convergent algorithms. The primary disadvantage, however is that strict adherence to correction limits of convergent algorithms extends the number of iterations and ultimate timeline to complete a 3D volumetric reconstruction. Researchers have studied methods to accelerate convergence through more aggressive corrections [1], ordered subsets [1, 3, 4, 9] and spatially variant image updates. In this paper we describe the development of an AM reconstruction algorithm with accelerated convergence for use in a real-time explosive detection application for aviation security. By judiciously applying multiple acceleration techniques and advanced GPU processing architectures, we are able to perform 3D reconstruction of scanned passenger baggage at a rate of 75 slices per second. Analysis of the results on stream of commerce passenger bags demonstrates accelerated convergence by factors of 8 to 15, when comparing images from accelerated and strictly convergent algorithms.

  20. Classification, Characterization, and Automatic Detection of Volcanic Explosion Complexity using Infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Matoza, R. S.; Lopez, T. M.; Ruiz, M. C.; Gee, K.; Neilsen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Infrasound signals from volcanoes represent the acceleration of the atmosphere during an eruption and have traditionally been classified into two end members: 1) "explosions" consisting primarily of a high amplitude bi-polar pressure pulse that lasts a few to tens of seconds, and 2) "tremor" or "jetting" consisting of sustained, broadband infrasound lasting for minutes to hours. However, as our knowledge and recordings of volcanic eruptions have increased, significant infrasound signal diversity has been found. Here we focus on identifying and characterizing trends in volcano infrasound data to help better understand eruption processes. We explore infrasound signal metrics that may be used to quantitatively compare, classify, and identify explosive eruptive styles by systematic analysis of the data. We analyze infrasound data from short-to-medium duration explosive events recorded during recent infrasound deployments at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan; Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka; and Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador. Preliminary results demonstrate that a great variety of explosion styles and flow behaviors from these volcanoes can produce relatively similar bulk acoustic waveform properties, such as peak pressure and event duration, indicating that accurate classification of physical eruptive styles requires more advanced field studies, waveform analyses, and modeling. Next we evaluate the spectral and temporal properties of longer-duration tremor and jetting signals from large eruptions at Tungurahua Volcano; Redoubt Volcano, Alaska; Augustine Volcano, Alaska; and Nabro Volcano, Eritrea, in an effort to identify distinguishing infrasound features relatable to eruption features. We find that unique transient signals (such as repeated shocks) within sustained infrasound signals can provide critical information on the volcanic jet flow and exhibit a distinct acoustic signature to facilitate automatic detection. Automated detection and characterization of infrasound associated

  1. An excimer-based FAIMS detector for detection of ultra-low concentration of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistyakov, Alexander A.; Kotkovskii, Gennadii E.; Sychev, Alexey V.; Perederiy, Anatoly N.; Budovich, V. L.; Budovich, D. V.

    2014-05-01

    A new method of explosives detection based on the field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and ionization by an excimer emitter has been developed jointly with a portable detector. The excimer emitter differs from usual UVionizing lamps by mechanism of emitting, energy and spectral characteristics. The developed and applied Ar2-excimer emitter has the working volume of 1 cm3, consuming power 0.6 W, the energy of photons of about 10 eV (λ=126 nm), the FWHM radiation spectrum of 10 nm and emits more than 1016 photon per second that is two orders of magnitude higher than UV-lamp of the same working volume emits. This also exceeds by an order of magnitude the quantity of photons per second for 10-Hz solid state YAG:Nd3+ - laser of 1mJ pulse energy at λ=266 nm that is also used to ionize the analyte. The Ar2-excimer ionizes explosives by direct ionization mechanism and through ionization of organic impurities. The developed Ar2-excimer-based ion source does not require cooling due to low level discharge current of emitter and is able to work with no repair more than 10000 hrs. The developed excimer-based explosives detector can analyze both vapors and traces of explosives. The FAIMS spectra of the basic types of explosives like trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), nitroglycerine (NG), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) under Ar2-excimer ionization are presented. The detection limit determined for TNT vapors equals 1x10-14 g/cm3, for TNT traces- 100 pg.

  2. Development of graphene nanoplatelet embedded polymer microcantilever for vapour phase explosive detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Prasenjit; Pandey, Swapnil; Ramgopal Rao, V.

    2014-09-28

    In this work, a graphene based strain sensor has been reported for explosive vapour detection applications by exploiting the piezoresistive property of graphene. Instead of silicon based cantilevers, a low cost polymeric micro-cantilever platform has been used to fabricate this strain sensor by embedding the graphene nanoplatelet layer inside the beam. The fabricated devices were characterized for their mechanical and electromechanical behaviour. This device shows a very high gauge factor which is around ~144. Also the resonant frequency of these cantilevers is high enough such that the measurements are not affected by environmental noise. These devices have been used in this work for reliable detection of explosive vapours such as 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene down to parts-per-billion concentrations in ambient conditions.

  3. Associated particle technique in single-sided geometry for detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Tushar Kashyap, Yogesh; Shukla, Mayank; Agrawal, Ashish; Bajpai, Shefali; Patel, Tarun; Sinha, Amar

    2015-03-23

    Associated particle technique (APT) for detection of explosives is well established but has been implemented mostly for fixed portal systems. In certain situations, a portable system is required where the suspect object cannot be moved from site. This paper discusses the development of a portable APT system in single-sided geometry which can be transported to site and requires only one-sided access to the object. The system comprised D-T neutron source and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors fixed on a portable module. Different aspects of the system have been discussed such as background contribution, time selection, and elemental signatures. The system was used to detect benign samples and explosive simulants under laboratory condition. The elemental ratios obtained by analyzing the gamma spectra show good match with the theoretical ratios.

  4. Detection and identification of explosive RDX by THz diffuse reflection spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Bo; Chen, Yunqing; Bastiaans, Glenn J; Zhang, X-C

    2006-01-01

    The reflection spectrum of the explosive RDX was acquired from a diffuse reflection measurement using a THz time-domain spectroscopy system in combination with a diffuse reflectance accessory. By applying the Kramers-Kronig transform to the reflection spectrum, the absorption spectrum (0.2-1.8 THz) was obtained. It agrees with the result from a transmission measurement and distinguishes RDX from other materials. The effect of the reference spectrum was examined by using both a Teflon pellet and a copper plate as references. The strong absorption of RDX at 0.82 THz allowed it to be identified by the diffuse reflection measurement even when the RDX sample was covered with certain optically opaque materials. Our investigation demonstrates that THz technique is capable of detecting and identifying hidden RDX-related explosives in a diffuse reflection mode, which is crucial for the standoff detection in the real world applications. PMID:19503355

  5. Optical detection of buried explosive hazards: a longitudinal comparison of three types of imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszewski, James J.; Hibbitts, Charles H.; Davis, Luke; Bursley, James

    2013-06-01

    Visual detection of soil disturbances is a surprisingly effective, but far from perfect way of detecting buried explosive threats such as landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). This effort builds upon the few systematic studies of optical detection in this area. It investigates observer sensitivity to optical information produced by the burial of anti-tank and small anti-personnel landmines asking "How detectable are disturbed soil signatures captured in visible (VIS), shortwave infrared (SWIR), and thermal infrared (TIR), bands?" "Which band or bands are most effective for detection?" and "How well does each band support detection in the natural environment over time?" Using signal detection procedures this study presented young adults photographs showing soil disturbed by landmine burial or adjacent undisturbed surfaces with instructions to make decisions about the presence or absence of a disturbance. Stimuli spanned a six-week time period over which VIS, SWIR, and TIR imagery was collected. Results show that (a) signal strength persists surprisingly well over the observation period, (b) generally, SWIR and VIS show consistently strong performance for large anti-tank mines and SWIR shows the soil signature for the small, anti-personnel mine remarkably well. TIR lags the other two bands when using d' to measure performance, but shows promising hit rates for anti-tank mine signatures under appropriate conditions. Generally, results show that the SWIR and VIS bands show most promise as a practical means of explosive hazards detection, although TIR can work effectively for large anti-tank mines under certain conditions. Limitations and implications for further research are discussed.

  6. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household

  7. Identification of volatile chemical signatures from plastic explosives by SPME-GC/MS and detection by ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hanh; Leung, Alfred; Magee, Matthew; Almirall, José R

    2010-04-01

    This study demonstrates the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to extract and pre-concentrate volatile signatures from static air above plastic explosive samples followed by detection using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) optimized to detect the volatile, non-energetic components rather than the energetic materials. Currently, sample collection for detection by commercial IMS analyzers is conducted through swiping of suspected surfaces for explosive particles and vapor sampling. The first method is not suitable for sampling inside large volume areas, and the latter method is not effective because the low vapor pressure of some explosives such as RDX and PETN make them not readily available in the air for headspace sampling under ambient conditions. For the first time, headspace sampling and detection of Detasheet, Semtex H, and C-4 is reported using SPME-IMS operating under one universal setting with limits of detection ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 ng for the target volatile signatures. The target signature compounds n-butyl acetate and the taggant DMNB are associated with untagged and tagged Detasheet explosives, respectively. Cyclohexanone and DMNB are associated with tagged C-4 explosives. DMNB is associated with tagged Semtex H explosives. Within 10 to 60 s of sampling, the headspace inside a glass vial containing 1 g of explosive, more than 20 ng of the target signatures can be extracted by the SPME fiber followed by IMS detection. PMID:20229010

  8. Laser methods for detecting explosive residues on surfaces of distant objects

    SciTech Connect

    Skvortsov, L A

    2012-01-31

    The basic methods of laser spectroscopy that are used for standoff detection and identification of explosive traces in the form of particles on the surfaces of objects tested under real or close-toreal conditions are briefly considered. The advantages and drawbacks of all methods are discussed and their characteristics are compared. Particular attention has been given to the prospects of development and practical implementation of the technologies discussed and justification of their most preferred applications. (review)

  9. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  10. Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

    2013-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  11. Magnitude: Yield relationship at various nuclear test sites - a maximum-likelihood approach using heavily censored explosive yields. Report for April 1989-April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Jih, R.S.; Shumway, R.R.; Rivers, D.W.; Wagner, R.A.; McElfresh, T.W.

    1990-05-01

    Conventional methods for estimating underground explosion yields from seismic recordings are based on the use of some appropriate magnitude:yield relationship. One of the most important parameters used to characterize the seismic signature of an underground explosion is the body-wave magnitude, mb. Thus obtaining an unbiased measurement of mb (auxiliarily Ms, pcoda, mb(Lg), Mo, and RMS Lg values) is obviously a key step in estimating the yield. During the past decade, the mb which is averaged over a well-distributed global network and which incorporates the maximum-likelihood technique into the inversion scheme has become widely accepted as a means to obtain mb estimates that avoid bias due to the detection threshold characteristics of individual network stations. Recently Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, in Eastern Kazakhstan. With the exception of releasing news about their peaceful nuclear explosions PNE, the Soviets have never before published such a body of information. However, out of the 72 Degelen events with announced yields, only 9 events or 12.5% were of known yields. The remaining were either left censored (66.7%) or bounded (20.8%). Similar heavy-censoring pattern can be found for other test sites. Thus the development of a procedure capable of making full use of such censored information would seem very timely and necessary.

  12. Transport simulation and image reconstruction for fast-neutron detection of explosives and narcotics

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1995-07-01

    Fast-neutron inspection techniques show considerable promise for explosive and narcotics detection. A key advantage of using fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen), which are the primary constituents of these materials. We are currently investigating two interrogation methods in detail: Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis (PFNA). FNTS is being studied for explosives and narcotics detection in luggage and small containers for which the transmission ratio is greater than about 0.01. The Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNP is being used to simulate neutron transmission through a series of phantoms for a few (3-5) projection angles and modest (2 cm) resolution. Areal densities along projection rays are unfolded from the transmission data. Elemental abundances are obtained for individual voxels by tomographic reconstruction, and these reconstructed elemental images are combined to provide indications of the presence or absence of explosives or narcotics. PFNA techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in cargo containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the resulting high-energy gamma-ray signatures. Analytic models and Monte-Carlo simulations are being used to explore the range of capabilities of PFNA techniques and to provide insight into systems engineering issues. Results of studies from both FNTS and PFNA techniques are presented.

  13. Transport simulation and image reconstruction for fast-neutron detection of explosives and narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Sagalovsky, Leonid

    1995-09-01

    Fast-neutron inspection techniques show considerable promise for explosive and narcotics detection. A key advantage of using fast neutron is their sensitivity to low-Z elements (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen), which are the primary constituents of these materials. We are currently investigating two interrogation methods in detail: fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS) and pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA). FNTS is being studied for explosives and narcotics detection in luggage and small containers for which the transmission ration is greater than about 0.01. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP is being used to simulate neutron transmission through a series of phantoms for a few (3-5) projections angles and modest (2 cm) reolution. Areal densities along projection rays are unfolded from the transmission data. Elemental abundances are obtained for individual voxels by tomographic reconstruction, and the reconstructed elemental images are combined to provide indications of the presence or absence of explosives or narcotics. PFNA techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in cargo containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the resulting high-energy gamma-ray signatures. Analytic models and Monte Carlo simulations are being used to explore the range of capabilities of PFNA techniques and to provide insight into systems engineering issues. Results of studies from both FNTS and PFNA technqiues are presented.

  14. Detecting hidden volcanic explosions from Mt. Cleveland Volcano, Alaska with infrasound and ground-couples airwaves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Angelis, Slivio; Fee, David; Haney, Matthew; Schneider, David

    2012-01-01

    In Alaska, where many active volcanoes exist without ground-based instrumentation, the use of techniques suitable for distant monitoring is pivotal. In this study we report regional-scale seismic and infrasound observations of volcanic activity at Mt. Cleveland between December 2011 and August 2012. During this period, twenty explosions were detected by infrasound sensors as far away as 1827 km from the active vent, and ground-coupled acoustic waves were recorded at seismic stations across the Aleutian Arc. Several events resulting from the explosive disruption of small lava domes within the summit crater were confirmed by analysis of satellite remote sensing data. However, many explosions eluded initial, automated, analyses of satellite data due to poor weather conditions. Infrasound and seismic monitoring provided effective means for detecting these hidden events. We present results from the implementation of automatic infrasound and seismo-acoustic eruption detection algorithms, and review the challenges of real-time volcano monitoring operations in remote regions. We also model acoustic propagation in the Northern Pacific, showing how tropospheric ducting effects allow infrasound to travel long distances across the Aleutian Arc. The successful results of our investigation provide motivation for expanded efforts in infrasound monitoring across the Aleutians and contributes to our knowledge of the number and style of vulcanian eruptions at Mt. Cleveland.

  15. Microcantilever technology for law enforcement and anti-terrorism applications: chemical, biological, and explosive material detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. D.; Rogers, B.; Whitten, R.

    2005-05-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, compactness, low cost, low power-consumption, scalability, and versatility of microcantilever sensors make this technology among the most promising solutions for detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosives. The University of Nevada, Reno, and Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc (NNTS) are currently developing a microcantilever-based detection system that will measure trace concentrations of explosives, toxic chemicals, and biological agents in air. A baseline sensor unit design that includes the sensor array, electronics, power supply and air handling has been created and preliminary demonstrations of the microcantilever platform have been conducted. The envisioned device would measure about two cubic inches, run on a small watch battery and cost a few hundred dollars. The device could be operated by untrained law enforcement personnel. Microcantilever-based devices could be used to "sniff out" illegal and/or hazardous chemical and biological agents in high traffic public areas, or be packaged as a compact, low-power system used to monitor cargo in shipping containers. Among the best detectors for such applications at present is the dog, an animal which is expensive, requires significant training and can only be made to work for limited time periods. The public is already accustomed to explosives and metal detection systems in airports and other public venues, making the integration of the proposed device into such security protocols straightforward.

  16. Source functions of nuclear explosions from spectral synthesis and inversion. Scientific report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Puster, P.; Jordan, T.H.

    1996-11-20

    We apply methods for the recovery of the frequency dependent moment rate tensor, M(w), to the study of Lop Nor nuclear explosions. This approach encompasses many source parameter diagnostics that have been traditionally used to discriminate nuclear explosions from chemical explosions and earthquakes and has the potential to provide new discrimination tools. We parameterize the source as M(w) = M1(a) + MD(a), where M1(co) and MD(O) are isotropic and deviatoric components, respectively. Our goal is to quantify both isotropic and deviatoric components, and investigate the different contributions to MD(a), in particular the tectonic release. Since tectonic release can bias estimates of M1(o) and may limit discrimination capabilities of sparse networks, it is important to be able to characterize the amount of tectonic release - in particular as a function of frequency. Our approach uses synthetic seismograms to improve the localization of signal measurements in both time and frequency domains. We adapt our earthquake-source inversion algorithms to account for isotropic sources at very shallow depths. We test our algorithms using a synthetic case with a known moment-tensor source composed in equal parts of isotropic and deviatoric sources; we successfully recover both MD and M using body waves and surface waves on horizontal and vertical components. We apply our methods to a data set containing both SH and Love waves as well as the body-wave portion between P and R1 and the minor-arc Rayleigh waves from the 92/5/21 Chinese nuclear test. We recover a significant tectonic release component for this event; the deviatoric moment tensor is a dip-slip reverse fault with a scalar moment MD = 1.9 +/- 0.2 x 10(17) Nm. The strike of the best-fitting double-couple is 320 deg. The source-time function derived from SH-polarized waves shows some complexity, with a sharp pulse i.

  17. Intense Photoneutron Sources For Nuclear Material Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Intense neutron sources are essential for cargo inspection for a broad range of threats from explosives, to contraband, to nuclear materials and especially SNM (Special Nuclear Materials). To be effective over a wide range of cargo materials, in particular for hydrogenous cargo such as food, and to offer practical inspection times, the neutron source must be very strong, typically >1010 neutrons per second. Unfortunately there are currently no reasonably compact and economical neutron generators with the required intensities. The insufficiency and inadequacy of intense neutron sources are especially conspicuous in the ≤2.5 MeV range (low voltage (d,D) generator). This energy range is needed if the strong signature of prompt fission neutrons (≈3 per fission) is to be detected and discerned from the numerous source neutrons. The photonuclear reactions of x-rays from commercial linacs in appropriate converters can provide ample intensities of neutrons. These converters have a very low (γ,n) energy threshold: 1.67 MeV for beryllium and 2.23 MeV for deuterium. The intense x-ray beams provided by commercial x-ray systems, more than compensate for the relatively low (γ,n) cross-sections which are in the milli-barn range. The choice of converter material, the geometrical shape, dimensions and location relative to the x-ray source, determine the efficiency of the neutron conversion. For electron accelerators with less than 10 MeV, the preferred converters, Be and D2O, are also very good neutron moderators. Thus, while increasing the converters' thickness leads to an increase in the overall neutron yield, this causes the softening of the neutron spectrum, which reduces the neutron penetration especially in hydrogenous cargos. Photoneutron sources can be optimized to meet specific needs such as maximum fission signals in various cargo materials of interest. Efficient photoneutron sources with different energy spectra were investigated. Conversion efficiency of more than

  18. Trace vapor detection of hydrogen peroxide: An effective approach to identification of improvised explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Miao

    Vapor detection has been proven as one of the practical, noninvasive methods suitable for explosives detection among current explosive detection technologies. Optical methods (especially colorimetric and fluorescence spectral methods) are low in cost, provide simple instrumentation alignment, while still maintaining high sensitivity and selectivity, these factors combined facilitate broad field applications. Trace vapor detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) represents an effective approach to noninvasive detection of peroxide-based explosives, though development of such a sensor system with high reliability and sufficient sensitivity (reactivity) still remains challenging. Three vapor sensor systems for H2O2 were proposed and developed in this study, which exploited specific chemical reaction towards H2O2 to ensure the selectivity, and materials surface engineering to afford efficient air sampling. The combination of these features enables expedient, cost effective, reliable detection of peroxide explosives. First, an expedient colorimetric sensor for H2O2 vapor was developed, which utilized the specific interaction between Ti(oxo) and H2O2 to offer a yellow color development. The Ti(oxo) salt can be blended into a cellulose microfibril network to produce tunable interface that can react with H2O2. The vapor detection limit can reach 400 ppb. To further improve the detection sensitivity, a naphthalimide based fluorescence turn-on sensor was designed and developed. The sensor mechanism was based on H2O2-mediated oxidation of a boronate fluorophore, which is nonfluorescent in ICT band, but becomes strongly fluorescent upon conversion into the phenol state. The detection limit of this sensory material was improved to be below 10 ppb. However, some technical factors such as sensor concentration, local environment, and excitation intensity were found difficult to control to make the sensor system sufficiently reproducible. To solve the problem, we developed a

  19. Shock and thermal metamorphism of basalt by nuclear explosion, Nevada test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, O.B.

    1969-01-01

    Olivine trachybasalt metamorphosed by nuclear explosion is classified into categories of progressive metamorphism: (i) Weak. Plagioclase is microfractured, and augite cotainis fine twin lamellae. (ii) Moderate. Plagioclase is converted to glass, and mafic minerals show intragranular deformation (undulatory extinction, twin lamellae, and, possibly, deformation lamellae), but rock texture is preserved. (iii) Moderately strong. Plagioclase glass shows small-scale flow, mafic minerals are fractured and show intragranular deformation, and rocks contain tension fractures. (iv) Strong. Plagioclase glass is vesicular, augite is minutely fractured, and olivine is coarsely fragmented, shows mosaic extinction, distinctive lamellar structures, and is locally recrystallized. (v) Intense. Rocks are converted to inhomogeneous basaltic glass.

  20. [Migration in soil and accumulation in plants of peaceful nuclear explosion products in Perm region].

    PubMed

    Raskosha, N G; Shuktova, I I

    2015-01-01

    The data on the migration capacity in soil and accumulation of 238Pu, 239, 240Pu, 137Cs and 90Sr by plants in the area of a peaceful nuclear explosion located in the taiga zone are presented. The influence of the soil parameters on the distribution and transformation forms of the radionuclides in the podzolic soil profile was studied. The major amounts of man-made radionuclides were found in the matter of the ground lip. The accumulation parameters of pollutants by plants were the highest for the leaves, young branches and conifer of trees. PMID:25962279

  1. Shock and thermal metamorphism of basalt by nuclear explosion, nevada test site.

    PubMed

    James, O B

    1969-12-26

    Olivine trachybasalt metamorphosed by nuclear explosion is classified into categories of progressive metamorphism: (i) Weak. Plagioclase is microfracruree, and augite contains twin lamellae. (ii) Moderate. Plagioclase is converted to glass, amd mafic minerals show intragranular deformation (undulatory extinction, twin lamellae, and, possibly, defomation lamellae), but rock texture is preserved. (iii) Moderately strong. Plagioclase glass shows small-scale flow, mafic minerals are fractured and show intragranular deformation, and rocks contain tension fractures. (iv) Strong. Plagioclase glass is vesicular, augite is minutely fractured, and olivine is coarsely fragmented, shows moscaic extinction, distinctive lamellar structures, and is locally recrystallized. (v) Intense. Rocks are converted to inhomogeneous basaltic glass. PMID:17758716

  2. Medical preparedness for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) events: gaps and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Diana; Waruszynski, Barbara; Mazurik, Laurie; Szymczak, Ann-Marie; Redmond, Erin; Lichacz, Fred

    2010-11-01

    The Workshop on Medical Preparedness for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) events: national scan was held on 20 and 21 May 2010 at the Diefenbunker Museum in Ottawa, Canada. The purpose of the workshop was to provide the CBRNE Research and Technology Initiative with a Canadian national profile of existing capabilities and anticipated gaps in casualty management consistent with the community emergency response requirements. The workshop was organised to enable extensive round-table discussions and provide a summary of key gaps and recommendations for emergency response planners. PMID:21041238

  3. Borehole techniques identifying subsurface chimney heights in loose ground-some experiences above underground nuclear explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Lacomb, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The location of the subsurface top of the chimney formed by the collapse of the cavity resulting from an underground nuclear explosion is examined at five sites at the Nevada Test Site. The chimneys were investigated by drilling, coring, geophysical logging (density, gamma-ray, caliper), and seismic velocity surveys. The identification of the top of the chimney can be complicated by chimney termination in friable volcanic rock of relatively high porosity. The presence of an apical void in three of the five cases is confirmed as the chimney horizon by coincidence with anomalies observed in coring, caliper and gamma-ray logging (two cases), seismic velocity, and drilling. In the two cases where an apical void is not present, several of these techniques yield anomalies at identical horizons, however, the exact depth of chimney penetration is subject to some degree of uncertainty. This is due chiefly to the extent to which core recovery and seismic velocity may be affected by perturbations in the tuff above the chimney due to the explosion and collapse. The data suggest, however, that the depth uncertainty may be only of the order of 10 m if several indicators are available. Of all indicators, core recovery and seismic velocity indicate anomalous horizons in every case. Because radiation products associated with the explosion are contained within the immediate vicinity of the cavity, gamma-ray logs are generally not diagnostic of chimney penetration. In no case is the denisty log indicative of the presence of the chimney. ?? 1993.

  4. Explosive detection using high-volume vapor sampling and analysis by trained canines and ultra-trace detection equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Mark; Sikes, John; Prather, Mark

    2004-09-01

    The dog's nose is an effective, highly-mobile sampling system, while the canine olfactory organs are an extremely sensitive detector. Having been trained to detect a wide variety of substances with exceptional results, canines are widely regarded as the 'gold standard' in chemical vapor detection. Historically, attempts to mimic the ability of dogs to detect vapors of explosives using electronic 'dogs noses' has proven difficult. However, recent advances in technology have resulted in development of detection (i.e., sampling and sensor) systems with performance that is rapidly approaching that of trained canines. The Nomadics Fido was the first sensor to demonstrate under field conditions the detection of landmines with performance approaching that of canines. More recently, comparative testing of Fido against canines has revealed that electronic vapor detection, when coupled with effective sampling methods, can produce results comparable to that of highly-trained canines. The results of these comparative tests will be presented, as will recent test results in which explosives hidden in cargo were detected using Fido with a high-volume sampling technique. Finally, the use of canines along with electronic sensors will be discussed as a means of improving the performance and expanding the capabilities of both methods.

  5. A laser-based FAIMS detector for detection of ultra-low concentrations of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmalov, Artem E.; Chistyakov, Alexander A.; Kotkovskii, Gennadii E.; Sychev, Alexey V.; Tugaenko, Anton V.; Bogdanov, Artem S.; Perederiy, Anatoly N.; Spitsyn, Eugene M.

    2014-06-01

    A non-contact method for analyzing of explosives traces from surfaces was developed. The method is based on the laser desorption of analyzed molecules from the surveyed surfaces followed by the laser ionization of air sample combined with the field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS). The pulsed radiation of the fourth harmonic of a portable GSGG: Cr3+ :Nd3+ laser (λ = 266 nm) is used. The laser desorption FAIMS analyzer have been developed. The detection limit of the analyzer equals 40 pg for TNT. The results of detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) are presented. It is shown that laser desorption of nitro-compounds from metals is accompanied by their surface decomposition. A method for detecting and analyzing of small concentrations of explosives in air based on the laser ionization and the FAIMS was developed. The method includes a highly efficient multipass optical scheme of the intracavity fourthharmonic generation of pulsed laser radiation (λ = 266 nm) and the field asymmetric ion mobility (FAIM) spectrometer disposed within a resonator. The ions formation and detection proceed inside a resonant cavity. The laser ion source based on the multi-passage of radiation at λ = 266 nm through the ionization region was elaborated. On the basis of the method the laser FAIMS analyzer has been created. The analyzer provides efficient detection of low concentrations of nitro-compounds in air and shows a detection limit of 10-14 - 10-15 g/cm3 both for RDX and TNT.

  6. Detection of explosive events by monitoring acoustically-induced geomagnetic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J P; Rock, D R; Shaeffer, D L; Warshaw, S I

    1999-10-07

    The Black Thunder Coal Mine (BTCM) near Gillette, Wyoming was used as a test bed to determine the feasibility of detecting explosion-induced geomagnetic disturbances with ground-based induction magnetometers. Two magnetic observatories were fielded at distances of 50 km and 64 km geomagnetically north from the northernmost edge of BTCM. Each observatory consisted of three separate but mutually orthogonal magnetometers, Global Positioning System (GPS) timing, battery and solar power, a data acquisition and storage system, and a three-axis seismometer. Explosions with yields of 1 to 3 kT of TNT equivalent occur approximately every three weeks at BTCM. We hypothesize that explosion-induced acoustic waves propagate upward and interact collisionally with the ionosphere to produce ionospheric electron density (and concomitant current density) perturbations which act as sources for geomagnetic disturbances. These disturbances propagate through an ionospheric Alfven waveguide that we postulate to be leaky (due to the imperfectly conducting lower ionospheric boundary). Consequently, wave energy may be observed on the ground. We observed transient pulses, known as Q-bursts, with pulse widths about 0.5 s and with spectral energy dominated by the Schumann resonances. These resonances appear to be excited in the earth-ionosphere cavity by Alfven solitons that may have been generated by the explosion-induced acoustic waves reaching the ionospheric E and F regions and that subsequently propagate down through the ionosphere to the atmosphere. In addition, we observe late time (> 800 s) ultra low frequency (ULF) geomagnetic perturbations that appear to originate in the upper F region ({approximately}300 km) and appear to be caused by the explosion-induced acoustic wave interacting with that part of the ionosphere. We suggest that explosion-induced Q-bursts may be discriminated from naturally occurring Q-bursts by association of the former with the late time explosion-induced ULF

  7. Imaging stand-off detection of explosives by quantum cascade laser based backscattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Frank; Hugger, Stefan; Kinzer, Michel; Hinkov, Borislav; Aidam, Rolf; Bronner, Wolfgang; Lösch, Rainer; Yang, Quankui; Degreif, Kai; Schnürer, Frank; Schweikert, Wenka

    2010-09-01

    In this contribution we present the results of an imaging stand-off detection system based on a mid-IR external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) with a broad tunable range of 200 cm-1. Traces of TNT (trinitrotoluene) and PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) as well as various non-hazardous substances such as flour or skin cream on different substrate-materials were investigated by illuminating them with the EC-QC laser and collecting the diffusely backscattered light. By tuning the EC-QCL across the significant absorption spectra we were able to detect the explosives

  8. Adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) for explosive hazard detection using wideband electromagnetic induction (WEMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvey, Brendan; Zare, Alina; Cook, Matthew; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2016-05-01

    The adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) estimates the squared cosine of the angle between a known target vector and a sample vector in a transformed coordinate space. The space is transformed according to an estimation of the background statistics, which directly effects the performance of the statistic as a target detector. In this paper, the ACE detection statistic is used to detect buried explosive hazards with data from a Wideband Electromagnetic Induction (WEMI) sensor. Target signatures are based on a dictionary defined using a Discrete Spectrum of Relaxation Frequencies (DSRF) model. Results are summarized as a receiver operator curve (ROC) and compared to other leading methods.

  9. Detection of Nitroaromatic Explosives Using an Electrical- Electrochemical and Optical Hybrid Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Aguilar, Alvaro

    In today's world there is a great need for sensing methods as tools to provide critical information to solve today's problems in security applications. Real time detection of trace chemicals, such as explosives, in a complex environment containing various interferents using a portable device that can be reliably deployed in a field has been a difficult challenge. A hybrid nanosensor based on the electrochemical reduction of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the interaction of the reduction products with conducting polymer nanojunctions in an ionic liquid was fabricated. The sensor simultaneously measures the electrochemical current from the reduction of TNT and the conductance change of the polymer nanojunction caused from the reduction product. The hybrid detection mechanism, together with the unique selective preconcentration capability of the ionic liquid, provides a selective, fast, and sensitive detection of TNT. The sensor, in its current form, is capable of detecting parts per trillion level TNT in the presence of various interferents within a few minutes. A novel hybrid electrochemical-colorimetric (EC-C) sensing platform was also designed and fabricated to meet these challenges. The hybrid sensor is based on electrochemical reactions of trace explosives, colorimetric detection of the reaction products, and unique properties of the explosives in an ionic liquid (IL). This approach affords not only increased sensitivity but also selectivity as evident from the demonstrated null rate of false positives and low detection limits. Using an inexpensive webcam a detection limit of part per billion in volume (ppbV) has been achieved and demonstrated selective detection of explosives in the presence of common interferences (perfumes, mouth wash, cleaners, petroleum products, etc.). The works presented in this dissertation, were published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS, 2009) and Nano Letters (2010), won first place in the National Defense Research

  10. Position-adaptive explosive detection concepts for swarming micro-UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmic, Rastko R.; Mitra, Atindra

    2008-04-01

    We have formulated a series of position-adaptive sensor concepts for explosive detection applications using swarms of micro-UAV's. These concepts are a generalization of position-adaptive radar concepts developed for challenging conditions such as urban environments. For radar applications, this concept is developed with platforms within a UAV swarm that spatially-adapt to signal leakage points on the perimeter of complex clutter environments to collect information on embedded objects-of-interest. The concept is generalized for additional sensors applications by, for example, considering a wooden cart that contains explosives. We can formulate system-of-systems concepts for a swarm of micro-UAV's in an effort to detect whether or not a given cart contains explosives. Under this new concept, some of the members of the UAV swarm can serve as position-adaptive "transmitters" by blowing air over the cart and some of the members of the UAV swarm can serve as position-adaptive "receivers" that are equipped with chem./bio sensors that function as "electronic noses". The final objective can be defined as improving the particle count for the explosives in the air that surrounds a cart via development of intelligent position-adaptive control algorithms in order to improve the detection and false-alarm statistics. We report on recent simulation results with regard to designing optimal sensor placement for explosive or other chemical agent detection. This type of information enables the development of intelligent control algorithms for UAV swarm applications and is intended for the design of future system-of-systems with adaptive intelligence for advanced surveillance of unknown regions. Results are reported as part of a parametric investigation where it is found that the probability of contaminant detection depends on the air flow that carries contaminant particles, geometry of the surrounding space, leakage areas, and other factors. We present a concept of position

  11. High-throughput baggage scanning employing x-ray diffraction for accurate explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Michael C.; Partain, Larry D.

    2003-07-01

    X-ray systems dominate the installed base of airport baggage scanning systems for explosives detection. The majority are conveyer systems with projection line scanners. These systems can achieve a high throughput but exhibit a high false positive rate and require significant operator involvement. Systems employing computed tomography (CT) are currently being installed at a rapid rate. These can provide good discrimination of levels of xray absorption coefficient and can largely circumvent superimposition effects. Nonetheless CT measures only x-ray absorption coefficient per voxel which does not provide a means of specific material identification resulting in many false positives, and it is relatively straightforward to configure explosive materials so that they are undetectable by CT systems. Diffraction-based x-ray systems present a solution to this problem. They detect and measure atomic layer spacings in crystalline and microcrystalline materials with high sensitivity. This provides a means of specific material identification. The majority of explosive compounds are well crystallized solids at room temperature. X-ray diffraction systems using both conventional wavelength-dispersive diffraction and fixed-angle, multi-wavelength diffraction for improved throughput are described. Large-area, flat-panel x-ray detector technology coupled with an extended x-ray source will permit a full 3D volumetric x-ray diffraction scan of a bag in a single pass, (patent pending).

  12. Detection of explosives as negative ions directly from surfaces using a miniature mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Nathaniel L; Kothari, Sameer; Huang, Guangming; Salazar, Gary; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-06-15

    A miniature mass spectrometer was modified by incorporating a conversion dynode detector system and the appropriate electronics to allow the detection of negatively charged ions. The system was fitted with a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface to allow external ionization by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI). It was used to identify the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-N-methylnitramine (Tetryl), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) present in trace amounts on surfaces (500 pg/cm(2) to 1 microg/cm(2)) both individually and as components of mixtures. Detection of explosives was demonstrated in the presence of an interfering matrix. A large surface (5 cm x15 cm) on which 1 microg/cm(2) samples of TNT, Tetryl, and HMX had been spotted randomly was interrogated in 22 s in the full scan mode, and signals characteristic of each of the explosives were observed in the DESI mass spectrum. PMID:20496904

  13. Potential for detection of explosive and biological hazards with electronic terahertz systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ki; Bettermann, Alan; van der Weide, D W

    2004-02-15

    The terahertz (THz) regime (0.1-10 THz) is rich with emerging possibilities in sensing, imaging and communications, with unique applications to screening for weapons, explosives and biohazards, imaging of concealed objects, water content and skin. Here we present initial surveys to evaluate the possibility of sensing plastic explosives and bacterial spores using field-deployable electronic THz techniques based on short-pulse generation and coherent detection using nonlinear transmission lines and diode sampling bridges. We also review the barriers and approaches to achieving greater sensing-at-a-distance (stand-off) capabilities for THz sensing systems. We have made several reflection measurements of metallic and non-metallic targets in our laboratory, and have observed high contrast relative to reflection from skin. In particular, we have taken small quantities of energetic materials such as plastic explosives and a variety of Bacillus spores, and measured them in transmission and in reflection using a broadband pulsed electronic THz reflectometer. The pattern of reflection versus frequency gives rise to signatures that are remarkably specific to the composition of the target, even though the target's morphology and position is varied. Although more work needs to be done to reduce the effects of standing waves through time-gating or attenuators, the possibility of mapping out this contrast for imaging and detection is very attractive. PMID:15306524

  14. A portable fluorescence detector for fast ultra trace detection of explosive vapors.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yunhong; He, Gang; Wang, Qi; Fang, Yu

    2011-10-01

    This paper developed a portable detector based on a specific material-based fluorescent sensing film for an ultra trace detection of explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) or its derivate 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), in ambient air or on objects tainted by explosives. The fluorescent sensing films are based on single-layer chemistry and the signal amplification effect of conjugated polymers, which exhibited higher sensitivity and shorter response time to TNT or DNT at their vapor pressures. Due to application of the light emitting diode and the solid state photomultiplier and the cross-correlation-based circuit design technology, the device has the advantages of low-power, low-cost, small size, and an improved signal to noise ratio. The results of the experiments showed that the detector can real-time detect and identify of explosive vapors at extremely low levels; it is suitable for the identification of suspect luggage, forensic analyses, or battlefields clearing. PMID:22047275

  15. Detecting body cavity bombs with nuclear quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Michael London

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a technology with great potential for detecting hidden explosives. Past NQR research has studied the detection of land mines and bombs concealed within luggage and packages. This thesis focuses on an NQR application that has received less attention and little or no publicly available research: detecting body cavity bombs (BCBs). BCBs include explosives that have been ingested, inserted into orifices, or surgically implanted. BCBs present a threat to aviation and secure facilities. They are extremely difficult to detect with the technology currently employed at security checkpoints. To evaluate whether or not NQR can be used to detect BCBs, a computational model is developed to assess how the dielectric properties of biological tissue affect the radio frequency magnetic field employed in NQR (0.5-5MHz). The relative permittivity of some biological tissue is very high (over 1,000 at 1MHz), making it conceivable that there is a significant effect on the electromagnetic field. To study this effect, the low-frequency approximation known as the Darwin model is employed. First, the electromagnetic field of a coil is calculated in free space. Second, a dielectric object or set of objects is introduced, and the free-space electric field is modified to accommodate the dielectric object ensuring that the relevant boundary conditions are obeyed. Finally, the magnetic field associated with the corrected electric field is calculated. This corrected magnetic field is evaluated with an NQR simulation to estimate the impact of dielectric tissue on NQR measurements. The effect of dielectric tissue is shown to be small, thus obviating a potential barrier to BCB detection. The NQR model presented may assist those designing excitation and detection coils for NQR. Some general coil design considerations and strategies are discussed.

  16. Quantitative Detection of Trace Explosive Vapors by Programmed Temperature Desorption Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector

    PubMed Central

    Field, Christopher R.; Lubrano, Adam; Woytowitz, Morgan; Giordano, Braden C.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The direct liquid deposition of solution standards onto sorbent-filled thermal desorption tubes is used for the quantitative analysis of trace explosive vapor samples. The direct liquid deposition method yields a higher fidelity between the analysis of vapor samples and the analysis of solution standards than using separate injection methods for vapors and solutions, i.e., samples collected on vapor collection tubes and standards prepared in solution vials. Additionally, the method can account for instrumentation losses, which makes it ideal for minimizing variability and quantitative trace chemical detection. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector is an instrumentation configuration sensitive to nitro-energetics, such as TNT and RDX, due to their relatively high electron affinity. However, vapor quantitation of these compounds is difficult without viable vapor standards. Thus, we eliminate the requirement for vapor standards by combining the sensitivity of the instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition protocol to analyze trace explosive vapor samples. PMID:25145416

  17. Detection of explosives, narcotics, and taggant vapors by an ion mobility spectrometry particle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Robert K.; Thomson, Paul C.; DeBono, Reno F.; Danylewich-May, Lucy L.; Kim, Lena

    1994-03-01

    Methods of analyzing vapors in an IMS explosives/narcotics detector that is primarily designed for particle collection were investigated, with emphasis on nitroglycerin explosive, and acetic and benzoic acid contaminants in narcotics. A preconcentration step is required because expected vapor concentrations are low. NG adsorption and retention behavior on coated teflon filters that are compatible with the IMS sample desorption system is reported, including the effects of adsorbent, and sampling flow rate, time and volume. Similar investigations were carried out for acetic and benzoic acid vapors, and a gold-plated nickel mesh was selected as the most appropriate IMS-compatible filter for these materials. Vapor sampling flow rates and volumes are much lower than those used in particle sampling. Examples of NG and benzoic acid vapor detection in real and simulated applications are discussed.

  18. Quantum cascade laser-based screening portal for the detection of explosive precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindley, Ruth; Normand, Erwan; Howieson, Iain; McCulloch, Michael; Black, Paul; Lewis, Colin; Foulger, Brian

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, quantum cascade lasers (QCL) have been proven in robust, high-performance gas analyzers designed for continuous emission monitoring (CEM) in harsh environments. In 2006, Cascade Technologies reported progress towards adapting its patented technology for homeland security applications by publishing initial results on explosive compound detection. This paper presents the performance and results from a QCL-based people screening portal developed during the past year and aimed at the detection of precursors used in the make up of improvised explosive devices (IED). System tests have been carried out on a large number of potential interferents, together with target precursor materials, reinforcing original assumptions that compound fingerprinting can be effectively demonstrated using this technique. Results have shown that an extremely high degree of specificity can be achieved with a sub-second response time. Furthermore, it has been shown that unambiguous precursor signature recognition can be extended to compound mixtures associated with the intermediate stages in the make up of IEDs, whilst maintaining interferent immunity. The portal sensitivity was configured for parts per billion (ppb) detection level thresholds, but is currently being reconfigured for sub-ppb detection. In summary, the results obtained from the QCL based portal indicate that development of a low cost detection system, with enhanced features such as low false positive and high throughput screening of individuals or items, is possible. Development and testing was carried out with the support of the UK government.

  19. A review of sensor data fusion for explosives and weapons detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Michael C.

    2013-05-01

    The combination or fusion of data from multiple complementary sensors can potentially improve system performance in many explosives and weapons detection applications. The motivations for fusion can include improved probability of detection; reduced false alarms; detection of an increased range of threats; higher throughput and better resilience to adversary countermeasures. This paper presents the conclusions of a study which surveyed a wide range of data fusion techniques and examples of the research, development and practical use of fusion in explosives detection. Different applications types such as aviation checkpoint, checked baggage and stand-off detection are compared and contrasted, and the degree to which sensors can be regarded as `orthogonal' is explored. Whilst data fusion is frequently cited as an opportunity, there are fewer examples of its operational deployment. Blockers to the wider use of data fusion include the difficulty of predicting the performance gains that are likely to be achieved in practice, as well as a number of cost, commercial, integration, test and evaluation issues. The paper makes a number of recommendations for future research work.

  20. Multi-band sensor-fused explosive hazards detection in forward-looking ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Becker, John; Pinar, Anthony; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    Explosive hazard detection and remediation is a pertinent area of interest for the U.S. Army. There are many types of detection methods that the Army has or is currently investigating, including ground-penetrating radar, thermal and visible spectrum cameras, acoustic arrays, laser vibrometers, etc. Since standoff range is an important characteristic for sensor performance, forward-looking ground-penetrating radar has been investigated for some time. Recently, the Army has begun testing a forward-looking system that combines L-band and X-band radar arrays. Our work focuses on developing imaging and detection methods for this sensor-fused system. In this paper, we investigate approaches that fuse L-band radar and X-band radar for explosive hazard detection and false alarm rejection. We use multiple kernel learning with support vector machines as the classification method and histogram of gradients (HOG) and local statistics as the main feature descriptors. We also perform preliminary testing on a context aware approach for detection. Results on government furnished data show that our false alarm rejection method improves area-under-ROC by up to 158%.

  1. An Overview of the Los Alamos Program on Asteroid Mitigation by a Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, R.; Gisler, G. R.; Plesko, C. S.; Ferguson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is standing up a new program to address the mitigation of a potentially hazardous objects (PHO) by using nuclear explosives. A series of efforts at Los Alamos have been working this problem for the last few years in an informal fashion. We now have a funded program to dedicate time to this important mission. The goal of our project is to study the effectiveness of using a nuclear explosive to mitigate (alter orbit or destroy) an PHO on an Earth crossing path. We are also pursuing studies of impact hazards should the international leadership decide not to organize a mission for active mitigation of a PHO. Such impact hazards are characterized as local, regional or global. Impact hazards include: a direct hit in an urban area (potentially catastrophic but highly unlikely); the generation a significant tsunami from an ocean impact close to a coastline and regional and global effects from medium to large impactors. Previous studies at Los Alamos have looked at 2D and 3D simulations in the deep ocean from large bolides, as well as impacts that have global consequences. More recent work has included radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of momentum transfer (and enhancement) from a low energy (10 kt) stand-off source, as well as surface and subsurface high energy explosions (100 kt - 10 Mt) for example PHOs. The current program will carefully look at two main aspects of using a standoff nuclear source: 1) a computational study for the optimum height-of-burst (HOB) of a stand-off burst using our best energy coupling techniques for both neutrons and x-rays; and 2) as a function of the nuclear energy produced and the HOB what is the optimum energy field: neutrons or x-rays. This team is also working with NNSA and NASA Goddard to compare numerical results for these complicated simulations on a well defined series of test problems involving both kinetic impactors and stand-off nuclear energy sources. Results will be shown by the co-authors on

  2. Preventing nuclear explosive testing. Submitted to the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    H.J. Resolution 3 banning the testing of nuclear weapons over 150 kilotons seeks to slow the arms race by urging Congress to ratify the 1974 Threshold Test Ban Treaty and the 1976 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty and urging the President to resume negotiations with the Soviet Union. The House Foreign Affairs Committee report supports the concept after a series of hearings with verification experts and the weapons and intelligence establishments. Verification and weapons reliability were the key issues of concern, but the committee concluded that politics rather than technology prevented a comprehensive test ban. The report also includes the reminder in the minority view that talks were suspended after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and that scientists need further testing to make weapons safer and less vulnerable to terrorist action.

  3. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  4. Increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of gas sensors for the detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallin, Daniel

    Over the past decade, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has increased, domestically and internationally, highlighting a growing need for a method to quickly and reliably detect explosive devices in both military and civilian environments before the explosive can cause damage. Conventional techniques have been successful in explosive detection, however they typically suffer from enormous costs in capital equipment and maintenance, costs in energy consumption, sampling, operational related expenses, and lack of continuous and real-time monitoring. The goal was thus to produce an inexpensive, portable sensor that continuously monitors the environment, quickly detects the presence of explosive compounds and alerts the user. In 2012, here at URI, a sensor design was proposed for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The design entailed a thermodynamic gas sensor that measures the heat of decomposition between trace TATP vapor and a metal oxide catalyst film. The sensor was able to detect TATP vapor at the part per million level (ppm) and showed great promise for eventual commercial use, however, the sensor lacked selectivity. Thus, the specific objective of this work was to take the original sensor design proposed in 2012 and to make several key improvements to advance the sensor towards commercialization. It was demonstrated that a sensor can be engineered to detect TATP and ignore the effects of interferent H2O2 molecules by doping SnO2 films with varying amounts of Pd. Compared with a pure SnO2 catalyst, a SnO2, film doped with 8 wt. % Pd had the highest selectivity between TATP and H2O2. Also, at 12 wt. % Pd, the response to TATP and H2O2 was enhanced, indicating that sensitivity, not only selectivity, can be increased by modifying the composition of the catalyst. An orthogonal detection system was demonstrated. The platform consists of two independent sensing mechanisms, one thermodynamic and one conductometric, which take measurements from

  5. Comparison of chemical and nuclear explosions: Numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kamm, J.R.; Bos, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper the authors discuss numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), which was an underground explosion conducted in September 1993 in the volcanic tuff of the Nevada Test Site. The NPE source consisted of 1.29 {times} 10{sup 6} kg of ANFO-emulsion blasting agent, with the approximate energy of 1.1 kt, emplaced 389 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa. The authors compare detailed numerical simulations of the NPE with data collected from that experiment, and with calculations of an equally energetic nuclear explosion in identical geology. Calculated waveforms, at ranges out to approximately 1 km, agree moderately well in the time domain with free-field data, and are in qualitative agreement with free-surface records. Comparison of computed waveforms for equally energetic chemical and nuclear sources reveals relatively minor differences beyond the immediate near-source region, with the chemical source having an {approximately}25% greater seismic moment but otherwise indistinguishable (close-in) seismic source properties. 41 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Characteristics of source properties and seismic energy of underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the shear-wave excitation mechanism is a key issue for effective seismic monitoring of nuclear explosions. The shear-wave excitation mechanism has not been fully understood yet despite efforts for several decades. The shear-wave excitation mechanism can be understood by examining the source properties and phase composition of wavetrains from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). The October 9, 2006 UNE in North Korea was well recorded by regional stations in South Korea, Japan and China. The dense regional observation allows us to study the regional source properties of the UNE. The source-spectral parameters and attenuation factors along ray paths can be inverted from the regional waveforms. High-frequency-rich energy from the UNE appears to be attenuated less during propagation across oceanic crust than a natural earthquake. The P/S amplitude ratio is observed to be useful for discriminating between the UNE and a natural earthquake. We also study the phase contents of regional and teleseismic wavetrains of various UNEs. We rarely observe shear waves at teleseismic distances, which suggests weak radiation of shear energy from the source at low takeoff angles.

  7. Evaluation of the electromagnetic effects due to direct lighting to nuclear explosive areas at Pantex. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the effort to quantify the electromagnetic environments in the nuclear explosive areas at Pantex due to direct lightning. The fundamental measure of the threat to nuclear safety is assumed to be the maximum voltage between any two points in an assembly area, which is then available for producing arcing or for driving current into critical subsystems of a nuclear weapon. This maximum voltage has been computed with simple analytical models and with three-dimensional finite-difference computer codes.

  8. Development of nanowell based sensors for the detection of improvised explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zientek, B.; Wang, H. H.; Indacochea, J. E.; Liu, Y.; Wang, M. L.

    2010-04-01

    World events have called for a need for fast, reliable, and more deployable methods of detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) than trained canines and visible detection by X-ray screening technologies. Anodized Aluminum Oxides (AAOs) are ideal substrates for chemical sensor developments. The nanoporous structure provides small pore-to-pore distance and large surface areas. These unique qualities allow optical interference in the visible spectrum when the thin film thickness is in the proper range. By coating the nanowells of the oxide surface first with a thin film of a noble metal followed by a monolayer of a target-specific chemical, detection of trace amounts of explosive materials becomes possible. Research has shown that the carboxyl group of 6-mercaptopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (6-MNA) has an attraction to the nitro groups of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) while the thiol group of 6-MNA creates a self-assembled monolayer on the substrate. By utilizing these chemical properties together, UV-vis spectrometry can detect a shift in the visible spectrum on the coated AAO substrate as the 6-MNA structure attracts trace amounts of TNT particles.

  9. Multi-channeled single chain variable fragment (scFv) based microfluidic device for explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Charles, Paul T; Davis, Jasmine; Adams, André A; Anderson, George P; Liu, Jinny L; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2015-11-01

    The development of explosives detection technologies has increased significantly over the years as environmental and national security agencies implement tighter pollution control measures and methods for improving homeland security. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), known primarily as a component in munitions, has been targeted for both its toxicity and carcinogenic properties that if present at high concentrations can be a detriment to both humans, marine and plant ecosystems. Enabling end users with environmental detection and monitoring systems capable of providing real-time, qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of these toxic compounds would be extremely beneficial. Reported herein is the development of a multi-channeled microfluidic device immobilized with single chain fragment variable (scFv) recombinant proteins specific for the explosive, TNT. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays performed under constant flow demonstrated trace level sensitivity and specificity for TNT. The utility of three multi-channeled devices immobilized with either (1) scFv recombinant protein, (2) biotinylated-scFv (bt-scFv) and (3) monoclonal anti-TNT (whole IgG molecule) were investigated and compared. Fluorescence dose response curves, crossreactivity measurements and limits of detection (LOD) for TNT were determined. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays for TNT in natural seawater demonstrated detection limits at sub-parts-per-billion levels (0.5 ppb) utilizing the microfluidic device with immobilized bt-scFv. PMID:26452845

  10. Chemical and explosive detection with long-wave infrared laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Yang, Clayton S.; Brown, Ei E.; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe H.; Samuels, Alan C.

    2016-05-01

    Conventional laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) mostly uses silicon-based detectors and measures the atomic emission in the UV-Vis-NIR (UVN) region of the spectrum. It can be used to detect the elements in the sample under test, such as the presence of lead in the solder for electronics during RoHS compliance verification. This wavelength region, however, does not provide sufficient information on the bonding between the elements, because the molecular vibration modes emit at longer wavelength region. Measuring long-wave infrared spectrum (LWIR) in a LIBS setup can instead reveal molecular composition of the sample, which is the information sought in applications including chemical and explosive detection and identification. This paper will present the work and results from the collaboration of several institutions to develop the methods of LWIR LIBS for chemical/explosive/pharmaceutical material detection/identification, such as DMMP and RDX, as fast as using a single excitation laser pulse. In our latest LIBS setup, both UVN and LWIR spectra can be collected at the same time, allowing more accurate detection and identification of materials.

  11. Detection and quantification of explosives and CWAs using a handheld widely tunable quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Erik R.; Haibach, Frederick G.; Mazurenko, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    The requirements for standoff detection of Explosives and CWA/TICs on surfaces in the battlefield are challenging because of the low detection limits. The variety of targets, backgrounds and interferences increase the challenges. Infrared absorption spectroscopy with traditional infrared detection technologies, incandescent sources that offer broad wavelength range but poor spectral intensity, are particularly challenged in standoff applications because most photons are lost to the target, background and the environment. Using a brighter source for active infrared detection e.g. a widely-tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) source, provides sufficient spectral intensity to achieve the needed sensitivity and selectivity for explosives, CWAs, and TICs on surfaces. Specific detection of 1-10 μg/cm2 is achieved within seconds. CWAs, and TICs in vapor and aerosol form present a different challenge. Vapors and aerosols are present at low concentrations, so long pathlengths are required to achieve the desired sensitivity. The collimated output beam from the QCL simplifies multi-reflection cells for vapor detection while also enabling large standoff distances. Results obtained by the QCL system indicate that <1 ppm for vapors can be achieved with specificity in a measurement time of seconds, and the QCL system was successfully able to detect agents in the presence of interferents. QCLs provide additional capabilities for the dismounted warfighter. Given the relatively low power consumption, small package, and instant-on capability of the QCL, a handheld device can provide field teams with early detection of toxic agents and energetic materials in standoff, vapor, or aerosol form using a single technology and device which makes it attractive compared other technologies.

  12. Detection of explosives on the surface of banknotes by Raman hyperspectral imaging and independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mariana R; Correa, Deleon N; Zacca, Jorge J; Logrado, Lucio Paulo Lima; Poppi, Ronei J

    2015-02-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology using Raman hyperspectral imaging and chemometric methods for identification of pre- and post-blast explosive residues on banknote surfaces. The explosives studied were of military, commercial and propellant uses. After the acquisition of the hyperspectral imaging, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the pure spectra and the distribution of the corresponding image constituents. The performance of the methodology was evaluated by the explained variance and the lack of fit of the models, by comparing the ICA recovered spectra with the reference spectra using correlation coefficients and by the presence of rotational ambiguity in the ICA solutions. The methodology was applied to forensic samples to solve an automated teller machine explosion case. Independent component analysis proved to be a suitable method of resolving curves, achieving equivalent performance with the multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method. At low concentrations, MCR-ALS presents some limitations, as it did not provide the correct solution. The detection limit of the methodology presented in this study was 50 μg cm(-2). PMID:25682242

  13. Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J. J.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s.

  14. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

  15. Hans A. Bethe Prize Talk: Nuclear Physics, Stellar Explosions and the Abundance Evolution in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielemann, Friedrich-K.

    2008-04-01

    The computational modeling of astrophysical objects requires the combined treatment of different subfields of physics for a complete description: 1. hydrodynamics/hydrostatics for the modeling of mass flows, 2. energy generation and nucleosynthesis for understanding the composition changes due to nuclear reactions and the related energy release, 3. energy transport via conduction, radiation or possibly convection, and finally 4. thermodynamic properties of the matter involved, especially the equation of state which creates a direct relation between energy release and hydrodynamic response via pressure and entropy. Nuclear physics obviously plays an essential role for energy generation and nucleosynthesis, but can also enter radiation transport (e.g. in supernovae) via neutrino-nucleon/ nucleus interaction and clearly determines the equation of state at nuclear densities (e.g. in neutron stars). In this review we want to highlight the role and impact of nuclear physics and its uncertainties on the explosion mechanism and/or the ejected abundances of type Ia and type II supernovae, novae and X-ray bursts, plus their imprint witnessed in the so-called chemical evolution of galaxies. Special emphasis is given to the properties of proton- as well as neutron-rich exotic nuclei far from stability.

  16. Mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging for the detection of explosive compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruxton, K.; Robertson, G.; Miller, W.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Maker, G. T.

    2012-10-01

    Active hyperspectral imaging is a valuable tool in a wide range of applications. A developing market is the detection and identification of energetic compounds through analysis of the resulting absorption spectrum. This work presents a selection of results from a prototype mid-infrared (MWIR) hyperspectral imaging instrument that has successfully been used for compound detection at a range of standoff distances. Active hyperspectral imaging utilises a broadly tunable laser source to illuminate the scene with light over a range of wavelengths. While there are a number of illumination methods, this work illuminates the scene by raster scanning the laser beam using a pair of galvanometric mirrors. The resulting backscattered light from the scene is collected by the same mirrors and directed and focussed onto a suitable single-point detector, where the image is constructed pixel by pixel. The imaging instrument that was developed in this work is based around a MWIR optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source with broad tunability, operating at 2.6 μm to 3.7 μm. Due to material handling procedures associated with explosive compounds, experimental work was undertaken initially using simulant compounds. A second set of compounds that was tested alongside the simulant compounds is a range of confusion compounds. By having the broad wavelength tunability of the OPO, extended absorption spectra of the compounds could be obtained to aid in compound identification. The prototype imager instrument has successfully been used to record the absorption spectra for a range of compounds from the simulant and confusion sets and current work is now investigating actual explosive compounds. The authors see a very promising outlook for the MWIR hyperspectral imager. From an applications point of view this format of imaging instrument could be used for a range of standoff, improvised explosive device (IED) detection applications and potential incident scene forensic investigation.

  17. Impact Hazard Mitigation: Understanding the Effects of Nuclear Explosive Outputs on Comets and Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, R.

    The NASA 2007 white paper "Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives" affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics, reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with analytical models where data

  18. Detection of drugs and explosives using neutron computerized tomography and artificial intelligence techniques.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F J O; Crispim, V R; Silva, A X

    2010-06-01

    In this study the development of a methodology to detect illicit drugs and plastic explosives is described with the objective of being applied in the realm of public security. For this end, non-destructive assay with neutrons was used and the technique applied was the real time neutron radiography together with computerized tomography. The system is endowed with automatic responses based upon the application of an artificial intelligence technique. In previous tests using real samples, the system proved capable of identifying 97% of the inspected materials. PMID:20149671

  19. Supersensitive and selective detection of picric acid explosive by fluorescent Ag nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian Rong; Yue, Yuan Yuan; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2016-02-01

    Picric acid (PA) explosive is a hazard to public safety and health, so the sensitive and selective detection of PA is very important. In the present work, polyethyleneimine stabilized Ag nanoclusters were successfully used for the sensitive and selective quantification of PA on the basis of fluorescence quenching. The quenching efficiency of Ag nanoclusters is proportional to the concentration of PA and the logarithm of PA concentration over two different concentration ranges (1.0 nM-1 μM for the former and 0.25-20 μM for the latter), thus the proposed quantitative strategy for PA provides a wide linear range of 1.0 nM-20 μM. The detection limit based on 3σ/K is 0.1 nM. The quenching mechanism of Ag nanoclusters by PA is discussed in detail. The results indicate that the selective detection of PA over other nitroaromatics including 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), p-nitrotoluene (p-NT), m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB), and nitrobenzene (NB), is due to the electron transfer and energy transfer between PA and polyethyleneimine-capped Ag nanoclusters. In addition, the experimental data obtained for the analysis of artificial samples show that the proposed PA sensor is potentially applicable in the determination of trace PA explosive in real samples. PMID:26661456

  20. Fabrication of SERS swab for direct detection of trace explosives in fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhengjun; Du, Hongjie; Cheng, Fansheng; Wang, Cong; Wang, Canchen; Fan, Meikun

    2014-12-24

    Swab sampling is of great importance in surface contamination analysis. A cotton swab (cotton Q-tip) was successfully transformed into surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate (SERS Q-tip) through a bottom-up strategy, where Ag NPs were first self-assembled onto the Q-tip followed by in situ growing. The capability for direct swab detection of Raman probe Nile Blue A (NBA) and a primary explosive marker 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) using the SERS Q-tip was explored. It was found that at optimum conditions, a femotogram of NBA on glass surface could be swab-detected. The lowest detectable amount for 2,4-DNT is only ∼1.2 ng/cm(2) (total amount of 5 ng) on glass surface, 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive than similar surface analysis achieved with infrared technique, and comparable even with that obtained by ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Finally, 2,4-DNT left on fingerprints was also analyzed. It was found that SERS signal of 2,4-DNT from 27th fingerprint after touching 2,4-DNT powder can still be clearly identified by swabbing with the SERS Q-tip. We believe this is the first direct SERS swabbing test of explosives on fingerprint on glass. Considering its relative long shelf life (>30 d), the SERS Q-tip may find great potential in future homeland security applications when combined with portable Raman spectrometers. PMID:25455731